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1

Human Rights Discourse in Domestic Settings: How Does it Emerge?  

Microsoft Academic Search

settings. Using Israel as a case study, and more specifically analyzing the Israeli press, we further develop some of the existing theoretical claims about how the global and local interact.We argue that in order to understand how the rights discourse is imported into the domestic arena and how it expands once it enters the local scene,it is crucial to employ

Neve Gordon; Nitza Berkovitch

2007-01-01

2

Human rights and public education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its European neighbours in implementing

Bill Bowring

2012-01-01

3

Teaching Human Rights: Evaluating Human Rights Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human rights education (HRE) is currently discussed as one of the key means to establish sustainable and long-term stable societies. HRE contributes to the dissemination of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) from 1948 and to help creating a culture of Human Rights. There are dozens of international legal human rights frameworks such as conventions and treaties of the

Anja Mihr

4

Intervention and Human Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defends the right of nations to criticize human rights violations within other nations. Pointing out that the human rights protections cannot be left to domestic jurisdiction, Goldberg cites numerous treaties and declarations which make human rights protection a matter of international law. (GEA)

Goldberg, Arthur J.

1988-01-01

5

The Rhetorical Question of Human Rights--A Preface  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does rhetoric have a place in the discourse of human rights? Without certain reply, as the dilemmas of defining, claiming, and promoting human rights appear both to include and exclude the rhetorical gesture, this question invites inquiry into the preface of the contemporary human rights regime, the moment of the aftermath that provokes a struggle…

Doxtader, Erik

2010-01-01

6

HUMAN RIGHTS QUARTERLY Volumes 1 (1979) -25 (2003)  

E-print Network

HUMAN RIGHTS QUARTERLY Volumes 1 (1979) - 25 (2003) AUTHOR INDEX A Adar, Korwa G., Human Rights. Rts. Q. 179. Addis, Adeno, Economic Sanctions and the Problem of Evil, 25 Hum. Rts. Q. 573. Adejumobi. Afshari, Reza, An Essay on Islamic Cultural Relativism in the Discourse of Human Rights, 16 Hum. Rts. Q

Papautsky, Ian

7

Sovereignty transformed: a sociology of human rights1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how global interdependencies and the consolidation of a human rights discourse are transforming national sovereignty. Social researchers frequently address the supremacy of state sovereignty and the absoluteness of human rights as mutually exclusive categories.However,rather than presupposing that a universal rights discourse is necessarily leading to the demise of sovereignty, we suggest that an increasingly de-nationalized conception of

Daniel Levy; Natan Sznaider

2006-01-01

8

Gender equality and human rights.  

PubMed

This editorial introduces an issue of INSTRAW News that commemorates the 50th anniversary of the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This introduction notes that the lead article in the journal expresses optimism about potential progress towards achieving gender equity and human rights because 1) industrialized countries are undergoing a "powershift" to an information society that will offer more and better jobs for women and give women greater access to the power of information, 2) women's earnings have increased worldwide, 3) more and more women are organizing on their own behalf, and 4) a public discourse is being created that promotes the mainstreaming of women's rights and their equality. In addition, several of the UN's international treaties promote gender equality and women's human rights. Foremost among these are 1) the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women; 2) the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, adopted by the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights; 3) the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women; and 4) the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on women. Counteracting these positive steps is a trend towards defining identity and rights on the basis of community membership only, which ignores the fact that cultures, traditions, and religions are not gender neutral. Given the challenges ahead, the partnership model of society created by women when they have political power is more likely to result in sustainable solutions than the dominator model that men have forwarded for the past 6000 years. PMID:12157804

1998-01-01

9

Human Rights in China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1989, Human Rights in China is one of the major sources of information on human rights conditions in the People's Republic of China. The site offers press releases, reports, articles from its quarterly journal, China Rights Forum, organizational work reports, educational materials, action ideas and related links. In addition, the site covers a number of topics, including political prisoners and dissent, legal reform, freedom of association, women's rights, workers' rights, children's rights, and human rights education. The entire site is also available in Chinese.

1998-01-01

10

Human Rights Educational Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives a variety of educational resources on human rights that include videos, resource notebooks, books, publications, and websites along with short descriptions of the materials. Provides the contact information for a list of human-rights organizations, such as the Center for Human Rights Education and the Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt…

Flowers, Nancy

1998-01-01

11

Local suffering and the global discourse of mental health and human rights: An ethnographic study of responses to mental illness in rural Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses. However such initiatives exemplify a top-down approach to promoting human rights which historically has had limited impact at the level of those living with mental illness and their families. Methods This research forms part of a longitudinal anthropological study of people with severe mental illness in rural Ghana. Visits were made to over 40 households with a family member with mental illness, as well as churches, shrines, hospitals and clinics. Ethnographic methods included observation, conversation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with people with mental illness, carers, healers, health workers and community members. Results Chaining and beating of the mentally ill was found to be commonplace in homes and treatment centres in the communities studied, as well as with-holding of food ('fasting'). However responses to mental illness were embedded within spiritual and moral perspectives and such treatment provoked little sanction at the local level. Families struggled to provide care for severely mentally ill relatives with very little support from formal health services. Psychiatric services were difficult to access, particularly in rural communities, and also seen to have limitations in their effectiveness. Traditional and faith healers remained highly popular despite the routine maltreatment of the mentally ill in their facilities. Conclusion Efforts to promote the human rights of those with mental illness must engage with the experiences of mental illness within communities affected in order to grasp how these may underpin the use of practices such as mechanical restraint. Interventions which operate at the local level with those living with mental illness within rural communities, as well as family members and healers, may have greater potential to effect change in the treatment of the mentally ill than legislation or investment in services alone. PMID:19825191

Read, Ursula M; Adiibokah, Edward; Nyame, Solomon

2009-01-01

12

Human & Constitutional Rights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Arthur W. Diamond Law Library at Columbia Law School maintains this excellent resource for finding materials on human rights and constitutional rights. The metasite serves students, scholars, and practitioners as a portal to documents and Internet resources on international and domestic law related to human and constitutional rights. The information resources are divided into six sections: Country Reports, International Links, Regional Links, National Links, Documents, and Other Web Resources. Each section is clearly organized into neat lists or pop-up menus to ease navigation. Marylin Raisch -- the International, Comparative, and Foreign Law Librarian responsible for this metasite -- also provides a Hot Topics section, which posts information on current events related to human and constitutional rights.

13

John F. Kennedy's Civil Rights Discourse: The Evolution from "Principled Bystander" to Public Advocate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that President John F. Kennedy's civil rights discourse evidences an important evolutionary pattern marking a transition from legal argument to moral argument. Highlights two speeches as exemplars of this change. Asserts that this analysis is useful in the study of contemporary presidential discourse during times of domestic crisis. (MM)

Goldzwig, Steven R.; Dionisopoulos, George N.

1989-01-01

14

Scholarly Discourse on Art and Human Development. Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the importance of scholarly discourse on art and human development and maintains that basic questions need exploration: (1) what is developing psychologically? (2) what are the indicators of development? (3) what indicates development has been constrained in some way? and (4) where does art theory belong in scholarly discourse on child…

Koroscik, Judith Smith

1997-01-01

15

Teachers and Human Rights Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why do teachers need to be familiar with human rights? In multicultural societies, whose values take precedence? How do schools resolve tensions between children's rights and teachers' rights? Campaigners, politicians and the media cite human rights to justify or challenge anything from peaceful protest to military action. The phrase "human

Osler, Audrey; Starkey, Hugh

2010-01-01

16

Glasgow Human Rights Network  

E-print Network

Human Rights Network, Kaleidoscope Trust and Pride Glasgow ­ and the conference steering group, we issues. www.gla.ac.uk/research/az/glasgowhumanrightsnetwork The Kaleidoscope Trust is a UK based charity.kaleidoscopetrust.com | facebook: kaleidoscopetrust | @Kaleidoscope_T Pride Glasgow is Glasgow and the West of Scotland's lesbian

Guo, Zaoyang

17

Two approaches to human rights  

E-print Network

Contemporary philosophy of human rights is dominated by two seemingly opposed approaches. This dissertation is concerned with the choice between them. The traditional approach to human rights is characterized by the belief ...

Holland, Sean Jamison

2009-01-01

18

Three Models of Education: Rights, Capabilities and Human Capital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses three normative accounts that can underlie educational policies, with special attention to gender issues. These three models of education are human capital theory, rights discourses and the capability approach. I first outline five different roles that education can play. Then I analyse these three models of educational…

Robeyns, Ingrid

2006-01-01

19

A Hierarchy of Human Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To establish an objective conception of human rights, one must first identify basic needs intrinsic to all people and then determine whether these needs are or can be hierarchically ordered. Many scholars have conducted research on the concept of human needs, particularly in the area of human rights. Among these scholars are Abraham H. Maslow…

Brockett, Charles

20

Coarse coding and discourse comprehension in adults with right hemisphere brain damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Various investigators suggest that some discourse?level comprehension difficulties in adults with right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) have a lexical?semantic basis. As words are processed, the intact right hemisphere arouses and sustains activation of a wide?ranging network of secondary or peripheral meanings and features—a phenomenon dubbed “coarse coding”. Coarse coding impairment has been postulated to underpin some prototypical RHD comprehension

Connie A. Tompkins; Victoria L. Scharp; Kimberly M. Meigh; Wiltrud Fassbinder

2008-01-01

21

75 FR 78147 - Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proclamation Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human...President of the United States of America A...the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim...2010, as Human Rights Day; December 15, 2010, as Bill of Rights...

2010-12-14

22

carleton.ca Human Rights  

E-print Network

, religion, gender, sexual orientation, national or ethnic origin, or political opinion, as well organizations that are actively involved in the promotion of human rights and in the elimination of human rights them. Thirdly, you will be able to study various aspects of political violence, such as the practices

Dawson, Jeff W.

23

Gendered Constructions of Citizenship: Young Kenyans' Negotiations of Rights Discourses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contributes to the study of citizenship by interrogating how young people in Nairobi (Chege and Arnot 2012) perceive their rights of citizenship. It builds on previous analyses of the connections between gender, education and poverty's poor urban settlements by focusing on the political dimensions of the young people's lives. The…

Arnot, Madeleine; Chege, Fatuma N.; Wawire, Violet

2012-01-01

24

Gendered constructions of citizenship: young Kenyans' negotiations of rights discourses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes to the study of citizenship by interrogating how young people in Nairobi (Chege and Arnot 2012) perceive their rights of citizenship. It builds on previous analyses of the connections between gender, education and poverty's poor urban settlements by focusing on the political dimensions of the young people's lives. The findings are based on in-depth interviews with 24

Madeleine Arnot; Fatuma N. Chege; Violet Wawire

2012-01-01

25

Hemispheric Contributions to Lexical Ambiguity Resolution in a Discourse Context: Evidence from Individuals with Unilateral Left and Right Hemisphere Lesions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, a cross-modal semantic priming task was used to investigate the ability of left-hemisphere-damaged (LHD) nonfluent aphasic, right-hemisphere-damaged (RHD) and non-brain-damaged (NBD) control subjects to use a discourse context to resolve lexically ambiguous words. Subjects first heard four-sentence discourse passages ending…

Grindrod, C.M.; Baum, S.R.

2005-01-01

26

Human Rights in Education  

E-print Network

in the 1960s, is evident in the talk about rights of varied groups, such as women, aboriginal populations and conscience, protected by s. 2 of the Charter, and contravened its mandate in s. 27 that its A publication

Ellis, Randy

27

3 CFR 8616 - Proclamation 8616 of December 10, 2010. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...8616 Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human...President of the United States of America ...the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim...2010, as Human Rights Day; December 15, 2010, as Bill of Rights...

2011-01-01

28

Human Rights Education Ways and Means  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the importance of human rights education as proclaimed by UN (1994) and also the strategies for developing human rights education by UN General assembly 2005. In proclaiming the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004), in December 1994, the General Assembly defined human rights education as "a life-long…

Sajan, K. S.

2010-01-01

29

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…

Landorf, Hilary

2012-01-01

30

Human Rights: Descriptions of Classroom Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-seven classroom activities to help elementary and secondary students learn about human rights are described. The three major objectives of human rights education and teaching are: (1) to foster the attitudes of tolerance, respect, and solidarity inherent in human rights; (2) to provide knowledge about human rights, in both their national…

Torney-Purta, Judith

31

Defining dignity and its place in human rights.  

PubMed

The concept of dignity is widely used in society, particularly in reference to human rights law and bioethics. Several conceptions of dignity are identified, falling broadly within two categories: full inherent dignity (FID) and non-inherent dignity (NID). FID is a quality belonging equally to every being with full moral status, including all members of the human natural kind; it is permanent, unconditional, indivisible and inviolable. Those beings with FID ought to be treated deferentially by others by virtue of their belonging to a noble caste. FID grounds fundamental human rights, such as the rights to freedom and equality. The concept of dignity forms a network of interconnected ideas related to worth and value particularly within legal and ethical discourse; it is a rich and meaningful concept, irreducible to one or two quasi-legal principles. Fundamentally, dignity matters because it forms the foundation of civilized society; without it, serious abuse of people is more likely to occur. PMID:24979874

Michael, Lucy

2014-01-01

32

Are pharmaceutical patents protected by human rights?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Bill of Rights enshrines a right to health, which includes a right to access essential medicines. This right frequently appears to conflict with the intellectual property regime that governs pharmaceutical patents. However, there is also a human right that protects creative works, including scientific productions. Does this right support intellectual property protections, even when they may negatively affect

J Millum

2008-01-01

33

New Tactics in Human Rights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As this website explains in its Common Questions area, "Tactics consist of how to make a change", and given this statement, the site will be of great interest to those with a concern for international human rights. The New Tactics in Human Rights organization is primarily concerned with providing practitioners in the field with a package of practical tools, a worldwide symposium, and a number of other strategic planning resources. The project itself is coordinated by the Center for Victims of Torture and is overseen by a board of advisors that includes novelist Mario Vargas Llosa and the Right Honorable Kim Campbell, who is the former Prime Minister of Canada. The "Tools for Action" section is a real find as it contains a number of tactical notebooks taken from various case studies around the world, including work from Turkey, Hungary, Romania, and Albania. It is worth noting that many of the materials on the site are also available in Spanish and French.

34

Education Service Contracting in the Philippines: Human Rights as Trumps, Goals, or Policy Talk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, the goals and purposes of education within the international development discourse have shifted significantly away from education for productivity or human capital development and towards education for the fulfillment of the individual through human rights. The current global education climate provides governments with an…

Baum, Donald R.

2012-01-01

35

[The right to food as a human right].  

PubMed

The right to adequate food is included as a human right in Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in which dignity and equality are recognized as inherent to all people. The objective of the present work is to summarize the main statements contained in the international instruments related to this right. The text tries to clarify -according to such instruments and the derived thoughts in the international human rights system- what is the right to adequate food, what are the guarantees that can make it possible, what are the States commitments, what actions should be taken by them in order to effectively realize it, and what are the mechanisms that allow this right to be enforceable and justiciable. It ends stating that -with the aim to guarantee the right to food- interinstitutional, intergovernmental, academic and social participation are required, emphasizing the importance of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger worldwide. PMID:25649458

Jusidman-Rapoport, Clara

2014-01-01

36

The unbearable rightfulness of being human: citizenship, displacement, and the right to not have rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claims to human rights protection made by displaced persons are displaced from the universe of humanity and rendered ineffective by the geopolitical character of modern international human rights law, in favour of the protection of citizens' rights claims. In response, there is increasing interest in leveraging respect for and protection of the rights of displaced persons through extension of the

Mark F. N. Franke

2011-01-01

37

Is there a human right to democracy?  

E-print Network

My dissertation asks whether there is a human right to democracy. This is a difficult question, not least because there is no consensus about either what democracy requires or how to interpret human rights. The introduction ...

Abdul-Matin, Karim (Ishmawil Karim)

2006-01-01

38

Building a Human Rights Youth Justice System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)

Wyles, Paul

2009-01-01

39

HUMAN RIGHTS 2014-2015 concentration information  

E-print Network

HUMAN RIGHTS 2014-2015 concentration information Applies to MPP concentrations and MPA focus/concentrations (updated 08/04/2014) The concentration in Human Rights is a pre-approved self-designed concentration intended to provide an interdisciplinary foundation in human rights studies and practical experience

Levinson, David M.

40

Human Rights Quarterly BOOK REVIEW INDEX  

E-print Network

and International Dimensions of Human Rights, by David P. Forsythe 5 HRQ 534 (1983) Cohen, Roberta, Evil DaysHuman Rights Quarterly BOOK REVIEW INDEX Volumes 1 - 18 Listed by Reviewer's Last Name Abdullahi An-Na'im, Human Rights and Governance in Africa (Ronald Cohen, Goran Hyden and Winston P. Nagan eds., 1993) 17 HRQ

Papautsky, Ian

41

Human rights in the biotechnology era 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGOUND: The concept of Human Rights has become the modern civilising standard to which all should aspire and indeed attain. DISCUSSION: In an era characterised by widening disparities in health and human rights across the world and spectacular advances in biotechnology it is necessary to reflect on the extent to which human rights considerations are selectively applied for the benefit

Solomon R Benatar; Bioethics Centre

2002-01-01

42

3 CFR 8464 - Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human Rights...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...8464 Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human...President of the United States of America...successful. In the United States, these fundamental rights are the core of our Declaration...Constitution, and our Bill of...

2010-01-01

43

Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

Syed, Khalida Tanvir

2008-01-01

44

Paradoxes of diaspora, global identity and human rights: the deportation of Nigerians in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the contemporary reversal and rupture of the Nigerian diasporic flow to Ireland through the circumstances of deportation; emphasizing the utility of deportations in the discursive context of national identity, global standing, human rights and racism. Through an examination of the unique relationship between the Nigerian and Irish diasporas, it is argued that the state-level discourse and public

Elisa Joy White

2009-01-01

45

Producing Neoliberal Citizens: Critical Reflections on Human Rights Education in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper challenges the celebratory uptake of human rights education (HRE) in postcolonial contexts by making visible the ideological and political entanglements of the discourse with neoliberal assumptions of citizenship. I draw evidence from, and critically reflect on, a specific HRE programme--a series of summer camps for girls entitled,…

Khoja-Moolji, Shenila

2014-01-01

46

Can high?level inferencing be predicted by Discourse Comprehension Test performance in adults with right hemisphere brain damage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Adults with right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) can have considerable difficulty in drawing high?level inferences from discourse. Standardised tests of language comprehension in RHD do not tap high?level inferences with many items or in much depth, but nonstandardised tasks lack reliability and validity data. It would be of great clinical value if a standardised test could predict performance on

Connie A. Tompkins; Kimberly Meigh; April Gibbs Scott; Lisa Guttentag Lederer

2009-01-01

47

Suppression and Facilitation of Pragmatic Performance: Effects of Emotional Content on Discourse Following Right and Left Brain Damage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of emotional content on the verbal pragmatic aspects of discourse production in right-brain-damaged (RBD), left-brain-damaged (LBD), and normal control adults. In the nonemotional conditions, LBDs were particularly impaired in pragmatics, whereas in the emotional condition, RBDs demonstrated pragmatic deficits.…

Bloom, Ronald L.; And Others

1993-01-01

48

Forensic Science in a Human Rights Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic services, founded upon good science and best practice, provide an inherent safeguard for human rights. Moreover, practitioners are well placed to uphold fundamental and longstanding rights such as ‘the right to a fair hearing’. Our ability to embrace other emerging rights, however, is less clear. The increasing ambit and remit of forensic science is a cause of increasing social,

Sarah Donnelly

2012-01-01

49

Incorporating Human Rights into the College Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper recounts development of a community college humanities course titled Human Rights/Human Wrongs: The History, Philosophy, Law, Art, and Literature of the Human Rights Movement. The author argues that a special focus, interdisciplinary course provides a broader base for exploring and understanding most of the pressing issues of our time.…

Ledbetter, Pat

50

Reporting the Rhetoric, Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Represented in Ireland's Second Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: A Critical Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ireland's second periodic report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) presents the government's case that it is succeeding in protecting and promoting the rights of all children in Ireland. This article presents a critical discourse analysis of the government's Report to the CRC. Using a refined critical discourse

Kiersey, Rachel A.; Hayes, Noirin

2010-01-01

51

Education of Youth, Human Rights and Human Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses youth and adult education in a twofold perspective: that of a human right and that of human development. The first perspective is related to the concept of rights and the second perspective is related to the guarantee or negation of the right to development. In this article, the author discusses the universality of rights

Haddad, Sergio

2006-01-01

52

Human Rights Education and Training for Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although human rights education (HRE) has a long history, it has only recently begun to realize its transformative potential. A critical catalyst in this process is the emerging global ethos of accountability. Within this context, HRE can play a crucial role in the construction of a universal culture of human rights, inspired by a shared commitment to a humane order

George Andreopoulos

2002-01-01

53

Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.  

PubMed

Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. PMID:23586767

Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

2013-05-01

54

Diversity, Human Rights, and Curriculum in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although a discussion of human rights is perhaps the most important topic of any social studies curriculum, such discussions are absent from even those curriculum topics where they would seem most appropriate. While the foundational principles of human rights are basic in all cultures throughout history, these basics are seldom taught. This paper…

Long, Neyda H.

55

Discrimination & If you experience human-rights  

E-print Network

situations of personal harassment or bullying, you may be able to manage the situation on your own. In otherDiscrimination & Harassment If you experience human-rights based discrimination or harassment & Equity Services (HES) work to prevent human-rights based discrimination and harassment on campus

Pulfrey, David L.

56

Are (Should) Human Rights (Be) Universal?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Believes that the purpose of human rights is to change many culturally ingrained habits and customs that violate the dignity of the individual. Expounds the differences between cultural relativism and cultural absolutism. States that "weak" cultural relativism is sometimes an appropriate response to human-rights violations. (CMK)

Howard, Rhoda E.

1998-01-01

57

Human Rights Watch: Limits of Tolerance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human Rights Watch has recently posted a new report. "Limits of Tolerance: Freedom of Expression and the Public Debate in Chile," examines the extreme restrictions on freedom of speech and freedom of information in the ostensibly democratic nation of Chile.

58

Human Rights Watch: Chemical Warfare in Bosnia?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human Rights Watch has recently posted a new report. "Chemical Warfare in Bosnia? The Strange Experiences of the Srebrenica Survivors," investigates whether or not Serb forces used chemical agents in an attack against people fleeing Srebrenica in Bosnia and Hercegovina.

59

A discourse model for interaction design based on theories of human communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current models of interaction design build on scenarios and task analysis. We think that interaction design should be more along the lines of communication between humans. With this motivation, our paper presents a new approach to modeling interaction design based on insights from theories of human communication. From such discourse models, we aim for automated generation of user interfaces.

Jürgen Falb; Hermann Kaindl; Helmut Horacek; Cristian Bogdan; Roman Popp; Edin Arnautovic

2006-01-01

60

End-of-life care in the 21st century: advance directives in universal rights discourse.  

PubMed

This article explores universal normative bases that could help to shape a workable legal construct that would facilitate a global use of advance directives. Although I believe that advance directives are of universal character, my primary aim in approaching this issue is to remain realistic. I will make three claims. First, I will argue that the principles of autonomy, dignity and informed consent, embodied in the Oviedo Convention and the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, could arguably be regarded as universal bases for the global use of advance directives. Second, I will demonstrate that, despite the apparent consensus of ethical authorities in support of their global use, it is unlikely, for the time being, that such consensus could lead to unqualified legal recognition of advance directives, because of different understandings of the nature of the international rules, meanings of autonomy and dignity which are context-specific and culture-specific, and existing imperfections that make advance directives either unworkable or hardly applicable in practice. The third claim suggests that the fact that the concept of the advance directive is not universally shared does not mean that it should not become so, but never as the only option in managing incompetent patients. A way to proceed is to prioritize work on developing higher standards in managing incompetent patients and on progressing towards the realization of universal human rights in the sphere of bioethics, by advocating a universal, legally binding international convention that would outlaw human rights violations in end-of-life decision-making. PMID:20136818

Besirevi?, Violeta

2010-03-01

61

Migration, health, and care in French overseas territories. France was recently reprimanded by a UN human rights body1  

E-print Network

human rights body1 concerned about discriminatory political discourse and an increase in acts that the proportion of foreign migrants who had emigrated for health reasons (8·8%) was low compared with the proportion of those who had done so for other reasons (the main one being economic: 49·4%). A similar study

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

62

Reconciliation and Revenge in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Rethinking Legal Pluralism and Human Rights.  

PubMed

Human rights are a central element in the new governmental project in the new South Africa, and this article traces some of the specific forms of connection and disconnection between notions of justice found in townships of the Vaal and rights discourses as articulated by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The introduction of human rights in post-apartheid South Africa has had varied social effects. Religious values and human rights discourse have converged on the notion of reconciliation on the basis of shared value orientations and institutional structures. There are clear divergences, however, between human rights ideas and the notions of justice expressed in local lekgotla, or township courts, which emphasize punishment and retribution. The article concludes that the plurality of legal orders in South Africa results not from systemic relations between law and society but from multiple forms of social action seeking to alter the direction of social change in the area of justice within the context of the nation-building project of the post-apartheid state. PMID:10593725

Wilson

2000-02-01

63

Human Rights and Human Insecurity: The Contributions of US Counterterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counterterrorism campaigns that fail to recognize the critical connection between rights denial and terrorism are shortsighted. To fight terrorism without regard to human rights furthers terrorist goals by endorsing the same faulty thinking of the terrorists: the ends justify the means. Since declaring the “global war on terror” in 2001, not only has the Bush administration failed to place human

Julie Mertus; Tazreena Sajjad

2008-01-01

64

Human Rights Watch World Report 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human Rights Watch issued their annual world report yesterday, summarizing the state of human rights in 70 countries around the globe. Written with the clarity and detail that have marked previous annual issues, this year's report offers both good and bad news. On the positive side, it notes the popular overthrow of the Milosevic regime in Yugoslavia, the conclusion of a treaty barring the use of children as soldiers, and the UN Commission on Human Rights's first formal criticism of a permanent member of the UN Security Council (Russia, for its abuses in Chechnya). On the negative, the report cites the continued failure of the UN Commission to condemn China and the failure of the US to require the Colombian army to sever ties with paramilitaries as a condition for the recent huge military aid package to that country. The report begins with an essay on the global economy and then covers human rights developments by region. Separate sections of the report address special topics such as academic freedom, censorship, access to education, children's rights, and women's human rights. The report is available in both HTML and .rtf (zipped or uncompressed) formats.

65

Influence of health rights discourses and community organizing on equitable access to health: the case of HIV, tuberculosis and cancer in Peru  

PubMed Central

Background The right to health is recognized as a fundamental human right. Social participation is implied in the fulfillment of health rights since Alma Ata posited its relevance for successful health programs, although a wide range of interpretations has been observed for this term. While Peruvian law recognizes community and social participation in health, it was the GFATM requirement of mixed public-civil society participation in Country Coordination Mechanisms (CCM) for proposal submission what effectively led to formal community involvement in the national response to HIV and, to a lesser extent, tuberculosis. This has not been the case, however, for other chronic diseases in Peru. This study aims to describe and compare the role of health rights discourse and community involvement in the national response to HIV, tuberculosis and cancer. Methods Key health policy documents were identified and analyzed. In-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders, representatives of civil society organizations (CSO), and leaders of organizations of people affected by HIV, cancer and tuberculosis. Results and discussion A health rights discourse, well established in the HIV field, is expanding to general health discussions and to the tuberculosis (TB) field in particular. Both HIV and TB programs have National Multisectoral Strategic Plans and recognize participation of affected communities’ organizations. Similar mechanisms are non-existent for cancer or other disease-focused programs, although other affected patients are starting some organization efforts. Interviewees agreed that reaching the achievements of HIV mobilization is difficult for other diseases, since the HIV response was modeled based on a global movement with strong networks and advocacy mechanisms, eventually succeeding in the establishment of financial sources like the GFATM. Nevertheless, organizations linked to cancer and other diseases are building a National Patient Network to defend health rights. Conclusions There are new efforts to promote and protect health rights in Peru, probably inspired by the achievements of organizations of people living with HIV (PLHA). The public health sector must consolidate the participation of affected communities’ organizations in decision-making processes and implementation of health programs. PLHA organizations have become a key political and social actor in Peruvian public health policy. PMID:23683817

2013-01-01

66

GENETIC ENHANCEMENT – A THREAT TO HUMAN RIGHTS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTGenetic enhancement is the modification of the human genome for the purpose of improving capacities or ‘adding in’ desired characteristics. Although this technology is still largely futuristic, debate over the moral issues it raises has been significant. George Annas has recently leveled a new attack against genetic enhancement, drawing on human rights as his primary weapon. I argue that Annas’

ELIZABETH FENTON

2008-01-01

67

The state human trafficking and human rights issues in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal factors in Africa which include limited autonomy of African states, the states’ various degrees of lack of capacity, as well as inept and parasitic leadership make human trafficking and human rights abuses in Africa inevitable. Regardless of the connections suggested to exist between globalization and human trafficking, internal factors in Africa are more fundamental than globalization in explaining human

Browne Onuoha

2011-01-01

68

Human Rights and Religion in the English Secondary RE Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between religion and human rights is an ambiguous and complex one, but there are academic, moral and political arguments for the inclusion of human rights in religious education (RE). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights advocates education in human rights and the English school curriculum aims to encourage a commitment to…

Bowie, Robert

2011-01-01

69

Human Rights and Foreign Policy. Headline Series 241.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion is presented of the meaning of human rights, implications of human rights for foreign policy, and obstacles to its realization on a global scale. Chapter I identifies human rights as a critical issue, commends President Carter's initiative in this area, and points out difficulties of implementing a human rights policy. Chapter II…

Frankel, Charles

70

Turkey: Human Rights And The European Union Accession Partnership  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In September, Human Rights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. Turkey: Human Rights And The European Union Accession Partnership is a 31-page report detailing Human Rights Watch's recommendations for the EU's Accession Partnership Document laying out the human rights criteria Turkey will have to meet to be granted EU membership.

71

The Human Right to Access Electricity  

SciTech Connect

Electricity access is already well established within the framework of human rights, either as an implicit attribute of a pre-existing right (such as non-discrimination or sustainable development) or explicitly in the context of eliminating discrimination against women. There is also broad acknowledgement by states of the desirability of eliminating energy poverty - for all, but particularly for the rural poor, and women. (author)

Tully, Stephen

2006-04-15

72

Human rights monitoring in virtual community.  

PubMed

Holistic disability rights monitoring is essential in order to translate rights on paper into rights in reality for people with disabilities. At the same time, evidence-based knowledge produced through holistic monitoring has to be made accessible to a broad range of groups - researchers, representatives of disability community, people with disabilities, the media, policy makers, general public - and also has to contribute to building capacity within disability community around human rights issues. This article focuses on the design process of a complex Virtual Knowledge Network (VKN) as an operational tool to support mobilization and dissemination of evidence-based knowledge produced by the Disability Rights Promotion International Canada (DRPI-Canada) project. This tool is embedded in the more general framework of the project grounded in a human rights approach to disability and that acknowledges the importance of creating knowledgeable communities in order to make the disability rights monitoring efforts sustainable, advancing thus the decision making process in Canada in order to enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities. PMID:22874302

El Morr, Christo

2012-01-01

73

Annual Report on Human Rights, 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In July, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) issued its Human Rights report, the third such annual report issued under Tony Blair's government. The 176-page report provides a "detailed overview of the range of FCO work in the area of human rights, from the government's responses to major humanitarian crises in Kosovo, in East Timor, or in Sierra Leone, to grass-roots projects to promote civil society, safeguard children from conflict and exploitation, and eradicate torture around the world." The report also includes a brief section on the decision of the Home Secretary not to extradite former Chilean dictator Pinochet to Spain, with a URL included for access to the full text of his statement. According to the Secretary for FCO affairs, the document is not meant as an exhaustive report on Human Rights around the world, but rather as an in-depth examination of UK efforts in this area both at home and abroad.

