This article presents a critique of the concepts ‘sexual orientation’ and ‘gender identity’, which are being employed to contest global human rights discourses by prevailing international lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) and human rights activist networks – notably in the Declaration of Montreal (2006) and, especially, the Yogyakarta Principles (2007). Theoretical analysis, informed by social theory and queer theory,
Rohleder, Poul; Swartz, Leslie
Research suggests that disabled people may be at increased risk for HIV infection, yet are excluded from HIV prevention campaigns. Historically people with learning disabilities have been constructed as either being asexual or sexually uninhibited, and sex education considered to be unnecessary or potentially harmful. This article reports on findings of a qualitative study exploring the challenges expressed by participants who provide sex education for persons with learning disabilities, revealing a tension between a human rights discourse and a discourse of restriction of sexual behaviours. Sex education, in the context of HIV/AIDS, may potentially construct sex as dangerous, echoing past constructions of disabled people's sexuality as problematic. PMID:19383660
This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…
B. de Gaay Fortman
Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards and generally accessible mechanisms for implementation. That mission got a major impetus with
The idea of "human rights" is a relatively new development in history, but as this website from Britain's National Archives notes in its discussion of the long trajectory of struggles for equality and so forth, "We could do worse than characterizing this history as the struggle for human rights." This visually compelling online exhibit uses original documents from The National Archives to take a long view of these struggles and movements. Visitors can start their journey through the site by picking a time period, and then reading an introductory essay on the period. Each time period includes a timeline and links to digitized version of relevant documents, such as The Poor Act of 1601 and a poster for a Staffordshire coal miners' union public meeting from 1831. The site is rounded out by a thorough glossary and a document index.
Johns, Clinton L.; Tooley, Kristen M.; Traxler, Matthew J.
Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) rarely causes aphasias marked by clear and widespread failures of comprehension or extreme difficulty producing fluent speech. Nonetheless, subtle language comprehension deficits can occur following unilateral RHD. In this article, we review the empirical record on discourse function following right hemisphere damage, as well as relevant work on non-brain damaged individuals that focuses on right hemisphere function. The review is divided into four sections that focus on discourse processing, inferencing, humor, and non-literal language. While the exact role that the right hemisphere plays in language processing, and the exact way that the two cerebral hemispheres coordinate their linguistic processes are still open to debate, our review suggests that the right hemisphere plays a critical role in managing inferred or implied information by maintaining relevant information and/or suppressing irrelevant information. Deficits in one or both of these mechanisms may account for discourse deficits following RHD.
Taylor, Catherine; Peter, Tracey
Canadian law protects people from discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, but our public schools do not fulfill their ethical and legal obligations where sexual and gender minority youth are concerned. This article reports on a national survey study on homophobia and transphobia in Canadian high schools. Participants (n = 3,607) were questioned about school climate, harassment, school attachment, and institutional interventions. We found that schools were neither safe nor respectful for sexual and gender minority students, and we argue that ongoing exposure to this situation undermines students' respect for the Charter of Rights and their faith in adults. PMID:22214043
1 Human Rights in Education European View on Childhood and Education . .3 Children's Rights for several decades. The Canadian Bill of Rights (1960) and the federal and provincial human rights in Competitive Sport . . . . . . . . .4 Equality Rights of the Child . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Resources
Does rhetoric have a place in the discourse of human rights? Without certain reply, as the dilemmas of defining, claiming, and promoting human rights appear both to include and exclude the rhetorical gesture, this question invites inquiry into the preface of the contemporary human rights regime, the moment of the aftermath that provokes a struggle…
Traditional definitions of what constitutes a human being in human rights discourse fail to include the new kinds of human beings that are emerging through genetic manipulation. The prospect of such technology and the knowledge that such alterations infringe on a number of human rights and so require further consideration, in order to be clear about their appropriateness for human
Teresa McDowell; Kathryn Libal; Andraé L. Brown
In this article the authors introduce a human rights framework into the practice of family therapy. In particular, the authors explore the relevance of human rights to the practice of liberation-based work, arguing for situating individual experience within collective human rights discourse; drawing from human rights movements to promote resistance and resilience; and using a human rights framework to promote
Jones, Peter JS
Migration, Human Rights and Security in Europe MRU Student Conference Proceedings 2012 Edited by Siril Berglund, Helen McCarthy and Agata Patyna #12;2 "Migration, Human Rights and Security...............................................................................................58 #12;3 "Migration, Human Rights and Security in Europe", MRU Student Conference Proceedings
Created in 1989, Human Rights in China is one of the major sources of information on human rights conditions in the People's Republic of China. The site offers press releases, reports, articles from its quarterly journal, China Rights Forum, organizational work reports, educational materials, action ideas and related links. In addition, the site covers a number of topics, including political prisoners and dissent, legal reform, freedom of association, women's rights, workers' rights, children's rights, and human rights education. The entire site is also available in Chinese.
The Human Rights Library of the University of Minnesota holds a collection of over ninety of the most important international human rights instruments -- treaties, declarations, and other materials -- together with authoritative citations. The documents are easily accessed by subject matter or searched by keyword. In addition, the site offers information about the work of the human rights treaty bodies, including general comments and recommendations, decisions and views of the U.N. Human Rights Committee, and other materials. Links to other useful sites containing information about human rights and relevant resources are also provided.
Jonathan M. Mann; Sofia Gruskin; MIA Troyen Brennan; Harvey V Fineberg
H ealth and human rights have rarely been linked in an ex- plicit manner. With few exceptions, notably involving access to health care, discussions about health have rarely.included hu- man rights considerations. Similarly, except when obvious dam- age to health is the primary manifestation of a human rights abuse, such as with torture, health perspectives have been gen- erally absent
Russell, Susan Garnett; Tiplic, Dijana
This paper investigates the extent to which rights-based education is utilised in textbooks from conflict-affected countries. Drawing on a unique dataset of 528 secondary social science textbooks from 71 countries from 1966 to 2008, we analyse factors that predict a rights discourse in texts. We find that textbooks from conflict-affected nations…
Rico, B; Uribe-Zúñiga, P; Panebianco-Labbé, S; del Río-Chiriboga, C
AIDS and human rights are closely related issues. This paper describes the relationship between AIDS and human rights, the impact and consequences of discrimination and the importance of the defense of human rights as a cornerstone strategy in AIDS prevention. Some general ethical aspects are addressed and two dilemmas which have been raised by the epidemic are discussed: the apparent conflict between individual and community rights and the reactions of intolerance and repression from those who claim that only through coercive strategies will the epidemic be brought under control. Specific problems in Mexico are described based on data collected at CONASIDA's Human Rights Department between 1992 and 1994. Finally some conclusions are stated emphasizing that, in the AIDS epidemic, the defense of human rights is the cornerstone of any public health strategy. PMID:8599140
Winston P. Nagan; Aitza M. Haddad
This article seeks to contribute to a better understating of the relationship between aesthetics and fundamental human rights. The initial challenge was to develop a more clarified conception of aesthetics as a social process in order to better mark those aspects of aesthetics that have clear human rights implications. This required us to contextualize the aesthetics process in terms of
The impact of procreation on freedom, health and welfare of human beings, is considerable. This relationship, however, is not mirrored in texts devoted to Human Rights. This omission obviously implies a neglect of women's and children's rights. The history of anticonceptive methods exemplifies the struggle for these rights. This conquest, which has lasted two hundred years, is far from completed. Because of the demographic outbreak in Third World countries, an ideological conflict has appeared between first generation Human Rights concerned with individual freedom ("rights of") and those of second generation aiming at social fairness ("rights to"). Adequate political and economic adjustment between North and South is a prerequisite to any balanced compromise that would resolve this conflict through democratic, albeit intensive, birth control. PMID:2339216
This article builds on previous comparative education research by analyzing the current discourse surrounding this emerging education model--human rights education. The first section provides a brief history of human rights education in formal education. The second section reviews research on international reforms, emphasizing analyses of…
Speak Truth To Power consists of 17 teacher-developed lessons based on the stories of rights advocates from all over the world. The lessons were created for sixth-through 12th-grade students, and have come to New York schools thanks to the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights and the New York State United Teachers union. Speak…
Read, Ursula M; Adiibokah, Edward; Nyame, Solomon
Background The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses. However such initiatives exemplify a top-down approach to promoting human rights which historically has had limited impact at the level of those living with mental illness and their families. Methods This research forms part of a longitudinal anthropological study of people with severe mental illness in rural Ghana. Visits were made to over 40 households with a family member with mental illness, as well as churches, shrines, hospitals and clinics. Ethnographic methods included observation, conversation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with people with mental illness, carers, healers, health workers and community members. Results Chaining and beating of the mentally ill was found to be commonplace in homes and treatment centres in the communities studied, as well as with-holding of food ('fasting'). However responses to mental illness were embedded within spiritual and moral perspectives and such treatment provoked little sanction at the local level. Families struggled to provide care for severely mentally ill relatives with very little support from formal health services. Psychiatric services were difficult to access, particularly in rural communities, and also seen to have limitations in their effectiveness. Traditional and faith healers remained highly popular despite the routine maltreatment of the mentally ill in their facilities. Conclusion Efforts to promote the human rights of those with mental illness must engage with the experiences of mental illness within communities affected in order to grasp how these may underpin the use of practices such as mechanical restraint. Interventions which operate at the local level with those living with mental illness within rural communities, as well as family members and healers, may have greater potential to effect change in the treatment of the mentally ill than legislation or investment in services alone. PMID:19825191
The Arthur W. Diamond Law Library at Columbia Law School maintains this excellent resource for finding materials on human rights and constitutional rights. The metasite serves students, scholars, and practitioners as a portal to documents and Internet resources on international and domestic law related to human and constitutional rights. The information resources are divided into six sections: Country Reports, International Links, Regional Links, National Links, Documents, and Other Web Resources. Each section is clearly organized into neat lists or pop-up menus to ease navigation. Marylin Raisch -- the International, Comparative, and Foreign Law Librarian responsible for this metasite -- also provides a Hot Topics section, which posts information on current events related to human and constitutional rights.
Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…
Rebecca J. Passonneau; Diane J. Litman
The need to model the relation between discourse structure and linguistic features of utterances is almost universally acknowledged in the literature on discourse. However, there is only weak consensus on what the units of discourse structure are, or the criteria for recognizing and generating them. We present quantitative results of a two-part study using a corpus of spontaneous, narrative monologues.
How does the United Nations work to protect human rights? This subject-specific website provides information on the various offices, officials, policy initiatives, and actions related to this important agenda. There are five main sections to the site: UN Bodies, Thematic Issues, International Courts and Tribunals, Other Resources, and Past Conferences. The UN Bodies section contains information about the UN Human Rights Council, its various charters, treaties, and more. Thematic Issues is another great feature, offering detailed information on the Secretary-General's Campaign to End Violence Against Women as well as the UNâ??s Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. News items from around the world can be found on the right-hand side of the page, effectively covering everything from Sri Lankan ethnic minority groups to ongoing conflicts in Pakistan.
In 2003, four high school students from the Tashkent International School in the capital city confronted the issue of their nation's human rights problems head on by researching the topic and publishing their findings on the Web. The site, "Uzbekistan: Opaque Reality," was created as an entry for the non-profit Global SchoolNet's Doors to…
This paper examines the impacts of globalization on human rights and the challenges faced by adult educators. It concludes that globalization has adversely affected human rights, particularly in the South. Adult educators must challenge the discourse of accepting globalization as an inevitable product of development. This paper examines the impacts of globalization on human rights and the challenges faced by
After the non-binding Universal Declaration of Human Rights, many global and regional human rights treaties have been concluded. Critics argue that these are unlikely to have made any actual difference in reality. Others contend that international regimes can improve respect for human rights in state parties, particularly in more democratic countries or countries with a strong civil society devoted to
After the nonbinding Universal Declaration of Human Rights, many global and regional human rights treaties have been concluded. Critics argue that these are unlikely to have made any actual difference in reality. Others contend that international regimes can improve respect for human rights in state parties, particularly in more democratic countries or countries with a strong civil society devoted to
Holland, Sean Jamison
Contemporary philosophy of human rights is dominated by two seemingly opposed approaches. This dissertation is concerned with the choice between them. The traditional approach to human rights is characterized by the belief ...
Maintained by the US Department of State's Office of International Information Programs (OIIP), formerly the USIA, this site is among the four US Policy topics covered in depth on the OIIP site. The Democracy and Human Rights site contains fewer resources than the International Security site, and in fact, the first headline links to the latter. The site offers access to several journals off the front page -- Criminal Justice in the United States, Accountability in Government, and Towards a Community of Democracies -- but the bulk of the site's material is divided into two sections, Democracy and Human Rights. Each contains policy documents, in-depth looks at selected issues, links to other resources, and more.
University of Windsor Human Rights Policy Approved by the Board of Governors June 12, 1997 #12;For further information or to obtain additional copies of this policy please contact the: HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICE: (519) 971-3673 #12;Human Rights Policy 1 PREAMBLE The University of Windsor is committed to providing
Section and the Global Media Policy Working Group COMMUNICATION AS A HUMAN RIGHT: POLICY CHALLENGES, PUBLIC INTEREST NARRATIVES AND VISIONS FOR THE FUTURE Investigating evolving discourses on Human Rights look at different settings where the discourse on human rights and communication is being elaborated
This essay asks whether international human rights arguments are likely to be effective in advancing immigrants' rights in the United States. There are certainly reasons to be pessimistic. Despite its history as a nation of immigrants and the ever-increasing diversity of its populace, the United States remains a deeply parochial and nationalist culture. International human rights arguments are often seen
The Chinese Embassy site contains statements on China's foreign policy in general, Sino-US relations, and relations with other countries. In addition, the Embassy also offers statements and papers on human rights issues. The State Visit of Chinese President Jiang Zemin last week represented a thaw in official Sino-US Relations, which have been somewhat chilly since Tiananmen in 1989. Despite reaching agreements on a broad range of security, economic, environmental and law-enforcement issues, the two Presidents were clearly far apart on the issue of human rights. While President Clinton made mention of the right to political and religious expression, President Jiang expressed the need for political and social stability in his country. On the whole, both leaders have achieved their goals. President Clinton has secured China's cooperation on several issues, most importantly arms control and trade, while the state dinner and formal ceremony recognized China's role as a key player in the world economy and Jiang's international position as its head of state.
Dhamoon, Rita Kaur; Hankivsky, Olena
In this commentary, the authors propose than an intersectionality perspective can transform understandings of the contentious content of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR). The use of an intersectionality perspective starts from the position that such discourses as racialization, gendering, capitalism, and ableism are mutually…
Ruth Rubio-Marin; Cristina M Rodriguez
Human rights discourse focuses on personhood as the source of entitlement, but the persistence of national sovereignty as an organizing concept means that rights-respecting governments can discriminate against non-citizens. At the same time, rights discourse has prevented non-citizens from being entirely instrumentalized, as reflected in courts’ application of domestic constitutional norms and international human rights principles to protect territorially present
... Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human Rights Week, 2009 8464 Proclamation 8464 ...8464 of December 9, 2009 Proc. 8464 Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human...
An analysis of the relevance of human rights to litigation and exploitation of intellectual property rights in the UK. The paper considers the impact of the Human Rights Act 1998, and other human rights instruments, ...
Why do we have human rights? What ought to be the function of such rights in the global order, and to what extent does this help define what they are? Who needs to do what to realize these rights? In response to such questions this paper develops a conception of human rights that thinks of them as membership rights in
Leslie London; Helen Schneider
While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of human rights discourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states’ ability to act in their population’s interests, yet implementation of human rights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central
One only needs to look at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) logo, with its abstract outline of the CMHR building, to see the way in which the museum's architecture has come to stand for the CMHR's immaterial meanings and content. The CMHR's architecture becomes a material intersection of discourses of cosmopolitanism, human rights, and…
Mandry, Antonia Dorothea
This dissertation examines diverse pedagogic approaches to teaching human rights and citizenship at the university level and how a particular academic community perceives of and engages with human rights and citizenship discourse. Based on fieldwork conducted at Sabanci University in Turkey, I explore how students and educators draw on, modify and…
Crocco, Margaret Smith
The author considers the treatment of women's rights as human rights in the social studies curriculum. She discusses the role of the United Nations in promoting women's rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. She also reviews the treatment of women's rights within social studies curriculum today through a…
HUMAN RIGHTS POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Approved by: Board of Governors January 25, 2001 Senate OF CONTENTS Part I General Carleton University Statement on Conduct and Human Rights . . . . . . . . . . 1 Systemic Human Rights Issues Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 #12
During the Seventies, human rights moved from the periphery to the center of American foreign policy. This action – I argue in the paper – reflected a double-headed and contradictory interest in human rights. From a liberal perspective, human rights concerns were a criticism toward the mistakes of the global containment. By reinforcing morality in foreign policy – liberals argued
McCall-Smith, Kasey Lowe
This thesis examines the default application of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties reservation rules to reservations to human rights treaties. The contemporary practice of formulating reservations allows ...
As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.
Sam McFarland; Melissa Mathews
National polls indicate strong American support for international human rights. However, that support consistently ranks below national self-interests, appears to be strongly influenced by current events, and wanes as the cost of supporting human rights increases. Although most Americans express agreement with the ideals of human rights, a willingness to commit American resources to promote and defend human rights is
Robert G. Blanton; Shannon Lindsey Blanton
Human rights concerns figure prominently on the global economic agenda. Yet little empirical analysis has addressed the prospective impact of human rights for global economic interactions. To gain insight into this linkage, we assess the empirical relationship between human rights and an important facet of the global economy, dyadic trade flows. Traditional arguments posit that respect for human rights and
Twenty-seven classroom activities to help elementary and secondary students learn about human rights are described. The three major objectives of human rights education and teaching are: (1) to foster the attitudes of tolerance, respect, and solidarity inherent in human rights; (2) to provide knowledge about human rights, in both their national…
Sussex, University of
Essentials Taught degree MA in Human Rights Research degrees MPhil, PhD in Human Rights Admissions funding database at www.sussex.ac.uk/funding Key facts Â· Human rights at Sussex goes beyond a narrow legalistic approach and explores how human rights are socially embedded in wider processes of poverty
Sajan, K. S.
This paper describes the importance of human rights education as proclaimed by UN (1994) and also the strategies for developing human rights education by UN General assembly 2005. In proclaiming the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004), in December 1994, the General Assembly defined human rights education as "a life-long…
Arnot, Madeleine; Chege, Fatuma N.; Wawire, Violet
This paper contributes to the study of citizenship by interrogating how young people in Nairobi (Chege and Arnot 2012) perceive their rights of citizenship. It builds on previous analyses of the connections between gender, education and poverty's poor urban settlements by focusing on the political dimensions of the young people's lives. The…
The existing predominantly male interpretation of religious texts tends to discriminate against or ignore women's needs and well-being. It is necessary to deeply analyze these religious texts by female scholars and gender-sensitive male scholars. In view of this, the Indonesian Society for Pesantren and Community Development (P3M) conducted gender-awareness workshops which encourage discussion of Qur'anic verses and Ahadith (sayings and actions of Prophet Muhammad) that pertain to women. A nongovernmental organization in India, P3M gathered conventional and alternative interpretations of Islamic texts and views on reproductive and sexual health from local and overseas sources. Overall, the workshops resulted in a book on women's rights to reproductive health, marriage and fertility in the context of Islam. Such works by P3M contribute to a more balanced discussion of reproductive health and rights and provide Indonesian women with the opportunity to improve their life at home and in society in line with their faith. PMID:12296267
Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove, Ed.; Phillipson, Robert, Ed.
A collection of essays on linguistic human rights includes: "Combining Immigrant and Autochthonous Language Rights: A Territorial Approach to Multilingualism" (Francois Grin); "On the Limits of Ethnolinguistic Democracy" (Joshua A. Fishman); "Linguistic Human Rights and Educational Policy in Russia" (Alexei A. Leontiev); "Linguistic Human Rights,…
Jefferson R. Plantilla; HURIGHTS OSAKA
milestone in the human rights-development field. It provides a clearer basis for linking development with human rights. It recognizes development as a right - an inalienable human right. The concept that people are both benef iciary and active participant in the development process fits the development approach of many non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The idea of the exercise of t he
Merryfield, Merry M.; Badang, Germain; Bragg, Christina; Kvasov, Aleksandr; Taylor, Nathan; Waliaula, Anne; Yamaguchi, Misato
The study of human rights is inseparable from social studies. Beyond the basic political, economic, and social freedoms and rights spelled out in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, hundreds of specialized topics have developed that demonstrate the complex nature of human rights in the twenty-first-century world--environmental exploitation…
As this website explains in its Common Questions area, "Tactics consist of how to make a change", and given this statement, the site will be of great interest to those with a concern for international human rights. The New Tactics in Human Rights organization is primarily concerned with providing practitioners in the field with a package of practical tools, a worldwide symposium, and a number of other strategic planning resources. The project itself is coordinated by the Center for Victims of Torture and is overseen by a board of advisors that includes novelist Mario Vargas Llosa and the Right Honorable Kim Campbell, who is the former Prime Minister of Canada. The "Tools for Action" section is a real find as it contains a number of tactical notebooks taken from various case studies around the world, including work from Turkey, Hungary, Romania, and Albania. It is worth noting that many of the materials on the site are also available in Spanish and French.
he Millennium Declaration affirms both gender equality and human rights as central commitments made by gov- ernments at the UN Millennium Assembly in 2000. The Millennium Development Goals constitute an attempt to set quanitifiable priorities in the development arena, but cannot be understood outside of the context of the broader Millennium Declaration. Equality, including the \\
Daniel Tarantola; Andrew Byrnes; Michael Johnson; Lynn Kemp; Anthony B Zwi; Sofia Gruskin
Human rights, health and development represent interdependent sets of values, aspirations and disciplines. Drawing on these domains, this article offers a theoretical and practical framework for the analysis, application and assessment of health, justice and progress. It provides a simple conceptual framework illustrating the interdependence of these domains and highlights their key features and underlying principles. It then describes the
Donahue, David M.
This curriculum is intended to further thoughtful examination and responsible action among high school students about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues. Unlike other curricula this discussion is not in the context of civil or political rights but in the broader context of human rights. These rights, as defined in the Universal…
Miko?ajczak, Ma?gorzata; Bilewicz, Micha?
Due to moral, religious, and cultural sensibilities, the topic of abortion still gives rise to controversy. The ongoing public debate has become visibly polarized with the usage of the pro-life versus pro-choice rhetoric. The aim of the current research was to investigate whether the language used in abortion discourse can affect people's attitudes by changing their attributions of humanity to unborn. Across three experimental studies we showed that participants who read about a 'foetus', compared to a 'child' declared higher support for elective abortion (Study 1; N = 108), this effect can be explained by greater humanness, as reflected in human nature traits, attributed to the child (vs. the foetus; Study 2; N = 121). The effect is mediated uniquely by attribution of human nature, but not by human uniqueness traits (Study 3; N = 120). These findings serve as a starting point for discussion of the role of language in shaping attitudes on abortion and other morally ambiguous issues. PMID:25418861
Baum, Donald R.
In recent years, the goals and purposes of education within the international development discourse have shifted significantly away from education for productivity or human capital development and towards education for the fulfillment of the individual through human rights. The current global education climate provides governments with an…
Abdul-Matin, Karim (Ishmawil Karim)
My dissertation asks whether there is a human right to democracy. This is a difficult question, not least because there is no consensus about either what democracy requires or how to interpret human rights. The introduction ...
Human Rights Watch is an organization whose goal is the following: "focusing international attention where human rights are violated, we give voice to the oppressed and hold oppressors accountable for their crimes." Every year over the past twenty years Human Rights Watch has published their World Report, which is an evaluation of more than 90 countries' human rights conditions. The staff of Human Rights Watch works closely with the human rights activists in each country, so as to get an accurate picture. The interactive map on the lower half of the homepage allows visitors to scroll over the map, which will highlight a country, and a dialogue box will open to reveal the country highlighted, and a link to read the chapter from the current World Report, reports from the prior year, and a multimedia feature on the selected country. As a note, only the blue colored countries have had human rights data collected on their human rights condition.
This article identifies and considers the existence of a manifest, though often overlooked, paradox contained within the doctrine\\u000a of human rights. The principal justifications for human rights are based upon the identification of variously conceived human\\u000a characteristics, or attributes of human agency. Nevertheless, human rights have all too often been required to protect some\\u000a human beings from being seriously harmed
Dana Collins; Sylvanna Falcón; Sharmila Lodhia; Molly Talcott
On the sixtieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, feminists are at a critical juncture to re-envision and re-engage in a politics of human rights that underscores the creative displays of grassroots resistance by women globally and affirms transnational feminist solidarity. In highlighting feminisms and human rights that are antiracist and social justice oriented, this issue highlights new
The occasion of the 25th anniversary of the establishment of the Human Rights Centre at the University of Essex is a good time to reflect on the contributions that empirical political science has made to the study of human rights. The Department of Government at Essex, one of the participating departments in the Human Rights Centre, has a strong reputation
ARTICLE THE CODIFICATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN CANADA by Maxime ST-HILAIRE* with the collaboration, was "Codification". The paper offers a systematic but brief account of the adjudicative protection of human rights to identify a few trends in the development of the Canadian constitutional case law regarding human rights
Paula Braveman; Sofia Gruskin
Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally
ANNUAL REPORT 2009-2010 ACCESSIBILITY PLAN 2010-2011 Office of Human Rights, Equity and Accessibility #12;University of Windsor Office of Human Rights, Equity & Accessibility 2 | P a g e TABLE ...............................................32 #12;University of Windsor Office of Human Rights, Equity & Accessibility 3 | P a g e 7
ANNUAL REPORT Office of Human Rights, Equity and Accessibility (OHREA) September 1, 2010 August Director Office of Human Rights, Equity and Accessibility University of Windsor 17 October 2011 #12;Office of Human Rights, Equity and Accessibility University of Windsor Annual Report for 2010-11 Page 2 of 24
Levinson, David M.
