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1

A cultural and rhetoric analysis of internationalized human rights discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study is to theorize oppositional discourse that has not yet been conceptualized within existing composition studies. The study examines the discourse of Amnesty International, a prestigious human rights organization drawing its mandate from the UN Declaration of Human Rights. Amnesty International delineates and defines human rights, providing forums in which victims and witnesses may speak

Karen Ruth Dwyer

1997-01-01

2

Human Rights Discourse in Domestic Settings: How Does it Emerge?  

Microsoft Academic Search

settings. Using Israel as a case study, and more specifically analyzing the Israeli press, we further develop some of the existing theoretical claims about how the global and local interact.We argue that in order to understand how the rights discourse is imported into the domestic arena and how it expands once it enters the local scene,it is crucial to employ

Neve Gordon; Nitza Berkovitch

2007-01-01

3

The ‘neat concept’ of sexual citizenship: a cautionary tale for human rights discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing interest in human rights discourse is a welcome development for strategic lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) activism and the appropriation of such a global signifier continues to move LGBT political claims into the mainstream. However, such language appropriation or strategic deployment opens debate as to its meaning and the limits of its descriptive power. For example, the

Angelia R. Wilson

2009-01-01

4

AFRICAN-AMERICAN ABOLITIONISM AS A HUMAN RIGHTS DISCOURSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resolution of the slavery issue in the United States may have had more to do with economic development and political power than a shift in public morality, but there can be no question that abolitionist discourse played a major role in the expansion of America's republican vision in the nineteenth century. The debate over slavery occurred about a century

Timothy Shortell

5

Critique of ‘sexual orientation’ and ‘gender identity’ in human rights discourse: global queer politics beyond the Yogyakarta Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a critique of the concepts ‘sexual orientation’ and ‘gender identity’, which are being employed to contest global human rights discourses by prevailing international lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) and human rights activist networks – notably in the Declaration of Montreal (2006) and, especially, the Yogyakarta Principles (2007). Theoretical analysis, informed by social theory and queer theory,

Matthew Waites

2009-01-01

6

Modes of Discourse about Education, Peace and Human Rights in the 1974 UNESCO Recommendation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do culturally, politically, and economically different actors define education in the UNESCO 1974 "Recommendation concerning Education for International Understanding, Co-operation and Peace and Education relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms?" This exploration of the document aims to increase understanding of the work of…

Savolainen, Kaisa; Torney-Purta, Judith

2011-01-01

7

Providing sex education to persons with learning disabilities in the era of HIV/AIDS: tensions between discourses of human rights and restriction.  

PubMed

Research suggests that disabled people may be at increased risk for HIV infection, yet are excluded from HIV prevention campaigns. Historically people with learning disabilities have been constructed as either being asexual or sexually uninhibited, and sex education considered to be unnecessary or potentially harmful. This article reports on findings of a qualitative study exploring the challenges expressed by participants who provide sex education for persons with learning disabilities, revealing a tension between a human rights discourse and a discourse of restriction of sexual behaviours. Sex education, in the context of HIV/AIDS, may potentially construct sex as dangerous, echoing past constructions of disabled people's sexuality as problematic. PMID:19383660

Rohleder, Poul; Swartz, Leslie

2009-05-01

8

Human Rights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea of "human rights" is a relatively new development in history, but as this website from Britain's National Archives notes in its discussion of the long trajectory of struggles for equality and so forth, "We could do worse than characterizing this history as the struggle for human rights." This visually compelling online exhibit uses original documents from The National Archives to take a long view of these struggles and movements. Visitors can start their journey through the site by picking a time period, and then reading an introductory essay on the period. Each time period includes a timeline and links to digitized version of relevant documents, such as The Poor Act of 1601 and a poster for a Staffordshire coal miners' union public meeting from 1831. The site is rounded out by a thorough glossary and a document index.

9

Motivation, Civil Rights, Human Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distinguishes between civil rights, which pertain to legal protections, and human rights, which deal with basic rights as a human being. Discusses the worldwide quest for freedom, justice, and equality; and reviews the development of the civil rights movement in the United States since 1955. (FMW)

Stone, Lester D.

1990-01-01

10

Rights Discourses in Relation to Education of People with Intellectual Disability: Towards an Ethics of Care that Enables Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we argue that human rights approaches for intellectually disabled people have failed to recognise the complexity of rights claims made by and on behalf of this group. Drawing on a research project into discourses of education for intellectually disabled people in the Eastern Cape, South Africa we discern three rights discourses

Mckenzie, Judith Anne; Macleod, Catriona Ida

2012-01-01

11

The Rights to Speak and to be Heard: Women's Interpretations of Rights Discourses in the Oaxaca Social Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

How people imagine themselves as citizens has increasingly been influenced by global rights discourses. This paper highlights the process by which several hundred women in Oaxaca City, Mexico from different types of backgrounds took over state and then commercial media for a period of several months and in the process came to a gendered analysis of human rights. Their thinking

Lynn Stephen

12

HUMAN RIGHTS IN SPORTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article, inspired by the activities surrounding the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, examines both the development and potential of human rights initiatives in sports. Following a general discussion of the development and status of human rights, we turn specifically to the issue of human rights in sports, both in terms of the human rights of

Bruce Kidd; Peter Donnelly

2000-01-01

13

"We are not aliens, we're people, and we have rights." Canadian human rights discourse and high school climate for LGBTQ students.  

PubMed

Canadian law protects people from discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, but our public schools do not fulfill their ethical and legal obligations where sexual and gender minority youth are concerned. This article reports on a national survey study on homophobia and transphobia in Canadian high schools. Participants (n = 3,607) were questioned about school climate, harassment, school attachment, and institutional interventions. We found that schools were neither safe nor respectful for sexual and gender minority students, and we argue that ongoing exposure to this situation undermines students' respect for the Charter of Rights and their faith in adults. PMID:22214043

Taylor, Catherine; Peter, Tracey

2011-08-01

14

Whose Human Rights?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the last 50 years, principles, institutions, and policies of human rights have been developed worldwide. This book brings together European and international conventions on human rights, the rights of women, and the users and uses of education, and places them in their wider context. It examines issues in how human rights work, the ways in…

Rendel, Margherita

15

Are evolving human rights harmless?  

PubMed

This paper addresses key philosophical and social questions that shape the contemporary discourse on prostitution. The initial section outlines the contemporary challenges facing legislative practice on prostitution in England. This involves analysing moral and legal framework surrounding prostitution that has made the current legislative dilemma surrounding prostitution practice possible. The second part of the paper then outlines the history of the philosophy of human rights from Aquinas to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). The paper concludes by analysing whether the current ontology employed by human rights theory is effective in creating a system of just relatedness between agents, made visible in concrete legislative guidance. I argue that legislation guided by a fragmented teleology and ontological anthropology enables asymmetrical patterns of relatedness that can cause genuine physical and psychological harm to individuals. PMID:25344012

Westin, Anna

2014-01-01

16

Human Rights in China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1989, Human Rights in China is one of the major sources of information on human rights conditions in the People's Republic of China. The site offers press releases, reports, articles from its quarterly journal, China Rights Forum, organizational work reports, educational materials, action ideas and related links. In addition, the site covers a number of topics, including political prisoners and dissent, legal reform, freedom of association, women's rights, workers' rights, children's rights, and human rights education. The entire site is also available in Chinese.

1998-01-01

17

Human Rights and Security  

E-print Network

Migration, Human Rights and Security in Europe MRU Student Conference Proceedings 2012 Edited by Siril Berglund, Helen McCarthy and Agata Patyna #12;2 "Migration, Human Rights and Security...............................................................................................58 #12;3 "Migration, Human Rights and Security in Europe", MRU Student Conference Proceedings

Jones, Peter JS

18

Indigenous human rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous Human Rights is an edited selection of proceedings of the Australian Indigenous Human Rights Conference, organised by members of Southern Cross University in February 2000. The collection covers a range of issues relating to Indigenous human rights including: racial discrimination and 'special measures'; removal of children; law and order; access to the United Nations; and prospects for the use

Sam Boris Garkawe; Loretta Kelly; Warwick Fisher

2001-01-01

19

The Queer(y)ing of Australian Public Culture Discourse: Activism, Rights Discourse, and Survival Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay examines the contemporary context of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) activism in Australia situating the theoretical and practical concerns in the ambit of survival strategies and rights discourse. Drawing on media, interviews, and a specific piece of proposed legislation, the essay surveys and analyses the effects of LGBT strategies of survival that are demonstrated in public culture

Baden Offord

2001-01-01

20

Sovereignty transformed: a sociology of human rights.  

PubMed

This paper examines how global interdependencies and the consolidation of a human rights discourse are transforming national sovereignty. Social researchers frequently address the supremacy of state sovereignty and the absoluteness of human rights as mutually exclusive categories. However, rather than presupposing that a universal rights discourse is necessarily leading to the demise of sovereignty, we suggest that an increasingly de-nationalized conception of legitimacy is contributing to a reconfiguration of sovereignty itself. Through the analytic prism of historical memories - which refers to shared understandings specific pasts carry for present concerns of a political community - we provide an explanatory factor for the salience of human rights norms as a globally available repertoire of legitimate claim making. While states retain most of their sovereign functions, their legitimacy is no longer exclusively conditioned by a contract with the nation, but also by their adherence to a set of nation-transcending human rights ideals. Legitimacy is mediated by how willing states are to engage with 'judicial memories' of human rights abuses and their articulation in cosmopolitan legal frames. Empirically, we focus on war crime trials and how legal inscriptions of memories of human rights abuses are recasting the jurisdiction of International Law. The readiness of states to engage with rights abuses is becoming politically and culturally consequential, as adherence to global human rights norms confers legitimacy. PMID:17168943

Levy, Daniel; Sznaider, Natan

2006-12-01

21

Rights-Based Education and Conflict: A Cross-National Study of Rights Discourse in Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the extent to which rights-based education is utilised in textbooks from conflict-affected countries. Drawing on a unique dataset of 528 secondary social science textbooks from 71 countries from 1966 to 2008, we analyse factors that predict a rights discourse in texts. We find that textbooks from conflict-affected nations…

Russell, Susan Garnett; Tiplic, Dijana

2014-01-01

22

[Human rights and procreation].  

PubMed

The impact of procreation on freedom, health and welfare of human beings, is considerable. This relationship, however, is not mirrored in texts devoted to Human Rights. This omission obviously implies a neglect of women's and children's rights. The history of anticonceptive methods exemplifies the struggle for these rights. This conquest, which has lasted two hundred years, is far from completed. Because of the demographic outbreak in Third World countries, an ideological conflict has appeared between first generation Human Rights concerned with individual freedom ("rights of") and those of second generation aiming at social fairness ("rights to"). Adequate political and economic adjustment between North and South is a prerequisite to any balanced compromise that would resolve this conflict through democratic, albeit intensive, birth control. PMID:2339216

Leroy, F

1990-04-01

23

Human Rights Watch: Defending Human Rights Worldwide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an independent, international nongovernmental organization with offices in 21 cities around the world (and field posts in 20 additional countries). Founded in 1978, HRW seeks to enforce fair treatment of all citizens, regardless of country, through investigation and publication of abuses. Each year, the group puts out a comprehensive World Report, which can be downloaded from the web site free of charge. The 2014 report features updates on dozens of countries, as well as analyses of themes such as The Human Rights Case for Drug Reform. For an overview of this essential document, read the Keynote, delivered by Kenneth Roth. Links to Essays, Photos and Videos, and Publications take the reader deeper into the HRWâÂÂs recent findings.

2014-01-01

24

Glasgow Human Rights Network  

E-print Network

, gay, bisexual and transgender pride festival celebrating the diversity of the LGBT community (lecture theatre) Chair: Becky Kent Scottish Transgender Alliance Bisi Alimi LGBT/HIV advocate and lecturer, Free University of Berlin (Nigeria) Monica Tabengwa LGBT Rights Programme, Human Rights Watch (Botswana

Guo, Zaoyang

25

From global discourse to local action: the makings of a sexual rights movement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the development of discourses around sexual rights, linking tendencies in official global dialogues with national and local realities. Recognizing some of the factors that have facilitated or impeded discourses and action to promote sexual rights around the world, we explore the principles and processes of framing sexual rights and sexual citizenship. We consider political opportunity and

Jonathan Garcia; Richard Parker

2006-01-01

26

The competing discourses of HIV\\/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: Discourses of rights and empowerment vs discourses of control and exclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The competing discourses of HIV\\/AIDS circulating in sub-Saharan Africa are identified. These are medical, medico-moral, developmental (distinguishing between 'women in development' and gender and development perspectives), legal, ethical, and the rights discourse of groups living with HIV\\/AIDS and of African pressure groups. The analytical framework is that of discourse analysis as exemplified by Michel Foucault. The medical and medico-moral are

Gill Seidel

1993-01-01

27

Urbanization and human rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving\\u000amechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local authorities, many of these issues of urbanization can be solved. Where people organize themselves on

A. Mihr

2010-01-01

28

Human & Constitutional Rights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Arthur W. Diamond Law Library at Columbia Law School maintains this excellent resource for finding materials on human rights and constitutional rights. The metasite serves students, scholars, and practitioners as a portal to documents and Internet resources on international and domestic law related to human and constitutional rights. The information resources are divided into six sections: Country Reports, International Links, Regional Links, National Links, Documents, and Other Web Resources. Each section is clearly organized into neat lists or pop-up menus to ease navigation. Marylin Raisch -- the International, Comparative, and Foreign Law Librarian responsible for this metasite -- also provides a Hot Topics section, which posts information on current events related to human and constitutional rights.

29

Local suffering and the global discourse of mental health and human rights: An ethnographic study of responses to mental illness in rural Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses. However such initiatives exemplify a top-down approach to promoting human rights which historically has had limited impact at the level of those living with mental illness and their families. Methods This research forms part of a longitudinal anthropological study of people with severe mental illness in rural Ghana. Visits were made to over 40 households with a family member with mental illness, as well as churches, shrines, hospitals and clinics. Ethnographic methods included observation, conversation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with people with mental illness, carers, healers, health workers and community members. Results Chaining and beating of the mentally ill was found to be commonplace in homes and treatment centres in the communities studied, as well as with-holding of food ('fasting'). However responses to mental illness were embedded within spiritual and moral perspectives and such treatment provoked little sanction at the local level. Families struggled to provide care for severely mentally ill relatives with very little support from formal health services. Psychiatric services were difficult to access, particularly in rural communities, and also seen to have limitations in their effectiveness. Traditional and faith healers remained highly popular despite the routine maltreatment of the mentally ill in their facilities. Conclusion Efforts to promote the human rights of those with mental illness must engage with the experiences of mental illness within communities affected in order to grasp how these may underpin the use of practices such as mechanical restraint. Interventions which operate at the local level with those living with mental illness within rural communities, as well as family members and healers, may have greater potential to effect change in the treatment of the mentally ill than legislation or investment in services alone. PMID:19825191

Read, Ursula M; Adiibokah, Edward; Nyame, Solomon

2009-01-01

30

Doctors and human rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the roles of Amnesty International's Medical Groups and the Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture in campaigning for and treating those suffering the physical and psychological effects of human rights abuse in peace and war.

Duncan M. Forrest

1991-01-01

31

Freedom: Animal Rights, Human Rights, And Superhuman Rights  

E-print Network

FREEDOM: ANIMAL RIGHTS/. HUMAN 'RIGHTS, AND SUPERHUMAN RIGHTS Corbin Fowler & Thomas Manig It is typical (even among many of the most zealous advocates of humane treatment of animals) for people to assume that the only moral issue regarding our... treatment of animals lies in our needlessly slaughtering them or causing them pain. Thus, people rightly complain about our causing the extinction of a certain species or of those who cruelly beat their pets. We, however, have come to think...

Fowler, Corbin; Manig, Thomas

1976-11-01

32

Teachers and Human Rights Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why do teachers need to be familiar with human rights? In multicultural societies, whose values take precedence? How do schools resolve tensions between children's rights and teachers' rights? Campaigners, politicians and the media cite human rights to justify or challenge anything from peaceful protest to military action. The phrase "human…

Osler, Audrey; Starkey, Hugh

2010-01-01

33

Two approaches to human rights  

E-print Network

Contemporary philosophy of human rights is dominated by two seemingly opposed approaches. This dissertation is concerned with the choice between them. The traditional approach to human rights is characterized by the belief ...

Holland, Sean Jamison

2009-01-01

34

Human rights in the biotechnology era 1  

PubMed Central

Backgound The concept of Human Rights has become the modern civilising standard to which all should aspire and indeed attain. Discussion In an era characterised by widening disparities in health and human rights across the world and spectacular advances in biotechnology it is necessary to reflect on the extent to which human rights considerations are selectively applied for the benefit of the most privileged people. Attention is drawn particularly to sub-Saharan Africa as a marginalised region at risk of further marginalisation if the power associated with the new biotechnology is not used more wisely than power has been used in the past. To rectify such deficiencies it is proposed that the moral agenda should be broadened and at the very least the concept of rights should be more closely integrated with duties Summary New forms of power being unleashed by biotechnology will have to be harnessed and used with greater wisdom than power has been used in the past. Widening disparities in the world are unlikely to be diminished merely by appealing to human rights. We recommend that a deeper understanding is required of the underlying causes of such disparities and that the moral discourse should be extended beyond human rights language. PMID:11960562

Benatar, Solomon R

2002-01-01

35

Human Rights Issues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chinese Embassy site contains statements on China's foreign policy in general, Sino-US relations, and relations with other countries. In addition, the Embassy also offers statements and papers on human rights issues. The State Visit of Chinese President Jiang Zemin last week represented a thaw in official Sino-US Relations, which have been somewhat chilly since Tiananmen in 1989. Despite reaching agreements on a broad range of security, economic, environmental and law-enforcement issues, the two Presidents were clearly far apart on the issue of human rights. While President Clinton made mention of the right to political and religious expression, President Jiang expressed the need for political and social stability in his country. On the whole, both leaders have achieved their goals. President Clinton has secured China's cooperation on several issues, most importantly arms control and trade, while the state dinner and formal ceremony recognized China's role as a key player in the world economy and Jiang's international position as its head of state.

36

Human Rights and Southern Realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of international human rights treaties, committees and courts over the last sixty years represents enormous achievement. International human rights laws are now asserted throughout the world by individuals of many cultures and traditions. Yet, at the same time international human rights ideas and principles continue to have difficulty in manifesting their relevance in the daily lives of those

Tamara Relis

2011-01-01

37

International Approaches in Human Rights Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper was presented at a working group on Human Rights Education (HRE), organised by Volker Lenhart and Christel Adick, as part of the biennial conference of the German Society for Educational Research (DGfE), held in 2000 in Göttingen. In the spirit of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) it contributes to the global discourse about HRE by summarising its foundations in international declarations and conventions, by discussing some examples for diverse approaches and conceptions of HRE and, finally by introducing some major obstacles or problems. The paper is part of the author's PhD project in the field of HRE and presents only an interim résumé of her recent work.

Lohrenscheit, Claudia

2002-07-01

38

A Hierarchy of Human Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To establish an objective conception of human rights, one must first identify basic needs intrinsic to all people and then determine whether these needs are or can be hierarchically ordered. Many scholars have conducted research on the concept of human needs, particularly in the area of human rights. Among these scholars are Abraham H. Maslow…

Brockett, Charles

39

The International Human Rights Muddle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses confusion about the meaning of human rights in the United States. Suggests that welfare rights usurp the more traditional freedom rights of the founding fathers. Contrasts American interpretations with those of the Soviet Union. Journal availability: see SO 507 190. (KC)

Machan, Tibor R.

1979-01-01

40

Nutrition, health and human rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let us begin with an unequivocal assertion: proper nutrition and health are funda- mental human rights. What does this mean? What are the primary links between nutrition and health seen from a human-rights perspective? Firstly, nutrition is a cornerstone that affects and defines the health of all people, rich and poor. It paves the way for us to grow, develop,

Gro Harlem Brundtland

41

Human Rights in Education  

E-print Network

was enshrined in, and given dynamic energy by, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which was officially adopted with the repatriation of the Canadian Constitution in 1982. Undoubtedly, the Charter focuses on the rights Accord debacles, and that hundreds of Charter-related cases were lodged in the courts across the country

Ellis, Randy

42

Sexuality and Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Asia, the lesbian and gay rights movements are clearly dominated by activists, who tend to think in terms of a binary opposition (homo- vs hetero-) and clear-cut categories. Based on “Western patterns,” the approach is practical, the arguments based on minority rights. “Coming out” is often perceived as a “white model” bringing more problems than real freedom. On the

Erick Laurent

2005-01-01

43

Speaking Truth to Power: Women's Rights as Human Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author considers the treatment of women's rights as human rights in the social studies curriculum. She discusses the role of the United Nations in promoting women's rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. She also reviews the treatment of women's rights within social studies curriculum today through a…

Crocco, Margaret Smith

2007-01-01

44

Towards Human Rights in South African Schools: An Agenda for Research and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops a taxonomy of four kinds of situations in which race and other grounds for discrimination become the focus of school-level controversy surrounding equality and equity. Examines the kinds of responses and discourses South African schools use to engage with the policy discourse of desegregation and human rights and establishes an agenda for…

Kruss, Glenda

2001-01-01

45

Scientific Freedom and Human Rights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.

Munoz, Elisa

2000-03-01

46

The Human Right to Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several new resources are now available (in .pdf format) at the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security Website. This resource is a reprint of Peter Gleick's fifteen-page article, "The Human Right to Water." Originally published in 1999 in Water Policy, the paper argues that "a human right to adequate supplies of fresh water can be derived from principles of customary international law and international treaty regimes."

47

HUMAN RIGHTS 2014-2015 concentration information  

E-print Network

-Disciplinary Perspectives on Human Rights (Boyle) GLOS 5403/Law 6058, Human Rights Advocacy (Frey) Elective Courses (Others descriptions. LAW 6886, International Human Rights Law (Weissbrodt/Frey) SOC 8090: Topics in Sociology: Cross

Levinson, David M.

48

Gendered constructions of citizenship: young Kenyans' negotiations of rights discourses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes to the study of citizenship by interrogating how young people in Nairobi (Chege and Arnot 2012) perceive their rights of citizenship. It builds on previous analyses of the connections between gender, education and poverty's poor urban settlements by focusing on the political dimensions of the young people's lives. The findings are based on in-depth interviews with 24

Madeleine Arnot; Fatuma N. Chege; Violet Wawire

2012-01-01

49

Gendered Constructions of Citizenship: Young Kenyans' Negotiations of Rights Discourses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contributes to the study of citizenship by interrogating how young people in Nairobi (Chege and Arnot 2012) perceive their rights of citizenship. It builds on previous analyses of the connections between gender, education and poverty's poor urban settlements by focusing on the political dimensions of the young people's lives. The…

Arnot, Madeleine; Chege, Fatuma N.; Wawire, Violet

2012-01-01

50

Human Rights and Trade: Beyond the “Spotlight”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human rights concerns figure prominently on the global economic agenda. Yet little empirical analysis has addressed the prospective impact of human rights for global economic interactions. To gain insight into this linkage, we assess the empirical relationship between human rights and an important facet of the global economy, dyadic trade flows. Traditional arguments posit that respect for human rights and

Robert G. Blanton; Shannon Lindsey Blanton

2007-01-01

51

The Elusive Ontology of Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are human rights? After looking at the reasons why the ontology of human rights should not be reduced to the human rights legal infrastructure, and noting that the origin of human rights in “natural law” is no longer a widely persuasive answer, I shall consider a number of recently popular alternatives. My purpose in examining these is to argue

Anthony J. Langlois

2004-01-01

52

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…

Landorf, Hilary

2012-01-01

53

Do Americans Care About Human Rights?  

Microsoft Academic Search

National polls indicate strong American support for international human rights. However, that support consistently ranks below national self-interests, appears to be strongly influenced by current events, and wanes as the cost of supporting human rights increases. Although most Americans express agreement with the ideals of human rights, a willingness to commit American resources to promote and defend human rights is

Sam McFarland; Melissa Mathews

2005-01-01

54

Health care and human rights.  

PubMed

On April 6, 1995, in New Delhi, India, demonstrators with the group AIDS Bhedbhav Virodhi Andolan (ABVA) protested against the death of an AIDS patient in Calcutta due to medical negligence. They observed two minutes of silence in the memory of Dipak Biswas and carried signs stating Fight AIDS Not AIDS Patients, AIDS Patients Have Human Rights, and Wake Up, National Human Rights Commission. The demonstrators also submitted a memorandum to the Chairman of the National Human Rights Commission and a 26-page report entitled Who's Afraid of AIDS drafted by the Drug Action Forum and the Health Services Association. The report accuses three well-known medical institutions in Calcutta for insensitive treatment of Dipak, and it brings to light the subsequent victimization of his family following his death. Dipak's brother was dismissed from his job. His mother and sister were forced to leave the area. Some important health care questions and human rights issues the report brings up include: despite the commitment of the central and state governments to provide treatment to AIDS patients, AIDS patients tend not to receive care; hospital personnel from top management down are unaware of WHO guidelines on the management of AIDS patients and of the ethical norms concerning confidentiality; and AIDS patients and their families have no one to help them with treatment or with the social stigma. In the case of Dipak, hospital personnel did not tell his family that he had AIDS but told the press and members of the funeral party, who declined to touch his body. ABVA promotes AIDS-related human rights issues, such as the rights of gays, sex workers, prisoners, international travelers, and professional blood donors. The group documents inappropriate practices. For example, some companies practice arbitrary blood testing of employees and prospective recruits without their informed consent. They then fire or refuse to hire persons found to be HIV positive. PMID:12319587

Balasubrahmanyan, V

1995-01-01

55

Human rights and the environment.  

PubMed

This article discusses human environmental rights, obstacles to community autonomy, and progress toward achieving environmental justice. An overview is provided of human environmental abuse case studies that are included in this issue of the "Human Ecology" journal. UN human rights include, for instance, the right to an adequate standard of living, education, culture, equality, dignity, and security of the person and family. Human environmental rights abuse occurs because people live in the wrong place and because national needs are given priority over individual and community concerns. Abuse occurs because it is socially, culturally, and legally acceptable to protect the health of some people, while knowingly placing others at risk. Human environmental rights abuse occurs because of the present approach to defining and minimizing risk and the emphasis on short-term solutions. Immoral actions become socially responsible when the physical distance between those who live with adverse consequences and those who decide courses of action are great. Distancing mechanisms include decision makers who are removed from the reality of their decisions, employment frameworks and analytical methods that intellectually distance policy makers from reality, and abusive action within a broad ethnocentric framework. The environment has become a commodity controlled and manipulated by global market forces. The centralization of authority and capital acts to devalue the power of the community over its environment, to imply that the state has the power over decision making, and to increase distances between decisions and outcomes. The case studies strongly illustrate the key role of the community in maintaining resource integrity and the increasing alienation of the community from local resources as a result of development. Structural rearrangements of power come about through the struggles of community-based movements and supportive national and international politics. PMID:12291583

Johnston, B R

1995-06-01

56

University of Windsor Human Rights  

E-print Network

Human Rights Code prohibits harassment and discrimination on the basis of race, ancestry, place and all forms of prohibited discrimination. By this Policy, the University declares that all members will not tolerate any form of harassment, sexual harassment or discrimination in any University-related activity

57

Human rights and abortion laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human rights protections have developed to resist governmental intrusion in private life and choices. Abortion laws have evolved in legal practice to protect not fetuses as such but state interests, particularly in prenatal life. National and international tribunals are increasingly called upon to resolve conflicts between state enforcement of continuation of pregnancy against women's wishes and women's reproductive choices. Legal

R. J Cook; B. M Dickens

1999-01-01

58

Development and Women's Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

he Millennium Declaration affirms both gender equality and human rights as central commitments made by gov- ernments at the UN Millennium Assembly in 2000. The Millennium Development Goals constitute an attempt to set quanitifiable priorities in the development arena, but cannot be understood outside of the context of the broader Millennium Declaration. Equality, including the \\

Sunila Abeyesekera

59

Human rights, health and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human rights, health and development represent interdependent sets of values, aspirations and disciplines. Drawing on these domains, this article offers a theoretical and practical framework for the analysis, application and assessment of health, justice and progress. It provides a simple conceptual framework illustrating the interdependence of these domains and highlights their key features and underlying principles. It then describes the

Daniel Tarantola; Andrew Byrnes; Michael Johnson; Lynn Kemp; Anthony B Zwi; Sofia Gruskin

60

Hemispheric Contributions to Lexical Ambiguity Resolution in a Discourse Context: Evidence from Individuals with Unilateral Left and Right Hemisphere Lesions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, a cross-modal semantic priming task was used to investigate the ability of left-hemisphere-damaged (LHD) nonfluent aphasic, right-hemisphere-damaged (RHD) and non-brain-damaged (NBD) control subjects to use a discourse context to resolve lexically ambiguous words. Subjects first heard four-sentence discourse passages ending…

Grindrod, C.M.; Baum, S.R.

2005-01-01

61

Tracking Conversational Context for Machine Mediation of Human Discourse  

E-print Network

, sandy } @media.mit.edu Abstract We describe a system that tracks conversational context using speech of the conversation and establishes the situational context. In addition, the video camera detects frontal faces usingTracking Conversational Context for Machine Mediation of Human Discourse Tony Jebara, Yuri Ivanov

Jebara, Tony

62

Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of essays on linguistic human rights includes: "Combining Immigrant and Autochthonous Language Rights: A Territorial Approach to Multilingualism" (Francois Grin); "On the Limits of Ethnolinguistic Democracy" (Joshua A. Fishman); "Linguistic Human Rights and Educational Policy in Russia" (Alexei A. Leontiev); "Linguistic Human Rights

Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove, Ed.; Phillipson, Robert, Ed.

63

Web Resources for Teaching about Human Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of human rights is inseparable from social studies. Beyond the basic political, economic, and social freedoms and rights spelled out in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, hundreds of specialized topics have developed that demonstrate the complex nature of human rights in the twenty-first-century world--environmental exploitation…

Merryfield, Merry M.; Badang, Germain; Bragg, Christina; Kvasov, Aleksandr; Taylor, Nathan; Waliaula, Anne; Yamaguchi, Misato

2012-01-01

64

Defining dignity and its place in human rights.  

PubMed

The concept of dignity is widely used in society, particularly in reference to human rights law and bioethics. Several conceptions of dignity are identified, falling broadly within two categories: full inherent dignity (FID) and non-inherent dignity (NID). FID is a quality belonging equally to every being with full moral status, including all members of the human natural kind; it is permanent, unconditional, indivisible and inviolable. Those beings with FID ought to be treated deferentially by others by virtue of their belonging to a noble caste. FID grounds fundamental human rights, such as the rights to freedom and equality. The concept of dignity forms a network of interconnected ideas related to worth and value particularly within legal and ethical discourse; it is a rich and meaningful concept, irreducible to one or two quasi-legal principles. Fundamentally, dignity matters because it forms the foundation of civilized society; without it, serious abuse of people is more likely to occur. PMID:24979874

Michael, Lucy

2014-01-01

65

The unbearable rightfulness of being human: citizenship, displacement, and the right to not have rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claims to human rights protection made by displaced persons are displaced from the universe of humanity and rendered ineffective by the geopolitical character of modern international human rights law, in favour of the protection of citizens' rights claims. In response, there is increasing interest in leveraging respect for and protection of the rights of displaced persons through extension of the

Mark F. N. Franke

2011-01-01

66

THE HUMAN RIGHTS APPROACH TO REDUCING MALNUTRITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Malnutrition leads to death, illness, and significantly reduced quality of life for hundreds of millions. People have a right to not be malnourished, as a matter of law. The right is articulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and several other

George Kent

2005-01-01

67

Is there a human right to democracy?  

E-print Network

My dissertation asks whether there is a human right to democracy. This is a difficult question, not least because there is no consensus about either what democracy requires or how to interpret human rights. The introduction ...