74

Measuring the Progressive Realization of Human Rights Obligations: An Index of Economic and Social Rights Fulfillment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to an increasing demand for rigorous monitoring of state accountability in meeting their human rights obligations, a growing literature on human rights measurement has emerged. Yet there are no widely used indicators or indices of human rights obligations fulfillment. This paper proposes a methodology for an index of economic and social rights fulfillment that: uses available survey-based objective,

Sakiko Fukuda-Parr; Terra Lawson-Remer; Susan Randolph

2008-01-01

75

Bibliography for Research on International Human Rights Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by David Weissbrodt and Marci Hoffman and provided by the University of Minnesota Human Rights Library (discussed in the January 5, 1996 Scout Report), this extensive bibliography contains a large number and variety of resources for researching international human rights law. Entries include: Human Rights Instruments, Human Rights Case Law, Research Guides on the Six Major Human Rights Instruments, Refugee Law, Selected Texts, Research Guides, Periodicals, Electronic Resources, and Country Situations.

Hoffman, Marci.

1998-01-01

76

Are evolving human rights harmless? An examination of English legislation, prostitution and its effect on human relatedness.  

PubMed

This paper addresses key philosophical and social questions that shape the contemporary discourse on prostitution. The initial section outlines the contemporary challenges facing legislative practice on prostitution in England. This involves analysing moral and legal framework surrounding prostitution that has made the current legislative dilemma surrounding prostitution practice possible. The second part of the paper then outlines the history of the philosophy of human rights from Aquinas to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). The paper concludes by analysing whether the current ontology employed by human rights theory is effective in creating a system of just relatedness between agents, made visible in concrete legislative guidance. I argue that legislation guided by a fragmented teleology and ontological anthropology enables asymmetrical patterns of relatedness that can cause genuine physical and psychological harm to individuals. PMID:25344012

Westin, Anna

2014-01-01

77

GENDER, HEALTH AND HUMAN RIGHTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

M otherhood can take a woman to the heights of ec- stasy and the depths of despair; it can offer her protection and reverence. But it can also deny a woman consideration as anything more than a vehicle for human reproduction. Women's reproductive function fits within a social frame- work of gender that affects women's capacities and health. While traditional

Rebecca J. Cook

78

The Struggle for Human Rights in Myanmar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The non-violent participation of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhist monks in resistance efforts to advocate for the welfare of Myanmar's people has played an important role in educating the world about human rights violations in the country. Faced with international condemnation, Myanmar's junta released Aung San Suu Kyi from…

Keefer, Natalie

2012-01-01

79

Local Impacts of Religious Discourses on Rights to Express Same-Sex Sexual Desires in Peri-Urban Rio de Janeiro1  

PubMed Central

This article reports on a study that examined how religious discourses of inclusion and exclusion—in Roman Catholic, evangelical Protestant, and Afro-Brazilian religious traditions—affected people’s rights to express same-sex sexual desires, behaviors, and identities in the socioeconomically marginalized urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using extended ethnographic observation of institutions and religious events over a period of 2 years, the authors identified how sexual rights were constructed within religious discourses and conducted ethnographic interviews with 45 religious leaders. In the low-income and violent urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, religious leaders and institutions play key roles in molding community inclusion and exclusion. A comparison of the 3 major religious denominations shows a diversity of discourses about same-sex sexual desires and their impacts on community formation. PMID:20161503

García, Jonathan; Laboy, Miguel Muñoz; de Almeida, Vagner; Parker, Richard

2009-01-01

80

International Human Rights on the Internet. Internet Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an annotated list of websites that focus on international human rights. Explains that human rights can be incorporated into curricula whether the focus is on human geography or contemporary global issues. Indicates that the Northern Light search engine produced over 700,000 hits for human rights websites. (CMK)

Dale, Jack

2000-01-01

81

Poverty and Human Rights: Sen's 'Capability Perspective' Explored  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Poverty itself is a violation of numerous basic human rights.' (Mary Robinson, former UN High Commissioner on Human Rights) The idea that freedom from poverty is a basic human right that gives rise to moral and legal obligations of governments and other actors has received increased international attention in recent years. Mary Robinson, the former UN High Commissioner for Human

Polly Vizard

82

HIV / AIDS, human rights and development.  

PubMed

AIDS is killing more people worldwide than any other infectious disease. Given the expensive treatments for AIDS, preventing new infections is the only way to stem the growing tide of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing world. Yet in almost every developing country, prevention programs have no effect in preventing new infections, and are often narrow in scope and applicability. In many cases, interventions focus on the individual and on individual behavioral change. Socioeconomic and political factors such as gender-based inequalities, poverty, corruption and government inaction are not addressed. The paper discusses the link between HIV/AIDS, development and human rights. It presents case studies and other examples of rights-based projects and activities that provide models for rights-based programming that can be adapted to different national contexts. PMID:12179439

Patterson, D

2000-06-01

83

Finding the Right Words: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Discourse Productivity in Non-fluent Aphasia After Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background Loss of fluency is a significant source of functional impairment in many individuals with aphasia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) administered to the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) has been shown to facilitate naming in persons with chronic left hemisphere stroke and non-fluent aphasia. However, changes in fluency in aphasic subjects receiving rTMS have not been adequately explored. Aims To determine whether rTMS improves fluency in individuals with chronic nonfluent aphasia, and to identify aspects of fluency that are modulated in persons who respond to rTMS. Methods & Procedures Ten individuals with left hemisphere MCA strokes and mild to moderate non-fluent aphasia participated in the study. Before treatment, subjects were asked to describe the Cookie Theft picture in three separate sessions. During treatment, all subjects received 1200 pulses of 1 Hz rTMS daily in 10 sessions over two weeks at a site that had previously been shown to improve naming. Subjects repeated the Cookie Theft description two months after treatment. Five subjects initially received sham stimulation instead of real TMS. Two months after sham treatment, these individuals received real rTMS. Performance both at baseline and after stimulation was coded using Quantitative Production Analysis (Saffran, Berndt & Schwartz, 1989) and Correct Information Unit (Nicholas & Brookshire, 1993) analysis. Outcomes & Results Across all subjects (n=10), real rTMS treatment resulted in a significant increase in multiple measures of discourse productivity compared to baseline performance. There was no significant increase in measures of sentence productivity or grammatical accuracy. There was no significant increase from baseline in the sham condition (n=5) on any study measures. Conclusions Stimulation of the right IFG in patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia facilitates discourse production. We posit that this effect may be attributable to improved lexical-semantic access. PMID:23280015

Medina, Jared; Norise, Catherine; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Coslett, H. Branch; Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Hamilton, Roy H.

2012-01-01

84

Teme ale Discursului Extremei-Drepte in Publicistica Franceza Interbelica - Themes of the Extreme-Right Discourse in the French Interwar Journalistic Writings (Romanian version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper hightlights the common themes in the interwar journalistic writings discourse of the French Extreme-Right representatives, characters of great intellectual mobility, but dominated by ethnic-spiritual cliches and prejudices, assumed by them ina deliberate manner. A very complex and also controversial phenomenon, the ideological radicalism of right-wing is fought against with equal energy by the communist doctrine and by the

Cristian SANDACHE

2011-01-01

85

Teme ale Discursului Extremei-Drepte in Publicistica Franceza Interbelica\\/ Themes of the Extreme-Right Discourse in the French Interwar Journalistic Writings (Romanian version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper hightlights the common themes in the interwar journalistic writings discourse of the French Extreme-Right representatives, characters of great intellectual mobility, but dominated by ethnic-spiritual cliches and prejudices, assumed by them ina deliberate manner. A very complex and also controversial phenomenon, the ideological radicalism of right-wing is fought against with equal energy by the communist doctrine and by the

Cristian SANDACHE

2011-01-01

86

Marvelous Human Rights Rhetoric and Grim Realities: Language Rights in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether the human rights approach to language planning and policy promotes equity for diverse students populations. Assesses to what extent governments show respect for human rights by ratifying human rights' documents, discusses aspects of implementation and assesses government claims on national and immigrant minority education, and…

Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove

2002-01-01

87

The Human Rights Education Handbook: Effective Practices for Learning, Action, and Change. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conveying the "common language of humanity" is the whole purpose of human rights education. Concerned citizens need to understand and embrace the fundamental principles of human dignity and equality and accept the personal responsibility to defend the rights of all people. This handbook is intended to help people who care about human rights to…

Flowers, Nancy

88

The Human Right to Education: Freedom and Empowerment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education, as a human right, is the acknowledgement of the individual's rights rather than his or her role in the capitalist goals of the economic growth; the human right to education is the way through which one can conquer freedom and become a genuine individuated being, self-aware and yet deeply and truly connected to others. A rights-based…

Pimentel, Caetano

2006-01-01

89

Evolution of Human Rights in the Age of Biotechnology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers how biotechnology affects human-rights issues; in particular, the need for reexamining concerns about reproductive technology, the rights of indigenous peoples, and the rights of future generations. Maintains that the new areas for human-rights discussions, such as germ-line manipulation and genetic screening, are unprecedented concerns…

Hron, Benjamin

1998-01-01

90

A Human Rights Strategy for 1973-76  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes four elements of a human rights strategy to achieve an equitable society: (1) strengthen human rights law enforcement and training; (2) stop blaming the victims; (3) work together on mutual concerns; and, (4) support each other. (Author/JM)

Cloud, Fred

1973-01-01

91

Human rigHts advocacy in action  

E-print Network

18 Brave new world 22 thought that counts 27 In pictures snapshots 5 taken 29 Regulars BristolHuman rigHts advocacy in action Lives weLL Lived: a new age of animaL weLfare aLzHeimer's: no smoke in pieces 2 & 17 alumni in the news 3 Bristol and beyond 10 Summer2012 Contents 29 2 new solutions to old

Bristol, University of

92

Teaching Human Rights? "All Hell Will Break Loose!"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human rights education is a prominent concern of a number of international organisations and has been dominant on the United Nations' agenda for the past 20 years. The UN Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) has been followed by the World Programme for Human Rights Education (2005-ongoing) and the recently adopted UN Declaration on…

Cassidy, Claire; Brunner, Richard; Webster, Elaine

2014-01-01

93

The World War II Era and Human Rights Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

2012-01-01

94

Health professionals and human rights campaigners: different cultures, shared goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at a disagreement that emerged at an international human rights conference between health professionals and human rights activists. The disagree- ment centred on the scope of the responsibilities of health professionals in relation to potential systemic human rights violations. In this article, the nature of the disagreement that emerged at the conference is explored. It is first

J Sheather

2010-01-01

95

Health professionals and human rights campaigners: different cultures, shared goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at a disagreement that emerged at an international human rights conference between health professionals and human rights activists. The disagreement centred on the scope of the responsibilities of health professionals in relation to potential systemic human rights violations. In this article, the nature of the disagreement that emerged at the conference is explored. It is first situated

J Sheather

2009-01-01

96

Human Rights Education Can Be Integrated throughout the School Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that few state departments of education have actually mandated human rights education in their schools. Clearly, individual teachers will need to take responsibility for the integration of peace education and human rights education. By integrating human rights education and peace education into the daily fabric of the school…

Childhood Education, 2005

2005-01-01

97

Locating Women's Human Rights in Post-Soviet Provincial Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay provides insights into studies on citizens' engagement with human rights in Russia through its focus on a relatively under-researched area, namely, the ways in which women perceive the role of human rights in daily life contexts. This essay argues for the importance of analysing how women's perceptions of human rights are formed in situ in order to understand

Vikki Turbine

2012-01-01

98

Ethnicity and Human Rights: An Organizational and Individual Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations in 1948, the issue of the human rights of ethnic minority groups is widely ignored in the United States--both in policy and as an issue worthy of examination. In this country and abroad, violations of human rights continue to take place regularly; minority group…

Carter, George E.

99

Perspective: Economic Human Rights: The Time Has Come!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that the high poverty levels in the United States implies that the goals of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) have not yet transformed the reality of U.S. citizens. Describes the national campaign called "Economic Human Rights: The Time Has Come!" that combats the violations of basic human rights like poverty. (CMK)

Mittal, Anuradha

1998-01-01

100

Human Rights: An Examination of Universalism and Cultural Relativism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social work profession is only beginning to incorporate human rights into its policies and practices. To understand what is meant by human rights, social workers will need to understand underlying concepts. The two of the most important concepts in terms of understanding the application of human rights to policies and practices will be universalism and cultural relativism. Knowing how

Elisabeth Reichert

2006-01-01

101

Mechanisms for Mixed-Initiative Human-Computer Collaborative Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine mechanisms for automatic dialogue initiative setting. We show how to incorporate initiative changing in a task-oriented human-computer dialogue system, and we evaluate the effects of initiative both analytically and via computer-computer dialogue simulation.

Curry I. Guinn

1996-01-01

102

Human/Nature Discourse in Environmental Science Education Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is argued that the view of nature and the relationship between human beings and nature that each of us holds impacts our decisions, actions, and notions of environmental responsibility and consciousness. In this study, I investigate the discursive patterns of selected environmental science classroom resources produced by three disparate…

Chambers, Joan M.

2008-01-01

103

Water as a Human Right: The Understanding of Water Rights in Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international community has affirmed the human right to water in a number of international treaties, declarations and other documents. Most notably, in November 2002 the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted General Comment No. 15 on the right to water, setting out general standards and obligations related to the right to water. This paper analyses if

SIMONE KLAWITTER

2007-01-01

104

About the M.A. Human Rights The M.A. Human Rights addresses the growing im-  

E-print Network

in combination with professional or practical experience in human rights. Students could work as practitioners one year of professional experience either in the area of human rights or in combination with practical experience in human rights work on a vo- lunteer basis. If your university degree is based on 180

Fiebig, Peter

105

The human rights responsibilities of multinational tobacco companies  

PubMed Central

This article explores various strategies which could be used to hold the tobacco industry accountable for human rights violations precipitated by its conduct. First, a brief overview of the international human rights regime and the tobacco related jurisprudence issued by human rights treaty bodies is provided. The article then explains how tobacco control advocates could promote more systematic consideration of governments' tobacco related human rights violations by reconceptualising the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the language of rights. The feasibility of using the existing human rights framework to target the tobacco industry directly is analysed with the conclusion that this approach has serious limitations. Emerging human rights norms, which have greater potential to affect the industry's conduct, are presented. Finally, given the questionable authoritativeness of these norms, alternative ways that they could be employed to hold tobacco companies accountable for the rights related consequences of their activities are proposed. PMID:16046696

Crow, M

2005-01-01

106

Human rights and South-South Development Cooperation: reflections on the 'rising powers' as international development actors  

E-print Network

position in relation to human rights responsibilities compared to national development agencies and other state actors. While corporations should be scrutinized and rigorously held accountable by regulators, shareholders, workers, and customers, these ne... . The reality of SSDC certainly departs from these principles at times, and there is no ques- tion that this discourse projects a sanitized and highly selective account of 42. Philip Nel, Redistribution and Recognition: What Emerging Regional Powers Want, 36...

Mawdsley, Emma

107

The United States and the universality of human rights.  

PubMed

The United States takes a highly relativistic stance toward the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It regards the socio-economic rights and the right to development as without status; exempts itself from all provisions of the Declaration by failing to sign the conventions designed to implement these provisions; and unilaterally qualifies its support of civil and political rights. Leading recipients of U.S. aid have traditionally included regimes with atrocious human rights records. Those struggling for human rights should have no illusions about the systems of power and their servants. PMID:10450550

Chomsky, N

1999-01-01

108

Los torturadores medicos: medical collusion with human rights abuses in Argentina, 1976-1983.  

PubMed

Medical collaboration with authoritarian regimes historically has served to facilitate the use of torture as a tool of repression and to justify atrocities with the language of public health. Because scholarship on medicalized killing and biomedicalist rhetoric and ideology is heavily focused on Nazi Germany, this article seeks to expand the discourse to include other periods in which medicalized torture occurred, specifically in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, when the country was ruled by the Proceso de Reorganización Nacional military regime. The extent to which medical personnel embedded themselves within the Proceso regime's killing apparatus has escaped full recognition by both scholars and human rights activists. This article reconstructs the narrative of the Proceso's human rights abuses to argue that health professionals knowingly and often enthusiastically facilitated, oversaw, and participated in every phase of the "disappearance," torture, and mass murder process. PMID:24996628

Perechocky, Andrew

2014-12-01

109

BETWEEN WOMEN’S RIGHTS AND MEN’S AUTHORITY: MASCULINITY AND SHIFTING DISCOURSES OF GENDER DIFFERENCE IN URBAN UGANDA  

PubMed Central

Across the African continent, women’s rights have become integral to international declarations, regional treaties, national legislation, and grassroots activism. Yet there is little research on how African men have understood these shifts, and how African masculinities are implicated in such changes. Drawing on a year of ethnographic research in the Ugandan capital Kampala, this article investigates how ordinary men and women in Uganda understand women’s rights, and how their attitudes are tied to local conceptions of masculinity. I argue that a new configuration of gender relations is evident in urban Uganda—one that accommodates some aspects of women’s rights while retaining previous notions of innate male authority. This article, therefore, illustrates the complex and often contradictory engagements with human rights that occur in local contexts, and how such engagements are shaped by gender relations, including conceptions of masculinity. PMID:19862350

Wyrod, Robert

2009-01-01

110

Human Rights Education in Schools: The Indian Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

uman rights are equal and basic rights for all human beings that define and redefine their individual and collective identities and allow them independent choices in the specific as well as in the totality of human situations. They also encompass the equal right to informed participation in decision-making process in matters relating to access to, and management of, material bases

SAROJ PANDEY

111

Human rights enforcement: a fundamental duty of the sovereign state  

E-print Network

of international law, but the term human right is equally important as a foundation for argument. University of Southern California Professor Alison Renteln noted, "The classic definition of a human right is a right which is universal and held by all persons: 'A...

Englehart, Ellen Marie

1997-01-01

112

Human rights reasoning and medical law: a sceptical essay.  

PubMed

I am sceptical as to the contribution that human rights can make to our evaluation of medical law. I will argue here that viewing medical law through a human rights framework provides no greater clarity, insight or focus. If anything, human rights reasoning clouds any bioethical or evaluative analysis. In Section 1 of this article, I outline the general structure of human rights reasoning. I will describe human rights reasoning as (a) reasoning from rights that each person has 'by virtue of their humanity', (b) reasoning from rights that provide 'hard to defeat' reasons for action and (c) reasoning from abstract norms to specified duties. I will then argue in Section 2 that, unless we (a) re-conceive of human rights as narrow categories of liberties, it becomes (b) necessary for our human rights reasoning to gauge the normative force of each claim or liberty. When we apply this approach to disputes in medical law, we (in the best case scenario) end up (c) 'looking straight through' the human right to the (disagreement about) values and features that each person has by virtue of their humanity. PMID:24547883

Wall, Jesse

2015-03-01

113

Towards a human rights compatible nuclear liability regime: some human rights reflections from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite comprehensive measures to ensure the highest amount of safety in nuclear activities, the eventuality of nuclear accident will certainly be a human rights disaster, resulting in devastating damage to individuals, property and environment. The economic and social cost of the catastrophe depends on a range of factors – from loss of life to personal injury, to loss of freedom

Subramanian Ramamurthy

2010-01-01

114

Towards a human rights compatible nuclear liability regime: some human rights reflections from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite comprehensive measures to ensure the highest amount of safety in nuclear activities, the eventuality of nuclear accident will certainly be a human rights disaster, resulting in devastating damage to individuals, property and environment. The economic and social cost of the catastrophe depends on a range of factors – from loss of life to personal injury, to loss of freedom

Subramanian Ramamurthy

2011-01-01

115

BOSTON UNIVERSITY DUBLIN PROGRAMS INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW  

E-print Network

BOSTON UNIVERSITY DUBLIN PROGRAMS 1 INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW CAS IR 306 Lecturer: Kieran O UNIVERSITY DUBLIN PROGRAMS 2 Attendance & Participation: 10% Presentation: 20% Essay: 40% Final Examination

Guenther, Frank

116

Human rights, health and the state in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background This paper broadly discusses the role of the State of Bangladesh in the context of the health system and human rights. The interrelation between human rights, health and development are well documented. The recognition of health as a fundamental right by WHO and subsequent approval of health as an instrument of welfare by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights (ICSECR) further enhances the idea. Moreover, human rights are also recognized as an expedient of human development. The state is entrusted to realize the rights enunciated in the ICSECR. Discussion In exploring the relationship of the human rights and health situation in Bangladesh, it is argued, in this paper, that the constitution and major policy documents of the Bangladesh government have recognized the health rights and development. Bangladesh has ratified most of the international treaties and covenants including ICCPR, ICESCR; and a signatory of international declarations including Alma-Ata, ICPD, Beijing declarations, and Millennium Development Goals. However the implementation of government policies and plans in the development of health institutions, human resources, accessibility and availability, resource distribution, rural-urban disparity, the male-female gap has put the health system in a dismal state. Neither the right to health nor the right to development has been established in the development of health system or in providing health care. Summary The development and service pattern of the health system have negative correlation with human rights and contributed to the underdevelopment of Bangladesh. The government should take comprehensive approach in prioritizing the health rights of the citizens and progressive realization of these rights. PMID:16611360

Rahman, Redwanur M

2006-01-01

117

Human Security in Asia: by Universal Human Right or Cultural Relativism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the debate between universal human Right doctrine and cultural relativism this paper attempts to discuss the conflict between the liberal doctrine of universal human rights and cultural relativism from the view point of human security in Asia. Using the Universal Declaration as a reference point this paper discuss the levels of conflict between human rights standard and cultural differences

HOSSAIN M. D. SHANAWEZ

118

Human Brain: Left-Right Asymmetries in Temporal Speech Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found marked anatomical asymmetries between the upper surfaces of the human right and left temporal lobes. The planum temporale (the area behind Heschl's gyrus) is larger on the left in 65 percent of brains; on the right it is larger in only 11 percent. The left planum is on the average one-third longer than the right planum. This

Norman Geschwind; Walter Levitsky

1968-01-01

119

Implementing Children's Human Rights Education in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…

Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.

2010-01-01

120

Education as a Human Right in the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the United Nations, education is a right to which all human beings are entitled. Since 2000, the UN has been promoting the Millennium Development Goal to achieve free universal primary education for all, regardless of gender, by 2015. If the UN is correct to suggest that education is both a human right in itself and an indispensable…

Lee, Sharon E.

2013-01-01

121

Controversies in the current international human rights debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholarship thrives on academic debate. If there is overall consensus, if evenjbody agrees on everything, the dynamics of thinking are at risk. The quiet of the grave is not suited for the development of thought. What is true of scholarship in general is also true for the particular branch of scholarship that deals with human rights. Human rights is a

Peter R. Baehr

2000-01-01

122

Professionalizing a Global Social Movement: Universities and Human Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the human rights movement emphasizes direct changes in nation-states, focusing on the efficacy of treaties and the role of advocacy in mitigating immediate violations. However, more than 140 universities in 59 countries established academic chairs, research centers, and programs for human rights from 1968-2000, a development that…

Suarez, David; Bromley, Patricia

2012-01-01

123

Teaching "Islam and Human Rights" in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses my approach to teaching a course on Islam and human rights. I begin by examining the attention Islam has received in the media and classroom. Then, I discuss how I structure lectures on Islam and human rights, the various readings associated with the lectures, as well as common themes discussed in class that include but are…

Muedini, Fait A.

2012-01-01

124

Energy and Development: Is Energy a Basic Human Right?  

E-print Network

Energy and Development: Is Energy a Basic Human Right? Skype/Video presentation for senior pupils national Laboratory/DTU Denmark #12;Is energy a basic human right? · What is energy? ­ the ability to make something happen · Different kinds of energy ­ or energy carriers - fuels · What do we use energy for

125

Human Rights: Lesson Plan for SDAIE (Sheltered) Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plan on human rights uses the Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) methodology used in California to teach academic content to intermediate, threshold level limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. It sets forth three educational goals for students to reach; asks students to examine definitions of human rights

Husser, Michael D.

126

United States Human Rights Policy and Foreign Assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study furthers the inquiry into the relationship between human rights and U.S. bilateral foreign aid. We build the most comprehensive data set to date, extending the time period (1976-1995) and enlarging the number of countries under review (140). Rhetoric aside, human rights considera- tions did play a role in determining whether or not a state received military aid during

Clair Apodaca; Michael Stohl

1999-01-01

127

Profiles of four women. Health and human rights activists.  

PubMed

This article briefly profiles four women physicians working for health and human rights around the world. Dr. Ruchama Marton, an Israeli psychiatrist and activist for peace in the Middle East, is a founder of Physicians for Human Rights/Israel. Dr. Jane Green Schaller is a US pediatrician whose 1985 trip to South Africa initiated her human rights involvement, which includes the founding of Physicians for Human Rights. Dr. Judith van Heerden, a primary care physician in South Africa, has worked for reform of prison health care, to establish hospice care, and, most recently, for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education for medical students. Dr. Ma Thida, the only physician not interviewed for this article, is currently held in a Burmese prison because of her work on behalf of the National League for Democracy. The profiles suggest the breadth of human rights work worldwide and are a testament to what physicians can do. PMID:9354051

Reiner, L; Sollom, R

1997-01-01

128

PhD Topic Arrangement in "D"iscourse Communities of Engineers and Social Sciences/Humanities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the result of a grounded theory investigation into the ways PhD topics are assigned by supervisors in engineering and selected by students in the social sciences/humanities in UK universities, broadly referred to as "topic arrangement", which can be regarded as one aspect of academic socialisation into academic Discourse

Hasrati, Mostafa; Street, Brian

2009-01-01

129

Human Rights and Religious Education in the Contentious Context of Conflict-Troubled Societies: Perspectives from Human Rights Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores some of the tensions that are created from the entanglement of religion and human rights and offers a possible response to these tensions in the context of religious education in conflict-troubled societies. It is suggested that a historicised and politicised approach in religious education in conjunction with human rights

Zembylas, Michalinos

2014-01-01

130

Unity in diversity and adversity: Venezuelan women's struggle for human rights.  

PubMed

This article on the efforts of women in Venezuela to gain access to their human rights opens by noting that the most significant gains in this 80-year struggle have occurred in the past 20 years because activists 1) consistently framed women's issues as critical to attaining the goals of social justice and democracy, 2) built flexible coalitions among diverse groups of women, and 3) kept the issue before the public. The next section offers an historical perspective for these contemporary strategies by locating their origins in women's participation in political movements to end dictatorships and repression during the 1920s and tracing women's advancement from the gaining of the full right to vote in 1947 through the 1995 establishment of the National Council on Women. The article continues with a look at how the human rights agenda was reframed in the 1990s to include issues of violence against women and political participation and to increase public recognition of these issues. Consideration of new opportunities and continuing challenges focuses first on how spaces were created for new discourses by an erosion of confidence in public officials and a series of national protests and then on the related opportunity of a rapid rise in nontraditional presidential candidates. Next, the article details efforts to increase women's political participation as a human right and defense of democracy and to promote the idea that freedom from violence (poverty, sexual harassment, physical and emotional abuse, control over sexuality, rape and incest) is a human right. The article concludes by reemphasizing the importance of adopting a flexible style of networking and of recognizing that legislation merely provides the basis for action. PMID:12157789

Rakowski, C A

1998-01-01

131

Issue Definition in Rights-Based Policy Focused on the Experiences of Individuals with Disabilities: An Examination of Canadian Parliamentary Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In issue definition in rights-based policy Canada stereotypically embraces a more positive, human rights-centered approach as compared with the American stereotype associated with the USA's more presumptively negative, civil rights-based tack. Since exclusionary infrastructures violate the core values of democratic governance, a failure to address…

Baker, Dana Lee

2008-01-01

132

Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive health services should include, leaving out the ones more prone to cause conflict and opposition, such as gender equality, abortion provision and welfare services for pregnant adolescents. Moralistic attitudes and sexism were present - even if divergences were also found-, limiting services' capability to promote girls' sexual and reproductive health and rights. PMID:20525405

2010-01-01

133

Democracy and human rights: a paradox for migration policy.  

PubMed

This article seeks to 1) stimulate debate on the tension between democracy and human rights that arises from the fact that the organizational unit of modern democracy remains the state, which is incompatible with the quest for transnational human rights based on a transcendent human identity, and 2) explore this tension as it is revealed in migration policy in South Africa. The introduction of the article critiques the criticisms offered by contemporary writers as grounds for an overhaul of current migration policy. Next, the article presents an analysis of modern, state-based democracy and of the rise of international human rights, with a focus on the following trends: 1) development of the notion of citizenship resulting from a view of the state as the guarantor but not the progenitor of rights, 2) the growth of human rights traditions in industrialized democracies as judicial activism countered populist and nationalist inclinations of national legislatures, and 3) the growth of an international human rights juridical tradition. The article then highlights the issues raised within the migration policy debate in South Africa since 1994 and examines the 1997 Draft Green Paper on International Migration. It is concluded that, because South Africa fits the general pattern of a receiving state, an overly ambitious human rights approach to immigration will conflict with the exigencies of the new democracy as it builds institutional capacity. PMID:12294201

Hill, L B

1997-01-01

134

Human Resources Authorization Form for Non-Employee Access Rights  

E-print Network

Human Resources Authorization Form for Non-Employee Access Rights PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION Employee: Financial Services, if required: Name: Signature: Date: FOR HUMAN RESOURCES USE Employee Class 98 contact Deb Robb, Human Resources, The University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 403

Seldin, Jonathan P.

135

BURMA AND CAMBODIA: Human Rights, Social Disruption, and the Spread of HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

..AJDS-related human rights activism, sharing the ori- entation of the mainstream human rights movement, has focused on visible and purposeful governmental acts that jeop- ardize individual privacy, liberty, and protection against dis- crimination. Human rights obligations stemming from the right to health care, to social assistance, or from the neces- sity to improve the enjoyment of human rights through in-

Chris Beyrer

136

The Emerging Partnership in Human Service Civil Rights Enforcement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the objectives and activities of the Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Civil Rights (OCR) within the purview of the Reagan administration's civil rights policy. Describes OCR methodologies designed to ensure enforcement of nondiscrimination requirements in state implementation of programs under federal block grants. (MJL)

Dotson, Betty Lou

1983-01-01

137

Apartheid medicine. Health and human rights in South Africa.  

PubMed

Human rights and health care under apartheid in South Africa were studied. Human rights violations, such as detention without charge or trial, assault and torture in police custody, and restriction orders, have had devastating effects on the health of persons experiencing them. These violations have occurred in the context of a deliberate policy of discriminatory health care favoring the white minority over the black majority. South Africa's medical societies have had mixed responses to the health problems raised by human rights violations and inequities in the health care system. The amelioration of health care for all and prevention of human rights violations depend on ending apartheid and discrimination and greater government attention to these problems. PMID:2214078

Nightingale, E O; Hannibal, K; Geiger, H J; Hartmann, L; Lawrence, R; Spurlock, J

138

Libraries and Human Rights: Iraq in the Crossfire  

E-print Network

Michèle V. Cloonan, Dean and Professor at the Simmons College Graduate School of Library & Information Science, presents "Libraries and Human Rights: Iraq in the Crossfire," April 3, 2008 at the Spooner Commons, University of Kansas. Presentation...

Cloonan, Michè le V.

2008-07-14

139

Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects  

SciTech Connect

Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human rights impact assessment exposed impacts not foreseen in ESIA. • Corporations adopted the majority of findings, but not necessarily immediately. • Methodological advancements are expected for monitoring processes.

Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: kendyl.salcito@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland) [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland) [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: Mitchell-g.Weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Münch, Anna K., E-mail: annak.muench@gmail.com [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: bhsinger@epi.ufl.edu [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: gkrieger@newfields.com [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: wielga@nomogaia.org [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States) [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

2013-09-15

140

International migration: security concerns and human rights standards.  