HUMAN RIGHTS 2014-2015 concentration information Applies to MPP concentrations and MPA focus/concentrations (updated 08/04/2014) The concentration in Human Rights is a pre-approved self-designed concentration intended to provide an interdisciplinary foundation in human rights studies and practical experience
The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)
According to the author, teaching for social justice entails the acquisition of the following learning outcomes: (1) knowledge of the meaning, historical development, and application of human rights; (2) ability to analyze human rights from multiple perspectives; and (3) willingness to address human rights issues in local, global, intercultural,…
Human Rights Futures Project, LSE Declarations of Incompatibility under the Human Rights Act 19981 made under s 4 of Human Rights Act 1998 Case Name and Description Date Content of the Declaration on the basis of the Ministry of Justice report Responding to Human Rights Judgments: Report to the Joint
Angus, Daniel; Smith, Andrew; Wiles, Janet
Human discourse contains a rich mixture of conceptual information. Visualization of the global and local patterns within this data stream is a complex and challenging problem. Recurrence plots are an information visualization technique that can reveal trends and features in complex time series data. The recurrence plot technique works by measuring the similarity of points in a time series to all other points in the same time series and plotting the results in two dimensions. Previous studies have applied recurrence plotting techniques to textual data; however, these approaches plot recurrence using term-based similarity rather than conceptual similarity of the text. We introduce conceptual recurrence plots, which use a model of language to measure similarity between pairs of text utterances, and the similarity of all utterances is measured and displayed. In this paper, we explore how the descriptive power of the recurrence plotting technique can be used to discover patterns of interaction across a series of conversation transcripts. The results suggest that the conceptual recurrence plotting technique is a useful tool for exploring the structure of human discourse. PMID:22499664
Human Rights Watch has just released its twelfth annual review of human rights practices around the globe in the 2002 Human Rights Watch World Report. This report addresses developments in sixty-six countries, covering the period from November 2000 through November 2001. Most of the chapters examine significant human rights developments in a particular country, the response of global actors (such as the European Union, Japan, the United States, the United Nations, and various regional organizations), and the freedom of local human rights defenders to conduct their work. Other chapters address important thematic concerns.
Syed, Khalida Tanvir
This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…
This paper recounts development of a community college humanities course titled Human Rights/Human Wrongs: The History, Philosophy, Law, Art, and Literature of the Human Rights Movement. The author argues that a special focus, interdisciplinary course provides a broader base for exploring and understanding most of the pressing issues of our time.…
While respect for human rights has long been endorsed as a goal of education, only recently has significant attention been paid to the need to incorporate rights within educational processes. Current support for human rights within education, however, has a variety of motivations. This paper provides a theoretical exploration of these diverse…
Shaun Breslin; Ian Taylor
Popular perceptions of China and its global role are often shaped by two words: ‘made in’. Yet this vision of China that focuses primarily on Beijing as a coming economic superpower is relatively new, and it is not that long ago that two other words tended to dominate debates on and discourses of China: ‘human rights’. To be sure, real
Meyer, John W.; Bromley, Patricia; Ramirez, Francisco O.
In reaction to the disasters of the first half the 20th century and World War II, a dramatic world movement arose emphasizing the human rights of persons in global society. The contrast--celebrated in international treaties, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, and much cultural discourse--was with narrower world emphases on the…
The International Bill of Rights enshrines a right to health, which includes a right to access essential medicines. This right frequently appears to conflict with the intellectual property regime that governs pharmaceutical patents. However, there is also a human right that protects creative works, including scientific productions. Does this right support intellectual property protections, even when they may negatively affect health? This article examines the recent attempt by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to resolve this issue and argues that it fails. This is problematic because it means defenders of the present patent regime can continue using human rights documents to support their position. I offer a new framework for resolving the problem by examining the values that underlie human rights. PMID:18974405
The Global Migration Group (GMG) is an inter-agency group that is dedicated to encouraging the "adoption of more coherent, comprehensive and better coordinated approaches to the issue of international migration." Their number includes representatives from UNICEF, the World Bank and various regional commissions from the United Nations. In October 2008, they released this 144-page report in order to commemorate and reflect on the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The report is divided into seven sections, including those dealing with the legal framework of migration, globalization and migration trends, migration data, and a concluding chapter which discusses some of the most pressing issues facing different migrant groups around the world. The report also includes three very useful appendices which deal with the policy instruments used in regards to human migration and the adoption of key United Nations legal instruments involved with international migration.
Yanda, K; Smith, S V; Rosenfield, A
Reproductive health programs should adopt an approach based on human rights at the levels of clinical management as well as national policy, especially those programs responsible for abortion and post-abortion care. Resource-poor women face greater maternal mortality and morbidity, suffer continuous risk because of a lack of access to adequate reproductive health services, and are likelier than more affluent women to resort to unsafe, inaccessible, and/or unaffordable abortion services. The public health and medical communities are highly effective when providing safe abortion procedures and treatment in the event of complications. Efforts must be continued to develop strategies to prevent unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, and abortion-related deaths; to treat abortion complications; to broaden the types of medical and health professionals who are allowed to perform abortions; and to enhance training for abortion providers. PMID:14499974
Smith, Carol Lynn Kay
This study contributes an approach to understanding the cognitive models underlying rhetorical arguments about the "first wave" of women's rights discourse in the United States, which began to emerge more publically with the Seneca Falls convention in 1848 and started to gain momentum in 1851 and beyond. The usage of the lexical item "sphere" (in…
Ronald C. Slye
One of the most important issues facing the international human rights movement is the claim that human rights values are universal and not culturally specific, and thus can be used to understand, evaluate, and influence global actors. This claim has obvious political and philosophical dimensions. That the concept of international human rights is being taken seriously by both governmental and
Moot Court competitions constitute an alternative model of human rights training, giving students the skills to contribute to the development of international human rights law and thus make them qualified advocates for human rights change in their home countries and abroad. By focusing on the perfection of oral as well as written skills, participants are more likely to be successful
Internship Opportunity with the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH strategies on thematic issues (e.g. the protection of human rights defenders, human, Haiti) in order to advance the protection of human rights and fundamental
Reporting the Rhetoric, Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Represented in Ireland's Second Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: A Critical Discourse Analysis
Kiersey, Rachel A.; Hayes, Noirin
Ireland's second periodic report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) presents the government's case that it is succeeding in protecting and promoting the rights of all children in Ireland. This article presents a critical discourse analysis of the government's Report to the CRC. Using a refined critical discourse…
Levesque, Roger J. R.
States that resistance to human-rights principles derives from cultural views of life. Explains that the debate about human rights tends to be framed in terms of either a universal or relative standard of how countries should treat their citizens and how the citizens should treat one another. (CMK)
California State Board of Education, Sacramento.
Concern for human rights is a major element in the California State Board of Education's "History-Social Science Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten through Grade Twelve," and this document contains resources and guidelines to help teachers and curriculum developers integrate the teaching of human rights into their courses. Part…
In order to reduce preventable maternal mortality, it is necessary to go beyond ensuring the development and availability of effective health interventions. What is needed is a recognition that maternal mortality is caused by women's inferior social status and that women's disempowerment from birth represents a cumulative social injustice that governments are obliged to remedy through application of their political, health, and legal systems. The challenge of effectively applying such a human rights perspective to safe motherhood is similar to that required in efforts to eliminate slavery or racial discrimination: the necessary reforms threaten conventional practices and value systems. The claim that safe motherhood is a human right will gather legitimacy when it is understood that denying this claim creates an injustice within the standards of fairness that societies hold dear. In addition, countries must recognize that this human rights claim arises from their own cultural values. Then, governments must be held accountable. Advancing safe motherhood through human rights will require a diagnosis of laws, policies, and social norms. The task must include inquiries into the nearly 600,000 annual maternal deaths, and it must meet the challenge of translating human rights into the rights of each person to be human. As 1998 celebrates the first 50 years since the 1948 UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the next phase in human rights development must focus on the previously neglected interests of women. PMID:12293656
Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia
Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647
Liz Gwyther; Frank Brennan; Richard Harding
The international palliative care community has articulated a simple but challenging proposition that palliative care is an international human right. International human rights covenants and the discipline of palliative care have, as common themes, the inherent dignity of the individual and the principles of universality and nondiscrimination. However, when we consider the evidence for the effectiveness of palliative care, the
Banks, James A.
The 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a propitious time for educators to examine its implications for educating citizens in multicultural nation states. The author argues that students must experience democratic classrooms and schools that reflect their cultures and identities to internalize human rights values,…
Vladimir Popescu; Jean Caelen; Corneliu Burileanu
This paper is concerned with the design, development and usage of a domain- and language-independent discourse ontol- ogy, useful for utterance interpretation and generation in service- oriented human-computer dialogue. Although the syntagm \\
Wales Observatory on Human Rights of Children and Young People Rights Here: Right Now! A conference about children's human rights 11th and 12th September 2014 Swansea University Rights Here: Right Now! .... a major international conference, and Precongress to the VI World Congress on Children's Rights (La Puebla
to experiment with alternative strategies for redressing human rights violations. One strategy involves state25 State Court International Human Rights Litigation: A Concerning Trend? Austen L. Parrish .......................................................................................................................25 I. The Move to State Court Human Rights Litigation
...of November 30, 2010 Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010 By the President of...security among states with respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms within...occasion also spurred courageous human rights activists in Eastern Europe...
The author describes the interface between her organization's efforts to advance the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) people in the United States and the science generated in the field of mental health. The complexities involved in fighting for human rights both in legislative activity and in the court of public opinion are discussed and the history of
British Information Service, New York, NY. Reference Div.
This pamphlet uses the Articles of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a framework within which to describe legal safeguards of individual rights in the United Kingdom. Under each article of the Declaration, a historical perspective of the tradition of civil liberties is provided, as are descriptions of recent trends and…
Graubert, Judah L.
Discusses the three categories of the overall Soviet human rights movement: that of the Jewish community, that which is comprised of the numerous Christian sects, and the component comprised of Soviet intellectual dissidents. (JM)
) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice, by Jack Donnelly 14 HRQ 142 (1992) Berry, Mary F., Trial and Error: The Detroit School Segregation Case, by Eleanor P. Wolfe 4 HRQ 531 (1982) Black, Jan Knippers
Mayher, William S.
How students and teachers in a private secondary school started a chapter of Amnesty International, the international human rights organization that received the 1977 Nobel Prize for Peace, is described. The many positive results of the experience are discussed. (RM)
Human Rights Watch has recently posted a new report. "Chemical Warfare in Bosnia? The Strange Experiences of the Srebrenica Survivors," investigates whether or not Serb forces used chemical agents in an attack against people fleeing Srebrenica in Bosnia and Hercegovina.
The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws. PMID:24714897
About the M.A. Human Rights Aims The M.A. Human Rights addresses the growing im- portance of human and legal dimensions of human rights into account. Graduates of the program will be equipped with theoretical and practical skills to pursue professi- onal activities in human rights contexts. Students The M
Human Rights Watch (Organization).
Human Rights Watch/Asia offers a number of reports and press releases on human rights abuses in China and Tibet. The State Visit of Chinese President Jiang Zemin last week represented a thaw in official Sino-US Relations, which have been somewhat chilly since Tiananmen in 1989. Despite reaching agreements on a broad range of security, economic, environmental and law-enforcement issues, the two Presidents were clearly far apart on the issue of human rights. While President Clinton made mention of the right to political and religious expression, President Jiang expressed the need for political and social stability in his country. On the whole, both leaders have achieved their goals. President Clinton has secured China's cooperation on several issues, most importantly arms control and trade, while the state dinner and formal ceremony recognized China's role as a key player in the world economy and Jiang's international position as its head of state.
Human Rights Watch issued their annual world report yesterday, summarizing the state of human rights in 70 countries around the globe. Written with the clarity and detail that have marked previous annual issues, this year's report offers both good and bad news. On the positive side, it notes the popular overthrow of the Milosevic regime in Yugoslavia, the conclusion of a treaty barring the use of children as soldiers, and the UN Commission on Human Rights's first formal criticism of a permanent member of the UN Security Council (Russia, for its abuses in Chechnya). On the negative, the report cites the continued failure of the UN Commission to condemn China and the failure of the US to require the Colombian army to sever ties with paramilitaries as a condition for the recent huge military aid package to that country. The report begins with an essay on the global economy and then covers human rights developments by region. Separate sections of the report address special topics such as academic freedom, censorship, access to education, children's rights, and women's human rights. The report is available in both HTML and .rtf (zipped or uncompressed) formats.
In the last few years the Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children has been gathering momentum, with a submission to The United Nations Secretary General’s study on violence against children the most recent addition to the cause. Nevertheless, corporal punishment in schools is still condoned in many countries and its practice persists even where it is now
In the last few years the Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children has been gathering momentum, with a submission to "The United Nations Secretary General's study on violence against children" the most recent addition to the cause. Nevertheless, corporal punishment in schools is still condoned in many countries and its practice…
Shiman, David A.
On December 10, 1998, the world celebrated the 50th anniversary of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The U.S. Constitution possesses many of the political and civil rights articulated in the UDHR. The UDHR, however, goes further than the U.S. Constitution, including many social and economic rights as well. This book…
Explains provisions contained within the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, tracing historical beginnings of human rights to 1945, detailing events after 1945 up to the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations, and explaining essential terminology used in describing human rights instruments that have been…
In September, Human Rights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. Turkey: Human Rights And The European Union Accession Partnership is a 31-page report detailing Human Rights Watch's recommendations for the EU's Accession Partnership Document laying out the human rights criteria Turkey will have to meet to be granted EU membership.
Norwegian Centre for Human Rights University of Oslo The Norwegian Centre for Human Rights (NCHR) is a multidisciplinary university centre for research and dissemination on international human rights. The NCHR), in addition to NORDEM, The Norwegian Resource Bank for Democracy and Human Rights. Web pages: http
Nottingham Law School Human Rights and Religious Freedoms Assumptions, widely held for much on the agenda. With this resurgence has come a startling increase in the use of human rights to litigate as a human right in domestic and international human rights instruments, the approach of the courts has
BOSTON UNIVERSITY DUBLIN PROGRAMS 1 INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW CAS IR 306 Lecturer: Kieran O and critique the history, development, structure and efficacy of the international human rights law framework with regard to the promotion and protection of human rights. Students will examine and critique human rights
Emilie M. Hafner-Burton
A growing number of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) have come to play a significant role in governing state compliance with human rights. When they supply hard standards that tie material benefits of integration to compliance with human rights principles, PTAs are more effective than softer human rights agreements (HRAs) in changing repressive behaviors. PTAs improve members human rights through coercion,
McCardle, Elizabeth, Ed.
This unit on human rights designed for secondary students in Alberta, Canada includes both student and teacher manuals. Eleven chapters in the student manual examine what human rights are, the causes and effects of prejudice and discrimination, relevant laws, and social action. Each chapter includes readings followed by discussion questions and…
Compiled by David Weissbrodt and Marci Hoffman and provided by the University of Minnesota Human Rights Library (discussed in the January 5, 1996 Scout Report), this extensive bibliography contains a large number and variety of resources for researching international human rights law. Entries include: Human Rights Instruments, Human Rights Case Law, Research Guides on the Six Major Human Rights Instruments, Refugee Law, Selected Texts, Research Guides, Periodicals, Electronic Resources, and Country Situations.
This paper addresses key philosophical and social questions that shape the contemporary discourse on prostitution. The initial section outlines the contemporary challenges facing legislative practice on prostitution in England. This involves analysing moral and legal framework surrounding prostitution that has made the current legislative dilemma surrounding prostitution practice possible. The second part of the paper then outlines the history of the philosophy of human rights from Aquinas to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). The paper concludes by analysing whether the current ontology employed by human rights theory is effective in creating a system of just relatedness between agents, made visible in concrete legislative guidance. I argue that legislation guided by a fragmented teleology and ontological anthropology enables asymmetrical patterns of relatedness that can cause genuine physical and psychological harm to individuals. PMID:25344012
Background The right to health is recognized as a fundamental human right. Social participation is implied in the fulfillment of health rights since Alma Ata posited its relevance for successful health programs, although a wide range of interpretations has been observed for this term. While Peruvian law recognizes community and social participation in health, it was the GFATM requirement of mixed public-civil society participation in Country Coordination Mechanisms (CCM) for proposal submission what effectively led to formal community involvement in the national response to HIV and, to a lesser extent, tuberculosis. This has not been the case, however, for other chronic diseases in Peru. This study aims to describe and compare the role of health rights discourse and community involvement in the national response to HIV, tuberculosis and cancer. Methods Key health policy documents were identified and analyzed. In-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders, representatives of civil society organizations (CSO), and leaders of organizations of people affected by HIV, cancer and tuberculosis. Results and discussion A health rights discourse, well established in the HIV field, is expanding to general health discussions and to the tuberculosis (TB) field in particular. Both HIV and TB programs have National Multisectoral Strategic Plans and recognize participation of affected communities’ organizations. Similar mechanisms are non-existent for cancer or other disease-focused programs, although other affected patients are starting some organization efforts. Interviewees agreed that reaching the achievements of HIV mobilization is difficult for other diseases, since the HIV response was modeled based on a global movement with strong networks and advocacy mechanisms, eventually succeeding in the establishment of financial sources like the GFATM. Nevertheless, organizations linked to cancer and other diseases are building a National Patient Network to defend health rights. Conclusions There are new efforts to promote and protect health rights in Peru, probably inspired by the achievements of organizations of people living with HIV (PLHA). The public health sector must consolidate the participation of affected communities’ organizations in decision-making processes and implementation of health programs. PLHA organizations have become a key political and social actor in Peruvian public health policy. PMID:23683817
More than a billion people in the developing world lack safe drinking water — an amenity those in the developed world take for granted. Nearly three billion people live without access to adequate sanitation systems necessary for reducing exposure to water-related diseases. The failure of the international aid community, nations and local organizations to satisfy these basic human needs has
Peter H. Gleick
More than a billion people in the developing world lack safe drinking water — an amenity those in the developed world take for granted. Nearly three billion people live without access to adequate sanitation systems necessary for reducing exposure to water-related diseases. The failure of the international aid community, nations and local organizations to satisfy these basic human needs has
Daniel S. Malachuk
This essay reconsiders anti-foundationalism, the majority position in human rights theory, not once more from a rationalist foundationalist perspective but from a post-secular perspective. Post-secularism offers a relatively new vantage point from which to consider anti-foundationalism in human rights theory. That vantage point leads this essay to its first claim, which is that anti-foundationalists provide no compelling motive for upholding
Englehart, Ellen Marie
rights. ' ' Harold Titus and Morris Keeton provide the following list of the most basic rights of man. Prior to this listing, Titus and Keeton note, "They [the following ten rights] appear to be necessary conditions for human development" (Titus 257...). Titus and Keeton list the following ten rights in their conception of basic human rights: (1) The right to health; (2) the right to education; (3) the right to freedom; (4) the right to work and receive a living wage; (5) the right to security; (6...
United States. Dept. of State. Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs.
US Department of State: China's Human Rights Record is a brief description of the administration's policy of "engagement" and its results in China. The State Visit of Chinese President Jiang Zemin last week represented a thaw in official Sino-US Relations, which have been somewhat chilly since Tiananmen in 1989. Despite reaching agreements on a broad range of security, economic, environmental and law-enforcement issues, the two Presidents were clearly far apart on the issue of human rights. While President Clinton made mention of the right to political and religious expression, President Jiang expressed the need for political and social stability in his country. On the whole, both leaders have achieved their goals. President Clinton has secured China's cooperation on several issues, most importantly arms control and trade, while the state dinner and formal ceremony recognized China's role as a key player in the world economy and Jiang's international position as its head of state.
Alpay, S. Pamir
Management. Twitter: @bpgilder) (https://www.facebook.com/SongsAndSecrets) Please note: Mr. GilderOffice of Global Affairs Human Rights Lecture Songs and Secrets: South Africa from Liberation of Connecticut, Storrs Anti-apartheid activist and Author of Songs and Secrets, Mr. Barry Gilder was born
Daniel, John, Ed.; And Others
This collection of reports gives a picture of educational systems from a human rights perspective, monitoring academic freedom in the context of freedom of thought and freedom of opinion and expression. The World University Service's Lima Declaration on Academic Freedom and Autonomy of Institutions of Higher Education of 1988 is used as the…
Michelle M. Jacob
In this article, I examine the gendered politics of the Yakama Reservation food economy. Drawing from ethnographic data, I discuss the importance of culture and health as human rights. My analysis reveals that indigenous people's health and well-being deteriorates as traditional cultural practices are undermined within a globalized and neo-colonial context; however, I also find that indigenous women are resisting
Let us think about the relationship between human rights and global climate change in terms of the idea that we live or our supposed to live within the framework of a single world economy and that economic progress involves the removal of all impediments to commercial exchange. Carla Hill, George H.W. Bush's US trade representative, spoke for this vision of
International Crisis Group
NEPAL: DEALING WITH A HUMAN RIGHTS CRISIS Asia Report N°94 – 24 March 2005 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................................. i I. INTRODUCTION... .................................................................................... 13 A. ACTION BY THE NEPALI GOVERNMENT ...............................................................................13 B. ACTION BY THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF NEPAL (MAOIST) ..................................................14 C. ACTION...
The Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government was founded in 1999 with a substantial gift from Kennedy School alumnus Greg Carr. The mission of the Center is "to lead public policy debate, to train human rights leaders and to partner with human rights organizations to help them respond to current and future challenges." On their homepage, visitors can read about their latest news items, look over their publications and editorial pieces, and also learn about fellowship opportunities at the Center. Scholars and others will probably wish to start at the "Research & Publications" area. Here they can browse through articles and research reports that have been conducted by Center staff and affiliates. Some of the more compelling reports here include "Children in Conflict: Eradicating the Child Soldier Doctrine" and "Religion and Secular Constitution: Human Rights and the Challenge of Saria". Moving on, visitors also have the opportunity to sign up for email updates via the "News & Events" area.
The non-violent participation of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhist monks in resistance efforts to advocate for the welfare of Myanmar's people has played an important role in educating the world about human rights violations in the country. Faced with international condemnation, Myanmar's junta released Aung San Suu Kyi from…
Industry control over the production and distribution of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy data has become a serious public health and health care funding concern. Various recent scandals, several involving the use of flawed representations of scientific data in the most influential medical journals, highlight the urgency of enhancing pharmaceutical knowledge governance. This paper analyzes why this is a human rights concern and what difference a human rights analysis can make. The paper first identifies the challenges associated with the current knowledge deficit. It then discusses, based on an analysis of case law, how various human rights associated interests can be invoked to support the claim that states have an obligation to actively contribute to independent knowledge governance, for example through ensuring clinical trials transparency. The paper further discusses a conceptual use of human rights, as a methodology which requires a comprehensive analysis of the different interwoven historical, economic, cultural, and social factors that contribute to the problem. Such an analysis reveals that historically grown drug regulations have, in fact, contributed directly to industry control over pharmaceutical knowledge production. This type of finding should inform needed reforms of drug regulation. The paper ends with a recommendation for a comprehensive global response to the problem of pharmaceutical knowledge governance. PMID:23581664
Frank Brennan; Daniel B. Carr; Michael Cousins
This article surveys worldwide medical, ethical, and legal trends and initiatives related to the concept of pain management as a human right. This concept recently gained momentum with the 2004 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Chapters-, International Association for the Study of Pain- and World Health Organization-sponsored \\
Niels Uildriks; Piet van Reenen
In some parts of the world, police forces are known for the brutality with which they operate. In Kosovo, for instance, the Serbian police functioned as a kind of paramilitary organization, responsible for numerous atrocities. In countries such as Brazil and Mexico, the police are known for all kinds of gross human rights violations: endemic brutality, torture, extrajudicial killings, and
With the liberalization of trade Viet Nam became the 150th member of World Trade Organization in January 2007. The country became an example to the world on how trade can spur the economic and social development. The study throws light on the effect of trade liberalization on the enjoyment of human rights in Viet Nam. The process posed challenges and
Gwyther, Liz; Brennan, Frank; Harding, Richard
The international palliative care community has articulated a simple but challenging proposition that palliative care is an international human right. International human rights covenants and the discipline of palliative care have, as common themes, the inherent dignity of the individual and the principles of universality and nondiscrimination. However, when we consider the evidence for the effectiveness of palliative care, the lack of palliative care provision for those who may benefit from it is of grave concern. Three disciplines (palliative care, public health, and human rights) are now interacting with a growing resonance. The maturing of palliative care as a clinical specialty and academic discipline has coincided with the development of a public health approach to global and community-wide health problems. The care of the dying is a public health issue. Given that death is both inevitable and universal, the care of people with life-limiting illness stands equal to all other public health issues. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) includes the right to health care and General Comment 14 (paragraph 34) CESCR stipulates that "States are under the obligation to respect the right to health by, inter alia, refraining from denying or limiting equal access for all persons, ... to preventive, curative and palliative health services." However, these rights are seen to be aspirational-rights to be achieved progressively over time by each signatory nation to the maximum capacity of their available resources. Although a government may use insufficient resources as a justification for inadequacies of its response to palliative care and pain management, General Comment 14 set out "core obligations" and "obligations of comparable priority" in the provision of health care and placed the burden on governments to justify "that every effort has nevertheless been made to use all available resources at its disposal in order to satisfy, as a matter of priority, [these] obligations." This article describes recent advocacy activities and explores practical strategies for the palliative care community to use within a human rights framework to advance palliative care development worldwide. PMID:19783399
Provides an annotated list of websites that focus on international human rights. Explains that human rights can be incorporated into curricula whether the focus is on human geography or contemporary global issues. Indicates that the Northern Light search engine produced over 700,000 hits for human rights websites. (CMK)
1 Conflicts and Human Rights Deans: Dorresteijn: Law, Economics, Governance Van den Akker: Humanities Koops: Social Sciences B. Core of research area Conflicts and Human Rights. B.1 Introduction. The wide and dynamic subject area of conflicts and human rights has become part of the research tradition
Considers how biotechnology affects human-rights issues; in particular, the need for reexamining concerns about reproductive technology, the rights of indigenous peoples, and the rights of future generations. Maintains that the new areas for human-rights discussions, such as germ-line manipulation and genetic screening, are unprecedented concerns…
Examines whether the human rights approach to language planning and policy promotes equity for diverse students populations. Assesses to what extent governments show respect for human rights by ratifying human rights' documents, discusses aspects of implementation and assesses government claims on national and immigrant minority education, and…
This essay provides insights into studies on citizens' engagement with human rights in Russia through its focus on a relatively under-researched area, namely, the ways in which women perceive the role of human rights in daily life contexts. This essay argues for the importance of analysing how women's perceptions of human rights are formed in situ in order to understand
Bureau of Public Affairs (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.