Abdul-Matin, Karim (Ishmawil Karim)

2006-01-01

68

Examining Human Rights in a Global Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United Nations' founding in 1945 and the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights reflected the international community's growing commitment to the protection and recognition of what is now referred to as human rights. Despite increased international attention, human rights violations continue to occur at the local, regional,…

Francis, Greg; Inoue, Keiko; Orrick, Stefanie

69

Sexuality and International Human Rights Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay considers the extent to which international human rights now protect, or might protect, GLBT communities. The counterpoint between the potential width of application of international human rights instruments and their silence on sexuality has become the leitmotif of sexuality and gender identity within the international human rights framework. In addition, there is a symbiotic relationship between the international

Phillip Tahmindjis

2005-01-01

70

New Directions in Feminism and Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the sixtieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, feminists are at a critical juncture to re-envision and re-engage in a politics of human rights that underscores the creative displays of grassroots resistance by women globally and affirms transnational feminist solidarity. In highlighting feminisms and human rights that are antiracist and social justice oriented, this issue highlights new

Dana Collins; Sylvanna Falcón; Sharmila Lodhia; Molly Talcott

2010-01-01

71

Building a Human Rights Youth Justice System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)

Wyles, Paul

2009-01-01

72

International Migration and Human Rights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Migration Group (GMG) is an inter-agency group that is dedicated to encouraging the "adoption of more coherent, comprehensive and better coordinated approaches to the issue of international migration." Their number includes representatives from UNICEF, the World Bank and various regional commissions from the United Nations. In October 2008, they released this 144-page report in order to commemorate and reflect on the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The report is divided into seven sections, including those dealing with the legal framework of migration, globalization and migration trends, migration data, and a concluding chapter which discusses some of the most pressing issues facing different migrant groups around the world. The report also includes three very useful appendices which deal with the policy instruments used in regards to human migration and the adoption of key United Nations legal instruments involved with international migration.

73

Incorporating Human Rights into the College Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper recounts development of a community college humanities course titled Human Rights/Human Wrongs: The History, Philosophy, Law, Art, and Literature of the Human Rights Movement. The author argues that a special focus, interdisciplinary course provides a broader base for exploring and understanding most of the pressing issues of our time.…

Ledbetter, Pat

74

Transnational Sexualities and Human Rights: Faculty Workshop  

E-print Network

and the Cultural Politics of Desire and Belonging Salvador Vidal-Ortiz, American University Colombian LGBT RightsDRAFT 1 Transnational Sexualities and Human Rights: Faculty Workshop Bodies in Motion, States of Unrest: Sexuality, Citizenship, and the Freedom of Movement as a Human Right University of Connecticut

Alpay, S. Pamir

75

Human Rights in the 20th Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to answer the question raised in its title. To that end, the evolution of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights is discussed in the context of lesbian and gay rights, internationally and in the United States. The political and psychosocial dynamics of homophobic hatred are addressed, including the correlation of human rights abuses to heterosexism

Janice Wood Wetzel

2001-01-01

76

Human Rights within Education: Assessing the Justifications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While respect for human rights has long been endorsed as a goal of education, only recently has significant attention been paid to the need to incorporate rights within educational processes. Current support for human rights within education, however, has a variety of motivations. This paper provides a theoretical exploration of these diverse…

McCowan, Tristan

2012-01-01

77

Migration, health, and care in French overseas territories. France was recently reprimanded by a UN human rights body1  

E-print Network

Migration, health, and care in French overseas territories. France was recently reprimanded by a UN human rights body1 concerned about discriminatory political discourse and an increase in acts Commissioner for Human Rights, 77th session, 2010, report CERD/C/ FRA/CO/17-19. 2. République Française

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

78

Obama’s Implicit Human Rights Doctrine  

Microsoft Academic Search

During his first year in office, President Barack Obama has outlined a human rights doctrine. The essence of Obama’s position\\u000a is that the foreign policy of the USA is dedicated to the promotion of the most basic human right—the right to life—above\\u000a and beyond all others and that the USA will systematically refrain from actively promoting other rights, even if

Amitai Etzioni

2011-01-01

79

Living Human Rights students raise awareness of ‘Human Trafficking’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students from the unit Living Human Rights, from The University of Notre Dame Australia’s Fremantle Campus, recently held an expo to raise awareness of human trafficking.\\u000aThe unit, Living Human Rights, introduces students to human rights from a number of interrelated perspectives: global and local; professional and personal; present and historical. It explores how human rights need to form an

Cassidy Rebecca

2009-01-01

80

SEXUAL RIGHTS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA: A Beijing Discourse or a Strategic Necessity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A t the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) in Beijing, the international community agreed that human rights include the right of women to control over their sexuality.l Although the terminology is contest- ed, this principle is frequently encapsulated as \\

Barbara Klugman

81

Human rights and district nursing practice.  

PubMed

The main provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights were incorporated into UK law in the Human Rights Act 1998. Human Rights were described by Lord Hoffman in 'Matthews v Ministry of Defence' [2003] as the rights essential to the life and dignity of the individual in a democratic society. The fundamental nature of the rights demand that district nurses must inform their practice with a clear understanding of the main provisions of the Act and how they apply to health care. PMID:15788950

Griffith, Richard

2005-02-01

82

Can Human Rights Build a Better War?  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Humanity's law”—the merger of human rights law and the laws of war—is more ambivalent than first appears. The two regimes speak in one voice with respect to genocide and crimes against humanity, due process and detainee rights, and the prohibition of torture and cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. But on the military terrain of “strategy,” and in the conduct of

Thomas W. Smith

2010-01-01

83

Education of Youth, Human Rights and Human Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses youth and adult education in a twofold perspective: that of a human right and that of human development. The first perspective is related to the concept of rights and the second perspective is related to the guarantee or negation of the right to development. In this article, the author discusses the universality of rights…

Haddad, Sergio

2006-01-01

84

Is there a human right to private health care?  

PubMed

In recent years we have noticed an increase in the turn to rights analysis in litigation relating to access to health care. Examining litigation, we can notice a contradiction between on the one hand the ability of the right to health to reinforce privatization and commodification of health care, by rearticulating claims to private health care in terms of human rights, and on the other hand, its ability to reinforce and reinstate public values, especially that of equality, against the background of privatization and commodification. While many hope that rights discourse will do the latter, and secure that access to health care should occur on the basis of need as opposed to ability to pay, it has actually been used to attempt to advance arguments that will allow access to private or semiprivate health insurance in ways that may exacerbate inequality. These types of arguments won ground in the Canadian Supreme Court, but were rejected by the Israeli Supreme Court. In order to avoid this co-optation of right to health, a notion of rights that incorporates the principles of substantive equality is required. Otherwise, one of the unintended consequences of inserting rights analysis into public health care may be that it will reinforce rather than challenge privatization in a way that may increase inequalities. PMID:23581662

Gross, Aeyal

2013-01-01

85

Midwives and human rights: dream or reality?  

PubMed

Midwives as predominantly women caring for other women are subject to the same human rights violations and abuse that affect all the women of the world. They need to know and recognise these human rights violations before being able to take action that will reduce or eliminate such harmful practices. In this article, I address gender-based violations of the basic human rights of particular concern to women during their childbearing years, such as personal safety, respect for human dignity, fair and equitable access to health services, along with autonomous decision-making based on complete and unbiased information. The ethical and legal foundations of human rights are discussed in relation to viewing women as fully human, fully persons. Guidance for midwives taken from key documents of the International Confederation of Midwives are offered as midwives work together with women to end gender-based violations of one's human rights. PMID:12381422

Thompson, Joyce E

2002-09-01

86

Possible Contributions of a Psychology of Liberation: Whither Health and Human Rights?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the possible contributions of a psychology of liberation for the practice of health psychology. It explores alternative psychological ‘practices’, for example participatory action research, with groups historically marginalized from access to power and resources. Selected lenses for crafting a liberatory psychology include: discourse of human rights and mental health; cultural and constructivist psychological theory; and reflexivity. Specific

M. Brinton Lykes

2000-01-01

87

The Value of Water in Bolivia: An Economic Resource or a Human Right?  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the 2000 ‘Water-War’, access to water in Bolivia has become a major social demand and thus a prime and contentious political issue. The event has revealed an overwhelming opposition to neo-liberal approaches to water management and has allowed the articulation of a new discourse that sees water not as an economic resource but as a human right. In this

Enrique Castañón

2010-01-01

88

Human Rights in Social Science Textbooks: Cross-National Analyses, 1970-2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In reaction to the disasters of the first half the 20th century and World War II, a dramatic world movement arose emphasizing the human rights of persons in global society. The contrast--celebrated in international treaties, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, and much cultural discourse--was with narrower world emphases on the…

Meyer, John W.; Bromley, Patricia; Ramirez, Francisco O.

2010-01-01

89

Conceptual recurrence plots: revealing patterns in human discourse.  

PubMed

Human discourse contains a rich mixture of conceptual information. Visualization of the global and local patterns within this data stream is a complex and challenging problem. Recurrence plots are an information visualization technique that can reveal trends and features in complex time series data. The recurrence plot technique works by measuring the similarity of points in a time series to all other points in the same time series and plotting the results in two dimensions. Previous studies have applied recurrence plotting techniques to textual data; however, these approaches plot recurrence using term-based similarity rather than conceptual similarity of the text. We introduce conceptual recurrence plots, which use a model of language to measure similarity between pairs of text utterances, and the similarity of all utterances is measured and displayed. In this paper, we explore how the descriptive power of the recurrence plotting technique can be used to discover patterns of interaction across a series of conversation transcripts. The results suggest that the conceptual recurrence plotting technique is a useful tool for exploring the structure of human discourse. PMID:22499664

Angus, Daniel; Smith, Andrew; Wiles, Janet

2012-06-01

90

CENTER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE  

E-print Network

of the Martyrs of El Salvador 7 Deportation, Migration, and Human Rights 8 Conversations at Lunch 9 PUBLICATIONS. Rooted in the ethical and religious traditions of Boston College, we train the next generation of human

Huang, Jianyu

91

Midwives and human rights: dream or reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Midwives as predominantly women caring for other women are subject to the same human rights violations and abuse that affect all the women of the world. They need to know and recognise these human rights violations before being able to take action that will reduce or eliminate such harmful practices. In this article, I address gender-based violations of the basic

Joyce E. Thompson

2002-01-01

92

Poverty, equity, human rights and health.  

PubMed Central

Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647

Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

2003-01-01

93

Race and Human Rights Violations in the United States: Considerations for Human Rights and Moral Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that moral educators can learn from North Americans who have challenged U.S. human rights violations, especially violations within the United States. Uses race as an analytical tool to illustrate human rights abuses. Concludes by discussing the implications for crossing boundaries between human rights work and moral education. (CMK)

Duncan, Garrett Albert

2000-01-01

94

Child Rearing in the "Risk" Society: On the Discourse of Rights and the "Best Interests of a Child"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to a number of radical changes in society, the role of parents in the upbringing of their children has been redefined. In this essay, Paul Smeyers argues that "risk" thinking, and the technologization that goes with it in the context of child rearing, naturally leads to the rights discourse, but that thinking about the relation between parents…

Smeyers, Paul

2010-01-01

95

Human Rights Culture: Solidarity, Diversity and the Right to be Different  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of a human rights culture has been crucial to the incorporation of the European Convention of Human Rights into UK law. In this paper media and activist representations of human rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender human rights are considered as indicative of an emerging human rights culture, especially around the Civil Partnerships Act 2004. A typology

Kate Nash

2005-01-01

96

The Right to Development: Construction of a Non-Agriculturalist Discourse of Rurality in Denmark  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper argues for the existence of two powerful discourses of rurality in Denmark after World War II. The first one is termed the modernist-agriculturalist discourse. Although still influential in the current public debate, in Denmark as well as in other Western European countries, this discourse of rurality had its heyday in the 1960s. It is…

Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

2004-01-01

97

Reporting the Rhetoric, Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Represented in Ireland's Second Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: A Critical Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ireland's second periodic report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) presents the government's case that it is succeeding in protecting and promoting the rights of all children in Ireland. This article presents a critical discourse analysis of the government's Report to the CRC. Using a refined critical discourse…

Kiersey, Rachel A.; Hayes, Noirin

2010-01-01

98

Teaching Strategy: Human Rights Around the World and at Home.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson on human rights for middle and secondary school students in which they identify human rights, cite examples of human-rights abuses and affirmations, and relate actions to the articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Explains that students identify human-rights issues globally and at home. (CMK)

Manson, Patrick

1998-01-01

99

Women's Human Rights Activists as Cross-Cultural Theorists  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to offering a basis for the criticism of universal human rights theorizing and practice, women's experience contributes to universal human rights theory building. Women's human rights activists' insights provide the foundation for a theory of universal human rights that is cross-cultural and critical. In sharing their work and strategies, two online working groups of women's human rights activists

Brooke A. Ackerly

2001-01-01

100

Inter-American Human Rights Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Inter-American Human Rights Database is an ongoing initiative of the Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law at the American University's Washington College of Law. The database is comprised of documents, in both English and Spanish, ratified by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, beginning with the commission's inception in 1960 and spanning to the present. The chronologically arranged documents include the commission's annual reports, sessional reports, and special situational reports. Currently, not all documents adopted by the commission are available. In the future, the site will include special country reports and thematic reports. All content at the site is searchable.

101

Advocacy Panel—Human Rights Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes the interface between her organization's efforts to advance the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) people in the United States and the science generated in the field of mental health. The complexities involved in fighting for human rights both in legislative activity and in the court of public opinion are discussed and the history of

Betsy Pursell

2009-01-01

102

Human Rights in the United Kingdom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet uses the Articles of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a framework within which to describe legal safeguards of individual rights in the United Kingdom. Under each article of the Declaration, a historical perspective of the tradition of civil liberties is provided, as are descriptions of recent trends and…

British Information Service, New York, NY. Reference Div.

103

Human Rights Watch: Chemical Warfare in Bosnia?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human Rights Watch has recently posted a new report. "Chemical Warfare in Bosnia? The Strange Experiences of the Srebrenica Survivors," investigates whether or not Serb forces used chemical agents in an attack against people fleeing Srebrenica in Bosnia and Hercegovina.

104

Human Rights Watch: Limits of Tolerance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human Rights Watch has recently posted a new report. "Limits of Tolerance: Freedom of Expression and the Public Debate in Chile," examines the extreme restrictions on freedom of speech and freedom of information in the ostensibly democratic nation of Chile.

105

Nepal: Dealing with a Human Rights Crisis  

E-print Network

leader. It now recognises the gravity of the situation. A joint statement by bilateral donors and the UN in Nepal has warned that "insecurity, armed activity and CPN/M [Maoist] blockades are pushing Nepal toward the abyss of a humanitarian crisis... ; and (c) planning, funding and implementing (most probably through the UN) all appropriate assistance it requests. 13. Help build non-governmental human rights capacity by: (a) defending and strengthening national human rights NGOs, including women...

International Crisis Group

2005-03-24

106

Human rights enforcement: a fundamental duty of the sovereign state  

E-print Network

Human rights enforcement is an important issue within international law. Unfortunately, the status quo of human rights within international law is unsatisfactory. Men, women and children suffer daily violations of their most fundamental human rights...

Englehart, Ellen Marie

2012-06-07

107

Human Rights Watch: Reports on China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human Rights Watch/Asia offers a number of reports and press releases on human rights abuses in China and Tibet. The State Visit of Chinese President Jiang Zemin last week represented a thaw in official Sino-US Relations, which have been somewhat chilly since Tiananmen in 1989. Despite reaching agreements on a broad range of security, economic, environmental and law-enforcement issues, the two Presidents were clearly far apart on the issue of human rights. While President Clinton made mention of the right to political and religious expression, President Jiang expressed the need for political and social stability in his country. On the whole, both leaders have achieved their goals. President Clinton has secured China's cooperation on several issues, most importantly arms control and trade, while the state dinner and formal ceremony recognized China's role as a key player in the world economy and Jiang's international position as its head of state.

Human Rights Watch (Organization).

1998-01-01

108

Human Clones and International Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning calls upon member states to prohibit all forms of human cloning. However, the Declaration is nonbinding and will not put a stop to cloning around the world. Scientists will continue to clone embryos in their quest to develop stem cell therapies, ultimately, their work will facilitate the birth of human clones.;Once born, human

Kerry MacIntosh

2006-01-01

109

Human Rights for Children: A Curriculum for Teaching Human Rights to Children Ages 3-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Created to heighten teachers' awareness of human rights issues, particularly those related to children's rights, this guide offers children knowledge and skills in developing both self-worth and empathy for others. These feelings, the curriculum argues, are the foundation children need if they are to understand their rights as children and the…

Hatch, Virginia; And Others

110

Wales Observatory on Human Rights of Children and Young People  

E-print Network

Mannello, Play Wales; Dr Wendy Russell, University of Gloucestershire Children and the Media ­ Neath PortWales Observatory on Human Rights of Children and Young People Rights Here: Right Now! A conference about children's human rights 11th and 12th September 2014 Swansea University Rights Here: Right Now

Harman, Neal.A.

111

Gendering corporal punishment: beyond the discourse of human rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years the Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children has been gathering momentum, with a submission to The United Nations Secretary General’s study on violence against children the most recent addition to the cause. Nevertheless, corporal punishment in schools is still condoned in many countries and its practice persists even where it is now

Sara Humphreys

2008-01-01

112

Gendering Corporal Punishment: Beyond the Discourse of Human Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last few years the Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children has been gathering momentum, with a submission to "The United Nations Secretary General's study on violence against children" the most recent addition to the cause. Nevertheless, corporal punishment in schools is still condoned in many countries and its practice…

Humphreys, Sara

2008-01-01

113

Gender Violence: A Development and Human Rights Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document includes two articles describing the failure of the international human rights movement to consider or remedy the situation of women outside of the basic demand for political rights of people in general. The first article, "Women's Rights as Human Rights: Toward a Re-Vision of Human Rights" (Charlotte Bunch), emphasizes the…

Bunch, Charlotte; Carrillo, Roxanna

114

The Human Right to Access Electricity  

SciTech Connect

Electricity access is already well established within the framework of human rights, either as an implicit attribute of a pre-existing right (such as non-discrimination or sustainable development) or explicitly in the context of eliminating discrimination against women. There is also broad acknowledgement by states of the desirability of eliminating energy poverty - for all, but particularly for the rural poor, and women. (author)

Tully, Stephen

2006-04-15

115

Human rights monitoring in virtual community.  

PubMed

Holistic disability rights monitoring is essential in order to translate rights on paper into rights in reality for people with disabilities. At the same time, evidence-based knowledge produced through holistic monitoring has to be made accessible to a broad range of groups - researchers, representatives of disability community, people with disabilities, the media, policy makers, general public - and also has to contribute to building capacity within disability community around human rights issues. This article focuses on the design process of a complex Virtual Knowledge Network (VKN) as an operational tool to support mobilization and dissemination of evidence-based knowledge produced by the Disability Rights Promotion International Canada (DRPI-Canada) project. This tool is embedded in the more general framework of the project grounded in a human rights approach to disability and that acknowledges the importance of creating knowledgeable communities in order to make the disability rights monitoring efforts sustainable, advancing thus the decision making process in Canada in order to enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities. PMID:22874302

El Morr, Christo

2012-01-01

116

Human rights as conflict management: The unionist use of human rights language in Northern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instruments for protecting human rights can help to channel tensions and manage intense communal conflicts. This understanding was reflected in the Good Friday Agreement acceded to in April 1998 in Northern Ireland. The utilization of human rights language by the Unionists under pressure illustrates the important role that third parties and non?governmental actors can play in facilitating ethnic conflict management,

David Cowell; Kimberly Cowell

1999-01-01

117

Annual Report on Human Rights, 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In July, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) issued its Human Rights report, the third such annual report issued under Tony Blair's government. The 176-page report provides a "detailed overview of the range of FCO work in the area of human rights, from the government's responses to major humanitarian crises in Kosovo, in East Timor, or in Sierra Leone, to grass-roots projects to promote civil society, safeguard children from conflict and exploitation, and eradicate torture around the world." The report also includes a brief section on the decision of the Home Secretary not to extradite former Chilean dictator Pinochet to Spain, with a URL included for access to the full text of his statement. According to the Secretary for FCO affairs, the document is not meant as an exhaustive report on Human Rights around the world, but rather as an in-depth examination of UK efforts in this area both at home and abroad.

118

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Only a Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains provisions contained within the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, tracing historical beginnings of human rights to 1945, detailing events after 1945 up to the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations, and explaining essential terminology used in describing human rights instruments that have been…

Reichert, Elisabeth

2002-01-01

119

Human Rights and Religion in the English Secondary RE Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between religion and human rights is an ambiguous and complex one, but there are academic, moral and political arguments for the inclusion of human rights in religious education (RE). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights advocates education in human rights and the English school curriculum aims to encourage a commitment to…

Bowie, Robert

2011-01-01

120

MORAL RIGHTS, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND SOCIAL RECOGNITION (First Draft)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several contemporary scholars argue that people cannot have rights that are not socially recognised. Some of these scholars are influenced by Bentham's well-known protests against natural rights and others by the much more subtle thought of T.H. Green. In the most radical contemporary versions of the recognition thesis, rights can be only legal rights; a 'moral right' is no more

Peter Jones

121

Fact Sheet: China's Human Rights Record  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

US Department of State: China's Human Rights Record is a brief description of the administration's policy of "engagement" and its results in China. The State Visit of Chinese President Jiang Zemin last week represented a thaw in official Sino-US Relations, which have been somewhat chilly since Tiananmen in 1989. Despite reaching agreements on a broad range of security, economic, environmental and law-enforcement issues, the two Presidents were clearly far apart on the issue of human rights. While President Clinton made mention of the right to political and religious expression, President Jiang expressed the need for political and social stability in his country. On the whole, both leaders have achieved their goals. President Clinton has secured China's cooperation on several issues, most importantly arms control and trade, while the state dinner and formal ceremony recognized China's role as a key player in the world economy and Jiang's international position as its head of state.

Affairs., United S.

1997-01-01

122

INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW Lecturer: Dr Amy Strecker  

E-print Network

, the rights of minorities and indigenous peoples, women's rights, the rights of migrants and refugeesINTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW CAS IR 306 Lecturer: Dr Amy Strecker Email: amy, structure and efficacy of international human rights law. In this module students will investigate the legal

Guenther, Frank

123

Program Summary 2012 HUMAN RIGHTS MINOR  

E-print Network

symposium course. Students interested in careers or scholarship (graduate or professional school) related, or social problems are highly encouraged to enroll. The Minor officially kicked off in Fall 2012. Now. Human Rights Minor Curriculum: Participating faculty hold advanced degrees in Law, Sociology

Su, Xiao

124

Pain Management: A Fundamental Human Right  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys worldwide medical, ethical, and legal trends and initiatives related to the concept of pain management as a human right. This concept recently gained momentum with the 2004 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Chapters-, International Association for the Study of Pain- and World Health Organization-sponsored \\

Frank Brennan; Daniel B. Carr; Michael Cousins

2007-01-01

125

Academic Freedom 3: Education and Human Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of reports gives a picture of educational systems from a human rights perspective, monitoring academic freedom in the context of freedom of thought and freedom of opinion and expression. The World University Service's Lima Declaration on Academic Freedom and Autonomy of Institutions of Higher Education of 1988 is used as the…

Daniel, John, Ed.; And Others

126

Human Rights Quarterly BOOK REVIEW INDEX  

E-print Network

, Kevin, The Treatment of Prisoners Under International Law, by Nigel Rodley 11 HRQ 335 (1989) #12;Boyle Hamlin 3 HRQ 150 (1981) Bedau, Hugo, The Abolition of the Death Penalty in International Law, by William) Blackwell, J. Kenneth, The U.N. Commission on Human Rights, by Howard Tolley, Jr. 14 HRQ 485 (1992) Boyle

Papautsky, Ian

127

Discrimination & If you experience human-rights  

E-print Network

physical, verbal, or emotional abuse. Typically, bullying occurs as a pattern of behaviour in which who writes slowly due to a physical disability Everyone at UBC is protected from discrimination on any and by the BC Human Rights Code: age ancestry colour family status marital status physical or mental disability

Pulfrey, David L.

128

Thoughts from the Human Rights Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lecture examines problems of global child abuse from a human rights perspective, balancing the "good news" of the international concern for children's welfare against the scale of the crisis it reflects. The author recommends that child advocates embrace a "pessioptimistic" attitude, acknowledging these extremes by disallowing both naivete…

Marzouki, Moncef

1997-01-01

129

Human Rights, Globalization and Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let us think about the relationship between human rights and global climate change in terms of the idea that we live or our supposed to live within the framework of a single world economy and that economic progress involves the removal of all impediments to commercial exchange. Carla Hill, George H.W. Bush's US trade representative, spoke for this vision of

Rick Coughlin

130

"Good" Worms and Human Rights John Aycock  

E-print Network

"Good" Worms and Human Rights John Aycock Department of Computer Science University of Calgary 2500 to limit certain material flowing into or out of China, such as information about Tiananmen Square. On one. Attempts to access forbidden material yield results akin to network or server prob- lems [22, 32]. Accurate

Aycock, John

131

Human Rights and a Post-Secular Religion of Humanity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay reconsiders anti-foundationalism, the majority position in human rights theory, not once more from a rationalist foundationalist perspective but from a post-secular perspective. Post-secularism offers a relatively new vantage point from which to consider anti-foundationalism in human rights theory. That vantage point leads this essay to its first claim, which is that anti-foundationalists provide no compelling motive for upholding

Daniel S. Malachuk

2010-01-01

132

A Human Rights Perspective on Infectious Disease Laws in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines infectious disease laws in Japan from a human rights perspective using international standards. Background In public health, frameworks and assessments integrating human rights concerns are beginning to be developed. One challenging area is infectious disease control where human rights offer and approach for addressing the rights and health of infected and vulnerable populations. Methods We examined the

Eriko SASE; Sofia GRUSKIN

133

Education Is a Human Right. EI Barometer on Human and Trade Union Rights in the Education Sector, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 2001 edition of Educational International's (EI) "Barometer on Trade Union and Human Rights in the Education Sector" focuses on four fundamental human rights: (1) the right to education; (2) academic freedom; (3) children's right to be protected from exploitation; and (4) workers' rights to form and join trade unions and to organize and…

Noonan, Michael A.

134

Property rights in human gametes in Australia.  

PubMed

It has long been a basic tenet of the common law that there can be no property interest in human bodies or body parts. However, exceptions to the rule have been recognised from the mid-19th century and developed over time. In the early 21st century, there have been interesting developments in the common law of Australia and England, with Australian Supreme Court judges and the English Court of Appeal casting aside existing exceptions, and finding property rights in human body parts, including gametes, by relying instead on a "rational" and "logical" basis to identify property interests in human body parts. PMID:23600194

White, Vanessa

2013-03-01

135

Working together for health and human rights.  

PubMed

The right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being is being denied to vast numbers of people all over the world through increasing disparities in income and in wealth. In the name of economic development, a number of international and national policies have increased the grossly uneven distribution of income, with ever-growing numbers of people living in poverty as well as in increasing depths of poverty. Globalization, crippling levels of external debt, and the 'structural adjustment' policies of international agencies have expanded the numbers and the suffering of people living in poverty and have resulted in the neglect of government-funded social programs, of regulations protecting the environment, and of human development. Access to medical care, an essential element in the protection of health, is difficult for many, including the 44 million people in the United States who lack insurance coverage for the cost of medical care services. Working together for health and human rights also requires promotion of the right to peace. The right to life and health is threatened not only by the existence and active deployment of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and anti-personnel landmines, but also other weapons. The twentieth century has been the bloodiest in human history, with an estimated 250 wars, more than 110 million people killed, countless people wounded and at the least 50 million refugees. Health workers must work together with people in our communities for the promotion of health and human rights, which, in Sandwell and elsewhere, are inextricably intertwined. PMID:11130630

Sidel, V W

2000-01-01

136

Human Rights, Free Movement, and the Right to Leave in International Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article starts from a rights-based premise: freedom of movement is an established human right recognised in a range of international instruments. The right to leave one's own country is one aspect of this general concern with free movement. This article addresses the status of this right under international law, a right that is enshrined in several different international instruments

Colin Harvey; Robert P. Barnidge

2007-01-01

137

Globalisation and health inequalities: can a human rights paradigm create space for civil society action?  

PubMed

While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of human rights discourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states' ability to act in their population's interests, yet implementation of human rights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central to the actions required of the state to build a health system based on a human rights approach is the notion of accountability. Two case studies are used to explore the constraints on states meeting their human rights obligations regarding health, the first drawing on data from interviews with parliamentarians responsible for health in East and Southern Africa, and the second reflecting on the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The case studies illustrate the importance of a human rights paradigm in strengthening parliamentary oversight over the executive in ways that prioritise pro-poor protections and in increasing leverage for resources for the health sector within parliamentary processes. Further, a rights framework creates the space for civil society action to engage with the legislature to hold public officials accountable and confirms the importance of rights as enabling civil society mobilization, reinforcing community agency to advance health rights for poor communities. In this context, critical assessment of state incapacity to meet claims to health rights raises questions as to the diffusion of accountability rife under modern international aid systems. Such diffusion of accountability opens the door to 'cunning' states to deflect rights claims of their populations. We argue that human rights, as both a normative framework for legal challenges and as a means to create room for active civil society engagement provide a means to contest both the real and the purported constraints imposed by globalisation. PMID:21511377

London, Leslie; Schneider, Helen

2012-01-01

138

A human rights approach to human trafficking for organ removal.  

PubMed

Human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) should not be reduced to a problem of supply and demand of organs for transplantation, a problem of organized crime and criminal justice, or a problem of voiceless, abandoned victims. Rather, HTOR is at once an egregious human rights abuse and a form of human trafficking. As such, it demands a human-rights based approach in analysis and response to this problem, placing the victim at the center of initiatives to combat this phenomenon. Such an approach requires us to consider how various measures impact or disregard victims/potential victims of HTOR and gives us tools to better advocate their interests, rights and freedoms. PMID:23743564

Budiani-Saberi, Debra; Columb, Seán

2013-11-01

139

Human Rights as the Rights of the Poor: the perspective from Liberation Theology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liberation Theology has played an important role in the development of the human rights movement in Latin America. This paper gives an outline of its basic perspective on human rights and refers to its historical basis. The Latin American Catholic liberation?theological perspective is described as one important voice in the emergence of a new global ethic centred on human rights.

Jose Aldunate SJ

1994-01-01

140

A Global Perspective on Human Rights Education. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC Digest outlines what is meant by the phrase human rights and the origin of the concept. It also traces the delineation of the concept of human rights from the 17th century antecedent of "natural rights" to its eventual incarnation as inherent political or personal rights, such as freedom of speech, press, assembly, and religion. The…

Patrick, John J.

141

Contesting Animal Rights on the InternetDiscourse Analysis of the Social Construction of Argument  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines contributions to argument on Internet sites concerned with animal rights. As this is part of a project examining how “rights” and “cases” are constructed and contested through argument, the texts considered are selected from sites that take an explicit stance for or against animal rights. Our reading of these texts highlights the strategies used by pro- and

Davina Swan; John C. McCarthy

2003-01-01

142

A Human Rights Strategy for 1973-76  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes four elements of a human rights strategy to achieve an equitable society: (1) strengthen human rights law enforcement and training; (2) stop blaming the victims; (3) work together on mutual concerns; and, (4) support each other. (Author/JM)

Cloud, Fred

1973-01-01

143

MIGRATION & HUMAN RIGHTS PROJECT ANNUAL REPORT 2012-2013  

E-print Network

MIGRATION & HUMAN RIGHTS PROJECT ANNUAL REPORT · 2012-2013 #12;Faculty Directors Daniel Kanstroom-Deportation Human Rights Project Migration & huMan rights proJect ZACUALPA, GUATEMALA Sr. Ana María Álvarez López COMMONwEAlTH AvENUE STOkES HAll N410 CHESTNUT HIll, MA 02467 USA #12;Human Rights and Migration Project

Huang, Jianyu

144

Human Rights: Unfolding of the American Tradition. Report No. 8403.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Excerpts from 100 speeches, essays, and legal documents dating from classical times to the present illustrate the record of human rights discussion over the centuries. The compilation was made in 1968 to mark the 20th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The readings indicate that human rights initially meant freedom from a…

Bureau of Public Affairs (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

145

Perspective: Economic Human Rights: The Time Has Come!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that the high poverty levels in the United States implies that the goals of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) have not yet transformed the reality of U.S. citizens. Describes the national campaign called "Economic Human Rights: The Time Has Come!" that combats the violations of basic human rights like poverty. (CMK)

Mittal, Anuradha

1998-01-01

146

Health and human rights a South African perspective.  