PubMed

Over the last two decades, the reinforcement of security-related migration policies has resulted in the perception of the foreigner, and especially the irregular migrant, as a category outside the circle of legality. The rights of foreigners in host countries have deteriorated due to the connection made between immigration and criminality. Restrictions imposed upon irregular migrants' basic political and civil rights have been accompanied by major obstacles to their access to economic and social rights, including the right to health. The events of 9/11 further contributed to this trend, which contradicts the basic premises of the human rights paradigm. Recent policy developments and ongoing international cooperation implementing systematic interception and interdiction mechanisms have led to the securitization of migration. The preventive and deterrent measures reinforce the security paradigm. By contrast, various national and international actors have been successful in defending irregular migrants' rights. At the domestic level, the involvement of the judiciary and civil society enhances the rights-based approach to foreigners. The role of judges is vital in holding policy-makers accountable for respecting the high national standards of human rights protection. This article elaborates on the dichotomy between the state's legitimate interest to ensure national security, and its domestic and international obligations to protect human rights for all, including irregular migrants. It focuses on the changing relationship between migration and security, on the one hand, and between state and individual, on the other hand. It affirms the necessity to recognize the pre-eminence of fundamental rights upon security concerns. PMID:17938150

Crépeau, François; Nakache, Delphine; Atak, Idil

2007-09-01

141

UC San Diego 4th Human Rights Symposium  

E-print Network

Social Sciences Building (SSB), Room 107 Register at: h p://iicas.ucsd.edu The protec on of human, Sociology, and Director, IICAS, UC San Diego 9:45 am "Humanitarian Engineering in Ac on" Mandy Bra American Studies, and 2012 IICAS Human Rights Fellow, UC San Diego 1:15 pm "The Desert is for Deep

Hasty, Jeff

142

[Human rights and informed consent in clinical practice: beyond the right to health].  

PubMed

Providing medical care is us a complex process that requires a strict respect for human rights. In countries like Peru, despite of having regulations and specific laws, patient's autonomy is not a common currency and certainly paternalism and beneficence generally overrule in physicians decision making. In this type of reality the requirement to health care professionals for respecting fundamental rights should be considered crucial, far more than in societies where citizens are really empowered. But to achieve the full respect of human rights, especially when providing a health care service, there is the need to go much further than just advocating for appropriate legislation and regulatory frameworks. In this article I argue that the violation of certain rights as the informed consent process by health care providers, is rooted in how these professionals, specially medical doctors trained in the western tradition, establish priorities and arrive to moral judgments. In this scenario I consider the need of a change in the way the Human Rights framework is being used to improve fundamental rights respect in health care. PMID:23949521

Gonzalo, Gianella

2013-04-01

143

The role of the pathologist in human rights abuses  

PubMed Central

The objective and unbiased statement is much valued in international work against human rights abuses. Pathologists play an increasingly important role. In this article, this role is illustrated by examples and the international set of rules is described. It is emphasised that under no circumstances should physicians assist in procedures, such as torture, which can weaken a human being. There is ongoing research into the sequelae of torture, both by gross and microscopic examination and in the living and dead victims. Key Words: torture • human rights • death in custody PMID:11002757

Thomsen, J.

2000-01-01

144

Pathologies of power: rethinking health and human rights.  

PubMed Central

The field of health and human rights has grown quickly, but its boundaries have yet to be traced. Fifty-one years after the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, consensus regarding the most promising directions for the future is lacking; however, outcome-oriented assessments lead us to question approaches that rely solely on recourse to formal legal and civil rights. Similarly unpromising are approaches that rely overmuch on appeals to governments: careful study reveals that state power has been responsible for most human rights violations and that most violations are embedded in "structural violence"--social and economic inequities that determine who will be at risk for assaults and who will be shielded. This article advances an agenda for research and action grounded in the struggle for social and economic rights, an agenda suited to public health and medicine, whose central contributions to future progress in human rights will be linked to the equitable distribution of the fruits of scientific advancement. Such an approach is in keeping with the Universal Declaration but runs counter to several of the reigning ideologies of public health, including those favoring efficacy over equity. PMID:10511828

Farmer, P

1999-01-01

145

Girls' and Boys' Reasoning on Cultural and Religious Practices: A Human Rights Education Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human rights play a vital role in citizens' political, religious and cultural life (Wang 2002, 171). Due to the prominence of human rights in the everyday life of citizens, including those of South Africa, human rights education has been included in many school curricula. Human rights education aims to develop responsible citizens who "inter alia"…

de Wet, Annamagriet; Roux, Cornelia; Simmonds, Shan; ter Avest, Ina

2012-01-01

146

One Million Bones: Measuring the Effect of Human Rights Participation in the Social Work Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the integration of human rights content and a national arts-activism initiative--One Million Bones--into a bachelor's-level macro practice class as a human rights teaching strategy. Two previously validated scales, the Human Rights Exposure (HRX) in Social Work and the Human Rights Engagement (HRE) in Social Work…

McPherson, Jane; Cheatham, Leah P.

2015-01-01

147

Human Rights Engagement and Exposure: New Scales to Challenge Social Work Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Advancing human rights is a core competency of U.S. social work education; yet, human rights attitudes and behaviors have never been measured in the social work literature. Thus, this article describes the development and initial validation of two scales, Human Rights Engagement in Social Work (HRESW) and Human Rights Exposure in…

McPherson, Jane; Abell, Neil

2012-01-01

148

Honing Human Rights in the L[subscript 2] Classroom: Pedagogical Possibilities Using Films  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing an understanding about human rights documents, and an awareness of human rights institutions and mechanisms of protection have become especially significant in the 21st century. Several classroom strategies have hitherto been employed to practice and experience human rights behaviour. Usually topics on human rights is introduced through…

Praveen, C.

2007-01-01

149

Sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa.  

PubMed

A regional workshop on sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa was held in Malta in 2003, attended by 22 NGO representatives from Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Turkey, Pakistan and USA. The meeting aimed to develop strategies for overcoming human rights violations in the region with reference to law and social and political practices. Session topics included sexuality and gender identity; sexuality and sexual health; sexuality and comparative penal law; sexual rights in international documents; advocacy and lobbying. Sexual rights, sexual health and education, sexual violence and adolescent sexuality were explored in depth, including taboos and emerging trends. Specific areas of concern included marital rape, early marriages, temporary marriages, sexual orientation, premarital and extramarital sexuality, honour crimes, female genital mutilation, unmarried mothers, adolescent sexuality, unwanted pregnancies and safe abortion, sexuality in education and health services. An analysis of civil codes, penal codes and personal status codes indicated a clear imperative for legal reform. Participants heard about efforts to promote the right to sexual orientation which have already been initiated in Lebanon, Turkey and Tunisia. Networking within the region and with counterparts in other regions in comparable situations and conditions was deemed essential. PMID:15242219

Ercevik Amado, Liz

2004-05-01

150

Global disparities in health and human rights: a critical commentary.  

PubMed Central

Widening disparities in health and human rights at a global level represent the dark side of progress associated with escalation of economic and military exploitation and exponential population growth in the 20th century. Even the most basic universal human rights cannot be achieved for all under these circumstances. The goal of improved population health will be similarly elusive while medical care is commodified and exploited for commercial gain in the marketplace. Recognition of the powerful forces that polarize our world and commitment to reversing them are essential for the achievement of human rights for all, for the improvement of public health, and for the peaceful progress required to protect the "rational self-interest" of the most privileged people on earth against the escalation of war, disease, and other destructive forces arising from widespread poverty and ecological degradation. PMID:9491027

Benatar, S R

1998-01-01

151

Human rights and mass disaster: lessons from the 2004 tsunami.  

PubMed

This paper describes the results of an investigation into how the December, 2004 tsunami and its aftermath affected the human rights of the survivors. Teams of researchers interviewed survivors, government officials, representatives of international and local nongovernmental organisations, UN officials, the military, police, and other key informants in India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Indonesia, and Thailand. We also analysed newspaper articles, reports released by governments, UN agencies, NGOs, and private humanitarian aid groups, and we examined the laws and policies related to survivors' welfare in the affected countries. We found worsening of prior human rights violations, inequities in aid distribution, lack of accountability and impunity, poor coordination of aid, lack of community participation in reconstruction, including coastal redevelopment. Corruption and preexisting conflict negatively impact humanitarian interventions. We make recommendations to international agencies, states, and local health service providers. A human rights framework offers significant protection to survivors and should play a critical role in disaster response. PMID:18277529

Weinstein, H M; Fletcher, L E; Stover, E

2007-01-01

152

Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights  

PubMed Central

The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

2012-01-01

153

Procedural abortion rights: Ireland and the European Court of Human Rights.  

PubMed

The Irish Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act seeks to clarify the legal ground for abortion in cases of risk to life, and to create procedures to regulate women's access to services under it. This article explores the new law as the outcome of an international human rights litigation strategy premised on state duties to implement abortion laws through clear standards and procedural safeguards. It focuses specifically on the Irish law reform and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, including A. B. and C. v. Ireland (2010). The article examines how procedural rights at the international level can engender domestic law reform that limits or expands women's access to lawful abortion services, serving conservative or progressive ends. PMID:25555760

Erdman, Joanna N

2014-11-01

154

United Nations Documentation Research Guide: Special Topics: Human Rights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dag Hammarskjold Library of the United Nations has begun to add Special Topics Guides to its Research Guide Site. The first pertains to human rights and contains annotated pointers to UN resources from two charter-based bodies and six treaty-based bodies. These sections contain pointers to the bodies themselves, and to bibliographic information and selected full texts of the reports of those bodies. In addition, there is bibliographic information on relevant conference proceedings and declarations, as well as a bibliography of general UN human rights literature.

155

Meta Search Engine for Searching Multiple Human Rights Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently unveiled by the Human Rights Library of the University of Minnesota (originally reviewed in the January 5, 1996 Scout Report), this new search engine will be welcomed by researchers and activists in human rights. Searchable by keyword and several optional operators (Boolean, proximity, truncation), the engine retrieves data from any or all of the 23 different rights-related sites that users select. Interestingly, returns are presented "as is" from the source pages (with page header, images, and unique formats) but combined into a single results page. A test search for "Northern Ireland" on four selected sites returned over 40 results. Direct links to the featured databases and, in some cases, their search tips pages are also provided.

156

United Nations Human Rights Website: Treaty Bodies Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database was created "to meet the growing interest in the committees established to monitor the implementation of the principal international human rights treaties (also referred as 'treaty monitoring bodies' or 'treaty bodies')" such as the Human Rights Committee, the Committee Against Torture, the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, and the Committee on the Rights of the Child. These committees are responsible for examining the "State reports" submitted by signatories to the various treaties to demonstrate their compliance. These reports and the concluding observations by the committees form the core of the database, which also contains a number of other related documents and data. Users may search the database by keyword and view results by relevance or date or browse by a variety of parameters, such as country, date, language, treaty, reporting status, or status of ratification. Documents may be in English, French, or Spanish.

157

Health and human rights in a South African bantustan.  

PubMed

South Africa has stripped blacks (the majority population) of democratic rights and, over a period of 300 years, deprived them of their land; this dispossession culminated in 3.5 million involuntary removals of black South Africans to overcrowded and underdeveloped bantustans, on which a pseudo-independence is being conferred. Blacks are denationalized and disenfranchized in South Africa and their mobility is strictly controlled by the pass system, but their situation is even worse in the so-called 'homelands', where repression has replaced the rule of law. This paper presents a case study of health and human rights in the Ciskei, a bantustan that became 'independent' of South Africa in December 1981. It documents severe deprivation, widespread malnutrition and gross violations of human rights. PMID:3738561

Turshen, M

1986-01-01

158

Immanuel Kant's Account of Cognitive Experience and Human Rights Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay Gregory Bynum seeks to show that Immanuel Kant's thought, which was conceived in an eighteenth-century context of new, and newly widespread, pressures for nationally institutionalized human rights-based regimes (the American and French revolutions being the most prominent examples), can help us think in new and appreciative ways…

Bynum, Gregory Lewis

2012-01-01

159

A Relational Hermeneutical Approach to Human Rights Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is an effort to transcend the debate of universalism and cultural relativism by offering a new conceptualization of human rights. The conceptualization is presented through the development of a theoretical framework in the form of an epistemology. The research articulates and defends the epistemology, which is grounded on…

Al-Daraweesh, Fuad

2010-01-01

160

Human rights protection -a riposte to Chief Justice Patrick Keane  

E-print Network

Human rights protection - a riposte to Chief Justice Patrick Keane CHARLES DARWIN UNIVERSITY Monday 27 August 2012 Mal Nairn Auditorium Red Precinct, Building 7 Casuarina campus, Charles Darwin to Country 6.10pm ­ 6.15pm Welcome address by Professor Barney Glover Vice-Chancellor, Charles Darwin

161

The application of the forensic sciences to human rights investigations.  

PubMed

Prior to the mid-1980's, human rights abuses were documented almost entirely through witness and victim testimony. In 1984-85, forensic scientists from the United States, working under the auspices of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, exhumed skeletal remains of disappeared persons in Argentina. They provided physical evidence for the trial of members of the deposed military junta and trained an Argentine forensic anthropology team. It became apparent that medical and forensic verification of torture and extrajudicial executions could provide irrefutable evidence that such activities had, in fact, taken place. Requests for assistance came from human rights groups throughout the world, and led to the development of an international protocol for the investigation of government sponsored murders. The United States based Physicians for Human Rights has now conducted missions to nearly 30 countries. The recent documentation of mass graves in El Salvador, Guatemala, Iraqi Kurdistan and the former Yugoslavia demonstrates how forensic scientists expose such crimes to international scrutiny, and the necessity of scientific evidence when confronting human rights violations. PMID:7845175

Kirschner, R H; Hannibal, K E

1994-01-01

162

Toward a Hermeneutical Theory of International Human Rights Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this essay is to articulate and defend the epistemological foundations of international human rights education from the perspective of a hermeneutical interpretive methodology. Fuad Al-Daraweesh and Dale Snauwaert argue here that this methodology potentially alleviates the challenges that face the cross-cultural implementation of…

Al-Daraweesh, Fuad; Snauwaert, Dale T.

2013-01-01

163

Transforming Global Civics: The Need for Human Rights Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's globally interconnected community, it is imperative that students learn how human rights abuses are not a "thing of the past," but an ongoing exploitation that requires modern day crusaders to defend. Who might these crusaders be? None other than each student. However, if one wants to encourage these noble change agents, one needs to…

Levin-Goldberg, Jennifer

2009-01-01

164

TheEquityandHumanRightsOffice champions UVic's commitment to  

E-print Network

-721-8786 The Equity and Human Rights office supports inclusion, recognizes and embraces difference and values the recognition of difference in treating everyone fairly. Sometimes it means treating people differently in order, marital status, family status, physical or mental disability, sex (including gender identity), sexual

Victoria, University of

165

Embracing democratic governance, human rights and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kenyan environmentalist and human rights campaigner Wangari Maathai, the 2004 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, is the first African woman to be awarded the peace prize since it was created in 1901. Agenda reprints her Nobel Lecture, delivered on 10 December 2004, in Oslo, Norway.

Wangari Maathai

2005-01-01

166

Bearing Witness: Citizen Journalism and Human Rights Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the potential of online news reporting to create discursive spaces for emphatic engagement--of bearing witness--at a distance, especially where human rights violations are concerned. Taking as its focus the emergent forms and practices of citizen journalism, it examines the spontaneous actions of ordinary people compelled to…

Allan, Stuart; Sonwalkar, Prasun; Carter, Cynthia

2007-01-01

167

Democracy, Human Rights and the Role of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the historical review of neo-liberalism in Korean education with relevance to human rights education and teachers movement. In transition to post-colonial society, Korea confronts polarization of education. From the first stage just after the independence from Japanese Colonization in 1945 to the fifth present stage, Korean…

Kang, Soon-Won

2007-01-01

168

A Study of Effectiveness of Human Rights Education in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the research is to examine the effectiveness of Civics and Human Rights Education courses taught in primary schools in Turkey. The criteria for the effectiveness of the courses are determined as "content", "educational activities", "teaching methods", "educational materials", and "evaluation of students". A total of 71 teachers teaching…

Kepenekci, Yasemin Karaman

2005-01-01

169

Pedagogy of Human Rights Education: A Latin American Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because we started to work with teachers on human rights education in Latin American in the middle of the 1980s, with dictatorial regimes in power, we understood that our pedagogical approach needed to be a critical one. This transformative process of change has not been easy. Many personal, social, political and cultural challenges have been…

Magendzo, Abraham

2005-01-01

170

Sexual Minority Issues and Human Rights Education in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Dowa" (Human Rights) education program has become an effective method of changing concept and situations of "Burakumin," a group of people that has been discriminated against in Japan. One educational strategy was to speak out their personal stories, which has become a trigger to some sexual minority teachers to come out, as well as others to…

Ofuji, Keiko

2007-01-01

171

Human Rights, Cosmopolitanism and Utopias: Implications for Citizenship Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citizenship education, defined as learning to live together, requires agreement on certain common principles. One central purpose of a state education system is the transmission of common normative standards such as the human rights and fundamental freedoms that underpin liberal democratic societies. The paper identifies the conceptual roots of…

Starkey, Hugh

2012-01-01

172

TEACHING HUMAN RIGHTS--A HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

UNLIKE CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION IN THE TRADITIONAL DISCIPLINES, THE TEACHING OF HUMAN RIGHTS DOES NOT INVOLVE THE MEMORIZING OF TEXTS OR ACQUISITION OF PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS, IT IS RATHER A MATTER OF CREATING BASIC ATTITUDES OF TOLERANCE AND GOODWILL IN THE RECEPTIVE MINDS OF CHILDREN. AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE EXPERIENCES AND PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY…

United Nations, New York, NY. Office of Public Information.

173

Children's Spiritual Development in Forced Displacement: A Human Rights Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a human rights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive-cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children's development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the…

Ojalehto, Bethany; Wang, Qi

2008-01-01

174

World heritage sites, human rights and cultural heritage in Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this short report is to discuss issues of heritage management practice, community development and human rights. It will focus on the role of Palestinian local organisations in conserving World Heritage sites. It considers the struggle to manage cultural heritage in spite of the many challenges posed by the complexity of the Palestinian political struggle. Two cities

Eman Assi

2012-01-01

175

Women trafficked into prostitution: determinants, human rights and health needs.  

PubMed

Human trafficking is an international challenge that increasingly affects industrialized countries. It represents a gross violation of a person's right to liberty and freedom of movement, and is often accompanied by violence and degrading treatment which can have detrimental effects on health. In this article, we review the definition and extent of human trafficking, and focus on the human rights abuses and determinants of trafficking in women. Mental health and other health outcomes are reviewed, and differences between countries in organized activities for victim assistance and protection are assessed. Finally, we discuss the roles of mental health and other healthcare providers in identifying and helping trafficked women, and recommend a tailored multidisciplinary approach for victim assistance. PMID:17938151

Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga; Stewart, Donna E

2007-09-01

176

3 CFR 8765 - Proclamation 8765 of December 8, 2011. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2011  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...when same-sex couples refuse to be told whom to love. The past year saw extraordinary change in the Middle East and North Africa as square by square, town by town, country by country, people rose up to demand their human rights. Around the...

2012-01-01

177

National Initiatives within the UN Decade for Human Rights Education: The Implementation of Human Rights Education Policy Reforms in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the ubiquitous force of globalization further erodes the nation-state and political activity increasingly focuses on global issues, there is renewed attention to models of global education. Within this global context, human rights education emerges as a response to the demands of global education. One of the main objectives of the United…

Lapayese, Yvette V.

2004-01-01

178

The Value of Mainstreaming Human Rights into Health Impact Assessment  

PubMed Central

Health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social impacts of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation [1]. This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international human rights standards be integrated into HIA to provide a universal value system backed up by international and domestic laws and mechanisms of accountability. The idea of mainstreaming human rights into HIA is illustrated with the example of impact assessments that have been carried out to predict the potential effects of intellectual property rights in international trade agreements on the availability and affordability of medicines. The article concludes by recommending international human rights standards as a legal and ethical framework for HIA that will enhance the universal values of nondiscrimination, participation, transparency and accountability and bring legitimacy and coherence to HIA practice as well. PMID:25264683

MacNaughton, Gillian; Forman, Lisa

2014-01-01

179

The Role of Education in Freedom from Poverty as a Human Right  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education lies at the heart of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR): "Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms". However, when education is mentioned in the philosophical literature on human rights, or even within the…

Dhillon, Pradeep

2011-01-01

180

Interrogating an Omission: The Absence of a Rights-Based Approach to Education in World Bank Policy Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides a discursive analysis of World Bank policy documents in order to reveal the stark omission of a rights-based approach to education, while highlighting instead the support of an economic-instrumentalist approach. Plausible explanations are provided to shed light on this exclusion, including the feasibility critique of education…

Menashy, Francine

2013-01-01

181

Medicine, law and human rights - a symbiotic relationship.  

PubMed

Law and medicine are separate professions, and attorneys and physicians often see their professions in conflict. There are, however, more similarities than differences between the two professions. And there are areas of mutual concern and overlap that demand the application of both legal and medical knowledge for the good of the society. In the new categorical system of values, which is substantially influenced by the so-called modern or aggressive medicine, clever physicians, researchers, and technicians discover newer and better ways to do things. Often, what science and technology make possible soon becomes permissible and, eventually, normal and expected. Given the rapid advances in technology and medical technology in particular, it is clear that without the reasonable restraints imposed by philosophical but also, legal critique, medicine and its practitioners may unintentionally convert science and medical method into a muddled philosophy of human life'. Against this background, this paper will handle the questions posed by the extent and protection of human rights and freedoms in terms of application of new biomedical techniques and technologies of treatment toward the development of International human rights law. It also discusses the compatibility of domestic medical law with the normative system of international human rights. PMID:24946512

Tupanceski, Nikola; Kiprijanovska, Dragana

2014-04-01

182

Attentional asymmetries – cause or consequence of human right handedness?  

PubMed Central

It is well established that the vast majority of the population favors their right hand when performing complex manual tasks. However, the developmental and evolutionary underpinnings of human manual asymmetries remain contentious. One often overlooked suggestion is that right handedness may stem from an asymmetrical bias in attention, with the right hand being allocated more attentional resources during bimanual tasks than the left hand (Peters, 1981). This review examines the evidence for attentional asymmetries during a variety of bimanual tasks, and critically evaluates the explanatory power of this hypothesis for explaining the depth and breadth of individual- and population-level manual asymmetries. We conclude that, while the attentional bias hypothesis is well-supported in adults, it requires further validation from a developmental perspective to explain the full breadth of adult manual laterality.

Buckingham, Gavin; Carey, David P.

2015-01-01

183

Human Rights and Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Historical, Pedagogical, and Philosophical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons with intellectual disabilities are more likely to experience victimization and have their rights infringed upon than are people without such disabilities. While legislative and policy interventions have afforded a certain degree of protection against such rights violations, people with intellectual disabilities continue to experience restrictions of their basic human rights. This article describes the development of a Human Rights

Donato Tarulli; Christine Y. Tardif; Dorothy Griffiths; Frances Owen; Maurice A. Feldman; Karen Stoner

2004-01-01

184

Human vs animal rights. In defense of animal research.  

PubMed

For centuries, opposition has been directed against the use of animals for the benefit of humans. For more than four centuries in Europe, and for more than a century in the United States, this opposition has targeted scientific research that involves animals. More recent movements in support of animal rights have arisen in an attempt to impede, if not prohibit, the use of animals in scientific experimentation. These movements employ various means that range from information and media campaigns to destruction of property and threats against investigators. The latter efforts have resulted in the identification of more militant animal rights bands as terrorist groups. The American Medical Association has long been a defender of humane research that employs animals, and it is very concerned about the efforts of animal rights and welfare groups to interfere with research. Recently, the Association prepared a detailed analysis of the controversy over the use of animals in research, and the consequences for research and clinical medicine if the philosophy of animal rights activists were to prevail in society. This article is a condensation of the Association's analysis. PMID:2810604

Loeb, J M; Hendee, W R; Smith, S J; Schwartz, M R

1989-11-17

185

Girl child abuse: violation of her human rights.  

PubMed

The human rights of female children in India and elsewhere, even when protected on paper, are violated in practice. An equitable and egalitarian world order must be established. A comprehensive campaign is needed that combats gender-based inequalities, discrimination, exploitation, oppression, abuse, violence, inhuman values, and violations of human rights, particularly against female children. People must radically change their attitudes and actions towards female children. Female children are not a commodity or sex-object but "an equally worthy human being to be loved, respected, and cared for." Strategies that accomplish these ends include the promotion of human and spiritual values of love, compassion, and nonviolence, and discouragement of values of consumerism and materialism and worthlessness of human beings. Effective education and mass media should counter corruption, dishonesty, selfishness, and inhuman actions. Family structures need to strengthened and enriched. The abuse of female children occurs due to the following interrelated factors: entrenched patriarchal value systems, the perpetuation of traditions and practices that identify girls as inferior to boys, the gender-biased and discriminatory attitude that identifies girl children as a burden or liability and as a sex-object or commodity, and prevalent illiteracy, poverty, and negative parenting life style patterns. Other factors include the low status of women, the reduction in human and spiritual values, and the rise of consumerism and corruption. Girls are subjected to female infanticide, feticide, lack of social and economic development, burdensome domestic work, early marriage and childbearing, neglect and denial of healthy living conditions, sexual abuse and exploitation, prostitution, rape, and a denial of their right to protection. PMID:12158013

Kapur, P

1995-01-01

186

Social movements and human rights rhetoric in tobacco control  

PubMed Central

After achieving breathtaking successes in securing state and local restrictions on smoking in public places and restricting youth access to tobacco products, the tobacco movement faces difficult decisions on its future strategic directions. The thesis of this article is that the tobacco control movement is at a point of needing to secure its recent successes and avoiding any public retrenchment. To do so requires rethinking the movement's strategic direction. We use the familiar trans-theoretical model of change to describe where the movement is currently and the threats it faces. The new tobacco control strategy should encompass a focus on voluntary non-smoking strategies, use human rights rhetoric to its advantage, and strengthen the public health voice to be more effective in political battles. In developing a new strategy, tobacco control advocates need to build a social movement based on a more forceful public health voice, along with the strategic use of human rights rhetoric, to focus on the power of voluntary non-smoking efforts. Using human rights rhetoric can help frame the movement in ways that have traditionally appealed to the American public. Perhaps more importantly, doing so can help infuse the tobacco control movement with a broader sense of purpose and mission. PMID:16046702

Jacobson, P; Banerjee, A

2005-01-01

187

Rights Talk and Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This is an age of rights. Though often deplored by all variety of ideologues (e.g., T. Smith; MacIntyre, 64; Tushnet; Pollis and Schwab), rights discourse, like Sherman’s army, has marched relentlessly on,\\u000a overwhelming everything in its path. The American concern with rights, however, is hardly a new thing. The General Assembly\\u000a of Maryland in 1638 declared that all free persons

Thomas Halper

188

"The Path of Social Justice": A Human Rights History of Social Justice Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's human rights initiatives. The efforts of human rights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…

Grant, Carl A.; Gibson, Melissa Leigh

2013-01-01

189

Human Rights Education in Canada: Results from a CTF Teacher Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United Nations has placed a high priority on human rights education. Building on the foundation laid by the UN Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004), the UN General Assembly launched the World Programme for Human Rights Education in December 2004 "as a global initiative, structured in consecutive phases, to advance the implementation…

Froese-Germain, Bernie; Riel, Rick; Theoret, Pauline

2013-01-01

190

Copyright 2009 Harvard Human Resources All Rights Reserved. New Employee Tools and  

E-print Network

Copyright © 2009 Harvard Human Resources All Rights Reserved. New Employee Tools and Resources #12Soft ­ Key Programs & Policies ­ Making the Most of Your Resources #12;Copyright © 2011 Harvard Human Resources All Rights reserved HMS Overview #12;Copyright © 2011 Harvard Human Resources All Rights reserved

Chou, James

191

Meeting the Challenge of Human Rights Education: The Case of Hong Kong.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the status of human-rights education in Hong Kong, including efforts to implement the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education. Calls for focus on human rights as part of efforts to reform the education curriculum in Hong Kong. (Contains 37 references.) (PKP)

Fok, Shui Che

2001-01-01

192

Supporting Teachers as Transformative Intellectuals: Participatory Action Research in Human Rights Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human rights education (HRE) holds the potential for educators to begin an honest dialogue with students and to connect local issues with international struggles for human rights. However, HRE and other teaching approaches that build understanding of systems of power and oppression that lead to human rights violations are not widely embraced in…

Hersey, Page Elizabeth

2012-01-01

193

Love, Justice, and Natural Law: On Martin Luther King, Jr. and Human Rights  

E-print Network

in theory is human rights as ideology, and King is concerned with the only sort of human rights that matters of human rights as first world ideology that is supported by and supports that bifurcation. Taking King -- at least until recently. Under the ideology of secularism, the only logical possibility is that religious

Doyle, Robert

194

Tensions between Discourses of Development, Religion, and Human Capital in Early Childhood Education Policy Texts: The Case of Indonesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we consider how particular discourses have come to dominate early childhood education (ECE) policy in Indonesia. We briefly explain the governance of Indonesian ECE and then our approach to policy analysis using critical discourse analysis. Three prevalent discourses are identified and discussed: "developmentalism",…

Formen, Ali; Nuttall, Joce

2014-01-01

195

Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.  

PubMed

The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes. PMID:24381084

Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

2014-12-01

196

DNA, Human Rights, and Human Trafficking March 20, 2013  

E-print Network

and recommended CODIS markers, Journal of Forensic Science 58(s1):S169-S172, available at http (2005) ­ Forensic DNA Typing, 2nd Edition, Elsevier Academic Press, available at http://www.amazon.com/Forensic(9308):794, available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673602078893 DNA Applications in Human

Richardson, David

197

Access to pain treatment as a human right  

PubMed Central

Background Almost five decades ago, governments around the world adopted the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs which, in addition to addressing the control of illicit narcotics, obligated countries to work towards universal access to the narcotic drugs necessary to alleviate pain and suffering. Yet, despite the existence of inexpensive and effective pain relief medicines, tens of millions of people around the world continue to suffer from moderate to severe pain each year without treatment. Discussion Significant barriers to effective pain treatment include: the failure of many governments to put in place functioning drug supply systems; the failure to enact policies on pain treatment and palliative care; poor training of healthcare workers; the existence of unnecessarily restrictive drug control regulations and practices; fear among healthcare workers of legal sanctions for legitimate medical practice; and the inflated cost of pain treatment. These barriers can be understood not only as a failure to provide essential medicines and relieve suffering but also as human rights abuses. Summary According to international human rights law, countries have to provide pain treatment medications as part of their core obligations under the right to health; failure to take reasonable steps to ensure that people who suffer pain have access to adequate pain treatment may result in the violation of the obligation to protect against cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment. PMID:20089155

2010-01-01

198

Student Displacement/Exclusion: Violations of Civil and Human Rights. Report of the Eleventh National NEA Conference on Civil and Human Rights in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students, community representatives, members of government and civil rights agencies, and 700 educators attended the 11th national NEA conference on civil and human rights in education. These participants carefully examined the ways school boards and other administrative powers infringe on and arbitrarily ignore the rights of students to an…

National Education Association, Washington, DC.

199

HUMAN RIGHTS ASSUMPTIONS OF RESTRICTIVE AND PERMISSIVE APPROACHES TO HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE CLONING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current debate over cloning and germline gene therapy is usually considered in terms of bioethics. The Council of Europe and UNESCO have, however, adopted normative instruments on the human genome, and one that draws heavily on human rights is under consideration at the United Nations. This article suggests the need for more thorough analysis of the underlying assumptions of

Stephen P. Marks

200

The needs of refugee women: a human-rights perspective.  

PubMed

While the issue of giving women their human rights has been firmly placed on the agendas of international conferences, the plight of refugee women has gone largely unrecognized. Refugee women face rape, sexual abuse, sexual extortion, and physical insecurity. Such violations precipitate their flight, characterize their attempts to gain refugee status, and continue during their tenure in refugee camps, where they are excluded from positions of authority. Because the definition of refugees in the 1951 UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees omits sex as a grounds for determining refugee status or as a grounds on which it prohibits discrimination based on sex, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees decided in 1985 that such claims must fall under the classification of membership of a particular group. Unfortunately, agreement with this is discretionary for states. It has been argued that states which protect aliens from discrimination based on sex must afford the same privilege to refugees, but, again, such behavior is subject to debate. Concerns about the human rights of refugee women should be strengthened by being addressed in the existing framework of human rights conventions in international law, such as the Commission on the Status of Women and the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). One recent advance in this area was the establishment of the Yugoslav and Rwanda War Crimes Tribunals which will investigate the sexual abuse of women during the armed conflicts. The issue of violence against women in every situation must remain on CEDAW's agenda. In addition, the Fourth World Conference on Women provides a welcome opportunity to place these issues in the forefront of global efforts to protect women. PMID:12290124

Beyani, C

1995-06-01

201

Rwanda: the Search for Security and Human Rights Abuses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new report from Human Rights Watch details continued cases within Rwanda of "assassination, murder, arbitrary detention, torture and other abuses perpetrated chiefly by soldiers of the Rwandan Patriotic Army, and by members of a government-backed citizens' militia called the Local Defense Force." According to the report, the Local Defense Force, while supposedly acting under the auspices of local authorities, commits abuses without fear of reprisal since these authorities are often either allied with or afraid of the government-supported militia.