Excerpts from 100 speeches, essays, and legal documents dating from classical times to the present illustrate the record of human rights discussion over the centuries. The compilation was made in 1968 to mark the 20th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The readings indicate that human rights initially meant freedom from a…
Carter, George E.
Despite the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations in 1948, the issue of the human rights of ethnic minority groups is widely ignored in the United States--both in policy and as an issue worthy of examination. In this country and abroad, violations of human rights continue to take place regularly; minority group…
Maintains that the high poverty levels in the United States implies that the goals of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) have not yet transformed the reality of U.S. citizens. Describes the national campaign called "Economic Human Rights: The Time Has Come!" that combats the violations of basic human rights like poverty. (CMK)
Steen, Julie A.; Mathiesen, Sally
This article presents a descriptive assessment of human rights education within schools of social work and law. A review of course titles and descriptions within MSW programs and law programs was conducted for identification of human rights content. The results suggest a dearth of human rights content in social work curricula and a great disparity…
Childhood Education, 2005
Research indicates that few state departments of education have actually mandated human rights education in their schools. Clearly, individual teachers will need to take responsibility for the integration of peace education and human rights education. By integrating human rights education and peace education into the daily fabric of the school…
Application for the Human Rights Minor Internship Archives & Special Collections Thomas J. Dodd the following: 1. Your academic interests and human rights coursework at UConn 2. Experience working skills would qualify you for this position? Applications should be sent to: Curator for Human Rights
Ellen L. Lutz; Kathryn Sikkink
Human rights practices in Latin America provide a lens through whichto examine the relationship between international law and domesticpolitics. International human rights norms are expressed in numerouswidely ratified treaties. Many of those norms also are embedded incustomary international law. The number of binding human rights normsincorporated into international or regional law as well as the precisionand delegation of those norms
McGill Centre for Human Rights and Legal Pluralism Centre sur les droits de la personne et le pluralisme juridique de McGill 2013 ANNUAL REPORT #12;2CENTRE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND LEGAL PLURALISM | ANNUAL REPORT 2013 McGill Centre for Human Rights and Legal Pluralism Created in September 2005, the Centre
Hitchcock, Adam P.
Office of Human Rights & Equity Services Planning for Accessibility A Checklist for Inclusion Prepared by: Raihanna Hirji-Khalfan, Accessibility Specialist Office of Human Rights & Equity Services for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA), 2005 and the Ontario Human Rights Code, to ensure that all members
UC San Diego 4th Annual Human Rights Symposium Wednesday, January 16, 2013 9:30 AM 3:30 PM on. In a fragmented world, human rights remains one of the few widely shared interna onal Annual Human Rights Symposium is an interdisciplinary symposium to explore and discuss
i Symposium Issue Human Rights Litigation in State Courts and Under State Law FOREWORD After Kiobel--International Human Rights Litigation in State Courts and Under State Law Christopher A. Whytock, Donald Earl Childress III, and Michael D. Ramsey 1 ARTICLES & ESSAYS International Human Rights Cases Under State Law
INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW CAS IR 306 Lecturer: Dr Amy Strecker Email: amy, structure and efficacy of international human rights law. In this module students will investigate the legal will assess the remedies that exist for violations of human rights law in the various systems and examine
Young, Paul Thomas
- 1 - Political Science 360.001 International Human Rights Law Overview of the course This course is an intoduction to both human rights law and theory. We will treat each of these themes in turn, first establishing what exactly is covered by human rights law, the participation of different countries, and methods
Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III
International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…
Only too often ideology means fanaticism, intolerance, even violence, but the term can be used also to denote sets of preconceptions and presuppositions which act as a stimulus and a guide to scientific innovation, particularly in the field of social science. This sort of insight into the realities of life and the world is a contribution to knowledge and the search for truth, also in the field of human rights. These are taken in the paper as those rights whose infringement constitutes a "vulnus" of the essential characteristics of human beings and those which assume the role of a basic safeguard of them. The meaning of the insistence on the human rights theme in the United Nations system is briefly touched upon, but the main effort is spent in trying to find a firm base for both fundamental rights and duties, shown as strictly and simmetrically linked. Various examples of population policies - broadly defined as governmental interventions influencing demographic variables - are then examined in the light of the basic principles laid down in the said effort. The fields taken up in succession for consideration are international and internal migration, mortality, marriage, fertility in countries at different stages of demographic transition, and growth. Rather than trying an extensive coverage of the whole horizon, a line of critical and deep thought about typical problematic themes is preferred. One of the main conclusions which may be quoted is a statement according to which the problem remains wide open of discovering acceptable ways aiming at a modification of fertility patterns which combine a reduction of the average family size with the maintenance of its variability in order to respect free and responsible individual choices. How important and urgent this task is, is underscored by the observations advanced in the final section of the paper including a meditation on the limits that human sexuality appears to have imposed on itself. PMID:12309393
Autocratization is expected to worsen human rights conditions; democratization is frequently heralded as a means for improving them. Unfortunately, neither relationship has been subjected to empirical investigation. The causal linkage between regime change and state repression is examined in the current study with a pooled cross-sectional time-series analysis of 137 countries from 1950 to 1982 (N=4,521). Four aspects of change
Transnational human rights activism occupies today a significant place in the practice and scholarship of current global affairs. This article reviews the past successes and limits of this activism and suggests Human Rights Education (HRE) as a strategic tool currently underutilized by activists and rarely taken seriously by academics. We argue that the current practice of transnational human rights activism
Released on 1999 December 6, two new human rights reports from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) document extensive human rights violations in Kosovo. This page provides access to the reports, a background paper, and a press release. Totalling more than 900 pages, the reports reveal human rights abuses on both sides of the conflict. The first report "presents probably the most extensive and systematic survey to date of human rights in Kosovo in the first half of 1999," based on hundreds of in-country reports and statements from nearly 2,800 refugees. The report concludes that in this period, which also saw the NATO air campaign, the province's Albanian population suffered the overwhelming majority of abuses. The second report covers the period between June 14 and October 31, 1999, when over 800,000 displaced Albanians returned to Kosovo. Analyzing human rights conditions and events in each of the five regions of Kosovo, the report finds that the vast majority of violations were committed against Kosovo Serbs, Roma, Muslim Slavs and others who were marked for revenge by the returned Albanians. Both reports are offered by chapter in HTML or .pdf format.
Crow, M E
This article explores various strategies which could be used to hold the tobacco industry accountable for human rights violations precipitated by its conduct. First, a brief overview of the international human rights regime and the tobacco related jurisprudence issued by human rights treaty bodies is provided. The article then explains how tobacco control advocates could promote more systematic consideration of governments' tobacco related human rights violations by reconceptualising the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the language of rights. The feasibility of using the existing human rights framework to target the tobacco industry directly is analysed with the conclusion that this approach has serious limitations. Emerging human rights norms, which have greater potential to affect the industry's conduct, are presented. Finally, given the questionable authoritativeness of these norms, alternative ways that they could be employed to hold tobacco companies accountable for the rights related consequences of their activities are proposed. PMID:16046696
Johansen, Tom Henning
_________________________________________________________________________ The Nordic human rights _________________________________________________________________________ THE PUZZLE The Nordic countries demonstrate a puzzling ambivalence towards human rights. On the one hand rights, seeking to promote human rights in bilateral development aid and advancing a progressive human
Chambers, Joan M.
It is argued that the view of nature and the relationship between human beings and nature that each of us holds impacts our decisions, actions, and notions of environmental responsibility and consciousness. In this study, I investigate the discursive patterns of selected environmental science classroom resources produced by three disparate…
Hrishikesh D. Vinod
Local entrepreneurs, essential for creation of sustainable broad-based wealth, can provide countervailing power against local human rights violators. Our statistically testable hypothesis is that joint advocacy by promoters of entrepreneurship on the right side of the political spectrum and human rights advocates on the left side will not be at cross-purposes. Analysis of eight variables dealing with governance, corruption, entrepreneurship
This paper explores the United Nations (UN) human rights system through the lens of disability. An analysis of two human rights instruments, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with a Disability, is undertaken with reference to three key areas that influence the participation of persons with
M. Raymond Izarali
In this thesis, I argue for a set of basic human rights to constrain the practices of corporate entities in the context of economic globalization. These basic rights are derived through a concrete interpretation of specific articles in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. My focus is on constructing a middle-ground approach to economic globalization by building on the work
The purpose of the proposed paper is to address the potential contradiction between human rights and the expression of cultural values through a comparative approach. The focus will be on the constitutional law framework, how it deals with the assertion of cultural identities and how basic human rights standards, in particular non-discrimination, are reconciled with the protection of cultural rights.
The US State Department released its annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices to the US Congress on February 26. Composed from evidence and data gathered by embassy staff, government officials, military sources, human-rights monitors, journalists, and others, the reports are designed to serve as a resource for shaping policy, conducting diplomacy, and determining international resource allocations. Reports are offered for nearly every country, grouped by region. Each report contains a brief overview of the country's political and economic systems and a detailed review of its record on respecting "internationally recognized individual, civil, political, and worker rights, as set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights." Appendixes include a list of International Human Rights Conventions, the 54th UNHRC (UN Commission on Human Rights) Voting Record, and the text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The US State Department released its annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices to the US Congress on February 25. Composed from evidence and data gathered by embassy staff, government officials, military sources, human-rights monitors, journalists, and others, the reports are designed to serve as a tool for shaping policy, conducting diplomacy, and determining international resource allocations. Reports are offered for nearly every country, grouped by region. Each report contains a brief overview of the country's political and economic systems and a detailed review of its record on respecting "internationally recognized individual, civil, political, and worker rights, as set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights." Appendixes include a list of International Human Rights Conventions, the 54th UNHRC (UN Commission on Human Rights) Voting Record, and the text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Medical collaboration with authoritarian regimes historically has served to facilitate the use of torture as a tool of repression and to justify atrocities with the language of public health. Because scholarship on medicalized killing and biomedicalist rhetoric and ideology is heavily focused on Nazi Germany, this article seeks to expand the discourse to include other periods in which medicalized torture occurred, specifically in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, when the country was ruled by the Proceso de Reorganización Nacional military regime. The extent to which medical personnel embedded themselves within the Proceso regime's killing apparatus has escaped full recognition by both scholars and human rights activists. This article reconstructs the narrative of the Proceso's human rights abuses to argue that health professionals knowingly and often enthusiastically facilitated, oversaw, and participated in every phase of the "disappearance," torture, and mass murder process. PMID:24996628
I am sceptical as to the contribution that human rights can make to our evaluation of medical law. I will argue here that viewing medical law through a human rights framework provides no greater clarity, insight or focus. If anything, human rights reasoning clouds any bioethical or evaluative analysis. In Section 1 of this article, I outline the general structure of human rights reasoning. I will describe human rights reasoning as (a) reasoning from rights that each person has 'by virtue of their humanity', (b) reasoning from rights that provide 'hard to defeat' reasons for action and (c) reasoning from abstract norms to specified duties. I will then argue in Section 2 that, unless we (a) re-conceive of human rights as narrow categories of liberties, it becomes (b) necessary for our human rights reasoning to gauge the normative force of each claim or liberty. When we apply this approach to disputes in medical law, we (in the best case scenario) end up (c) 'looking straight through' the human right to the (disagreement about) values and features that each person has by virtue of their humanity. PMID:24547883
Mohammad, Malek Hardan
‘s fiction subverts the human dignity discourse while Kazuo Ishiguro‘s work is enmeshed in it. Coetzee generates sympathy for humans who lack the sense of human dignity and act on mere instinct. He offers ?disgrace? as a spiritual-ethical state of sensuality...
Carney, Zoe L.
without explicitly claiming to be against intellectualism. I argue that the Christian Right makes these anti-intellectual arguments by invoking the tropes and topoi of populism, anti-evolution, and common sense. I analyze how Pat Robertson, as a...
...when same-sex couples refuse to be told whom to love. The past year saw extraordinary change in the Middle East and North Africa as square by square, town by town, country by country, people rose up to demand their human rights. Around the...
Recently released by the US State Department, the 2001 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices was designed to give voice to those who have been denied the freedoms and rights provided in the Universal Declaration on Human Rights. Covering internationally recognized individual, civil, political, and worker rights for nearly every country, the collection of reports is separated into six regions -- Africa, East Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Eurasia, Western Hemisphere, Near East and North Africa, and South Asia. The collection also offers appendices that include notes on the preparation of the reports, a selection of International Human Rights Conventions, a selection of Assistance Programs, the Human Rights Commission voting record, and the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
S. M. Walker
The Future of Human Rights Impact Assessments of Trade Agreements develops a methodology for human rights impact assessments of trade agreements and considers whether there is any value in using the methodology on a sustained basis to ensure that the human dimensions of international trade are taken into account when negotiating trade agreements. The thesis sets out the various ways
Across the African continent, women’s rights have become integral to international declarations, regional treaties, national legislation, and grassroots activism. Yet there is little research on how African men have understood these shifts, and how African masculinities are implicated in such changes. Drawing on a year of ethnographic research in the Ugandan capital Kampala, this article investigates how ordinary men and women in Uganda understand women’s rights, and how their attitudes are tied to local conceptions of masculinity. I argue that a new configuration of gender relations is evident in urban Uganda—one that accommodates some aspects of women’s rights while retaining previous notions of innate male authority. This article, therefore, illustrates the complex and often contradictory engagements with human rights that occur in local contexts, and how such engagements are shaped by gender relations, including conceptions of masculinity. PMID:19862350
Kenneth M. Burke
Recognizing the importance of the universal rights of children is critical in a differentiated and pluralist world, which, in coming together through the increase of global economic interdependence and consequent changes, will require a breadth of talents to maintain peace and cooperation. The paper draws on research from historical perspectives on human rights and the rights of the child. It
Manuel Couret Branco
The general purpose of this paper is to promote a political economy whose objective is to promote the deepening of human rights. In particular my attention will be focused on the political economy of the right to work.The first part of the paper concerns the description of the historical process that led to the proclamation of a right to work
The increasing volume and complexities of migratory flow has led to a range of problems such as human rights issues, public health, disease and border control, and also the regulatory processes. As result of war or internal conflicts missing person cases and management have to be regarded as a worldwide issue. On the other hand, even in peace, the issue of a missing person is still relevant. In 2007 the Italian Ministry of Interior nominated an extraordinary commissar in order to analyse and assess the total number of unidentified recovered bodies and verify the extent of the phenomena of missing persons, reported as 24,912 people in Italy (updated 31 December 2011). Of these 15,632 persons are of foreigner nationalities and are still missing. The census of the unidentified bodies revealed a total of 832 cases recovered in Italy since the year 1974. These bodies/human remains received a regular autopsy and were buried as 'corpse without name". In Italy judicial autopsy is performed to establish cause of death and identity, but odontology and dental radiology is rarely employed in identification cases. Nevertheless, odontologists can substantiate the identification through the 'biological profile' providing further information that can narrow the search to a smaller number of missing individuals even when no ante mortem dental data are available. The forensic dental community should put greater emphasis on the role of the forensic odontology as a tool for humanitarian action of unidentified individuals and best practise in human identification. PMID:23221266
Naomi Cocks; Kathryn Hird; Kim Kirsner
Background: The assessment and rehabilitation of acquired neurogenic communication disorders rarely involves a systematic analysis of gesture use. The right cerebral hemisphere has been identified as a possible locus of control for gesture. McNeill's (McNeill & Duncan, 2000) growth point theory posits a structure for the organisation of processes from both cerebral hemispheres which serves to support the integration of
Norman Geschwind; Walter Levitsky
We have found marked anatomical asymmetries between the upper surfaces of the human right and left temporal lobes. The planum temporale (the area behind Heschl's gyrus) is larger on the left in 65 percent of brains; on the right it is larger in only 11 percent. The left planum is on the average one-third longer than the right planum. This
The Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission visited over 50 communities throughout Australia to assess the state of human rights in rural, regional, and remote Australia. Education and health services predominated the discussions. Rural children, especially Aboriginal children, have lower school attendance and completion rates…
Outlines the history of the ideals and enactment of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Includes a discussion of the origins of the concept of human rights, the impact of World War II, the role of nongovernmental organizations, and the process of drafting and adopting the UDHR. (DSK)
Todd Landman; Carl Jan; Willem Schudel
This paper explores the empirical relationships between corruption and human rights using extant quantitative measures for a sample of 186 countries for the period 1980 to 2004. It uses three measures of corruption and 17 measures of human rights, which are examined using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis and methods of estimation. The paper argues that some measures of corruption
Husser, Michael D.
This lesson plan on human rights uses the Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) methodology used in California to teach academic content to intermediate, threshold level limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. It sets forth three educational goals for students to reach; asks students to examine definitions of human rights…
We will begin our study with the consideration of the philosophical and historical foundation of the concept in western liberal democracies and its applicability across cultures. We will evaluate regional perspectives on human rights to determine how divergent they are and analyze what these disparate views reflect about the universality of human rights. Taking a law and society approach we
In our global age, educational researchers and practitioners need tools that can be applied in a range of contexts and scales: local, national, and international. This article argues that human rights education (HRE) is a site of struggle in which human rights and democracy need to be constantly renewed. It contextualizes HRE within a critical,…
Cummings, Mary "Missy"
© 2005 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved. Human Systems Integration: Issues and Challenges@mitre.org #12;1© 2005 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved. Research Problem Network Centric Operations Greater complexity, increased reliance on teams Human decision making processes remain difficult, time
This student textbook for civic education in Romanian schools revolves around the significance of human rights issues in a democratic state. The guide is divided into the following five chapters: (1) "The Significance of Human Rights Issues in the Context of Civic Education"; (2) "Individual Identity"; (3) "The Individual Person's Relationships to…
Shiman, David A.; Fernekes, William R.
Believes that there are connections among the study of the Holocaust, genocide, and human rights that support a vision of democratic citizenship. Provides three themes that focus on human rights issues by exploring the Holocaust: (1) constructing the other; (2) rationalizing injustice; and (3) courage and resistance to patterns of oppression. (CMK)
Energy and Development: Is Energy a Basic Human Right? Skype/Video presentation for senior pupils national Laboratory/DTU Denmark #12;Is energy a basic human right? · What is energy? the ability to make something happen · Different kinds of energy or energy carriers - fuels · What do we use energy for
1 Wales Observatory on Human Rights of Children and Young People Arsyllfa Cymru ar Hawliau Dynol 2012 Introduction The Wales Observatory on Human Rights of Children and Young People provides a forum. The Observatory vision is to ensure that the highest quality knowledge, expertise and best practice is targeted
In 2003, the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP)--a program implemented in thousands of schools globally--introduced a human rights course (Makivirta, 2003). This curriculum is the first of its kind to hold potential widespread influence on human rights education in the formal education sector. In this study, I analyze the…
Published this month, this annotated Webliography offers a host of sites and Internet resources devoted to human rights issues, with an emphasis on activism. Elisa Mason, the author, categorizes the resources under Starting points, Web directories and meta sites, Organizations, Annual surveys, and Lists. Human Rights on the Internet is part of the Association of College & Research Libraries News series.
Burridge Nina; Buchanan, John; Chodkiewicz, Andrew
The place of education for and about human rights within the school curriculum remains contested and this paper reports on the first national cross-sectoral investigation of its place in Australian curricula and more specifically in national and state History curriculum documents. Opportunities for the inclusion of human rights based studies were…
This study aims to obtain teacher perspectives on the civic and human rights education course included in the eighth grade curriculum in Turkish schools. The study group was selected with criterion sampling from among teachers who were teaching the eighth grade civic and human rights education at elementary schools in central Hatay. Using the…
Muedini, Fait A.
This article discusses my approach to teaching a course on Islam and human rights. I begin by examining the attention Islam has received in the media and classroom. Then, I discuss how I structure lectures on Islam and human rights, the various readings associated with the lectures, as well as common themes discussed in class that include but are…
Registration of the Conference Religion, Immigration, Health and Human Rights 2013 Conference _____ Theme 6. Honor Killings _____Theme 7. Religion and Health Care _____Theme 8. Health & Human Rights _____Theme 9. Clerics on immigrants' and health _____Theme 10. Minority communities and Religion All
Sarah H. Cleveland
This article examines the compliance of unilateral trade sanctions designed to promote human rights abroad with GATT trade liberalization principles. Using examples from US trade measures, the article defines unilateral human rights sanctions as falling into three categories: tailored, semi-tailored, and general sanctions. The article then evaluates the compliance of these three types of sanctions with the GATT text and
Arras, John D; Fenton, Elizabeth M
There are many good reasons for a merger between bioethics and human rights. First, though, significant philosophical groundwork must be done to clarify what a human right to health would be and--if we accept that it exists--exactly how it might influence the practical decisions we face about who gets what in very different contexts. PMID:19806778
Yvette V. Lapayese
As the ubiquitous force of globalization further erodes the nation-state and political activity increasingly focuses on global issues, there is renewed attention to models of global education. Within this global context, human rights education emerges as a response to the demands of global education. One of the main objectives of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995--2004) is
S. J. Ndlovu-Gatsheni
The African continent and its people occupy a 'subaltern' position in global politics where voices from the African continent remain on the peripheries of global governance. Since the United Nations Human Rights Council, set up in 1996, is envisaged to be a forum for dialogue on thematic issues on all human rights, Africans need to seize the opportunity to be
Human rights, an issue of political debates in the last decades, listed in the United Nations Declaration of 1946 are rooted in the humanistic tradition of philosophy and religion. The UN declared their universal character and made state organizations responsible for their observation. Among all human rights that for freedom is usually perceived as crucial. Psychiatry developed in Europe primarily a caring function. The medical model developed in psychiatry through the 19th c. supplied the criteria for medical diagnosis of mental disturbance, and elaborated a system of treatment which included long term hospitalization. Medicalization of psychiatry (recently coming back) is a force which gives courage to those who suffer, to their families, and to professionals as well. This power however, can be easily abused, when a psychiatrist adopts a position of someone who knows better that which is good for his/her patient. Legal regulations of the circumstances of psychiatric treatment, especially treatment against the patient's will should prevent the abuse of the mentally disturbed person's right for freedom. The goal is usually achieved by clear description of clinical and other conditions under which a person can be committed, and by establishing the committed person's right to claim the decision to be unjust. Poland is a country without legal regulation in the area of mental health (there are only administrative acts). For more than sixty years several projects on mental health law have been worked on. The last one which came to the Sejm (parliament) in 1980 was withdrawn by the "Solidarity" Trade Union. At present, the membership of Poland in international organizations makes an introduction of mental health law an obligation. Having no legal regulation, Polish psychiatry has been a self-regulating system. It is worth to note that even in the hard Stalinist period (1947-1956) there was no abuse of psychiatry for political reasons. The main reason for Polish psychiatry staying free from political abuse is seen in the role of internalized norm of human dignity. But others should also be taken into account. It was a specificity of the political situation that the ruling powers did not insist that psychiatrists cooperate. On the other hand the integration of the Polish psychiatric community was helpful in observing the rule of non-collaboration. One of the most important factors is seen as the experience and memory of NAZI crimes in the field of psychiatry in Poland. Extermination of psychiatric patients had to leave the feeling of the importance of psychiatrist's own responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8356170
Ngwena, Charles G; Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Skuster, Patty
The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights recently adopted General Comment No 2 to interpret provisions of Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights Women. The provisions relate to women's rights to fertility control, contraception, family planning, information and education, and abortion. The present article highlights the General Comment's potential to promote women's sexual and reproductive rights in multiple ways. The General Comment's human rights value goes beyond providing states with guidance for framing their domestic laws, practices, and policies to comply with treaty obligations. General Comment No 2 is invaluable in educating all stakeholders-including healthcare providers, lawyers, policymakers, and judicial officers at the domestic level-about pertinent jurisprudence. Civil society and human rights advocates can use the General Comment to render the state accountable for failure to implement its treaty obligations. PMID:25712778
Produced by Human Rights Internet (HRI), this six volume report provides a country-by-country overview of human rights issues with links to relevant UN documents. The first volume includes an introduction, an appendix of UN bodies and mechanisms, a discussion of methodological and technical issues, and notes on major developments in the United Nations human rights system during 1997. The remaining volumes contain individual country reports, grouped by region. Each report contains links to treaties and reports to treaty bodies on a number of key topics. These include: Land and People; Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Civil and Political Rights; Discrimination against Women; and Rights of the Child. Additional resources at the site include an internal search engine.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Human Rights Abuses in the Contemporary World: Legal approaches 6. 9. September 2011 Human Rights and a Globalized Economy - Areas of conflict? Friday 09.09.2011 Water: Human Right or Commodity? Reflections on the Effectiveness of a Human Right to Water Marie Cuq, Ph.D. candidate, UPOND, CEDIN Before I begin, I would like
Human beings have always desired to claim their rights, even in times when only a small proportion of the population was considered fully human and the rest were slaves, servants, uncivilized, colonized, underdeveloped, or, in the recent euphemism, "developing". The French Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 marked the 1st time in history that rights for all people were publicly affirmed. The rights in question were essentially constitutional and political, but the idea of claiming rights had been born. In 1948, the international community approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which encompassed all types of rights. Other international acts on civil and political rights and the rights of women and children have complemented and interpreted the 1948 document. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirmed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that all persons have a right to satisfaction of economic, social, and cultural needs. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women referred in its preamble to the particular disadvantages of women living in poverty and affirmed the right of all women to education in health and family welfare, including family planning, as well as to medical and family planning services. Women were affirmed to have the same rights as men to decide freely and in an informed manner on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education, and means to exercise these rights. The United Nations has demonstrated its interest in Population Commission in 1946 and of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, and through decennial worldwide population conferences in 1954, 1965, 1974, and 1984. UN demographic goals include reduced fertility on a worldwide basis, a reduced proportion of women not using reliable contraception, a substantial reduction of early marriage and adolescent pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal mortality, a life expectancy of at least 62 years in all countries, and a better geographic distribution of population within national territories permitting rational use of resources. Governments which subscribed to the declaration and conventions on human rights should respect their promises. Population growth which outpaces increases in production will make it increasingly difficult to satisfy the rights and needs of all population sectors. A government confronted with this problem is obliged to explore every possible means of increasing production but must also seek to control population growth. Contraception is a legitimate means of achieving this end. PMID:12316572
University of Essex Rules of Assessment for LLM in International Human Rights Law UNIVERSITY/10 ______________________________________________________________ LLM in INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW ___________________________________________________________________________________ 1. PREAMBLE These rules apply to the LLM in International Human Rights Law. The rules should be read
Program on CDR/HSP International Seminar "International Human Rights Framework for Asylum Seekers of Human Rights Now Possible Issues to be discussed: Complementarity of the International Human Rights Law
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
1 The contested legitimacy of investment arbitration and the human rights of claims before arbitrators2, the human rights3 ordeal now facing investment the intersection between the investment regime and human rights through analysis
hr-law is a mailing list for law students studying international human rights or humanitarian law, or who are just interested in the subject. The purpose of the list is to provide a forum where people can share information, experiences and ideas. Some of the appropriate topics for this list include: information on how to do research in the human rights area, and sharing of hints; exchanging help on papers or research projects; discussion of topics related to human rights law; and sharing information on employment, internship and volunteer opportunities.
Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge
The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community…
Lawrence D. Berg
This paper discusses a binary discourse of ‘theory’ and ‘empirical investigation’ in the human geography practised in Aotearoa (New Zealand). I attempt to illustrate the way in which such dichotomous thinking articulates with the social construction of a hegemonic masculinity to effect a specific geographic understanding of the world. I suggest that this theory\\/empirical investigation binary gives rise to at
Hasrati, Mostafa; Street, Brian
This article is the result of a grounded theory investigation into the ways PhD topics are assigned by supervisors in engineering and selected by students in the social sciences/humanities in UK universities, broadly referred to as "topic arrangement", which can be regarded as one aspect of academic socialisation into academic Discourse…
Clarke Chapman, G
Bonhoeffer gave a theocentric basis for human rights, as God is the ground of ethics. In our earthly world, the "ultimate" must be prepared by what is "penultimate." That includes humanity's natural life and bodily wholeness, leading to human duties crafted by human reason. Nowadays, biblical texts should not be used as partisan weapons attacking government provision of health care, since all Scripture (even the Law) is seen as a Christ-centered focus on human redemption. Thus, Bonhoeffer implies a right to universal health care, but leaves entirely open which practical structures may best provide it. PMID:23737039
This thesis sets out an argument against the present interpretation of the concept of autonomy under the European Court of Human Rights (the ECtHR) Article 8 jurisprudence and proposes a new reading of the concept that ...
Manuel Couret Branco; Pedro Damiao Henriques
Water being essential to human survival, a political economy directed to satisfying human basic needs, should be especially concerned with the issue of water availability and distribution. Why is there such inequality in its distribution? This inequality represents a serious violation of a human right, as it will be developed in the paper and therefore should not be tolerated. The
Seldin, Jonathan P.
Human Resources Authorization Form for Non-Employee Access Rights PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION Employee: Financial Services, if required: Name: Signature: Date: FOR HUMAN RESOURCES USE Employee Class 98 contact Deb Robb, Human Resources, The University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 403
Baker, Dana Lee
In issue definition in rights-based policy Canada stereotypically embraces a more positive, human rights-centered approach as compared with the American stereotype associated with the USA's more presumptively negative, civil rights-based tack. Since exclusionary infrastructures violate the core values of democratic governance, a failure to address…
Hitchcock, Robert K.
Contends that, in the past 30 years, a dramatic upsurge has taken place in activities designed to promote human rights for indigenous peoples around the world. Asserts that, in the case of Africa, attention generally has been concentrated on socioeconomic rights, such as health care, sufficient water, food, and shelter. (CFR)
Osler, Audrey; Zhu, Juanjuan
Throughout history individual and collective narratives have been used in struggles for justice. We draw on Sen's theory of justice to examine the potential of narratives in teaching and researching for social justice. Human rights are presented as powerful ethical claims that can be critically examined by learners to consider their rights and…
Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Beaglehole, Robert
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have finally emerged onto the global health and development agenda. Despite the increasingly important role human rights play in other areas of global health, their contribution to NCD prevention and control remains nascent. The recently adopted Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013–2020 is an important step forward, but the lack of concrete attention to human rights is a missed opportunity. With practical implications for policy development, priority setting, and strategic design, human rights offer a logical, robust set of norms and standards; define the legal obligations of governments; and provide accountability mechanisms that can be used to enhance current approaches to NCD prevention and control. Harnessing the power of human rights can strengthen action for NCDs at the local, national, and global levels. PMID:24625165
Gruskin, Sofia; Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Beaglehole, Robert
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have finally emerged onto the global health and development agenda. Despite the increasingly important role human rights play in other areas of global health, their contribution to NCD prevention and control remains nascent. The recently adopted Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020 is an important step forward, but the lack of concrete attention to human rights is a missed opportunity. With practical implications for policy development, priority setting, and strategic design, human rights offer a logical, robust set of norms and standards; define the legal obligations of governments; and provide accountability mechanisms that can be used to enhance current approaches to NCD prevention and control. Harnessing the power of human rights can strengthen action for NCDs at the local, national, and global levels. PMID:24625165
Englehart, Ellen Marie
sovereignty, I propose the principle of sovereignty forfeiture, where states are able to intervene in a state perpetrating gross violations of human rights. I define "gross" violations of human rights using Peter Berger's account. Berger restricts the scope... in themselves, rather than as means to an end. These concepts are extremely important in developing my principle of sovereignty forfeiture. Specifically, a nation has a duty to intervene in the afFairs of another sovereign state when that state perpetrates...
Patricia A. Marshall
In the field of bioethics, scholars have begun to consider carefully the impact of structural issues on global population\\u000a health, including socioeconomic and political factors influencing the disproportionate burden of disease throughout the world.\\u000a Human rights and social justice are key considerations for both population health and biomedical research. In this paper,\\u000a I will briefly explore approaches to human rights
Shiman, David A.
This curriculum guide incorporates three dimensions of human rights education: teaching about human rights, teaching against human rights violations, and teaching for the creation of a world in which all human beings are treated with justice and dignity. The book is based upon the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).…
Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily
The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. PMID:24337891
Education International, Brussels (Belgium).
This report focuses on the extent to which the right to education is available to children, young people, and adults and the extent to which educators enjoy fundamental human and trade union rights set out in the major international deliberations and conventions. The report seeks to acknowledge the contributions of teachers and education support…
Patterson, David; London, Leslie
This article explores the relevance of international human rights law in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic at national and international levels. Public health advocates can use arguments based on this body of law to promote responses to HIV/AIDS that reflect sound public health principles and documented best practice. Development assistance is increasingly linked to rights-based approaches, such as participatory processes, and strategic alliances between health professionals, organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS, and affected communities. Legal and human rights advocacy strategies are increasingly productive and necessary. PMID:12571725
Ellis, Sonja J.
Despite a paucity of psychological research exploring the interface between lesbian and gay issues and human rights, a human rights framework has been widely adopted in debates to gain equality for lesbians and gay men. Given this prominence within political discourse of human rights as a framework for the promotion of positive social change for…
Orbinski, James; Beyrer, Chris; Singh, Sonal
For humanitarian health-care practitioners bearing witness to violations of human dignity has become synonymous with denunciations, human rights advocacy, or lobbying for political change. A strict reliance on legal interpretations of humanitarianism and human rights is inadequate for fully understanding the problems inherent in political change. With examples from the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the USA, the Rwandan genocide, and physician-led political activism in Nepal, we describe three cases in which health practitioners bearing witness to humanitarian and human-rights issues have had imperfect outcomes. However these acts of bearing witness have been central to the promotion of humanitarianism and human rights, to the pursuit of justice that they have inevitably and implicitly endorsed, and thus to the politics that have or might yet address these issues. Despite the imperfections, bearing witness, having first-hand knowledge of humanitarian and human-rights principles and their limitations, and systematically collecting evidence of abuse, can be instrumental in tackling the forces that constrain the realisation of human health and dignity. PMID:17720021
Lie, Reidar K
Background There has been an increased interest in the role of a human rights framework to mobilize resources for health. Discussion This paper argues that the human rights framework does provide us with an appropriate understanding of what values should guide a nation's health policy, and a potentially powerful means of moving the health agenda forward. It also, however, argues that appeals to human rights may not necessarily be effective at mobilizing resources for specific health problems one might want to do something about. Specifically, it is not possible to argue that a particular allocation of scarce health care resources should be changed to a different allocation, benefiting other groups. Lack of access to health care services by some people only shows that something has to be done, but not what should be done. Summary The somewhat weak claim identified above together with the obligation to realize progressively a right to health can be used to mobilize resources for health. PMID:15473899
Cuban activists say they were beaten on eve of 60th human rights anniversaryhttp://www.csmonitor.com/2008/1211/p25s02-woam.htmlBBC News: World Marks UN Human Rights Dayhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7771429.stmHuman rights violations in our own backyardhttp://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/12/09/ED5S14KPD6.DTLMary Robinson: Climate change is an issue of human rightshttp://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/commentators/mary-robinson-climate-change-is-an-issue-of-human-rights-1059360.htmlHuman Rights Day 2008 [Real Player, [pdf]http://www.un.org/events/humanrights/2008/index.shtmlUnited Nations Audio Library: Radio Classics [iTunes]http://www.unmultimedia.org/radio/library/classics/date.htmlThis Wednesday marked the 60th anniversary of the adoption of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights. A number of groups around the world, including the United Nations and Amnesty International, used the observation of this event to bring attention to some of the continued human rights challenges and abuses around the world. Of course, sixty years ago, just getting the Declaration approved by the new U.N. General Assembly was quite a challenge, as individual countries had their own separate ideas about what constituted human rights. As Larry Cox, the director of Amnesty International USA, points out: "It was no longer a question of individual states doing whatever they want to for their citizens, because the way that governments treat their citizens affects the whole word and especially the peace and security of the whole world." Also this week, a number of commentators, such as Mary Robinson, the former United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights remarked that global climate change may be the next frontier in terms of thinking about human rights, especially in regards to the world's poor. The first link will lead visitors to a piece from the Voice of America News which talks about the legacy and future of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The second link leads to a piece from this Thursday's Christian Science Monitor which comments on a group of Cuban activists who said they were beaten while readying for a rally related to the anniversary of the Declaration. The third link will lead visitors to an excellent site created by the BBC to commemorate this event. The site includes a news article, an interactive slideshow, and a general Q&A section about the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Moving on, the fourth link leads to an editorial by Sumayyah Waheed on the state of California's prison youth system, which appeared in Wednesday's San Francisco Chronicle. The fifth link will whisk users away to an impassioned piece by Mary Robinson about the relationship between climate change and human rights. The sixth link leads to the official United Nations homepage on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Here, visitors can read the text of the Declaration in hundreds of different languages, watch short video presentations, and take a look through the "World Voices" project. Finally, the last link leads to a fascinating collection of audio documentaries produced by the United Nations over the past sixty years. While visitors do have to register to listen in, the range of voices is quite accomplished. The archive includes Edward Murrow talking about needy children in a post-WWII Europe, Helen Hayes narrating reports on the Korean War, and the unbeatable troika of Michael Redgrave, James Mason, and Orson Welles narrating the history of diplomacy.
Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland) [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland) [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: Mitchell-g.Weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Münch, Anna K., E-mail: email@example.com [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: email@example.com [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States) [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)
Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human rights impact assessment exposed impacts not foreseen in ESIA. • Corporations adopted the majority of findings, but not necessarily immediately. • Methodological advancements are expected for monitoring processes.
de Wet, Annamagriet; Roux, Cornelia; Simmonds, Shan; ter Avest, Ina
Human rights play a vital role in citizens' political, religious and cultural life (Wang 2002, 171). Due to the prominence of human rights in the everyday life of citizens, including those of South Africa, human rights education has been included in many school curricula. Human rights education aims to develop responsible citizens who "inter alia"…
#12; The Human Right to Water: Emerging Corporate Practice and Stakeholder drinking water and sanitation as a human right. Two months later, the UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC, academics, and companies alike have acknowledged this human right to water and sanitation and sought
Objective: Insufficient understanding of the reciprocal interactions between health and human rights, mental health and human rights and the realization of all human rights by Indigenous peoples constitute a triple jeopardy in how these topics are currently being addressed and\\/or openly antagonized. This paper will attempt to show how a combined health and human rights approach to mental health in
Information Sheet for BIS 403 Washington, D.C. Human Rights Seminar THE COURSE The Washington, D.C. Human Rights Seminar (BIS 403) is part of the human rights emphasis in the Interdisciplinary. The course has been a part of the curriculum since 1990 and focuses on the construction of human rights
McPherson, Jane; Abell, Neil
Objectives: Advancing human rights is a core competency of U.S. social work education; yet, human rights attitudes and behaviors have never been measured in the social work literature. Thus, this article describes the development and initial validation of two scales, Human Rights Engagement in Social Work (HRESW) and Human Rights Exposure in…
McPherson, Jane; Cheatham, Leah P.
This article describes the integration of human rights content and a national arts-activism initiative--One Million Bones--into a bachelor's-level macro practice class as a human rights teaching strategy. Two previously validated scales, the Human Rights Exposure (HRX) in Social Work and the Human Rights Engagement (HRE) in Social Work…
In 1997 Australia changed its human rights policy regarding China from its support for resolutions on China at the UN Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) to the adoption of the bilateral human rights dialogue process. From 1991 to 1997 the UNCHR process had greatly contributed to the Chinese government making human rights concessions such that China could be considered to
Leila Srour, M; Marck, Klaas W; Baratti-Mayer, Denise
Noma, an orofacial gangrene and opportunistic infection, affects primarily malnourished children living in extreme poverty. Neglected, forgotten, unknown by most health workers, noma results in death, disfigurement and disability of some of the world's most vulnerable children. Noma is a biological indicator of multiple human rights violations, including the right to food. International support and national attention in countries with noma are lacking. The end of neglect of noma can lead to the elimination of this horrific childhood disease. PMID:25609756
In this article I spell out a conception of dignity grounded in African moral thinking that provides a plausible philosophical foundation for human rights, focusing on the particular human right not to be executed by the state. I first demonstrate that the South African Constitutional Court's sub-Saharan explanations of why the death penalty is degrading all counterintuitively entail that using
Despite advances in the notion of human rights at work, the idea of human rights has not had a place in industrial relations scholarship. This paper examines core ideas and assumptions underlying the major theoretical approaches in industrial relations in order to understand each framework's compatibility with the human rights worldview. Five major theoretical approaches are included in this study:
Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane
The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246
Benatar, S R
Widening disparities in health and human rights at a global level represent the dark side of progress associated with escalation of economic and military exploitation and exponential population growth in the 20th century. Even the most basic universal human rights cannot be achieved for all under these circumstances. The goal of improved population health will be similarly elusive while medical care is commodified and exploited for commercial gain in the marketplace. Recognition of the powerful forces that polarize our world and commitment to reversing them are essential for the achievement of human rights for all, for the improvement of public health, and for the peaceful progress required to protect the "rational self-interest" of the most privileged people on earth against the escalation of war, disease, and other destructive forces arising from widespread poverty and ecological degradation. PMID:9491027
Ercevik Amado, Liz
A regional workshop on sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa was held in Malta in 2003, attended by 22 NGO representatives from Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Turkey, Pakistan and USA. The meeting aimed to develop strategies for overcoming human rights violations in the region with reference to law and social and political practices. Session topics included sexuality and gender identity; sexuality and sexual health; sexuality and comparative penal law; sexual rights in international documents; advocacy and lobbying. Sexual rights, sexual health and education, sexual violence and adolescent sexuality were explored in depth, including taboos and emerging trends. Specific areas of concern included marital rape, early marriages, temporary marriages, sexual orientation, premarital and extramarital sexuality, honour crimes, female genital mutilation, unmarried mothers, adolescent sexuality, unwanted pregnancies and safe abortion, sexuality in education and health services. An analysis of civil codes, penal codes and personal status codes indicated a clear imperative for legal reform. Participants heard about efforts to promote the right to sexual orientation which have already been initiated in Lebanon, Turkey and Tunisia. Networking within the region and with counterparts in other regions in comparable situations and conditions was deemed essential. PMID:15242219
Human rights are commonly conceived as more relevant to foreign policy than day-to-day living. Drawing on Eleanor Roosevelt's conception of human rights as beginning close to home, this article illustrates how human rights principles might inform everyday processes of schooling and learning to live together. It considers rights to, in and…
Stephen Joseph Powell
As WTO Members relentlessly pursue new regional trade agreements to achieve even faster economic growth than the extraordinary numbers posted by global trade rules, the smaller number of parties and their greater cultural affinity have led negotiators to address the intersection of trade with human rights to an extent unparalleled in the culturally disparate and near-unmanageable 150-plus member WTO itself.
Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena
This article aims at understanding the influence of the right to health legal framework to Brazilian Nursing. To achieve this purpose the historical evolution of the right to development is described and the concept of right to health is introduced. Then, the right to health in Brazil and Nursing actions to guarantee this right in their daily practice is discussed. In Brazil, health is a right of all and a duty of the State. However, there is a great inequality in the distribution of health services among regions, rural and urban areas, the rich and the poor. Nursing professionals face several challenges in their practice to provide the care as stated by the laws. They play an important role as transformation agents, helping the community to acquire a sense of collective identity regarding their human rights and right to health. PMID:18770904
Ojalehto, Bethany; Wang, Qi
This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a human rights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive-cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children's development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the…
The "Dowa" (Human Rights) education program has become an effective method of changing concept and situations of "Burakumin," a group of people that has been discriminated against in Japan. One educational strategy was to speak out their personal stories, which has become a trigger to some sexual minority teachers to come out, as well as others to…
Kenyan environmentalist and human rights campaigner Wangari Maathai, the 2004 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, is the first African woman to be awarded the peace prize since it was created in 1901. Agenda reprints her Nobel Lecture, delivered on 10 December 2004, in Oslo, Norway.
Allan, Stuart; Sonwalkar, Prasun; Carter, Cynthia
This article assesses the potential of online news reporting to create discursive spaces for emphatic engagement--of bearing witness--at a distance, especially where human rights violations are concerned. Taking as its focus the emergent forms and practices of citizen journalism, it examines the spontaneous actions of ordinary people compelled to…
Christine Aime; Thierry Folliguet; Catherine Rucker-Martin; Maryla Krajewska; Stanislaw Krajewski; Michele Heimburger; Michel Aubier; Jean-Jacques Mercadier; John C. Reed; Stephane N. Hatem
METHODS We examined human right atrial myocardium specimens (n 5 50) for the presence of apoptotic myocytes. We used immunohistochemical and Western blotting analysis to examine the expression of a final effector of programmed cell death, caspase-3 (CASP-3) and of regulatory proteins from the BCL-2 family. RESULTS Sections from atria in AF contained a high percentage of large myocytes with
This article analyses the challenges posed by traditional ethnic and linguistic minorities in multicultural states and more specifically the problems faced by indigenous peoples and communities. Their educational and cultural needs and demands are increasingly being framed in the language of human rights, based on the expanding international legal…
This research is an effort to transcend the debate of universalism and cultural relativism by offering a new conceptualization of human rights. The conceptualization is presented through the development of a theoretical framework in the form of an epistemology. The research articulates and defends the epistemology, which is grounded on…
Sheffield, Caroline C.; Cruz, Barbara C.
Using literature in the social studies classroom is a useful pedagogy that is particularly well-suited in human rights education. Literature can give voice to people who cannot speak for themselves and gives students an opportunity to consider perspectives that are often foreign to them. When used with delicacy and care, these literary…
Can Holocaust education be considered a tool for human rights education? If so, to what extent? These questions elicit discussions among a wide range of educators, and interest among politicians, educational planners, and ministries in charge of memorials. At first glance the obvious answer seems to be yes; both educators and students have strong…
In today's globally interconnected community, it is imperative that students learn how human rights abuses are not a "thing of the past," but an ongoing exploitation that requires modern day crusaders to defend. Who might these crusaders be? None other than each student. However, if one wants to encourage these noble change agents, one needs to…
In this article, the work of three international governmental organisations (IGOs) dealing with human rights will be discussed, namely the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Council of Europe (CoE). In the first section, the main characteristics of the…
Bynum, Gregory Lewis
In this essay Gregory Bynum seeks to show that Immanuel Kant's thought, which was conceived in an eighteenth-century context of new, and newly widespread, pressures for nationally institutionalized human rights-based regimes (the American and French revolutions being the most prominent examples), can help us think in new and appreciative ways…
This essay challenges the coherence of arguments brought in support of prohibiting the sale of human body parts. Considerations of neither social utility nor individual rights nor avoidance of exploitation seem sufficient to ground such a prohibition. Indeed, they may be sufficient to invalidate it.
Jeana Fowler; Nicolette Che; Lindsay Fowler
The purpose of this study is to divulge the various forms of human trafficking, to identify the victims of this illegal practice, and to address the special needs and rights for quality education and vocational training for those who have been victims of what is known as modern day slavery. The authors intend to show that hundreds of thousands of
Jarrett, Thomas H.
08 September 2014 Judge Navi Pillay to speak on advancing human rights in SA and the world Annual live on www.uct.ac.za "In many ways, the life of Bantu Stephen Biko as a human rights defender for the fundamental freedoms and principles of human dignity, equality and human rights for all," says Judge
Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga; Stewart, Donna E
Human trafficking is an international challenge that increasingly affects industrialized countries. It represents a gross violation of a person's right to liberty and freedom of movement, and is often accompanied by violence and degrading treatment which can have detrimental effects on health. In this article, we review the definition and extent of human trafficking, and focus on the human rights abuses and determinants of trafficking in women. Mental health and other health outcomes are reviewed, and differences between countries in organized activities for victim assistance and protection are assessed. Finally, we discuss the roles of mental health and other healthcare providers in identifying and helping trafficked women, and recommend a tailored multidisciplinary approach for victim assistance. PMID:17938151
The Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) has been plagued by controversy since before its construction even began. Outcries regarding perceived oversights in the museum's programming and objections to the cost of construction, curatorial development, and staffing have erupted frequently in local media. Critical analyses of public responses to…
...when same-sex couples refuse to be told whom to love. The past year saw extraordinary change in the Middle East and North Africa as square by square, town by town, country by country, people rose up to demand their human rights. Around...
Leung, Yan Wing; Lo, Yan Lam
As in most countries, human rights education (HRE) in Hong Kong has never been high on the educational agenda. In 2009, a compulsory subject, Liberal Studies (LS), which could be used as a platform for HRE, was introduced. The Hong Kong Institute of Education launched a research and development project which, as one of its objectives, studied LS…
Education International, Brussels (Belgium).
In many countries, often at great personal cost, teachers and education support staff are at the forefront of the struggle for basic trade union and human rights. This book acknowledges their contributions. It also draws inspiration and hope from their efforts to show that a commitment to the interests of every child, to quality education, and to…
...common and inalienable rights bind us as one. All women and men--across borders and regardless of race, creed, sexual orientation, gender identity, or income level--share the freedoms of expression, religion, assembly, and...