PubMed

General statements of basic entitlements are established as a guide for potential laws and regulations protecting human rights. Human rights are those claimed to belong to every individual regardless of nationality or position within society. The historical evolution of human rights relative to health in the Republic of South Africa is discussed. PMID:25080665

Naidoo, Sudeshni

2014-01-01

147

Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are far more complex in environments where married adolescent women and their families live in conditions of poverty and socioeconomic deprivation. PMID:22376023

2011-01-01

148

Joint Statement on the Rights of LGBT Persons at the Human Rights Office of the Spokesman  

E-print Network

Joint Statement on the Rights of LGBT Persons at the Human Rights Council Fact Sheet Office not seen in previous LGBT statements at the UN, including: welcoming attention to LGBT issues as a part of the Universal Periodic Review process, noting the increased attention to LGBT issues in regional human rights

Auckland, University of

149

The human rights responsibilities of multinational tobacco companies  

PubMed Central

This article explores various strategies which could be used to hold the tobacco industry accountable for human rights violations precipitated by its conduct. First, a brief overview of the international human rights regime and the tobacco related jurisprudence issued by human rights treaty bodies is provided. The article then explains how tobacco control advocates could promote more systematic consideration of governments' tobacco related human rights violations by reconceptualising the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the language of rights. The feasibility of using the existing human rights framework to target the tobacco industry directly is analysed with the conclusion that this approach has serious limitations. Emerging human rights norms, which have greater potential to affect the industry's conduct, are presented. Finally, given the questionable authoritativeness of these norms, alternative ways that they could be employed to hold tobacco companies accountable for the rights related consequences of their activities are proposed. PMID:16046696

Crow, M

2005-01-01

150

Men, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights  

PubMed Central

Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as “the problem”, and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally. PMID:19553779

Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

151

Contextual Constraint Treatment for coarse coding deficit in adults with right hemisphere brain damage: Generalisation to narrative discourse comprehension.  

PubMed

Coarse coding is the activation of broad semantic fields that can include multiple word meanings and a variety of features, including those peripheral to a word's core meaning. It is a partially domain-general process related to general discourse comprehension and contributes to both literal and non-literal language processing. Adults with damage to the right cerebral hemisphere (RHD) and a coarse coding deficit are particularly slow to activate features of words that are relatively distant or peripheral. This manuscript reports a pre-efficacy study of Contextual Constraint Treatment (CCT), a novel, implicit treatment designed to increase the efficiency of coarse coding with the goal of improving narrative comprehension and other language performance that relies on coarse coding. Participants were four adults with RHD. The study used a single-subject controlled experimental design across subjects and behaviours. The treatment involved pre-stimulation, using a hierarchy of strong and moderately biased contexts, to prime the intended distantly related features of critical stimulus words. Three of the four participants exhibited gains in auditory narrative discourse comprehension, the primary outcome measure. All participants exhibited generalisation to untreated items. No strong generalisation to processing non-literal language was evident. The results indicate that CCT yields both improved efficiency of the coarse coding process and generalisation to narrative comprehension. PMID:24983133

Blake, Margaret Lehman; Tompkins, Connie A; Scharp, Victoria L; Meigh, Kimberly M; Wambaugh, Julie

2015-01-01

152

Progress in the international protection of human rights.  

PubMed

Great progress has been made in the international protection of human rights since 10 December 1948 (when the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights). Amidst the doom and gloom of the media's reporting of current affairs, it is easy to overlook this progress. This article provides a definition of 'human rights' and examines early human rights campaigns. It then considers the areas of progress: human rights are now part of the international political vocabulary, there is a recognition that respect for human rights can assist a country's economic and social development, there has been a growth of human rights treaties and techniques and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) see protecting human rights as a major activity. State sovereignty has been eroded as national governments are being held accountable to the international community for their human rights policies. A new challenge is to ensure respect for human rights by non-state entities, such as transnational corporations. The growing culture of international protection of human rights is here to stay. This is not a reason for complacency, but it is a sign of hope. PMID:12201086

Suter, Keith

2002-01-01

153

Sexual minorities, human rights and public health strategies in Africa.  

PubMed

Remarkable progress has been made towards the recognition of sexual minority rights in Africa. At the same time, a marked increase in attacks, rhetorical abuse, and restrictive legislation against sexual minorities or ‘homosexuality’ makes activism for sexual rights a risky endeavour in many African countries. Campaigns for sexual rights and ‘coming out’ are frequently perceived as a form of Western cultural imperialism, leading to an exportation of Western gay identities and provoking a patriotic defensiveness. Cultures of quiet acceptance of same-sex relationships or secretive bisexuality are meanwhile also problematic given the high rate of HIV prevalence on much of the continent. This article examines specific initiatives that are using subtle, somewhat covert means to negotiate a path between rights activism and secretive bisexuality. It argues that strategies primarily focused on health concerns that simultaneously yet discreetly promote sexual rights are having some success in challenging prevalent homophobic or ‘silencing’ cultures and discourses. PMID:22826897

Epprecht, Marc

2012-01-01

154

A tribute to Dorothy Height. Crusader for human rights.  

PubMed

Dorothy Height, is a legendary figure in the American civil rights movement and in the broader worldwide human rights movement. As President of the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW), she worked tirelessly toward the enactment of civil rights and for equal rights in education, housing, and employment. PMID:12500647

Halamandaris, Val J

2002-12-01

155

Human dignity and human rights in bioethics: the Kantian approach.  

PubMed

The concept of human dignity plays an important role in the public discussion about ethical questions concerning modern medicine and biology. At the same time, there is a widespread skepticism about the possibility to determine the content and the claims of human dignity. The article goes back to Kantian Moral Philosophy, in order to show that human dignity has in fact a determinable content not as a norm in itself, but as the principle and ground of human rights and any deontological norms in biomedical ethics. When it comes to defining the scope of human dignity, i.e., the question which entities are protected by human dignity, Kant clearly can be found on the "pro life"-side of the controversy. This, however, is the result of some specific implications of Kant's transcendental approach that may be put into question. PMID:20411338

Rothhaar, Markus

2010-08-01

156

Women's human rights & the feminisation of poverty in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses the range of measures in place in South Africa to protect the human rights of women and establish their equality. The Constitution, the National Action Plan, ratified international law and domestic law all aim, or claim, to prioritise the ‘right’ treatment of women in South Africa. On paper then, there is a human rights ‘culture’ which is

Kristina Bentley

2004-01-01

157

How the Use of Human Rights Treaties to Prohibit Genetic  

E-print Network

Genetic engineering for purposes of human enhancement poses risks that justify regulation. I argue, however, that it is inappropriate to use human rights treaties to prohibit germ-line genetic engineering whether therapeutic or for purposes of enhancement. The scope and weight of human rights make them poor tools for regulating a rapidly developing technology such as genetic engineering. On the other hand, international treaties are appropriate regulatory tools as long as prohibitions are not put in terms of human rights.

Martin Gunderson

2008-01-01

158

The influence of human rights on district nurse practice.  

PubMed

In the decade since its introduction, the Human Rights Act 1998 has had a profound effect on the way district nurses practice. New laws underpinning the principles and obligations of human rights law have seen a gradual legalisation of health care and a reigning in of the discretionary powers of health professionals such as district nurses.This article reflects on the Human Rights Act 1998's influence on district nurse practice. PMID:19966686

Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

2009-10-01

159

Hannah Arendt's “Right to Have Rights”: A Philosophical Context for Human Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary international legal theorists and policymakers have endorsed the concept of “human security” in an effort to mitigate the same categories of suffering that Hannah Arendt sought to address with her concept of a “right to have rights.” Like Arendt, human security theorists and practitioners today focus on the plight of individuals in distress as a consequence of the unrealizability

Natalie Oman

2010-01-01

160

From Individual Rights to National Development: The First UN International Conference on Human Rights, Tehran, 1968  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the fi rst International Conference on Human Rights, held in Tehran in April and May 1968. At Tehran, a powerful bloc of Asian, African, and Arab states successfully asserted their control over the UN's Human Rights Program. Their aggressive conference diplomacy was the culmination of a major transition in UN politics, with supposedly Western notions of individual

Roland Burke

2008-01-01

161

Rights for All: The Human Rights of Rural Citizens. Keynote Address.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission visited over 50 communities throughout Australia to assess the state of human rights in rural, regional, and remote Australia. Education and health services predominated the discussions. Rural children, especially Aboriginal children, have lower school attendance and completion rates…

Sodoti, Chris

162

Implementing Children's Human Rights Education in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…

Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.

2010-01-01

163

The object of "Rights" : third world women and the production of global human rights discourse  

E-print Network

as exacerbating the sex trafficking market. And whileThe worldwide market for sex: A review of international andsex trading … After Asia, Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union are extremely fast growing markets

Hua, Julietta Y.

2006-01-01

164

The object of "Rights" : third world women and the production of global human rights discourse  

E-print Network

consequences of sex trafficking in the United States. Insex trade: Trafficking of women and children in Europe and the United States.sex trade: Trafficking of women and children in Europe and the United States.

Hua, Julietta Y.

2006-01-01

165

What's in a Right? Two Variations for Interpreting the Right to Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The end of the Cold War ushered in a paradigmatic shift in international development discourse whereby a human rights-based approach to development was generated. This shift has stimulated the pegging of international development policy to the objectives of the human rights regime. However, in attempting to unify development and human rights…

McMillan, Leah K.

2010-01-01

166

Eradicating female circumcision: Human rights and cultural values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female circumcision excites strong emotions both from those against and those in favour of its continuation. It highlights the opposition between those who argue that there are rights which are universal to the whole of humanity and those who argue that rights are relativised to particular cultures. Women's rights are particularly contentious because, unlike imprisoning political opponents, or torture, which

Linda A Williams

1998-01-01

167

Human/Nature Discourse in Environmental Science Education Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is argued that the view of nature and the relationship between human beings and nature that each of us holds impacts our decisions, actions, and notions of environmental responsibility and consciousness. In this study, I investigate the discursive patterns of selected environmental science classroom resources produced by three disparate…

Chambers, Joan M.

2008-01-01

168

Vulnerability, irregular migrants' health-related rights and the European Court of Human Rights.  

PubMed

The protection of irregular migrants' health-related rights brings to the fore the tensions that exist between human rights, citizenship and the sovereign state, and exposes the protection gaps in the international human rights regime. With this in mind, I consider the merits of a vulnerability analysis in international human rights law (IHRL). I posit that, detached from specific groups and reconceptualised as universal, vulnerability can be reclaimed as a foundation and tool of IHRL. I further contend that the deployment of a vulnerability analysis can alleviate the exclusionary dimension of IHRL and extend protections to irregular migrants. On this basis, I investigate the development of a vulnerability analysis in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. I argue that, in contrast with the Court's vulnerable population approach, a vulnerability analysis can improve protection standards for irregular migrants in the field of health. PMID:25199397

Da Lomba, Sylvie

2014-09-01

169

Human rights abuses, transparency, impunity and the Web.  

PubMed

This paper reviews how human rights advocates during the "war-on-terror" have found new ways to use the World Wide Web (Web) to combat human rights abuses. These include posting of human rights reports; creating large, open-access and updated archives of government documents and other data, tracking CIA rendition flights and maintaining blogs, e-zines, list-serves and news services that rapidly distribute information between journalists, scholars and human rights advocates. The Web is a powerful communication tool for human rights advocates. It is international, instantaneous, and accessible for uploading, archiving, locating and downloading information. For its human rights potential to be fully realized, international law must be strengthened to promote the declassification of government documents, as is done by various freedom of information acts. It is too early to assess the final impact of the Web on human rights abuses in the "war-on-terror". Wide dissemination of government documents and human rights advocates' reports has put the United States government on the defensive and some of its policies have changed in response to public pressure. Even so, the essential elements of secret prisons, detention without charges or trials, and illegal rendition remain intact. PMID:19289894

Miles, Steven H

2007-01-01

170

[Ethics, inequality, poverty and human rights in psychiatry].  

PubMed

This article aims to show the existence of important failures in the field of Human Rights and equal possibilities in health. Human rights are analyzed an developed in the field of public and social health in our country. Ethics is the main field proposed to reach solutions in the context on EPEP (Etica para la erradicación de la pobreza). PMID:17643140

Pérez De Nucci, Armando M

2007-01-01

171

Human Rights, Ethical Principles, and Standards in Forensic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human rights create a protective zone around persons and allow them the opportunity to further their valued personal projects without interference from others. This article considers the relationship between human rights and the general ethical principles and standards contained in the American Psychological Association's (APA's) code of ethics as applied to the forensic domain. First, it analyzes the concept of

Tony Ward; Theresa Gannon; Jim Vess

2009-01-01

172

Human Rights Advocacy on Gender Issues: Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen notable progress on issues of gender and human rights in standard-setting and to some extent application of those standards through international and domestic legislation and jurisprudence, and in institutional programming and development. Some international and regional human rights bodies now go beyond just including ‘women’ in a list of ‘vulnerable’ groups, and have begun to incorporate

Stephanie Farrior

2009-01-01

173

Professionalizing a Global Social Movement: Universities and Human Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the human rights movement emphasizes direct changes in nation-states, focusing on the efficacy of treaties and the role of advocacy in mitigating immediate violations. However, more than 140 universities in 59 countries established academic chairs, research centers, and programs for human rights from 1968-2000, a development that…

Suarez, David; Bromley, Patricia

2012-01-01

174

Human Rights on the Internet: Sites that Encourage Activism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published this month, this annotated Webliography offers a host of sites and Internet resources devoted to human rights issues, with an emphasis on activism. Elisa Mason, the author, categorizes the resources under Starting points, Web directories and meta sites, Organizations, Annual surveys, and Lists. Human Rights on the Internet is part of the Association of College & Research Libraries News series.

Mason, Elisa.

175

HUMAN RIGHTS POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Approved by  

E-print Network

Rights Conflict Resolution and Complaints Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Part VI Systemic Issues by understanding, respect, peace, trust, openness and fairness. 3. We believe that universities have a mandate

176

[Human values and respect of human rights in oppressive conditions].  

PubMed

Human rights, an issue of political debates in the last decades, listed in the United Nations Declaration of 1946 are rooted in the humanistic tradition of philosophy and religion. The UN declared their universal character and made state organizations responsible for their observation. Among all human rights that for freedom is usually perceived as crucial. Psychiatry developed in Europe primarily a caring function. The medical model developed in psychiatry through the 19th c. supplied the criteria for medical diagnosis of mental disturbance, and elaborated a system of treatment which included long term hospitalization. Medicalization of psychiatry (recently coming back) is a force which gives courage to those who suffer, to their families, and to professionals as well. This power however, can be easily abused, when a psychiatrist adopts a position of someone who knows better that which is good for his/her patient. Legal regulations of the circumstances of psychiatric treatment, especially treatment against the patient's will should prevent the abuse of the mentally disturbed person's right for freedom. The goal is usually achieved by clear description of clinical and other conditions under which a person can be committed, and by establishing the committed person's right to claim the decision to be unjust. Poland is a country without legal regulation in the area of mental health (there are only administrative acts). For more than sixty years several projects on mental health law have been worked on. The last one which came to the Sejm (parliament) in 1980 was withdrawn by the "Solidarity" Trade Union. At present, the membership of Poland in international organizations makes an introduction of mental health law an obligation. Having no legal regulation, Polish psychiatry has been a self-regulating system. It is worth to note that even in the hard Stalinist period (1947-1956) there was no abuse of psychiatry for political reasons. The main reason for Polish psychiatry staying free from political abuse is seen in the role of internalized norm of human dignity. But others should also be taken into account. It was a specificity of the political situation that the ruling powers did not insist that psychiatrists cooperate. On the other hand the integration of the Polish psychiatric community was helpful in observing the rule of non-collaboration. One of the most important factors is seen as the experience and memory of NAZI crimes in the field of psychiatry in Poland. Extermination of psychiatric patients had to leave the feeling of the importance of psychiatrist's own responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8356170

Bomba, J

1993-01-01

177

Facing racism and the moral responsibility of human rights knowledge.  

PubMed

Anthropologists working in arenas of human rights advocacy must be prepared to negotiate dilemmas of human responsibility. Those focusing on racial discrimination as a breach of international human rights conventions must contend with trends in social research that feed into politically consequential claims that neither race nor racism exist as significant social facts. An examination of the global sociocultural and geopolitcal landscape, the human rights system, and models of change reveals that contemporary racism in both its marked and unmarked varieties warrants anthropologists' critical scrutiny and, depending on individual epistemological and political inclination, sociopolitical intervention. PMID:11193018

Harrison, F V

2000-01-01

178

Local impacts of religious discourses on rights to express same-sex sexual desires in Peri-Urban Rio de Janeiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a study that examined how religious discourses of inclusion and exclusion—in Roman Catholic, evangelical\\u000a Protestant, and Afro-Brazilian religious traditions—affected people’s rights to express same-sex sexual desires, behaviors,\\u000a and identities in the socioeconomically marginalized urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using extended ethnographic\\u000a observation of institutions and religious events over a period of 2 years, the

Jonathan García; Miguel Muñoz Laboy; Vagner de Almeida; Richard Parker

2009-01-01

179

"This Is Our Freedom Bus Going Home Right Now": Producing and Hybridizing Space-Time Contexts in Pedagogical Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advances an approach to analysis of discursive intercontextuality through theories of space-time production. Argues management of multiple contexts within school-related discourse is an important means of discursively producing identity, agency, and power relations. Draws data from an ethnographic and discourse-based study of an extended school…

Leander, Kevin M.

2001-01-01

180

Grassroots Responsiveness to Human Rights Abuse: History of the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community…

Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge

2013-01-01

181

Health and human rights of adolescent girls in Afghanistan.  

PubMed

Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) conducted a study in early 1998 to assess the health and human rights conditions of Afghan women and girls living under the Taliban regime in Kabul. This paper highlights the concerns and experiences of adolescent girls in Kabul, includes a brief overview of the political situation in Afghanistan and Taliban policies toward women and girls, and presents findings from interviews with adolescent girls and women with adolescent daughters. It concludes with a discussion of current international standards for the protection of women's and girls' rights and the crucial role of health professionals in helping defend these rights. PMID:10441924

Heisler, M; Rasekh, Z; Iacopino, V

1999-01-01

182

The Discourse of Human Dignity and Techniques of Disempowerment: Giorgio Agamben, J. M. Coetzee, and Kazuo Ishiguro  

E-print Network

‘s fiction subverts the human dignity discourse while Kazuo Ishiguro‘s work is enmeshed in it. Coetzee generates sympathy for humans who lack the sense of human dignity and act on mere instinct. He offers ?disgrace? as a spiritual-ethical state of sensuality...

Mohammad, Malek Hardan

2012-02-14

183

Democracy and human rights: a paradox for migration policy.  

PubMed

This article seeks to 1) stimulate debate on the tension between democracy and human rights that arises from the fact that the organizational unit of modern democracy remains the state, which is incompatible with the quest for transnational human rights based on a transcendent human identity, and 2) explore this tension as it is revealed in migration policy in South Africa. The introduction of the article critiques the criticisms offered by contemporary writers as grounds for an overhaul of current migration policy. Next, the article presents an analysis of modern, state-based democracy and of the rise of international human rights, with a focus on the following trends: 1) development of the notion of citizenship resulting from a view of the state as the guarantor but not the progenitor of rights, 2) the growth of human rights traditions in industrialized democracies as judicial activism countered populist and nationalist inclinations of national legislatures, and 3) the growth of an international human rights juridical tradition. The article then highlights the issues raised within the migration policy debate in South Africa since 1994 and examines the 1997 Draft Green Paper on International Migration. It is concluded that, because South Africa fits the general pattern of a receiving state, an overly ambitious human rights approach to immigration will conflict with the exigencies of the new democracy as it builds institutional capacity. PMID:12294201

Hill, L B

1997-01-01

184

[Family planning and diverse declarations of human rights].  

PubMed

Human beings have always desired to claim their rights, even in times when only a small proportion of the population was considered fully human and the rest were slaves, servants, uncivilized, colonized, underdeveloped, or, in the recent euphemism, "developing". The French Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 marked the 1st time in history that rights for all people were publicly affirmed. The rights in question were essentially constitutional and political, but the idea of claiming rights had been born. In 1948, the international community approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which encompassed all types of rights. Other international acts on civil and political rights and the rights of women and children have complemented and interpreted the 1948 document. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirmed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that all persons have a right to satisfaction of economic, social, and cultural needs. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women referred in its preamble to the particular disadvantages of women living in poverty and affirmed the right of all women to education in health and family welfare, including family planning, as well as to medical and family planning services. Women were affirmed to have the same rights as men to decide freely and in an informed manner on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education, and means to exercise these rights. The United Nations has demonstrated its interest in Population Commission in 1946 and of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, and through decennial worldwide population conferences in 1954, 1965, 1974, and 1984. UN demographic goals include reduced fertility on a worldwide basis, a reduced proportion of women not using reliable contraception, a substantial reduction of early marriage and adolescent pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal mortality, a life expectancy of at least 62 years in all countries, and a better geographic distribution of population within national territories permitting rational use of resources. Governments which subscribed to the declaration and conventions on human rights should respect their promises. Population growth which outpaces increases in production will make it increasingly difficult to satisfy the rights and needs of all population sectors. A government confronted with this problem is obliged to explore every possible means of increasing production but must also seek to control population growth. Contraception is a legitimate means of achieving this end. PMID:12316572

Gakwaya, D

1990-08-01

185

Misconceptions About Human Rights and Women’s Rights in Islam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women’s rights\\u000a in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case\\u000a that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second misconception is that

Khalida Tanvir Syed

2008-01-01

186

Einstein, social responsibility of physicists and human rights in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since Einstein first visited Shanghai on 1922, he was deeply and constantly concerned about the cases of injustice, suppression, and human rights abuses in China. The strong sense of social responsibility shown by Einstein is an illustrious role model for Chinese intellectual, especially physicists, who advocate the universal principle of human rights. I will briefly review this history. I will also briefly report what have been done and is doing by Chinese physicists in the long and difficult journey toward democracy and human rights of China.

Fang, Li-Zhi

2005-03-01

187

Family planning and protection of human rights.  

PubMed

The discussion of human rights in China is based on the White Paper issued by the Information Office under the State Council on November 1, 1991. China is the most populous country in the world at 1.14 billion in 1990. Annual increases of 17 million are expected even with family planning (FP). The area of cultivated land/capita has dropped to 1.3 mu (16.5% of an acre)/capita, or 25% of the world average. Fresh water resources have also dropped similarly. The amount of grain.person is 22% of that in the US. 25% of additional income to the national income is consumed by newborns annually. Savings have been cut and reinvestment in economic development has been slowed. There are pressures on all social and economic systems. There is acknowledged success in FP. The birth rate has dropped to 21.06.1000 in 1990, the rate of natural increase to 14.39%/1000, and the fertility rate to 2.31. These figures are lower than the averages for other developing countries. The FP policy is to promote deferred marriage and childbearing, fewer but healthier births, and 1 child/couple. Rural families who are having difficulties may after an interval of several years have a 2nd child. Minority nationalities are being encouraged to adopt FP voluntarily. Han requirements are different. The policy has been understood and supported by the masses and has contributed to the drop in 3rd and higher parity births to 19.32% in 1989 from 62.21% in 1970. The government role is one of guidance and persuasion within the law, and cannot be accomplished by administrative decrees alone. The government has given priority to enlightening the masses through publicity and education that birth control has a direct impact on the nation's prosperity and people's happy family life. The China FP Association has set up 600,000 grass roots branches with 32 million members to assist in aiding the masses in self-education, self-management, and self-service. Ideological education has been combined with helping the masses solve practical problems. FP identifies contraception as protection of maternal and child health. 75% of couples of childbearing age practice contraception. Coercive abortions are resolutely opposed. Induced abortion in cases of contraceptive failure are voluntary and safe. The abortion ratio is comparable to world rates, but lower rates are targeted. Policy objectives are to control population growth and improve the quality of human resources. Maternal and child health care is provided. Law forbids infanticide. Policy conforms to item 9 of the UN Mexico City Declaration on Population and Development, 1984, and the UN World Population Plan of Action. PMID:12317280

1991-12-01

188

People who use drugs, HIV, and human rights.  

PubMed

We reviewed evidence from more than 900 studies and reports on the link between human rights abuses experienced by people who use drugs and vulnerability to HIV infection and access to services. Published work documents widespread abuses of human rights, which increase vulnerability to HIV infection and negatively affect delivery of HIV programmes. These abuses include denial of harm-reduction services, discriminatory access to antiretroviral therapy, abusive law enforcement practices, and coercion in the guise of treatment for drug dependence. Protection of the human rights of people who use drugs therefore is important not only because their rights must be respected, protected, and fulfilled, but also because it is an essential precondition to improving the health of people who use drugs. Rights-based responses to HIV and drug use have had good outcomes where they have been implemented, and they should be replicated in other countries. PMID:20650514

Jürgens, Ralf; Csete, Joanne; Amon, Joseph J; Baral, Stefan; Beyrer, Chris

2010-08-01

189

The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.  

PubMed

The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision-known as 'domestic-plus' services-the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. PMID:24337891

Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

2014-12-01

190

Unity in diversity and adversity: Venezuelan women's struggle for human rights.  

PubMed

This article on the efforts of women in Venezuela to gain access to their human rights opens by noting that the most significant gains in this 80-year struggle have occurred in the past 20 years because activists 1) consistently framed women's issues as critical to attaining the goals of social justice and democracy, 2) built flexible coalitions among diverse groups of women, and 3) kept the issue before the public. The next section offers an historical perspective for these contemporary strategies by locating their origins in women's participation in political movements to end dictatorships and repression during the 1920s and tracing women's advancement from the gaining of the full right to vote in 1947 through the 1995 establishment of the National Council on Women. The article continues with a look at how the human rights agenda was reframed in the 1990s to include issues of violence against women and political participation and to increase public recognition of these issues. Consideration of new opportunities and continuing challenges focuses first on how spaces were created for new discourses by an erosion of confidence in public officials and a series of national protests and then on the related opportunity of a rapid rise in nontraditional presidential candidates. Next, the article details efforts to increase women's political participation as a human right and defense of democracy and to promote the idea that freedom from violence (poverty, sexual harassment, physical and emotional abuse, control over sexuality, rape and incest) is a human right. The article concludes by reemphasizing the importance of adopting a flexible style of networking and of recognizing that legislation merely provides the basis for action. PMID:12157789

Rakowski, C A

1998-01-01

191

THE RIGHT TO SUTURES: SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE  

PubMed Central

The article examines the convergences and contrasts between social epidemiology, social medicine, and human rights approaches toward advancing global health and health equity. The first section describes the goals and work of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The second section discusses the role of human rights in the Commission’s work. The third section evaluates, from the perspective of social epidemiology, two rights-based approaches to advancing health and health equity as compared to a view that focuses more broadly on social justice. The concluding section identifies four areas where social epidemiologists, practitioners of social medicine, and health and human rights advocates can and must work together in order to make progress on health and health equity. PMID:21178186

Venkatapuram, Sridhar; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

2013-01-01

192

MAQUILAS THROUGHOUT THE AMERICAS: ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OR HUMAN RIGHTS NIGHTMARE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subset of human rights that's the focus of this briefing is the rights of workers in maquilas or maquiladoras. Maquilas are factories that produce for export; most are foreign owned. In form and function, maquilas are no different than manufacturing plants in other places of the world, except that they are located in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean

Don Brandt

193

Sex Education and Human Rights--A Lawyer's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Human Rights Act 1998 is the most significant British statute to have been passed in the last decade. It has already been the catalyst for a series of high profile cases, ranging from the privacy rights of celebrities ("Douglas v Hello!" [2001] QB 967) to the Home Secretary's sentencing powers in murder cases ("R (Anderson) v Secretary of…

Cumper, Peter

2004-01-01

194

Africa and Discovery: Human Rights, Environment, and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that, in the past 30 years, a dramatic upsurge has taken place in activities designed to promote human rights for indigenous peoples around the world. Asserts that, in the case of Africa, attention generally has been concentrated on socioeconomic rights, such as health care, sufficient water, food, and shelter. (CFR)

Hitchcock, Robert K.

1993-01-01

195

Human Rights and Sharia'h Justice in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the introduction of Sharia'h law in northern Nigeria, both in regard to the fundamental legal provisions of the Nigeria constitution and also as to the international rights conventions to which Nigeria is a signatory. The relationship between the new Sharia'h laws enacted in all 19 northern Nigerian states and the human rights provisions in the 1999 Constitution

M. Ozonnia Ojielo

2010-01-01

196

McGill Centre for Human Rights and Legal Pluralism  

E-print Network

-dimensional human rights program and initiatives with its interdisciplinary, international and pluralistic research on disability and the law, and emerging research work on the interface of the Convention on the Rights Opening Remarks 07 Highlights of 2013 Echenberg Conference Disability Seminar Series Interdisciplinary

Barthelat, Francois

197

Religion and human rights: mutually exclusive or supportive?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) makes no mention of religion as a possible basis for such fundamental rights. Although there was an attempt by the Dutch delegate Father De Beaufort OP to amend the pream¬ble with a reference to “Man's divine origin and his eternal des¬tiny,” this was rejected as being contrary to the universal nature of

B. de Gaay Fortman

1996-01-01

198

A perspective on the history of health and human rights: from the Cold War to the Gold War.  

PubMed

Through the end of the Cold War, public health policies were predominantly shaped and implemented by governments and these same governments committed themselves to meet their obligations for health under international and national laws. The post-Cold War era has witnessed the entry of new actors in public health and the sharing of power and influences with non-state actors, in particular the private sector and interest groups. This article examines the emergence of human rights and the rise of health on the international development agenda as the Cold War was ending. It highlights the convergence of health and human rights in academic and public discourse since the end of the Cold War in a context of political and economic shifts linked to the ongoing economic globalization. It describes opportunities and challenges for greater synergy between health and rights and proposes a role for health practitioners. PMID:18368018

Tarantola, Daniel

2008-04-01

199

Libraries and Human Rights: Iraq in the Crossfire  

E-print Network

Michèle V. Cloonan, Dean and Professor at the Simmons College Graduate School of Library & Information Science, presents "Libraries and Human Rights: Iraq in the Crossfire," April 3, 2008 at the Spooner Commons, University ...

Cloonan, Michè le V.

2008-07-14

200

Noncommunicable Diseases and Human Rights: A Promising Synergy  

PubMed Central

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have finally emerged onto the global health and development agenda. Despite the increasingly important role human rights play in other areas of global health, their contribution to NCD prevention and control remains nascent. The recently adopted Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013–2020 is an important step forward, but the lack of concrete attention to human rights is a missed opportunity. With practical implications for policy development, priority setting, and strategic design, human rights offer a logical, robust set of norms and standards; define the legal obligations of governments; and provide accountability mechanisms that can be used to enhance current approaches to NCD prevention and control. Harnessing the power of human rights can strengthen action for NCDs at the local, national, and global levels. PMID:24625165

Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Beaglehole, Robert

2014-01-01

201

Academic Freedom as a Human Right: An Internationalist Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserting that the university as a transnational community of professors and students poses challenges to traditional conceptions of academic freedom, explores the rethinking of academic freedom as part of a human right to education. (EV)

Rajagopal, Balakrishnan

2003-01-01

202

Nottingham Law School Human Rights and Religious Freedoms  

E-print Network

on the agenda. With this resurgence has come a startling increase in the use of human rights to litigate institutions have in grasping the subjective importance of manifestations of belief, such as the hijab

Evans, Paul

203

Noncommunicable diseases and human rights: a promising synergy.  