202

Discerning the meaning of human suffering through the discourse of judeo-christian scriptures and other faith teachings.  

PubMed

When confronted with the meaning of human suffering, many experts from a variety of professional disciplines admit to being incapable of formulating, on the basis of scientific method, a coherent explanation or rationale. Within that perspective, this article proposes another approach to the dilemma-that of reflection rooted in faith. The author examines the discourse of the Judeo-Christian scriptures and the comprehensive and cohesive doctrine developed by Pope John Paul II to find and track an evolving theology on the meaning of human suffering-one that includes understanding of this phenomenon as a "punishment for sin or evil," a test for fidelity, an occasion for God to show mercy and love, and a redemptive act by which Jesus took on all human suffering through his own death on the Cross and gave a salvific meaning to suffering through his resurrection from the dead. Further scriptural reflection and later Christian doctrines acknowledged that the suffering of other believers has its own redemptive value and that human suffering presents an occasion for all believers to respond with compassion and care to the pain of others. PMID:25149388

Vitillo, Robert J

2014-11-01

203

Discourse Structure  

E-print Network

An essential step in understanding connected discourse is the ability to link the meanings of successive sentences together. Given a growing database to which new sentence meanings must be linked, which out of many possible ...

Rosenberg, Steven T.

1976-08-17

204

Summer Jobs for Undergraduates: Campaigns to defend human rights, fight poverty, and conserve our natural spaces!  

E-print Network

to hunger and poverty to social injustices and human rights abuses. The reality is that it doesn't haveSummer Jobs for Undergraduates: Campaigns to defend human rights, fight poverty, and conserve our serious issues such as equal rights, global poverty and the environment this could be a great opportunity

Patel, Aniruddh D.

205

The third era of human rights: global accountability.  

PubMed

This article argues that the trend in the current protection of human rights may be seen as a revival of an old idea: governments are accountable for their actions. The protection of human rights has gone through three eras. In the first era, the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages claimed to rule from a divine mandate. This principle of natural law was a unifying factor in western Europe because it created a standard system of morality. The second era, beginning in the seventeenth century with the doctrine of state sovereignty, rejected that natural law. Rulers wanted to run their own territories and not be subject to foreign influence. Laws were created by the 'national sovereign' (king, queen, president, parliament, congress and so on). This legal doctrine survived for about three centuries, but the excesses of leaders such as Hitler in the middle of last century forced a re-think. Although the term 'natural law' is not used, there has been a revival of its essential meaning: that governments have to be answerable to a higher authority for their behaviour. PMID:17822064

Suter, Keith

2007-01-01

206

Cultural Relativism, Universalism and Women's rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their 'universal' acceptance in 1948, the interpretation and implementation of human rights standards differ widely across from and within different countries, regions and cultures. This article examines these differences in the light of the two main bodies of interpretation - cultural relativism and universalism. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of the discourses on the implementation - or

Snjezana Bilic

207

Human rights versus legal control over women's reproductive self-determination.  

PubMed

States have a duty under international human rights law to protect people's health. Nonetheless, while some health-related policies and laws protect basic human rights, others violate fundamental rights when they criminalize, prohibit, and restrict access to necessary health services. For example, laws and regulations related to protection of life from conception, contraception, actions of pregnant women, and abortion can harm women and place women and health care providers in jeopardy of legal penalization. Given the adverse consequences of punitive and restrictive laws related to pregnancy, advocates, civil society groups, human rights groups, and government institutions must work together to promote, protect, and fulfill women's fundamental reproductive rights. PMID:25006084

Uberoi, Diya; de Bruyn, Maria

2013-01-01

208

Responsiveness of Teacher Education Curriculum Towards Human Rights Education in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

he global movement for the protection of human rights during the last five and half decades represent the culmination of the historical journey of human- kind that commenced with the institutionalization of social and political or- der. The post-second world war era witnessed the predominance of concerns to promote universal respect for the human rights and fundamental freedoms of all

PRANATI PANDA

209

Human Rights in a Globalizing World: Who Pays the Human Cost of Migration?1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between globalization and immigration, and makes the case that current foreign policies and immigration regulations in the United States and France result in the violation of the human rights of migrants. In the United States, the House and Senate proposals presented in 2005 and 2006 to stem the tide of immigrants and thereby fix the

Douglas A. Parker

2007-01-01

210

Human Rights and the Limitations of Releasing Subaltern Voices in a Post-Apartheid South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postcoloniality and the achievement of human rights in South Africa mark the transition to a post-apartheid society. The denial\\u000a and violation of human rights of particularly “black”1 South Africans under apartheid has placed the provision and protection of human rights centrally in the defi nition of a\\u000a post-apartheid, “new” South Africa. Policy and administrative changes in education underscore this. The

Nazir Carrim

211

Changing Policy Discourses: Constructing Literacy Inequalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the ways in which policy discourses have constructed rationales for addressing adult literacy over the last 50 years. In particular, we examine how policy positions the literacy learner as citizen within discourses of rights and equity. Taking the case of the UK, we compare two key documents produced at different historical…

Hamilton, Mary; Pitt, Kathy

2011-01-01

212

Forced migration: Health and human rights issues among refugee populations.  

PubMed

Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that is manifest in diverse contexts. In this article, we examine the situations that precipitate the movement of large numbers of people across several African countries, producing a unique type of undocumented migrant-the refugee. These refugee movements impact already fragile African health care systems and often involve human rights violations that are of particular concern, such as gender-based violence and child soldiers. We use examples from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current research, and our personal international experiences, we provide an overview of forced migration and discuss implications and opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice, and policy related to refugee health. PMID:25645484

Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S

2015-01-01

213

Reaffirming Rights: Human Rights Protections of Migrants, Asylum Seekers, and Refugees in Immigration Detention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Migrants Bill of Rights (IMBR) addresses migrants’ rights in a variety of contexts, and this paper looks closely at some of the most crucial rights that apply to migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers who are held in immigration detention.\\u000aMigrants, refugees and asylum seekers are entitled to a broad range of rights protections. These protections are spelled out

Eleanor Acer; Jake Goodman

2010-01-01

214

Deixis: "This" and "That" in Written Narrative Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The existing literature presents conflicting models of how "this" and "that" access different segments of a written discourse, frequently relying on implicit analogies with spoken discourse. On the basis of this literature, we hypothesized that in written discourse, "this" more readily accesses the adjacent/right

Çokal, Derya; Sturt, Patrick; Ferreira, Fernanda

2014-01-01

215

Does ratification of human-rights treaties have effects on population health?  

PubMed

Human-rights treaties indicate a country's commitment to human rights. Here, we assess whether ratification of human-rights treaties is associated with improved health and social indicators. Data for health (including HIV prevalence, and maternal, infant, and child [<5 years] mortalities) and social indicators (child labour, human development index, sex gap, and corruption index), gathered from 170 countries, showed no consistent associations between ratification of human-rights treaties and health or social outcomes. Established market economy states had consistently improved health compared with less wealthy settings, but this was not associated with treaty ratification. The status of treaty ratification alone is not a good indicator of the realisation of the right to health. We suggest the need for stringent requirements for ratification of treaties, improved accountability mechanisms to monitor compliance of states with treaty obligations, and financial assistance to support the realisation of the right to health. PMID:19501746

Palmer, Alexis; Tomkinson, Jocelyn; Phung, Charlene; Ford, Nathan; Joffres, Michel; Fernandes, Kimberly A; Zeng, Leilei; Lima, Viviane; Montaner, Julio S G; Guyatt, Gordon H; Mills, Edward J

2009-06-01

216

The rights, tensions, and ideas that inform the con-temporary human experience were explored by the  

E-print Network

The rights, tensions, and ideas that inform the con- temporary human experience were explored Trustee. Examining the Human Experience ANDREAKANE CLIFFMOORE #12;; and the conception and challenges of human rights from historical, philo- sophical, political, and sociological

217

Division of Human Resources Things to Know about RightStart  

E-print Network

Division of Human Resources Things to Know about RightStart Questions (813) 974-2970 Employment Center/RightStart Rev. 02/2009 New Hires All new employees are required to attend RightStart on or before efficiently, and can work with individual departments, areas or groups who anticipate a significant amount

Meyers, Steven D.

218

Conceptualizing a Human Right to Prevention in Global HIV/AIDS Policy  

PubMed Central

Given current constraints on universal treatment campaigns, recent advances in public health prevention initiatives have revitalized efforts to stem the tide of HIV transmission. Yet, despite a growing imperative for prevention—supported by the promise of behavioral, structural and biomedical approaches to lower the incidence of HIV—human rights frameworks remain limited in addressing collective prevention policy through global health governance. Assessing the evolution of rights-based approaches to global HIV/AIDS policy, this review finds that human rights have shifted from collective public health to individual treatment access. While the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic gave meaning to rights in framing global health policy, the application of rights in treatment access litigation came at the expense of public health prevention efforts. Where the human rights framework remains limited to individual rights enforced against a state duty bearer, such rights have faced constrained application in framing population-level policy to realize the public good of HIV prevention. Concluding that human rights frameworks must be developed to reflect the complementarity of individual treatment and collective prevention, this article conceptualizes collective rights to public health, structuring collective combination prevention to alleviate limitations on individual rights frameworks and frame rights-based global HIV/AIDS policy to assure research expansion, prevention access and health system integration. PMID:23226723

Meier, Benjamin Mason; Brugh, Kristen Nichole; Halima, Yasmin

2012-01-01

219

The Potential of Human Rights Education for Conflict Prevention and Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the contribution of human rights education (HRE) to conflict prevention and to the promotion of security. It outlines the difficulties in evaluating the long-term impact of HRE, but then proposes five benefits of a rights-based approach to education--rights as secular, man-made, requiring transparency, enabling freedom from…

Davies, Lynn

2010-01-01

220

Damned if you do, damned if you don't? The Lundbeck case of pentobarbital, the guiding principles on business and human rights, and competing human rights responsibilities.  

PubMed

In 2011 it emerged that to induce the death penalty, United States authorities had begun giving injections of pentobarbital, a substance provided by Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck. Lundbeck's product pentobarbital is licensed for treatment of refractory forms of epilepsy and for usage as an anaesthetic, thus for a very different purpose. The Lundbeck case offers a difficult, but also interesting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) dilemma between choices facing a pharmaceutical company to stop the distribution of a medical substance in order to avoid complicity in human rights violations, or to retain distribution of the substance in order not to impede access to the medicine for those patients who need it. The dilemma arose at a time when the United Nations (UN) Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, Professor John Ruggie, was finalizing a set of Guiding Principles to operationalize recommendations on business and human rights that he had presented to the UN Human Rights Council in 2008. The article discusses the dilemma in which Lundbeck was placed in from the perspective of the Guiding Principles on business and human rights and the 2008 Protect, Respect, Remedy UN Framework. The analysis seeks to assess what guidance may be gauged from the Guiding Principles in relation to the dilemma at hand and discusses the adequacy the Guiding Principles for dealing with acute human rights dilemmas of conflicting requirements in which a decision to avoid one type of violation risks causing violation of another human right. The article concludes by drawing up perspectives for further development of guidance on implementation of the UN Framework that could be considered by the newly established Working Group on Business and Human Rights and related UN bodies. PMID:22789041

Buhmann, Karin

2012-01-01

221

Academic and Professional Communities of Discourse: Generating Knowledge on Transnational Human Resource Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing global competition is changing the nature of knowledge needed for international human resource management. This article assesses the publishing trends in international organizational behaviour and human resource management (OB\\/HRM) and interprets their implications for conducting transnational business. A review of over 28,000 articles in seventy-three academic and professional journals identified three important trends in international OB\\/HRM: first, the focus

Nancy J. Adler; Susan Bartholomew

1992-01-01

222

Human rights and citizenship in post-apartheid South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South African constitutional discourse is the foundational agency that produces citizenship, centring subjectivity as a relational engagement with the existential reality of the everyday life of ordinary people. In this paper, however, it is pointed out that in terms of the constitutional provisions, the nature of inter-subjectivity, i.e. subject-to-subject relations, orients and indeed frames relations of power undergirding citizenship.

John J Williams

2001-01-01

223

Shirin Ebadi, received the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize for promoting human rights, in particular, the rights of women, children, and political prisoners  

E-print Network

Shirin Ebadi, received the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize for promoting human rights, in particular the Nobel Peace Prize and only the fifth Muslim to receive a Nobel Prize in any field. Dr. Ebadi was also the Society for Protecting the Rights of the Child, the Defenders of Human Rights Center, the Nobel Women

Liebling, Michael

224

Shirin Ebadi, received the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize for promoting human rights, in particular, the rights of women, children, and political prisoners in Iran. She  

E-print Network

Shirin Ebadi, received the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize for promoting human rights, in particular the Nobel Peace Prize and only the fifth Muslim to receive a Nobel Prize in any field. Dr. Ebadi was also the Society for Protecting the Rights of the Child, the Defenders of Human Rights Center, the Nobel Women

Akhmedov, Azer

225

Combining conflict resolution education and human rights education: thoughts for school?based peace education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peace education embraces a wide range of programs and initiatives. Two of those subfields, human rights education and conflict resolution education, are often considered too different in goals, models and content to be seen as partners in the same educational effort. A review of recent literature confirms that few conflict resolution education programs include a strong human rights emphasis. And

Tricia S. Jones

2006-01-01

226

China's Response to International Normative Pressure: The Case of Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past three decades, the People's Republic of China's response to international human rights pressure has been guided by its strong state identity, an identity that has prioritised the pursuit of economic productivity, material power and international prestige. The goal of a strong socialist state led Beijing to participate in the UN human rights regime for strategic and diplomatic

Rana Siu Inboden; Titus C. Chen

2012-01-01

227

The Whole World Could Be Watching: Human Rights and the Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the effect of access to media reporting and press freedom on the achievement of human rights. Past research on the role of the media on human rights has often been limited to anecdotal examples or limited case studies. There has been little comprehensive systematic investigation on the topic. Specifically, this article answers the questions: Do large communication

Clair Apodaca

2007-01-01

228

Re-Thinking Relations in Human Rights Education: The Politics of Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human Rights Education (HRE) has traditionally been articulated in terms of cultivating better citizens or world citizens. The main preoccupation in this strand of HRE has been that of bridging a gap between universal notions of a human rights subject and the actual locality and particular narratives in which students are enmeshed. This…

Adami, Rebecca

2014-01-01

229

Seeking Asylum: Adolescents Explore the Crossroads of Human Rights Education and Cosmopolitan Critical Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore middle school (grade 6-8) students' understanding and interpretation of human rights issues with local and global implications as they engaged in the process of creating a film after reading print and multimedia texts and participating in human rights education activities. As the students explored…

Dunkerly-Bean, Judith; Bean, Thomas; Alnajjar, Khaled

2014-01-01

230

Beyond Study Abroad: A Human Rights Delegation to Teach Policy Advocacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advancement of human rights is a core competency in the social work curriculum. Presented is a model to teach policy practice from a human rights perspective based on a violence-against-women delegation visit to Guatemala. Postdelegation policy advocacy responses included White House and State Department briefings on the problems, including…

Gammonley, Denise; Rotabi, Karen Smith; Forte, Janett; Martin, Amanda

2013-01-01

231

Toward Cosmopolitan Ethics in Teacher Education: An Ontological Dimension of Learning Human Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a globalization trend in teacher education, emphasizing the role of teachers to make judgments based on human rights in their teaching profession. Rather than emphasizing the epistemological dimension of acquiring knowledge "about" human rights through teacher education, an ontological dimension is emphasized in this paper of…

Adami, Rebecca

2014-01-01

232

Network Television Coverage of Human Rights in Central America during the Carter Administration, 1977-1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the United States television networks' news coverage of human rights in Central America during the administration of President Jimmy Carter to determine whether the President's hopes for greater media coverage of human rights issues were acknowledged by network newscasts. A content analysis of "Television News Index and Abstracts"…

Hanson, Jarice; Miller, Christine

233

The Teaching of Patriotism and Human Rights: An Uneasy Entanglement and the Contribution of Critical Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the moral, political and pedagogical tensions that are created from the entanglement of patriotism and human rights, and sketches a response to these tensions in the context of critical education. The article begins with a brief review of different forms of patriotism, especially as those relate to human rights, and explains…

Zembylas, Michalinos

2014-01-01

234

"This Is a Public Record": Teaching Human Rights through the Performing Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban youth in the United States often experience daily human rights violations such as racism and violence. Therefore, Human Rights Education (HRE) can strengthen their understanding of these issues and unleash their power to act toward positive change. This qualitative study attempted to gain a deeper understanding of the use of performance arts…

Spero, Andrea McEvoy

2012-01-01

235

Teaching Recent History in Countries that Have Experienced Human Rights Violations: Case Studies from Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Incorporating recent history into the educational curricula of countries that have experienced human rights violations combines the complexities of teaching history, teaching recent history, and human rights education. Recent history makes a historical analysis of social reality and a historiographical analysis of the immediate. It is located…

Toledo, Maria Isabel; Magendzo, Abraham; Gazmuri, Renato

2011-01-01

236

Moral and Human Rights Education: The Contribution of the United Nations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moral education can take many forms. With the end of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (UNDHRE) (1995-2004), we critically review developments in human rights education (HRE) during those ten years in the context of moral education. We argue that, despite some modest successes, the decade lacked direction and a major impact and…

Print, Murray; Ugarte, Carolina; Naval, Concepcion; Mihr, Anja

2008-01-01

237

Infusing Human Rights into the Curriculum: The Case of the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reflects on experiences of attempting to infuse human rights in the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS). Using our experiences as members of Human Rights and Inclusivity Group (HRIWG), one of the curriculum development structures set up for the RNCS, and focusing particularly on the Learning Area of Mathematics,…

Carrim, Nazir; Keet, Andre

2005-01-01

238

Massachusetts Guide to Choosing and Using Curricular Materials on Genocide and Human Rights Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, a response to Massachusetts legislation, makes recommendations on curricular materials and resources related to teaching about genocide and human rights. The guide stresses the importance of students acquiring knowledge about genocide and human rights issues to deepen their understanding of both past and current events. It emphasizes…

Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

239

Understanding and Responding to Youth Substance Use: The Contribution of a Health and Human Rights Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a health and human rights framework for conceptualizing and responding to the causes and consequences of youth substance use, reviewing international and national efforts to address youth substance use and discussing the intersection between health and human rights. A methodology for modeling vulnerability in relation to harmful…

Gruskin, Sofia; Plafker, Karen; Smith-Estelle, Allison

2001-01-01

240

No News Is Good News: Human Rights Coverage in the American Print Media, 1980–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have analyzed media representations of human rights practices, but none has systematically examined whether those representations lead to skewed perceptions of repression or abuse. This phenomenon, referred to in the literature as the “information paradox,” poses serious problems for scholars attempting to gauge the extent of human rights violations or to evaluate measures taken to remediate them. This

Wade M. Cole

2010-01-01

241

Shame on You: The Impact of Human Rights Criticism on Political Repression in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most commonly used weapon in the arsenal of human rights pro- ponents is shaming the violating government through public criticism. But does this really affect the behavior of the violator? This study exam- ines how governments that are targeted for human rights criticism respond to subsequent contentious challenges. Analyzing 873 challenges in seven Latin American countries between 1981 and

James C. Franklin

2008-01-01

242

The Disconnect in How Russians Think about Human Rights and Chechnya: A Consequence of Media Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite considerable evidence collected by Russian and Western organizations of human rights abuses in Chechnya and a roll back in civil liberties in other spheres of life in Russia, survey data suggest that there is little demand for the protection of human rights and civil liberties. The Kremlin and other federal and local authorities have considerable latitude to violate personal

Theodore P. Gerber; Sarah E. Mendelson

243

The Career Perceptions of Academic Staff and Human Resource Discourses in English Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper sets out findings from research that considered the interplay between English national policy developments in human resources management in higher education and the personal stories of academic staff as career participants. Academic careers are pursued in an institutional and national policy context but it was not clear that the formal…

Strike, Tony; Taylor, John

2009-01-01

244

The First Amendment Right to Speak About the Human Genome.  

PubMed

This article explores whether laws that restrict the communication of genetic test results may, under certain circumstances, violate the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The focus is whether investigators have a right to return results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories in situations where a research participant requests the results and the investigator is willing to share them but is concerned that doing so may violate regulations under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 ("CLIA"). This article takes no position on whether investigators can be compelled to return results when they do not wish to do so. It examines only whether investigators may, not whether they must, return results to a willing research participant. The article: (1) surveys state and federal laws that block communication of genetic test results to research participants; (2) examines the historical use of speech restrictions as a tool for protecting human research subjects; (3) traces how First Amendment doctrine has evolved since the 1970s when foundations of modern research bioethics were laid; (4) inquires whether recent bioethical and policy debate has accorded due weight to the First Amendment. The article applies two common methods of legal analysis, textual and constitutional analysis. It concludes that the CLIA regulations, when properly construed, do not treat the return of results as an event that triggers CLIA's certification requirements. Moreover, there is a potential First Amendment problem in construing CLIA's research exception in a way that bans the return of results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories. PMID:25473380

Evans, Barbara J

2014-02-01

245

Human Rights Education: The United Nations Endeavour and the Importance of Childhood and Intelligent Sympathy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School is the major vehicle for humanism, which is, in essence, respect on human nature. Human Rights Education is important for the existence of human society in the modern globalising era. Education can function as a unifying factor and produce informed and active citizens of an interdependent world. It can provide the tools for advocacy and…

Frantzi, Katerina K.

2004-01-01

246

Critical Discourse Analysis: Discourse Acquisition and Discourse Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores arguments around critical-discourse analysis (CDA) and suggests that neither proponents nor critics of CDA have fully come to terms with the implications of what it means to acquire discourse. (Author/VWL)

Price, Steve

1999-01-01

247

HUMAN RIGHTS QUARTERLY Volumes 1 (1979) -25 (2003)  

E-print Network

& Political Rights Country Studies Cultural Relativism & Universalism Development Disappearances: Gender-Based Discrimination in UNRWA's Approach to Palestine Refugee Status, 16 Hum. Rts. Q. 300. Crowley

Papautsky, Ian

248

Training Trainers in health and human rights: Implementing curriculum change in South African health sciences institutions  

PubMed Central

Background The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of human rights as a professional obligation prompted moves to include human rights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A Train-the-Trainers course in Health and Human Rights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences institutions nationwide with the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge to teach human rights to their students. This study followed up participants to determine the extent of curriculum implementation, support needed as well as barriers encountered in integrating human rights into health sciences teaching and learning. Methods A survey including both quantitative and qualitative components was distributed in 2007 to past course participants from 1998-2006 via telephone, fax and electronic communication. Results Out of 162 past participants, 46 (28%) completed the survey, the majority of whom were still employed in academic settings (67%). Twenty-two respondents (48%) implemented a total of 33 formal human rights courses into the curricula at their institutions. Respondents were nine times more likely (relative risk 9.26; 95% CI 5.14-16.66) to implement human rights education after completing the training. Seventy-two extracurricular activities were offered by 21 respondents, many of whom had successfully implemented formal curricula. Enabling factors for implementation included: prior teaching experience in human rights, general institutional support and the presence of allies - most commonly coworkers as well as deans. Frequently cited barriers to implementation included: budget restrictions, time constraints and perceived apathy of colleagues or students. Overall, respondents noted personal enrichment and optimism in teaching human rights. Conclusion This Train-the-Trainer course provides the historical context, educational tools, and collective motivation to incorporate human rights educational initiatives at health sciences institutions. Increased implementation of human rights instruction, both formally and extracurricularly, has demonstrated the training's significance not only within academic institutions but more broadly across the health sector. Coworkers are vital allies in teaching human rights to health sciences students, helping to alleviate institutional barriers. Training fellow staff members and those in key leadership roles is noted as vital to the sustainability of human rights education. PMID:21787421

2011-01-01

249

Human Rights and Social Policy in the United States: An Educational Agenda for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that human rights education, particularly in the United States, tends to emphasize civil and political rights. Argues the need to emphasize economic and social rights and the interdependency of human rights. Contends that moral education should open discussion and scholarship so that students will choose their values. (CFR)

Wronka, Joseph

1994-01-01

250

Nicholson Medal Lecture: Science, Politics, and Human Rights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For scientists in a totalitarian society, the line between the professional and the political collapses, because to one degree or another they face the forced option of complicity with or resistance to the regime. A look at the history of Soviet scientists' fight for democracy and human rights in the former Soviet Union -- including the author's personal involvement from 1956 -- exposes the radically diverse responses of Soviet scientists to this option: ideological confrontation with the regime, sacrifice of scientific careers, and worse by a small minority; strong professional and public support for the regime by another small but significant minority; and ambiguous or hypocritical public silence by the majority. These responses mostly reflected differences of character, but sometimes different answers to such fundamental questions as: What is more dangerous for domestic and international peace and security -- a repressive totalitarian superpower that may be gradually improved, or an unstable democracy? Where to draw the line between scientific activity within and complicity with a totalitarian regime? When seeking how to express solidarity with persecuted colleagues, many Western scientists have also raised these questions. In the post-Soviet era both still deserve analysis, if only because of China. The Soviet experience points to democratization, with all its instability, as being better insurance of future peace and security -- both locally and internationally -- than any repressive regime. The second question has been given a tragic new dimension recently, as it bears on collaboration with scientific colleagues who hold official or prestigious positions in a country that deliberately starves abandoned children to death.

Orlov, Yuri F.

1996-05-01

251

Employing moderate resolution sensors in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organizations concerned with human rights are increasingly using remote sensing as a tool to improve their detection of human rights and international humanitarian law violations. However, as these organizations have transitioned to human rights monitoring campaigns conducted over large regions and extended periods of time, current methods of using fine- resolution sensors and manpower-intensive analyses have become cost- prohibitive. To support the continued growth of remote sensing in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring campaigns, this study researches how moderate resolution land observatories can provide complementary data to operational human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates the capacity of moderate resolutions to provide data to monitoring efforts by developing an approach that uses Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) as part of a system for the detection of village destruction in Darfur, Sudan. Village destruction is an indicator of a human rights or international humanitarian law violations in Darfur during the 2004 study period. This analysis approach capitalizes on Landsat's historical archive and systematic observations by constructing a historic spectral baseline for each village in the study area that supports automated detection of a potentially destroyed village with each new overpass of the sensor. Using Landsat's near-infrared band, the approach demonstrates high levels of accuracy when compared with a U.S. government database documenting destroyed villages. This approach is then applied to the Darfur conflict from 2002 to 2008, providing new data on when and where villages were destroyed in this widespread and long-lasting conflict. This application to the duration of a real-world conflict illustrates the abilities and shortcomings of moderate resolution sensors in human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates that moderate resolution satellites have the capacity to contribute complementary data to operational human rights monitoring efforts. While this study validates this capacity for the burning of villages in arid environments, this approach can be generalized to detect other human rights violations if an observable signal that represents the violation is identified.

Marx, Andrew J.

252

[Gender discourses and bioethics].  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to present some of the contributions of the gender discourse to the bioethical debate, specifically in the field of nursing. At the same time, it will explain the contribution of the different feminist theories to the recognition and respect of human dignity. Basically, it will describe the three fundamental models in the gender discourse: the egalitarian model, the difference model, and the model of reciprocity or complementarity. The starting point is that even though the first two models have made significant contributions in the field of bioethics, they have nonetheless brought with them some deficiencies and reductionisms inherent in their thinking. The complementarity model, on the contrary, when properly understood, allows for the combination of the principles of equality and difference between man and woman, which places it at a much more enriching standpoint within the bioethical debate. PMID:25329418

Aparisi Miralles, Angela

2014-01-01

253

Health and Human Rights Education in U.S. Schools of Medicine and Public Health: Current Status and Future Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDespite increasing recognition of the importance of human rights in the protection and promotion of health, formal human rights education has been lacking in schools of medicine and public health. Our objectives were: 1) to determine the nature and extent of health and human rights (HHR) education among schools of medicine (SOMs) and public health (SPHs); 2) to identify perceived

L. Emily Cotter; Jonathan Chevrier; Wael Noor El-Nachef; Rohan Radhakrishna; Lisa Rahangdale; Sheri D. Weiser; Vincent Iacopino; Beverley J. Shea

2009-01-01

254

Human Rights Education in Japan: An Historical Account, Characteristics and Suggestions for a Better-Balanced Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although human rights are often expressed as universal tenets, the concept was conceived in a particular socio-political and historical context. Conceptualisations and practice of human rights vary across societies, and face numerous challenges. After providing an historical account of the conceptualisation of human rights in Japanese society,…

Takeda, Sachiko

2012-01-01

255

Human Rights Education as a Tool of Grassroots Organizing and Social Transformation: A Case Study from Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women for Women's Human Rights (WWHR) -- New Ways has been carrying out a "Human Rights Education Program for Women" throughout Turkey for over a decade, in cooperation with community centers. The training has a holistic, comprehensive nature, linking several areas of human rights through a critical gender perspective lens. One of the overarching…

Ilkkaracan, Pinar; Amado, Liz Ercevik

2005-01-01

256

Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Civil Rights  

MedlinePLUS

... specific rights over that information. In addition, the Patient Safety Act and Rule establish a voluntary reporting system ... enhance the data available to assess and resolve patient safety and health care quality issues and provides confidentiality ...

257

Embodied Humanism: Performative Argument for Natural Rights in "The Solitude of Self."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how Elizabeth Cady Stanton's "The Solitude of Self" grounds rights in the material paradox of chance life events and the corporeal permanence of human isolation by enacting human solitude through what J. Campbell calls lyric tragedy. Reverses the ground for humanism from the disembodied rationalism of the Enlightenment to an embodied…

Stormer, Nathan

1999-01-01

258

Stimulations of the Human Visual Cortex Right hemispheric dominance of visual phenomena evoked  

E-print Network

(faces); visual illusions and impairments of visual recognition were more rarely observed and visual recognition impairment were almost exclusively evoked by stimulation in the right hemisphereStimulations of the Human Visual Cortex 1 Right hemispheric dominance of visual phenomena evoked

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

259

Division of Human Resources New Hires and RightStart@USF  

E-print Network

the student has completed check-in and all immigration documents have been verified, the student will receive a letter which they can then take to the local Social Security Administration office to apply for a card required work authorization documents, to Human Resources for RightStart@USF. At RightStart, the student

Meyers, Steven D.

260

Rise of the New Right: Human and Civil Rights in Jeopardy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author warns that ultra-conservatism is growing in strength and sophistication as a political force. He cites literature from various right-wing groups attacking the public schools and suggests that educators must learn to cope with social stress and the political extremism it generates. (SJL)

Park, J. Charles

1980-01-01

261

Human Rights and the Rights of the Child, a Panoramic View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the importance of the universal rights of children is critical in a differentiated and pluralist world, which, in coming together through the increase of global economic interdependence and consequent changes, will require a breadth of talents to maintain peace and cooperation. The paper draws on research from historical perspectives…

Burke, Kenneth M.

2007-01-01

262

The Mediating Role of Discoursing in Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discoursing, the use of language in interaction with others, plays a part in almost every human activity. Indeed, some have argued that it is discoursing that has made possible the cumulative development of culture over the course of our species' history. Whether or not that is correct, there can be no question that the ability, with the aid of…

Wells, Gordon

2007-01-01

263

1the Just word The Ignacio Martn-Bar Fund for Mental Health & Human Rights  

E-print Network

1the Just word the Just word INSIDE The Ignacio Martín-Baró Fund for Mental Health & Human Rights of developing education and critical awareness about the oppressive policies and practices of the United States

Huang, Jianyu

264

11.164 / 11.497 Human Rights in Theory and Practice, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

This course provides a rigorous and critical introduction to the foundation, structure and operation of the international human rights movement. It includes leading theoretical and institutional issues and the functioning ...