MacNaughton, Gillian; Forman, Lisa
Health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social impacts of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation . This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international human rights standards be integrated into HIA to provide a universal value system backed up by international and domestic laws and mechanisms of accountability. The idea of mainstreaming human rights into HIA is illustrated with the example of impact assessments that have been carried out to predict the potential effects of intellectual property rights in international trade agreements on the availability and affordability of medicines. The article concludes by recommending international human rights standards as a legal and ethical framework for HIA that will enhance the universal values of nondiscrimination, participation, transparency and accountability and bring legitimacy and coherence to HIA practice as well. PMID:25264683
Miranda, J Jaime; Yamin, Alicia Ely
Health professionals view medical ethics as a discipline that provides the basis for more adequate patient care. In recent years the concepts of quality of care and human rights - with their attending discourses - have joined the concept of medical ethics among the paradigms to consider in care for humans both at the individual and health policy levels. The current study seeks to analyze such paradigms, based on a case study of sexual and reproductive health policies in Peru in the last 10 years. PMID:18209830
High poverty levels characterise sub-Saharan Africa, Zimbabwe included. Over 80 per cent of Zimbabwe's population lived below the total consumption poverty line and 70 per cent below the food poverty line in 2003. This plummeting of social indicators resulted from the freefall suffered by the country's economy from the 1990s, after unsuccessful attempts to implement structural adjustment programmes prescribed by international financial institutions. The ensuing socioeconomic decay, political crisis and international isolation of the country from the late 1990s reversed gains made in social indicators during the 1980s. Development theories attribute poverty to unchecked population growth, political, economic and environmental mismanagement, while developing countries' leaders attribute it to historical imbalances and global political and economic injustices. Despite this debate, poverty continues to evolve, expand and deepen and the need to eradicate it has become urgent. The complex question of what causes and what drives poverty is perpetually addressed and new ideas are emerging to answer the question. One recent view is that failure to centre development on people and to declare poverty a violation of human rights has allowed poverty to grow the world over. This study uses a hypothesised cause of poverty - civil registration - to exemplify the human right nature of poverty, and how a human rights' policy can be used as an instrument to eradicate poverty. The study demonstrates that civil registration is a right of instrumental relevance to poverty; and achieving civil registration grants people access to numerous other rights, some of which will lift them out of poverty, while the failure of civil registration deprives people of access to livelihoods, thereby entrenching them in poverty. PMID:20726138
Advocacy for sexual rights, including the application of international human rights to sexual orientation and gender identity, has seen many gains but has failed to protect and promote lesbian rights adequately. This article explores some of the obstacles to making visible in international human rights law and activism women who transgress social norms around gender and sexuality: specifically, gendered understandings
Healthcare is a fundamental human right. The right to health is as important as the right to food and shelter. Although the United States leads the world in advancing medical technology and science, it significantly lags behind other industrialized nations in regard to the basic human right to health. Healthcare has become a commodity in the United States. The affluent
Kammen, Daniel M.
Protecting People and the Planet a proposal to address the human rights impacts of climate change Francisco School of Law #12;#12;Protecting People and the Planet a proposal to address the human rights
Omelicheva, Mariya Y.
What explains the discrepancy between the avowed commitment of the Georgian government to human rights and praxis of human rights in the post-Rose Revolution republic? This article engages with this question and attributes persistent breaches...
Shannon Lindsey Blanton; Robert G. Blanton
Though the prospective relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and human rights has long been a prominent issue within the global political economy, the linkage is empirically underdeveloped. Rather, the conventional wisdom that FDI and respect for human rights are inherently contradictory has persisted. Instead, we posit that respect for human rights may encourage FDI. To examine this issue, we
News Canadian Museum for Human Rights & UWinnipeg Sign MOU May 6, 2011 Lloyd Axworthy, UWinnipeg. Stuart Murray, President & CEO, Canadian Museum for Human Rights, Marilou McPhederan, Principal for Human Rights (CMHR), and Dr. Lloyd Axworthy, President and Vice-Chancellor of The University of Winnipeg
Examining the Role of Narrative in Human Rights Advocacy, Documentation and Justice of Narrative in Human Rights Advocacy, Documentation and Justice-Seeking" will feature Pamela Graham, Ramazan implications of using narrative, testimony and oral history in human rights contexts. WHEN: June 6, 2012, 6
STATEMENT ON HUMAN RIGHTS Acknowledging its fundamental and distinctive commitment to freedom and existing legislation related to human rights, such as its Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters, its Policies and Procedures: Sexual Harassment, its Employment Equity Policy and Ontario's Human Rights Code
9 International Human Rights Cases Under State Law and in State Courts Paul Hoffman and Beth ......................................................................................................................... 9 I. Post-Kiobel Federal Court Human Rights Litigation................................................12 II. Pre-ATS State Law and State Court Human Rights Claims.................................13 III
International Internships Available! Human Rights Internet (HRI) is an NGO committed to social through HRI is an excellent way for post-secondary graduates in the fields of human rights, health international internships. What are you waiting for? Check out this opportunity NOW! Human Rights Internet (www
Schweik, Charles M.
ICTs in Support of Human Rights, Democracy and Good Governance By Audrey N. Selian August email@example.com>, ITU. ICTs in Support of Human Rights, Democracy and Good Governance is part of the Strategy and Policy...................................................................................................12 III. Human Rights
63 Spatial Legality, Due Process, and Choice of Law in Human Rights Litigation Under U.S. State Law..........................................................................................................................79 INTRODUCTION Framing the topic of this symposium as "Human Rights Litigation in State Courts, or should, either facilitate or obstruct human rights litigation in U.S. state courts and under state law
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Suarez, David F.
Human rights have become increasingly salient for nations, organizations, and individuals since the end of World War II (Lauren 2003). Discussions of human rights now are common in formal education, including in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). A variety of indicators suggest that countries in Latin America have integrated human rights into…
Grant, Carl A.; Gibson, Melissa Leigh
Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's human rights initiatives. The efforts of human rights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…
Background: Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have the same human value as other children and are entitled to their basic human rights. And yet, in developing countries they face many barriers to accessing these rights. This study focuses on children with IDs in Egypt. Method: A new measure, the Human Rights of children with…
Guyette, Frederick W.
What are the prospects for joining religious education and human rights education? (1) Human rights educators may cite good historical and philosophical reasons for teaching about human rights without making any reference whatsoever to a religious foundation. (2) For their part, many religious communities have resisted opportunities to form…
Kenjiro Kosaki; Brett Casey
Like all vertebrates, humans establish anatomic left–right asymmetry during embryogenesis. Variation from this normal arrangement (situs solitus) results in heterotaxy, expressed either as randomization (situs ambiguus) or complete reversal (situs inversus) of normal organ position. Familial heterotaxy occurs with autosomal dominant, recessive, and X-linked inheritance. All possible situs variants —solitus, ambiguus,inversus — can appear among some heterotaxy families. Positional cloning
Akhtar, Sayeed; Jagawat, T.
SUMMARY Seventy patients were brought restrained to a Psychiatric outpatient department over a three month period, with the commonest site of restraint being the wrist. They were compared with controls and it was found that restrained patients were more likely to be younger, belonging to a lower socioeconomic status, from a rural background and were more likely to be diagnosed as manic. The significance of these findings and their implications for the human rights of the mentally ill are discussed. PMID:21743615
Robert G. Blanton; Shannon Lindsey Blanton
The nexus of economic and political relations is a central issue in international relations, and the influence of political liberalization upon trade ties lies at the center of much liberal theory. However, many facets of the empirical linkage between political liberalization—including democratization and the respect for human rights—and trade remain uninvestigated. Examining the case of U.S.?Africa trade, this study considers
Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie
The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes. PMID:24381084
Marshall, Patricia A
In the field of bioethics, scholars have begun to consider carefully the impact of structural issues on global population health, including socioeconomic and political factors influencing the disproportionate burden of disease throughout the world. Human rights and social justice are key considerations for both population health and biomedical research. In this paper, I will briefly explore approaches to human rights in bioethics and review guidelines for ethical conduct in international health research, focusing specifically on health research conducted in resource-poor settings. I will demonstrate the potential for addressing human rights considerations in international health research with special attention to the importance of collaborative partnerships, capacity building, and respect for cultural traditions. Strengthening professional knowledge about international research ethics increases awareness of ethical concerns associated with study design and informed consent among researchers working in resource-poor settings. But this is not enough. Technological and financial resources are also necessary to build capacity for local communities to ensure that research results are integrated into existing health systems. Problematic issues surrounding the application of ethical guidelines in resource-poor settings are embedded in social history, cultural context, and the global political economy. Resolving the moral complexities requires a commitment to engaged dialogue and action among investigators, funding agencies, policy makers, governmental institutions, and private industry. PMID:16292607
Shaw, Dorothy; Cook, Rebecca J
Universal access to reproductive health is a target of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5B, and along with MDG 5A to reduce maternal mortality by three-quarters, progress is currently too slow for most countries to achieve these targets by 2015. Critical to success are increased and sustainable numbers of skilled healthcare workers and financing of essential medicines by governments, who have made political commitments in United Nations forums to renew their efforts to reduce maternal mortality. National essential medicine lists are not reflective of medicines available free or at cost in facilities or in the community. The WHO Essential Medicines List indicates medicines required for maternal and newborn health including the full range of contraceptives and emergency contraception, but there is no consistent monitoring of implementation of national lists through procurement and supply even for basic essential drugs. Health advocates are using human rights mechanisms to ensure governments honor their legal commitments to ensure access to services essential for reproductive health. Maternal mortality is recognized as a human rights violation by the United Nations and constitutional and human rights are being used, and could be used more effectively, to improve maternity services and to ensure access to drugs essential for reproductive health. PMID:22883913
Jacobson, P; Banerjee, A
After achieving breathtaking successes in securing state and local restrictions on smoking in public places and restricting youth access to tobacco products, the tobacco movement faces difficult decisions on its future strategic directions. The thesis of this article is that the tobacco control movement is at a point of needing to secure its recent successes and avoiding any public retrenchment. To do so requires rethinking the movement's strategic direction. We use the familiar trans-theoretical model of change to describe where the movement is currently and the threats it faces. The new tobacco control strategy should encompass a focus on voluntary non-smoking strategies, use human rights rhetoric to its advantage, and strengthen the public health voice to be more effective in political battles. In developing a new strategy, tobacco control advocates need to build a social movement based on a more forceful public health voice, along with the strategic use of human rights rhetoric, to focus on the power of voluntary non-smoking efforts. Using human rights rhetoric can help frame the movement in ways that have traditionally appealed to the American public. Perhaps more importantly, doing so can help infuse the tobacco control movement with a broader sense of purpose and mission. PMID:16046702
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Journal of International Human Rights Rights as Footprints: A New Metaphor for Contemporary Human Rights the complicated practice of claiming human rights. So far, drawing on studies from related literatures from metaphors have helped to describe and celebrate human rights advocacy. They have also provided a trenchant
.M. in International Human Rights Law at the Irish Centre for Human Rights, National University of Ireland, Galway. He his Doctoral Studies, Ph.D. in International Human Rights Law at the Irish Centre for Human Rights Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences for the academic year 2001-2002 in order to pursue
Philippe Rigoard; Silke V. Haustein; Carole Doucet; Michel Scepi; Jean Pierre Richer; Jean Pierre Faure
Background Development of the digestive tract during the human fetal period has been the subject of many studies, but there are no works\\u000a that study the ontogeny of both the right colon and the peritoneum.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Based on the dissections of adult male cadavers and human fetuses, the aim of this anatomical study was to demonstrate the\\u000a rules of the morpho-functional group,
The fiftieth anniversary of the UN Universal Declaration on HumanRightsmarks an appropriate moment to reconsider the reasons whygovernments construct international regimes to adjudicate and enforcehuman rights. Such regimes include those established under the EuropeanConvention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms(ECHR), the Inter-American Convention on Human Rights, and the UNCovenant on Civil and Political Rights.
Background Almost five decades ago, governments around the world adopted the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs which, in addition to addressing the control of illicit narcotics, obligated countries to work towards universal access to the narcotic drugs necessary to alleviate pain and suffering. Yet, despite the existence of inexpensive and effective pain relief medicines, tens of millions of people around the world continue to suffer from moderate to severe pain each year without treatment. Discussion Significant barriers to effective pain treatment include: the failure of many governments to put in place functioning drug supply systems; the failure to enact policies on pain treatment and palliative care; poor training of healthcare workers; the existence of unnecessarily restrictive drug control regulations and practices; fear among healthcare workers of legal sanctions for legitimate medical practice; and the inflated cost of pain treatment. These barriers can be understood not only as a failure to provide essential medicines and relieve suffering but also as human rights abuses. Summary According to international human rights law, countries have to provide pain treatment medications as part of their core obligations under the right to health; failure to take reasonable steps to ensure that people who suffer pain have access to adequate pain treatment may result in the violation of the obligation to protect against cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment. PMID:20089155
Ellen Winner; Hiram Brownell; Francesca Happé; Ari Blum; Donna Pincus
Right-hemisphere brain damaged (RHD) patients and a normal control group were tested for their ability to infer first- and second-order mental states and to understand the communicative intentions underlying ironic jokes and lies. Subjects listened to stories involving a character who had either a true or a false belief about another character's knowledge. Stories ended either with an ironic joke
This study provides a discursive analysis of World Bank policy documents in order to reveal the stark omission of a rights-based approach to education, while highlighting instead the support of an economic-instrumentalist approach. Plausible explanations are provided to shed light on this exclusion, including the feasibility critique of education…
Rugani, Rosa; Kelly, Debbie M; Szelest, Izabela; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio
We report that adult nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) and newborn domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) show a leftward bias when required to locate an object in a series of identical ones on the basis of its ordinal position. Birds were trained to peck at either the fourth or sixth element in a series of 16 identical and aligned positions. These were placed in front of the bird, sagittally with respect to its starting position. When, at test, the series was rotated by 90 degrees lying frontoparallel to the bird's starting position, both species showed a bias for identifying selectively the correct position from the left but not from the right end. The similarity with the well-known phenomenon of the left-to-right spatially oriented number line in humans is considered. PMID:20071393
Rugani, Rosa; Kelly, Debbie M.; Szelest, Izabela; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio
We report that adult nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) and newborn domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) show a leftward bias when required to locate an object in a series of identical ones on the basis of its ordinal position. Birds were trained to peck at either the fourth or sixth element in a series of 16 identical and aligned positions. These were placed in front of the bird, sagittally with respect to its starting position. When, at test, the series was rotated by 90° lying frontoparallel to the bird's starting position, both species showed a bias for identifying selectively the correct position from the left but not from the right end. The similarity with the well-known phenomenon of the left-to-right spatially oriented number line in humans is considered. PMID:20071393
This article is based on the Arab Organization for Human Rights (AOHR) report on the situation of human rights in the Arab World (?Awad et al. 2010), which was issued in July 2010 and is comprehensive for the period extending from mid?2009 to mid?2010. This connotes a pivotal and decisive period when the Arab nation was obliged to confront critical
Andrew Byrnes; Andrea Durbach; Catherine Renshaw
The Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions (APF) is a membership organisation of national human rights institutions (NHRIs) from across the Asia Pacific region. As at the end of 2008, there were 14 full members and three associate members. The underlying eligibility criterion for membership is compliance with the United Nations Principles Relating to the Status and Functions
Joo, Hee-Jung Serenity
In the last two decades, the issue of comfort women--the women and girls who were forced into sex slavery for the Japanese army before and during WWII--has risen to global attention. Tens of thousands of comfort women (the average estimate is anywhere between 80,000 and 200,000) were confined at comfort stations managed by the Japanese Imperial…
Formen, Ali; Nuttall, Joce
In this paper we consider how particular discourses have come to dominate early childhood education (ECE) policy in Indonesia. We briefly explain the governance of Indonesian ECE and then our approach to policy analysis using critical discourse analysis. Three prevalent discourses are identified and discussed: "developmentalism",…
Nitza Berkovitch; Neve Gordon
Focusing on the flow of funding to human rights non-governmental orga- nizations (NGOs), we begin inthis article to broach one of the least studied issues pertaining to transnational regimes—namely, their material under- pinnings. Through an analysis of the patterns of donor funding to human rights NGOs, we underscore the triangulation between states, donors, and rights NGOs, whereby states have an
Codling, Edward A.
Access Guide to the Human Rights Centre Location of the Centre and its main spaces Access from Accessible parking Location of the Human Rights Centre The centre is located on Square 4 on two floors (5: enter the building from the SE corner, diagonally opposite the Campus Shop. Bear right along the Law
In September, Human Rights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. This report, Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards, reports on nationwide repeated violations, across all levels of employment, of federal laws and international standards protecting workers's rights to organize, to bargain collectively, and to strike.
While the issue of giving women their human rights has been firmly placed on the agendas of international conferences, the plight of refugee women has gone largely unrecognized. Refugee women face rape, sexual abuse, sexual extortion, and physical insecurity. Such violations precipitate their flight, characterize their attempts to gain refugee status, and continue during their tenure in refugee camps, where they are excluded from positions of authority. Because the definition of refugees in the 1951 UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees omits sex as a grounds for determining refugee status or as a grounds on which it prohibits discrimination based on sex, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees decided in 1985 that such claims must fall under the classification of membership of a particular group. Unfortunately, agreement with this is discretionary for states. It has been argued that states which protect aliens from discrimination based on sex must afford the same privilege to refugees, but, again, such behavior is subject to debate. Concerns about the human rights of refugee women should be strengthened by being addressed in the existing framework of human rights conventions in international law, such as the Commission on the Status of Women and the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). One recent advance in this area was the establishment of the Yugoslav and Rwanda War Crimes Tribunals which will investigate the sexual abuse of women during the armed conflicts. The issue of violence against women in every situation must remain on CEDAW's agenda. In addition, the Fourth World Conference on Women provides a welcome opportunity to place these issues in the forefront of global efforts to protect women. PMID:12290124
This new report from Human Rights Watch details continued cases within Rwanda of "assassination, murder, arbitrary detention, torture and other abuses perpetrated chiefly by soldiers of the Rwandan Patriotic Army, and by members of a government-backed citizens' militia called the Local Defense Force." According to the report, the Local Defense Force, while supposedly acting under the auspices of local authorities, commits abuses without fear of reprisal since these authorities are often either allied with or afraid of the government-supported militia.
Banks, Dennis N.
Simply put, human rights education is learning that develops the knowledge, skills, and values of human rights. Growing consensus around the world recognizes education for and about human rights as essential. It can contribute to the building of free, just, and peaceful societies. Human rights education also is increasingly recognized as an…
The principle of respect for human dignity plays a crucial role in the emerging global norms relating to bioethics, in particular in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. This instrument, which is a legal, not merely an ethical document, can be regarded as an extension of international human rights law into the field of biomedicine. Although the Declaration does not explicitly define human dignity, it would be a mistake to see the emphasis put on this notion as a mere rhetorical strategy. Rather, the appeal to dignity reflects a real concern about the need to promote respect both for the intrinsic worth of human beings and for the integrity of the human species. But dignity alone cannot solve most of the dilemmas posed by biomedical practice. This is why international biolaw combines, on the one hand, the appeal to human dignity as an overarching principle with, on the other hand, the recourse to human rights, which provide an effective and practical way forward for dealing with bioethical issues at a global level. PMID:19386998
This article argues that the trend in the current protection of human rights may be seen as a revival of an old idea: governments are accountable for their actions. The protection of human rights has gone through three eras. In the first era, the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages claimed to rule from a divine mandate. This principle of natural law was a unifying factor in western Europe because it created a standard system of morality. The second era, beginning in the seventeenth century with the doctrine of state sovereignty, rejected that natural law. Rulers wanted to run their own territories and not be subject to foreign influence. Laws were created by the 'national sovereign' (king, queen, president, parliament, congress and so on). This legal doctrine survived for about three centuries, but the excesses of leaders such as Hitler in the middle of last century forced a re-think. Although the term 'natural law' is not used, there has been a revival of its essential meaning: that governments have to be answerable to a higher authority for their behaviour. PMID:17822064
Ross E Burkhart
In a growing empirical literature on the determinants of human rights violations, the variable economic system has been untried as an independent variable in multivariate models. More theoretical treatments suggest that capitalism is more of a destructive force in the community, and thus more problematic for the observance of human rights, than it is helpful in the maintenance of human
Tao Sun; Christina Patoine; Amir Abu-Khalil; Jane Visvader; Eleanor Sum; Timothy J. Cherry; Stuart H. Orkin; Daniel H. Geschwind; Christopher A. Walsh
The human left and right cerebral hemispheres are anatomically and functionally asymmetric. To test whether human cortical asymmetry has a molecular basis, we studied gene expression levels between the left and right embryonic hemispheres using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). We identified and verified 27 differentially expressed genes, which suggests that human cortical asymmetry is accompanied by early, marked
Some African leaders have made the argument that the promotion of an international human rights standard is a strategy that is used and abused by hypocritical Western governments to justify their intervention into the affairs of African countries. The tacit objective behind this articulation is the desire to avoid an external evaluation or…
Gruskin, Sofia; Plafker, Karen; Smith-Estelle, Allison
This article examines the utility of a health and human rights framework for conceptualizing and responding to the causes and consequences of substance use among young people. It provides operational definitions of “youth” and “substances,” a review of current international and national efforts to address substance use among youths, and an introduction to human rights and the intersection between health and human rights. A methodology for modeling vulnerability in relation to harmful substance use is introduced and contemporary international and national responses are discussed. When governments uphold their obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill human rights, vulnerability to harmful substance use and its consequences can be reduced. PMID:11726374
Climate change-related food issues are key problems affecting the world today and into the future. This paper investigates how climate change is harming and is expected to harm food sources on land and in the sea, and how food production itself, especially industrialized agriculture and meat production, contributes to climate change. This article uses human rights discourse to frame the
The rights, tensions, and ideas that inform the con- temporary human experience were explored Trustee. Examining the Human Experience ANDREAKANE CLIFFMOORE #12;; and the conception and challenges of human rights from historical, philo- sophical, political, and sociological
: SOCIAL MOVEMENTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS SCHOOL FOR INTERNATIONAL TRAINING (SIT) Program, political economy, developmental studies or Latin American studies. · Students-credit courses: Social Movements and Human Rights in Argentina, History and Human
Saunders, Aaron; Schiff, Teresa; Rieth, Katherine; Yamada, Seiji; Maskarinec, Gregory G
In Hawai‘i, health care is a commodity, not a human right: those who can afford it receive care, those who cannot often don't. As health workers and health professional students, we witness the consequences that public policies and budget considerations have on people, on patients, on the health of those that we are dedicated to assisting. Beginning with a case study, we examine the historical antecedents leading to the increasing migration of Micronesians to Hawai‘i, examine the special relation that “Compact of Free Association” citizens have with the United States, and seek to reframe the political discussion regarding their health care status in this state as a debate in which medical considerations, not political or economic ones, should be the primary voice. PMID:20539993
Authored by Ryan Goodman and Derek Jinks, this working paper from the University of Chicagoâ??s Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper series was published first in March 2004, and is due to appear later this year in the Duke Law Journal. In its 57-pages, the paper deals with the ways in which states might effectively change their human rights regime based on various processes of socialization where so-called "bad actors" might be persuaded to incorporate globally legitimated models of state behavior and, on the other side of the coin, how "good actors" might also be persuaded to act better. The paper begins by discussing three mechanisms of social influence, namely coercion, persuasion, and acculturation, then continues on to discuss the nature of conditional membership, the precision of obligations, and concludes with a section on implementation.