PubMed

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have finally emerged onto the global health and development agenda. Despite the increasingly important role human rights play in other areas of global health, their contribution to NCD prevention and control remains nascent. The recently adopted Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020 is an important step forward, but the lack of concrete attention to human rights is a missed opportunity. With practical implications for policy development, priority setting, and strategic design, human rights offer a logical, robust set of norms and standards; define the legal obligations of governments; and provide accountability mechanisms that can be used to enhance current approaches to NCD prevention and control. Harnessing the power of human rights can strengthen action for NCDs at the local, national, and global levels. PMID:24625165

Gruskin, Sofia; Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Beaglehole, Robert

2014-05-01

204

Issue Definition in Rights-Based Policy Focused on the Experiences of Individuals with Disabilities: An Examination of Canadian Parliamentary Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In issue definition in rights-based policy Canada stereotypically embraces a more positive, human rights-centered approach as compared with the American stereotype associated with the USA's more presumptively negative, civil rights-based tack. Since exclusionary infrastructures violate the core values of democratic governance, a failure to address…

Baker, Dana Lee

2008-01-01

205

International law, human rights and HIV/AIDS.  

PubMed Central

This article explores the relevance of international human rights law in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic at national and international levels. Public health advocates can use arguments based on this body of law to promote responses to HIV/AIDS that reflect sound public health principles and documented best practice. Development assistance is increasingly linked to rights-based approaches, such as participatory processes, and strategic alliances between health professionals, organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS, and affected communities. Legal and human rights advocacy strategies are increasingly productive and necessary. PMID:12571725

Patterson, David; London, Leslie

2002-01-01

206

Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects  

SciTech Connect

Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human rights impact assessment exposed impacts not foreseen in ESIA. • Corporations adopted the majority of findings, but not necessarily immediately. • Methodological advancements are expected for monitoring processes.

Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: kendyl.salcito@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland) [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland) [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: Mitchell-g.Weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Münch, Anna K., E-mail: annak.muench@gmail.com [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: bhsinger@epi.ufl.edu [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: gkrieger@newfields.com [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: wielga@nomogaia.org [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States) [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

2013-09-15

207

Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive health services should include, leaving out the ones more prone to cause conflict and opposition, such as gender equality, abortion provision and welfare services for pregnant adolescents. Moralistic attitudes and sexism were present - even if divergences were also found-, limiting services' capability to promote girls' sexual and reproductive health and rights. PMID:20525405

2010-01-01

208

Registration of the Conference Religion, Immigration, Health and Human Rights  

E-print Network

plan to attend: _____Theme 1. Religion & Immigrants _____Theme 2. Domestic Violence _____Theme 3. Female Genital Cutting and Honor Killings _____Theme 4. HIV/AIDS _____Theme 5. Human Trafficking _____ Theme 6. Honor Killings _____Theme 7. Religion and Health Care _____Theme 8. Health & Human Rights

209

Human Dignity and Human Rights as a Common Ground for a Global Bioethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principle of respect for human dignity plays a crucial role in the emerging global norms relating to bioethics, in particular in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. This instrument, which is a legal, not merely an ethical document, can be regarded as an extension of international human rights law into the field of biomedicine. Although the

Roberto Andorno

2009-01-01

210

Human Rights Watch: For Immediate Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost two years after the ICC prosecutor announced the opening of the investigation, the court last month issued a sealed arrest warrant against Thomas Lubanga, leader of the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC), an armed group responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the Ituri region of north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The warrant, unsealed today, charges Lubanga

D. R. Congo

211

The impact of European Union law on Human Rights.  

PubMed

This article considers the impact of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR), both in its own right since the 1950s, and in conjunction with the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) when this brought these rights home by incorporating them into the domestic law of the UK thus enabling our judiciary to give effect to them directly. The ECHR and the HRA say very little, if anything, expressly about health or health care, but have been relied on by litigants in a wide range of contexts, including but not limited to, assisted reproduction, abortion, access to treatment, management of health records, end of life issues and the investigation of potentially negligent or criminal conduct by professionals. PMID:19373189

Hodgson, John

212

Introduction to Human Rights Theory and Practice GLBL S341 01 (30312) /PLSCS134  

E-print Network

rights including: genocide, torture, human trafficking, women's rights, civil and political rightsIntroduction to Human Rights Theory and Practice GLBL S341 01 (30312) /PLSCS134 Summer 2013 June 1: After class or by appointment Course Description: Human rights become an important area of international

213

Neoliberal homophobic discourse: heteronormative human capital and the exclusion of queer citizens.  

PubMed

In this article, I examine the relationship between homophobic language use and its broader social context, focusing on how a U.S.-based, conservative Christian organization's institutionalized homophobic text-making practices seek to derive legitimacy from the broader political economic discourses associated with the neoliberal moment. Using the Family Research Council's statement on marriage and the family as the basis for analysis, I demonstrate how the organization seeks to represent lesbian and gay subjects and their kinship formations as a threat to human capital development because they are based on affectional relationships that neither reflect nor respond to the kinds of self-governance and marketization that neoliberalism requires of all citizen-subjects and their families. Linguistic strategies for creating such representations include lexical choices that avoid overtly identifying lesbian and gay subjects as the object of discussion, the creation of a taxonomy for what constitutes "proper" families-based on neoliberal principles--that implicitly excludes lesbian and gay kinship formations, and the use of neoliberal discourses of self-governance and marketization as the basis for that exclusion. PMID:21740208

Peterson, David

2011-01-01

214

IMF programs and human rights, 1981–2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of International Monetary Fund (IMF) supervised programs on changes in government respect for physical\\u000a integrity rights in developing countries between 1981 and 2003. A longer period under an IMF program increased government\\u000a use of torture and extra judicial killing and also worsened the overall human rights conditions in developing countries. The\\u000a use of a two-stage model

M. Rodwan Abouharb; David L. Cingranelli

2009-01-01

215

"Anchor Babies" and Dreams Deferred: Public Discourse about Immigrant Children and Implications for Civic and Educational Rights  

E-print Network

media,  situating this within a larger discussion of how views of children Children factored into the three primary arguments they identified in national  media: “children of immigrants are framed, viewed and  treated in contemporary public discourse in the media.   

Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich; Johnson, Sarah Jean

2011-01-01

216

The Christian Right and Homophobic Discourse: a Response to 'Evidence' That Lesbian and Gay Parenting Damages Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This ‘rapid response’ piece, submitted under the ‘Sexuality and the Church’ theme, examines claims by Christian writers that lesbian and gay parenting is bad for children. The author analyses aspects of what he terms a ‘Christian homophobic discourse’ in order to demonstrate the problematic claim to neutrality made by these writers. In addition, the author shows how the Christian writers’

Stephen Hicks

2003-01-01

217

Human rights and mass disaster: lessons from the 2004 tsunami.  

PubMed

This paper describes the results of an investigation into how the December, 2004 tsunami and its aftermath affected the human rights of the survivors. Teams of researchers interviewed survivors, government officials, representatives of international and local nongovernmental organisations, UN officials, the military, police, and other key informants in India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Indonesia, and Thailand. We also analysed newspaper articles, reports released by governments, UN agencies, NGOs, and private humanitarian aid groups, and we examined the laws and policies related to survivors' welfare in the affected countries. We found worsening of prior human rights violations, inequities in aid distribution, lack of accountability and impunity, poor coordination of aid, lack of community participation in reconstruction, including coastal redevelopment. Corruption and preexisting conflict negatively impact humanitarian interventions. We make recommendations to international agencies, states, and local health service providers. A human rights framework offers significant protection to survivors and should play a critical role in disaster response. PMID:18277529

Weinstein, H M; Fletcher, L E; Stover, E

2007-01-01

218

Child labor and environmental health: government obligations and human rights.  

PubMed

The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

Amon, Joseph J; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

2012-01-01

219

Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights  

PubMed Central

The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

2012-01-01

220

Nepal's War on Human Rights: A summit higher than Everest  

PubMed Central

Nepal has witnessed serious human rights violations including arbitrary arrests, detentions, "disappearances", extra judicial executions, abductions and torture carried out by both the Royal Nepalese Army and the Maoist rebels in the 10 years of the "peoples war". Women and children have borne the brunt of the conflict. Massive displacement has led to adverse social and psychological consequences. While the reasons for the conflict are mainly indigenous and rooted in the social and economic in-equities, remedies for health inequities must come not only from the health sector but also from broad social policies and adopting a participatory and conflict-sensitive approach to development. Meanwhile the international community needs to use its leverage to urge both sides to accept a human rights accord and honor international human rights and humanitarian laws, while investigating allegations of abuse and prosecute those responsible. PMID:15985165

Singh, Sonal; Dahal, Khagendra; Mills, Edward

2005-01-01

221

The Human Right to Education as a Right to Literacy in Germany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are no official data, but it is estimated that four million adults in Germany have little or no reading, writing and numeracy skills, so that they are known as "functionally illiterate". This is a fact which was long ignored. In this contribution, literacy activities and research in Germany are analysed through a human rights-based approach.…

Motakef, Mona

2007-01-01

222

Internationalizing the Right to Know: Conceptualizations of Access to Information in Human Rights Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently there exists a global movement promoting institutional transparency and freedom of information legislation. Conceptualizing access to government-held information as a human right is one of the latest developments in this global trend promoting access to information. The purpose of this dissertation is to identify and analyze the various…

Bishop, Cheryl Ann

2009-01-01

223

Human Rights Engagement and Exposure: New Scales to Challenge Social Work Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Advancing human rights is a core competency of U.S. social work education; yet, human rights attitudes and behaviors have never been measured in the social work literature. Thus, this article describes the development and initial validation of two scales, Human Rights Engagement in Social Work (HRESW) and Human Rights Exposure in…

McPherson, Jane; Abell, Neil

2012-01-01

224

United Nations Documentation Research Guide: Special Topics: Human Rights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dag Hammarskjold Library of the United Nations has begun to add Special Topics Guides to its Research Guide Site. The first pertains to human rights and contains annotated pointers to UN resources from two charter-based bodies and six treaty-based bodies. These sections contain pointers to the bodies themselves, and to bibliographic information and selected full texts of the reports of those bodies. In addition, there is bibliographic information on relevant conference proceedings and declarations, as well as a bibliography of general UN human rights literature.

225

PhD Topic Arrangement in "D"iscourse Communities of Engineers and Social Sciences/Humanities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the result of a grounded theory investigation into the ways PhD topics are assigned by supervisors in engineering and selected by students in the social sciences/humanities in UK universities, broadly referred to as "topic arrangement", which can be regarded as one aspect of academic socialisation into academic Discourse…

Hasrati, Mostafa; Street, Brian

2009-01-01

226

Belief, motivational, and ideological correlates of human rights attitudes.  

PubMed

Many people believe that an informed and thoughtful citizenry is essential to the maintenance of democratic ideals within the United States and the spread of those ideals abroad. Since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the evidence that Americans consider issues of human dignity and rights when making judgments about the U.S. government's war on terror has been mixed. In our study, we assessed the relative contributions of ideological, belief, and cognitive-motivational factors to the prediction of human rights and civil liberties attitudes. Individuals scoring high on measures of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the belief that the structure of knowledge is simple were the most likely to support restrictions on human rights and civil liberties as part of the war on terror. In a subsequent regression analysis, individuals scoring higher on personal need for structure or exhibiting lower levels of epistemological belief complexity tended to score higher on RWA. Additionally, men were generally more likely to support restrictions on rights and liberties and to score higher on RWA than were women. PMID:18605179

Crowson, H Michael; DeBacker, Teresa K

2008-06-01

227

United Nations Human Rights Website: Treaty Bodies Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database was created "to meet the growing interest in the committees established to monitor the implementation of the principal international human rights treaties (also referred as 'treaty monitoring bodies' or 'treaty bodies')" such as the Human Rights Committee, the Committee Against Torture, the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, and the Committee on the Rights of the Child. These committees are responsible for examining the "State reports" submitted by signatories to the various treaties to demonstrate their compliance. These reports and the concluding observations by the committees form the core of the database, which also contains a number of other related documents and data. Users may search the database by keyword and view results by relevance or date or browse by a variety of parameters, such as country, date, language, treaty, reporting status, or status of ratification. Documents may be in English, French, or Spanish.

228

Superior growth of the right gonad in human foetuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIGHT and left mammalian gonads do not usually differ noticeably either in size or development, in contrast to the situation in birds, where ovarian development is usually confined to the left side1. Nevertheless, when the differentiation of the gonads follows an abnormal course, lateral asymmetry becomes apparent also in mammals. In human hermaphrodites, who have a testis as well as

Ursula Mittwoch; David Kirk

1975-01-01

229

Democracy, Human Rights and the Role of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the historical review of neo-liberalism in Korean education with relevance to human rights education and teachers movement. In transition to post-colonial society, Korea confronts polarization of education. From the first stage just after the independence from Japanese Colonization in 1945 to the fifth present stage, Korean…

Kang, Soon-Won

2007-01-01

230

Political Repression and Public Perceptions of Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper tests informational assumptions underlying strategic interaction and collective action models of government repression and dissent. Based on directly comparable data from 18 Central and East European countries collected between 1991 and 1996, this paper investigates whether citizens' perceptions of human rights conditions in a country are systematically related to that country's conditions of government repression. The analysis suggests

Christopher J. Anderson; Patrick M. Regan; Robert L. Ostergard

2002-01-01

231

Just Trade: A New Covenant Linking Trade and Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

While modern trade law and human rights law constitute two of the most active spheres in international law, follow similar intellectual trajectories, and often feature the same key actors and arenas, neither field has actively engaged with the other. They co-exist in relative isolation at best, peppered by occasional hostile debates. It has come to be a given that pro-trade

Stephen J Powell; Berta E Hernandez-Truyol

2009-01-01

232

Capital punishment: A human right examination case study and jurisprudence  

Microsoft Academic Search

st century the death penalty should still be an adhered to practice or not it will trace the development of capital punishment as a human rights issue in the international forum and examine recent challenges to the death penalty. The structure that this paper adopts is discussed in short herein, any paper on death penalty in the current times would

Vaibhav Goel

233

What Can Teachers Do To Protect Human Rights?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines the teacher's role in influencing students to stand up against intolerance in the classroom and in society. Suggests that teachers can become catalysts of needed social change by encouraging questions, sharing information, rebutting preconceived ideas, and generally championing the case of human rights in all its forms. (DB)

Makieda, Motofumi

1981-01-01

234

Conflicts and Human Rights Dorresteijn: Law, Economics, Governance  

E-print Network

and human rights has been highlighted by the present United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan, decalring of public order based on the rule of law, and legitimacy. In this respect the expanding international for fundamental justice and conflict prevention at different international and national levels. #12

Utrecht, Universiteit

235

Sex Trafficking of Minors as a Human Rights Issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following commentary serves as a response to the article, “Sex Trafficking of Minors in the U.S.: Implications for Policy, Prevention and Research,” drawing the important, though not often mentioned, connection between the sex trafficking of minors and human rights. The commentary argues that child trafficking has been inadequately addressed due to its relative invisibility, a lack of knowledge about

Rick Halperin

2011-01-01

236

Orange County Human Rights Association: A New Law Student Group  

E-print Network

the education I received was invaluable, it was disheartening for me to be the only black student in most of my inner city public school with some of the lowest test scores in the district. I wanted to tell my story249 Orange County Human Rights Association: A New Law Student Group for a New Era Denisha P. Mc

Loudon, Catherine

237

Business and Human Rights: The Evolving International Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state-based system of global governance has struggled for more than a generation to adjust to the expanding reach and growing influence of transnational corporations, the most visible embodiment of globalization. This paper reviews two recent chapters in this endeavor, focused specifically on human rights: the “Draft Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with Regard

John Gerard Ruggie

2007-01-01

238

UC San Diego 4th Human Rights Symposium  

E-print Network

UC San Diego 4th Annual Human Rights Symposium Wednesday, January 16, 2013 9:30 AM 3:30 PM frameworks for the defense of individual dignity and adjudica on of conflicts. The UC San Diego in San Diego, and at UC San Diego. 9:30 am Welcome and Introduc on Gershon Shafir Professor

Hasty, Jeff

239

Bearing Witness: Citizen Journalism and Human Rights Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the potential of online news reporting to create discursive spaces for emphatic engagement--of bearing witness--at a distance, especially where human rights violations are concerned. Taking as its focus the emergent forms and practices of citizen journalism, it examines the spontaneous actions of ordinary people compelled to…

Allan, Stuart; Sonwalkar, Prasun; Carter, Cynthia

2007-01-01

240

Women, Human Rights, and Counseling: Crossing International Boundaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fast-paced movement of globalization has affected all walks of life including professional counselors. As the world becomes more accessible, increased instances of social injustice on a global scale have become more apparent, with women and children being especially identified as victims of social injustice and human rights violations (World…

Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

2005-01-01

241

Sexual Minority Issues and Human Rights Education in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Dowa" (Human Rights) education program has become an effective method of changing concept and situations of "Burakumin," a group of people that has been discriminated against in Japan. One educational strategy was to speak out their personal stories, which has become a trigger to some sexual minority teachers to come out, as well as others to…

Ofuji, Keiko

2007-01-01

242

THIRD PARTY INTERVENTION IN THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS  

E-print Network

("Convention") and Rule 44 para. 2 of the Rules of the Court. 2. The present case, KAOS GL v. Turkey, raises, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, as well as Canada, regarding obscenity and evolving standards of state 1 THIRD PARTY INTERVENTION IN THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS Application No. 4982/07 Between

Kammen, Daniel M.

243

Toward a Hermeneutical Theory of International Human Rights Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this essay is to articulate and defend the epistemological foundations of international human rights education from the perspective of a hermeneutical interpretive methodology. Fuad Al-Daraweesh and Dale Snauwaert argue here that this methodology potentially alleviates the challenges that face the cross-cultural implementation of…

Al-Daraweesh, Fuad; Snauwaert, Dale T.

2013-01-01

244

Children's Spiritual Development in Forced Displacement: A Human Rights Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a human rights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive-cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children's development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the…

Ojalehto, Bethany; Wang, Qi

2008-01-01

245

LGBTI Human Rights in the Commonwealth Conference Statement  

E-print Network

and to mark the challenging environment faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex (LGBTI) people with laws banning same-sex sexual acts are in the Commonwealth. Across the Commonwealth lesbian, gay, housing and human rights. In 2013 the Commonwealth Charter was formally adopted by all member nations

Guo, Zaoyang

246

Human Rights and UBC's Equity Office prepared for the  

E-print Network

in a respectful environment AND an environment free from discrimination and harassment · All are equally deserving or otherwise hostile environment ·OR is severe enough to constitute an abuse of power or authority #12 · Discrimination and any form of harassment is counter-intuitive to a Respectful Environment and human rights

Handy, Todd C.

247

Integrated human rights and poverty eradication strategy: the case of civil registration rights in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

High poverty levels characterise sub-Saharan Africa, Zimbabwe included. Over 80 per cent of Zimbabwe's population lived below the total consumption poverty line and 70 per cent below the food poverty line in 2003. This plummeting of social indicators resulted from the freefall suffered by the country's economy from the 1990s, after unsuccessful attempts to implement structural adjustment programmes prescribed by international financial institutions. The ensuing socioeconomic decay, political crisis and international isolation of the country from the late 1990s reversed gains made in social indicators during the 1980s. Development theories attribute poverty to unchecked population growth, political, economic and environmental mismanagement, while developing countries' leaders attribute it to historical imbalances and global political and economic injustices. Despite this debate, poverty continues to evolve, expand and deepen and the need to eradicate it has become urgent. The complex question of what causes and what drives poverty is perpetually addressed and new ideas are emerging to answer the question. One recent view is that failure to centre development on people and to declare poverty a violation of human rights has allowed poverty to grow the world over. This study uses a hypothesised cause of poverty - civil registration - to exemplify the human right nature of poverty, and how a human rights' policy can be used as an instrument to eradicate poverty. The study demonstrates that civil registration is a right of instrumental relevance to poverty; and achieving civil registration grants people access to numerous other rights, some of which will lift them out of poverty, while the failure of civil registration deprives people of access to livelihoods, thereby entrenching them in poverty. PMID:20726138

Musarandega, Reuben

2009-01-01

248

The Value of Mainstreaming Human Rights into Health Impact Assessment  

PubMed Central

Health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social impacts of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation [1]. This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international human rights standards be integrated into HIA to provide a universal value system backed up by international and domestic laws and mechanisms of accountability. The idea of mainstreaming human rights into HIA is illustrated with the example of impact assessments that have been carried out to predict the potential effects of intellectual property rights in international trade agreements on the availability and affordability of medicines. The article concludes by recommending international human rights standards as a legal and ethical framework for HIA that will enhance the universal values of nondiscrimination, participation, transparency and accountability and bring legitimacy and coherence to HIA practice as well. PMID:25264683

MacNaughton, Gillian; Forman, Lisa

2014-01-01

249

The value of mainstreaming human rights into health impact assessment.  

PubMed

Health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social impacts of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation [1]. This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international human rights standards be integrated into HIA to provide a universal value system backed up by international and domestic laws and mechanisms of accountability. The idea of mainstreaming human rights into HIA is illustrated with the example of impact assessments that have been carried out to predict the potential effects of intellectual property rights in international trade agreements on the availability and affordability of medicines. The article concludes by recommending international human rights standards as a legal and ethical framework for HIA that will enhance the universal values of nondiscrimination, participation, transparency and accountability and bring legitimacy and coherence to HIA practice as well. PMID:25264683

MacNaughton, Gillian; Forman, Lisa

2014-01-01

250

Human Rights Law for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific: The Need for a Disability Rights Tribunal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human rights are arguably the most significant political force shaping the life experience of people with disability. The "United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" sets the standard at an international level, creating both positive and negative rights, and calls upon member states of the United Nations (UN)…

Perlin, Michael L.

2013-01-01

251

Julie Mertus - The Rejection of Human Rights Framings: The Case of LGBT Advocacy in the US - Human Rights Quarterly 29:4  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores why many advocates concerned with lesbian, gay, and transgendered (LGBT) rights in the US have not chosen to frame their struggles in human rights terms. The article recognizes that framing a cause in human rights terms can be an effective way of claiming the moral high ground and of asserting affinity with others throughout the world who

Julie Mertus

2007-01-01

252

The Role of Education in Freedom from Poverty as a Human Right  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education lies at the heart of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR): "Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms". However, when education is mentioned in the philosophical literature on human rights, or even within the…

Dhillon, Pradeep

2011-01-01

253

Legal rights, human rights and AIDS: the first decade. Report from South Africa 2.  

PubMed

A broad range of coercive measures has been considered internationally and applied in some countries in the interest of controlling the spread of HIV. Although a couple such measures are on the books in South Africa, they have never been invoked and will soon be officially repealed. There is, however, a problem in South Africa with the violation by health care workers, employers, and others of individuals' rights to dignity, privacy, and autonomy. The exaggerated and undue fear that doctors and other health workers have of being infected by patients with HIV has led to widespread and gross human rights abuses in clinical management and treatment. Abuses include the refusal of treatment, testing patients for HIV without their informed or any consent, insisting upon HIV testing devoid of diagnostic or therapeutic justification, and widespread breaches of confidentiality. Persons with AIDS and HIV are also denied access to their fair share of national resources. This latter phenomenon is likely to become the principal form of human rights abuse, with racism and class differences exacerbating the problem. The practice is proliferating and takes many forms including pre-employment HIV testing; exclusionary discrimination in insurance; discrimination between HIV and other life-threatening conditions in corporate medical, pension, and provident funds; and the discriminatory denial of fair and adequate health care to people with HIV or AIDS. Discrimination of all kinds, however, retards preventive efforts. Public health therefore demands the recognition and enforcement of individual human rights and that structures of discrimination be eliminated. Human rights protection may, by limiting the effect of discrimination, play a significant part in fighting the epidemic. Protective measures could include enacting legislation to prohibit pre-employment testing, legislation to regulate the provision of insurance and to prohibit or regulate pre-insurance HIV testing and the wholesale refusal of AIDS-related coverage, and more broadly drafted legislation to prohibit public enterprises from discriminating against persons on the basis of HIV or AIDS and to enshrine the principle of nondiscrimination. PMID:12287721

Cameron, E

1993-01-01

254

Clean Water Should Be Recognized as a Human Right  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to clean water should be declared a basic human right for three reasons. First, access to clean water can substantially reduce the global burden of disease caused by water-borne infections. Second, the privatization of water—as witnessed in Bolivia, Ghana, and other countries—has not effectively served the poor, who suffer the most from lack of access to clean water. Third,

2009-01-01

255

Human Rights, Hate Crimes, and Hebrew-Christian Scripture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to contribute to a culture of human rights by challenging the use of Hebrew and Christian scriptures to characterize LGBT persons as moral transgressors and to justify or rationalize hate crimes against them. Scriptural passages used to support claims of immorality of LGBT persons—texts of terror—are examined. Then scriptural passages that are affirming of LGBT relationships—texts of

Mary E. Swigonski

2001-01-01

256

New malaise: bioethics and human rights in the global era.  

PubMed

Recent transnational HIV research projects have raised questions about the ethics of research in developing countries, and with good reason. Lower ethical standards are often applied in these settings, yet the field of bioethics has remained relatively quiet on the subject, concerning itself primarily with issues that only affect affluent countries. Here we call for a new focus on equity and human rights in bioethics. PMID:15301189

Farmer, Paul; Campos, Nicole Gastineau

2004-01-01

257

The Human Rights Code, 1988, 8 July 1988.  

PubMed

This Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex and marital status, among other things, with respect to accommodation practices, employment practices, and publications. In its employment practices provisions, it mandates equal pay for equal work and outlaws harassment and unwelcome sexual solicitation. Under the Act, the Newfoundland Human Rights Commission, already established, is given the power to investigate complaints, effect settlements, and refer matters to a board of inquiry for further action. PMID:12289244

1988-01-01

258

Girl child abuse: violation of her human rights.  

PubMed

The human rights of female children in India and elsewhere, even when protected on paper, are violated in practice. An equitable and egalitarian world order must be established. A comprehensive campaign is needed that combats gender-based inequalities, discrimination, exploitation, oppression, abuse, violence, inhuman values, and violations of human rights, particularly against female children. People must radically change their attitudes and actions towards female children. Female children are not a commodity or sex-object but "an equally worthy human being to be loved, respected, and cared for." Strategies that accomplish these ends include the promotion of human and spiritual values of love, compassion, and nonviolence, and discouragement of values of consumerism and materialism and worthlessness of human beings. Effective education and mass media should counter corruption, dishonesty, selfishness, and inhuman actions. Family structures need to strengthened and enriched. The abuse of female children occurs due to the following interrelated factors: entrenched patriarchal value systems, the perpetuation of traditions and practices that identify girls as inferior to boys, the gender-biased and discriminatory attitude that identifies girl children as a burden or liability and as a sex-object or commodity, and prevalent illiteracy, poverty, and negative parenting life style patterns. Other factors include the low status of women, the reduction in human and spiritual values, and the rise of consumerism and corruption. Girls are subjected to female infanticide, feticide, lack of social and economic development, burdensome domestic work, early marriage and childbearing, neglect and denial of healthy living conditions, sexual abuse and exploitation, prostitution, rape, and a denial of their right to protection. PMID:12158013

Kapur, P

1995-01-01

259

Social movements and human rights rhetoric in tobacco control  

PubMed Central

After achieving breathtaking successes in securing state and local restrictions on smoking in public places and restricting youth access to tobacco products, the tobacco movement faces difficult decisions on its future strategic directions. The thesis of this article is that the tobacco control movement is at a point of needing to secure its recent successes and avoiding any public retrenchment. To do so requires rethinking the movement's strategic direction. We use the familiar trans-theoretical model of change to describe where the movement is currently and the threats it faces. The new tobacco control strategy should encompass a focus on voluntary non-smoking strategies, use human rights rhetoric to its advantage, and strengthen the public health voice to be more effective in political battles. In developing a new strategy, tobacco control advocates need to build a social movement based on a more forceful public health voice, along with the strategic use of human rights rhetoric, to focus on the power of voluntary non-smoking efforts. Using human rights rhetoric can help frame the movement in ways that have traditionally appealed to the American public. Perhaps more importantly, doing so can help infuse the tobacco control movement with a broader sense of purpose and mission. PMID:16046702

Jacobson, P; Banerjee, A

2005-01-01

260

Human Rights and Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Historical, Pedagogical, and Philosophical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons with intellectual disabilities are more likely to experience victimization and have their rights infringed upon than are people without such disabilities. While legislative and policy interventions have afforded a certain degree of protection against such rights violations, people with intellectual disabilities continue to experience restrictions of their basic human rights. This article describes the development of a Human Rights

Donato Tarulli; Christine Y. Tardif; Dorothy Griffiths; Frances Owen; Maurice A. Feldman; Karen Stoner

2004-01-01

261

PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES Programme name International Politics and Human Rights  

E-print Network

ECTS 90 PROGRAMME SUMMARY Since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was signed at the United rights is set out as a key responsibility of states and the international community as a whole, the right the expansion of global civil society throughout the 20 th century. The importance of human rights has only

Weyde, Tillman

262

What is a human-rights based approach to health and does it matter?  

PubMed

A human rights approach to health is critical to address growing global health inequalities. Three aspects of the nature of health as a right are relevant to shaping a human rights approach to health: (1) the indivisibility of civil and political rights, and socio-economic rights; (2) active agency by those vulnerable to human rights violations; and (3) the powerful normative role of human rights in establishing accountabiliy for protections and freedoms. Health professionals' practice, tpically governed by ethical codes, may benefit from human rights guidelines, particularly in situations of dual loyalty where clients' or communities' human rights are threatened Moreover, institutional accountability for protecting human rights is essential to avoid shifting responsibility solely onto the health professional Human rights approaches can include holding states and other parties accountable, developing policies and programs consistent with human rights, and facilitating redress for victims of violations of the right to health. However, underlying all models is the need to enable active social mobilization, without which legal approaches to rights lack sustainability and power. Evidence from South and Southern Africa has shown that different conceptions of what is meant by human rights impact substantially on state willingness and abiliy to meet constitutional obligations with regard to the right to health. New approaches to health polity development, which draw on the agency of vulnerable groups, link local struggles with their global context, and explicitly incorporate rights frameworks into public health planning are needed. Models that move away from individualizing conflict over rights between health professionals as disempowered duty bearers and patients as frustrated rights holders, toward more mutual approaches to shared rights objectives may be possible and are being actively pursued through the development of a learning network to realize the right to health in South Africa. PMID:20845830

London, Leslie

2008-01-01

263

The human rights dimensions of corruption: linking the human rights paradigm to combat corruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are seven sins in the world: Wealth without work, Pleasure without conscience, Knowledge without character, Commerce without morality, Science without humanity, Worship without sacrifice and Politics without principle. (Mahatma Gandhi)

Maina Kiai; Anthony Kuria

2008-01-01

264

Between Commitement and Pragmatism: Assessing International Influence on Human Rights Practices in Georgia  

E-print Network

What explains the discrepancy between the avowed commitment of the Georgian government to human rights and praxis of human rights in the post-Rose Revolution republic? This article engages with this question and attributes ...

Omelicheva, Mariya Y.