Rajagopal, Balakrishnan

265

A Struggle for Human Rights: The Japanese Spinners' 106-Day Strike of 1954.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inhumane working conditions led to a strike of Japanese silk spinners and formation of a union. Company repression provoked public opinion, resulting in acceptance of worker demands for recognition of human rights in the workplace. (SK)

Yoshida, Shoya

1992-01-01

266

Advancing sexual health through human rights: The role of the law  

PubMed Central

Since the International Conference on Population and Development, definitions of sexuality and sexual health have been greatly elaborated alongside widely accepted recognition that sexual health requires respect, protection and fulfilment of human rights. Considerable progress has also been made in enacting or changing laws that affect sexuality and sexual health, in line with human rights standards. These measures include legal guarantees against non-discrimination and violence, decriminalisation of consensual sexual conduct and guaranteeing availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of sexual health information and services to all. Such legal actions have had positive effects on health and specifically on sexual health, particularly for marginalised populations. Yet in all regions of the world, laws still exist which jeopardise health, including sexual health, and violate human rights. In order to ensure accountability for the rights and health of their populations, states have an obligation to bring their laws into line with international, regional and national human rights standards. These rights-based legal guarantees, while insufficient alone, are essential for effective systems of accountability, achieving positive sexual health outcomes and the respect and protection of human rights. PMID:25539286

Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia; Miller, Alice M.

2015-01-01

267

Advancing sexual health through human rights: The role of the law.  

PubMed

Since the International Conference on Population and Development, definitions of sexuality and sexual health have been greatly elaborated alongside widely accepted recognition that sexual health requires respect, protection and fulfilment of human rights. Considerable progress has also been made in enacting or changing laws that affect sexuality and sexual health, in line with human rights standards. These measures include legal guarantees against non-discrimination and violence, decriminalisation of consensual sexual conduct and guaranteeing availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of sexual health information and services to all. Such legal actions have had positive effects on health and specifically on sexual health, particularly for marginalised populations. Yet in all regions of the world, laws still exist which jeopardise health, including sexual health, and violate human rights. In order to ensure accountability for the rights and health of their populations, states have an obligation to bring their laws into line with international, regional and national human rights standards. These rights-based legal guarantees, while insufficient alone, are essential for effective systems of accountability, achieving positive sexual health outcomes and the respect and protection of human rights. PMID:25539286

Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia; Miller, Alice M

2015-02-01

268

Being Human or Being a Citizen? Rethinking Human Rights and Citizenship Education in the Light of Agamben and Merleau-Ponty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues against a trend of human rights education, where human rights are taught in the form of citizenship education. In my view, citizenship education and human rights education cannot be taken as replaceable for each other. Underpinning the idea of citizenship is a distinction between "politically qualified" and "politically…

Hung, Ruyu

2012-01-01

269

Associations between human rights environments and healthy longevity: the case of older persons in China.  

PubMed

Individual health can deteriorate through neglect or violation of human rights or can improve through favorable health policies and programs on human rights. Yet quantitative associations between human rights and health are insufficiently studied. Based on a nationwide dataset of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) with more than 18,800 adults aged 65 and older in mainland China interviewed in 2002 and 2005 and their follow-ups three years later, we examine how an individual's longevity and health are associated with some domains of human rights. We use three individual-level variables in early life stages (whether a respondent went to bed hungry, accessed adequate medical services, and years of schooling), three individual-level variables at present (whether a respondent has adequate housing; whether a respondent has adequate economic resources to support his/her daily subsistence, and whether a respondent gets adequate medical services when in need), and one community-level variable (air quality) as proxies to measure several fundamental domains of human rights in terms of access to adequate food/nutrition, housing/shelter, education, social security, health care, and clean-air environments. An indicator of healthy survival is introduced to measure survivors at sequent follow-ups with a good health condition. Our results demonstrate that better conditions of proxy measures of human rights at different life stages, especially at present, are associated with a higher likelihood of healthy survival after taking various confounding variables into consideration, suggesting the possibility of a significant linkage between good environments in human rights and healthy longevity. These findings may have important implications for promoting better environments in human rights, especially in the context of population aging. PMID:23568942

Brown, Bethany L; Qiu, Li; Gu, Danan

2012-01-01

270

Ethics and human rights issues experienced by psychiatric-mental health and substance abuse registered nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The ethics and human rights issues experienced by psychiatric-mental health and substance-abuse registered nurses (P-MH and SA RNs) and how disturbed they are by the issues are not known. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency of ethics and human rights issues experienced by P-MH and SA RNs and how disturbing the issues are to

Pamela J. Grace; Sara T. Fry; Gary S. Schultz

2003-01-01

271

Reconciling international human rights and cultural relativism: the case of female circumcision.  

PubMed

How can we reconcile, in a non-ethnocentric fashion, the enforcement of international, universal human rights standards with the protection of cultural diversity? Examining this question, taking the controversy over female circumcision as a case study, this article will try to bridge the gap between the traditional anthropological view that human rights are non-existent -- or completely relativised to particular cultures -- and the view of Western naturalistic philosophers (including Lockeian philosophers in the natural rights tradition, and Aquinas and neo-Thomists in the natural law tradition) that they are universal -- simply derived from a basic human nature we all share. After briefly defending a universalist conception of human rights, the article will provide a critique of female circumcision as a human rights violation by three principal means: by an internal critique of the practice using the condoning cultures' own functionalist criteria; by identifying supra-national norms the cultures subscribe to which conflict with the practice; and by the identification of traditional and novel values in the cultures, conducive to those norms. Through this analysis, it will be seen that cultural survival, diversity and flourishing need not be incompatible with upholding international, universal human rights standards. PMID:11657373

James, Stephen A

1994-01-01

272

Water as a Human Right: The Understanding of Water in the Arab Countries of the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international community has affirmed the human right to water in a number of international treaties, declarations and other documents. Most notably, the United Nations (UN) Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted in November 2002 a General Comment on the Right to Water setting out international standards and obligations relating to the right to water. Based on the

Simone Klawitter; Hadeel Qazzaz

2005-01-01

273

Essential medicines and human rights: what can they learn from each other?  

PubMed Central

Most countries have acceded to at least one global or regional covenant or treaty confirming the right to health. After years of international discussions on human rights, many governments are now moving towards practical implementation of their commitments. A practical example may be of help to those governments who aim to translate their international treaty obligations into practice. WHO's Essential Medicines Programme is an example of how this transition from legal principles to practical implementation may be achieved. This programme has been consistent with human rights principles since its inception in the early 1980s, through its focus on equitable access to essential medicines. This paper provides a brief overview of what the international human rights instruments mention about access to essential medicines, and proposes five assessment questions and practical recommendations for governments. These recommendations cover the selection of essential medicines, participation in programme development, mechanisms for transparency and accountability, equitable access by vulnerable groups, and redress mechanisms. PMID:16710546

Hogerzeil, Hans V.

2006-01-01

274

Push comes to shove. Women press for human rights treaty.  

PubMed

The UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), a global pact for advancing women's rights, was brought to Senate by nine female House members after 20 years of waiting to be ratified. Ratifying countries agree to fight all types of discrimination, including reproductive rights violations as well as the exploitation of prostitution, inequalities in marriage laws and unequal access to health care. Senator Jesse Helms, the head of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, is against the ratification of the CEDAW because he believes that it will do little to improve the lives of women. Meanwhile, other organizations in other states such as the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy, are showing their support to the CEDAW by submitting a number of Shadow Reports to the committee which highlights discriminatory laws and policies against women in other countries. PMID:12349420

Farmer, A

1999-12-01

275

[The right to human reproduction. Should surrogate maternity be allowed?].  

PubMed

Is addressed in this work if you can accept that in Spain a reproductive rights through the use of assisted reproductive techniques, especially when the client is a single woman and when the baby has undergone a substitution pregnancy or surrogacy, regardless of those who have come to this possibility, which still continues to be considered without any efficacy in the rules governing the matter. PMID:24340827

Corral García, Eduardo

2013-01-01

276

Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.  

PubMed

Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires stronger enforcement of existing laws and regulations, as well as accountability of local authorities charged with upholding environmental regulations. In this context, restrictions on such rights as freedom of expression, assembly, and political participation have direct consequences on the realization of the right to health. PMID:23568949

Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J

2012-01-01

277

Brave New World of human-rights DNA collection.  

PubMed

Noncriminal DNA databases may serve a societal role in identifying victims of crime and human trafficking. However, how do we safeguard personal privacy of innocent victims and family members? PMID:23706944

Kim, Joyce; Katsanis, Sara H

2013-06-01

278

[Right to privacy, reservation or secret. Changes in perspective of research on human genome].  

PubMed

1. Three kinds of privacy can be identified: territorial, bodily and, thirdly, psychological or spiritual. Cases and examples of each. 2. Two aspects are involved in breaches of the right to privacy--in any of its three forms-: the actual invasion of someone's privacy and the subsequent publication of the product thereof. 3. The right to privacy can enter into conflict with other constitutionally protected right such as the right to information, freedom of expression and freedom of scientific enquiry. 4. Research on the human genome has opened up a new area in privacy, given that it is unlawful to intrude into the genetic structure of a person without said person's lawful consent. Nothing is more private than a person's own individual genetic code. There may be exceptions to the right to genetic privacy: cases of lawful intrusion. 5. Unwarranted intrusion: discrimination in school admissions, employment contracts and insurance policies. PMID:10822652

Figueroa Yañez, G

1999-01-01

279

Human Genome Diversity Project. Summary of planning workshop 3(B): Ethical and human-rights implications  

SciTech Connect

The third planning workshop of the Human Genome Diversity Project was held on the campus of the US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from February 16 through February 18, 1993. The second day of the workshop was devoted to an exploration of the ethical and human-rights implications of the Project. This open meeting centered on three roundtables, involving 12 invited participants, and the resulting discussions among all those present. Attendees and their affiliations are listed in the attached Appendix A. The discussion was guided by a schedule and list of possible issues, distributed to all present and attached as Appendix B. This is a relatively complete, and thus lengthy, summary of the comments at the meeting. The beginning of the summary sets out as conclusions some issues on which there appeared to be widespread agreement, but those conclusions are not intended to serve as a set of detailed recommendations. The meeting organizer is distributing his recommendations in a separate memorandum; recommendations from others who attended the meeting are welcome and will be distributed by the meeting organizer to the participants and to the Project committee.

NONE

1993-12-31

280

Human Infants' Preference for Left-to-Right Oriented Increasing Numerical Sequences  

PubMed Central

While associations between number and space, in the form of a spatially oriented numerical representation, have been extensively reported in human adults, the origins of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. The commonly accepted view is that this number-space association is a product of human invention, with accounts proposing that culture, symbolic knowledge, and mathematics education are at the roots of this phenomenon. Here we show that preverbal infants aged 7 months, who lack symbolic knowledge and mathematics education, show a preference for increasing magnitude displayed in a left-to-right spatial orientation. Infants habituated to left-to-right oriented increasing or decreasing numerical sequences showed an overall higher looking time to new left-to-right oriented increasing numerical sequences at test (Experiment 1). This pattern did not hold when infants were presented with the same ordinal numerical information displayed from right to left (Experiment 2). The different pattern of results was congruent with the presence of a malleable, context-dependent baseline preference for increasing, left-to-right oriented, numerosities (Experiment 3). These findings are suggestive of an early predisposition in humans to link numerical order with a left-to-right spatial orientation, which precedes the acquisition of symbolic abilities, mathematics education, and the acquisition of reading and writing skills. PMID:24802083

de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Girelli, Luisa; Addabbo, Margaret; Macchi Cassia, Viola

2014-01-01

281

Human rights abuses and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: the experiences of Burmese women in Thailand.  

PubMed

We investigated human rights concerns related to migration, living and working conditions, and access to HIV/AIDS services and reproductive health services for Burmese women in Thailand. Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS for Burmese women stemmed from abuses they experienced: gender and ethnic discrimination, including violence; unsafe migration and trafficking; labor and sexual exploitation; and denial of health care. Despite having bound itself to human rights laws, the Thai government is failing to fulfill its obligations to Burmese women, with particularly devastating impacts for their well-being, including the risk of HIV/AIDS. Moreover, as our documentation shows, this failure to incorporate human rights concerns into its national response to the epidemic virtually guarantees that HIV/AIDS will continue to be a problem in Thailand. PMID:17265756

Leiter, Karen; Suwanvanichkij, Voravit; Tamm, Ingrid; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

2006-01-01

282

Project Diana : An Online Human Rights Archive at Yale Law School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DIANA, a joint project provided by an international consortium of libraries and human rights organizations, is dedicated to the construction of a comprehensive database of documents essential to human rights research. Currently, segments of the database are hosted by four libraries. Each library provides a unique set of documents for the collaborative database. The Yale Law School Library contains legal briefs, organizational charters, treaty texts, and bibliographies related to human rights. Unfortunately, users cannot query all four hosts at the same time; however, each host attempts to eliminate document duplication within the database as a whole in order to minimize overlap. Consequently, users must select a relevant host before searching or conduct parallel searches.

283

3 CFR 9069 - Proclamation 9069 of December 9, 2013. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...advance them in our time. Humanity thrives because of our differences; the exchange of ideas among vibrant cultures is a source...borders and regardless of race, creed, sexual orientation, gender identity, or income level—share the freedoms of...

2014-01-01

284

Quick Facts Office of Human Rights & Equity Services  

E-print Network

Program: If you feel discriminated against or harassed on the basis of a protected ground such as race circumstances, they may be compelled to take action to stop harassment/bullying even against your wishes. Equity. · Raises awareness and provides education on harassment, discrimination, accommodation and other human

Haykin, Simon

285

Preparing Global Citizens through the Study of Human Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The preparation of students for global citizenship represents a central challenge to social studies educators in the twenty-first century. Two-thirds of the world's poor are steeped in abject poverty and its grim consequences. The world refugee problem has reached staggering proportions. There is an international epidemic of human trafficking, and…

Kirkwood-Tucker, Toni Fuss

2012-01-01

286

Visualization of Fiber Structurein the Left and Right Ventricleof a Human Heart  

SciTech Connect

The human heart is composed of a helical network of musclefibers. Anisotropic least squares filtering followed by fiber trackingtechniques were applied to Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging(DTMRI) data of the excised human heart. The fiber configuration wasvisualized by using thin tubes to increase 3-dimensional visualperception of the complex structure. All visualizations were performedusing the high-quality ray-tracing software POV-Ray. The fibers are shownwithin the left and right ventricles. Both ventricles exhibit similarfiber architecture and some bundles of fibers are shown linking right andleft ventricles on the posterior region of the heart.

Rohmer, Damien; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gullberg, Grant T.

2006-07-12

287

Mixed Messages: Discourses of Education in Policy Speeches to the Japanese Diet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper will examine how Japanese education policy was articulated discursively from 1996 to 2010 in the semi-annual speeches of prime ministers to the Diet. It will identify three distinct discourses within these policy statements: a progressive discourse emphasizing the rights of individuals; a neo-liberal discourse of social independence and…

Rear, David

2011-01-01

288

HUMAN RIGHTS AND GLOBAL HEALTH: A RESEARCH PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-third of all human lives end in early death from poverty-related causes. Most of these premature deaths are avoidable through global institutional reforms that would eradicate extreme poverty. Many are also avoidable through global health-system reform that would make medical knowledge freely available as a global public good. The rules should be redesigned so that the development of any new

Thomas W. Pogge

2005-01-01

289

Unpacking rights in indigenous African societies: indigenous culture and the question of sexual and reproductive rights in Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Modern declarations on human rights have often proceeded without reference to the cultural content of rights, the existence of rights in African indigenous backgrounds, and the embodiment of certain key rights in the community itself. This paper is an attempt at developing an ‘inventory’ of rights in African cultures as a prelude to the generation both of a holistic theory of rights as well as a research agenda that can recognize the multifaceted nature of rights. Methods We use an interpretive ethnographic approach built on three sources of data: 1) our continuing ethnographic work among two distinct ethnic groups in southeastern Nigeria – the Ubang and the Igbo; 2) informal conversational interviews with individuals from a range of African countries; and 3) a review of relevant literature based on African cultures which provides a context for some of the issues we raise. Results An examination of selected indigenous rights, entitlements, or privileges among the Ubang and Igbo illustrates indigenous culture as a key, but often neglected, axis of rights, as a critical framework for understanding human relationships with rights, and as a resource for, and challenge to, contemporary programmatic efforts focusing on universalized notions of rights. Understanding or interpreting rights in African settings within the framework defined by contemporary human rights discourse poses steep challenges to making progress in the realization of sexual and reproductive rights. Conclusions Despite the potential dangers of privileging group rights over individual rights, when important rights are vested in the community; rights, entitlements, and privileges can also be recognized through community experiences, and realized through engagement with communities. Building on communal conceptualizations of rights in order to realize an even wider range of rights remains a largely unexplored strategy which holds promise for the achievement of sexual and reproductive health rights. PMID:22375959

2011-01-01

290

International Human Rights to Early Intervention for Infants and Young Children with Disabilities: Tools for Global Advocacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With almost universal ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the growing number of States Parties that have signed or ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the majority of countries in the world have now committed to implementing the human rights articulated in these treaties. In this article,…

Brown, Sharan E.; Guralnick, Michael J.

2012-01-01

291

Access to justice: evaluating law, health and human rights programmes in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Introduction In Kenya, human rights violations have a marked impact on the health of people living with HIV. Integrating legal literacy and legal services into healthcare appears to be an effective strategy to empower vulnerable groups and address underlying determinants of health. Methods We carried out an evaluation to collect evidence about the impact of legal empowerment programmes on health and human rights. The evaluation focused on Open Society Foundation-supported legal integration activities at four sites: the Academic Model of Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) facility, where the Legal Aid Centre of Eldoret (LACE) operates, in Eldoret; Kenyatta National Hospital's Gender-based Violence Recovery Centre, which hosts the COVAW legal integration program; and Christian Health Association of Kenya (CHAK) facilities in Mombasa and Naivasha. In consultation with the organizations implementing the programs, we designed a conceptual logic model grounded in human rights principles, identified relevant indicators and then coded structure, process and outcome indicators for the rights-related principles they reflect. The evaluation included a resource assessment questionnaire, a review of program records and routine data, and semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with clients and service providers. Data were collected in May–August 2010 and April–June 2011. Results Clients showed a notable increase in practical knowledge and awareness about how to access legal aid and claim their rights, as well as an enhanced ability to communicate with healthcare providers and to improve their access to healthcare and justice. In turn, providers became more adept at identifying human rights violations and other legal difficulties, which enabled them to give clients basic information about their rights, refer them to legal aid and assist them in accessing needed support. Methodological challenges in evaluating such activities point to the need to strengthen rights-oriented evaluation methods. Conclusions Legal empowerment programmes have the potential to promote accountability, reduce stigma and discrimination and contribute to altering unjust structures and systems. Given their apparent value as a health and human rights intervention, particularly for marginalized populations, further rigorous evaluations are called for to support the scale-up of such programmes. PMID:24242267

Gruskin, Sofia; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Ezer, Tamar; Gathumbi, Anne; Cohen, Jonathan; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia

2013-01-01

292

Economic Rights and Economic Justice in Economic Theory and Policy: An Introductory Note.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

However, there is yet another very important reason (which is inextricably intertwined with the capitalism \\/ communism split) behind the marginalization of economic rights. That force is the dominant (orthodox) economic analysis and economic policy. The analytical framework of orthodox economics has historically been a very exclusive and narrow discourse based on highly restrictive assumptions about human nature, the good

Mariama Williams

293

Factors Influencing Blood Flow Patterns in the Human Right Coronary Artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that atherogenesis is linked to local hemodynamic factors such as wall shear stress. We investigated the velocity and wall shear stress patterns within a human right coronary artery (RCA), an important site of atherosclerotic lesion development. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the effect of flow waveform and inlet flow velocity profile on the hemodynamics in the proximal, medial,

J. G. Myers; J. A. Moore; M. Ojha; K. W. Johnston; C. R. Ethier

2001-01-01

294

The Political Economy of Education in Guyana: Implications for Human Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines human rights violations in education in Guyana, and identifies the socioeconomic factors that produced the current condition. Findings indicate that, although education is highly valued in the culture, the state has abandoned the educational needs of the nation to ensure the survival of the elite political regime. (JB)

Samaroo, Noel K.

1991-01-01

295

r Human Brain Mapping 00:000000 (2012) r Right, Left, and Center: How Does Cerebral  

E-print Network

: R01 HD050735; Contract grant sponsor: NIA; Contract grant number: R01 AG020098. N.C. and E.L. haver Human Brain Mapping 00:000­000 (2012) r Right, Left, and Center: How Does Cerebral Asymmetry Mix of Medicine, Los Angeles, California r r Abstract: Background: Prior research has shown that cerebral

Thompson, Paul

296

Far Away and Nearby: Holocaust Remembrance and Human Rights Education in Switzerland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article considers how young people in Swiss schools are taught about the history and background of the Holocaust within the wider perspective of human rights education, as an important basis for education concerning democratic citizenship. Given the country's specific history, for decades the Holocaust was not a matter of great interest in…

Schlag, Thomas; Wackerlig, Oliver

2010-01-01

297

Patterns of Human Development Indicators across Constitutional Analysis of Children's Rights to Protection, Provision, and Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines children's images in constitutions and/or amendments as articulated in the Convention on the Rights of the Child while they intersect with the three dimensions of the Human Development Index (HDI) of 2008: life expectancy, educational index, and GDP. The connection between the images of the child and the fulfillment of the…

Habashi, Janette; Wright, Lynne; Hathcoat, John D.

2012-01-01

298

Peace and Human Rights Education: Dilemmas of Compatibility and Prospects for Moving Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the dilemmas emerging from efforts to integrate human rights values within a peace education programme being carried out in a conflict situation. Although the article is largely theoretical, it is grounded in the author's reflections on a series of teacher workshops and his overall experiences conducting ethnographic…

Zembylas, Michalinos

2011-01-01

299

Human Rights in a Pluralist, Unequal Globe: Contributions of Jesuit Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globalization has made human rights both increasingly important as the normative standards that seek to shape the diverse religious, cultural, political, and economic interactions of the world, and also increasingly controversial in the face of the realities of cultural diversity and economic inequality. Over the past half century, hopes that…

Hollenbach, David

2011-01-01

300

Human Rights and Democracy in Palestine: Their Value for the New Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to conduct an exploratory baseline survey of West Bank students to assess student attitudes and practices towards Human Rights and Democracy (HDR). To achieve the goal of this research, a survey of 3450 youth was conducted that included students from the 8th, 10th and 12th grades throughout the West Bank. The specific…

Abukishek, Imad Fayeq

2011-01-01

301

Education for Human Rights. An International Perspective. Studies in Comparative Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents theoretical studies and national experiences of how education might respond to war, natural catastrophes, or disease, thereby making people more aware and successful at managing difficult situations. The volume's 15 authors, drawn from many parts of the world, deal with human rights (especially those of women, children,…

Ray, Douglas, Ed.; And Others

302

Moral Dilemmas in Teaching Recent History Related to the Violation of Human Rights in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the moral dilemmas that a teacher faces in the classroom when teaching recent history which deals with military regimes, violation of human rights (1973-1990) and the transition to democracy in Chile (1990-2008). Furthermore, it explores the neutrality of the content taught; the ideological standpoints of the teachers and the…

Magendzo, Abraham; Toledo, Maria Isabel

2009-01-01

303

U.N. Withholds Action on a Report of Human Rights Violations in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A panel of seven international jurists and lawyers has found a pattern of human and legal rights violations against Native Americans and other minorities in the United States. Their three-week investigation focused on political prisoners and discovered abuses of both the activists and the criminal process. (Author/DS)

American Indian Journal, 1979

1979-01-01

304

Towards a Pedagogy of Listening: Teaching and Learning from Life Stories of Human Rights Violations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the task of designing curriculum that helps youth engage thoughtfully with digital stories of human rights violations, the authors articulate the central tenets of a pedagogy of listening that draws upon elements of oral history, concepts of witnessing and testimony, the work on listening of Dewey, Freire and Rinaldi and the…

Low, Bronwen E.; Sonntag, Emmanuelle

2013-01-01

305

International Internships Available! Human Rights Internet (HRI) is an NGO committed to social justice,  

E-print Network

International Internships Available! Human Rights Internet (HRI) is an NGO committed to social Development Agency to send Canadian youths on international internships. A six month international internship internship can open new doors and equip you with portable skills for the current job market. Successful

Martin, Jeff

306

Raoul Wallenberg, Human Rights Hero: A Role Model for Students of Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the life of human rights activist Raoul Wallenberg. Explains his role in the rescue of European Jews from the Nazis during World War II. Reviews Wallenberg's disappearance and the Soviet coverup of the incident. Suggests presenting Wallenberg as a role model for secondary school students, particularly those in Canada who share…

Fischbein, Maxine

1992-01-01

307

International Programs: Advancing Human Rights and Social Justice for African American Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social work profession has a long standing commitment to human rights and social justice, bridging the divide between national and international interests. There is a call for social workers to understand the global community that awaits our service. Yet international experiences are not within the grasp of nor embraced by all. Students of…

Acquaye, Lucinda A.; Crewe, Sandra Edmonds

2012-01-01

308

Combining Conflict Resolution Education and Human Rights Education: Thoughts for School-Based Peace Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peace education embraces a wide range of programs and initiatives. Two of those subfields, human rights education and conflict resolution education, are often considered too different in goals, models and content to be seen as partners in the same educational effort. A review of recent literature confirms that few conflict resolution education…

Jones, Tricia S.

2006-01-01

309

Taking Pictures over Soldiers’ Shoulders: Reporting on Human Rights Abuse from the Israeli Occupied Territories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to explore the practice of Israeli human rights organizations through detailed analysis of the photographs that they publish in their reports and on their websites. A recurrent theme that emerges from these photos is the way in which they have been taken over the shoulders of Israeli soldiers. My intention is to question what governs the selection

Ruthie Ginsburg

2011-01-01

310

r Human Brain Mapping 00:000000 (2012) r The Right Inhibition? Callosal Correlates of Hand  

E-print Network

r Human Brain Mapping 00:000­000 (2012) r The Right Inhibition? Callosal Correlates of Hand Performance in Healthy Children and Adolescents Callosal Correlates of Hand Performance Florian Kurth,1 that interhemispheric inhibition--relayed via the corpus cal- losum--plays an important role in unilateral hand motions

Thompson, Paul

311

Domestic Violence as a Human Rights Issue: The Case of Immigrant Latinos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines domestic violence from a human rights perspective. Explores the antecedents, dynamics, and effects of domestic abuse in light of the historical, philosophical, cultural, social, spiritual, and political realities of Latino immigrants in the United States. Discusses levels of awareness and responsibility necessary to break the…

Perilla, Julia L.

1999-01-01

312

Human Rights, Education for Democratic Citizenship and International Organisations: Findings from a Kuwaiti UNESCO ASPnet School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While universal human rights frameworks and democratic models of government have gained global support and even adherence, they often exist in tension with local cultural and religious practices. In Kuwait, tensions arise between its constitution, legal system and Islam, with several groups consequently marginalised. These tensions extend into the…

Al-Nakib, Rania

2012-01-01

313

Attempts to Protect the Rights and Health of Patients, Human Subjects and the Public  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of bioethics in China in the period of 1990–2008 was characterised by more concerns with policy, regulations and law in the field of biomedicine and biotechnology for equitable rights for the protection of patients and human subjects. It was also a period that symbolised the emergence of the subject of bioethics from its ivory tower and brought into

QIU RENZONG

2008-01-01

314

Human Rights Dilemmas in Using Informers to Combat Terrorism: The Israeli-Palestinian Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using informers is a basic tool in preventing terror attacks and the nature of current terror threats makes it even more crucial. This use, however, often leads to human rights violations, both of the informers and by them, and to many problematic ethical questions. Drawing on the Israeli–Palestinian example—where a main strategy of Israeli intelligence activity in the Palestinian areas

HILLEL COHEN; RON DUDAI

2005-01-01

315

Unfair Advantage: Workers’ Freedom of Association in the United States Under International Human Rights Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] Human Rights Watch selected case studies for this report on workers’ freedom of association in the United States with several objectives in mind. One was to include a range of sectors - services, industry, transport, agriculture, high tech – to assess the scope of the problem across the economy, rather than to focus on a single sector. Another objective

Lance A Compa

2000-01-01

316

Teachers, Sexual Orientation, and the Law in Canada: A Human Rights Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher expression on the subject of sexual orientation is a hotly contested topic that has led to many recent legal challenges in the United States and Canada. The purpose of this article is to offer readers an introduction to Canadian cases regarding teacher expression and sexual orientation and demonstrate how the application of a human rights framework can offer schools

Elizabeth J. Meyer

2010-01-01

317

The Human Rights Context for Ethical Requirements for Involving People with Intellectual Disability in Medical Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The history of ethical guidelines addresses protection of human rights in the face of violations. Examples of such violations in research involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) abound. We explore this history in an effort to understand the apparently stringent criteria for the inclusion of people with ID in research, and…

Iacono, T.; Carling-Jenkins, R.

2012-01-01

318

Deaths in the Desert: The Human Rights Crisis on the U.S.--Mexico Border  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many would acknowledge that immigration is a major issue in the United States and that immigration reform should be a priority. However, there is little attention to the human rights crisis on the U.S.-Mexican border. As a result of tightened border security since 1994, it is estimated that over 5,000 migrants have died in the Sonoran desert. The…

Androff, David K.; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y.

2012-01-01

319

Assessing Risk and Opportunity in Conflict Studies: A Human Rights Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past two decades, substantial progress has been made toward a theoretical understanding of why physical integrity abuses are committed. Unfortunately, these theoretical developments have been devoid of much practical application. In this article, the authors explore the feasibility of risk assessment in the study of these human rights.…

Poe, Steven C.; Rost, Nicolas; Carey, Sabine C.

2006-01-01

320

"Clutching a knifeblade": human rights and development from Asian women's perspective.  

PubMed

A brief, vivid portrait of the human rights conditions for women in Asia was presented: "kapit sa patalim" or utter despair, urban migration, export processing zones, tourism and prostitution, political repression, and military sexual slavery. Advocates of women's human rights for Asian women must contend with patriarchal and male-dominated systems that oppress and exploit women to a much greater extent than men. Liberation from these systems and the domination and exploitation by wealthier nations must be a goal of a new economic world order. Unjust and repressive structures must be destroyed, and equitable distribution of wealth and democracy and popular initiatives promoted. The status of women must be raised to coequal status with men. The most important objective of human rights advocates should be the empowerment of women at the individual, community, national, regional, and international level. The Asian Women's Human Rights Council was established as an addition to 3 already operating regional commissions of women's organizations. The aim was not just to describe women as victims, but to pressure development activity to account for women's human rights. Sex tribunals have been scheduled between 1993 and 1994 to address the following issues: 1) sex trafficking (Japan, May 1993); 2) violence against women (Pakistan, December 1993); 3) militarism, environment, and violence against women (Korea, March 1994); 4) crimes of development against women in Asia (India); 5) religion and violence against women (Malaysia, 1994); and 6) indigenous women (December 1994). Women were victims when Filipino domestic workers were stranded and raped in Iraq during the chaos of war, when girls from landless peasant families migrated near Clark Air Force Base to earn a living as prostitutes for US servicemen, when women were forced to work 36-hour shifts in foreign-owned garment factories in Bataan, when women migrated for work, and when women were abused and battered in Bangladesh and India. Many other examples of abuse were indicated in the discussion. PMID:12345217

Sancho-liao, N

1993-06-01

321

Explicit Argumentation as a Supervisory Tool for Decision Making in Child Protection Cases Involving Human Rights Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problems often faced by social workers and their supervisors in decision making where human rights considerations and child protection concerns collide. High-profile court cases in the United Kingdom and Europe have consistently called for social workers to convey more clarity when justifying their reasons for interfering with human rights in child protection cases. The themes emerging

Joe Duffy

2011-01-01

322

Recommendations from the WPATH Consensus Process for Revision of the DSM Diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorders: Implications for Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Categorizing certain gender identities as mental illness or disorder undermines human rights. The diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder has contributed to stigma and bias against gender-variant people and to the restriction of their human and civil rights; however, in some cases, it has also facilitated validation and availability of necessary treatment. Although there was some disagreement within the work group

Jamison Green; Sharon McGowan; Jennifer Levi; Rachael Wallbank; Stephen Whittle

2011-01-01

323

Why Are We Involved in Human Rights and Moral Education? Educators as Constructors of Our Own History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

My professional interest originally focused on curriculum planning and development, but for the last 30 years I have been researching, publishing and teaching in the field of human rights education. Suddenly, I became a human rights educator. Suddenly? No, nothing in our personal and professional life is the result of an abrupt occurrence. We are…

Kolstrein, Abraham Magendzo

2011-01-01

324

University of Tennessee -Department of Anthropology -Disasters, Displacement and Human Rights Program (DDHR) A Look Back --With Appreciation!  