Meier, Benjamin Mason; Ayala, Ana S
In the absence of centralized human rights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of human rights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream human rights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream human rights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American human rights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers in implementing human rights through PAHO governance. Analyzing the themes arising from this narrative, the authors examine the structural role of secretariat leadership, state support, legal expertise, and technical unit commitment in facilitating a rights-based approach to the health in the Americas. Human rights are increasingly framing PAHO efforts, and this analysis of the structures underlying PAHO's approach provides an understanding of the institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health, highlighting generalizable themes for the mainstreaming of human rights through regional health governance. With this regional-level understanding of health governance, future national-level research can begin to understand the causal forces linking regional human rights work with national policy reforms and public health outcomes. PMID:25264093
Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; London, Leslie; Chastonay, Philippe
The health and human rights movement (HHR) shows obvious signs of maturation both internally and externally. Yet there are still many questions to be addressed. These issues include the movement's epistemological status and its perspectives of development. This paper discusses critically the conditions of emergence of HHR, its identity, its dominant schools of thought, its epistemological postures and its methodological issues. Our analysis shows that: (a) the epistemological status of HHR is ambiguous; (b) its identity is uncertain in the absence of a validated definition: is it an action movement, an interdisciplinary field, a domain, an approach, a setting or a scientific discipline? (c) its main schools of thoughts are defined as "advocacists", "ethicists", "interventionists", "normativists"; (d) the movement is in the maturation process as a discipline in which "interface", "distance", "interference" and "fusion" epistemological postures represent the fundamental steps; (e) parent disciplines (health sciences and law) competences, logics and cultures introduce duality and difficulties in knowledge production, validation and diffusion; (f) there is need to re-write the history of the HHR movement by inscribing it not only into the humanitarian or public health perspectives but also into the evolution of sciences and its social, political and economical conditions of emergence. The ambiguous epistemological status of this field, the need to re-write its history, the methodological duality in its research, the question of the competence of the knowledge validation, as well as the impact of HHR practice on national and international health governance are the challenges of its future development. To meet those challenges; we call for the creation and implementation of an international research agenda, the exploration of new research topics and the evaluation of the movement's contribution to the national and global public health and human rights governance. PMID:21264518
Isaacs, S L
After World War II (WWII) concern grew about the economic and social development of Third World countries. Most countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East were European colonies while Latin America, even though independent was completely dominated by the US. These countries are characterized by: 1) a poor majority ruled by a small rich minority; 2) large rural populations migrating to the cities resulting in bottlenecks and unemployment; 3) bad health status with deteriorating nutritional states; 4) large families; 5) low levels of education (2/3 of the women in the world are illiterate and 90% live in 17 countries); 5) high levels of corruption in public positions; 6) governments ruled by a military dictator; 7) women in the lowest positions with limited legal rights. After WWII the Marshall Plan was instituted in developing countries (LDCs) to provide economic aid to development a model that used per capita income to measure a country's progress. During the 70's and 80's this model was questioned and more emphasis was put on the need for social and institutional development before investing in economic development. The World Bank and USAID have been promoting the role of the public sector, a strategy that has lowered inflation but has also affected the poor in many countries. For example, infant mortality in Brazil is higher now than 10 years ago. A wise development policy should recognize the need of LDCs to develop their own models while emphasizing agricultural development rather than industrial. Development is never accomplished until every citizen participates in their community. Improving the status of women is not only a human right but a high priority in achieving development. Women in LDCs only have partial rights--they cannot own land, nor inherit, and are not given any credit. Development is not only increasing the per capita income, it includes improving health, education, nutrition, and the quality of life of all its citizens. International law recognizes the rights of women and these are stated in the Convention on Eliminating all Forms of Discrimination Against Women. PMID:12315837
Meier, Benjamin Mason; Brugh, Kristen Nichole; Halima, Yasmin
Given current constraints on universal treatment campaigns, recent advances in public health prevention initiatives have revitalized efforts to stem the tide of HIV transmission. Yet, despite a growing imperative for prevention—supported by the promise of behavioral, structural and biomedical approaches to lower the incidence of HIV—human rights frameworks remain limited in addressing collective prevention policy through global health governance. Assessing the evolution of rights-based approaches to global HIV/AIDS policy, this review finds that human rights have shifted from collective public health to individual treatment access. While the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic gave meaning to rights in framing global health policy, the application of rights in treatment access litigation came at the expense of public health prevention efforts. Where the human rights framework remains limited to individual rights enforced against a state duty bearer, such rights have faced constrained application in framing population-level policy to realize the public good of HIV prevention. Concluding that human rights frameworks must be developed to reflect the complementarity of individual treatment and collective prevention, this article conceptualizes collective rights to public health, structuring collective combination prevention to alleviate limitations on individual rights frameworks and frame rights-based global HIV/AIDS policy to assure research expansion, prevention access and health system integration. PMID:23226723
Rosenberg, Steven T.
An essential step in understanding connected discourse is the ability to link the meanings of successive sentences together. Given a growing database to which new sentence meanings must be linked, which out of many possible ...
In 2008, the Vermont Workers' Center launched the "Healthcare Is a Human Right Campaign," a grassroots campaign to secure the creation of a universal health care system in Vermont. Campaign organizers used a human rights framework to mobilize thousands of voters in support of universal health care. In response to this extraordinary grassroots effort, the state legislature passed health care legislation that incorporates human rights principles into Vermont law and provides a framework for universal health care. The United States has often lagged behind other nations in recognizing economic, social, and cultural (ESC) rights, including the right to health. Nonetheless, activists have begun to incorporate ESC rights into domestic advocacy campaigns, and state and local governments are beginning to respond where the federal government has not. Vermont serves as a powerful example of how a human rights framework can inform health care policy and inspire grassroots campaigns in the United States. This three-part article documents the Vermont Workers' Center campaign and discusses the impact that human rights activity at the grassroots level may have on attitudes towards ESC rights in the United States. The first part describes the Vermont health care crisis and explains why the center adopted international human rights principles for their campaign. The article then goes on to discuss the three-year campaign and analyze the health care reform bill that the Vermont legislature passed. Finally, the article discusses the campaign's local and national impact. PMID:22773094
Borràs-Comes, Joan; Costa-Faidella, Jordi; Prieto, Pilar; Escera, Carles
The neural representation of segmental and tonal phonological distinctions has been shown by means of the MMN ERP, yet this is not the case for intonational discourse contrasts. In Catalan, a rising-falling intonational sequence can be perceived as a statement or as a counterexpectational question, depending exclusively on the size of the pitch range interval of the rising movement. We tested here, using the MMN, whether such categorical distinctions elicited distinct neurophysiological patterns of activity, supporting their specific neural representation. From a behavioral identification experiment, we set the boundary between the two categories and defined four stimuli across the continuum. Although the physical distance between each pair of stimuli was kept constant, the central pair represented an across-category contrast, whereas the other pairs represented within-category contrasts. These four auditory stimuli were contrasted by pairs in three different oddball blocks. The mean amplitude of the MMN was larger for the across-category contrast, suggesting that intonational contrasts in the target language can be encoded automatically in the auditory cortex. These results are in line with recent findings in other fields of linguistics, showing that, when a boundary between categories is crossed, the MMN response is not just larger but rather includes a separate subcomponent. PMID:21981669
In 2011 it emerged that to induce the death penalty, United States authorities had begun giving injections of pentobarbital, a substance provided by Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck. Lundbeck's product pentobarbital is licensed for treatment of refractory forms of epilepsy and for usage as an anaesthetic, thus for a very different purpose. The Lundbeck case offers a difficult, but also interesting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) dilemma between choices facing a pharmaceutical company to stop the distribution of a medical substance in order to avoid complicity in human rights violations, or to retain distribution of the substance in order not to impede access to the medicine for those patients who need it. The dilemma arose at a time when the United Nations (UN) Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, Professor John Ruggie, was finalizing a set of Guiding Principles to operationalize recommendations on business and human rights that he had presented to the UN Human Rights Council in 2008. The article discusses the dilemma in which Lundbeck was placed in from the perspective of the Guiding Principles on business and human rights and the 2008 Protect, Respect, Remedy UN Framework. The analysis seeks to assess what guidance may be gauged from the Guiding Principles in relation to the dilemma at hand and discusses the adequacy the Guiding Principles for dealing with acute human rights dilemmas of conflicting requirements in which a decision to avoid one type of violation risks causing violation of another human right. The article concludes by drawing up perspectives for further development of guidance on implementation of the UN Framework that could be considered by the newly established Working Group on Business and Human Rights and related UN bodies. PMID:22789041
This article examines the relationship between human rights and the pattern of capital accumulation in the Third World. The repressive authoritarian State increasingly constitutes the means for enforcing the intensive exploitation of labor in Third World industrial enclaves and commercial agriculture. While the development of center capitalism has evolved toward "the Welfare State" and a framework of liberal sociodemocracy, the "peripheral State" is generally characterized by nondemocratic forms of government. This bipolarity in the state structure between center and periphery is functionally related to the international division of labor and the unity of production and circulation on a world level. The programs and policies of the center Welfare State (health, education, social security, etc.) constitute an input of "human capital" into the high-technology center labor process. Moreover, welfare programs in center countries activate the process of circulation by sustaining high levels of consumer demand. In underdeveloped countries, the underlying vacuum in the social sectors and the important allocations to military expenditure support the requirements of the peripheral labor process. Programs in health in the center and periphery are related to the bipolarity (qualification/dequalification) in the international division of labor. The social and economic functions of health programs are intimately related to the organic structure of the State and the mechanics whereby the State allocates its financial surplus in support of both capitalist production and circulation. PMID:422298
Despite the serious and sustained attempts to promote and advance the protection of human rights and the consolidation of values and awareness of and contribute to guaranteeing them the exercise, but the Egyptian society suffers significantly from the weak suit, human rights and especially the economic ones, there was growing unemployment and poverty rates in Egypt, which requires the need
Despite the serious and sustained attempts to promote and advance the protection of human rights and the consolidation of values and awareness of and contribute to guaranteeing them the exercise, but the Egyptian society suffers significantly from the weak suit, human rights and especially the economic ones, there was growing unemployment and poverty rates in Egypt, which requires the need
Blaser, Arthur W.
This paper reviews research on international nongovernmental organizations dealing with human rights (INGOs), and interprets this research in light of the overlap of the fields of organizational theory (including group theory) and human rights. The purpose is to contribute toward a useful exchange between social scientists who seek to explain…
Gilbert, Sally; Shollenberger, Kathy
Provides a brief background on Eleanor Roosevelt and the Declaration of Human Rights. Presents a lesson wherein students simulate the creation of the Declaration of Human Rights and consider the leadership skills of Eleanor Roosevelt. Explains that the activity requires three class periods and some student preparation before the lesson. (CMK)
In 2001, a 3-month course in human rights based on critical inquiry was offered to 8th graders in a slum area of Santo Domingo. The students' attitudes, behaviors and knowledge of human rights principles were measured before and after the course. The curriculum focused on international principles and entrenched local problems such as discrimination against Haitian migrants, police brutality, violence
As forms of employment and migration changed, the financial crisis which began in 2007 affected the human rights of individuals, particularly those in developing countries. How the media reported on these consequences is essential in understanding how and why public and political perceptions of the importance of human rights may have changed since the crisis began. Using quantitative and qualitative
Wolfe, Patrick J.
Project at Harvard Law Schools Labor and Worklife Program. "The fact that 45 percent of the 657 largest NEWS For Immediate Release SUPPLY-CHAIN LABOR AND HUMAN RIGHTS POLICIES ARE BECOMING THE NORM-Chain Labor and Human Rights Policies, With U.S. and Asia Lagging Behind NEW YORK, NY, November 11, 2009
Alebeek van R
The development of international human rights law and international criminal law has triggered the question whether states and their officials can still shield themselves from foreign jurisdiction by invoking international immunity rules when human rights issues are involved. The Pinochet case was the first case that put this issue in the limelight of international attention. Since then, the question has
Under what conditions are effective international regimes for the promotion of human rights likely to emerge? Case studies of European institutions — the European Convention on Human Rights, the European Community and the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe — confirm hypotheses more consistent with Liberal theories of international relations than their Institutionalist or Realist counterparts. The uniquely successful
What role does the international system play in amplifying the impact of domestic social movements on social change? The Argentine human rights movement reached the international system through the projection of cognitive and affective information—persuasion. International response was facilitated by the international human rights regime, and transnational nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) played a critical role. This challenge from above and below
From atop the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR), juts the Tower of Hope, a 23-story illuminated glass architectural feature meant to symbolize "the goal of the human-rights journey," namely, "hope for a changed world." The prominence of hope as an ideal is literally set in stone at the CMHR. Hope for the museum itself is…
Carrim, Nazir; Keet, Andre
This article reflects on experiences of attempting to infuse human rights in the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS). Using our experiences as members of Human Rights and Inclusivity Group (HRIWG), one of the curriculum development structures set up for the RNCS, and focusing particularly on the Learning Area of Mathematics,…
Gillespie, Diane; Melching, Molly
This case study analyzes the introduction of democracy and human rights into the educational program of Tostan, a nongovernmental organization working in Africa. The authors show how Tostan's original educational approach created a meaningful context for integrating democracy and human rights into its curriculum, a process that took place from…
Gammonley, Denise; Rotabi, Karen Smith; Forte, Janett; Martin, Amanda
Advancement of human rights is a core competency in the social work curriculum. Presented is a model to teach policy practice from a human rights perspective based on a violence-against-women delegation visit to Guatemala. Postdelegation policy advocacy responses included White House and State Department briefings on the problems, including…
In 2001, a 3-month course in human rights based on critical inquiry was offered to 8th graders in a slum area of Santo Domingo. The students' attitudes, behaviors and knowledge of human rights principles were measured before and after the course. The curriculum focused on international principles and entrenched local problems such as…
Alpay, S. Pamir
The Women's Studies Program and the Human Rights Institute present a film screening and panel, Department of Gender and Women's Studies, University of Arizona), author of Entry Denied: Controlling is sponsored by: the Women's Studies Program, the Human Rights Institute, the Institute for Puerto Rican
Cayir, Kenan; Bagli, Melike Turkan
The incorporation of compulsory courses on human rights into the secondary school curriculum in 1998 has been an important first step in developing respect for human rights and responsibilities among the younger generation in Turkey. Yet, these courses have many shortcomings in terms of materials, pedagogy and teacher attitudes. This paper…
Spero, Andrea McEvoy
Urban youth in the United States often experience daily human rights violations such as racism and violence. Therefore, Human Rights Education (HRE) can strengthen their understanding of these issues and unleash their power to act toward positive change. This qualitative study attempted to gain a deeper understanding of the use of performance arts…
Cummings, Mary "Missy"
Executive Office #12;© 2004 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Demands on Human Operators Appropriate Level of Automation Adaptive Automation Supervisory Monitoring of Operators Complexity Measures of Technology, Humans and Automation Laboratory. #12;© 2004 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved INCOSE
Kenneth J. Shapiro
The present article examines a concern I have had for some time about the compatibility of humanistic psychology with the emerging animal rights movement. Beyond working out my position, the paper has the additional educational and, frankly, political purpose of bringing animal rights issues to the attention of humanistic psychologists. The article applies certain concepts of contemporary animal rights philosophy,
Guillerm, N; Cesari, G
Clean air is one of the basic requirements of human health and well-being. However, almost nine out of 10 individuals living in urban areas are affected by air pollution. Populations living in Africa, South-East Asia, and in low- and middle-income countries across all regions are the most exposed. Exposure to outdoor air pollution ranks as the ninth leading risk factor for mortality, killing 3.2 million people each year, especially young children, the elderly, persons with lung or cardiovascular disease, those who work or exercise outdoors and low-income populations. In October 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, calling air pollution 'a major environmental health problem'. Human rights and environmental norms are powerful tools to combat air pollution and its impact on health. The dependence of human rights on environmental quality has been recognised in international texts and by human rights treaty bodies. The growing awareness of the environment has already yielded considerable legislative and regulatory output. However, the implementation of standards remains a pervasive problem. In the fight against violations of norms, citizens have a crucial role to play. We discuss the relevance of a yet to be proclaimed standalone right to a healthy environment. PMID:26162353
The development of the health and human rights framework coincided with the beginning of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS. Since then, the international community has increasingly turned to human rights language and instruments to address the disease. Not only are human rights essential to addressing a disease that impacts marginalized groups most severely, but the spread of HIV/AIDS itself exacerbates inequality and impedes the realization of a range of human rights. Policy developments of the past decade include the United Nations (UN) Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights’ General Comment on the ‘Right to Health’, the UN Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, and the UN’s International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights, among others. Rights-related setbacks include the failure of the Declaration and its 5-year follow-up specifically to address men who have sex with men, sex workers, and intravenous drug users, political restrictions placed on urgently needed US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) funds, and the failure of many countries to decriminalize same-sex sex and outlaw discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS. Male circumcision as an HIV prevention measure is a topic around which important debate, touching on gender, informed consent and children’s rights, serves to illustrate the ongoing vitality of the health and human rights dialogue. Mechanisms to increase state accountability for addressing HIV/AIDS should be explored in greater depth. Such measures might include an increase in the use of treaty-based judicial mechanisms, the linking of human rights compliance with preferential trade agreements, and rights requirements tied to HIV/ AIDS funding. PMID:18641463
Hamilton, Mary; Pitt, Kathy
This paper explores the ways in which policy discourses have constructed rationales for addressing adult literacy over the last 50 years. In particular, we examine how policy positions the literacy learner as citizen within discourses of rights and equity. Taking the case of the UK, we compare two key documents produced at different historical…
Fundamental rights are preconditions for any human to act with sufficient freedom and to be allowed sufficient choice to realize their potential. The right to indigenous medicine must be recognized as a fundamental human right for indigenous peoples. In accordance with the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine, every citizen should be allowed to benefit from the placebo effect. It constitutes an essential aspect of treatment, which is rightfully theirs on the basis of payment for health care - regardless of whether the payment is made out of pocket, or from public finance. It then follows that, the right of citizens to access the medical system of their choice should be formally acknowledged. That choice should be regarded as a Fundamental Human Right, which should under no circumstance be denied them - not for reasons of scientific prejudice, nor commercial ambition. PMID:21829297
The major issues regarding human fertilisation and embryology are addressed in a comparative perspective and in the light of relevant rulings of the European Court for Human Rights: the relationship between artificial procreation and parental responsibilities, the legal nature of the unborn child, the human right to reproduce and to have a healthy child. The article focuses on the key data of the latest Italian regulation regarding assisted conception, especially compared with British law. Particular attention is paid to the contribution given by recent European decisions to the protection of new human rights. National and international judgements ensure the right to private life and to health that are not always guaranteed by law. Converging developments in case-law panorama make the right to have children, to responsible procreation, to information about medical treatments, much less disharmonic realities than the Member States legislation suggests. PMID:24851649
Strike, Tony; Taylor, John
This paper sets out findings from research that considered the interplay between English national policy developments in human resources management in higher education and the personal stories of academic staff as career participants. Academic careers are pursued in an institutional and national policy context but it was not clear that the formal…
Johansen, Tom Henning
_________________________________________________________________________ The Nordic human rights countries demonstrate a puzzling ambivalence towards human rights. On the one hand, citizens of these five policies, the Nordic countries pride themselves to be staunch defenders of human rights, seeking to promote
The dichotomy between political and socio-economic rights has been subject to criticism ever since the proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, almost sixty years ago. The declaration itself leaves little doubt regarding the interconnectedness between both types of human rights. The first article speaks of human beings \\
Lawrence Gostin; Jonathan M. Mann
Public health policies are sometimes formulated without care- ful consideration of the goals of the policy, whether the means adopted will achieve those goals, and whether intended health benefits outweigh financial and human rights burdens. In par- ticular, public health policies are seldom crafted with attention to their impact on human rights or the norms of international human rights law.
This article opens with a proposed framework for human rights education (HRE), which synthesizes ideas drawn from Zinn's people's history, Sen's theory of justice and Freire's critical pedagogy. A review of the literature on HRE and human rights-based learning suggests three existent interrelated models of HRE. Drawing on human rights-based…
Tony Evans; Alison J. Ayers
This article investigates how the idea of universal human rights has been co-opted by the prevailing (neo)liberal consensus in support of processes associated with capitalist globalization. So-called “civil and political” rights form the core of (neo)liberal values upon which free market, laissez-faire economics are based, but the idealism of the dichotomy of first and second generation rights is profoundly ideological.
This paper argues against a trend of human rights education, where human rights are taught in the form of citizenship education. In my view, citizenship education and human rights education cannot be taken as replaceable for each other. Underpinning the idea of citizenship is a distinction between "politically qualified" and "politically…
Discusses how Elizabeth Cady Stanton's "The Solitude of Self" grounds rights in the material paradox of chance life events and the corporeal permanence of human isolation by enacting human solitude through what J. Campbell calls lyric tragedy. Reverses the ground for humanism from the disembodied rationalism of the Enlightenment to an embodied…
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Stimulations of the Human Visual Cortex 1 Right hemispheric dominance of visual phenomena evoked by intracerebral stimulation of the human visual cortex Jacques Jonas1,3,4,* , Solène Frismand1,* , Jean, hemispheric asymmetry. hal-00903308,version1-11Nov2013 Author manuscript, published in "Human Brain Mapping
Adetoro Rasheed Adenrele; Omiyefa Muraina Olugbenga
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was unanimously adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations through the General Assembly Resolution 217A(111) on the 10 th of December, 1948. Since its declaration, it has become fashionable for most countries of the world (Nigeria inclusive) to entrench the catalogue of rights in their national constitutions. Regrettably, in Nigeria and indeed in
In 2001, the United Nations Security Council established an Expert Panel to study the issue of whether the UN should institute HIV testing of peacekeeping personnel. This article, based on a 9 July 2002 presentation to the XIV International AIDS Conference (abstract TuOrG1173), reports on the findings of a paper prepared for the Expert Panel by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network. The paper examined whether it is permissible for the UN to implement mandatory HIV testing of its peacekeeping personnel, and whether HIV-positive UN peacekeeping personnel should be excluded or restricted from service on the basis of their HIV status or HIV disease progression. The article describes some of the court cases in which these issues have been considered; discusses the importance of analyzing such issues in the context of a human rights-based approach to the pandemic; and formulates a series of key principles for guiding UN decision-making. The article concludes that a policy of mandatory HIV testing for all UN peacekeeping personnel cannot be justified on the basis that it is required in order to assess their physical and mental capacity for service; that HIV-positive peacekeeping personnel cannot be excluded from service based on their HIV status alone, but only on their ability to perform their duties; and that the UN cannot resort to mandatory HIV testing for all UN peacekeeping personnel to protect the health and safety of HIV-negative personnel unless it can demonstrate that alternatives to such a policy would not reduce the risk sufficiently. In the end, the Expert Panel unanimously rejected mandatory testing and instead endorsed voluntary HIV counselling and testing for UN peacekeeping personnel. PMID:14743823
Inhumane working conditions led to a strike of Japanese silk spinners and formation of a union. Company repression provoked public opinion, resulting in acceptance of worker demands for recognition of human rights in the workplace. (SK)
Hearings before the Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations and the Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives. 99th Congress, 1st Session, 1985.
Harper Ho, Virginia E.
In recent years, a number of international and cross-sectoral initiatives have attempted to respond to the human rights impacts of corporations. Foremost among these is the United Nations’ 2008 “Protect, Respect, and Remedy” ...
Council of the European Union.
Adopted by the General Affairs Council in Luxembourg on October 11, 1999, this report covers the period June 1, 1998 to June 30, 1999 and "intends to explain how the [European] Union's headway towards integration is paralleled in the field of human rights." The Report is offered as part of a wider effort to promote transparency of the EU's human rights policies. To that end, it explains the major actors of the Union's human rights policies and their goals, methods, and activities. While concentrating on external relations, the Report does explore some human rights issues within the EU area, specifically racism. The report is offered in six sections in HTML or MS Word format.
Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia; Miller, Alice M
Since the International Conference on Population and Development, definitions of sexuality and sexual health have been greatly elaborated alongside widely accepted recognition that sexual health requires respect, protection and fulfilment of human rights. Considerable progress has also been made in enacting or changing laws that affect sexuality and sexual health, in line with human rights standards. These measures include legal guarantees against non-discrimination and violence, decriminalisation of consensual sexual conduct and guaranteeing availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of sexual health information and services to all. Such legal actions have had positive effects on health and specifically on sexual health, particularly for marginalised populations. Yet in all regions of the world, laws still exist which jeopardise health, including sexual health, and violate human rights. In order to ensure accountability for the rights and health of their populations, states have an obligation to bring their laws into line with international, regional and national human rights standards. These rights-based legal guarantees, while insufficient alone, are essential for effective systems of accountability, achieving positive sexual health outcomes and the respect and protection of human rights. PMID:25539286
Background Nepal has experienced sporadic reports of human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities. Our objective was to identify a range of human rights that are enshrined in international law and/or are commonly reported by sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu, to be nonprotected or violated. Methods In September 2009 three focus group discussions were conducted by trained interviewers among a convenience sample of sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu Nepal. The modified Delphi technique was utilized to elicit and rank participant-generated definitions of human rights and their subsequent violations. Data was analyzed independently and cross checked by another investigator. Results Participants (n?=?29) reported experiencing a range of human rights violations at home, work, educational, health care settings and in public places. Lack of adequate legal protection, physical and mental abuse and torture were commonly reported. Access to adequate legal protection and improvements in the family and healthcare environment were ranked as the most important priority areas. Conclusions Sexual and gender minorities in Nepal experienced a range of human rights violations. Future efforts should enroll a larger and more systematic sample of participants to determine frequency, timing, and/or intensity of exposure to rights violations, and estimate the population-based impact of these rights violations on specific health outcomes PMID:22591775
Pamela J. Grace; Sara T. Fry; Gary S. Schultz
Background: The ethics and human rights issues experienced by psychiatric-mental health and substance-abuse registered nurses (P-MH and SA RNs) and how disturbed they are by the issues are not known. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency of ethics and human rights issues experienced by P-MH and SA RNs and how disturbing the issues are to
During this age of globalisation, the law is characterised by an ever diminishing hierarchical framework, with an increasing\\u000a role played by non-state actors. Such features are also pertinent for the international enforceability of human rights. With\\u000a respect to human rights, TNCs seem to be given broadening obligations, which approach the borderline between ethics and law.\\u000a The impact of soft law
Chu, Sandra Ka Hon
On 22 January 2008, the European Court of Human Rights held that there had been a violation of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention) in the case of E.B. v. France, concerning a refusal by the French authorities to grant E.B.'s request to adopt a child, allegedly on account of her sexual orientation. PMID:18727204
Ready, Kathryn; Keshavjee, Serena
Education is the self-declared "heart" of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR), already generating partnership projects and programs with such organizations as the Canadian Teachers' Federation, the Assembly of First Nations, the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, and the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights. The CMHR has…
Lily OHara; Jane Gregg
An increase in average body weight has been the subject of intense attention from public health authorities over the past decade. The weight-centered health paradigm and resulting concerns about the “obesity epidemic” are the foundation for public health policies and programs around the world. International human rights treaties describe the legal obligations of states and the moral obligations of other
Burke, Kenneth M.
Recognizing the importance of the universal rights of children is critical in a differentiated and pluralist world, which, in coming together through the increase of global economic interdependence and consequent changes, will require a breadth of talents to maintain peace and cooperation. The paper draws on research from historical perspectives…
Park, J. Charles
The author warns that ultra-conservatism is growing in strength and sophistication as a political force. He cites literature from various right-wing groups attacking the public schools and suggests that educators must learn to cope with social stress and the political extremism it generates. (SJL)
Hogerzeil, Hans V.