2010-01-01

265

Rosemary Foot - The United Nations, Counter Terrorism and Human Rights: Institutional Adaptation and Embedded Ideas - Human Rights Quarterly 29:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

How resilient is the human rights norm in the counter-terrorist era? This question is explored through examining the record of two of the UN Security Council's counter-terrorist committees. The article argues that, initially, the procedures of these two committees damaged human rights protections, an outcome criticized by UN officials, human rights NGOs, and certain, mainly middle-power, states. Using the UN

Rosemary Foot

2007-01-01

266

THE SYNERGISTIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEALTH AND HUMAN RIGHTS: A Case Study Using Female Genital Mutilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the usefulness of the human rights paradigm for dealing with the legal, political, and social ques- tions raised by health issues, with particular emphasis on the role of health professionals. Health and human rights, each ways of defining and advancing human well-being, have the individual as their major concern. The concept of health rights encompasses individual autonomy

Kirsten Moore; Kate Randolph; Nahid Toubia; Elizabeth Kirberger

267

SCIENCE IN THE SERVICE OF HUMAN RIGHTS by Richard Pierre Claude  

Microsoft Academic Search

ichard Claude, who has worked to make human rights a part of the agenda of the world community, offers Science in the Service of Human Rights, a far-reaching book that addresses such contemporary human rights concerns as the threats and opportunities of Internet technology, the explosive growth of biotechnology, and the profound effects of globalization. 1 His is a visionary

Harvey M. Weinstein

268

Report of the Symposium on Population and Human Rights (Amsterdam, January 21-29, 1974).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Symposium on Population and Human Rights drew together 28 experts in various disciplines to formulate scientific opinion on the interrelationships between population and human rights and, more specifically, to provide inputs for the World Population Plan of Action. The symposium devoted its attention to the human rights standards which have a…

United Nations, New York, NY.

269

Small places: the home-coming of human rights in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human rights as Eleanor Roosevelt famously said, begin in small places: 'Unless they have meaning there, they have little meaning anywhere'. In this inaugural lecture on the sociology of human rights, Barbara Oomen sets out a model for understanding how human rights acquire meaning in such places. Next to the laws involved, like the constitutional dispensation of a given country,

B. M. Oomen

2011-01-01

270

The Women's Studies Program and the Human Rights Institute present a film screening and panel discussion  

E-print Network

The Women's Studies Program and the Human Rights Institute present a film screening and panel is sponsored by: the Women's Studies Program, the Human Rights Institute, the Institute for Puerto Rican Society Coalition on Human Rights and Constitutional Law, explores the reality that for some LGBTI

Holsinger, Kent

271

Cornell Law School's Avon Global Center for Women and Justice and International Human Rights Clinic  

E-print Network

International Human Rights Clinic WOMEN IN PRISON IN ARGENTINA: CAUSES, CONDITIONS, AND CONSEQUENCES May 2013's Avon Global Center for Women and Justice and International Human Rights Clinic Defensoría General de la Nación Argentina The University of Chicago Law School International Human Rights Clinic WOMEN IN PRISON

Butler, Laurie J.

272

The Women's Studies Program and the Human Rights Institute present a film screening and panel discussion  

E-print Network

with the Ugandan Civil Society Coalition on Human Rights and Constitutional Law, explores the reality that for some, States of Unrest: Sexuality, Citizenship, and the Freedom of Movement as a Human Right." The workshopThe Women's Studies Program and the Human Rights Institute present a film screening and panel

Alpay, S. Pamir

273

Mind the Gap: The Human Rights of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Egypt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have the same human value as other children and are entitled to their basic human rights. And yet, in developing countries they face many barriers to accessing these rights. This study focuses on children with IDs in Egypt. Method: A new measure, the Human Rights of children with…

Gobrial, E.

2012-01-01

274

"The Path of Social Justice": A Human Rights History of Social Justice Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's human rights initiatives. The efforts of human rights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…

Grant, Carl A.; Gibson, Melissa Leigh

2013-01-01

275

Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.  

PubMed

The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes. PMID:24381084

Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

2014-12-01

276

Is it only humans that count from left to right?  

PubMed Central

We report that adult nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) and newborn domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) show a leftward bias when required to locate an object in a series of identical ones on the basis of its ordinal position. Birds were trained to peck at either the fourth or sixth element in a series of 16 identical and aligned positions. These were placed in front of the bird, sagittally with respect to its starting position. When, at test, the series was rotated by 90° lying frontoparallel to the bird's starting position, both species showed a bias for identifying selectively the correct position from the left but not from the right end. The similarity with the well-known phenomenon of the left-to-right spatially oriented number line in humans is considered. PMID:20071393

Rugani, Rosa; Kelly, Debbie M.; Szelest, Izabela; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

2010-01-01

277

Is it only humans that count from left to right?  

PubMed

We report that adult nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) and newborn domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) show a leftward bias when required to locate an object in a series of identical ones on the basis of its ordinal position. Birds were trained to peck at either the fourth or sixth element in a series of 16 identical and aligned positions. These were placed in front of the bird, sagittally with respect to its starting position. When, at test, the series was rotated by 90 degrees lying frontoparallel to the bird's starting position, both species showed a bias for identifying selectively the correct position from the left but not from the right end. The similarity with the well-known phenomenon of the left-to-right spatially oriented number line in humans is considered. PMID:20071393

Rugani, Rosa; Kelly, Debbie M; Szelest, Izabela; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

2010-06-23

278

The needs of refugee women: a human-rights perspective.  

PubMed

While the issue of giving women their human rights has been firmly placed on the agendas of international conferences, the plight of refugee women has gone largely unrecognized. Refugee women face rape, sexual abuse, sexual extortion, and physical insecurity. Such violations precipitate their flight, characterize their attempts to gain refugee status, and continue during their tenure in refugee camps, where they are excluded from positions of authority. Because the definition of refugees in the 1951 UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees omits sex as a grounds for determining refugee status or as a grounds on which it prohibits discrimination based on sex, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees decided in 1985 that such claims must fall under the classification of membership of a particular group. Unfortunately, agreement with this is discretionary for states. It has been argued that states which protect aliens from discrimination based on sex must afford the same privilege to refugees, but, again, such behavior is subject to debate. Concerns about the human rights of refugee women should be strengthened by being addressed in the existing framework of human rights conventions in international law, such as the Commission on the Status of Women and the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). One recent advance in this area was the establishment of the Yugoslav and Rwanda War Crimes Tribunals which will investigate the sexual abuse of women during the armed conflicts. The issue of violence against women in every situation must remain on CEDAW's agenda. In addition, the Fourth World Conference on Women provides a welcome opportunity to place these issues in the forefront of global efforts to protect women. PMID:12290124

Beyani, C

1995-06-01

279

Medical Sciences and Humanities Is Medical Sciences and Humanities right for me?  

E-print Network

will not qualify you to practice in the medical field, it can lead onto further study in medicine or otherMedical Sciences and Humanities Is Medical Sciences and Humanities right for me? If you are interested in Medicine but want to experience it from a different point of view then Medical Sciences

Harman, Neal.A.

280

HUMAN RIGHTS ASSUMPTIONS OF RESTRICTIVE AND PERMISSIVE APPROACHES TO HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE CLONING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current debate over cloning and germline gene therapy is usually considered in terms of bioethics. The Council of Europe and UNESCO have, however, adopted normative instruments on the human genome, and one that draws heavily on human rights is under consideration at the United Nations. This article suggests the need for more thorough analysis of the underlying assumptions of

Stephen P. Marks

281

Rwanda: the Search for Security and Human Rights Abuses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new report from Human Rights Watch details continued cases within Rwanda of "assassination, murder, arbitrary detention, torture and other abuses perpetrated chiefly by soldiers of the Rwandan Patriotic Army, and by members of a government-backed citizens' militia called the Local Defense Force." According to the report, the Local Defense Force, while supposedly acting under the auspices of local authorities, commits abuses without fear of reprisal since these authorities are often either allied with or afraid of the government-supported militia.

282

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US State Department has released the 1997 version of country human rights practices reports for 194 countries around the world. The reports are issued to meet a statutory requirement of the Department, and cover countries that receive US foreign aid, as well as many countries that do not. The reports are produced by US embassies around the world, in collaboration with various State Department offices; they inform policy making and diplomatic decisions, among other activities. This major annual series of documents is watched closely by journalists, diplomats, and policy makers.

1998-01-01

283

Rights  

PubMed Central

This article provides an overview of different types of rights to aid consideration of, and debate about, children and young people's rights in the context of paediatrics and child health. It demonstrates how children's rights may or may not differ from adult rights and the implications for practice. It shows that applying a children's rights framework can be more helpful in pursuing a public child health agenda than in reducing ethical or legal conflicts when interacting with child patients and their families. PMID:17642486

Paul, Moli

2007-01-01

284

Human rights of psychiatrically disturbed persons in the tropical Pacific.  

PubMed

The management of acutely disturbed patients in smaller Pacific island communities presents many clinical challenges as well as ethical and human rights questions. The aggressive, excited, sexually inappropriate, and possibly violent disturbed person frequently will need physical restraint and possible seclusion in a secure environment. In practical terms, on many Pacific islands the only physically secure room is a jail cell. This environment will protect others and possibly protect the out-of-control person from themselves. After protection, the next requirements are adequate information about the person and clinically informed individuals who can make a diagnosis and commence treatment in the jail environment. Adequately trained people who can diagnose and suggest initial treatment are few and widely dispersed in Pacific island communities. Two representative case vignettes from the author's experience as a World Health Organization short-term consultant in Tonga and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana islands illustrate the tension between a disturbed person's right to adequate treatment and the right of a citizen/patient to be free of coercion. PMID:9895162

Wilson, L G

1998-12-01

285

Human Rights discourses and their context in the Islamic Republic of Iran.  

E-print Network

??Arbeitsthema: Menschenrechts-Diskurse und deren Kontext in der Islamischen Republik Iran. Die Menschenrechts-Diskurse werden in ihrem Kontext erkundet, in dem Globalisierungseinflüsse und die Dynamik von "Tradition"… (more)

Szonn, Stella

2009-01-01

286

The nurse, the Geneva Conventions and human rights.  

PubMed

Alleged reports from the warfronts over the past few years have been shocking: bombing of hospitals and ambulances, health workers refusing to care for wounded members of the opposition, medical involvement in the torture of prisoners, etc. Such conduct is in violation of professional codes of conduct and the Geneva Conventions. Yet the combatants and health care personnel in too many instances remain impervious. In many economically and politically unstable countries, where uprisings and war can explode any day, anyone can become involved, but particularly health care professionals because of the nature of their work. When confronted with a dilemma in a conflict situation, nurses must remember that they are accountable for their own professional actions and as such must be aware of patient/client rights and of their rights and obligations under the terms of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the Additional Protocols of 1977. To assist nurses in making the right decisions, ICN developed a Code for Nurses and in 1984, with the League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, prepared an educational package for nurses on the Geneva conventions and the principles of humanitarian law. Subsequently ICN, with its member nurses' associations, developed position papers on the role of nurses in caring for prisoners and detainees and in safeguarding human rights. And today in face of daily reports of humanitarian violations, ICN urges NNAs to reconfirm their commitment and to take concrete moves to assure that their members fully understand what is expected of nurses in conflict situations. Extracts of the Geneva Conventions' essential provisions and ICN's position statements are provided below as one step in bringing about this awareness. PMID:1582772

1992-01-01

287

Patients' privacy of the person and human rights.  

PubMed

The UK Government published various circulars to indicate the importance of respecting the privacy and dignity of NHS patients following the implementation of the Human Rights Act, 1998. This research used an ethnographic method to determine the extent to which health professionals had in fact upheld the philosophy of these documents. Fieldwork using nonparticipant observation, and unstructured and semistructured interviews with patients and staff, took place over six months in three acute care wards in a large district NHS trust hospital. Applying the principles of phenomenology and grounded theory, the data were analysed and the contents organized into 11 key categories, leading to the formulation of a privacy model. The level of intrusion into patients' privacy by health professionals was measured against the benchmarking of the 'dignity and privacy' factors contained in the Department of Health's The essence of care document and Article 8(2) of the Human Rights Act. The findings established that patients had little privacy in the wards, and that the terms 'privacy of the person' and 'dignity' are interrelated. PMID:15921344

Woogara, Jay

2005-05-01

288

[The human right to adequate food: an urban vision].  

PubMed

The human right to adequate food is comprehended in two dimensions: being free of hunger and denutrition and having access to an adequate food. The urban context, in which the possession of food is done primarily through merchandising because of its strong consuming appealing, became a big challenge to debate this topic in poor districts today. Here we combine considerations of a qualitative study carried out in São João de Meriti, Rio de Janeiro State, joining leaders from Pastoral da Criança in focal group sessions. The unemployment, the sub-employment and the difficulty in reaching the public health system, the social assistance and basic sanitation were presented as the major obstacles to bring into effect the human right to food. It was possible to determine that, among the strategies to fight the poverty and hunger, a big highlight is the establishment of mutual help mechanisms. The social support, generosity and religiousness were presented as the most important categories among the thoughts of the leaders. Facing a reality in which poverty and hunger appear as something inherent or become a mechanism of change during elections, the issue of the clienteles appears as a huge concern and challenge for those leaders. PMID:20694330

Casemiro, Juliana Pereira; Valla, Victor Vincent; Guimarães, Maria Beatriz Lisboa

2010-07-01

289

Human rights and the requirement for international medical aid.  

PubMed

Every year approximately 18 million people die prematurely from treatable medical conditions including infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies. The deaths occur primarily amongst the poorest citizens of poor developing nations. Various groups and individuals have advanced plans for major international medical aid to avert many of these unnecessary deaths. For example, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health estimated that eight million premature deaths could be prevented annually by interventions costing roughly US$57 bn per year. This essay advances an argument that human rights require high-income nations to provide such aid. The essay briefly examines John Rawls' obligations of justice and the reasons that their applicability to cases of international medical aid remains controversial. Regardless, the essay argues that purely humanitarian obligations bind the governments and citizens of high-income liberal democracies at a minimum to provide major medical aid to avert premature deaths in poor nations. In refusing to undertake such medical relief efforts, developed nations fail to adequately protect a fundamental human right to life. PMID:19143091

Tolchin, Benjamin

2008-08-01

290

Human rights of persons with mental illness in Indonesia: more than legislation is needed  

PubMed Central

Background Although attention to human rights in Indonesia has been improving over the past decade, the human rights situation of persons with mental disorders is still far from satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to examine the legal framework for protection of human rights of persons with mental disorder and the extent to which Indonesia's international obligations concerning the right to health are being met. Methods We examined the Indonesian constitution, Indonesian laws relevant to the right to health, the structure and operation of the National Human Rights Commission, and what is known about violations of the human rights of persons with mental illness from research and the media. Results The focus of the Indonesian Constitution on rights pre-dated the Universal Declaration, Indonesia has ratified relevant international covenants and domestic law provides an adequate legal framework for human rights protections. However, human rights abuses persist, are widespread, and go essentially unremarked and unchallenged. The National Human Rights Commission has only recently become engaged in the issue of protection of the rights of persons with mental illness. Conclusion More than legislation is needed to protect the human rights of persons with mental illness. Improving the human rights situation for persons with mental illness in Indonesia will require action by governments at national, provincial and district levels, substantial increases in the level of investment in mental health services, coordinated action by mental health professionals and consumer and carer organisations, and a central role for the National Human Rights Commission in protecting the rights of persons with mental illness. PMID:19545362

Irmansyah, I; Prasetyo, YA; Minas, H

2009-01-01

291

Correlates of violence in Guinea's Maison Centrale Prison: a statistical approach to documenting human rights abuses.  

PubMed

Les Mêmes Droits Pour Tous (MDT) is a human rights NGO in Guinea, West Africa that focuses on the rights of prisoners in Maison Centrale, the country's largest prison located in the capital city of Conakry. In 2007, MDT completed a survey of the prison population to assess basic legal and human rights conditions. This article uses statistical tools to explore MDT's survey results in greater depth, shedding light on human rights violations in Guinea. It contributes to human rights literature that argues for greater use of econometric tools in rights reporting, and demonstrates how human rights practitioners and academics can work together to construct an etiology of violence and torture by state actors, as physical violence is perhaps the most extreme violation of the individual's right to health. PMID:21178191

Osborn, Ronald E

2010-01-01

292

The Human Rights Movement at U.S. Workplaces: Challenges and Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of workers’ rights as human rights has only recently begun to influence the formation and implementation of labor policy in the United States. In the workplace, the growing human rights movement challenges long-held beliefs and practices in labor relations. The author explores this issue and its implications for U.S. labor policy and practice, focusing specifically on individual versus

James A Gross

2011-01-01

293

Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In September, Human Rights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. This report, Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards, reports on nationwide repeated violations, across all levels of employment, of federal laws and international standards protecting workers's rights to organize, to bargain collectively, and to strike.

294

Human Rights Act 1998 and mental health legislation: implications for the management of mentally ill patients.  

PubMed

In the management of mentally ill patients, there is a tension between protecting the rights of individual patients and safeguarding public safety. The Human Rights Act 1998 emphasises on the former while two recent white papers focus on the latter. This article first examines the extent to which the Mental Health Act 1983 is consistent with the Human Rights Act. It argues that while the recent white papers exploit the gaps in the judgments given by the European courts, its compatibility with human rights is very doubtful. The practical implications of the Human Rights Act for doctors are discussed. PMID:11884706

Leung, W-C

2002-03-01

295

'We had to do what we thought was right at the time': retrospective discourse on the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the UK.  

PubMed

For a few weeks in 2009 it was not certain whether the world faced a lethal influenza pandemic. As it turned out, the H1N1 pandemic was less severe than anticipated, though the infection did affect groups not usually susceptible to influenza. The deep uncertainties of this pandemic moment were associated with immense practical, scientific and political challenges for public health agencies around the world. We examine these challenges by drawing on the sociology of uncertainty to analyse the accounts given by UK public health practitioners who managed local responses to the pandemic. We discuss the retrospective and mitigating discourse; 'we had to do what we thought was right at the time', used by interviewees to explain their experience of articulating plans for a severe pandemic influenza with one that turned out to be mild. We explore the importance of influenza's history and imagined future for pandemic management and, relatedly, how pandemic response and control plans disrupted the normal ways in which public health exercises its authority. We conclude by suggesting that difficulties in the management of pandemic influenza lie in its particular articulation of precautions, that is, securing a safe future against that which cannot be predicted. PMID:23957299

Davis, Mark; Flowers, Paul; Stephenson, Niamh

2014-03-01

296

Book Review: Human Rights and the WTO: The Case of Patents and Access to Medicines  

E-print Network

Human rights and patent rights have become increasingly intertwined in discussions surrounding access to pharmaceutical drugs by citizens of developing countries. This discussion is a particularly contentious one for reasons of socioeconomics...

Torrance, Andrew W.

2010-01-01

297

Reaffirming Rights: Human Rights Protections of Migrants, Asylum Seekers, and Refugees in Immigration Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Migrants Bill of Rights (IMBR) addresses migrants’ rights in a variety of contexts, and this paper looks closely at some of the most crucial rights that apply to migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers who are held in immigration detention.\\u000aMigrants, refugees and asylum seekers are entitled to a broad range of rights protections. These protections are spelled out

Eleanor Acer; Jake Goodman

2010-01-01

298

Personality and support for universal human rights: a review and test of a structural model.  

PubMed

All individual differences that predict support for international human rights are first reviewed: support for human rights is linked most positively to "globalism" (other international and environmental concerns), "identification with all humanity," principled moral reasoning, benevolence, and dispositional empathy. It is related most negatively to ethnocentrism and its root dispositions, the social dominance orientation, and authoritarianism. Other correlates are also noted. Secondly, a structural model of the effects of authoritarianism, social dominance, ethnocentrism and identification with all humanity upon commitment to human rights is presented and tested. Across 2 studies (Study 1, N=218 nonstudent adults; Study 2, N=102 university students), ethnocentrism and identification with all humanity directly predicted human rights commitment. The effects of authoritarianism upon this commitment were fully mediated through enhanced ethnocentrism and reduced identification with all humanity. The effects of social dominance were similar, but its direct effect upon human rights commitment remained significant and was not, in the second study, mediated by reduced dispositional empathy. PMID:21039530

McFarland, Sam

2010-12-01

299

Health and human rights of women imprisoned in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background The healthcare needs and general experience of women in detention in sub-Saharan Africa are rarely studied and poorly understood. Methods A mixed-methods study was conducted including in-depth interviews with 38 adult female prisoners and 21 prison officers in four Zambian prisons to assess the health and human rights concerns of female detainees. Key informant interviews with 46 officials from government and non-governmental organizations and a legal and policy review were also conducted. Results Despite special protection under international and regional law, incarcerated women's health needs–including prenatal care, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and nutritional support during pregnancy and breastfeeding–are not being adequately met in Zambian prisons. Women are underserved by general healthcare programs including those offering tuberculosis and HIV testing, and reported physical and sexual abuse conducted by police and prison officers that could amount to torture under international law. Conclusions There is an urgent need for women's healthcare services to be expanded, and for general prison health campaigns, including HIV and tuberculosis testing and treatment, to ensure the inclusion of female inmates. Abuses against women in Zambian police and prison custody, which violate their rights and compromise their health, must be halted immediately. PMID:21696625

2011-01-01

300

What Is the State of Human Rights Education in K-12 Schools in the United States in 2000? A Preliminary Look at the National Survey of Human Rights Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simply put, human rights education is learning that develops the knowledge, skills, and values of human rights. Growing consensus around the world recognizes education for and about human rights as essential. It can contribute to the building of free, just, and peaceful societies. Human rights education also is increasingly recognized as an…

Banks, Dennis N.

301

Tracking gender-based human rights violations in postwar Kosovo.  

PubMed

Four years have passed since the institution of the cease-fire in Yugoslavia, and questions remain as to how Kosovar women are faring in the country's postwar reconstruction. Reports, albeit fragmented, suggest that violence against women began to increase in 1998 and 1999. This trend continued through 2001, even while rates of other major crimes decreased. Despite considerable local efforts to address the conditions of women, there remains a lack of systematic data documenting the scope and frequency of violent acts committed against women. A centralized surveillance system focused on tracking human rights abuses needs to be established to address this critical need for empirically based reports and to ultimately guide reform efforts. PMID:15284030

Desai, Sapna; Perry, Melissa J

2004-08-01

302

How to Influence States: Socialization and International Human Rights Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Ryan Goodman and Derek Jinks, this working paper from the University of ChicagoâÂÂs Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper series was published first in March 2004, and is due to appear later this year in the Duke Law Journal. In its 57-pages, the paper deals with the ways in which states might effectively change their human rights regime based on various processes of socialization where so-called "bad actors" might be persuaded to incorporate globally legitimated models of state behavior and, on the other side of the coin, how "good actors" might also be persuaded to act better. The paper begins by discussing three mechanisms of social influence, namely coercion, persuasion, and acculturation, then continues on to discuss the nature of conditional membership, the precision of obligations, and concludes with a section on implementation.

Goodman, Ryan; Jinks, Derek

303

Tracking Gender-Based Human Rights Violations in Postwar Kosovo  

PubMed Central

Four years have passed since the institution of the cease-fire in Yugoslavia, and questions remain as to how Kosovar women are faring in the country’s postwar reconstruction. Reports, albeit fragmented, suggest that violence against women began to increase in 1998 and 1999. This trend continued through 2001, even while rates of other major crimes decreased. Despite considerable local efforts to address the conditions of women, there remains a lack of systematic data documenting the scope and frequency of violent acts committed against women. A centralized surveillance system focused on tracking human rights abuses needs to be established to address this critical need for empirically based reports and to ultimately guide reform efforts. PMID:15284030

Desai, Sapna; Perry, Melissa J.

2004-01-01

304

Health and human rights: epistemological status and perspectives of development.  

PubMed

The health and human rights movement (HHR) shows obvious signs of maturation both internally and externally. Yet there are still many questions to be addressed. These issues include the movement's epistemological status and its perspectives of development. This paper discusses critically the conditions of emergence of HHR, its identity, its dominant schools of thought, its epistemological postures and its methodological issues. Our analysis shows that: (a) the epistemological status of HHR is ambiguous; (b) its identity is uncertain in the absence of a validated definition: is it an action movement, an interdisciplinary field, a domain, an approach, a setting or a scientific discipline? (c) its main schools of thoughts are defined as "advocacists", "ethicists", "interventionists", "normativists"; (d) the movement is in the maturation process as a discipline in which "interface", "distance", "interference" and "fusion" epistemological postures represent the fundamental steps; (e) parent disciplines (health sciences and law) competences, logics and cultures introduce duality and difficulties in knowledge production, validation and diffusion; (f) there is need to re-write the history of the HHR movement by inscribing it not only into the humanitarian or public health perspectives but also into the evolution of sciences and its social, political and economical conditions of emergence. The ambiguous epistemological status of this field, the need to re-write its history, the methodological duality in its research, the question of the competence of the knowledge validation, as well as the impact of HHR practice on national and international health governance are the challenges of its future development. To meet those challenges; we call for the creation and implementation of an international research agenda, the exploration of new research topics and the evaluation of the movement's contribution to the national and global public health and human rights governance. PMID:21264518

Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; London, Leslie; Chastonay, Philippe

2011-08-01

305

Child labor. A matter of health and human rights.  

PubMed

Despite the existence of laws in India that prohibit the labor of children under age 14, 70 to 115 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are estimated to be part of India's labor force. Child labor in the agriculture sector accounts for 80% of child laborers in India and 70% of working children globally. From May 2001 to July 2001, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) investigated the health experiences of 100 children in hybrid cottonseed production in rural Andhra Pradesh. Eighty-eight percent of the survey participants were girls, ages 7 to 14. PHR found that children worked on average 12 hours a day, were frequently exposed to pesticides, and were not provided with safety equipment, not even shoes or water to wash their hands and clothes. Children reported having frequent headaches and dizziness and skin and eye irritations after pesticide spraying. All 100 children reported that they were unable to go to school during the hybrid cottonseed season due to work demands. Ninety-four children reported to PHR that they would rather be in school. In addition, a majority of child workers interviewed by PHR reported physical and/or verbal abuse by their employers. Moreover, PHR interviews with representatives of multinational and national companies revealed knowledge of child labor practices for up to 10 years. Child labor is a significant health and human rights problem for children in India. The progressive elimination of child labor practices will require the support of a wide cross-section of civil society. PMID:12698932

Mathews, Rahel; Reis, Chen; Iacopino, Vincent

2003-01-01

306

First International Conference on Religion at ECU Religion, Immigration, Health, & Human Rights  

E-print Network

1 First International Conference on Religion at ECU Religion, Immigration, Health, & Human Rights and religious leaders in social welfare. Religion is a force in many social issues such as immigration, health such as immigration, health and human rights integrate with religion? 2. Can those in the humanities and the sciences

307

The Struggle for Human Rights: A Question of Values. Perspectives in World Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for junior or senior high school students, this pamphlet examines the status of the world community in upholding the promise of the United Nations'"Universal Declaration of Human Rights" of 1948. The five chapters include definitions for a human being, and discussions of human rights and whether laws and treaties are effective in…

Fraenkel, Jack R., Ed.; And Others

308

The Call of Concrete Moral Conscience: Another Latin American Contribution to the Idea of Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I argue that the contribution of the Latin American tradition of human rights includes, but does not limit itself, to being a crucible to unite different doctrinal trends in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; a contribution already recognized by Mary Ann Glendon. Besides this unifying function and the concomitant emphasis on common humanity, the Latin American

Jorge Mario RodríGuez-Martínez

2010-01-01

309

Between Legislation and Bioethics: The European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The chapter explores the role that regional legislation plays in framing human rights and ethical principles in psychiatry\\u000a by considering the Council of Europe’s Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine. The chapter identifies the Convention’s\\u000a contribution to an emergent legislative, regulatory and discursive formation, which is characterized by its alloy of human\\u000a rights and bioethics. The author draws attention to

Felicity Callard

310

Towards a Critique of Rights Talk in New Democracies: The Case of Legal Aid in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an institutionalized form of human rights discourses, rights talk plays a prominent role in recently democratized countries. It also poses a challenge to critical analysts of language, because its contribution to maintaining inequalities is not apparent in its emancipatory rhetoric. This article examines rights talk at a non-governmental centre for free legal aid in Malawi. By deploying the notion

Harri Englund

2004-01-01

311

Understanding and Responding to Youth Substance Use: The Contribution of a Health and Human Rights Framework  

PubMed Central

This article examines the utility of a health and human rights framework for conceptualizing and responding to the causes and consequences of substance use among young people. It provides operational definitions of “youth” and “substances,” a review of current international and national efforts to address substance use among youths, and an introduction to human rights and the intersection between health and human rights. A methodology for modeling vulnerability in relation to harmful substance use is introduced and contemporary international and national responses are discussed. When governments uphold their obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill human rights, vulnerability to harmful substance use and its consequences can be reduced. PMID:11726374

Gruskin, Sofia; Plafker, Karen; Smith-Estelle, Allison

2001-01-01

312

Animal Rights Versus HumanismThe Charge of Speciesism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article examines a concern I have had for some time about the compatibility of humanistic psychology with the emerging animal rights movement. Beyond working out my position, the paper has the additional educational and, frankly, political purpose of bringing animal rights issues to the attention of humanistic psychologists. The article applies certain concepts of contemporary animal rights philosophy,

Kenneth J. Shapiro

1990-01-01

313

Integrating Equality: Globalization, Women's Rights, and Human Trafficking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically investigates whether globalization can improve women's rights. Using panel data from 150 countries over the 1981-2008 period, I find that social globalization positively affects women's economic and social rights. When controlling for social globalization however, economic globalization does not have any effect on women's rights. Despite the positive effect of (social) globalization on women's standing in a

Seo-Young Cho

2012-01-01

314

The pan american health organization and the mainstreaming of human rights in regional health governance.  

PubMed

In the absence of centralized human rights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of human rights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream human rights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream human rights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American human rights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers in implementing human rights through PAHO governance. Analyzing the themes arising from this narrative, the authors examine the structural role of secretariat leadership, state support, legal expertise, and technical unit commitment in facilitating a rights-based approach to the health in the Americas. Human rights are increasingly framing PAHO efforts, and this analysis of the structures underlying PAHO's approach provides an understanding of the institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health, highlighting generalizable themes for the mainstreaming of human rights through regional health governance. With this regional-level understanding of health governance, future national-level research can begin to understand the causal forces linking regional human rights work with national policy reforms and public health outcomes. PMID:25264093

Meier, Benjamin Mason; Ayala, Ana S

2014-09-01

315

Tensions between Discourses of Development, Religion, and Human Capital in Early Childhood Education Policy Texts: The Case of Indonesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we consider how particular discourses have come to dominate early childhood education (ECE) policy in Indonesia. We briefly explain the governance of Indonesian ECE and then our approach to policy analysis using critical discourse analysis. Three prevalent discourses are identified and discussed: "developmentalism",…

Formen, Ali; Nuttall, Joce

2014-01-01

316

A Survey of Student Attitudes toward and Knowledge of Civil Liberties and Human Rights Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reveals that Canadian secondary school students' knowledge of civil liberties and human rights laws is inadequate and that their attitudes are negative and inconsistent. Items on the survey include freedom of speech, assembly, and religion; right to counsel; access to a public facility; right of employment; and rental accommodation.…

Kehoe, John; Echols, Jr., Frank

1980-01-01

317

For Immediate Release IFI-published study: Human rights mechanisms gaining ground  

E-print Network

rights are a form of Western neo-colonialism, according to Fateh Azzam, the newly-appointed director guarantees rights in a manner largely consistent with human rights law," he added. The presentation offered to implement them." #12;Despite some protestations to the contrary, states in the Arab region are cognizant

Shihadeh, Alan

318

The Nordic human rights paradox An interdisciplinary workshop University of Oslo, 11-12 December, 2012  

E-print Network

rights agenda in multilateral organizations such as the United Nations, the Council of Europe the legitimacy of domestic and international judicial review of human rights within their own polities. Moreover rights ambitions whenever they collide with national or corporate interests overseas. Existing

Johansen, Tom Henning

319

Advocacy for the Legal and Human Rights of the Mentally Retarded.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine presentations from a conference on advocacy of the legal and human rights of the mentally handicapped are given. Robert Segal considers parents and professionals to be the primary advocates for the retarded, while Virginia Nordin examines the implications of recent court cases for the retarded's right to legal process and redress. The right…

Segal, Robert M., Ed.