E-print Network

1 University of Tennessee - Department of Anthropology - Disasters, Displacement and Human Rights Anthropological Association meeting. Dr. Richard A. Wilson, Gladstein Chair and Professor of Anthropology and Law of the International Forensic Program for Physicians for Human Rights, was also a keynote speaker and shared his

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

325

"The World as It Could Be" Human Rights Education Program: Curriculum and Resource Guide for Teachers & Organization Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We are pleased to provide the July 2012 edition of the Curriculum and Resource Guide for "The World As It Could Be" Human Rights Education Program. This program, is an outgrowth of a series of successful initiatives carried out since 2006 to educate and inspire youth and adults to further human rights for all people and have greater understanding…

Sohcot, Sandy

2012-01-01

326

We Are Here to Serve You! Public Security, Police Reform and Human Rights Implementation in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

This empirical study discusses how the police of a non-transitional society in Latin America responded to the implementation of human rights? On the basis of qualitative and quantitative data that was collected during fieldwork periods between 2003 and 2006, it evaluates the effect of police human rights strategies upon the Costa Rican national police system and urban police units of

Q. A. M. Eijkman

2007-01-01

327

Kenya's political ‘transition’ through the eyes of its ‘foot soldiers’ for democracy and human rights (1997–2012)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study of young human rights activists who provide a unique window on Kenya's recent and turbulent political history (1997–2012). The period includes the end of authoritarian rule and election of a ‘reform’ government in 2002 that expanded some human rights but abused others. Based on archival materials and periodic, multiple interviews by the author with key youth

2012-01-01

328

Women, Human Rights and the Family in Development Theory and Practice (with reference to Latin America and the Caribbean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the effects of “development” are assessed in terms of furthering the “human rights” of men and women in Latin America. It is argued that development has failed to do so for rural women because it did not explicitly address patriarchal family structures. The structural family imbalances, which place constrains on rural women's human rights attainment are reviewed.

E. A. Cebotarev

1988-01-01

329

A review of health and human rights after five years of democracy in South Africa.  

PubMed

South Africa became a democratic state with a supreme Constitution and Bill of Rights in 1994. Between 1994 and 1996 South Africans drafted a new constitution which came into force in 1997. While, the right to health, as well as socio-economic rights is provided for, the health care system in post-apartheid South Africa still mirrors that which existed during the apartheid years. There are still two health care systems. The poorly funded public sector services the majority, while the well-funded private sector services the privileged few. A lack of resources is blamed by the state for its inability to provide better and more widespread health services. This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the successes and challenges in developing the right to health between 1994 to 1999, and provides an overview of the present state of health in South Africa. This article further examines the constitutional provisions on health, and discusses recent constitutional court decisions relevant to the right to health. New and controversial health laws and regulations, affecting health care professionals, medical aid schemes and the availability of pharmaceuticals, are critiqued. The move to devolving health care to the provinces is described. Also discussed are the controversial steps taken by the Department of Health to restructure health structures and services. Progress on key health issues such as HIV/Aids, tobacco, tuberculosis, polio, measles, hepatitis, malaria and abortion are also described. Attention is focused on the role of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's health hearings in bringing to light violations of human rights in health during apartheid as well as the recommendations made to address these problems. PMID:10994215

Sarkin, J

2000-01-01

330

A human rights approach to the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines.  

PubMed Central

Since the first WHO Model List of Essential Medicines was adopted in 1977, it has become a popular tool among health professionals and Member States. WHO's joint effort with the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has resulted in the inclusion of access to essential medicines in the core content of the right to health. The Committee states that the right to health contains a series of elements, such as availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of health goods, services and programmes, which are in line with the WHO statement that essential medicines are intended to be available within the context of health systems in adequate amounts at all times, in the appropriate dosage forms, with assured quality and information, and at a price that the individual and the community can afford. The author considers another perspective by looking at the obligations to respect, protect and fulfil the right to health undertaken by the states adhering to the International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and explores the relationship between access to medicines, the protection of intellectual property, and human rights. PMID:16710552

Seuba, Xavier

2006-01-01

331

Archimedean Witness: The Application of Remote Sensing as an Aid to Human Rights Prosecutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 21st century has seen a significant increase in the use of remote sensing technology in the international human rights arena for the purposes of documenting crimes against humanity. The nexus between remote sensing, human rights activism, and international criminal prosecutions sits at a significant crossroads within geographic thought, calling attention to the epistemological and geopolitical implications that stem from the "view from nowhere" afforded by satellite imagery. Therefore, this thesis is divided into three sections. The first looks at the geographical questions raised by the expansion of remote sensing use in the context of international activism. The second explores the complications inherent in the presentation of remote sensing data as evidence of war crimes. Building upon the first two, the third section is a case study in alternate forms of analysis, aimed at expanding the utility of remote sensing data in international criminal prosecutions.

Walker, James Robin

332

Towards a Right to Sustainable Energy: The Contribution of Human Dignity to the Promotion of Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human dignity and sustainable development represent two of the most important concepts relevant to the governance of modern society. Human dignity forms the basis for the modern approach to preserve and protect human rights. Sustainable development is concerned with defending and protecting the environment in harmony with economic and social development. While these concepts have different emphases, both human dignity

Shalom Blustein

2012-01-01

333

The quest for universality: reflections on the Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.  

PubMed

This essay focuses on two underlying presumptions that impinge on the effort of UNESCO to engender universal agreement on a set of bioethical norms: the conception of universality that pervades much of the document, and its disregard of structural inequalities that significantly impact health. Drawing on other UN system documents and recent feminist bioethics scholarship, we argue that the formulation of universal principles should not rely solely on shared ethical values, as the draft document affirms, but also on differences in ethical values that obtain across cultures. UNESCO's earlier work on gender mainstreaming illustrates the necessity of thinking from multiple perspectives in generating universal norms. The declaration asserts the 'fundamental equality of all human beings in dignity and rights'(1) and insists that 'the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition'(2) yet it does not explicitly recognize disparities of power and wealth that deny equal dignity and rights to many. Without attention to structural (as opposed to merely accidental) inequities, UNESCO's invocation of rights is so abstract as to be incompatible with its avowed intention. PMID:16128857

Rawlinson, Mary C; Donchin, Anne

2005-09-01

334

Center of the Storm: A Case Study of Human Rights Abuses in Hebron District  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently released by Human Rights Watch (HRW), this 82-page report is the product of a five-week investigation in Hebron in November 2000 and February 2001. Human Rights Watch researchers interviewed over 180 victims of and witnesses to abuses, Israeli and Palestinian officials, international observers, medical and educational personnel, and Israeli settler representatives. The report documents the "excessive use of force and unlawful killings by Israeli forces, Palestinian targeting of Israeli civilians, and a systematic policy of Israeli blockades and curfews that amount to collective punishment." It also finds a pattern of violence committed by Jewish settlers against Palestinian civilians in the area, often with the knowledge of Israeli Defense Force (IDF) soldiers. The full text of the report is available in English in HTML and .pdf format. It may also be downloaded in Hebrew in Word and .pdf format and in Arabic in .rtf format.

2001-01-01

335

Human Rights  

ScienceCinema

Daniel Meyer, Président de la ligue française de défense de droits de l'homme et du citoyen fait un exposé sur son engagement (politique). Dans la deuxième partie, une avocate brésilienne (en exil)donne un témoignage de la violation des droits de l'homme sous la dictature militaire de son pays; elle a défendu pendant 6 ans des prisonniers politiques.

None

2011-04-25

336

Globalisation: Frame Word for Education and Training, Human Capital and Human Development/Rights. Language Australia Research Policy and Practice Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet discusses some consequences of internationalization for national training systems from the standpoint of the following two broad approaches often taken by international organizations: (1) the human capital ideology, which assumes human capital is an appropriate basis for education policy; and (2) the human rights and human development…

Lo Bianco, Joseph

337

Human rights abuses and collective resilience among sex workers in four African countries: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. Methods We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. Results In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. Conclusions While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers’ human rights and improving health outcomes in these communities. If developed at sufficient scale and intensity, sex work organisations could play a critical role in reducing the present harms caused by criminalisation and stigma. PMID:23889941

2013-01-01

338

Modeling Narrative Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis describes new approaches to the formal modeling of narrative discourse. Although narratives of all kinds are ubiquitous in daily life, contemporary text processing techniques typically do not leverage the aspects that separate narrative from expository discourse. We describe two approaches to the problem. The first approach considers…

Elson, David K.

2012-01-01

339

Galactic Discourse Issue 5  

E-print Network

??????????????????????? Rumor Has It (fiction) ???????????????????????? Anna Walker ??????????????????????? I Know You (poem) ????????????????????????????? 8. L. Barr ???????????????????????? Later, My Friend (poem) ??????????????????????? Debbie Gilbert...: Berkeley Hunt. PROOFREADERS: Mabel 8lunk, Vivian Huff, Berkeley Hunt, Andrea Kunz, & Debbie Kutter. GALACTIC DISCOURSE 5 was printed by Graphtech Printing, Montclair, CA. Copyright ~April, 1987 by Laurie Huff for the contributors. GALACTIC DISCOURSE...

Multiple Contributors

1987-01-01

340

The Spirit That Moves Us. A Literature-Based Resource Guide on Teaching about the Holocaust & Human Rights, Grades Kindergarten through Four.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Holocaust Human Rights Center of Maine is dedicated to providing assistance and support to Maine's teachers on the study and participation of human rights and on teaching the Holocaust. This guide was created to reinforce the purpose and objectives of "Maine's Common Core of Learning," relating to citizenship, human rights, and cultural…

Petovello, Laura R.

341

Health-related rehabilitation and human rights: analyzing states' obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.  

PubMed

Globally, disability represents a major challenge for health systems and contributes to the rising demand for rehabilitation care. An extensive body of evidence testifies to the barriers that people with disabilities confront in accessing rehabilitation services and to the enormous impact this has on their lives. The international legal dimension of rehabilitation is underexplored, although access to rehabilitation is a human right enshrined in numerous legal documents, specifically the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. However, to date, no study has analyzed the implications of the Convention for Rehabilitation Policy and Organization. This article clarifies states' obligations with respect to health-related rehabilitation for persons with disabilities under the Convention. These obligations relate to the provision of rehabilitation but extend across several key human right commitment areas such as equality and nondiscrimination; progressive realization; international cooperation; participation in policymaking processes; the accessibility, availability, acceptability, and quality of rehabilitation services; privacy and confidentiality; and informed decision making and accountability. To support effective implementation of the Convention, governments need to focus their efforts on all these areas and devise appropriate measures to monitor compliance with human rights principles and standards in rehabilitation policy, service delivery, and organization. This article lays the foundations for a rights-based approach to rehabilitation and offers a framework that may assist in the evaluation of national rehabilitation strategies and the identification of gaps in the implementation of the Convention. PMID:25130185

Skempes, Dimitrios; Stucki, Gerold; Bickenbach, Jerome

2015-01-01

342

Access To Essential Maternal Health Interventions and Human Rights Violations among Vulnerable Communities in Eastern Burma  

PubMed Central

Background Health indicators are poor and human rights violations are widespread in eastern Burma. Reproductive and maternal health indicators have not been measured in this setting but are necessary as part of an evaluation of a multi-ethnic pilot project exploring strategies to increase access to essential maternal health interventions. The goal of this study is to estimate coverage of maternal health services prior to this project and associations between exposure to human rights violations and access to such services. Methods and Findings Selected communities in the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions of eastern Burma that were accessible to community-based organizations operating from Thailand were surveyed to estimate coverage of reproductive, maternal, and family planning services, and to assess exposure to household-level human rights violations within the pilot-project target population. Two-stage cluster sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15–45 y) documented access to essential antenatal care interventions, skilled attendance at birth, postnatal care, and family planning services. Mid-upper arm circumference, hemoglobin by color scale, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia by rapid diagnostic dipstick were measured. Exposure to human rights violations in the prior 12 mo was recorded. Between September 2006 and January 2007, 2,914 surveys were conducted. Eighty-eight percent of women reported a home delivery for their last pregnancy (within previous 5 y). Skilled attendance at birth (5.1%), any (39.3%) or ? 4 (16.7%) antenatal visits, use of an insecticide-treated bed net (21.6%), and receipt of iron supplements (11.8%) were low. At the time of the survey, more than 60% of women had hemoglobin level estimates ? 11.0 g/dl and 7.2% were Pf positive. Unmet need for contraceptives exceeded 60%. Violations of rights were widely reported: 32.1% of Karenni households reported forced labor and 10% of Karen households had been forced to move. Among Karen households, odds of anemia were 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95–2.40) times higher among women reporting forced displacement, and 7.47 (95% CI 2.21–25.3) higher among those exposed to food security violations. The odds of receiving no antenatal care services were 5.94 (95% CI 2.23–15.8) times higher among those forcibly displaced. Conclusions Coverage of basic maternal health interventions is woefully inadequate in these selected populations and substantially lower than even the national estimates for Burma, among the lowest in the region. Considerable political, financial, and human resources are necessary to improve access to maternal health care in these communities. PMID:19108601

Mullany, Luke C; Lee, Catherine I; Yone, Lin; Paw, Palae; Oo, Eh Kalu Shwe; Maung, Cynthia; Lee, Thomas J; Beyrer, Chris

2008-01-01

343

Ethics, human rights and HIV vaccine trials in low-income settings.  

PubMed

The massive growth in global health research in past decades has posed many challenges for its effective ethical oversight, not least of which is how best to provide effective protection of research participants. The extent of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa in particular makes research into prevention technologies for HIV, including HIV vaccine research, a global priority. However, the need for vaccine research must be considered in conjunction with the individual's right to informed consent, which is based on the principle of respect for autonomy. One of the primary human rights violations likely to occur in the context of HIV vaccine research is that potential research participants may not fully understand what participation in research studies entails. People who elect to enrol in HIV vaccine trials are required to understand both the potential negative effects of participation (eg, discrimination) as well as complex scientific concepts such as randomisation and prophylaxis in order to be ethically enrolled. In this study, two vignettes are presented to illustrate two core issues in conducting phase III HIV vaccine trials in low-income countries-namely, (1) from the perspective of participants, the extent to which understanding is a prerequisite for consenting to participate in a trial, and (2) from the perspective of trial investigators, whether it is appropriate to persuade eligible people to enrol in a trial, even though their initial reaction is to decline to participate. These vignettes are used to analyse these issues through the prisms of research ethics and human rights in order to identify helpful synergies. It is argued that the human rights perspective provides a helpful lens on ethical issues. PMID:22147744

London, Leslie; Kagee, Ashraf; Moodley, Keymanthri; Swartz, Leslie

2012-05-01

344

The Complexity of Human Rights in Global Times: The Case of the Right to Education in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The right to education has an established legacy in international agreements and debates, but has nonetheless proved difficult to achieve across the countries of the world. This paper explores why this might be so. It begins by locating the current architecture of rights in Enlightenment philosophy and the political and legal formations of…

Christie, Pam

2010-01-01

345

Global Citizenship and Human Rights: A Longitudinal Analysis of Social Studies and Ethics Textbooks in the Republic of Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What happens to traditional civic notions of nation, national identity, and constitutional rights when national curricula incorporate ideas of global citizenship, other national identities, diversity, and human rights? Using a longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we address this issue by analyzing the nature of changes in South Korean civic…

Moon, Rennie J.; Koo, Jeong-Woo

2011-01-01

346

Gender, race + geography = jeopardy: marginalized women, human rights and HIV in the United States.  

PubMed

Across the United States, laws, policies, and practices put women living with HIV in jeopardy. In particular, the dignity, health, and well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV as well as the health and well-being of their families and communities is hampered by punitive laws and policies. Laws and policies that do not meet, or worse, criminalize women's sexual and reproductive rights result in the economic, social and political deprivation of marginalized women and girls-and especially those living with and at risk of HIV. These laws and policies exacerbate an already outsized HIV epidemic in underserved communities, and communities of color in the United States. This article draws from and builds on a human rights workshop that took place as part of the forum "Bringing Gender Home: Implementing Gender Responsive HIV/AIDS Programming for US Women and Girls," sponsored by the Office of Women's Health. It focuses on the damaging impact of laws, policies, and practices that criminalize women's sexuality. These laws significantly impact the well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV, and have an impact on the capacity of poor women of color in the United States to fully exercise their rights. When laws that purport to protect public health have the result of limiting women's reproductive choices, or have a disproportionate impact on marginalized groups such as sex workers, fundamental breaches of women's rights occur. PMID:22055674

Fried, Susana T; Kelly, Brook

2011-11-01

347

Biobanking and public health: is a human rights approach the tie that binds?  

PubMed

Ethical principles guiding public health and genomic medicine are often at odds: whereas public health practice adopts collectivist principles that emphasize population-based benefits, recent advances in genomic and personalized medicine are grounded in an individualist ethic that privileges informed consent, and the balancing of individual risk and benefit. Indeed, the attraction of personalized medicine is the promise it holds out to help individuals get the "right medicine for the right problem at the right time." Research biobanks are an effective tool in the genomic medicine toolbox. Biobanking in public health presents a unique case study to unpack some of these issues in more detail. For example, there is a long history of using banked tissue obtained under clinical diagnostic conditions for later public health uses. But despite the collectivist approach of public health, the principles applied to the ethical challenges of biobanking (e.g. informed consent, autonomy, privacy) remain individualist. We demonstrate the value of using human rights as a public health ethics framework to address this tension in biobanking by applying it to two illustrative cases. PMID:21761137

Meslin, Eric M; Garba, Ibrahim

2011-09-01

348

Using human rights-based approaches to conceptualise lesbian and bisexual women's health inequalities.  

PubMed

This article makes a contribution to current debates in human rights-based approaches to lesbian and bisexual (LB) women's health. With reference to concepts embodied in the Yogyakarta Principles, it is proposed that the right to health includes access to health information, participation, equity, equality and non-discrimination. Specifically, the article examines how LB women's health can be considered as a health inequality and discusses international developments to reduce disparities. Drawing on qualitative data collected in an online survey, the article reports on sexual minority women's experiences of health-care. Participants were recruited via a purposive sampling strategy; questionnaires were completed by 6490 respondents of whom 5909 met the study criteria of residence in the UK, sexual orientation and completing the survey once. Analysis revealed four broad themes: heteronormativity in health-care; improving attitudes among healthcare professionals; equality in access; raising awareness and informed communities. The accounts highlight the centrality of human rights principles: fairness, respect, equality, dignity and autonomy. The implications for healthcare policy and practice are discussed including ways to empower staff and service users with knowledge and skills and ensuring non-discrimination in health service delivery. PMID:20113366

Fish, Julie; Bewley, Susan

2010-07-01

349

‘Operationalizing’ the Capability Approach as a Basis for Equality and Human Rights Monitoring in Twenty?first?century Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines a new capability?based measurement framework that has been developed as a basis for equality and human rights monitoring in twenty?first?century Britain. We explore the conceptual foundations of the framework and demonstrate its practical application for the purposes of monitoring equality (in terms of the distribution of substantive freedoms and opportunities among individuals and groups) and human rights

Tania Burchardt; Polly Vizard

2011-01-01

350

Kill Bill! Ugandan human rights organizations' attempts to influence the media's coverage of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill.  

PubMed

The Ugandan Anti-Homosexuality Bill of October 2009 caused an international outcry and sparked intense debate in the local and international media. Particularly contentious was its proposal to impose the death penalty for acts of 'aggravated homosexuality'. Through a quantitative content analysis of 176 items from two main daily newspapers, the government-owned New Vision and the privately-owned Daily Monitor, over the period October 2009-June 2010, combined with qualitative interviews with human rights defenders in Uganda, this study explores attempts made by local human rights advocates to influence the media's coverage of the Bill and the extent to which these attempts were successful. The study finds that while there are significant differences between the frequency of reporting on the Bill in the two newspapers, both papers devoted little editorial space to the public health and human rights concerns put forward by local human rights organizations. Despite Uganda's recent and often lauded history of openly addressing HIV/AIDS, human right organizations' attempts to highlight the Bill's potentially adverse effects on the country's ability to tackle the epidemic effectively were only partially successful and, interestingly, awarded much less attention than the potential human rights implications of the proposed change in legislation. PMID:21714747

Strand, Cecilia

2011-09-01

351

Asymmetric right/left encoding of emotions in the human subthalamic nucleus  

PubMed Central

Emotional processing is lateralized to the non-dominant brain hemisphere. However, there is no clear spatial model for lateralization of emotional domains in the basal ganglia. The subthalamic nucleus (STN), an input structure in the basal ganglia network, plays a major role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). This role is probably not limited only to the motor deficits of PD, but may also span the emotional and cognitive deficits commonly observed in PD patients. Beta oscillations (12–30 Hz), the electrophysiological signature of PD, are restricted to the dorsolateral part of the STN that corresponds to the anatomically defined sensorimotor STN. The more medial, more anterior and more ventral parts of the STN are thought to correspond to the anatomically defined limbic and associative territories of the STN. Surprisingly, little is known about the electrophysiological properties of the non-motor domains of the STN, nor about electrophysiological differences between right and left STNs. In this study, microelectrodes were utilized to record the STN spontaneous spiking activity and responses to vocal non-verbal emotional stimuli during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries in human PD patients. The oscillation properties of the STN neurons were used to map the dorsal oscillatory and the ventral non-oscillatory regions of the STN. Emotive auditory stimulation evoked activity in the ventral non-oscillatory region of the right STN. These responses were not observed in the left ventral STN or in the dorsal regions of either the right or left STN. Therefore, our results suggest that the ventral non-oscillatory regions are asymmetrically associated with non-motor functions, with the right ventral STN associated with emotional processing. These results suggest that DBS of the right ventral STN may be associated with beneficial or adverse emotional effects observed in PD patients and may relieve mental symptoms in other neurological and psychiatric diseases. PMID:24194703

Eitan, Renana; Shamir, Reuben R.; Linetsky, Eduard; Rosenbluh, Ovadya; Moshel, Shay; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Bergman, Hagai; Israel, Zvi

2013-01-01

352

Bedford v. Canada: a paradigmatic case toward ensuring the human and health rights of sex workers.  

PubMed

The Criminal Code of Canada prohibits certain aspects of sex work: the keeping of a common bawdy-house, living off the avails of prostitution and communicating for the purposes of prostitution in a public place. These legal constraints impede sex workers' ability to practise their profession safely and without risk to their bodily integrity; they also impair their personal autonomy and can lead to their stigmatization. Bedford v. Canada is a groundbreaking case, since the applicants and intervening organizations seek to overturn aspects of Canadian law that specifically put the health and human rights of sex workers at risk. PMID:22165257

Galldin, Karin; Robertson, Leslie; Wiseman, Charlene

2011-10-01

353

IPCC Makes Climate A Human Rights Issue | newmatilda.com https://newmatilda.com/2014/04/01/ipcc-makes-climate-human-rights-issue[2/04/2014 10:05:17 AM  

E-print Network

-rights-issue[2/04/2014 10:05:17 AM] Climate change is an issue for public health, law, poverty and even human to focus upon the relationship between public health, the environment, and climate change: "Human affects health, and Australia features prominently as an example. The direct impacts of climate change

Botea, Adi

354

Forests, discourses, institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leading question of this Forest Policy and Economics special issue is whether, how and to what extent forest governance processes can be better understood by means of discourse analysis and the science-policy interface. This article focuses on discourses only, but it does so from an institutional perspective. The reasons to advocate this so-called discursive-institutional approach are threefold: (1) to

Bas Arts; Marleen Buizer

2009-01-01

355

Resuscitating the critical in the biological grotesque: blood, guts, biomachismo in science/education and human guinea pig discourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article draws on Bakhtin and other cultural studies theorists to understand the role of the grotesque as a libratory moment in biology education. Four examples of texts and moments are analyzed: Sylvia Branzei's Grossology series of children's books about the grotesque, observations of a pig heart dissection, a standard high school textbook, and zines by and for human subjects. Findings confirm a powerful social leveling effect within the biological grotesque, but limits are also identified. Specifically, the grotesque itself can become a form of social capital in itself, and thus the material for establishing new hierarchies. The paper also examines the ways that teachers and texts try to limit the leveling effects of the grotesque.

Weinstein, Matthew; Broda, Matthew

2009-12-01

356

The National Human Rights Action Plan 2009–2010: the Chinese government’s attitude toward the new criminal procedure reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 13 April 2009, China issued the National Human Rights Action Plan 2009–2010 for the first time, which reflected the Chinese government’s attitude toward the new criminal procedure reform. This plan brought some procedural rights of criminal procedure into the human rights scope, emphasizing the importance of procedural justice in criminal procedure. It paid more attention to the concept of

Zong Bo

2010-01-01

357

Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.

Gadotti, Moacir

2011-08-01

358

FUNCTIONAL NEUROANATOMY OF THE COGNITIVE PROCESS OF MAPPING DURING DISCOURSE COMPREHENSION  

PubMed Central

We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions involved in the process of mapping coherent discourse onto a developing mental representation. We manipulated discourse coherence by presenting sentences with definite articles (which lead to more coherent discourse) or indefinite articles (which lead to less coherent discourse). Comprehending connected discourse, compared with reading unrelated sentences, produced more neural activity in the right than left hemisphere of the frontal lobe. Thus, the right hemisphere of the frontal lobe is involved in some of the processes underlying mapping. In contrast, left-hemisphere structures were associated with lower-level processes in reading (such as word recognition and syntactic processing). Our results demonstrate the utility of using fMRI to investigate the neural substrates of higher-level cognitive processes such as discourse comprehension. PMID:11273413

Robertson, David A.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Guidotti, Seline J.; Robertson, Rachel R.W.; Irwin, William; Mock, Bryan J.; Campana, Mary E.

2015-01-01

359

Lessons from Africa: developing a global human rights framework for tuberculosis control and prevention.  

PubMed

BackgroundTuberculosis is a highly contagious disease, and there has been a rise in recent years of drug-resistant cases no longer responding to standard treatment.In order to address this threat and contain possible transmission of drug-resistant cases, some countries have taken strong action, including the compulsory detention of non-adherent drug-resistant patients. These measures have been strongly criticized by human rights advocates, and they raise the question of how to legally protect both citizens and the community.DiscussionFollowing discussions with National Tuberculosis Programs in Africa (the continent with the highest incidence rates of tuberculosis worldwide), we show that of all the countries surveyed, all but one (Swaziland) had either no specific policy addressing tuberculosis, or only general policies regarding public health applicable to tuberculosis. Six countries also reported having policies that address non-adherence to treatment with containment (isolation in health facilities or incarceration), but laws are not adequately enforced. If the international community wants to effectively respond to the threat of tuberculosis transmission, there is a need to go beyond national tuberculosis policies and to implement an international framework for tuberculosis control, inspired by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, a key model for future public health treaties that address global burdens of disease. The framework, for which we clarify the conditions and procedures in this piece, would define the rights and responsibilities of the different stakeholders involved: patients, doctors, pharmaceutical firms and public authorities. To facilitate the governance of the national obligations under the Convention, a coordinating body should be set up, under the leadership of the World Health Organization and the Stop TB Partnership.SummarySuccessfully implementing policies for tuberculosis that simultaneously address patients¿ rights and communities¿ wellbeing will have positive implications for those affected by the disease and serve as a basis for other global health conventions to truly ensure the global right to health. PMID:25465597

Slagle, Tracy; Ben Youssef, Mehdi; Calonge, Golda; Ben Amor, Yanis

2014-12-01

360

Human rights and health disparities for migrant workers in the UAE.  

PubMed

Systematic violations of migrant workers' human rights and striking health disparities among these populations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are the norm in member countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Migrant laborers comprise about 90 percent of the UAE workforce and include approximately 500,000 construction workers and 450,000 domestic workers. Like many other GCC members countries, the UAE witnessed an unprecedented construction boom during the early 2000s, attracting large numbers of Western expatriates and increasing demand for cheap migrant labor. Elite Emiratis' and Western expatriates' dependence on household staff further promoted labor migration. This paper offers a summary of existing literature on migrant workers and human rights in the UAE, focusing on their impact on related health ramifications and disparities, with specific attention to construction workers, domestic workers, and trafficked women and children. Construction workers and domestic laborers are victims of debt bondage and face severe wage exploitation, and experience serious health and safety problems resulting from inhumane work and living conditions. High rates of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse impact the health of domestic workers. Through a review of available literature, including official reports, scientific papers, and media reports, the paper discusses the responsibility of employers, governments, and the global community in mitigating these problems and reveals the paucity of systematic data on the health of migrant workers in the Gulf. PMID:22773029

Sönmez, Sevil; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Tran, Diane; Rentrope, Shantyana

2011-01-01

361

Construction of a questionnaire for readiness to reconcile in victims of human rights violations  

PubMed Central

Background Post-conflict reconciliation is supposed to have a positive impact on survivors of war and conflict. However, knowledge is limited as validated questionnaires to assess individual readiness to reconcile in the context of human rights violations are still missing. Objectives This study aimed to develop and pilot-test a questionnaire to assess individual readiness to reconcile in victims of human rights violations. Methods The questionnaire was developed and pilot-tested in a sample of 60 adult Kurdish refugees from Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire, trauma exposure, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, perceived emotional closeness to the Kurdish people as well as the participants’ ability to differentiate between perpetrators and the people in general were assessed in structured interviews, and their associations with readiness to reconcile were analyzed. Results Factor and item analysis resulted in an 18-item questionnaire with three subscales (openness to interactions; absence of feelings of revenge; openness to conflict resolution). Cronbach's ? for the subscales ranged from 0.74 to 0.90, explaining 61% of the total variance. The ability to differentiate between perpetrators and people in general and perceived emotional closeness were the best predictors for readiness to reconcile. The level of trauma exposure was not linked to readiness to reconcile. Although readiness to reconcile was negatively related to PTSD, depression and anxiety, none of these associations reached statistical significance. Conclusions The questionnaire appears to be a reliable measure with good psychometric properties. Further validations in different samples are needed. PMID:22893837

Stammel, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Böttche, Maria; Knaevelsrud, Christine

2012-01-01

362

Raising Children with Roots, Rights & Responsibilities: Celebrating the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum resource grew out of a grass roots effort to promote the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child through education and political action. Designed primarily for young children and their parents, the curriculum builds on the power of the parent-child relationship to help build a positive self-image for both parent and…

DuPont, Lori; Foley, Joanne; Gagliardi, Annette

363

Filling the gap: a learning network for health an human rights in the Western Cape, South Africa.  

PubMed

We draw on the experience of a Learning Network for Health and Human Rights (LN) involving collaboration between academic institutions and civil society organizations in the Western Cape, South Africa, aimed at identifying and disseminating best practice related to the right to health. The LN's work in materials development, participatory research, training and capacity-building for action, and advocacy for intervention illustrates important lessons for human rights practice. These include (i) the importance of active translation of knowledge and awareness into action for rights to be made real; (ii) the potential tension arising from civil society action, which might relieve the state of its obligations by delivering services that should be the state's responsibility-and hence the importance of emphasizing civil society's role in holding services accountable in terms of the right to health; (iii) the role of civil society organizations in filling a gap related to obligations to promote rights; (iv) the critical importance of networking and solidarity for building civil society capacity to act for health rights. Evidence from evaluation of the LN is presented to support the argument that civil society can play a key role in bridging a gap between formal state commitment to creating a human rights culture and realizing services and policies that enable the most vulnerable members of society to advance their health. Through access to information and the creation of spaces, both for participation and as a safe environment in which learning can be turned into practice, the agency of those most affected by rights violations can be redressed. We argue that civil society agency is critical to such action. PMID:22773101

London, Leslie; Fick, Nicole; Tram, Khai Hoan; Stuttaford, Maria

2012-01-01

364

Cingulate neglect in humans: Disruption of contralesional reward learning in right brain damage.  