Most countries have acceded to at least one global or regional covenant or treaty confirming the right to health. After years of international discussions on human rights, many governments are now moving towards practical implementation of their commitments. A practical example may be of help to those governments who aim to translate their international treaty obligations into practice. WHO's Essential Medicines Programme is an example of how this transition from legal principles to practical implementation may be achieved. This programme has been consistent with human rights principles since its inception in the early 1980s, through its focus on equitable access to essential medicines. This paper provides a brief overview of what the international human rights instruments mention about access to essential medicines, and proposes five assessment questions and practical recommendations for governments. These recommendations cover the selection of essential medicines, participation in programme development, mechanisms for transparency and accountability, equitable access by vulnerable groups, and redress mechanisms. PMID:16710546
This article focuses on the Marxist characteristics of North Korea in its interpretation of human rights. The author's main argument is that many Marxist features pre-existed in Korea. Complying with Marxist orthodoxy, North Korea is fundamentally hostile to the notion of human rights in capitalist society, which existed in the pre-modern Donghak (Eastern Learning) ideology. Rights are strictly contingent upon
Aparisi Miralles, Angela
The purpose of this paper is to present some of the contributions of the gender discourse to the bioethical debate, specifically in the field of nursing. At the same time, it will explain the contribution of the different feminist theories to the recognition and respect of human dignity. Basically, it will describe the three fundamental models in the gender discourse: the egalitarian model, the difference model, and the model of reciprocity or complementarity. The starting point is that even though the first two models have made significant contributions in the field of bioethics, they have nonetheless brought with them some deficiencies and reductionisms inherent in their thinking. The complementarity model, on the contrary, when properly understood, allows for the combination of the principles of equality and difference between man and woman, which places it at a much more enriching standpoint within the bioethical debate. PMID:25329418
Examines the implications of the left brain-right brain theory on communications styles in male-female relationships. The author contends that women tend to use the vagueness of their emotional responses manipulatively. Men need to apply rational approaches to increase clarity in communication. (AM)
Scoble, Harry M.; Wiseberg, Laurie S.
Describes Amnesty International, an organization formed in order to change the sociopolitical environment so that elites will have to act in a predetermined prohuman rights manner in all situations. The issues of torture and political repression were addressed in different nations, which practice the detention of political prisoners. (Author/RK)
Oubaid, V; Jähne, J
The recruitment of trainee surgeons is a demanding topic. Not only the question whether the number of applicants is sufficient but also the selection of the right candidates are of great importance. Therefore, it is of vital interest to establish the occupational requirements and to develop reliable and valid methods for the selection process. PMID:23292154
ASPBAE Courier, 1993
This special issue centers around the theme of education for peace and human rights. It contains materials concerning the practice of adult education in the Asian-South Pacific region. The journal contains 15 papers. The following papers provide regional perspectives: "Learning to Live in Harmony and Diversity" (editorial) (Rajesh Tandon); "Human…
Adams, Clayton; And Others
Designed to assist secondary school social studies, English, and humanities teachers as they teach about the Nazi Holocaust, the second of two volumes serves as a continuing introduction to the concept of human rights. Building on the first volume, which dealt with the roots of intolerance and persecution and precursors of the Holocaust, this…
H. Heinsen; R. Henn; W. Eisenmenger; M. Giitz; J. Bohl; B. Bethke; U. Lockemann; K. Püschel
The total nerve cell numbers in the right and in the left human entorhinal areas have been calculated by volume estimations with the Cavalieri principle and by cell density determinations with the optical disector. Thick gallocyanin-stained serial frozen sections through the parahippocampal gyrus of 22 human subjects (10 female, 12 male) ranging from 18 to 86 years were analysed. The
Exploring Library resources for Law You may have been following the debate over the Human Rights Act. David Cameron wants to repeal it whilst Nick Clegg has staunchly defended it. Human Rights articles about the Human Rights Act. For example the headline "The Hated Human Rights Act must be repealed
Alberto J. Kaumann; Louise Sanders; Anthony M. Brown; Kenneth J. Murray; Morris J. Brown
The effects of 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) and the gastrokinetic benzamides renzapride and cisapride on contractile force were investigated using isolated paced right atrial appendages from patients treated with ß-adrenoceptor blocking agents who were undergoing open heart surgery. These effects were compared to those of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The effects of the drugs on atrial cyclic AMP levels and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase
Lachaux, B; Lemoine, P
This new "turn of the century", at least in France, is marked by an increasing discrepancy between laws and new medical discoveries. Medical practitioners, scientists and researchers have had such a fantastic power and, as a consequence, the patients have never run such an important risk of loosing human dimensions. The basic question is the legal status of the human body. Until now, common law considers human being as a citizen whose liberty should be limited under certain conditions. However, this point of view poorly prepares to rule man as a creature of flesh and sentiment. There is an almost complete deficit of the legal statute of man in his globality, especially concerning the juridical status of the human body which is totally lacking as a whole in the french civil code. Human body represents a double legal problem: is its integrity a private or a public privilege? Are his dignity and identity really warranted for everyone? PMID:1669028
Stigma and discrimination constitute one of the greatest barriers to dealing effectively with the HIV epidemic, underlying a range of human rights violations and hindering access to prevention, care, treatment and support. There is some existing protection against HIV-based discrimination under international law, but the extent of states' obligations to address such discrimination has not been comprehensively addressed in an international instrument. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities entered into force in May 2008. As countries ratify the convention, they are required to amend national laws and policies to give greater protection to the human rights of people with disabilities, including abolishing disability-based discrimination by the state and protecting persons against such discrimination by others. The Disability Convention addresses many of the issues faced by people living with HIV (PLHIV) but does not explicitly include HIV or AIDS within its open-ended definition of "disability". Therefore, the advent of the Disability Convention prompts us to consider the links between HIV and disability and, specifically, to consider the opportunities it and other legal mechanisms, international or domestic, may afford for advancing the human rights of PLHIV facing human rights infringements. We do so in the belief that the movement for human rights is stronger when constituencies with so many common and overlapping interests are united, and that respectful and strategic collaboration ultimately strengthens both the disability rights and the AIDS movements. In this article, we first examine the links between HIV and disability. We then provide a brief overview of how international human rights law has treated both disability and HIV/AIDS. We note some of the different ways in which national anti-discrimination laws have reflected the links between HIV and disability, illustrated with representative examples from a number of countries. Finally, we offer some conclusions and recommendations about ways forward for collaboration between HIV and disability rights advocates in advancing human rights at the international level, including the use of the new tool that is the Disability Convention. We hope these reflections will promote further discussion across movements, ultimately to the benefit of all persons with disabilities and/or HIV. PMID:19900283
The third planning workshop of the Human Genome Diversity Project was held on the campus of the US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from February 16 through February 18, 1993. The second day of the workshop was devoted to an exploration of the ethical and human-rights implications of the Project. This open meeting centered on three roundtables, involving 12 invited participants, and the resulting discussions among all those present. Attendees and their affiliations are listed in the attached Appendix A. The discussion was guided by a schedule and list of possible issues, distributed to all present and attached as Appendix B. This is a relatively complete, and thus lengthy, summary of the comments at the meeting. The beginning of the summary sets out as conclusions some issues on which there appeared to be widespread agreement, but those conclusions are not intended to serve as a set of detailed recommendations. The meeting organizer is distributing his recommendations in a separate memorandum; recommendations from others who attended the meeting are welcome and will be distributed by the meeting organizer to the participants and to the Project committee.
Despite debate and criticism, the notion of “competence” has risen to prominence very rapidly and now has an important place in the vocabulary of human resource management (HRM). Seeks to explain such a rapid rise by drawing on discourse theory. The discourse of competence may be seen to arise through the convergence of discourses in four separate domains, and thereby
The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states' obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals. PMID:23671765
Wong, Day; Leung, Pik Ki
The removal of homosexuality from the list of mental disorders and the repeal of restrictive sexual laws deem that Foucault's argument on the discursive control of homosexuality requires refinement to take into consideration the continual modernization and improvement of power. This article examines the multilayered discursive terrain in Hong Kong where homosexuality is created, regulated, and contested in the contemporary era. With the popularization of human rights discourse, sexual dissidents are not simply treated as criminal or pathological; rather, legal and medical discourses have shifted to an increasing reliance on notions of risk to put mechanisms of social regulation in place. PMID:23153026
Shelton, R L
This paper was first presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Christian Ethics, Toronto School of Theology, Toronto, Ontario in January 1977. Robert Shelton aims to focus on the concept of 'right to health care,' its related principle, 'distributive justice' in an attempt to suggest 'where we are' at present and where we perhaps ought to be heading. The paper is divided into three parts, which in their turn explore the moral grounds, the US general public's policy and the part justice and government are likely to play in the development and distribution of health care. He concludes by highlighting 'omissions', an intentional one of his own and the other a major gap in the literature. PMID:739512
Brown, Sharan E.; Guralnick, Michael J.
With almost universal ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the growing number of States Parties that have signed or ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the majority of countries in the world have now committed to implementing the human rights articulated in these treaties. In this article,…
Ellen, Richard P; Singleton, Richard
Although international agreements set the framework for research ethics, countries vary in their interpretation and execution. The Government of Canada guidelines are based on the Tri-council policy statement: ethical conduct for research involving humans (2005) and the new CIHR guidelines for health research involving Aboriginal people (2007). In this critical review, we address 3 areas of educational value to practitioners who care for the oral health needs of the public, research trainees and research investigators who advance knowledge pertaining to oral health: protection of human study participants, conflicts of interest and investigator integrity. Its main message is that ethical health care should be supported by a strong foundation of ethical research. PMID:18538067
Gruskin, Sofia; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Ezer, Tamar; Gathumbi, Anne; Cohen, Jonathan; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia
Introduction In Kenya, human rights violations have a marked impact on the health of people living with HIV. Integrating legal literacy and legal services into healthcare appears to be an effective strategy to empower vulnerable groups and address underlying determinants of health. Methods We carried out an evaluation to collect evidence about the impact of legal empowerment programmes on health and human rights. The evaluation focused on Open Society Foundation-supported legal integration activities at four sites: the Academic Model of Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) facility, where the Legal Aid Centre of Eldoret (LACE) operates, in Eldoret; Kenyatta National Hospital's Gender-based Violence Recovery Centre, which hosts the COVAW legal integration program; and Christian Health Association of Kenya (CHAK) facilities in Mombasa and Naivasha. In consultation with the organizations implementing the programs, we designed a conceptual logic model grounded in human rights principles, identified relevant indicators and then coded structure, process and outcome indicators for the rights-related principles they reflect. The evaluation included a resource assessment questionnaire, a review of program records and routine data, and semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with clients and service providers. Data were collected in May–August 2010 and April–June 2011. Results Clients showed a notable increase in practical knowledge and awareness about how to access legal aid and claim their rights, as well as an enhanced ability to communicate with healthcare providers and to improve their access to healthcare and justice. In turn, providers became more adept at identifying human rights violations and other legal difficulties, which enabled them to give clients basic information about their rights, refer them to legal aid and assist them in accessing needed support. Methodological challenges in evaluating such activities point to the need to strengthen rights-oriented evaluation methods. Conclusions Legal empowerment programmes have the potential to promote accountability, reduce stigma and discrimination and contribute to altering unjust structures and systems. Given their apparent value as a health and human rights intervention, particularly for marginalized populations, further rigorous evaluations are called for to support the scale-up of such programmes. PMID:24242267
Owoeye, Olasupo Ayodeji
This article discusses the human right to health in the context of patent protection and access to medicines. It considers the limitations in international human rights law, especially in relation to socioeconomic rights, that make it difficult for the right to health to be a potent justification for derogation from trade or intellectual property agreements. It concludes by taking the view that while the right to health may be somewhat unenforceable in international law, its close association with enforceable rights such as the right to life can be a legitimate basis for making maximum use of the flexibilities in the international intellectual property regime to protect public health. The article takes the view that trade and intellectual property agreements must be interpreted in a way that endeavours as much as possible to resolve any seeming inconsistency with the right to health. PMID:25087369
Brentlinger, Paula E
Malaria, a parasitic infection, causes hundreds of millions of disease episodes and more than a million deaths every year, nearly all of them occurring in the poorer and more vulnerable sectors of the world's developing countries. In spite of the great burden of suffering caused by malaria, the human rights implications of this disease have not been well described. This article summarizes important associations between the spread of malaria and human rights abuses (such as those associated with slavery and armed conflict) and between poverty, socio-economic inequity, and access to malaria-control measures. The author concludes that malaria control merits inclusion as a core element in global strategies to achieve progressive realization of the right to health. PMID:17265753
Meyer, Elizabeth J.
Teacher expression on the subject of sexual orientation is a hotly contested topic that has led to many recent legal challenges in the United States and Canada. The purpose of this article is to offer readers an introduction to Canadian cases regarding teacher expression and sexual orientation and demonstrate how the application of a human rights…
Anil K. Joshi; Richard L. Leask; Jerry G. Myers; Matadial Ojha; Jagdish Butany; C. Ross Ethier
Objective—Low wall shear stress has been implicated in atherogenesis throughout the arterial tree, including the right coronary artery (RCA). The objective of this study was to determine the level of covariation of intimal thickness and wall shear stress in the human RCA. Methods and Results—Postmortem histological measurements of intimal thickness were compared with wall shear stresses calculated from computational flow
Ryan B Hertz
This secondary analysis examined data on human rights violations collected in Port-au-Prince, Haiti 22 months after the 2004 military coup that overthrew the elected president. Bivariate statistical methods were used to assess the applicability of social disorganization and conflict theory frameworks to the pattern of documented abuses that occurred during the period the interim government was in power. ^ Findings
This article examines how the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) comes to invoke, realize, and mediate museum publics. The author writes that she is interested in how the museum's architecture, rhetoric, and governance framings imagine, and engage with the public. As Canada's newest national museum and the first to be built outside of the…
Low, Bronwen E.; Sonntag, Emmanuelle
In response to the task of designing curriculum that helps youth engage thoughtfully with digital stories of human rights violations, the authors articulate the central tenets of a pedagogy of listening that draws upon elements of oral history, concepts of witnessing and testimony, the work on listening of Dewey, Freire and Rinaldi and the…
Butler, Laurie J.
AUTHORS Cornell Law School's Avon Global Center for Women and Justice and International Human Rights Clinic Defensoría General de la Nación Argentina The University of Chicago Law School #12;WOMEN IN PRISON IN ARGENTINA: CAUSES, CONDITIONS, AND CONSEQUENCES iii AUTHORS Cornell Law School
While universal human rights frameworks and democratic models of government have gained global support and even adherence, they often exist in tension with local cultural and religious practices. In Kuwait, tensions arise between its constitution, legal system and Islam, with several groups consequently marginalised. These tensions extend into the…
One of the most powerful methods of inducing changes in outcomes governed by international humanitarian law is to add human rights rules and arguments into the equation. This, indeed, is precisely the point of the whole project of linking these two branches of international law. This article explores the relationship between the two bodies of law, and makes several broad
Acquaye, Lucinda A.; Crewe, Sandra Edmonds
The social work profession has a long standing commitment to human rights and social justice, bridging the divide between national and international interests. There is a call for social workers to understand the global community that awaits our service. Yet international experiences are not within the grasp of nor embraced by all. Students of…
Simon Darcy; Tracy Taylor
Research on disability and cultural life (the arts, leisure, recreation, sport and tourism) in the Australian context has largely been captured by medical approaches to disability. In contrast, this paper takes direction from social approaches to disability that place the experience of people with disabilities (PwD) at the centre of the research paradigm by examining this population’s human rights’ experiences.
This article is a critique of Ulrich Beck's advocacy of a cosmopolitan approach to global inequality and human rights. It is argued that cosmopolitanism does not bring a new and unique perspective on global inequality. In fact Beck's proposals on migration would reinforce inequality and anti-cosmopolitanism. It is argued that his `both\\/and' perspective on hybridization and contextual universalism is undermined
Samaroo, Noel K.
Examines human rights violations in education in Guyana, and identifies the socioeconomic factors that produced the current condition. Findings indicate that, although education is highly valued in the culture, the state has abandoned the educational needs of the nation to ensure the survival of the elite political regime. (JB)
of Medicine, Vaccine Center, Division of Infectious Diseases. Rev. David Fraccaro Topic: "Religion1 First International Conference on Religion at ECU Religion, Immigration, Health, & Human Rights, Social Work, East Carolina University The idea of holding a conference on religion and social issues came
Flaim, Richard F.
Suggests that special interest groups have disrupted efforts to implement curriculum programs on human rights issues. Argues that history cannot be tailored to allow people to hide from the past. Identifies the challenges of battling those who attempt to revise history and of approaching teaching about the Holocaust. Recommends extensive teacher…
Androff, David K.; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y.
Many would acknowledge that immigration is a major issue in the United States and that immigration reform should be a priority. However, there is little attention to the human rights crisis on the U.S.-Mexican border. As a result of tightened border security since 1994, it is estimated that over 5,000 migrants have died in the Sonoran desert. The…
Habashi, Janette; Wright, Lynne; Hathcoat, John D.
This study examines children's images in constitutions and/or amendments as articulated in the Convention on the Rights of the Child while they intersect with the three dimensions of the Human Development Index (HDI) of 2008: life expectancy, educational index, and GDP. The connection between the images of the child and the fulfillment of the…
Although studies involving linguistic human rights (LHRs) have focused at length on cases of inter-language discrimination, much less attention has been given to intra-language discrimination (Blommaert 2001a; Skutnabb-Kangas et al. 2001). This paper highlights a number of theoretical issues that the LHRs framework needs to deal with once…
1 Children in Vulnerable Situations: A multi-disciplinary, human rights-based approach PHS 650-Madison, FACES Initiative (FAmilies and Children Everywhere deserve Support) of the Center for Global Health CORE started on an optimistic note for children with an increasing focus on children in various social
Alebeek van R
* Provides an in-depth analysis of case law such as the Pinochet, Jones, Al-Adsani, the Arrest Warrant, and Taylor cases. * The first comprehensive treatment of the subject for both civil and criminal proceedings The development of international human rights law and international criminal law has triggered the question whether states and their officials can still shield themselves from foreign
Haydari, Nazan; Kara, Mustafa
Given the importance of media institutions and universities as spaces of knowledge productions, development of "critical media pedagogy" becomes crucial for the establishment of a responsible and ethical media environment. Drawing from the collaborative project of The First Step into Human Rights: I do not do it!--A Short Film Project on…
Author Julie Pelletier recently became part of a new committee at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR): the Indigenous Education Working Group (IEWG). The IEWG is a working group made up of Indigenous individuals with a background in indigenous education. The first project the IEWG undertook was assisting with the development of Indigenous…
Christian Davenport; David A. Armstrong
Most studies posit and identify a linear and negative relationship between democracy and the violation of human rights. Some research challenges this finding, however, suggesting that nonlinear influences exist. Within this article, we examine the structure of the relationship between democracy and repression during the time period from 1976 to 1996. To conduct our analysis, we utilize diverse statistical approaches
J. G. Myers; J. A. Moore; M. Ojha; K. W. Johnston; C. R. Ethier
Evidence suggests that atherogenesis is linked to local hemodynamic factors such as wall shear stress. We investigated the velocity and wall shear stress patterns within a human right coronary artery (RCA), an important site of atherosclerotic lesion development. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the effect of flow waveform and inlet flow velocity profile on the hemodynamics in the proximal, medial,
Tatsuya Mima; Takahiro Matsuoka; Mark Hallett
Although a linear correlation between oscillatory activities in the right and left motor cortices during movements has been shown in monkeys, there has been a debate whether scalp-recorded EEG coherence in human reflects a similar association. By applying partial coherence analysis, we demonstrated that interhemispheric coherence during movements cannot be explained by contamination from the occipital alpha rhythm or common
Abukishek, Imad Fayeq
The aim of this study is to conduct an exploratory baseline survey of West Bank students to assess student attitudes and practices towards Human Rights and Democracy (HDR). To achieve the goal of this research, a survey of 3450 youth was conducted that included students from the 8th, 10th and 12th grades throughout the West Bank. The specific…
Detroit Public Schools, MI. Dept. of Curriculum Development Services.
This appendix to the guides for teaching about human rights at the elementary, middle, and high school levels features instructional activities and materials which represent a variety of cultural perspectives. Among the topics addressed are the role of values and ethics in decision making, prejudice, racial and ethnic stereotyping, social skills…
Globalization has made human rights both increasingly important as the normative standards that seek to shape the diverse religious, cultural, political, and economic interactions of the world, and also increasingly controversial in the face of the realities of cultural diversity and economic inequality. Over the past half century, hopes that…
Magendzo, Abraham; Toledo, Maria Isabel
This article reviews the moral dilemmas that a teacher faces in the classroom when teaching recent history which deals with military regimes, violation of human rights (1973-1990) and the transition to democracy in Chile (1990-2008). Furthermore, it explores the neutrality of the content taught; the ideological standpoints of the teachers and the…
Wijngaarden, Jan; Shaeffer, Sheldon
An evaluation is presented on the impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector in the Asia Pacific region. Its focus is how human rights in relation to education have been upset by the epidemic. The education sector is urged to develop more initiatives to educate about the epidemic, and to build measures that deal with both immediate and long-term…
Miller, Paul; Kelly, Kemesha; Spawls, Nicola
The interface between HIV/AIDS, education and human rights is an important issue in Jamaican society. The spread of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean is second only to that in Africa, and Jamaica itself has the second highest numbers of HIV+ individuals within the Caribbean region. Using a qualitative methodology, this exploratory study aimed to discern…
Coetzee, Susan; Mienie, Cathrine
South African educators are mandated by international and national law to observe and promote human rights. However, given the realities of the limited teaching time available, educators cannot fulfill this obligation solely by teaching the curriculum. Another avenue needs to be found for educators to fulfill this obligation. Educators are also…
This article presents data collected at the level of practice to highlight one non-governmental organization's approach to human rights education and how household-, school-, and community-level factors mediated student impact. Findings suggest that a variety of factors at the three levels contribute to the program's successful implementation in…
Introduction: This study investigates the effect of employing constructivist methods and materials on the attitudes of prospective teachers' (psychological counseling students) toward human rights education. Method: The research employed a quasi-experimental pre test-post test control group design. The experimental group, consisted of 23 male and…
Suarez, David F.; Ramirez, Francisco O.; Koo, Jeong-Woo
The UNESCO Associated Schools Project emphasizes world community, human rights, and international understanding. This article investigates the emergence and global diffusion of the project from 1953 to 2001, estimating the influence of national, regional, and world characteristics on the likelihood of a country adopting a UNESCO school. It also…
Many people had great expectations of the Victorian Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities when it came into effect in January 2008. However, Judith Bessant asks whether the provision for seeking exemptions from the charter has undermined its capacity to effectively counter age-based discrimination and, paradoxically, permitted practices…
Stephen Joseph Powell
WTO rules routinely are linked to the inability of nations to make meaningful progress in sharpening environmental and other human rights protections, for example, the failure of the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development to usher in any new treaties despite the bright promise of the Rio Earth Summit of the previous decade. The common brief of environmental, medical,
Connie de la Vega
Over the past sixty years a dichotomy has developed in the United States' involvement in international agreements, subjecting treaties based on economic concerns to a different ratification mechanism than those relating to human rights abuses. That dichotomy has resulted from actions by all three branches of the federal government that increasingly place greater emphasis on business interests over protection of
Cole, Matthew; Morgan, Karen
This paper critically examines discourses of veganism in UK national newspapers in 2007. In setting parameters for what can and cannot easily be discussed, dominant discourses also help frame understanding. Discourses relating to veganism are therefore presented as contravening commonsense, because they fall outside readily understood meat-eating discourses. Newspapers tend to discredit veganism through ridicule, or as being difficult or impossible to maintain in practice. Vegans are variously stereotyped as ascetics, faddists, sentimentalists, or in some cases, hostile extremists. The overall effect is of a derogatory portrayal of vegans and veganism that we interpret as 'vegaphobia'. We interpret derogatory discourses of veganism in UK national newspapers as evidence of the cultural reproduction of speciesism, through which veganism is dissociated from its connection with debates concerning nonhuman animals' rights or liberation. This is problematic in three, interrelated, respects. First, it empirically misrepresents the experience of veganism, and thereby marginalizes vegans. Second, it perpetuates a moral injury to omnivorous readers who are not presented with the opportunity to understand veganism and the challenge to speciesism that it contains. Third, and most seriously, it obscures and thereby reproduces exploitative and violent relations between human and nonhuman animals. PMID:21361905
Vanessa Johnston; Pascale Allotey; Kim Mulholland; Milica Markovic
BACKGROUND: Human rights violations have adverse consequences for health. However, to date, there remains little empirical evidence documenting this association, beyond the obvious physical and psychological effects of torture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether Australian asylum policies and practices, which arguably violate human rights, are associated with adverse health outcomes. METHODS: We designed a mixed
Mary Robinson, former President of Ireland and the newly appointed United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights was interviewed by correspondents from ten regional and international radio networks on five continents on a wide range of human rights issues. This site contains a transcript of the September 26, 1997 interview.
hose concerned with health and human rights must be poignantly aware of the growing pauperization of the world and of global forces that disastrously affect the everyday lives of people in local communities. We know full well that people's political, economic, social class, and human rights situations, and the degree to which they can live with dig- nity, are directly
...Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Democracy and human rights in Iran and academic and cultural exchange...Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.545 Democracy and human rights in Iran and academic and cultural...
...Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Democracy and human rights in Iran and academic and cultural exchange...Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.545 Democracy and human rights in Iran and academic and cultural...
Lucien X. Lombardo; Karen A. Polonko
Using a comparative perspective, this paper explores two approaches to child\\/adult relationships and the practice of corporal punishment: a human rights perspective and a traditional perspective reflected in U.S. law. Source material for our analysis draws on statutes, court decisions, and human rights conventions relating to the status of children and corporal punishment. Legislation and case law reflecting each perspective
Wales Observatory on Human Rights of Children and Young People Arsyllfa Cymru ar Hawliau Dynol and young people in Wales. The Observatory vision is to ensure that the highest quality knowledge, expertise for Wales and the #12;Wales Observatory on Human Rights of Children and Young People Arsyllfa Cymru ar
Kolstrein, Abraham Magendzo
My professional interest originally focused on curriculum planning and development, but for the last 30 years I have been researching, publishing and teaching in the field of human rights education. Suddenly, I became a human rights educator. Suddenly? No, nothing in our personal and professional life is the result of an abrupt occurrence. We are…
Stephen J Powell
In past studies, we explored the more visible and controversial linkages between international trade law and non-trade issues that span a broad range of vital interests we may collectively describe as human rights law. We have addressed the widespread criticism that international trade rules are insensitive to basic human rights and that globalization has done little with its enormous power
Stephen J. Powell
We have addressed the widespread criticism that international trade rules are insensitive to basic human rights and that globalization has done little with its enormous power to preserve exhaustible natural resources and otherwise promote sustainable development, to alleviate the gap between rich and poor, to encourage states to grant their citizens basic human rights contained in the U.N. Covenant on
Since the publication in 1989 of Norman Fairclough's Language and Power and Ruth Wodak's Language, Power and Ideology, and the launch in 1990 of Teun van Dijk's journal, Discourse & Society, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) has not only grown into a major field of research in its own right but has also been widely adopted by researchers in a range
Background Given that many low income countries are heavily reliant on external assistance to fund their health sectors the acceptance of obligations of international assistance and cooperation with regard to the right to health (global health obligations) is insufficiently understood and studied by international health and human rights scholars. Over the past decade Global Health Initiatives, like the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) have adopted novel approaches to engaging with stakeholders in high and low income countries. This article explores how this experience impacted on acceptance of the international obligation to (help) fulfil the right to health beyond borders. Methods The authors conducted an extensive review of international human rights law literature, transnational legal process literature, global public health literature and grey literature pertaining to Global Health Initiatives. To complement this desk work and deepen their understanding of how and why different legal norms evolve the authors conducted 19 in-depth key informant interviews with actors engaged with three stakeholders; the European Union, the United States and Belgium. The authors then analysed the interviews through a transnational legal process lens. Results Through according value to the process of examining how and why different legal norms evolve transnational legal process offers us a tool for engaging with the dynamism of developments in global health suggesting that operationalising global health obligations could advance the right to health for all. Conclusions In many low-income countries the health sector is heavily dependent on external assistance to fulfil the right to health of people thus it is vital that policies and tools for delivering reliable, long-term assistance are developed so that the right to health for all becomes more than a dream. Our research suggests that the Global Fund experience offers lessons to build on. PMID:23153090
Worldwide, far more people migrate within than across borders, and although internal migrants do not risk a loss of citizenship, they frequently confront significant social, financial and health consequences, as well as a loss of rights. The recent global financial crisis has exacerbated the vulnerability internal migrants face in realizing their rights to health care generally and to antiretroviral therapy in particular. For example, in countries such as China and Russia, internal migrants who lack official residence status are often ineligible to receive public health services and may be increasingly unable to afford private care. In India, internal migrants face substantial logistical, cultural and linguistic barriers to HIV prevention and care, and have difficulty accessing treatment when returning to poorly served rural areas. Resulting interruptions in HIV services may lead to a wide range of negative consequences, including: individual vulnerability to infection and risk of death; an undermining of state efforts to curb the HIV epidemic and provide universal access to treatment; and the emergence of drug-resistant disease strains. International human rights law guarantees individuals lawfully within a territory the right to free movement within the borders of that state. This guarantee, combined with the right to the highest attainable standard of health set out in international human rights treaties, and the fundamental principle of non-discrimination, creates a duty on states to provide a core minimum of health care services to internal migrants on a non-discriminatory basis. Targeted HIV prevention programs and the elimination of restrictive residence-based eligibility criteria for access to health services are necessary to ensure that internal migrants are able to realize their equal rights to HIV prevention and treatment. PMID:19925647
This paper will examine how Japanese education policy was articulated discursively from 1996 to 2010 in the semi-annual speeches of prime ministers to the Diet. It will identify three distinct discourses within these policy statements: a progressive discourse emphasizing the rights of individuals; a neo-liberal discourse of social independence and…
Bergmann, Jorg R.
Introduces a special issue containing a series of articles on the relation of social interaction and morality. The articles analyze actual instances of moral discourse, elucidating the nature and dynamics of the relationship. This introduction discusses morality, discourse, and social science; proto-mortality as a substructure of discourse;…
Lo Bianco, Joseph
This booklet discusses some consequences of internationalization for national training systems from the standpoint of the following two broad approaches often taken by international organizations: (1) the human capital ideology, which assumes human capital is an appropriate basis for education policy; and (2) the human rights and human development…
Mohammad, Malek Hardan
A multidisciplinary approach is needed to critique the frequently invoked but seldom questioned notion of "human dignity," a discursive tool that is subtly serving abusive power structures while seemingly promoting human ...
I explore the relationship between public health and human rights by examining the Brazilian government’s policy of free and universal access to anti-retroviral medicines for people with HIV/AIDS. The Brazilian government’s management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic arose from initiatives in both civil society and the governmental sector following the democratization of the country. The dismantling of authoritarian rule in Brazil was accompanied by a strong orientation toward human rights, which formed the sociopolitical framework of Brazil’s response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Even if the Brazilian experience cannot be easily transferred to other countries, the model of the Brazilian government’s response may nonetheless serve as inspiration for finding appropriate and lifesaving solutions in other national contexts. PMID:15933238
Hall, Sharon J.
Fairness and the Human Right to Water: A Preliminary Cross-cultural Theory By Sveinn Sigurdsson around the idea of water as a fundamental human right. The United Nations (UN) Committee on Economic around the human right to water: how do we determine what is fair? Specifically: what should people
In 1985 the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled that a Costa Rican statute requiring journalists to be licensed violates the American Convention on Human Rights and, by extension, all human rights conventions. Though press freedom advocates hailed it as a major triumph for freedom of expression, the court's ruling was only advisory and has…
Hitchcock, Adam P.
Office of Human Rights & Equity Services Phone: 905.525.9140 ext. 27581 McMaster University Student or a group of individuals on the basis of one or more of the protected human rights grounds such as sex, disability, gender identity, sexual orientation or religion breaches both the University's human rights
Hitchcock, Adam P.
Office of Human Rights & Equity Services Phone: 905.525.9140 ext. 27581 McMaster University harassed, Seek help and support: · Discuss the situation confidentially with a Human Rights Officer in the Office of Human Rights & Equity Services (HRES). They will listen to your concerns and review your
HUMAN RIGHTS AND GLOBAL STUDIES (HRGS) Coordinator: Professor D. Peachey, Global College. Program College fosters global citizenship and engagement in human rights through interdisciplinary teaching, research, dialogue, and action in local and global communities. Through its Human Rights and Global Studies
Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada
Background: Globally women confront manifold violations of human rights and women with poverty and mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: The aim was to examine the influence of poverty in meeting human rights needs among recovered women with mental illness at family and community level. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study carried out among randomly selected (n = 100) recovered women with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using structured needs assessment questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that below poverty line (BPL) participants were not satisfied in meeting their physical needs such as “access to safe drinking water” (?2 = 8.994, P < 0.02), “served in the same utensils” (?2 = 13.648, P < 0.00), had adequate food (?2 = 11.025, P < 0.02), and allowed to use toilet facilities (?2 = 13.565, P < 0.00). The human rights needs in emotional dimension, that is, afraid of family members (?2 = 8.233, P < 0.04) and hurt by bad words (?2 = 9.014, P < 0.02) were rated higher in above poverty line (APL) participants. Similarly, 88.9% of women from APL group expressed that they were discriminated and exploited by the community members (?2 = 17.490, P < 0.00). More than three-fourths of BPL participants (76.1%) believed that there were wondering homeless mentally ill in their community (?2 = 11.848, P < 0.01). Conclusion: There is an urgent need to implement social welfare programs to provide employment opportunities, disability allowance, housing and other social security for women with mental illness. Further, mental health professionals play an essential role in educating the family and public regarding human rights of people with mental illness.
Transnational corporations are often implicated in conflicts over environmental problems and human rights in developing countries.\\u000a As a result they become targets of both local and transnational campaigns. Given the lack of resources and influence of local\\u000a activists, campaigning groups often turn to consumer audiences abroad to pressurize a certain company or brand. That requires\\u000a agenda-setting and “framing” of the
Neumann, Yael; Epstein, Baila; Yu, Yan H; Benasich, April A; Shafer, Valerie
This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate discourse-coherence processing. Because there are scant data on ERP indices of discourse coherence in typical adults, it is important to study a non-clinical population before examining clinical populations. Twelve adults listened to a story with sentences in a coherent versus incoherent order. Sequences of nonsense syllables served as a control. ERPs in the 200-400?ms time window, reflecting phonological and lexical processing, and in the 600-900?ms time window, reflecting later discourse processing for integration, were investigated. Results revealed a right anterior and posterior positivity that was greater for coherent than for incoherent discourse during the 600-900?ms time window. These findings point to an index of discourse coherence and further suggest that ERPs can be used as a clinical tool to study discourse-processing disorders in populations with brain damage, such as aphasia and traumatic brain injury. PMID:24779648
Luh, Jeanne; Baum, Rachel; Bartram, Jamie
We developed an index to measure progressive realization for the human right to water and sanitation. While in this study we demonstrate its application to the non-discrimination and equality component for water, the conceptual approach of the index can be used for all the different components of the human right. The index was composed of one structural, one process, and two outcome indicators and is bound between -1 and 1, where negative values indicate regression and positive values indicate progressive realization. For individual structural and process indicators, only discrete values such as -1, -0.5, 0, 0.5, and 1 were allowed. For the outcome indicators, any value between -1 and 1 was possible, and a State's progress was evaluated using rates of change. To create an index that would allow for fair comparisons between States and across time, these rates of change were compared to benchmarked rates, which reflect the maximum rates a State can achieve. Using this approach, we calculated the index score for 56 States in 2010 for which adequate data were available and demonstrated that these index scores were not dependent on factors such as achieved level of coverage or gross national income. The proposed index differs from existing measures of inequality as it measures rate of change and not level of achievement, and thus addresses the principle of progressive realization that is fundamental to human rights. PMID:23333082
The notion of "ubuntu" and "communalism" is of great importance in an African educational discourse, as well as in African Philosophy of Education and in African philosophical discourse. "Ubuntu" is a philosophy that promotes the common good of society and includes humanness as an essential element of human growth. In African culture the community…
Liam Rourke; Heather Kanuka
This qualitative case study illustrates barriers to informal argumentation and reasoned debate, i.e., critical discourse, in online forums. The case is the computer conference of a 15-week, graduate-level humanities course offered entirely at\\u000a a distance. Twelve students, all with families and careers, were enrolled in the course. We read all messages as they were\\u000a posted and interviewed five of the
Skempes, Dimitrios; Stucki, Gerold; Bickenbach, Jerome
Globally, disability represents a major challenge for health systems and contributes to the rising demand for rehabilitation care. An extensive body of evidence testifies to the barriers that people with disabilities confront in accessing rehabilitation services and to the enormous impact this has on their lives. The international legal dimension of rehabilitation is underexplored, although access to rehabilitation is a human right enshrined in numerous legal documents, specifically the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. However, to date, no study has analyzed the implications of the Convention for Rehabilitation Policy and Organization. This article clarifies states' obligations with respect to health-related rehabilitation for persons with disabilities under the Convention. These obligations relate to the provision of rehabilitation but extend across several key human right commitment areas such as equality and nondiscrimination; progressive realization; international cooperation; participation in policymaking processes; the accessibility, availability, acceptability, and quality of rehabilitation services; privacy and confidentiality; and informed decision making and accountability. To support effective implementation of the Convention, governments need to focus their efforts on all these areas and devise appropriate measures to monitor compliance with human rights principles and standards in rehabilitation policy, service delivery, and organization. This article lays the foundations for a rights-based approach to rehabilitation and offers a framework that may assist in the evaluation of national rehabilitation strategies and the identification of gaps in the implementation of the Convention. PMID:25130185
In recognition of the profound benefits of children's engagement with their rights, this article presents an experiential account of how Bolivian adolescent indigenous girls discover, articulate, experience, and advocate human rights. This study explores adolescent girls' demonstrations of empowerment, agency, resistance, and solidarity as part of…
AND HUMAN RIGHTS SCHOOL FOR INTERNATIONAL TRAINING (SIT) Program and Language · Minimum of the following courses: Capacity Building, NGOs, and Healthcare Delivery; Politics and Economies of Public Health; Intensive Hindi Language; Field Methods and Ethics
Bast, Elizabeth S., 1977-
Environmental movement organizations in the United States have engaged with the global justice movement differently depending on the extent to which they view human rights and social equity issues as part of their environmental ...
This course examines the contemporary problem of political violence and the way that human rights have been conceived as a means to protect and promote freedom, peace and justice for citizens against the abuses of the state.
Lillywhite, L M; Saling, M M; Demutska, A; Masterton, R; Farquharson, S; Jackson, G D
Re-telling a story is thought to produce a progressive refinement in the mental representation of the discourse. A neuroanatomical substrate for this compression effect, however, has yet to be identified. We used a discourse re-listening task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions responsive to repeated discourse in twenty healthy volunteers. We found a striking difference in the pattern of activation associated with the first and subsequent presentations of the same story relative to rest. The first presentation was associated with a highly significant increase in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in a bilateral perisylvian distribution, including auditory cortex. Listening to the same story on subsequent occasions revealed a wider network with activation extending into frontal, parietal, and subcortical structures. When the first and final presentations of the same story were directly compared, significant increments in activation were found in the middle frontal gyrus bilaterally, and the right inferior parietal lobule, suggesting that the spread of activation with re-listening reflected an active neural process over and above that required for comprehension of the text. Within the right inferior parietal region the change in BOLD signal was highly correlated with a behavioural index of discourse compression based in re-telling, providing converging evidence for the role of the right inferior parietal region in the representation of discourse. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, the existence of a neural network underlying discourse compression, showing that parts of this network are common to re-telling and re-listening effects. PMID:19914263
Meslin, Eric M; Garba, Ibrahim
Ethical principles guiding public health and genomic medicine are often at odds: whereas public health practice adopts collectivist principles that emphasize population-based benefits, recent advances in genomic and personalized medicine are grounded in an individualist ethic that privileges informed consent, and the balancing of individual risk and benefit. Indeed, the attraction of personalized medicine is the promise it holds out to help individuals get the "right medicine for the right problem at the right time." Research biobanks are an effective tool in the genomic medicine toolbox. Biobanking in public health presents a unique case study to unpack some of these issues in more detail. For example, there is a long history of using banked tissue obtained under clinical diagnostic conditions for later public health uses. But despite the collectivist approach of public health, the principles applied to the ethical challenges of biobanking (e.g. informed consent, autonomy, privacy) remain individualist. We demonstrate the value of using human rights as a public health ethics framework to address this tension in biobanking by applying it to two illustrative cases. PMID:21761137
Jonas, Jacques; Frismand, Solène; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Koessler, Laurent; Vespignani, Hervé; Rossion, Bruno; Maillard, Louis
Electrical brain stimulation can provide important information about the functional organization of the human visual cortex. Here, we report the visual phenomena evoked by a large number (562) of intracerebral electrical stimulations performed at low-intensity with depth electrodes implanted in the occipito-parieto-temporal cortex of 22 epileptic patients. Focal electrical stimulation evoked primarily visual hallucinations with various complexities: simple (spot or blob), intermediary (geometric forms), or complex meaningful shapes (faces); visual illusions and impairments of visual recognition were more rarely observed. With the exception of the most posterior cortical sites, the probability of evoking a visual phenomenon was significantly higher in the right than the left hemisphere. Intermediary and complex hallucinations, illusions, and visual recognition impairments were almost exclusively evoked by stimulation in the right hemisphere. The probability of evoking a visual phenomenon decreased substantially from the occipital pole to the most anterior sites of the temporal lobe, and this decrease was more pronounced in the left hemisphere. The greater sensitivity of the right occipito-parieto-temporal regions to intracerebral electrical stimulation to evoke visual phenomena supports a predominant role of right hemispheric visual areas from perception to recognition of visual forms, regardless of visuospatial and attentional factors. PMID:24733699
The health and human rights implications of violently acquired impairments (VAI), specifically gun-related injuries and trauma resulting in disability, represent an overlooked public policy concern. For several decades, detailed attention has been committed to better understanding of the international arms trade and its consequences. A discursive shift in the last decade from "small arms control" as the core objective (a "hardware" focus on the weapons themselves) to "armed violence prevention" (a focus on impacts, wider drivers, and solutions) still requires a rigorous set of objectives that respond to the rights and needs of survivors of such violence. This article seeks to chart some of the challenges of responding to gun violence survivors and identify entry points for contributions from health, social science and human rights researchers and practitioners. Efforts to address armed violence typically pivot around two goals: reduction and prevention. But what of those already injured? This article argues that a third goal is overdue for attention: response to those injured, impaired, and disabled from gun violence. This would allow a clear pathway for progress (conceptual, political, policy, and practice) to be defined related to gun violence under the ambit of three overarching goals: reducing existing gun violence; responding to those already injured, traumatized, and impaired by such violence; and preventing future violence from occurring. PMID:22773032
Kapungu, Chisina; Khare, Manorama H.; Lewis, Yvonne; Barlow-Mosha, Linda
Abstract This article uses Scale of Change theory as a framework to guide global health researchers to synergistically target women's health outcomes in the context of improving their right to freedom, equity, and equality of opportunities. We hypothesize that health researchers can do so through six action strategies. These strategies include (1) becoming fully informed of women's human rights directives to integrate them into research, (2) mainstreaming gender in the research, (3) using the expertise of grass roots women's organizations in the setting, (4) showcasing women's equity and equality in the organizational infrastructure, (5) disseminating research findings to policymakers in the study locale to influence health priorities, and (6) publicizing the social conditions that are linked to women's diseases. We explore conceptual and logistical dilemmas in transforming a study using these principles and also provide a case study of obstetric fistula reduction in Nigeria to illustrate how these strategies can be operationalized. Our intent is to offer a feasible approach to health researchers who, conceptually, may link women's health to social and cultural conditions but are looking for practical implementation strategies to examine a women's health issue through the lens of their human rights. PMID:20973667
Sariola, Salla; Simpson, Bob
The global spread of clinical trials activity is accompanied by a parallel growth in research governance and human subject protection. In this paper we analyse how dominant ideas of the 'human subject' in clinical trials are played out in countries that are deemed to be scientifically under-developed. Specifically, we show how rhetorics of individualism, rationality and autonomy implicit in international ethical guidelines governing human subject research are operationalised and localised. We give insights into the ways in which new knowledge forms become embedded in practice. Using the recent upsurge in clinical trials in Sri Lanka as a case study, based on interviews with 23 doctors and researchers carried out during ethnographic fieldwork between 2008-2009, this article explores the tensions that arise for doctors involved with the promotion of bioethics and the attempts to bring local research governance up to international standards. The doctors and researchers intercept, interpret and critique the notions of human subject implicit in new forms of research governance. From their accounts we have identified two concerns. The first is a critique of dominant ideas of the 'human subject' that is informed by ideas of patiency rooted in paternalistic notions of the doctor-patient relationship. Second, 'human subjects' are seen as gendered, and located within family relationships. Both of these bring into question the research subjects' ability to give informed consent and compromise the ideal of an autonomous subject. PMID:21208703
The purpose of this article is to critically examine the current law in Western Australia with respect to the regulation of dead bodies and the tissue of those bodies.6 In so doing, two issues will be addressed:\\u000a1. Whether the law in Western Australia impliedly recognises the existence of property rights in corpses and body tissue despite the traditional judicial
The Ugandan Anti-Homosexuality Bill of October 2009 caused an international outcry and sparked intense debate in the local and international media. Particularly contentious was its proposal to impose the death penalty for acts of 'aggravated homosexuality'. Through a quantitative content analysis of 176 items from two main daily newspapers, the government-owned New Vision and the privately-owned Daily Monitor, over the period October 2009-June 2010, combined with qualitative interviews with human rights defenders in Uganda, this study explores attempts made by local human rights advocates to influence the media's coverage of the Bill and the extent to which these attempts were successful. The study finds that while there are significant differences between the frequency of reporting on the Bill in the two newspapers, both papers devoted little editorial space to the public health and human rights concerns put forward by local human rights organizations. Despite Uganda's recent and often lauded history of openly addressing HIV/AIDS, human right organizations' attempts to highlight the Bill's potentially adverse effects on the country's ability to tackle the epidemic effectively were only partially successful and, interestingly, awarded much less attention than the potential human rights implications of the proposed change in legislation. PMID:21714747
Released on March 4, 1999, as part of its Rights For All campaign on the US, this comprehensive report from Amnesty International documents "violations of the internationally guaranteed human rights of women incarcerated in the United States," including sexual misconduct and abuse by prison officials, mistreatment of pregnant prisoners, and inadequate medical care. As the report reveals, these abuses are occurring amidst a huge increase in the women's prison population, mostly due to sentencing guidelines imposed by recent anti-drug legislation. The report also indicates that the underlying cause of the problem is the large number of male guards in US women's prisons and their unrestricted access to women's cells, which contravenes UN standards. Users can read the full text of the report as well as an overview, stories, and fact sheets at the site.
Eitan, Renana; Shamir, Reuben R.; Linetsky, Eduard; Rosenbluh, Ovadya; Moshel, Shay; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Bergman, Hagai; Israel, Zvi
Emotional processing is lateralized to the non-dominant brain hemisphere. However, there is no clear spatial model for lateralization of emotional domains in the basal ganglia. The subthalamic nucleus (STN), an input structure in the basal ganglia network, plays a major role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). This role is probably not limited only to the motor deficits of PD, but may also span the emotional and cognitive deficits commonly observed in PD patients. Beta oscillations (12–30 Hz), the electrophysiological signature of PD, are restricted to the dorsolateral part of the STN that corresponds to the anatomically defined sensorimotor STN. The more medial, more anterior and more ventral parts of the STN are thought to correspond to the anatomically defined limbic and associative territories of the STN. Surprisingly, little is known about the electrophysiological properties of the non-motor domains of the STN, nor about electrophysiological differences between right and left STNs. In this study, microelectrodes were utilized to record the STN spontaneous spiking activity and responses to vocal non-verbal emotional stimuli during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries in human PD patients. The oscillation properties of the STN neurons were used to map the dorsal oscillatory and the ventral non-oscillatory regions of the STN. Emotive auditory stimulation evoked activity in the ventral non-oscillatory region of the right STN. These responses were not observed in the left ventral STN or in the dorsal regions of either the right or left STN. Therefore, our results suggest that the ventral non-oscillatory regions are asymmetrically associated with non-motor functions, with the right ventral STN associated with emotional processing. These results suggest that DBS of the right ventral STN may be associated with beneficial or adverse emotional effects observed in PD patients and may relieve mental symptoms in other neurological and psychiatric diseases. PMID:24194703
Androff, David K; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y
Many would acknowledge that immigration is a major issue in the United States and that immigration reform should be a priority. However, there is little attention to the human rights crisis on the U.S.-Mexican border. As a result of tightened border security since 1994, it is estimated that over 5,000 migrants have died in the Sonoran desert. The criminalization of immigration has resulted in a human rights crisis in three areas: (1) the rise of deaths and injuries of migrants crossing the border in harsh and remote locations, (2) the use of mass hearings to prosecute apprehended migrants, and (3) abuses of migrants in immigration detention. These policies and practices have serious repercussions for the affected vulnerable population. Despite recent legislation designed to discourage undocumented immigration, such as Arizona's Senate Bill 1070, the deterrence strategy has not diminished migration--it has only increased the suffering and deaths of migrants. Humanitarian groups are working to prevent more deaths but also have been targeted for criminalization. The profession's ethics compel social workers to work with humanitarian organizations to prevent more deaths and to advocate for humane immigration reform. PMID:23038878
Since 1972, companies have extracted almost two billion barrels of crude oil from the Ecuadorian Amazon (Oriente), and in the process have released billions of gallons of untreated toxic wastes and oil directly into the environment. Indigenous federations and environmental groups in Ecuador have organized in opposition to unregulated oil development, charging that contamination has caused widespread damage to both people and to the environment. Yet, faced with a weak economy and pressure from foreign creditors, the government is rapidly proceeding with plans to increase oil production. Little human rights advocacy or scientific research has been done on health effects of oil contamination in the Oriente. Exposure to crude oil and its constituents is harmful to human health, ranging from minor symptoms such as headache, nausea, and dermatitis to cancers and adverse effects on reproduction and immune response. This paper is one of the first attempts to apply the right to health and a healthy environment in assessing the human consequences of a country's development policies. PMID:10395712