320

Conceptualizing a Human Right to Prevention in Global HIV/AIDS Policy  

PubMed Central

Given current constraints on universal treatment campaigns, recent advances in public health prevention initiatives have revitalized efforts to stem the tide of HIV transmission. Yet, despite a growing imperative for prevention—supported by the promise of behavioral, structural and biomedical approaches to lower the incidence of HIV—human rights frameworks remain limited in addressing collective prevention policy through global health governance. Assessing the evolution of rights-based approaches to global HIV/AIDS policy, this review finds that human rights have shifted from collective public health to individual treatment access. While the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic gave meaning to rights in framing global health policy, the application of rights in treatment access litigation came at the expense of public health prevention efforts. Where the human rights framework remains limited to individual rights enforced against a state duty bearer, such rights have faced constrained application in framing population-level policy to realize the public good of HIV prevention. Concluding that human rights frameworks must be developed to reflect the complementarity of individual treatment and collective prevention, this article conceptualizes collective rights to public health, structuring collective combination prevention to alleviate limitations on individual rights frameworks and frame rights-based global HIV/AIDS policy to assure research expansion, prevention access and health system integration. PMID:23226723

Meier, Benjamin Mason; Brugh, Kristen Nichole; Halima, Yasmin

2012-01-01

321

The Potential of Human Rights Education for Conflict Prevention and Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the contribution of human rights education (HRE) to conflict prevention and to the promotion of security. It outlines the difficulties in evaluating the long-term impact of HRE, but then proposes five benefits of a rights-based approach to education--rights as secular, man-made, requiring transparency, enabling freedom from…

Davies, Lynn

2010-01-01

322

HOMELESSNESS, HUMAN RIGHTS, LITIGATION AND LAW REFORM: A VIEW FROM CANADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the international level, Canada has in the past played an important role as an advocate for the recognition of access to adequate housing as a fundamental human right. Canada ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) in 1976 and played a leading role in promoting the adoption and ratification of the Convention on the Rights

Bruce Porter

323

Damned if you do, damned if you don't? The Lundbeck case of pentobarbital, the guiding principles on business and human rights, and competing human rights responsibilities.  

PubMed

In 2011 it emerged that to induce the death penalty, United States authorities had begun giving injections of pentobarbital, a substance provided by Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck. Lundbeck's product pentobarbital is licensed for treatment of refractory forms of epilepsy and for usage as an anaesthetic, thus for a very different purpose. The Lundbeck case offers a difficult, but also interesting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) dilemma between choices facing a pharmaceutical company to stop the distribution of a medical substance in order to avoid complicity in human rights violations, or to retain distribution of the substance in order not to impede access to the medicine for those patients who need it. The dilemma arose at a time when the United Nations (UN) Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, Professor John Ruggie, was finalizing a set of Guiding Principles to operationalize recommendations on business and human rights that he had presented to the UN Human Rights Council in 2008. The article discusses the dilemma in which Lundbeck was placed in from the perspective of the Guiding Principles on business and human rights and the 2008 Protect, Respect, Remedy UN Framework. The analysis seeks to assess what guidance may be gauged from the Guiding Principles in relation to the dilemma at hand and discusses the adequacy the Guiding Principles for dealing with acute human rights dilemmas of conflicting requirements in which a decision to avoid one type of violation risks causing violation of another human right. The article concludes by drawing up perspectives for further development of guidance on implementation of the UN Framework that could be considered by the newly established Working Group on Business and Human Rights and related UN bodies. PMID:22789041

Buhmann, Karin

2012-01-01

324

ACCOMMODATING CREED/RELIGION York University & the Ontario Human Rights Code  

E-print Network

ACCOMMODATING CREED/RELIGION York University & the Ontario Human Rights Code In accordance grounds, including creed. What is "creed"? Creed has been broadly defined by the Ontario Human Rights Commission (OHRC) to mean "religious creed" or "religion", but also includes bodies of faith

325

Female Genital Mutilation : a life-threatening health and human rights issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health, physiological, sexual, psychological, and human rights effects of female genital mutilation (FGM) are described and various ways to address the problem are outlined, including the health approach, the cultural approach, the women’s empowerment approach, and the human rights approach. Long-term complications include sexual frigidity; genital malformation; urine retention resulting in repeated urinary infections; obstruction of menstrual flow leading

O. Gbadamosi

2008-01-01

326

Infusing Human Rights into the Curriculum: The Case of the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reflects on experiences of attempting to infuse human rights in the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS). Using our experiences as members of Human Rights and Inclusivity Group (HRIWG), one of the curriculum development structures set up for the RNCS, and focusing particularly on the Learning Area of Mathematics,…

Carrim, Nazir; Keet, Andre

2005-01-01

327

International Internships Available! Human Rights Internet (HRI) is an NGO committed to social justice,  

E-print Network

International Internships Available! Human Rights Internet (HRI) is an NGO committed to social justice, good governance and conflict prevention. HRI works in conjunction with the Canadian International international internships. What are you waiting for? Check out this opportunity NOW! Human Rights Internet (www

Martin, Jeff

328

New Reflections on Ethics and Foreign Policy: The Problem of Human Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how ethics and power interact in the arena of politics with particular emphasis on foreign policy and human rights issues. Topics discussed include President Carter's human rights stance, the ubiquity of moral choice, perspectives on world politics, traditional diplomatic approaches, the legal perspective, and diplomatic-legal issues.…

Thompson, Kenneth

1978-01-01

329

76 FR 24787 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...With Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria By the authority vested in me as President...2008, finding that the Government of Syria's human rights abuses, including those related to the repression of the people of Syria, manifested most recently by the use...

2011-05-03

330

International Human Rights Law, Co-parent Adoption, and the Recognition of Gay and Lesbian Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children would benefit substantially if governments legally recognized same sex marriages and parenting. This article analyzes international human rights law, co-parent adoption, and the legal recognition of gay and lesbian families. It addresses civil marriage and adoption challenges for same sex families and assesses European Court of Human Rights jurisprudence relating to same-sex adoption. This Article considers the international community's

Elizabeth Burleson

2009-01-01

331

A re-analysis of Price's "Islam and human rights: a case of deceptive first appearances".  

PubMed

Daniel Price in his analysis of Islamic Political Culture and Human Rights concluded that "... government rooted in Islam does not facilitate the abuse of human rights." A re-analysis of his data for 23 Islamic governments demonstrates otherwise. There is a significant trend (p<.03), despite the low statistical power available in only 23 cases, for an inverted quadratic relationship between Islamic Political Culture and Human Rights. Among the nations scoring low on Islamic Political Culture, the correlation between the two variables is -.01 (ns); among those scoring high on Islamic Political Culture, the correlation shifts to -.78 (p<.02). At lower scores for Islamic Political Culture, there may indeed be little relationship between Political Culture and Human Rights; however, at higher scores there appears to be a significant relationship between increasing Islamic Political Culture and a decline in Human Rights. The data suggest that extreme applications of Sharia law (if not any secular or religious legal system) may have serious implications for human rights--or at least, Western Euro-American conceptualizations of human rights. At the same time, support for human rights may increase as Islamic governments shift from mostly secular to moderate applications of Islamic law. PMID:14765607

Schumm, Walter R

2003-12-01

332

Human Rights Violations and the Health Professions: Caught Between Conscience and Complicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

As shown by Amnesty International's annual report, human rights violations which result in serious consequences for their health have assumed epidemic proportions. By treating the survivors of torture, performing post-mortem examinations, and carrying out other professional tasks, physicians, psychologists and nurses become accessories. As such, they play a key role in terms of exposing or hushing up human rights violations.

Torsten Lucas; Christian Pross

333

I. GLOBAL LABOR STANDARDS AND HUMAN RIGHTS 1. Dillard's Incorporated (Meeting date: May 15, 2004)  

E-print Network

of 2003, an accounting of the national origins, job categories and salaries of its employees in EquatorialAPPENDIX A I. GLOBAL LABOR STANDARDS AND HUMAN RIGHTS 1. Dillard's Incorporated (Meeting date: May and to work toward ensuring that the company's technology is not used to further human or labor rights abuses

Lotko, William

334

Eleanor Roosevelt and the Declaration of Human Rights: A Simulation Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a brief background on Eleanor Roosevelt and the Declaration of Human Rights. Presents a lesson wherein students simulate the creation of the Declaration of Human Rights and consider the leadership skills of Eleanor Roosevelt. Explains that the activity requires three class periods and some student preparation before the lesson. (CMK)

Gilbert, Sally; Shollenberger, Kathy

2001-01-01

335

Understanding and Responding to Youth Substance Use: The Contribution of a Health and Human Rights Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a health and human rights framework for conceptualizing and responding to the causes and consequences of youth substance use, reviewing international and national efforts to address youth substance use and discussing the intersection between health and human rights. A methodology for modeling vulnerability in relation to harmful…

Gruskin, Sofia; Plafker, Karen; Smith-Estelle, Allison

2001-01-01

336

Protecting People and the Planet a proposal to address the human rights impacts  

E-print Network

Protecting People and the Planet a proposal to address the human rights impacts of climate change Francisco School of Law #12;#12;Protecting People and the Planet a proposal to address the human rights, death penalty law, and detention without due process and other post-9/11 issues. The Center protects

Kammen, Daniel M.

337

Explaining International Human Rights Regimes:Liberal Theory and Western Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under what conditions are effective international regimes for the promotion of human rights likely to emerge? Case studies of European institutions — the European Convention on Human Rights, the European Community and the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe — confirm hypotheses more consistent with Liberal theories of international relations than their Institutionalist or Realist counterparts. The uniquely successful

ANDREW MORAVCSIK

1995-01-01

338

Human Rights Education and Student Self-Conception in the Dominican Republic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, a 3-month course in human rights based on critical inquiry was offered to 8th graders in a slum area of Santo Domingo. The students' attitudes, behaviors and knowledge of human rights principles were measured before and after the course. The curriculum focused on international principles and entrenched local problems such as…

Bajaj, Monisha

2004-01-01

339

The politics of human rights in Brazil: Imposition of norms from without or innovation from within?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis analyzes the construction of human rights norms, institutions, and practices in Brazil. Bridging international relations and comparative politics, this study builds on the literature of socialization to international norms. The study argues that, in the post-transition context of democratic politics, state and societal actors and interests play a primordial role in the promotion of human rights. It also

Manuela Lavinas Picq

2004-01-01

340

The Whole World Could Be Watching: Human Rights and the Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the effect of access to media reporting and press freedom on the achievement of human rights. Past research on the role of the media on human rights has often been limited to anecdotal examples or limited case studies. There has been little comprehensive systematic investigation on the topic. Specifically, this article answers the questions: Do large communication

Clair Apodaca

2007-01-01

341

Toward Cosmopolitan Ethics in Teacher Education: An Ontological Dimension of Learning Human Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a globalization trend in teacher education, emphasizing the role of teachers to make judgments based on human rights in their teaching profession. Rather than emphasizing the epistemological dimension of acquiring knowledge "about" human rights through teacher education, an ontological dimension is emphasized in this paper of…

Adami, Rebecca

2014-01-01

342

The Teaching of Patriotism and Human Rights: An Uneasy Entanglement and the Contribution of Critical Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the moral, political and pedagogical tensions that are created from the entanglement of patriotism and human rights, and sketches a response to these tensions in the context of critical education. The article begins with a brief review of different forms of patriotism, especially as those relate to human rights, and explains…

Zembylas, Michalinos

2014-01-01

343

Beyond Study Abroad: A Human Rights Delegation to Teach Policy Advocacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advancement of human rights is a core competency in the social work curriculum. Presented is a model to teach policy practice from a human rights perspective based on a violence-against-women delegation visit to Guatemala. Postdelegation policy advocacy responses included White House and State Department briefings on the problems, including…

Gammonley, Denise; Rotabi, Karen Smith; Forte, Janett; Martin, Amanda

2013-01-01

344

Seeking Asylum: Adolescents Explore the Crossroads of Human Rights Education and Cosmopolitan Critical Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore middle school (grade 6-8) students' understanding and interpretation of human rights issues with local and global implications as they engaged in the process of creating a film after reading print and multimedia texts and participating in human rights education activities. As the students explored…

Dunkerly-Bean, Judith; Bean, Thomas; Alnajjar, Khaled

2014-01-01

345

Re-Thinking Relations in Human Rights Education: The Politics of Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human Rights Education (HRE) has traditionally been articulated in terms of cultivating better citizens or world citizens. The main preoccupation in this strand of HRE has been that of bridging a gap between universal notions of a human rights subject and the actual locality and particular narratives in which students are enmeshed. This…

Adami, Rebecca

2014-01-01

346

Assessing Human Rights in China: Why the Double Standard  

E-print Network

Poverty, Health and Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rights: Poverty, Health, and Education China defends itspoverty in terms of life expec- tancy, access to food and water, and education

Peerenboom, Randall P

2005-01-01

347

Human genetics studies: the case for group rights.  

PubMed

In this essay, the author focuses on an underlying theoretical issue which she believes seriously affects our collective response to the idea of group rights in the genetic-control context. That issue is to what extent are our responses to claims of group rights hampered by our bringing to the table (consciously or unconsciously) a model which is structured to acknowledge only individual concerns? Put another way, to what extent are our objections to group rights in this context a product of our inability (or refusal) to imagine the idea of group rights, rather than the product of truly substantive concerns? PMID:17714249

Underkuffler, Laura S

2007-01-01

348

Pathway to social justice: research on human rights and gender-based violence in a Rwandan refugee cAMP.  

PubMed

Gender-based violence persists in postconflict settings. Implementing an ethnographic study with Congolese refugees in Rwanda, we investigated community perspectives on justice and human rights. As core concepts, participants described the right to equal value as human beings and the corresponding responsibility to respect human rights as the basis for justice. Three factors that impede human rights include cultural ideology, social distance, and lack of a rights-enabling environment. Men described gender similarities while women emphasized gender differences in human rights. Ecological perspectives and rights-based approaches to achieving social justice seem warranted. PMID:19461231

Pavlish, Carol; Ho, Anita

2009-01-01

349

The First Amendment Right to Speak About the Human Genome  

PubMed Central

This article explores whether laws that restrict the communication of genetic test results may, under certain circumstances, violate the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The focus is whether investigators have a right to return results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories in situations where a research participant requests the results and the investigator is willing to share them but is concerned that doing so may violate regulations under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (“CLIA”). This article takes no position on whether investigators can be compelled to return results when they do not wish to do so. It examines only whether investigators may, not whether they must, return results to a willing research participant. The article: (1) surveys state and federal laws that block communication of genetic test results to research participants; (2) examines the historical use of speech restrictions as a tool for protecting human research subjects; (3) traces how First Amendment doctrine has evolved since the 1970s when foundations of modern research bioethics were laid; (4) inquires whether recent bioethical and policy debate has accorded due weight to the First Amendment. The article applies two common methods of legal analysis, textual and constitutional analysis. It concludes that the CLIA regulations, when properly construed, do not treat the return of results as an event that triggers CLIA’s certification requirements. Moreover, there is a potential First Amendment problem in construing CLIA’s research exception in a way that bans the return of results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories.

Evans, Barbara J.

2014-01-01

350

Nicholson Medal Lecture: Science, Politics, and Human Rights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For scientists in a totalitarian society, the line between the professional and the political collapses, because to one degree or another they face the forced option of complicity with or resistance to the regime. A look at the history of Soviet scientists' fight for democracy and human rights in the former Soviet Union -- including the author's personal involvement from 1956 -- exposes the radically diverse responses of Soviet scientists to this option: ideological confrontation with the regime, sacrifice of scientific careers, and worse by a small minority; strong professional and public support for the regime by another small but significant minority; and ambiguous or hypocritical public silence by the majority. These responses mostly reflected differences of character, but sometimes different answers to such fundamental questions as: What is more dangerous for domestic and international peace and security -- a repressive totalitarian superpower that may be gradually improved, or an unstable democracy? Where to draw the line between scientific activity within and complicity with a totalitarian regime? When seeking how to express solidarity with persecuted colleagues, many Western scientists have also raised these questions. In the post-Soviet era both still deserve analysis, if only because of China. The Soviet experience points to democratization, with all its instability, as being better insurance of future peace and security -- both locally and internationally -- than any repressive regime. The second question has been given a tragic new dimension recently, as it bears on collaboration with scientific colleagues who hold official or prestigious positions in a country that deliberately starves abandoned children to death.

Orlov, Yuri F.

1996-05-01

351

Citizen's choice of preferred system of healthcare as a fundamental human right.  

PubMed

Fundamental rights are preconditions for any human to act with sufficient freedom and to be allowed sufficient choice to realize their potential. The right to indigenous medicine must be recognized as a fundamental human right for indigenous peoples. In accordance with the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine, every citizen should be allowed to benefit from the placebo effect. It constitutes an essential aspect of treatment, which is rightfully theirs on the basis of payment for health care - regardless of whether the payment is made out of pocket, or from public finance. It then follows that, the right of citizens to access the medical system of their choice should be formally acknowledged. That choice should be regarded as a Fundamental Human Right, which should under no circumstance be denied them - not for reasons of scientific prejudice, nor commercial ambition. PMID:21829297

Burford, Gemma

2010-01-01

352

Training Trainers in health and human rights: Implementing curriculum change in South African health sciences institutions  

PubMed Central

Background The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of human rights as a professional obligation prompted moves to include human rights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A Train-the-Trainers course in Health and Human Rights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences institutions nationwide with the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge to teach human rights to their students. This study followed up participants to determine the extent of curriculum implementation, support needed as well as barriers encountered in integrating human rights into health sciences teaching and learning. Methods A survey including both quantitative and qualitative components was distributed in 2007 to past course participants from 1998-2006 via telephone, fax and electronic communication. Results Out of 162 past participants, 46 (28%) completed the survey, the majority of whom were still employed in academic settings (67%). Twenty-two respondents (48%) implemented a total of 33 formal human rights courses into the curricula at their institutions. Respondents were nine times more likely (relative risk 9.26; 95% CI 5.14-16.66) to implement human rights education after completing the training. Seventy-two extracurricular activities were offered by 21 respondents, many of whom had successfully implemented formal curricula. Enabling factors for implementation included: prior teaching experience in human rights, general institutional support and the presence of allies - most commonly coworkers as well as deans. Frequently cited barriers to implementation included: budget restrictions, time constraints and perceived apathy of colleagues or students. Overall, respondents noted personal enrichment and optimism in teaching human rights. Conclusion This Train-the-Trainer course provides the historical context, educational tools, and collective motivation to incorporate human rights educational initiatives at health sciences institutions. Increased implementation of human rights instruction, both formally and extracurricularly, has demonstrated the training's significance not only within academic institutions but more broadly across the health sector. Coworkers are vital allies in teaching human rights to health sciences students, helping to alleviate institutional barriers. Training fellow staff members and those in key leadership roles is noted as vital to the sustainability of human rights education. PMID:21787421

2011-01-01

353

Discourse Structure  

E-print Network

An essential step in understanding connected discourse is the ability to link the meanings of successive sentences together. Given a growing database to which new sentence meanings must be linked, which out of many possible ...

Rosenberg, Steven T.

1976-08-17

354

The Growth of Individual Rights: Ideas and Politics. International Human Rights Syllabi No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for teachers of undergraduate students with some familiarity with political theory, moral philosophy, and social history, this course outline focuses on individual rights and their realization in the United States and the world at large. The syllabus, arranged in 3 major parts, is subdivided into 16 sections that outline major course…

Dalton, Dennis

355

The Right to be Free from the Harm of Hate Speech in International Human Rights Law  

E-print Network

The current challenges posed by hate speech across the globe have prompted the need to better understand the evolution of the right to be free from the harm of hate speech as codified within Article 20(2) of the International Covenant on Civil...

Elbahtimy, Mona

356

Rise of the New Right: Human and Civil Rights in Jeopardy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author warns that ultra-conservatism is growing in strength and sophistication as a political force. He cites literature from various right-wing groups attacking the public schools and suggests that educators must learn to cope with social stress and the political extremism it generates. (SJL)

Park, J. Charles

1980-01-01

357

Human Rights Abuses and Suicidal Ideation among Male Injecting Drug Users in Delhi, India  

PubMed Central

Background Human rights abuses, denial of care, police surveillance, and violence directed at IDUs have been found to impact HIV prevention efforts due to decreased attendance in harm reduction programs. The association of mental health status with rights abuses has not been examined extensively among drug users. In India, drug control laws are often in conflict with harm reduction policies, thus increasing the likelihood of rights abuses against IDUs. The purpose of this study was to describe human rights abuses occurring among IDUs in Delhi and examine their association with suicidal ideation. Methods 343 IDUs were recruited in two research sites in Delhi through respondent driven sampling and were interviewed with a cross sectional survey questionnaire that included items on human rights and socio demographics. Results IDUs in the study experienced many human rights abuses. Notably among these were denial of admission into hospital (38.5%), denial of needles and syringes (20%), police arrests for carrying needles and using drugs (85%), verbal abuse (95%) and physical abuse (88%). Several human rights abuses were associated with suicidal ideation. These include being denied needles and syringes (OR: 7.28, 95% CI: 3.03- 17.49); being arrested by police for carrying needles and using drugs (OR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.06- 6.03), and being physically abused (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.05- 2.23). The likelihood of suicidal ideation is also strongly related to the cumulative number of abuses. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that there is a high prevalence of human rights abuses among IDUs in Delhi. Given the alarming rate of suicidal ideation and its close relationship with human rights abuses it is essential that IDU interventions are executed within a rights-based framework. PMID:21439808

Sarin, Enisha; Samson, Luke; Sweat, Michael; Beyrer, Chris

2010-01-01

358

Barriers to legal and human rights in Australia in the era of HIV treatment as prevention.  

PubMed

This paper analyses developments and debates regarding legal and human rights issues relevant to the Australian HIV response in the context of treatment as prevention (TasP). A refocusing of prevention priorities on individual responsibilities to 'test and treat' without regard to the legal and human rights context is, we argue, problematic. The paper maintains that the justification of testing and treating for the greater good risks eroding the foundations of a human rights-based approach to HIV prevention, and that the TasP agenda as presently conceived may divert attention from pressing law reform issues relating to sex work, illicit drug use, and criminalization of HIV transmission. PMID:24846483

Cameron, Sally; Godwin, John

2014-06-01

359

Women's Human Rights Resources: Bora Laskin Law Library at the University of Toronto  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DIANA, a joint project provided by an international consortium of libraries and human rights organizations, is dedicated to the construction of a comprehensive database of documents essential to human rights research. Currently, segments of the database are hosted by four libraries. Each library provides a unique set of documents for the collaborative database. The Bora Laskin Law Library at the University of Toronto archives women's human rights resources. Unfortunately, users cannot query all four hosts at the same time; however, each host attempts to eliminate document duplication within the database as a whole in order to minimize overlap. Consequently, users must select a relevant host before searching or conduct parallel searches.

360

Right to receive treatment in accordance with the Human Rights Act 1998.  

PubMed

The question of whether a patient can rely upon a right to treatment in the courts is a topical and controversial one. This article provides a short summary of the current law on this issue and concludes that, while there is no substantive right to treatment as such, the courts are increasingly willing to enforce procedural requirements onto those bodies that make funding decisions. These procedural requirements seek to ensure that each patient is assessed on the basis of his or her individual clinical needs. Blanket policies against funding particular treatments are not permitted, but neither are funding decisions based on exceptional personal (non-clinical) circumstances. Individual clinical needs are always relevant and must be taken into account. Provided that the body making funding decisions satisfies this requirement, the courts will be reluctant to intervene with decisions about the provision of medical treatment. PMID:19966746

Wicks, Elizabeth

361

Human rights and the challenges of science and technology : commentary on meier et Al. "Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform" and Hall et Al. "The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights".  

PubMed

The expansion of the corpus of international human rights to include the right to water and sanitation has implications both for the process of recognizing human rights and for future developments in the relationships between technology, engineering and human rights. Concerns with threats to human rights resulting from developments in science and technology were expressed in the early days of the United Nations (UN), along with the recognition of the ambitious human right of everyone "to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications." This comment explores the hypothesis that the emerging concepts most likely to follow recognition of the human right to water primarily involve issues of science and technology, such as access to medicines or clean and healthy environment. Many threats to human rights from advances in science, which were identified in the past as potential, have become real today, such as invasion of privacy from electronic recording, deprivation of health and livelihood as a result of climate change, or control over individual autonomy through advances in genetics and neuroscience. This comment concludes by urging greater engagement of scientists and engineers, in partnership with human rights specialists, in translating normative pronouncements into defining policy and planning interventions. PMID:24519531

Marks, Stephen P

2014-12-01

362

Shirin Ebadi, received the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize for promoting human rights, in particular, the rights of women, children, and political prisoners  

E-print Network

, the rights of women, children, and political prisoners in Iran. She was the first Muslim woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize and only the fifth Muslim to receive a Nobel Prize in any field. Dr. Ebadi was also the Society for Protecting the Rights of the Child, the Defenders of Human Rights Center, the Nobel Women

Liebling, Michael

363

Shirin Ebadi, received the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize for promoting human rights, in particular, the rights of women, children, and political prisoners in Iran. She  

E-print Network

, the rights of women, children, and political prisoners in Iran. She was the first Muslim woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize and only the fifth Muslim to receive a Nobel Prize in any field. Dr. Ebadi was also the Society for Protecting the Rights of the Child, the Defenders of Human Rights Center, the Nobel Women

Akhmedov, Azer

364

Confronting Racism from within the Guatemalan State: The Challenges Faced by the Defender of Indigenous Rights of Guatemala's Human Rights Ombudsman's Office  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the development of legal mechanisms and micro-level institutional reforms aimed at consolidating the rights of indigenous peoples in post-conflict Guatemala. The research is based on prolonged fieldwork carried out with the Office of the Defender of Indigenous Peoples’ Rights of the Guatemalan Human Rights Ombudsman's Office (PDH), established in 1998. The paper argues that the establishment of

Roddy Brett

2011-01-01

365

Health and human rights advocacy: perspectives from a Rwandan refugee camp.  

PubMed

Working at the bedside and within communities as patient advocates, nurses frequently intervene to advance individuals' health and well-being. However, the International Council of Nurses' Code of Ethics asserts that nurses should expand beyond the individual model and also promote a rights-enabling environment where respect for human dignity is paramount. This article applies the results of an ethnographic human rights study with displaced populations in Rwanda to argue for a rights-based social advocacy role for nurses. Human rights advocacy strategies include sensitization, participation, protection, good governance, and accountability. By adopting a rights-based approach to advocacy, nurses contribute to health agendas that include more just social relationships, equitable access to opportunities, and health-positive living situations for all persons. PMID:22496055

Pavlish, Carol; Ho, Anita; Rounkle, Ann-Marie

2012-07-01

366

Securing health and human rights: Sandwell's community health network.  

PubMed

Minority communities face discrimination and abuse. The main health problems they face are those of severe and early chronic disease and poor well-being due to inequality in jobs, education and access to health care. The Sandwell community health network provides support workers to six major minority groups in Sandwell, providing information and access to skilled health services. Without securing health as a basic right for our minorities we perpetuate divisions in our society which cause mistrust, conflict and violence. The health system has a vital role to play in securing people's rights and campaigning for equality and justice for all our communities, to enhance community cohesion. PMID:18771200

Al-Osaimi, Ali

2008-01-01

367

Evolution and Human Behavior 19: 193202 (1998) 1998 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.  

E-print Network

's Hospital Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Prolonged crying at the beginning of life in humansEvolution and Human Behavior 19: 193­202 (1998) © 1998 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved? Adaptive Significance of Intensive Crying in Human Infants Virpi Lummaa and Timo Vuorisalo Section

Lummaa, Virpi

368

Embodied Humanism: Performative Argument for Natural Rights in "The Solitude of Self."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how Elizabeth Cady Stanton's "The Solitude of Self" grounds rights in the material paradox of chance life events and the corporeal permanence of human isolation by enacting human solitude through what J. Campbell calls lyric tragedy. Reverses the ground for humanism from the disembodied rationalism of the Enlightenment to an embodied…

Stormer, Nathan

1999-01-01

369

Cultural perspectives on child trafficking, human rights & social justice: A model for psychologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every region in the world is affected by some form of human trafficking. This article discusses the complex factors involved in child trafficking from a cultural perspective. The role of the psychologist in addressing human rights and social issues such as child trafficking is also discussed. The article also provides recommendations on how psychologists can be proactive advocates on human

Rita Chi-Ying Chung

2009-01-01

370

Canon as Palimpsest: Composition Studies, Genre Theory, and the Discourses of the Humanities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Profession 2005" begins with a series of essays titled "The Future of the Humanities." Without exception, the authors contend that literary studies must reaffirm, or in some cases reassert, its connection with the humanities in order to retain viability for the foreseeable and distant future in American higher education. In the words of Robert…

Brauer, David

2009-01-01

371

Bringing Human Rights Home: Linking Individual Dignity with Mutual Destiny. A Report of Program Activities, 1996-2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the aim of honoring the spirit of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., by working to make his "human rights revolution" a reality, this report considers efforts to build a human rights society in the United States. The report celebrates the Center for Human Rights Education's (CHRE's) growth and accomplishments and documents the Center's work to…

National Center for Human Rights Education, Atlanta, GA.

372

Annual Report 2011-2012 center for human rights and international justice | annual report 2011-2012  

E-print Network

Mission Faculty Profiles Programs Projects Overview Migration and Human Rights Project Jesuit RefugeeAnnual Report 2011-2012 #12;center for human rights and international justice | annual report 2011-2012 Director David Hollenbach, SJ university chair in human rights and international justice Associate

Huang, Jianyu

373

Human Rights Education as a Tool of Grassroots Organizing and Social Transformation: A Case Study from Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women for Women's Human Rights (WWHR) -- New Ways has been carrying out a "Human Rights Education Program for Women" throughout Turkey for over a decade, in cooperation with community centers. The training has a holistic, comprehensive nature, linking several areas of human rights through a critical gender perspective lens. One of the overarching…

Ilkkaracan, Pinar; Amado, Liz Ercevik

2005-01-01

374

Human Rights Education in Japan: An Historical Account, Characteristics and Suggestions for a Better-Balanced Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although human rights are often expressed as universal tenets, the concept was conceived in a particular socio-political and historical context. Conceptualisations and practice of human rights vary across societies, and face numerous challenges. After providing an historical account of the conceptualisation of human rights in Japanese society,…

Takeda, Sachiko

2012-01-01

375

Human Rights and Decision-Making in Child Protection through Explicit Argumentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent judgement in February 2005 by the Lord Chief Justice in Northern Ireland that a Health and Social Services Trust had breached a parent's Article 8 Right to Family Life in the process used to take a young child into care has stimulated major debate about the interface between the Human Rights Act (1998) and professional decision-making in…

Duffy, Joe; Taylor, Brian; Mc Call, Susannah

2006-01-01

376

The Human Rights Act 1998--legal implications for those engaged in infertility services.  

PubMed

This review considers some recent human rights cases in the field of assisted reproduction and explores how the UK courts are seeking to weave their way through the complex legal and ethical issues in this sensitive field to balance the competing rights of those seeking infertility treatment, gamete donors and their offspring. PMID:16192077

Maunder, Judith

2004-03-01

377

Canadian Human Rights Act. Office Consolidation = Loi canadienne sur les droits de la personne. Codification administrative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Canadian Human Rights Act extends the laws in Canada that proscribe discrimination by establishing that each individual has the right to make the life for him- or herself that he or she is able and wishes to have, consistent with the duties and obligations of a member of society, without being hindered or prevented from doing so by…

Department of Supply and Services, Ottawa (Ontario).