PubMed

Motivational valence plays a key role in orienting spatial attention. Nonetheless, clinical documentation and understanding of motivationally based deficits of spatial orienting in the human is limited. Here in a series of one group-study and two single-case studies, we have examined right brain damaged patients (RBD) with and without left spatial neglect in a spatial reward-learning task, in which the motivational valence of the left contralesional and the right ipsilesional space was contrasted. In each trial two visual boxes were presented, one to the left and one to the right of central fixation. In one session monetary rewards were released more frequently in the box on the left side (75% of trials) whereas in another session they were released more frequently on the right side. In each trial patients were required to: 1) point to each one of the two boxes; 2) choose one of the boxes for obtaining monetary reward; 3) report explicitly the position of reward and whether this position matched or not the original choice. Despite defective spontaneous allocation of attention toward the contralesional space, RBD patients with left spatial neglect showed preserved contralesional reward learning, i.e., comparable to ipsilesional learning and to reward learning displayed by patients without neglect. A notable exception in the group of neglect patients was L.R., who showed no sign of contralesional reward learning in a series of 120 consecutive trials despite being able of reaching learning criterion in only 20 trials in the ipsilesional space. L.R. suffered a cortical-subcortical brain damage affecting the anterior components of the parietal-frontal attentional network and, compared with all other neglect and non-neglect patients, had additional lesion involvement of the medial anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and of the adjacent sectors of the corpus callosum. In contrast to his lateralized motivational learning deficit, L.R. had no lateral bias in the early phases of attentional processing as he suffered no contralesional visual or auditory extinction on double simultaneous tachistoscopic and dichotic stimulation and detected, with no exception, single contralesional visual and auditory stimuli. In a separate study, we were able to compare L.R. with another RBD patient, G.P., who had a selective lesion in the right ACC, in the adjacent callosal connections and the medial-basal prefrontal cortex. G.P. had no contralesional neglect and displayed normal reward learning both in the left and right side of space. These findings show that contralesional reward learning is generally preserved in RBD patients with left spatial neglect and that this can be exploited in rehabilitation protocols. Contralesional reward learning is severely disrupted in neglect patients when an additional lesion of the ACC is present: however, as demonstrated by the comparison between L.R. and G.P. cases, selective unilateral lesion of the right ACC does not produce motivational neglect for the contralesional space. PMID:25239855

Lecce, Francesca; Rotondaro, Francesca; Bonnì, Sonia; Carlesimo, Augusto; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Doricchi, Fabrizio

2015-01-01

365

Teaching about Global Human Rights for Global Citizenship: Action Research in the Social Studies Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are my rights? What can I do if my rights are violated? Who has the right to do that?Questions like these are easily articulated by most students in the United States because from an early age they frequently receive socially diffused rights messages in virtually every aspect of their lives. The United States has been described as a highly…

Gaudelli, William; Fernekes, William R.

2004-01-01

366

Scientific research and human rights: a response to Kitcher on the limitations of inquiry.  

PubMed

In his recent work exploring the role of science in democratic societies Kitcher (Science in a democratic society. Prometheus Books, New York, 2011) claims that scientists ought to have a prominent role in setting the agenda for and limits to research. Against the backdrop of the claim that the proper limits of scientific inquiry is John Stuart Mill’s Harm Principle (Kitcher in Science, truth, and democracy. Oxford University Press, New York, 2001), he identifies the limits of inquiry as the point where the outcomes of research could cause harm to already vulnerable populations. Nonetheless, Kitcher argues against explicit limitations on unscrupulous research on the grounds that restrictions would exacerbate underlying social problems. I show that Kitcher’s argument in favor of dissuading inquiry through conventional standards is problematic and falls prey to the same critique he offers in opposition to official bans. I expand the conversation of limiting scientific research by recognizing that the actions that count as ‘science’ are located in the space between ‘thinking’ and ‘doing’. In this space, we often attempt to balance freedom of research, as scientific speech, against the disparate impact citizens might experience in light of such research. I end by exploring if such disparate impact justifies limiting research, within the context of the United States, under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 or under international human rights standards more generally. PMID:24235027

Victor, Elizabeth

2014-12-01

367

The impact of economic sanctions on health and human rights in Haiti, 1991-1994.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This report examines the impact of an economic embargo from 1991 to 1994 on health, well-being, and human rights in Haiti. METHODS: Data from surveillance systems for nutrition, reportable diseases, and hospital diagnoses were combined with survey data and interviews with affected women, governmental representatives, diplomats, and staff of nongovernmental organizations. RESULTS: Changes included declining income, rising unemployment, poorer nutrition, declining infant mortality, rising mortality among 1- to 4-year-olds, decreased attention to children's well-being and education, and family breakdown. Survival strategies among poor Haitians included changed dietary habits, informal-sector economic activity, moving in with relatives, selling domestic goods, increased informal unions among couples, decreased school attendance, and indentured servitude among children. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of economic sanctions in Haiti resulted in extensive violations of rights; the impact was greatest on the most disadvantaged Haitians. Many Haitian and international supporters of democracy were unaware of the extensive negative impact that sanctions could have. The impact continues now, 5 years after sanctions ended. Modified policies reduced some of the burden of sanctions, and international assistance prevented what otherwise might have become a humanitarian disaster during sanctions. PMID:10511830

Gibbons, E; Garfield, R

1999-01-01

368

The Global Governance of Bioethics: Negotiating UNESCO's Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005).  

PubMed

UNESCO's Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005) was drawn up by an independent panel of experts (the International Bioethics Committee) and negotiated by member states. UNESCO aimed for a participatory and transparent drafting process, holding national and regional consultations and seeking the views of various interest groups, including religious and spiritual ones. Furthermore, reflecting UNESCO's broad interpretation of bioethics, the IBC included medics, scientists, lawyers and philosophers among its membership. Nevertheless, several potential stakeholders-academic scientists and ethicists, government policy-makers and NGO representatives-felt they had not been sufficiently consulted or even represented during the Declaration's development. Better communications and understanding within and between national, regional and international layers of governance would help to avoid a recurrence of this problem in future negotiations. PMID:22724045

Langlois, Adèle

2011-01-01

369

Organizing, Educating, and Advocating for Health and Human Rights in Vieques, Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

I briefly review the process of community organization, education, and advocacy activities that ended the harmful military practices in the island-municipality of Vieques, Puerto Rico, while drawing attention to the intersection of human rights and social justice in the context of local and global implications. The Viequense experience was one of building an organization based on people’s experiences and strengths, educating people to increase individual and collective efficacy and power, and advocating for policy change with an assertive cohesive action. Public health practitioners must continue supporting community-led interventions in the restoration of the island’s environment and other resources vital for people’s health and well-being. PMID:15623851

Torres, Maria Idalí

2005-01-01

370

Orphans and at-risk children in Haiti: vulnerabilities and human rights issues postearthquake.  

PubMed

The vulnerability of children in Haiti has increased dramatically since the earthquake in January 2010. Prior to the earthquake, the prevalence of orphans and at-risk children was high but since the earthquake, more than 1 million people-with more than 380,000 children remaining displaced and living in over 1200 displacement sites. These existing conditions leave orphans and at-risk children vulnerable to exploitation, abuse, and increased risk of HIV/AIDS. This article will focus on the complex issues affecting orphans and at-risk children and the intersection with HIV/AIDS and human rights. Specific recommendations by United Nations Children's Fund are discussed. Nursing in Haiti must address the policy-related and population-specific approaches for the care of children living with or affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:22565792

Nicholas, Patrice K; George, Erin K; Raymond, Nadia; Lewis-O?Connor, Annie; Victoria, Stephanie; Lucien, Sergeline; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen; Hickey, Nancy; Corless, Inge B; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Davis, Sheila M; Barry, Donna; Marcelin, Naomie; Valcourt, Roodeline

2012-01-01

371

Discourse Tracing as Qualitative Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…

LeGreco, Marianne; Tracy, Sarah J.

2009-01-01

372

Expanding Discourse Repertoires with Hybridity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally…

Kelly, Gregory J.

2012-01-01

373

Diversifying Procedural Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the main characteristics of procedural discourse are well known, less is known about its various subtypes. Most of the data for the present paper are taken from Category E (skills, trades, and hobbies) in the Brown and LOB corpora, supplemented with examples from computer manuals and a manual for drivers. Following a survey of previous…

Wikberg, Kay

374

Discourse Devices in Telugu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to discuss some of the productive discourse devices and markers noted in 50 spoken narratives elicited from Telugu native speakers. Since most of them are college students and residents of Hyderabad, they are also exposed to English as well as Hindi-Urdu (Dakkhini). After presenting certain salient features of Telugu…

Rani, A. Usha

2010-01-01

375

The Interpretation of Human Rights in English Social Work: An Exploration in the Context of Services for Children and for Parents with Learning Difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human rights are a central part of a social worker's value base in contemporary practice, but the structures by which social work services are delivered can adversely affect practitioners’ abilities to uphold service user rights. This article describes the organizational development of social work services in England and the evolution of a rights focus for the practice of social work.

Ian Buchanan; Robert Gunn

2007-01-01

376

The right to fashion in the age of terrorism.  

PubMed

As part of a feminist commitment to collaboration, this article appears as a companion essay to Mimi Thi Nguyen's "The Biopower of Beauty: Humanitarian Imperialisms and Global Feminisms" and offers a point of departure for thinking about fashion and beauty as processes that produce subjects recruited to, and aligned with, the national interests of the United States in the war on terror. The Muslim woman in the veil and her imagined opposite in the fashionably modern - and implicitly Western - woman become convenient metaphors for articulating geopolitical contests of power as a human rights concern, as a rescue mission, as a beautifying mandate. This article examines newer iterations of this opposition, in the wake of September 11, 2001, in order to demonstrate the critical resonance of a biopolitics on fashion and beauty. In "The Right to Fashion in the Age of Terrorism," the author examines the relationship between the U.S. war on terror, targeting persons whose sartorial choices are described as terrorist-looking and oppressive, and the right-to-fashion discourse, which promotes fashion's mass-market diffusion as a civil liberty. Looking at these multiple invocations of the democratization of fashion, this article argues that the right-to-fashion discourse colludes with the war on terror by fabricating a neoliberal consumer-citizen who is also a couture-citizen and whose right to fashion reasserts U.S.exceptionalism, which is secured by private property, social mobility, and individualism. PMID:21114081

Pham, Minh-Ha T

2011-01-01

377

Promoting Service User Inclusion in Risk Assessment and Management: A Pilot Project Developing a Human Rights-Based Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent reports highlight the extent to which many people with learning disabilities are not afforded access to their basic human rights. In addition, traditional approaches to risk management often focus on professional assessments of risks and challenging behaviour and exclude service user perspectives. In this paper, we outline what we believe…

Greenhill, Beth; Whitehead, Richard

2011-01-01

378

75 FR 60567 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Serious Human Rights Abuses by the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Human Rights Abuses by the Government of Iran and Taking Certain Other Actions By the...C. 1601et seq.), the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment...to be an official of the Government of Iran or a person acting on behalf of the...

2010-10-01

379

Gendered-Caste Discrimination, Human Rights Education, and the Enforcement of the Prevention of Atrocities Act in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the constitutional ban on the practice of untouchability and caste-based discrimination, this article elaborates on a gendered-caste-based discriminatory reality in rural India, the difficulties of enforcing legal remedies, and on related human rights praxis to address gendered-caste atrocities by drawing on the experiences of a Canadian…

Kapoor, Dip

2007-01-01

380

Introducing Human Rights Education in the Confucian Society of Taiwan: Its Implications for Ethical Leadership in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses recent introduction of human-rights education in Taiwan. Describes essential characteristics of Confucian ethics; compares Confucianism with ethical leadership in education. Discusses relationship between findings on the use of corporal punishment in Taiwanese schools and ethical leadership. Describes worldwide use of corporal punishment…

Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

2001-01-01

381

A human rights view on access to controlled substances for medical purposes under the international drug control framework.  

PubMed

The world is confronted with a major public health deficit caused by poor access to controlled essential medicines under the international drug control framework. This is affecting millions of patients on a daily basis and resulting in numerous human rights violations. The present review contextualises this deficit from a human rights perspective. Drug control efforts are informed by a twofold objective stemming from the double nature of scheduled substances: free access for medical purposes should be ensured, though non-medical use of substances such as opium should be restricted. The international drug control framework is, in theory, based on this twofold notion, however at the level of interpretation, monitoring, and implementation, a one-sided emphasis is demonstrated. By tracing a parallel between the obligations of states under the international drug control framework and those that derive from human rights law, the review shows that the two systems seem incoherent and conflicting in nature and flags the importance of cross-disciplinary research into drug control and human rights. PMID:23872413

Gispen, Marie Elske C

2013-11-01

382

Contesting Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation at the ICAE Sixth World Assembly: "Difference" Is a Fundamental Human Right."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives a brief history of the field of international adult education regarding sexual orientation, including events at the Sixth World Assembly. Presents 13 strategies for the elimination of homophobia and discrimination. Asserts that difference is a fundamental human right. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

Hill, Robert J.

2001-01-01

383

Is Turkey democratizing with EU reforms?: an assessment of human rights, corruption and socio-economic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study draws attention to corruption, human rights violations and economic instability as impeding factors of democratization in Turkey until the late 1990s. It is investigated if these conditions have been changing with reforms during Turkey’s candidacy to the European Union since 1999. The analysis indicates that the level of politicians’ accountability is still low and corruption still continues to

Demet Yalcin Mousseau

2012-01-01

384

Human rights abuse and other criminal violations in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: a random survey of households  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Reliable evidence of the frequency and severity of human rights abuses in Haiti after the departure of the elected president in 2004 was scarce. We assessed data from a random survey of households in the greater Port-au-Prince area. Methods Using random Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinate sampling, 1260 households (5720 individuals) were sampled. They were interviewed with a structured

Athena R Kolbe; Royce A Hutson

2006-01-01

385

Discourse Production Following Injury to the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with damage to the prefrontal cortex, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in particular, often demonstrate difficulties with the formulation of complex language not attributable to aphasia. The present study employed a discourse analysis procedure to characterize the language of individuals with left (L) or right (R) DLPFC…

Coelho, Carl; Le, Karen; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

2012-01-01

386

A Reappraisal of Lexical Cohesion in Conversational Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cohesion, or the connectedness of discourse, has been recognized as playing a crucial role in both language production and comprehension processes. Researchers have debated about the "right" number and classification of cohesive devices, as well as about their interaction with coherence and/or genre. The present study proposes an integrative model…

Gomez Gonzalez, Maria De Los Angeles

2013-01-01

387

Children's Human Rights Education as a Counter to Social Disadvantage: A Case Study from England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children's rights education in schools has many social and educational benefits. Among them are a deeper understanding of rights and social responsibility, an improved school climate, and greater school engagement and achievement. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether children's rights education has the power to…

Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; Polegato, Jillian L.

2011-01-01

388

Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. Global battle cry: health is a right, not a commodity.  

PubMed

Health is a fundamental right, not a commodity to be sold at a profit, argues Irene Fernandez in the second Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture delivered on 8 July 2002 to the XIV International AIDS Conference in Barcelona. Ms Fernandez had to obtain a special permit from the Malaysian government to attend the Conference because she is on trial for having publicly released information about abuse, torture, illness, corruption, and death in Malaysian detention camps for migrants. This article, based on Ms Fernandez' presentation, describes how the policies of the rich world have failed the poor world. According to Ms Fernandez, the policies of globalization and privatization of health care have hindered the ability of developing countries to respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The article decries the hypocrisy of the industrialized nations in increasing subsidies to farmers while demanding that the developing world open its doors to Western goods. It points out that the rich nations have failed to live up their foreign aid commitments. The article concludes that these commitments--and the other promises made in the last few years, such as those in the United Nations' Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS--can only become a reality if they are translated into action. PMID:14743815

Fernandez, Irene

2002-12-01

389

Promotional (Meta)Discourse in Research Articles in Language and Literary Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is now widely recognized that self-promotion in academic discourse varies across disciplines. Whereas most analysts focus on publicization techniques in natural and social sciences, the humanities have received much less attention. This article investigates the strategies associated with promotional (meta)discourse in the humanities. In…

Afros, Elena; Schryer, Catherine F.

2009-01-01

390

U.S. foreign policies of presidents Bush and Clinton: The influence of China's most favored nation status upon human rights issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States must find a new direction in its efforts to curb China's human rights abuses. The change will be a slow and difficult one, with each step measured by countless sacrifices. Without such steps, however, tens of thousands will suffer. During the last two presidential administrations, focus on human rights issues has increased as a result of the

Donald D. A. Schaefer

1998-01-01

391

Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (II): history of torture and other traumatic experience of violence and functional assessment of victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Organised crime and political violence (OPV) and human rights violations have marred Bangladesh history since 1971. Little is known about the consequences for the oppressed population. This study describes the patterns of OPV and human rights violations in a disturbed area of Bangladesh and assesses the physical, emotional and social functioning of victims. METHODS: A total of 236 of

Shr-Jie Wang; Mohammad Akramul Haque; Saber-ud-Daula Masum; Shuvodwip Biswas; Jens Modvig

2009-01-01

392

Human Rights - the Property of the Nation State or a Concern for the International Community? A Study of the Soviet Positions Concerning UN Protection of Civil and Political Rights since 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bergesen, H. O. Human Rights - the Property of the Nation State or a Concern for the International Community? A Study of the Soviet Positions Concerning UN Protection of Civil and Political Rights since 1975. Cooperation and Conflict, XIV, 1979, 239-254.The paper analyzes Soviet policy - in general and in concrete cases - as regards the role of UN bodies

Helge Ole Bergesen

1979-01-01

393

Expanding discourse repertoires with hybridity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally dynamic." The hybrid discourse practices are described as involving the dynamic interplay of at least three key elements: "the lamination of multiple cultural frames, the shifting relations between people and their discourse, and the shifting power relations between and among people." Each of these elements requires a respective unit of analysis and are often mutually reinforcing. The authors present a theoretically cogent argument for the study of hybrid discourse practices and identify the potential such discourses may have for science education. This theoretical development leads to an analysis of spoken and written discourse around a set of educational events concerning the investigation of owl pellets by two fifth grade students, their classmates, and teacher. Two discourse segments are presented and analyzed by the authors in detail. The first is a discourse analysis of the dissection of the owl pellet by two students, Kyle and Max. The second analysis examines the science report of these same two students. In this article, I pose a number of questions about the study with the hope that by doing so I expand the conversation around the insightful analysis presented.

Kelly, Gregory J.

2012-09-01

394

Costing Human Rights and Community Support Interventions as a Part of Universal Access to HIV Treatment and Care in a Southern African Setting  

PubMed Central

Expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has both individual health benefits and potential to decrease HIV incidence. Ensuring access to HIV services is a significant human rights issue and successful programmes require adequate human rights protections and community support. However, the cost of specific human rights and community support interventions for equitable, sustainable and non-discriminatory access to ART are not well described. Human rights and community support interventions were identified using the literature and through consultations with experts. Specific costs were then determined for these health sector interventions. Population and epidemic data were provided through the Statistics South Africa 2009 national mid-year estimates. Costs of scale up of HIV prevention and treatment were taken from recently published estimates. Interventions addressed access to services, minimising stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV, confidentiality, informed consent and counselling quality. Integrated HIV programme interventions included training for counsellors, ‘Know Your Rights’ information desks, outreach campaigns for most at risk populations, and adherence support. Complementary measures included post-service interviews, human rights abuse monitoring, transportation costs, legal assistance, and funding for human rights and community support organisations. Other essential non-health sector interventions were identified but not included in the costing framework. The annual costs for the human rights and community support interventions are United States (US) $63.8 million (US $1.22 per capita), representing 1.5% of total health sector HIV programme costs. Respect for human rights and community engagement can be understood both as an obligation of expanded ART programmes and as a critically important factor in their success. Basic rights-based and community support interventions constitute only a small percentage of overall programmes costs. ART programs should consider measuring the cost and impact of human rights and community support interventions as key aspects of successful programme expansion. PMID:21999777

Jones, Louisa; Akugizibwe, Paula; Clayton, Michaela; Amon, Joseph J; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Bennett, Rod; Stegling, Christine; Baggaley, Rachel; Kahn, James G; Holmes, Charles B; Garg, Navneet; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Mack, Christina DeFilippo; Williams, Phoebe; Smyth, Caoimhe; Vitoria, Marco; Crowley, Siobhan; Williams, Brian; McClure, Craig; Granich, Reuben; Hirnschall, Gottfried

2011-01-01

395

HUMAN RIGHTS ASSESSMENT IN PARC JEAN MARIE VINCENT, PORT-AU-PRINCE, HAITI  

PubMed Central

Months after a 7.0 magnitude earthquake hit Port-au-Prince, Haiti, over one million remain homeless and living in spontaneous internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Billions of dollars from aid organizations and government agencies have been pledged toward the relief effort, yet many basic human needs, including food, shelter, and sanitation, continue to be unmet. The Sphere Project, “Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response,” identifies the minimum standards to be attained in disaster response. From a human rights perspective and utilizing key indicators from the Sphere Project as benchmarks, this article reports on an assessment of the living conditions approximately 12 weeks after the earthquake in Parc Jean Marie Vincent, a spontaneous IDP camp in Port-au-Prince. A stratified random sample of households in the camp, proportionate to the number of families living in each sector, was selected. Interview questions were designed to serve as “key indicators” for the Sphere Project minimum standards. A total of 486 interviews were completed, representing approximately 5% of households in each of the five sectors of the camp. Our assessment identified the relative achievements and shortcomings in the provision of relief services in Parc Jean Marie Vincent. At the time of this survey, the Sphere Project minimum standards for access to health care and quantity of water per person per day were being met. Food, shelter, sanitation, and security were below minimum accepted standard and of major concern. The formal assessment reported here was completed by September 2010, and is necessarily limited to conditions in Haiti before the cholera outbreak in October. PMID:21178190

Cullen, Kimberly A.; Ivers, Louise C.

2014-01-01

396

US "Partnership" with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and its Effect on Civil Society and Human Rights.  

PubMed

Looking at Egypt before, during and after the Arab Spring, this paper examines the intersection of Christian Copts, the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian army, moderate Muslims and secular groups. In turn, it examines the Obama administration's policies toward Egypt. It discloses the surprising finding that the only consistent aspect of the administration's policy toward Egypt has been outreach to and engagement with the Muslim Brotherhood. At no time before or after the Brotherhood's ascent to prominence in Egyptian politics and society did the administration make support of the Brotherhood conditional. At no time did it use US leverage - given the massive amount of financial and military aid Egypt was depending on, and given the new Egyptian government's desire for prestige in the world community-to pressure the Morsi government to respect human rights, religious liberty and the impartial rule of law. Arguing that American foreign policy at its best is rooted in democratic ideals, this paper asks whether the United States, while respecting that Egyptians must choose their leaders and their political system, could have done more to encourage a positive strategic, moral and political outcome. PMID:24415811

Pierce, Anne R

2014-01-01

397

Fashioning a work-based strategy for welfare reform based on international human rights doctrine.  

PubMed

The role of work in debates over welfare reform in the United States is analyzed. Five issues are identified and discussed under this heading, with special emphasis on the question of whether enough jobs exist to make it possible for all able-bodied welfare recipients to find paid employment in the regular labor market. It is argued that there are not enough jobs available--not even low-wage jobs--to make this a reasonable goal, and that neither conservatives nor liberals have faced up to the dilemma posed by this job shortage. International human rights doctrine concerning the availability of work at decent wages is cited in support of the proposition that the government should be held accountable for filling this job gap, not only for welfare recipients but for all other job-seekers as well. The costs of a hypothetical jobs program capable of achieving this goal are assessed, with the surprising result that it might actually save the public money. It is suggested that such a program could constitute an effective alternative to current welfare reform proposals. PMID:7499511

Harvey, P

1995-01-01

398

Experience of human rights violations and subsequent mental disorders - a study following the war in the Balkans.  

PubMed

War experiences are associated with substantially increased rates of mental disorders, particularly Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depression (MD). There is limited evidence on what type of war experiences have particularly strong associations with subsequent mental disorders. Our objective was to investigate the association of violations of human rights, as indicated in the 4th Geneva Convention, and other stressful war experiences with rates of PTSD and MD and symptom levels of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. In 2005/6, human rights violations and other war experiences, PTSD, post-traumatic stress symptoms and MD were assessed in war affected community samples in five Balkan countries (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Serbia) and refugees in three Western European countries (Germany, Italy, United Kingdom). The main outcome measures were the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. In total 3313 participants in the Balkans and 854 refugees were assessed. Participants reported on average 2.3 rights violations and 2.3 other stressful war experiences. 22.8% of the participants were diagnosed with current PTSD and also 22.8% had MD. Most war experiences significantly increased the risk for both PTSD and MD. When the number of rights violations and other stressful experiences were considered in one model, both were significantly associated with higher risks for PTSD and were significantly associated with higher levels of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. However, only the number of violations, and not of other stressful experiences, significantly increased the risk for MD. We conclude that different types of war experiences are associated with increased prevalence rates of PTSD and MD more than 5 years later. As compared to other stressful experiences, the experience of human rights violations similarly increases the risk of PTSD, but appears more important for MD. PMID:21041008

Priebe, Stefan; Bogic, Marija; Ashcroft, Richard; Franciskovic, Tanja; Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Morina, Nexhmedin; Popovski, Mihajlo; Roughton, Michael; Schützwohl, Matthias; Ajdukovic, Dean

2010-12-01

399

Balancing the principles: why the universality of human rights is not the Trojan horse of moral imperialism.  

PubMed

The new dilemmas and responsibilities which arise in bioethics both because of the unprecedented pace of scientific development and of growing moral pluralism are more and more difficult to grapple with. At the 'global' level, the call for the universal nature at least of some fundamental moral values and principles is often being contended as a testament of arrogance, if not directly as a new kind of subtler imperialism. The human rights framework itself, which provided the basis for the most relevant international declarations and documents, is not exempt from the charge. However, the refusal of a top-down conception of the universal as a sort of product for exportation should not be confused with a relativistic landscape, where all the cows can be indifferently black or white. This contribution aims at outlining an approach, which reconciles universalism as enshrined in founding human rights declarations with respect for cultural diversity. In order to do so, two conceptual frameworks are discussed: the 'tool-kit' model and the morals/ethics difference. The example of the right to quality health care confirms the argument that striking a balance between cherishing pluralism and defending some fundamental rights and obligations does not amount to an assertion of moral imperialism. PMID:23760921

Semplici, Stefano

2013-11-01

400

Electrical restitution in the endocardium of the intact human right ventricle.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To characterise electrical restitution in the intact human heart. PATIENTS AND METHODS--A series of monophasic action potential electrical restitution curves were constructed from a single right ventricular endocardial site in eight patients (three men) without structural heart disease aged 52-68 (mean 55 years). A combination pacing/monophasic action potential electrode was used to pace and record monophasic action potentials at drive cycle lengths of from 350 ms to 1500 ms. Ventricular extrastimuli were delivered at 20 cycle intervals and decreased from the longest coupling interval attainable without escape beats. RESULTS--Restitution curves shifted downward and towards the left; steady state action potential duration shifted from the restitution plateau and descended the curve, the amount of shift being linearly related to drive cycle length in two patients in whom the relation could be assessed; the amount of monophasic action potential shortening was a function of the degree of prematurity and that relation was unaffected by drive rate; the magnitude of restitution and the time constant of the restitution curve were not changed significantly by altered drive cycle length. CONCLUSION--In the intact heart in vivo, electrical restitution (of the monophasic action potential) has similar characteristics to those (of the transmembrane action potential) in cellular preparations in vitro. Thus the alteration of action potential plateau currents by instantaneous rate change or drug effects, which can be directly observed by techniques available to the cellular electrophysiologist, may be indirectly assessed in vivo by characterisation of the effect of these on electrical restitution. PMID:1739524

Morgan, J M; Cunningham, D; Rowland, E

1992-01-01

401

Mexico’s northern border conflict: collateral damage to health and human rights of vulnerable groups  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare distributions of human rights violations and disease risk; to juxtapose these patterns against demographic and structural environmental variables, and to formulate implications for structural interventions. Methods Female sex workers who inject drugs were surveyed in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Structured interviews and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were conducted (October 2008 to October 2009). Frequencies of individual and environmental factors, including police abuse, risk of HIV infection, and protective behaviors, were compared between sites using univariate logistic regression. Results Of 624 women, almost half reported police syringe confiscation despite syringes being legal; 55.6% reported extortion (past 6 months), with significantly higher proportions in Ciudad Juarez (P < 0.001). Reports of recent solicitation of sexual favors (28.5% in Tijuana, 36.5% in Ciudad Juarez, P = 0.04) and sexual abuse (15.7% in Tijuana, 18.3% in Ciudad Juarez) by police were commonplace. Prevalence of STIs was significantly lower in Tijuana than in Ciudad Juarez (64.2% and 83.4%, P < 0.001), paralleling the lower prevalence of sexual risk behaviors there. Ciudad Juarez respondents reported significantly higher median number of monthly clients (6.8 versus 1.5, P < 0.001) and lower median pay per sex act (US$ 10 versus US$ 20, P < 0.001) (in the past month). Relative to Tijuana, security deployment, especially the army’s presence, was perceived to have increased more in Ciudad Juarez in the past year (72.1% versus 59.2%, P = 0.001). Conclusions Collateral damage from police practices in the context of Mexico’s drug conflict may affect public health in the Northern Border Region. Itinerant officers may facilitate disease spread beyond the region. The urgency for mounting structural interventions is discussed. PMID:22767041

Beletsky, Leo; Martinez, Gustavo; Gaines, Tommi; Nguyen, Lucie; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; McCauley, Heather L.; Sorensen, Andrea; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2013-01-01

402

Doctoral Discourses in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the South African context, three doctoral discourses are heard, each with their own assumptions about the purpose of doctoral education and the kinds of people who undertake doctoral study, and with their own implications for the practice of doctoral education. Two of the three discourses are familiar and well documented in the local and…

Backhouse, Judy

2011-01-01

403

The Anatomy of Critical Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical discourse is best understood when its logical features are identified. An examination of the basic elements and modes of rhetorical criticism (a form of critical discourse) produces a finite set of options for the critic, thus enabling him to develop a system of alternatives in his critical efforts. For example, by selecting from among…

Rosenfield, Lawrence W.

1968-01-01

404

Mapping Mathematics in Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a particular analytic method from systemic functional linguistics, "thematic analysis," which reveals the mathematical meaning potentials construed in discourse. Addressing concerns that discourse analysis is too often content-free, thematic analysis provides a way to represent semantic structures of mathematical content,…

Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Otten, Samuel

2011-01-01

405

The Widening Gyre: Counter-terrorism, Human Rights and the Rule of Law There are two themes that recur in previous Sir David Williams lectures. First, that it is a  

E-print Network

The Widening Gyre: Counter-terrorism, Human Rights and the Rule of Law There are two themes, and confess that it is with some trepidation that I do so. The subject, terrorism and human rights to terrorism and human rights, the response to my Google search informed me that in .03 seconds 32

de Gispert, Adrià

406

Have Ecological Human Rights Been Globally Lost? A Conflict of Ecological Spatial Requirements and Cultural Landscape Opportunities in Modern Homo sapiens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The commonly respected set of human rights includes the right for food and water, which are direct consequences of the biological\\u000a design of our species. However, as we argue, this list of inherent rights is not complete, as illustrated by the analysis\\u000a of ecological space scaling and social group size in other mammalian species. The size of individually controlled territory

Anastassia M. Makarieva; Victor G. Gorshkov; Bai-Lian Li

407

Advancing human rights through constitutional protection for gays and lesbians in South Africa.  