378

CHALLENGES OF HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES IN NIGERIAN DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE - WHICH WAY FORWARD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was unanimously adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations through the General Assembly Resolution 217A(111) on the 10 th of December, 1948. Since its declaration, it has become fashionable for most countries of the world (Nigeria inclusive) to entrench the catalogue of rights in their national constitutions. Regrettably, in Nigeria and indeed in

Adetoro Rasheed Adenrele; Omiyefa Muraina Olugbenga

2014-01-01

379

Hispanics in Idaho: Concerns and Challenges. Idaho Human Rights Commission, Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was done of the civil rights status of Hispanics in Idaho with respect to issues raised at a series of community hearings sponsored by the Idaho Human Rights Commission. Testimony included concerns about state and local hiring practices; the perceived need for bilingual state social service providers and educators; the need for outreach…

Mabbutt, Richard

380

Abortion in Sri Lanka in the context of women's human rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses, from the perspective of women's human rights, an unsuccessful attempt to amend the abortion law in the Penal Code of Sri Lanka in 1995. The Parliamentary debate brought to the surface a number of contentious issues relating to women's right to control their sexuality and reproductive capacities, in which women were variously assumed to be promiscuous and

Sunila Abeyesekera

1997-01-01

381

Human Rights, Identities and Conflict Management: A study of school culture as experienced through classroom relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings of an action research project designed to examine the dynamics of classroom relationships and perceptions of how rights and identities operate in an all boys' comprehensive school in the English West Midlands. The principal aims of the research were to examine the feasibility of adopting a human rights framework as a basis for school life

Charlotte Carter; Audrey Osler

2000-01-01

382

Amnesty International: Evaluating Effectiveness in the Human Rights Arena  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Amnesty International, an organization formed in order to change the sociopolitical environment so that elites will have to act in a predetermined prohuman rights manner in all situations. The issues of torture and political repression were addressed in different nations, which practice the detention of political prisoners. (Author/RK)

Scoble, Harry M.; Wiseberg, Laurie S.

1976-01-01

383

[Human resource management. How do we find the right surgeons?].  

PubMed

The recruitment of trainee surgeons is a demanding topic. Not only the question whether the number of applicants is sufficient but also the selection of the right candidates are of great importance. Therefore, it is of vital interest to establish the occupational requirements and to develop reliable and valid methods for the selection process. PMID:23292154

Oubaid, V; Jähne, J

2013-01-01

384

Human Rights in Iran after the 1978 Islamic Revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iranians have been fighting for their rights since early 1900. The history of this struggle will be reviewed with emphasis on what might be termed the modern era, which began with the return of Ayatollah Khomeini to Iran in February 1979. A brief summary of the modern era Iran Constitution also will be presented. Although Iranians had been promised a

Hadi Hadizadeh

2005-01-01

385

HUMAN RIGHTS QUARTERLY Volumes 1 (1979) -25 (2003)  

E-print Network

America, 10 Hum. Rts. Q. 177. ______, A Visit to the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, 9 Hum. Rts. Q. 426 and Abortion Under the Draft Convention on the Rights #12;2 of the Child, 12 Hum. Rts. Q. 156. ______, The UN

Papautsky, Ian

386

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2004: Leichtenstein.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Principality of Liechtenstein is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government. Prince Hans-Adam II is the head of state. On August 15, Hereditary Prince Alois took on the duties of head of state, exercising the rights of office on behalf ...

2005-01-01

387

Health and Human Rights--PH 393 Professor Juliet S. Sorensen  

E-print Network

as noncommunicable illnesses like hypertension and diabetes. The needs assessment will reflect human rights, public. 19 ­ 25, 43 ­ 73); Flores v. Southern Peru Copper Corporation; World Health Organization Country

Contractor, Anis

388

11.164 / 11.497 Human Rights in Theory and Practice, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

This course provides a rigorous and critical introduction to the foundation, structure and operation of the international human rights movement. It includes leading theoretical and institutional issues and the functioning ...

Rajagopal, Balakrishnan

389

Of Enterprise Principles & Corporate Groups: Does Corporate Law Reach Human Rights?  

E-print Network

In recent years, a number of international and cross-sectoral initiatives have attempted to respond to the human rights impacts of corporations. Foremost among these is the United Nations’ 2008 “Protect, Respect, and Remedy” ...

Harper Ho, Virginia E.

2013-03-01

390

A Struggle for Human Rights: The Japanese Spinners' 106-Day Strike of 1954.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inhumane working conditions led to a strike of Japanese silk spinners and formation of a union. Company repression provoked public opinion, resulting in acceptance of worker demands for recognition of human rights in the workplace. (SK)

Yoshida, Shoya

1992-01-01

391

Rewards for Ratification: Payoffs for Participating in the International Human Rights Regime?  

E-print Network

Among the explanations for state ratification of human rights treaties, few are more common and widely accepted than the conjecture that states are rewarded for ratification by other states. These rewards are expected to ...

Simmons, Beth A.

392

Council of the European Union: European Union Annual Report on Human Rights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adopted by the General Affairs Council in Luxembourg on October 11, 1999, this report covers the period June 1, 1998 to June 30, 1999 and "intends to explain how the [European] Union's headway towards integration is paralleled in the field of human rights." The Report is offered as part of a wider effort to promote transparency of the EU's human rights policies. To that end, it explains the major actors of the Union's human rights policies and their goals, methods, and activities. While concentrating on external relations, the Report does explore some human rights issues within the EU area, specifically racism. The report is offered in six sections in HTML or MS Word format.

Union., Council O.

393

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2001: Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is discussed in three separate sections on Serbia, Kosovo, and Montenegro and addresses human rights situations in each of these entities. Since federal authority was exercised effectively only over the Rep...

2002-01-01

394

Court says French government's refusal to authorize adoption violates woman's human rights.  

PubMed

On 22 January 2008, the European Court of Human Rights held that there had been a violation of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention) in the case of E.B. v. France, concerning a refusal by the French authorities to grant E.B.'s request to adopt a child, allegedly on account of her sexual orientation. PMID:18727204

Chu, Sandra Ka Hon

2008-07-01

395

Reconciling international human rights and cultural relativism: the case of female circumcision.  

PubMed

How can we reconcile, in a non-ethnocentric fashion, the enforcement of international, universal human rights standards with the protection of cultural diversity? Examining this question, taking the controversy over female circumcision as a case study, this article will try to bridge the gap between the traditional anthropological view that human rights are non-existent -- or completely relativised to particular cultures -- and the view of Western naturalistic philosophers (including Lockeian philosophers in the natural rights tradition, and Aquinas and neo-Thomists in the natural law tradition) that they are universal -- simply derived from a basic human nature we all share. After briefly defending a universalist conception of human rights, the article will provide a critique of female circumcision as a human rights violation by three principal means: by an internal critique of the practice using the condoning cultures' own functionalist criteria; by identifying supra-national norms the cultures subscribe to which conflict with the practice; and by the identification of traditional and novel values in the cultures, conducive to those norms. Through this analysis, it will be seen that cultural survival, diversity and flourishing need not be incompatible with upholding international, universal human rights standards. PMID:11657373

James, Stephen A

1994-01-01

396

Push comes to shove. Women press for human rights treaty.  

PubMed

The UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), a global pact for advancing women's rights, was brought to Senate by nine female House members after 20 years of waiting to be ratified. Ratifying countries agree to fight all types of discrimination, including reproductive rights violations as well as the exploitation of prostitution, inequalities in marriage laws and unequal access to health care. Senator Jesse Helms, the head of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, is against the ratification of the CEDAW because he believes that it will do little to improve the lives of women. Meanwhile, other organizations in other states such as the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy, are showing their support to the CEDAW by submitting a number of Shadow Reports to the committee which highlights discriminatory laws and policies against women in other countries. PMID:12349420

Farmer, A

1999-12-01

397

Commentary on community-led total sanitation and human rights: should the right to community-wide health be won at the cost of individual rights?  

PubMed

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set out to halve the proportion of the population without access to basic sanitation between 1990 and 2015. The slow pace of progress has lead to a search for innovative responses, including social motivation approaches. One example of this type of approach is 'Community-led Total Sanitation' (CLTS). CLTS represents a major shift for sanitation projects and programmes in recognising the value of stopping open-defecation across the whole community, even when the individual toilets built are not necessarily wholly hygienic. However, recent publications on CLTS document a number of examples of practices which fail to meet basic ethical criteria and infringe human rights. There is a general theme in the CLTS literature encouraging the use of 'shame' or 'social stigma' as a tool for promoting behaviours. There are reported cases where monetary benefits to which individuals are otherwise entitled or the means to practice a livelihood are withheld to create pressures to conform. At the very extreme end of the scale, the investigation and punishment of violence has reportedly been denied if the crime occurred while defecating in the open, violating rights to a remedy and related access to justice. While social mobilisation in general, and CLTS in particular, have drastically and positively changed the way we think about sanitation, they neither need nor benefit from an association with any infringements of human rights. PMID:23165706

Bartram, Jamie; Charles, Katrina; Evans, Barbara; O'Hanlon, Lucinda; Pedley, Steve

2012-12-01

398

[The right to human reproduction. Should surrogate maternity be allowed?].  

PubMed

Is addressed in this work if you can accept that in Spain a reproductive rights through the use of assisted reproductive techniques, especially when the client is a single woman and when the baby has undergone a substitution pregnancy or surrogacy, regardless of those who have come to this possibility, which still continues to be considered without any efficacy in the rules governing the matter. PMID:24340827

Corral García, Eduardo

2013-01-01

399

A Discourse Approach to Theorising HRD: Opening a Discursive Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a discourse approach to theorising human resource development (HRD) can open a "discursive space" to challenge dominant discourses within the field; enabling a more critical discourse to emerge. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses two approaches to discourse analysis, a "practice" and a…

Lawless, Aileen; Sambrook, Sally; Garavan, Tom; Valentin, Claire

2011-01-01

400

Changing Policy Discourses: Constructing Literacy Inequalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the ways in which policy discourses have constructed rationales for addressing adult literacy over the last 50 years. In particular, we examine how policy positions the literacy learner as citizen within discourses of rights and equity. Taking the case of the UK, we compare two key documents produced at different historical…

Hamilton, Mary; Pitt, Kathy

2011-01-01

401

Are Drug Companies Living Up to Their Human Rights Responsibilities? Moving Toward Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background to the debate The human rights responsibilities of drug companies have been considered for years by nongovernmental organizations, but were most sharply defined in a report by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health, submitted to the United Nations General Assembly in August 2008. The “Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines” include responsibilities for transparency, management, monitoring and accountability, pricing, and ethical marketing, and against lobbying for more protection in intellectual property laws, applying for patents for trivial modifications of existing medicines, inappropriate drug promotion, and excessive pricing. Two years after the release of the Guidelines, the PLoS Medicine Debate asks whether drug companies are living up to their human rights responsibilities. Sofia Gruskin and Zyde Raad from the Harvard School of Public Health say more assessment is needed of such responsibilities; Geralyn Ritter, Vice President of Global Public Policy and Corporate Responsibility at Merck & Co. argues that multiple stakeholders could do more to help States deliver the right to health; and Paul Hunt and Rajat Khosla introduce Mr. Hunt's work as the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, regarding the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies and access to medicines. PMID:20927356

Gruskin, Sofia; Raad, Zyde

2010-01-01

402

Are Drug Companies Living Up to Their Human Rights Responsibilities? The Merck Perspective  

PubMed Central

Background to the debate The human rights responsibilities of drug companies have been considered for years by nongovernmental organizations, but were most sharply defined in a report by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health, submitted to the United Nations General Assembly in August 2008. The “Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines” include responsibilities for transparency, management, monitoring and accountability, pricing, and ethical marketing, and against lobbying for more protection in intellectual property laws, applying for patents for trivial modifications of existing medicines, inappropriate drug promotion, and excessive pricing. Two years after the release of the Guidelines, the PLoS Medicine Debate asks whether drug companies are living up to their human rights responsibilities. Sofia Gruskin and Zyde Raad from the Harvard School of Public Health say more assessment is needed of such responsibilities; Geralyn Ritter, Vice President of Global Public Policy and Corporate Responsibility at Merck & Co. argues that multiple stakeholders could do more to help States deliver the right to health; and Paul Hunt and Rajat Khosla introduce Mr. Hunt's work as the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, regarding the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies and access to medicines. PMID:20927355

Ritter, Geralyn S.

2010-01-01

403

In search of the Holy Grail: Media discourse and the new human genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has widely been recognized that the media play a key role in framing debates about genetic issues. This paper provides an overview of the major areas of debate within the social scientific literature on media, public understanding of science and human genetics. It evaluates current approaches to assessing the role of the media in influencing public policy debates. It

Alison Anderson

2002-01-01

404

Therapeutic Promise in the Discourse of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent past, biomedical research has been repeatedly promoted on the grounds that it will lead to novel cures. Future remedies have been proposed and propagated by diverse actors such as scientists, the media and patient representatives. Proposals for novel therapies based on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have framed the initiation, reception, and implementation of novel research in

Beatrix P. Rubin

2008-01-01

405

The Career Perceptions of Academic Staff and Human Resource Discourses in English Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper sets out findings from research that considered the interplay between English national policy developments in human resources management in higher education and the personal stories of academic staff as career participants. Academic careers are pursued in an institutional and national policy context but it was not clear that the formal…

Strike, Tony; Taylor, John

2009-01-01

406

Essential medicines and human rights: what can they learn from each other?  

PubMed Central

Most countries have acceded to at least one global or regional covenant or treaty confirming the right to health. After years of international discussions on human rights, many governments are now moving towards practical implementation of their commitments. A practical example may be of help to those governments who aim to translate their international treaty obligations into practice. WHO's Essential Medicines Programme is an example of how this transition from legal principles to practical implementation may be achieved. This programme has been consistent with human rights principles since its inception in the early 1980s, through its focus on equitable access to essential medicines. This paper provides a brief overview of what the international human rights instruments mention about access to essential medicines, and proposes five assessment questions and practical recommendations for governments. These recommendations cover the selection of essential medicines, participation in programme development, mechanisms for transparency and accountability, equitable access by vulnerable groups, and redress mechanisms. PMID:16710546

Hogerzeil, Hans V.

2006-01-01

407

East-West fusion: cross-border human rights activism and the Thai Drug Users' Network.  

PubMed

Recently, international human rights leaders have renewed the call for advocacy on economic, social, and cultural rights and suggested partnerships with local organizations. The Thai Drug Users' Network (TDN) promotes the human rights of a marginalized and medically underserved population within Thailand. It also works internationally to reduce drugrelated harms. Thus, TDN transcends a strict local-international dichotomy. The group grew out of professional and personal ties between Thai drug users and international health and human rights actors. Border-crossing connections and two-way transfer of knowledge, particularly through bridging individuals or "cultural translators," have benefited both TDN and the non-Thai organizations that work with it. This case study shows how international-local, and even donor-recipient, relationships may be navigated in ways that are symbiotic and mutually empowering. PMID:17136908

Fink, Sheri

2005-01-01

408

Human Rights and ‘Free and Fair Competition'; the significance of European education legislation for girls in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

UK law on education and sex discrimination does not protect the right of girls to equality in education. The European Convention on Human Rights and the Treaty of Rome offer better protection. The Convention provides for the right to education and the right of parents to have their philosophical convictions considered in the education of their child. The European Court

Sheila Mcitosh

1990-01-01

409

Water as a Human Right: The Understanding of Water in the Arab Countries of the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international community has affirmed the human right to water in a number of international treaties, declarations and other documents. Most notably, the United Nations (UN) Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted in November 2002 a General Comment on the Right to Water setting out international standards and obligations relating to the right to water. Based on the

Simone Klawitter; Hadeel Qazzaz

2005-01-01

410

Deliberating Visions: The Case of Human Enhancement in the Discourse on Nanotechnology and Convergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A new concept of “converging technologies” (CT) evolved mainly out of activities within the US National Nanotechnology Initiative\\u000a (NNI), which were strongly tied to the ethical and societal implications of nanotechnology. It became more widely known after\\u000a the publication of a workshop report entitled “Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Nanotechnology, Biotechnology,\\u000a Information Technology and Cognitive Science” (Roco and Bainbridge

Christopher Coenen

411

Deixis: "This" and "That" in Written Narrative Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The existing literature presents conflicting models of how "this" and "that" access different segments of a written discourse, frequently relying on implicit analogies with spoken discourse. On the basis of this literature, we hypothesized that in written discourse, "this" more readily accesses the adjacent/right…

Çokal, Derya; Sturt, Patrick; Ferreira, Fernanda

2014-01-01

412

Human rights approach to maternal & child health: Has India fared well?  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: The objectives of the study were to examine: right to access maternal health; right to access child health; and right to access improved water and sanitation in India. Methods: We used large-scale data sets like District Level Household Survey conducted in 2007-08 and National Family Health Surveys conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 to fulfil the objectives. The selection of the indicator variables was guided by the Human Rights’ Framework for Health and Convention of the Rights of the Child- Articles 7, 24 and 27. We used univariate and bivariate analysis along with ratio of access among non-poor to access among poor to fulfil the objectives. Results: Evidence clearly suggested gross violation of human rights starting from the birth of an individual. Even after 60 years of independence, significant proportions of women and children do not have access to basic services like improved drinking water and sanitation. Interpretation & conclusions: There were enormous socio-economic and residence related inequalities in maternal and child health indicators included in the study. These inequalities were mostly to the disadvantage of the poor. The fulfilment of the basic human rights of women and children is likely to pay dividends in many other domains related to overall population and health in India. PMID:23703339

Ram, F.; Singh, Abhishek; Ram, Usha

2013-01-01

413

Education and language: A human right for sustainable development in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre-colonial Africa was neither an educationally nor a technologically unsophisticated continent. While education was an integral part of the culture, issues of language identification and standardisation which are subject to contentious debate today were insignificant. Children learned community knowledge and history by asking questions instead of being taught in a hegemonic alien language. This article argues that education and development should take place in a broader context of human rights, and explores the links between three areas often dealt with separately, namely: language, education and development. The authors of this paper demonstrate that changing the face of the multi-dimensionalities of poverty within societies is possible only when education is constructed in a rights perspective over the favoured colonial languages, which are not an integral part of the culture and resources of a community. The authors make a distinction between the right to education and rights in education, the latter of which are found to be more significant for the challenges Africa faces. It is argued here that the elements of Amartya Sen's "threshold" conditions for inclusion in human rights and self-development in education are essential, and that a more promising architecture of education would include what the authors term meta-narrative frameworks, i.e. interrelated policies. The authors contend that the neoliberal commodification of the knowledge sector has only exacerbated human rights and capabilities deprivation - which encompasses both human and income poverty.

Babaci-Wilhite, Zehlia; Geo-JaJa, Macleans A.; Lou, Shizhou

2012-10-01

414

Preparing Global Citizens through the Study of Human Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The preparation of students for global citizenship represents a central challenge to social studies educators in the twenty-first century. Two-thirds of the world's poor are steeped in abject poverty and its grim consequences. The world refugee problem has reached staggering proportions. There is an international epidemic of human trafficking, and…

Kirkwood-Tucker, Toni Fuss

2012-01-01

415

Examining human rights and mental health among women in drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan.  

PubMed

Denial of human rights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT) centers assesses (a) the extent to which these women have experienced human rights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b) whether there are specific risk factors for human rights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91%) reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50%) experienced at least one human rights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for human rights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one's own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed. PMID:22532779

Abadi, Melissa Harris; Shamblen, Stephen R; Johnson, Knowlton; Thompson, Kirsten; Young, Linda; Courser, Matthew; Vanderhoff, Jude; Browne, Thom

2012-01-01

416

Examining human rights and mental health among women in drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

Denial of human rights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT) centers assesses (a) the extent to which these women have experienced human rights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b) whether there are specific risk factors for human rights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91%) reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50%) experienced at least one human rights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for human rights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one’s own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed. PMID:22532779

Abadi, Melissa Harris; Shamblen, Stephen R; Johnson, Knowlton; Thompson, Kirsten; Young, Linda; Courser, Matthew; Vanderhoff, Jude; Browne, Thom

2012-01-01

417

HIV, disability and discrimination: making the links in international and domestic human rights law  

PubMed Central

Stigma and discrimination constitute one of the greatest barriers to dealing effectively with the HIV epidemic, underlying a range of human rights violations and hindering access to prevention, care, treatment and support. There is some existing protection against HIV-based discrimination under international law, but the extent of states' obligations to address such discrimination has not been comprehensively addressed in an international instrument. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities entered into force in May 2008. As countries ratify the convention, they are required to amend national laws and policies to give greater protection to the human rights of people with disabilities, including abolishing disability-based discrimination by the state and protecting persons against such discrimination by others. The Disability Convention addresses many of the issues faced by people living with HIV (PLHIV) but does not explicitly include HIV or AIDS within its open-ended definition of "disability". Therefore, the advent of the Disability Convention prompts us to consider the links between HIV and disability and, specifically, to consider the opportunities it and other legal mechanisms, international or domestic, may afford for advancing the human rights of PLHIV facing human rights infringements. We do so in the belief that the movement for human rights is stronger when constituencies with so many common and overlapping interests are united, and that respectful and strategic collaboration ultimately strengthens both the disability rights and the AIDS movements. In this article, we first examine the links between HIV and disability. We then provide a brief overview of how international human rights law has treated both disability and HIV/AIDS. We note some of the different ways in which national anti-discrimination laws have reflected the links between HIV and disability, illustrated with representative examples from a number of countries. Finally, we offer some conclusions and recommendations about ways forward for collaboration between HIV and disability rights advocates in advancing human rights at the international level, including the use of the new tool that is the Disability Convention. We hope these reflections will promote further discussion across movements, ultimately to the benefit of all persons with disabilities and/or HIV. PMID:19900283

2009-01-01

418

Human Genome Diversity Project. Summary of planning workshop 3(B): Ethical and human-rights implications  

SciTech Connect

The third planning workshop of the Human Genome Diversity Project was held on the campus of the US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from February 16 through February 18, 1993. The second day of the workshop was devoted to an exploration of the ethical and human-rights implications of the Project. This open meeting centered on three roundtables, involving 12 invited participants, and the resulting discussions among all those present. Attendees and their affiliations are listed in the attached Appendix A. The discussion was guided by a schedule and list of possible issues, distributed to all present and attached as Appendix B. This is a relatively complete, and thus lengthy, summary of the comments at the meeting. The beginning of the summary sets out as conclusions some issues on which there appeared to be widespread agreement, but those conclusions are not intended to serve as a set of detailed recommendations. The meeting organizer is distributing his recommendations in a separate memorandum; recommendations from others who attended the meeting are welcome and will be distributed by the meeting organizer to the participants and to the Project committee.

NONE

1993-12-31

419

Human Rights Violations After 9\\/11 and the Role of Constitutional Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 9\\/11, the United States and its allies took measures to protect their citizens from future terrorist attacks. While these measures aim to increase security, they have often been criticized for violating human rights. But violating rights is difficult in a constitutional democracy with separated powers and checks and balances. This paper empirically investigates the effect of the post-9\\/11 terror

Benedikt Goderisy; Mila Versteeg

2009-01-01

420

Human rights violations after 9\\/11 and the role of constitutional constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 9\\/11, the United States and its allies took measures to protect their citizens from future terrorist attacks. While these measures aim to increase security, they have often been criticized for violating human rights. But violating rights is di¢ cult in a constitutional democracy with separated powers and checks and balances. This paper empirically investigates the eect of the post-9\\/11

Benedikt Goderis; Mila Versteeg

2012-01-01

421

Health impact assessment, human rights and global public policy: a critical appraisal.  

PubMed

Public policy decisions in both the social and economic spheres have enormous impact on global public health. As a result of this, and of the skewed global distribution of power and resources, health impact assessment (HIA) potentially has a key role to play in foreign policy-making and global public policy-making. Governments, multilateral bodies and transnational corporations need to be held to account for the health impacts of their policies and practices. One route towards achieving this objective involves the inclusion of human rights assessments within HIA. International commitments to human rights instruments and standards can be used as a global auditing tool. Methodological issues may limit the effectiveness of HIA in promoting health equity. These issues include the use of procedures that favour those holding power in the policy process or the use of procedures that fail to apply values of equity and participation. The identification and production of evidence that includes the interests of less powerful groups is a priority for HIA and would be furthered if a human rights-based method of HIA were developed. Because HIA considers all types of policies and examines all potential determinants of health, it can play a part when foreign policy is developed and global decisions are made to treat people as rights holders. Since the human right to health is shaped by the determinants of health, developing links between the right to health assessment (that is, an assessment of the impact of policies on the right to health) and HIA--as recently proposed by the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the right to health--could strengthen the development of foreign policy and global decisions. Such links should be pursued and applied to the development of foreign policy and to the operation of multilateral bodies. PMID:17486213

Scott-Samuel, Alex; O'Keefe, Eileen

2007-03-01

422

HUMAN RIGHTS AND GLOBAL HEALTH: A RESEARCH PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-third of all human lives end in early death from poverty-related causes. Most of these premature deaths are avoidable through global institutional reforms that would eradicate extreme poverty. Many are also avoidable through global health-system reform that would make medical knowledge freely available as a global public good. The rules should be redesigned so that the development of any new

Thomas W. Pogge

2005-01-01

423

Human Infants' Preference for Left-to-Right Oriented Increasing Numerical Sequences  

PubMed Central

While associations between number and space, in the form of a spatially oriented numerical representation, have been extensively reported in human adults, the origins of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. The commonly accepted view is that this number-space association is a product of human invention, with accounts proposing that culture, symbolic knowledge, and mathematics education are at the roots of this phenomenon. Here we show that preverbal infants aged 7 months, who lack symbolic knowledge and mathematics education, show a preference for increasing magnitude displayed in a left-to-right spatial orientation. Infants habituated to left-to-right oriented increasing or decreasing numerical sequences showed an overall higher looking time to new left-to-right oriented increasing numerical sequences at test (Experiment 1). This pattern did not hold when infants were presented with the same ordinal numerical information displayed from right to left (Experiment 2). The different pattern of results was congruent with the presence of a malleable, context-dependent baseline preference for increasing, left-to-right oriented, numerosities (Experiment 3). These findings are suggestive of an early predisposition in humans to link numerical order with a left-to-right spatial orientation, which precedes the acquisition of symbolic abilities, mathematics education, and the acquisition of reading and writing skills. PMID:24802083

de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Girelli, Luisa; Addabbo, Margaret; Macchi Cassia, Viola

2014-01-01

424

Gross human rights violations and reparation under international law: approaching rehabilitation as a form of reparation  

PubMed Central

The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states’ obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals. PMID:23671765

Sveaass, Nora

2013-01-01

425

Respecting the right to access to medicines: Implications of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights for the pharmaceutical industry.  

PubMed

What are the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies with regard to access to medicines? The state-based international human rights framework has long struggled with the issue of the human rights obligations of non-state actors, a question sharpened by economic globalization and the concomitant growing power of private for-profit actors ("business"). In 2011, after a six-year development process, the UN Human Rights Council unanimously endorsed the Guiding Principles advanced by the UN Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, John Ruggie. The Ruggie Principles sought to clarify and differentiate the responsibilities of states and non-state actors-in this case, "business" -with respect to human rights. The framework centered on "three core principles: the state duty to protect against human rights abuses by third parties, including business; the corporate responsibility to respect human rights; and the need for more effective access to remedies." The "Protect, Respect, and Remedy" Framework emerged from a review of many industrial sectors operating from local to global scales, in many regions of the world, and involving multiple stakeholder consultations. However, their implications for the pharmaceutical industry regarding access to medicines remain unclear. This article analyzes the 2008 Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines advanced by then-UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health, Paul Hunt, in light of the Ruggie Principles. It concludes that some guidelines relate directly to the industry's responsibility to respect the right to access to medicines, and form a normative baseline to which firms should be held accountable. It also finds that responsibility for other guidelines may better be ascribed to states than to private actors, based on conceptual and practical considerations. While not discouraging the pharmaceutical industry from making additional contributions to fulfilling the right to health, this analysis concludes that greater attention is merited to ensure that, first and foremost, the industry demonstrates baseline respect for the right to access to medicines. PMID:25006088

Moon, Suerie

2013-01-01

426

Using human rights for sexual and reproductive health: improving legal and regulatory frameworks  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper describes the development of a tool that uses human rights concepts and methods to improve relevant laws, regulations and policies related to sexual and reproductive health. This tool aims to improve awareness and understanding of States’ human rights obligations. It includes a method for systematically examining the status of vulnerable groups, involving non-health sectors, fostering a genuine process of civil society participation and developing recommendations to address regulatory and policy barriers to sexual and reproductive health with a clear assignment of responsibility. Strong leadership from the ministry of health, with support from the World Health Organization or other international partners, and the serious engagement of all involved in this process can strengthen the links between human rights and sexual and reproductive health, and contribute to national achievement of the highest attainable standard of health. PMID:20616975

Kismodi, Eszter; Hilber, Adriane Martin; Lincetto, Ornella; Stahlhofer, Marcus; Gruskin, Sofia

2010-01-01

427

Neurobehavioural methods, effects and prevention: workers' human rights are why the field matters for developing countries.  

PubMed

Little research into neurobehavioural methods and effects occurs in developing countries, where established neurotoxic chemicals continue to pose significant occupational and environmental burdens, and where agents newly identified as neurotoxic are also widespread. Much of the morbidity and mortality associated with neurotoxic agents remains hidden in developing countries as a result of poor case detection, lack of skilled personnel, facilities and equipment for diagnosis, inadequate information systems, limited resources for research and significant competing causes of ill-health, such as HIV/AIDS and malaria. Placing the problem in a human rights context enables researchers and scientists in developing countries to make a strong case for why the field of neurobehavioural methods and effects matters because there are numerous international human rights commitments that make occupational and environmental health and safety a human rights obligation. PMID:19963102

London, L

2009-11-01

428

Occupational Care Giving Conditions and Human Rights: A Study of Elderly Caregivers in Botswana  

PubMed Central

The article aims to explore and discuss the occupational care giving conditions pitting them against human rights. The article’s objective is to initiate discussions and generate literature pertaining to occupational care giving load and assessing the human rights challenge it poses. The article uses analysis of the literature review from an array of eclectic data sources. The following factors were found besetting the caregivers’ human rights: (1) Aging; (2) Cultural and community attitudes towards care giving; (3) Risk of contagion; (4) Health hazards and lack of compensation. Recommendations: (1) Adoption of grandparents/grandchildren care symbiosis system; (2) Government remuneration policy for caregivers; (3) Mainstreaming of gender education to encourage men and youth develop an interest in care giving; (4) Institution of laws and policies by countries to provide for the compensation of caregivers’ occupational hazards and risks. PMID:21811353

Kangethe, Simon

2010-01-01

429

Project Diana : An Online Human Rights Archive at Yale Law School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DIANA, a joint project provided by an international consortium of libraries and human rights organizations, is dedicated to the construction of a comprehensive database of documents essential to human rights research. Currently, segments of the database are hosted by four libraries. Each library provides a unique set of documents for the collaborative database. The Yale Law School Library contains legal briefs, organizational charters, treaty texts, and bibliographies related to human rights. Unfortunately, users cannot query all four hosts at the same time; however, each host attempts to eliminate document duplication within the database as a whole in order to minimize overlap. Consequently, users must select a relevant host before searching or conduct parallel searches.

1996-01-01

430

31 CFR 560.545 - Democracy and human rights in Iran and academic and cultural exchange programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... § 560.545 Democracy and human rights in Iran and academic...conferences and training, to support human rights, democratic freedoms...institutions and to meet basic human needs; and (2) The establishment...includes items such as many laptop computers, personal computers,...

2013-07-01

431

31 CFR 560.545 - Democracy and human rights in Iran and academic and cultural exchange programs.  

... § 560.545 Democracy and human rights in Iran and academic...conferences and training, to support human rights, democratic freedoms...institutions and to meet basic human needs; and (2) The establishment...includes items such as many laptop computers, personal computers,...

2014-07-01

432

Visualization of Fiber Structurein the Left and Right Ventricleof a Human Heart  

SciTech Connect

The human heart is composed of a helical network of musclefibers. Anisotropic least squares filtering followed by fiber trackingtechniques were applied to Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging(DTMRI) data of the excised human heart. The fiber configuration wasvisualized by using thin tubes to increase 3-dimensional visualperception of the complex structure. All visualizations were performedusing the high-quality ray-tracing software POV-Ray. The fibers are shownwithin the left and right ventricles. Both ventricles exhibit similarfiber architecture and some bundles of fibers are shown linking right andleft ventricles on the posterior region of the heart.

Rohmer, Damien; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gullberg, Grant T.

2006-07-12

433

Social injustice, human rights-based education and citizens’ direct action to promote social transformation in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article opens with a proposed framework for human rights education (HRE), which synthesizes ideas drawn from Zinn’s people’s history, Sen’s theory of justice and Freire’s critical pedagogy. A review of the literature on HRE and human rights-based learning suggests three existent interrelated models of HRE. Drawing on human rights-based programmes designed to benefit Philippine society, this article then presents

Reynaldo Ty

2011-01-01

434

Clinical practice and the UK Human Rights Act 1998: protecting individual rights in the interest of the wider community.  

PubMed

Health professionals have expressed concern that the UK Human Rights Act 1988, which came into force in 2000, may threaten their autonomy in clinical practice/decision-making and resource allocation by health authorities. Although healthcare-related cases have so far been slow to emerge under the Act, it seems clear that in clinical practice the transition from duty to legal obligation will involve a degree of change for health professionals, in attitude if not in behaviour. With regard to resource allocation, it appears that the UK courts are likely to consider challenges to health authorities' decisions in a way that takes into account the need to set priorities, so long as these decisions do not discriminate unfairly and can be shown to have been made in the best interest of the wider community. PMID:11792086

Thomson, S M; Pitman, D; Mossialos, E

2001-01-01

435

The Human Rights Act (1998) and its impact on reproductive issues.  

PubMed

The Human Rights Act (HR Act) 1998 (UK) (Human Rights Act, 1998) came into effect on October 2, 2000. Instead of taking a case to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, litigants can enforce their rights in the UK. The Act will have an unprecedented effect in virtually all areas of the UK legal systems. In line with those countries who have incorporated the 'Convention' in domestic law, litigation is expected to increase. The extensive body of Convention law, as well as decisions of the domestic courts of other states which have incorporated the Convention, now becomes an integral part of UK jurisprudence. Broadly, the Act applies to public and not private bodies. The relevant bodies which embody reproductive issues and concerns are for example the National Health Service (NHS) and the regulatory bodies such as the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) (Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority Act, 1990) and the Human Genetics Advisory Commission (HGAC). A profound impact on the NHS practice, interpretations of the HFEA Act and its Code of Practice can be envisaged in relation to the Convention rights. Cases involving reproductive issues are already emerging in relation to the HR Act and which include sex selection, the present embryo transfer policy, interpretation of fatherless offspring and the provision of fertility services under the NHS. This review is intended to raise awareness of the HR Act 1998 for persons interested in human reproductive issues and how the HR Act could impact on the current laws and practice. Whilst it is only possible to speculate on what might happen in relation to the HR Act, what is certain is that UK law will radically change to accommodate the requirements of the HR Act 1998. PMID:11278235

Bahadur, G

2001-04-01

436

Stigmatisation as a public health tool against obesity--a health and human rights perspective.  

PubMed

The right to health is recognised in human rights law and is also part of the catalogue of patients' rights. It imposes a duty on governments to put in place a system of health protection making it possible for individuals to enjoy the highest attainable standard of health. However, disease patterns are constantly changing, and more and more attention is being paid to so-called lifestyle diseases. Individuals may expose themselves to health threats due to personal choices like eating and smoking habits, and this raises the issue of the individual's obligation with regard to ill health. Hence, is there not only a right to health but also a duty to be healthy? Using obesity as an example, and based on a cross-disciplinary research project, the article analyses selected European and national public health policy papers to see how individual rights and duties are framed and to analyse the use of stigmatisation as a public-health strategy from a health and human rights perspective. PMID:25199398

Hartlev, Mette

2014-09-01

437

Religious communities and HIV prevention: an intervention-study using a human rights-based approach  

PubMed Central

Religious communities have been a challenge to HIV prevention globally. Focusing on the acceptability component of the right to health, this intervention study examined how local Catholic, Evangelical and Afro-Brazilian religious communities can collaborate to foster young people’s sexual health and ensure their access to comprehensive HIV prevention in their communities in Brazil. This article describes the process of a three-stage sexual health promotion and HIV prevention initiative that used a multicultural human rights approach to intervention. Methods included 27 in-depth interviews with religious authorities on sexuality, AIDS prevention and human rights, and training 18 young people as research-agents, who surveyed 177 youth on the same issues using self-administered questionnaires. The results, analysed using a rights-based perspective on health and the vulnerability framework, were discussed in daylong interfaith workshops. Emblematic of the collaborative process, workshops are the focus of the analysis. Our findings suggest that this human rights framework is effective in increasing inter-religious tolerance and in providing a collective understanding of the sexuality and prevention needs of youth from different religious communities, and also serves as a platform for the expansion of state AIDS programmes based on laical principles. PMID:20373192

Paiva, V.; Garcia, J.; Rios, L.F.; Santos, A.O.; Terto, V.; Munoz-Laboy, M.

2011-01-01

438

Theorizing racial discourse in the post?racist twenty?first century: the new human genetics and black people  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no doubting the fact that the social construction of race is sensitive, complex and controversial. For so many people, there is no difference between black and white people. For a few others, we are simply different in a number of different ways. Such racial discourse is neither confined to academic debate nor is it new to those who

Merry Osemwegie

2008-01-01

439

Access to justice: evaluating law, health and human rights programmes in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Introduction In Kenya, human rights violations have a marked impact on the health of people living with HIV. Integrating legal literacy and legal services into healthcare appears to be an effective strategy to empower vulnerable groups and address underlying determinants of health. Methods We carried out an evaluation to collect evidence about the impact of legal empowerment programmes on health and human rights. The evaluation focused on Open Society Foundation-supported legal integration activities at four sites: the Academic Model of Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) facility, where the Legal Aid Centre of Eldoret (LACE) operates, in Eldoret; Kenyatta National Hospital's Gender-based Violence Recovery Centre, which hosts the COVAW legal integration program; and Christian Health Association of Kenya (CHAK) facilities in Mombasa and Naivasha. In consultation with the organizations implementing the programs, we designed a conceptual logic model grounded in human rights principles, identified relevant indicators and then coded structure, process and outcome indicators for the rights-related principles they reflect. The evaluation included a resource assessment questionnaire, a review of program records and routine data, and semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with clients and service providers. Data were collected in May–August 2010 and April–June 2011. Results Clients showed a notable increase in practical knowledge and awareness about how to access legal aid and claim their rights, as well as an enhanced ability to communicate with healthcare providers and to improve their access to healthcare and justice. In turn, providers became more adept at identifying human rights violations and other legal difficulties, which enabled them to give clients basic information about their rights, refer them to legal aid and assist them in accessing needed support. Methodological challenges in evaluating such activities point to the need to strengthen rights-oriented evaluation methods. Conclusions Legal empowerment programmes have the potential to promote accountability, reduce stigma and discrimination and contribute to altering unjust structures and systems. Given their apparent value as a health and human rights intervention, particularly for marginalized populations, further rigorous evaluations are called for to support the scale-up of such programmes. PMID:24242267

Gruskin, Sofia; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Ezer, Tamar; Gathumbi, Anne; Cohen, Jonathan; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia

2013-01-01

440

Biomedicine and international human rights law: in search of a global consensus.  

PubMed Central

Global challenges raised by biomedical advances require global responses. Some international organizations have made significant efforts over the last few years to establish common standards that can be regarded as the beginning of an international biomedical law. One of the main features of this new legal discipline is the integration of its principles into a human rights framework. This strategy seems the most appropriate, given the role of "universal ethics" that human rights play in our world of philosophical pluralism. In addition to the general standards that are gradually being established, a widespread consensus exists on the urgency of preventing two specific procedures: human germ-line interventions and human reproductive cloning. PMID:12571724

Andorno, Roberto

2002-01-01

441

[Gender discourses and bioethics].  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to present some of the contributions of the gender discourse to the bioethical debate, specifically in the field of nursing. At the same time, it will explain the contribution of the different feminist theories to the recognition and respect of human dignity. Basically, it will describe the three fundamental models in the gender discourse: the egalitarian model, the difference model, and the model of reciprocity or complementarity. The starting point is that even though the first two models have made significant contributions in the field of bioethics, they have nonetheless brought with them some deficiencies and reductionisms inherent in their thinking. The complementarity model, on the contrary, when properly understood, allows for the combination of the principles of equality and difference between man and woman, which places it at a much more enriching standpoint within the bioethical debate. PMID:25329418

Aparisi Miralles, Angela

2014-01-01

442

Health, human rights, and malaria control: historical background and current challenges.  

PubMed

Malaria, a parasitic infection, causes hundreds of millions of disease episodes and more than a million deaths every year, nearly all of them occurring in the poorer and more vulnerable sectors of the world's developing countries. In spite of the great burden of suffering caused by malaria, the human rights implications of this disease have not been well described. This article summarizes important associations between the spread of malaria and human rights abuses (such as those associated with slavery and armed conflict) and between poverty, socio-economic inequity, and access to malaria-control measures. The author concludes that malaria control merits inclusion as a core element in global strategies to achieve progressive realization of the right to health. PMID:17265753

Brentlinger, Paula E

2006-01-01

443

Health, Medicine and Science in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.  

PubMed

Using archival sources, the authors report on the debates and diverse perspectives of United Nations representatives responsible for formulating Article 25 (relating to health and medical care) and 27 (relating to science) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. These articles supply important normative guidelines for human rights and public health policy. The question of whether health-related rights should depend on state and/or private sponsorship was left open. There was agreement that scientists deserve freedom in their work but the elitist tone of Article 27 was modified by adding that the general public should share in its benefits. The political nature of drafting these articles shows they have no one dominant progenitor, but finally reflect hard-won consensus in a process ably chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt. PMID:10343298

Claude; Issel

1998-01-01

444

Julian Burnside puts human rights at top of agenda during Alumni reunion  

Microsoft Academic Search

“We have human rights not because we are nice or because we are white or because we are Christian but because we are human.” [Julian Burnside QC]Over 100 graduates and staff attended The University of Notre Dame Australia’s annual Alumni reunion and listened to prominent lawyer and activist, Julian Burnside AO QC, talk about his views on Australia’s lack of

Moira Saunders

2010-01-01

445

Reading "Rights of Desire" and "Rights of Opacity" in J. M. Coetzee's Disgrace.  

PubMed

This article argues that the novel Disgrace points toward a politics of illegiblity and opacity that aligns more readily with anti-identitarian queer theory instead of rights- and recognition-based human rights discourses. Through an extended consideration of the relation between national allegory, history, and legibility, I argue that the novel sustains two interpretations of the category of lesbian-first, the national allegorical reading that erases her rights of lesbian desire in the transmission of racialized and sexual historical debts and second, Lucy's refusal of legibility as a lesbian in the national narrative and legal structures. PMID:23316842

Canelli, Alyssa Stalsberg

2013-01-01

446

Educational Pluralism and Freedom of Religion: Recent Decisions of the European Court of Human Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the sensitive issue of the teaching of religions and beliefs in schools by analysing two recent decisions of the European Court of Human Rights. In these cases, the Court asserts that students should be exempted from compulsory courses on religion or from courses that are not conveyed in an objective, critical and pluralist…

Relano, Eugenia

2010-01-01

447

Democratization, human rights and economic reform: The case of China and Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the dramatic contrast in outcomes from the reform process in China and Russia. This experience sheds new light on the old debate about the relationship between political institutions, economic progress and human rights. It explores the arguments of principle involved in the debate about democratization in the communist countries. It examines the political setting within which the

Peter Nolan

1994-01-01

448

Evolution and Human Behavior 20: 8398 (1999) 1999 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.  

E-print Network

Evolution and Human Behavior 20: 83­98 (1999) © 1999 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. 655-siblings, and in the relationship of offspring to parents. These asymmetries raise the possibility of strong internal conflicts assume that in this, as in other cases, natural selection has operated, and by eliminating destructive

Haig, David

449

When to start antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: a human rights analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence from developed and developing countries shows clear clinical and public health benefit to starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) earlier. While discussions about when to start ART have often focused on the clinical risks and benefits, the main issue is one of fair limit-setting. We applied a human rights framework to assess a policy of early treatment initiation according to the following criteria: public-health purpose; likely effectiveness; specificity; human rights burdens and benefits; potential for less restrictive approaches; and fair administration. Discussion According to our analysis, a policy of earlier ART initiation would better serve both public health and human rights objectives. We highlight a number of policy approaches that could be taken to help meet this aim, including increased international financial support, alternative models of care, and policies to secure the most affordable sources of appropriate antiretroviral drugs. Summary Widespread implementation of earlier ART initiation is challenging in resource-limited settings. Nevertheless, rationing of essential medicines is a restriction of human rights, and the principle of least restriction serves to focus attention on alternative measures such as adapting health service models to increase capacity, decreasing costs, and seeking additional international funding. Progressive realisation using well-defined steps will be necessary to allow for a phased implementation as part of a framework of short-term targets towards nationwide policy adoption, and will require international technical and financial support. PMID:20356356

2010-01-01

450

Human Rights, Nation States, and NGOs: Structural Holes and the Emergence of Global Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article adapts Burt's 1992 network theory of structural holes to explore dynamic developments within global organizational networks, questioning the proposition that alternative forms of organizing are replacing the nation state as the central figure on the global stage. Our analysis of structural holes within the emerging global human rights regime moves beyond Burt's “ideal” conception of “communication as information”

Michael Stohl; Cynthia Stohl

2005-01-01

451

Human Rights and the U.N. Committee on Crime Prevention and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous subsidiary organs of the General Assembly and of the Economic and Social Council have played a part in the human rights program of the United Nations. For the first thirty years or so of its life the organization concentrated primarily on the development of normative texts; more recent efforts have emphasized implementation. The United Nations Committee on Crime Prevention

Roger S. Clark

1989-01-01

452

Domestic Violence as a Human Rights Issue: The Case of Immigrant Latinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the writings of the late social psychologist Ignacio Martín-Baró and other Latin American and Latino social scientists as a framework, this article examines the issue of domestic violence from a human rights perspective. As suggested by these writers, the antecedents, dynamics, and effects of domestic abuse are explored, bringing to bear the historical, philosophical, cultural, social, spiritual, and political

Julia L. Perilla

1999-01-01

453

Challenges to Popular and Human Rights Education: The Formation of Producer, Citizen, and Person.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that popular, or a form of alternative, education stands in the background of most efforts in human rights education in Latin America. Maintains that education must educate people as producers, citizens, and individuals. Discusses challenges to this task in light of liberation theology and the Peruvian experience. (CFR)

Sime, Luis

1994-01-01

454

Journal of Human Rights, 4:321351, 2005 Copyright c Taylor & Francis Inc.  

E-print Network

with other people who, in the eyes of God, are our neighbors. Hence, it is our responsibility or denied by an all-powerful state, but a God-given human right. Indeed, religious liberty is the bedrock of the State Department and the Congress in the mid-1990s. And, as we will see, many of the assumptions

455

The Political Economy of Education in Guyana: Implications for Human Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines human rights violations in education in Guyana, and identifies the socioeconomic factors that produced the current condition. Findings indicate that, although education is highly valued in the culture, the state has abandoned the educational needs of the nation to ensure the survival of the elite political regime. (JB)

Samaroo, Noel K.

1991-01-01

456

The European Court of Human Rights, Secular Education and Public Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 9/11 the European Court of Human Rights (the European Court) has raised anew the question of the relationship between religion and public education. In its reasoning, the European Court has had to consider competing normative accounts of the secular, either to accept or deny claims to religious liberty within Europe's public education…

Arthur, James; Holdsworth, Michael

2012-01-01

457

Children in Vulnerable Situations: A multi-disciplinary, human rights-based approach  

E-print Network

1 Children in Vulnerable Situations: A multi-disciplinary, human rights-based approach PHS 650-Madison, FACES Initiative (FAmilies and Children Everywhere deserve Support) of the Center for Global Health CORE started on an optimistic note for children ­ with an increasing focus on children in various social

Sheridan, Jennifer

458

Recommended measures to establish protections for human rights in the United States of America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detention and interrogation policies adopted by the United State's government in the wake of the 11 September 2001 attacks have raised several questions about its commitment to international law and human rights. Initially a bipartisan issue, the instances of torture and prisoner abuse brought before the public were condemned by both Democrats and Republicans, and both party's presidential candidates

Brian M. Napoletano

459

INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION IN SITUATIONS OF CONFLICT AND POST-CONFLICT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the effectiveness of Angolan government and United Nations (UN) and non-governmental attempts to protect human rights in Angola from early 1998 to date, during and in the immediate aftermath of the recent conflict. Angola has suffered from one of the longest-running conflicts in Africa. The country was originally a battleground for a proxy war between the Cold

ANDREA LARI; ROB KEVLIHAN

2004-01-01

460

U.S. Counterterrorism Policy and Superpower Compliance with International Human Rights Norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our specific topic is Guantanamo, but in my brief remarks I would like to take the long view of U.S. counterterrorism policy (including Guantanamo) and link it to the question of the compliance of the United States, as today's superpower, with international human rights norms, its relationship to the United Nations and, speaking very broadly, international law norms as conceived

Kenneth Anderson

2006-01-01

461

University of Essex Rules of Assessment for LLM in International Human Rights Law UNIVERSITY OF ESSEX  

E-print Network

University of Essex Rules of Assessment for LLM in International Human Rights Law UNIVERSITY OF ESSEX GRADUATE SCHOOL RULES OF ASSESSMENT FOR TAUGHT MASTERS DEGREES 2009, will be condoned provided the overall weighted average for the taught modules is 50. #12;University of Essex Rules

462

Far Away and Nearby: Holocaust Remembrance and Human Rights Education in Switzerland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article considers how young people in Swiss schools are taught about the history and background of the Holocaust within the wider perspective of human rights education, as an important basis for education concerning democratic citizenship. Given the country's specific history, for decades the Holocaust was not a matter of great interest in…

Schlag, Thomas; Wackerlig, Oliver

2010-01-01

463

From liberation to human rights: challenges for teachers of the Burakumin in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Burakumin, a culturally defined minority group among ethnic Japanese, face continued discrimination even as effective national policies and programs offering educational and social equity are terminated. Based on interviews and conversations in Japan with activist educators, teachers and administrators, the schooling for children of Burakumin families is discussed in the context of human rights education and the changing economic

June A. Gordon

2006-01-01

464

Honesty and Hope: Presenting Human Rights Issues to Teenagers through Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides description and analysis of numerous adolescent novels that all deal with human rights issues in a variety of cultures and national settings. Focuses on works by James Watson and Rachel Anderson. Claims that using such works honestly will foster in students a hopeful sense of motivation. (HB)

Bond, Gwenda

1994-01-01

465

Andrei Sakharov Prize Talk: Human Rights and International Science -- a Symbiotic Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

International collaborations, with which scientists have long been involved, have made them staunch defenders of human rights around the world. Collaborations involving a pair, or a small group, of scientists from different countries have been common for more than 100 years. Starting more than 50 years ago, CERN has become the quintessential example of the benefits of large scale international

Herman Winick

2010-01-01

466

Small arms and light weapons: the tools used to violate human rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

he availability, transfer and misuse of small arms have dramatic adverse consequences on human rights. Hundreds of thousands of men, women and children are killed or injured each year by small arms and light weapons. The estimated number of firearms in circulation in the world is 640 million.1 It is likely that the actual global stockpile of small arms is

Barbara A. FREY

467

Deaths in the Desert: The Human Rights Crisis on the U.S.--Mexico Border  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many would acknowledge that immigration is a major issue in the United States and that immigration reform should be a priority. However, there is little attention to the human rights crisis on the U.S.-Mexican border. As a result of tightened border security since 1994, it is estimated that over 5,000 migrants have died in the Sonoran desert. The…

Androff, David K.; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y.

2012-01-01

468

Plan Colombia: Is US Foreign Policy increasing Human Rights Violations in Colombia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plan Colombia is the United States aid package to Colombia designed to counteract drug production and trafficking, while developing the country economically and decreasing human rights abuses. In actuality, Plan Columbia has a negative impact on all three areas it is designed to improve. This is a result of the civil war in Colombia combined with the fact the underlying

Karen A. Laflash

469

Assessing Risk and Opportunity in Conflict Studies: A Human Rights Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past two decades, substantial progress has been made toward a theoretical understanding of why physical integrity abuses are committed. Unfortunately, these theoretical developments have been devoid of much practical application. In this article, the authors explore the feasibility of risk assessment in the study of these human rights

Poe, Steven C.; Rost, Nicolas; Carey, Sabine C.

2006-01-01

470

Domestic Violence as a Human Rights Issue: The Case of Immigrant Latinos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines domestic violence from a human rights perspective. Explores the antecedents, dynamics, and effects of domestic abuse in light of the historical, philosophical, cultural, social, spiritual, and political realities of Latino immigrants in the United States. Discusses levels of awareness and responsibility necessary to break the…

Perilla, Julia L.

1999-01-01

471

When All Else Fails: International Adjudication of Human Rights Abuse Claims, 1976-1999  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although interest in the consolidation and expansion of the international human rights regime has grown in recent years, little attention is accorded to the formal procedures that allow individuals aggrieved by states to appeal directly to an international audience. Using data for 82 countries between 1976 and 1999, this article examines the…

Cole, Wade M.

2006-01-01

472

SEXUALITY, VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, AND HUMAN RIGHTS: Women Make Demands and Ladies Get Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

I begin this essay with a paradox: The variety of sexual harms experienced by women or men are nowhere under- stood, effectively prevented, or responded to; and yet, sexual threats to girls and women are in the headlines everywhere. Not only are they in the headlines, but increasingly they are framed as women's human rights issues. A moment that epitomizes

Alice M. Miller

2004-01-01

473

Canadian Museum for Human Rights & UWinnipeg Sign MOU May 6, 2011  

E-print Network

in human rights will enhance the learning experience for all that are engaged and involved to help build://twitter.com/uwinnipeg and on Facebook http://www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Winnipeg-youofwcom-Where-You-Matter-Most/40526795732://humanrightsmuseum.ca/ or follow us on Twitter: http://twitter.com /cmhr_news and on Facebook: For more information

Martin, Jeff

474

Independent human rights documentation and sexual minorities: an ongoing challenge for the Canadian refugee determination process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual minorities must meet the same evidentiary burden as all other refugee claimants. Independent country information produced by international human rights organisations plays an important role in meeting this burden. However, in the case of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender claimants, existing country documentation still fails to provide the kind of information refugees need to support their claims. This is

Nicole LaViolette

2009-01-01

475

Women in History--Sarah Winnemucca: Native Educator and Human Rights Advocate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles Sarah Winnemucca, a Native educator and dedicated human rights advocate who devoted her life to building communication and creating understanding between the Native and white cultures. On March 1, 2005, Congressman Jon Porter of Nevada addressed Congress on a bill to allow for the placement of a statue of Sarah Winnemucca…

Krumm, Bernita L.

2006-01-01

476

Images of war: using satellite images for human rights monitoring in Turkish Kurdistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In areas of war and armed conflict it is difficult to get trustworthy and coherent information. Civil society and human rights groups often face problems of dealing with fragmented witness reports, disinformation of war propaganda, and difficult direct access to these areas. Turkish Kurdistan was used as a case study of armed conflict to evaluate the potential use of satellite

Hugo de Vos; Joost Jongerden; Jacob van Etten

2008-01-01

477

Education for Human Rights. An International Perspective. Studies in Comparative Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents theoretical studies and national experiences of how education might respond to war, natural catastrophes, or disease, thereby making people more aware and successful at managing difficult situations. The volume's 15 authors, drawn from many parts of the world, deal with human rights (especially those of women, children,…

Ray, Douglas, Ed.; And Others

478

Distributed Denial of Service Attacks Against Independent Media and Human Rights Sites  

E-print Network

Payback" attacks by "Anonymous" on sites perceived to oppose Wikileaks, we expect these attacks to become of cyber attacks, including filtering, intrusions, and defacements in addition to DDoS attacks, and those1 Distributed Denial of Service Attacks Against Independent Media and Human Rights Sites Ethan

Gunawardena, Jeremy

479

Teachers, Sexual Orientation, and the Law in Canada: A Human Rights Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher expression on the subject of sexual orientation is a hotly contested topic that has led to many recent legal challenges in the United States and Canada. The purpose of this article is to offer readers an introduction to Canadian cases regarding teacher expression and sexual orientation and demonstrate how the application of a human rights…

Meyer, Elizabeth J.

2010-01-01

480

Crime Control in the Digital Age: An exploration of Human Rights Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in information and communications technologies (ICT) have created not only a range of new crime problems, but also facilitated prevention, detection, investigation, prosecution and punishment of crime. Although technology has assisted criminal justice agencies and offered many protections for suspects and offenders, risks of infringement of human rights have arisen from the way in which the law has responded

Russell G. Smith

481

The Role and Purposes of Public Schools and Religious Fundamentalism: An International Human Rights Law Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of what are today the legitimate and proper role and purposes of public schools can only be answered by a close examination and analysis of the human right to education which has been developed by such international organizations as the United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and by…

Hodgson, Douglas Charles

2012-01-01

482

Peace and Human Rights Education: Dilemmas of Compatibility and Prospects for Moving Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the dilemmas emerging from efforts to integrate human rights values within a peace education programme being carried out in a conflict situation. Although the article is largely theoretical, it is grounded in the author's reflections on a series of teacher workshops and his overall experiences conducting ethnographic…

Zembylas, Michalinos

2011-01-01

483

Intra-Language Discrimination and Linguistic Human Rights: The Case of Singlish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although studies involving linguistic human rights (LHRs) have focused at length on cases of inter-language discrimination, much less attention has been given to intra-language discrimination (Blommaert 2001a; Skutnabb-Kangas et al. 2001). This paper highlights a number of theoretical issues that the LHRs framework needs to deal with once…

Wee, Lionel

2005-01-01

484

Human Rights-Based Approach to Disability and Health in Development Cooperation: Perspectives from the South  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Summary Disability and health are human rights issues. The mainstreaming and implementation of these development themes is a complex process both in North and South particularly because many actors are involved under the peculiar development cooperation system. We have highlighted some of the main challenges in our previous work.1 While the disability case study in the previous research focused

Hisayo Katsui; Richard Wamai

485

Human Rights as Safeguarding: The Schooling Experiences of HIV+ Children in Jamaica  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interface between HIV/AIDS, education and human rights is an important issue in Jamaican society. The spread of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean is second only to that in Africa, and Jamaica itself has the second highest numbers of HIV+ individuals within the Caribbean region. Using a qualitative methodology, this exploratory study aimed to discern…

Miller, Paul; Kelly, Kemesha; Spawls, Nicola

2011-01-01

486

International Human Rights to Early Intervention for Infants and Young Children with Disabilities: Tools for Global Advocacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With almost universal ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the growing number of States Parties that have signed or ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the majority of countries in the world have now committed to implementing the human rights articulated in these treaties. In this article,…

Brown, Sharan E.; Guralnick, Michael J.

2012-01-01

487

Building Humane Communities Respectful of Children: The Significance of the Convention on the Rights of the Child  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The greatest promise of international human rights law is in stimulating thoughtful self-examination by those who strive to do what is right. Perhaps more than any other instrument, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC; 1989) offers the opportunity to use a global moral consensus to transform life at the neighborhood level in order to…

Melton, Gary B.

2005-01-01

488

"Clutching a knifeblade": human rights and development from Asian women's perspective.  

PubMed

A brief, vivid portrait of the human rights conditions for women in Asia was presented: "kapit sa patalim" or utter despair, urban migration, export processing zones, tourism and prostitution, political repression, and military sexual slavery. Advocates of women's human rights for Asian women must contend with patriarchal and male-dominated systems that oppress and exploit women to a much greater extent than men. Liberation from these systems and the domination and exploitation by wealthier nations must be a goal of a new economic world order. Unjust and repressive structures must be destroyed, and equitable distribution of wealth and democracy and popular initiatives promoted. The status of women must be raised to coequal status with men. The most important objective of human rights advocates should be the empowerment of women at the individual, community, national, regional, and international level. The Asian Women's Human Rights Council was established as an addition to 3 already operating regional commissions of women's organizations. The aim was not just to describe women as victims, but to pressure development activity to account for women's human rights. Sex tribunals have been scheduled between 1993 and 1994 to address the following issues: 1) sex trafficking (Japan, May 1993); 2) violence against women (Pakistan, December 1993); 3) militarism, environment, and violence against women (Korea, March 1994); 4) crimes of development against women in Asia (India); 5) religion and violence against women (Malaysia, 1994); and 6) indigenous women (December 1994). Women were victims when Filipino domestic workers were stranded and raped in Iraq during the chaos of war, when girls from landless peasant families migrated near Clark Air Force Base to earn a living as prostitutes for US servicemen, when women were forced to work 36-hour shifts in foreign-owned garment factories in Bataan, when women migrated for work, and when women were abused and battered in Bangladesh and India. Many other examples of abuse were indicated in the discussion. PMID:12345217

Sancho-liao, N

1993-06-01

489

Patents and the obligation to protect health: examining the significance of human rights considerations in the protection of pharmaceutical patents.  

PubMed

This article discusses the human right to health in the context of patent protection and access to medicines. It considers the limitations in international human rights law, especially in relation to socioeconomic rights, that make it difficult for the right to health to be a potent justification for derogation from trade or intellectual property agreements. It concludes by taking the view that while the right to health may be somewhat unenforceable in international law, its close association with enforceable rights such as the right to life can be a legitimate basis for making maximum use of the flexibilities in the international intellectual property regime to protect public health. The article takes the view that trade and intellectual property agreements must be interpreted in a way that endeavours as much as possible to resolve any seeming inconsistency with the right to health. PMID:25087369

Owoeye, Olasupo Ayodeji

2014-06-01

490

Within but without: human rights and access to HIV prevention and treatment for internal migrants  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, far more people migrate within than across borders, and although internal migrants do not risk a loss of citizenship, they frequently confront significant social, financial and health consequences, as well as a loss of rights. The recent global financial crisis has exacerbated the vulnerability internal migrants face in realizing their rights to health care generally and to antiretroviral therapy in particular. For example, in countries such as China and Russia, internal migrants who lack official residence status are often ineligible to receive public health services and may be increasingly unable to afford private care. In India, internal migrants face substantial logistical, cultural and linguistic barriers to HIV prevention and care, and have difficulty accessing treatment when returning to poorly served rural areas. Resulting interruptions in HIV services may lead to a wide range of negative consequences, including: individual vulnerability to infection and risk of death; an undermining of state efforts to curb the HIV epidemic and provide universal access to treatment; and the emergence of drug-resistant disease strains. International human rights law guarantees individuals lawfully within a territory the right to free movement within the borders of that state. This guarantee, combined with the right to the highest attainable standard of health set out in international human rights treaties, and the fundamental principle of non-discrimination, creates a duty on states to provide a core minimum of health care services to internal migrants on a non-discriminatory basis. Targeted HIV prevention programs and the elimination of restrictive residence-based eligibility criteria for access to health services are necessary to ensure that internal migrants are able to realize their equal rights to HIV prevention and treatment. PMID:19925647

2009-01-01

491

A human rights approach to the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines.  

PubMed Central

Since the first WHO Model List of Essential Medicines was adopted in 1977, it has become a popular tool among health professionals and Member States. WHO's joint effort with the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has resulted in the inclusion of access to essential medicines in the core content of the right to health. The Committee states that the right to health contains a series of elements, such as availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of health goods, services and programmes, which are in line with the WHO statement that essential medicines are intended to be available within the context of health systems in adequate amounts at all times, in the appropriate dosage forms, with assured quality and information, and at a price that the individual and the community can afford. The author considers another perspective by looking at the obligations to respect, protect and fulfil the right to health undertaken by the states adhering to the International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and explores the relationship between access to medicines, the protection of intellectual property, and human rights. PMID:16710552

Seuba, Xavier

2006-01-01

492

[Cultural diversity and pluralism in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights].  

PubMed

The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups. PMID:22984748

Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

2011-01-01

493

Archimedean Witness: The Application of Remote Sensing as an Aid to Human Rights Prosecutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 21st century has seen a significant increase in the use of remote sensing technology in the international human rights arena for the purposes of documenting crimes against humanity. The nexus between remote sensing, human rights activism, and international criminal prosecutions sits at a significant crossroads within geogr