PubMed

As a consequence of the 1994 adoption of a justiciable Bill of Rights in South Africa, with an equality provision prohibiting discrimination on the ground of sexual orientation, a coalition of gay and lesbian organisations set about implementing a progressive agenda of gay and lesbian rights litigation. In striking down the offence of sodomy, the Constitutional Court established a jurisprudence of gay and lesbian rights to equality, dignity and privacy that proved to be the foundation for significant litigation around family law issues. Subsequent to the sodomy judgement, the Court has ruled that same-sex couples who are in permanent life partnerships should be entitled to the same rights as married couples to immigration, employment benefits, custody and adoption of children. Despite the extensive equality jurisprudence of the Court, it is still uncertain whether it will rule in the future in favour of same-sex marriage or in favour of a civil union/domestic partnership model. PMID:15814504

Louw, Ronald

2005-01-01

408

Sharing mental simulations and stories: Hippocampal contributions to discourse integration.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that mental simulation of the future and past relies on common processes supported by the hippocampus. However, it is currently unknown whether the hippocampus also supports the ability to share these mental simulations with others. Recently, it has been proposed that language and language-related structures in the brain are particularly important for communicating information not tied to the immediate environment, and indeed specifically evolved so that humans could share their mental time travels into the future and the past with others. The current study investigated whether processes supported by the hippocampus are necessary for effectively communicating the contents of one's mental simulations by examining the discourse of amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe damage. In Experiment 1 we tested whether patients can produce integrated discourse about future and past events by measuring lower-level discourse cohesion and higher-level discourse coherence. Striking reductions in both measures were observed in amnesic patients' narratives about novel future events and experienced past events. To investigate whether these deficits simply reflected concurrent reductions in narrative content, in Experiment 2 we examined the status of discourse integration in patients' verbal narratives about pictures, which contained an equivalent amount of narrative content as controls'. Discourse cohesion and coherence deficits were also present when patients generated narratives based on pictures, and these deficits did not depend on the presence of neural damage outside the hippocampus. Together, these results reveal a pervasive linguistic integration deficit in amnesia that is not limited to discourse about the past or the future and is not simply secondary to reductions in narrative content. More broadly, this study demonstrates that the hippocampus supports the integration of individual narrative elements into coherent and cohesive discourse when constructing complex verbal accounts, and plays a critical role in the effective communication of information to others. PMID:25303274

Race, Elizabeth; Keane, Margaret M; Verfaellie, Mieke

2015-02-01

409

Managing Quality, Identity and Adversaries in Public Discourse with Machine Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automation can mitigate issues when scaling and managing quality and identity in public discourse on the web. Discourse needs to be curated and filtered. Anonymous speech has to be supported while handling adversaries. Reliance on human curators or analysts does not scale and content can be missed. These scaling and management issues include the…

Brennan, Michael

2012-01-01

410

Exploring Library resources for Law You may have been following the debate over the Human Rights Act. David Cameron wants to repeal  

E-print Network

Exploring Library resources for Law You may have been following the debate over the Human Rights you will have access to an excellent range of resources provided by the OU Library, which you can rights on the radio, television and seen them online. You may also have seen some of the dramatic

Bandara, Arosha

411

Carrying on the Good Fight: Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000--Advancing the Civil and Human Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes a May 2000 conference about advancing the civil and human rights of people with disabilities from diverse cultures. The conference included people with disabilities from diverse cultures and members of national civil rights organizations. The conference identified five priority areas for attention: (1) cultivating leadership…

National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

412

Distant Cinematic Suffering: Observations on the Human Rights Film In her 2007 study Beyond Terror, Elizabeth Swanson Goldberg asks the provocative question, "Can art  

E-print Network

Distant Cinematic Suffering: Observations on the Human Rights Film In her 2007 study Beyond Terror), Beyond Terror is significant not only as a gap-filling inquiry into the effects of cinematic depictions

Boone, Randall B.

413

Procedural discourse following traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedural discourse is a monologue discourse task concerned with explaining to a listener how a particular activity is carried out. The study reported here is part of a series of investigations into discourse abilities following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to compare the procedural discourse skills of a group of 26 TBI speakers, with

Pamela Snow; Jacinta Douglas; Jennie Ponsford

1997-01-01

414

Troubling Discourses on Gender and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In educational policies, two discourses on gender have existed since the 1980s. I call them the "gender equality discourse" and the "boy discourse". The gender equality discourse in education is based on international and national declarations and plans, and is focused predominantly on the position of girls and…

Lahelma, Elina

2014-01-01

415

French Discourse Markers in Shaba Swahili Conversations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines data recorded in Shaba, a province in the Congo, and documents the marked preference to employ French discourse markers in Shaba Swahili discourse. Treats discourse markers as a special kind of contextualization cue that ties parts of a discourse to each other, creating cohesion and coherence. (Author/VWL)

de Rooij, Vincent A.

2000-01-01

416

Human rights accountability for maternal death and failure to provide safe, legal abortion: the significance of two ground-breaking CEDAW decisions.  

PubMed

In 2011, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) issued two landmark decisions. In Alyne da Silva Pimentel v. Brazil, the first maternal death case decided by an international human rights body, it confirms that States have a human rights obligation to guarantee that all women, irrespective of their income or racial background, have access to timely, non-discriminatory, and appropriate maternal health services. In L.C. v. Peru, concerning a 13-year-old rape victim who was denied a therapeutic abortion and had an operation on her spine delayed that left her seriously disabled as a result, it established that the State should guarantee access to abortion when a woman's physical or mental health is in danger, decriminalise abortion when pregnancy results from rape or sexual abuse, review its restrictive interpretation of therapeutic abortion and establish a mechanism to ensure that reproductive rights are understood and observed in all health care facilities. Both cases affirm that accessible and good quality health services are vital to women's human rights and expand States' obligations in relation to these. They also affirm that States must ensure national accountability for sexual and reproductive health rights, and provide remedies and redress in the event of violations. And they reaffirm the importance of international human rights bodies as sources of accountability for sexual and reproductive rights violations, especially where national accountability is absent or ineffective. PMID:22789080

Kismödi, Eszter; de Mesquita, Judith Bueno; Ibañez, Ximena Andión; Khosla, Rajat; Sepúlveda, Lilian

2012-06-01

417

Sterilization and Training for Normal Sexual Development: Human Rights and Obligations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper notes the lack of attention given to the sexuality of people with intellectual disabilities in both the literature and service delivery (in Australia). It discusses sterilization issues (such as authority to give consent and the "best interest" concept) and recommends approaches less intrusive on individual rights than sterilization.…

Ashman, Adrian F.

1990-01-01

418

Is the Elimination of Recess in School a Violation of a Child's Basic Human Rights?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The elimination of recess in schools across the country is becoming a normal occurrence in many communities, large and small. In each study presented in this content analysis, we find that free time and unstructured play is indeed essential to a child's healthy cognitive development. Article 31 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of…

Dubroc, Alicia M.

2007-01-01

419

Human rights, environment, and development: The dispossession of fishing communities on Lake Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a growing number of cases throughout Africa, communities' resource bases are being undermined or appropriated by outsiders, a process which seriously threatens the continuation of local cultures and livelihoods. In this article, we use a political ecology framework to examine how the linked processes of economic development, political power, and environmental change are transgressing the rights of fishing communities

Bill Derman; Anne Ferguson I

1995-01-01

420

Deviance and Discourse: Child Molesters in the United States  

E-print Network

…….………………………………………………………..52 Chapter Five Suggestions for Moving Forward………………………………………………………………..71 1 Chapter One Deviance and Discourse Around 3:00 A.M. on February 24, 2005, John Evander Couey, a convicted sex offender, snuck into Jessica Lunsford’s home... registry for people convicted of felony animal abuse. California’s lawmakers believe that the public has the right to know the identity and location of animal abusers because of the connection between animal abuse and violent crimes towards people...

Gray, Benjamin Jerome

2011-04-26

421

Sexual exploitation and trafficking of the young and vulnerable: reflections on a legal, ethical, and human rights disgrace.  

PubMed

Sexual exploitation and trafficking of the young and vulnerable has devastating consequences for their physical and emotional development, health, and well-being. The horrific treatment they suffer bears the hallmarks of evil made manifest. Governments have enacted laws pursuant to international treaties, conventions, and protocols. Nonprofit and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are working to prevent young people from being exploited and trafficked, to identify victims, and to provide services to survivors. Progress in addressing the problem is haltingly slow in relation to its magnitude. The prevalence and persistence of this phenomenon is an ethical, legal, and human rights disgrace. PMID:22106745

English, Abigail

2011-08-01

422

Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (I): prevalence, risk factors and consequences  

PubMed Central

Background The ruling parties in Bangladesh have systematically used violence against political opponents and criminals. It is essential to 1) determine the magnitude and burden of organised crime and political violence (OPV) and human rights violations in the affected community, and to 2) identify the risk factors and key indicators for developing effective health intervention and prevention measures. Methods The population-based study consisted of two parts: a household survey and OPV screening at mobile clinics (presented in Part II). A cross-sectional, multistage cluster household survey was conducted in the Meherpur district in February-March 2008; 22 clusters with a sample size of 1,101 households (population of 4,870) were selected. Results Around 83% of households reported being exposed to at least two categories of OPV or human rights violations: 29% reported that the family members had been arrested or detained; 31% reported torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Crude mortality rate was 17.9/1,000 and under 5 mortality rate was 75/1,000. The annual injury rate was 36%, lifetime experience of violence-related injury was 50%, and pain experience within 2 weeks was reported by 57%. Over 80% of the population over 35 years old complained of pain. High prevalence of injury, lifetime experience of OPV-related injury and pain complaints are related to the level of exposure to OPV and human rights violations. A financial burden was imposed on families with an injured person. A geographical variation was revealed regarding reports of torture and lifetime experience of violence-related injury. A combination of individual, relational, community and societal factors, including variables such as political party affiliation, conflict with other families, household income and residential area, affected the risk of victimisation in the household. The odds ratio for reporting extrajudicial execution of a family member was 9.22 for Awami League supporters, 9.15 for Bangladesh Nationalist Party supporters; and 3.97 for Jamaat-e-Islami Party supporters compared with families with no political involvement. Conclusion The level of violence and human rights violations is high. The affected population suffers from violence-related injuries and traumas, which could be a factor contributing to poverty. Victimisation is not random. PMID:19930589

2009-01-01

423

Genetics and human rights. Two histories: Restoring genetic identity after forced disappearance and identity suppression in Argentina and after compulsory isolation for leprosy in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Over the past three decades, there has been an accelerated development of genetic technology, leading to its use in human genetic identification for many purposes. Additionally, it has been made explicit that identity is a fundamental human right. A number of historical circumstances have connected these developments. Personal identity is increasingly associated with the preservation and defense of human rights and is a tool to repair the violation of these rights, particularly the right to identity. In this article, we report the use of genetics to support the right to identity in two historical circumstances. First, we report the search, localization, DNA testing and genetic identification of 110 individuals who were appropriated as babies by the Argentine military dictatorship of 1976–1983 in the context of savage repression and egregious violations of human rights, including forced disappearance and suppression of identity. Second, we report on the repair of right-to-identity violations of hundreds of individuals that occurred during the process of compulsory isolation of patients with leprosy in Brazil through the Program “Reencontro”, which has led to the genetic identification of 158 pairs of individuals who previously did not have proof that they were siblings. The high value placed on genetic identification by victims of identity suppression did not counter the prevailing view that genetic factors were not more important than other factors (social, emotional, educational, cultural, spiritual) in determining the complex phenomenon of personal identity. The use of genetic identification as a tool to redress and repair human rights violations is a novel application of human genetics for the benefit of mankind. PMID:24764764

Penchaszadeh, Victor B.; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

2014-01-01

424

Civil Discourse in the Age of Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For centuries, issues of civil discourse only arose concerning written and oral communication. But now, new technologies for communication and social interaction, particularly social media, have dramatically expanded the potential for human interaction. They generate significant challenges for institutional policies and practices to encourage and…

Junco, Reynol; Chickering, Arthur W.

2010-01-01

425

The Nature of Teacher-Child Interactions in Emotion Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotions find their meanings within human relationships that permit emotions to be experienced, expressed, and explored. Social and emotional competence, marked by an understanding, expression, and control of emotion, is one of the hallmarks of emotional discourse--demonstrated in the very nature of interactive communication as individuals relate…

Thomas, Dawn V.

2010-01-01

426

Restricting loans of money to Hong Kong civil servants: social censure or violation of human rights?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining a loan is an individual’s private business and such a right should be free from interference. However, if Government\\u000a officers obtain a loan from undesirable persons, they may be lured into committing an act which they would not otherwise have\\u000a done but for the favours having been shown by the lenders. Section 3 of Hong Kong’s Prevention of Bribery

T. Wing Lo; Paul Ngan

2009-01-01

427

Mixed-Initiative Cyber Security: Putting humans in the right loop  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, organizations and their computer infrastructures have grown intertwined in complex relationships through mergers, acquisitions, reorganizations, and cooperative service delivery. Defensive actions and policy changes by one organization may have far-reaching negative consequences on its partner organizations. Human-only or machine-only approaches are insufficient. The former are slow but highly adaptable, while the latter are fast but highly specialized. In either case, humans retain the ultimate responsibility for the actions of their automated systems. Deploying automated defenses does not absolve humans of their inherent responsibility. We believe the solution lies in mixed-initiative defense unifying the complementary qualities of both human- and machine-based approaches. We describe the Cooperative Infrastructure Defense (CID), a new cyber-defense paradigm employing complex-adaptive swarm intelligence, logical rational agents, and human insight to enable collaborative cyber defense among cooperating organizations in an infrastructure setting. CID takes a mixed-initiative approach to infrastructure defense where teams of humans and software agents defend cooperating organizations in tandem, sharing insights and solutions without violating proprietary boundaries. CID will help create security policy via dialogue between humans and agents, foster a collaborative problem-solving environment, and increase human situational awareness and influence through visualization and shared control. CID will provide a foundation for building trust between humans and agents within and between organizations.

Haack, Jereme N.; Fink, Glenn A.; Maiden, Wendy M.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

2009-05-11

428

At Last: "What's Discourse Got to Do with It?" A Meditation on Critical Discourse Analysis in Literacy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lewis explains why critical discourse analysis (CDA) has become an indispensable method for many researchers trying to understand how ideologies and social structures are reflected in and reified by language. The critical linguistic turn that has occurred in the humanities and social sciences for the last three decade has finally taken hold in the…

Lewis, Cynthia

2006-01-01

429

Markers of topical discourse in child-directed speech.  

PubMed

Although the language we encounter is typically embedded in rich discourse contexts, many existing models of processing focus largely on phenomena that occur sentence-internally. Similarly, most work on children's language learning does not consider how information can accumulate as a discourse progresses. Research in pragmatics, however, points to ways in which each subsequent utterance provides new opportunities for listeners to infer speaker meaning. Such inferences allow the listener to build up a representation of the speakers' intended topic and more generally to identify relationships, structures, and messages that extend across multiple utterances. We address this issue by analyzing a video corpus of child-caregiver interactions. We use topic continuity as an index of discourse structure, examining how caregivers introduce and discuss objects across utterances. For the analysis, utterances are grouped into topical discourse sequences using three annotation strategies: raw annotations of speakers' referents, the output of a model that groups utterances based on those annotations, and the judgments of human coders. We analyze how the lexical, syntactic, and social properties of caregiver-child interaction change over the course of a sequence of topically related utterances. Our findings suggest that many cues used to signal topicality in adult discourse are also available in child-directed speech. PMID:24731080

Rohde, Hannah; Frank, Michael C

2014-01-01

430

Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis  

SciTech Connect

Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by less consensual political cultures we may expect more extreme discourses on EA, the consequences of which are reflected upon in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of environmental assessment (EA) depends in part on meanings associated with EA (i.e., discourse). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results suggest that the general discourse in The Netherlands is that EA is a legal requirement, nothing more. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This discourse makes EA effective in protecting the environment, but not in the optimisation of environmental values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EA has a limited contribution to the development of policy alternatives or innovative solutions to environmental problems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a high consensus among EA professionals, providing a common ground for working with EA.

Runhaar, Hens, E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Laerhoven, Frank van, E-mail: vanLaerhoven@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter, E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Arts, Jos, E-mail: e.j.m.m.arts@rug.nl [University of Groningen, Faculty of Planning, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

2013-02-15

431

Cooperative federalism and hydraulic fracturing: a human right to a clean environment.  

PubMed

This Article argues that filling the energy governance gaps regarding unconventional natural gas can best be accomplished through collaborative governance that is genuinely adaptive and cooperative. Through cooperative federalism, combined with procedural rights for inclusive, innovative decision-making, state and non-state actors should design and implement the requisite safeguards before further natural gas development advances. Hydraulic fracturing provisions are strikingly fragmented and have sparked a fierce debate about chemical disclosure, radioactive wastewater disposal, and greenhouse gas emissions. United States natural gas production may stunt the direction and intensity of renewable energy by up to two decades and will not provide a bridge to a sound energy policy if it "erode[s] efforts to prepare a landing at the other end of the bridge." Unconventional natural gas extraction need not become a transition to a new addiction. This Article analyzes how cooperative federalism and inclusive decision-making can provide legitimacy and transparency when balancing property rights against police powers to regulate natural gas production. PMID:25330564

Burleson, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

432

Negotiating Discourses: Sixth-Grade Students' Use of Multiple Science Discourses during a Science Fair Presentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study offers important insights into the coexistence of multiple discourses and the link between these discourses and science understanding. It offers concrete examples of students' movement between multiple discourses in sixth-grade science fair presentations, and shows how those multiple discourses in science practices illuminate students'…

Gomez, Kimberley

2007-01-01

433

Comparative genome-wide transcriptional analysis of human left and right internal mammary arteries  

PubMed Central

In coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the combined use of left and right internal mammary arteries (LIMA and RIMA) — collectively known as bilateral IMAs (BIMAs) provides a survival advantage over the use of LIMA alone. However, gene expression in RIMA has never been compared to that in LIMA. Here we report a genome-wide transcriptional analysis of BIMA to investigate the expression profiles of these conduits in patients undergoing CABG. As expected, in comparing the BIMAs to the aorta, we found differences in pathways and processes associated with atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cell signaling — pathways which provide biological support for the observation that BIMA grafts deliver long-term benefits to the patients and protect against continued atherosclerosis. These data support the widespread use of BIMAs as the preferred conduits in CABG. PMID:24858532

Ferrari, Giovanni; Quackenbush, John; Strobeck, John; Hu, Lan; Johnson, Christopher K.; Mak, Andrew; Shaw, Richard E.; Sayles, Kathleen; Brizzio, Mariano E.; Zapolanski, Alex; Grau, Juan B.

2014-01-01

434

[The "Bolsa Família" family grant scheme: the interface between professional practice and the human right to adequate food and nutrition].  

PubMed

The Human Right to Adequate Nutrition must be ensured through the public policies included in SAN, namely the Food and Nutritional Security campaign. Besides the income transfer geared to ensuring access to basic social rights, the "Bolsa Família" Program (PBF) is included in this context. This study seeks to analyze the operational aspects of the PBF and also ascertain whether or not the health professionals see the program as a core element of the SAN public policy. With this in mind, semi-structured interviews were conducted with primary healthcare workers involved directly both with the PBF and with the families who receive this benefit. By the end of the study, it was possible to perceive the importance of training health professionals who work in this area, because when one dissociates the social reality in which the beneficiaries live from the program objectives, this can lead to the simple mechanization of these practices. In this respect, it should be stressed that health professionals need to understand the proposals of the program as political and social strategies which, in addition to providing immediate relief, strive to overcome the problems related to poverty and hunger. PMID:22899156

Ramos, Camila Irigonhé; Cuervo, Maria Rita Macedo

2012-08-01

435

Teaching and Learning about Universal Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law: Digital Resources and Global Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's education for civic engagement requires a global dimension. To live responsibly in their own communities, young people need to situate their personal and local interests in the context of their global interconnections. Bridging the personal, local, and global begins with an awareness of the universal aspirations for dignity and human

Blanchard, Rosemary Ann

2013-01-01

436

Animal Rights and Human Growth: Intellectual Courage and Extending the Moral Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the ethical dimension of human-animal relationships has become a legitimate, rich subject for contemporary moral philosophers, scholars of moral education, and to a large extent, philosophers of education, have remained surprisingly silent on this subject. The primary purpose of this essay is to illustrate the relationship between the moral…

Rowe, Bradley D.

2009-01-01

437

Effect of the Human Genome Initiative on women's rights and reproductive decisions.  

PubMed

The Human Genome Project is likely to exacerbate historic tendencies to balance demographic concerns on the backs of women. This kind of policy is unjustified in law and violates classic theories of justice. Reproductive decision making, which affects women personally, is not the legitimate domain of community concern or manipulation. PMID:11653014

Charo, R Alta

1993-04-01

438

Talking Mathematically: An Analysis of Discourse Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourse has always been at the heart of teaching. In more recent years, the mathematics education community has also turned its attention towards understanding the role of discourse in mathematics teaching and learning. Using earlier classifications of discourse, in this paper, we looked at three types of classrooms: classrooms that engage in…

Imm, Kara; Stylianou, Despina A.

2012-01-01

439

Discourse Analysis in Second Language Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following papers and reports on discourse analysis are included here: (1) "Discourse Analysis, What's That?" by Hatch and Long; (2) "Contextual Analysis of English: Applications to TESL" by Celce-Murcia; (3) "Discourse and Second Language Acquisition of Yes/No Questions" by Vander Brook, Schlue, and Campbell; (4) "An Approach to Conducting…

Larsen-Freeman, Diane, Ed.

440

The Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative: a human rights assessment of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations has published Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative: a human rights assessment of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP), a 53-page report analyzing some of the major difficulties of the HIPC initiative, the most crucial problem being the lack of sufficient funding for the effort. The author, Mr. Fanta Cheru, an independent expert on "the effects of structural adjustment policies and foreign debt," also found that governments of HIPC countries often put too much emphasis on macroeconomics, fiscal reform, and privatization measures in their efforts to please the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Cheru recommends that the creditor governments and institutions should carefully reconsider and re-evaluate the process in order to better help HIPC countries manage their debt.

Cheru, Fantu.

441

Analysis of bone healing in a postoperative patient: skeletal evidence of medical neglect and human rights violations.  

PubMed

This study highlights complexities associated with postsurgical trauma interpretation of a 76-year-old female patient from a psychiatric institution in Mexico. The skeletal analysis identified complications from an unsuccessful surgical operation for an intertrochanteric fracture of the femur. An improperly placed surgical plate resulted in nonunion due to limited contact between fracture margins. However, it is unclear whether this resulted from surgical complications, ineffective postoperative care, or from the decedent's limited ability to follow postoperative care instructions. Additionally, failure of the plate resulted in degenerative changes to the acetabulum. These complications, associated with degenerative changes to upper limb joints, suggest significant mobility issues. The pattern of antemortem trauma and contextual information support a conclusion of postoperative medical neglect, a documented problem in psychiatric institutions in Latin America. This study provides insight into the relevance of detailed trauma assessment of skeletal remains in cases where neglect and human rights violations are suspected. PMID:23550827

Báez-Molgado, Socorro; Peñaloza, Abigail Meza; Spradley, M Katherine; Bartelink, Eric J

2013-07-01

442

Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights  

PubMed Central

Background In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. Methods A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO’s and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Results Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. Conclusion The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and policy framework should go hand in hand with both education and increased economic opportunities. Education and awareness-raising of all ages is considered essential, seeing that parents and the extended family play a huge role in marrying off girls and young women. PMID:24131501

2013-01-01

443

Police Discourse on Racial Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

As central actors in the phenomenon, the police view is noticeably absent from research on racial profiling. Given the prominence of “color-blind” racial ideology in the face of disparate opinions about the police between minorities and Whites in the United States, police discourse on racial profiling bears examination. The author employs in-depth interviews of patrol officers in the Novad (a

Karen S. Glover

2007-01-01

444

Narrative Discourse and Management Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that narrative discourse helped a management team resolve conflict, influence corporate decisions, and unify the group. Argues managers' preference for collectively constructed narrative reasoning reflected their beliefs that narrative conveyed contextual complexities and helped interpret other types of evidence. Shows how through…

Jameson, Daphne A.

2001-01-01

445

Metaphor, Language, and Discourse Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of conceptual metaphor theory (CMT) offered by Raymond W. Gibbs, Jr. in this issue suggests a number of important opportunities for future research that may be based on interesting research findings produced over the past 3 decades in response to CMT. This reply to Gibbs argues that the main question for discourse processing remains…

Steen, Gerard

2011-01-01

446

Ensuring the inclusion of sexual and reproductive health and rights under a sustainable development goal on health in the post-2015 human rights framework for development.  

PubMed

Since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo placed reproductive health and rights firmly on the international agenda, civil society and other advocates have worked ceaselessly to ensure that they remain central to women's empowerment and have taken all opportunities to expand the framework to include sexual health and rights. When the development process changed with the introduction of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, sexual and reproductive health and rights were excluded, and only in 2007 was universal access to reproductive health added back in. In 2014 and 2015, the future of ICPD Beyond 2014, the MDGs and the post-2015 development framework will be decided, following consultations and meetings across the globe. This paper takes stock of the key influences on efforts to achieve the ICPD agenda and summarises the past, current and planned future events, reports and processes between 1994 and 2014, leading up to the determination of the post-2015 development framework and sustainable development goals. It concludes that the one thing we cannot afford to allow is what happened with the MDGs in 2000. We must not leave the room empty-handed, but must instead ensure the inclusion of sexual and reproductive health and rights as a priority under a new health goal. PMID:24315064

Haslegrave, Marianne

2013-11-01

447

Observations on the State of Indigenous Human Rights in Light of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: Guatemala  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1996 Peace Accords ended the Guatemalan civil war, the country has made strides to legally recognize the rights of its indigenous peoples and has criminalized racial discrimination. However, political exclusion, discrimination, and economic marginalization of indigenous peoples still regularly occur due to the lack of resources and…

Cultural Survival, 2008

2008-01-01

448

Observations on the State of Indigenous Human Rights in Light of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: Morocco  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the ascent of King Mohammed VI in 1999, Morocco has made strides to recognize the rights of its Amazigh (Berber) population. But the pace of progress is far too slow. One significant problem is the government's unwillingness to recognize the Amazigh as an indigenous people, which in turn undermines the Amazigh's ability to participate in…

Cultural Survival, 2007

2007-01-01

449

Children Have the Right to Have Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) has forged a fundamental shift of paradigm in program and public policy design. Whereas in most countries the needs-based approach has historically guided services and policies for children, the CRC sets out a new perspective based on the human rights of all children. This perspective…

Brandao, Caius

2007-01-01

450

Galactic Discourse Issue 1  

E-print Network

HUMAN TOUCH" by Nancy Kippax.................................. 72 >LEGENDS" by Patrice CuUen ................... 89 S ? "NO REPRIEVE" (poem) by Laurie A. Haldeman....................... 90 ~ >end of the third period." Amanda rechecked her schedule. Ghowife had been taken on the Bridge early in the third period. "Was anyone with Ghowife?" "'l'he wife...

Multiple Contributors

1977-01-01

451

Woman-centered post-abortion care in public hospitals in Tucumán, Argentina: assessing quality of care and its link to human rights.  

PubMed

Unsafe abortion is a major public health and human rights problem in Argentina. Implementation of a woman-centered post-abortion care (PAC) model is one strategy to improve the situation. The quality of PAC services was measured in three public hospitals in Tucumán, a province with high levels of poverty and maternal mortality due to unsafe abortion. Overall, the quality of PAC services was found to be poor. Women do not receive services in a manner that respects their human rights, in particular their rights to health and health care, information, and to the benefits of scientific progress. Findings from the evaluation are being used to develop collaborative NGO/hospital/policy-maker efforts to improve PAC services through better training of health care providers. PMID:17061775

Gómez Ponce de León, Rodolfo; Billings, Deborah L; Barrionuevo, Karina

2006-01-01

452

Marriage and Family Therapists' Comfort Working with Lesbian and Gay Male Clients: The Influence of Religious Practices and Support for Lesbian and Gay Male Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore potential influences on marriage and family therapists' comfort level when working with lesbian and gay male clients, including sex, age, race, sexual orientation, political orientation, religious practices of the therapist, as well as the level of support for lesbian and gay male human rights. Participants in this study were 199 experienced therapists.

Mary S. Green; Megan J. Murphy; Markie L. C. Blumer

2010-01-01

453

CULTURE, RIGHTS, IDENTITY: INTERFACES BETWEEN THE HUMANITIES AND THE LAW International Osnabrck Summer Institute on the Cultural Study of the Law  

E-print Network

CULTURE, RIGHTS, IDENTITY: INTERFACES BETWEEN THE HUMANITIES AND THE LAW International Osnabrück Summer Institute on the Cultural Study of the Law Time Monday 6/8 Tuesday 7/8 Wednesday 8/8 Thursday 9 Schneck, Dr. Sabine N. Meyer Guided campus tour Workshop 1 (all) "The Complex Relation between Culture

Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

454

A Curriculum Unit on Human Rights of the Mayas of Guatemala. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Mexico and Guatemala).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum unit is intended for upper-level high school students. The unit aims for students to gain a basic understanding of the history of Mayan human rights in Guatemala and of the present situation in Guatemala. The unit uses a variety of media and teaching techniques. It lists 30 questions which are to be completed after reading the…

Shilha, Marianne M.

455

LATIN AMERICAN INITIATIVE Our mission is to serve as focal point for Latin American Human Rights issues within the Harvard community and to  

E-print Network

pilot projects: Narcotics Wars in Mexico and their Human Rights Impact; Under the umbrella of the Mexico, Ciudad Juarez and Nuevo Laredo - to assess how the effects of the narcotics trafficking translate. These three cities are the main ports of entry for the narcotics trade to the US. Results of this research

Liu, X. Shirley

456

Evolution and Human Behavior 21 (2000) 245261 1090-5138/00/$ see front matter 2000 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.  

E-print Network

Evolution and Human Behavior 21 (2000) 245­261 1090-5138/00/$ ­ see front matter © 2000 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. PII: S1090-5138(00)00031-3 Turtle hunting and tombstone opening: public to ethnographic data on turtle hunting and public feasting among the Meriam of Torres Strait, Australia. Turtle

Smith, Eric Alden

457

Hemispheric Asymmetries in Discourse Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Lists and Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research suggests that the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to discourse and text processing by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including more distantly related meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1995). "Creating false memories:…

Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Faust, Miriam; Moeller, Edna

2009-01-01

458

Motherhood as a national mission: The construction of womanhood in the legal discourse in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper looks at the notion of womanhood that emerged from the discourse around two laws passed in the first years of the State of Israel: the 1949 “Defense Service Law” and the 1951 “Women's Equal Rights Law.” Law is conceived of as “producing” the cultural meaning of “women” as a social category and defining its relations to the state.

Nitza Berkovitch

1997-01-01

459

The politics of mind reading: cartography and brain science in the discourse of medicine  

E-print Network

THE POLITICS OF MIND READING: CARTOGRAPHY AND BRAIN SCIENCE IN THE DISCOURSE OF MEDICINE A Seruor Honors Thesis by JOSHUA WILLIAM OSBUN Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs k Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University In partial... fulfillment of the requirements of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2001 Group: Humanities THE POLITICS OF MIND READING: CARTOGRAPHY AND BRAIN SCIENCE IN THE DISCOURSE OF MEDICINE A Senior Honors Thesis by JOSHUA WILLIAM OSBUN...

Osbun, Joshua William

2013-02-22

460

The Strength of a Weak State: The Rights Revolution and the Rise of Human Resources Management Divisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, federal policy has revolutionized employment rights. Equal employment opportunity law, occupational safety and health legislation, and fringe benefits regulation were designed to create employee rights to equal protec- tion, to health and safety, and to the benefits employers promise. In event-history analyses of data from 279 organizations, this research finds

Frank Dobbin; John R. Sutton

1998-01-01

461

Protecting and Promoting the Human Right to Respect for Family Life: Treaty-Based Reform and Domestic Advocacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the right to respect for family life in international law, focusing on its underlying principles and explicit protections. The article identifies these legal norms so that drafters of international treaties, specifically the International Migrants Bill of Rights, and United States legal practitioners representing immigrant children can incorporate the right to respect for family life into their drafting

Ryan Mrazik; Andrew I. Schoenholtz

2010-01-01

462

Discourse Tagging Tool and Discourse-Tagged Multilingual Corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of our on-going research on multilingual anaphora resolution (cf. Aone and McKee [3],Aone [1]), we have built a graphical tool to tag texts with antecedent-anaphor relations and havecreated corpora tagged with such relations. The tool, called the Discourse Tagging Tool (DTTool),has been used to manually tag Japanese, Spanish and English texts with anaphora, their types (suchas pronouns

Chinatsu Aone; Scott W. Bennett

1994-01-01

463

Detecting order-disorder transitions in discourse: implications for schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Several psychiatric and neurological conditions affect the semantic organization and content of a patient's speech. Specifically, the discourse of patients with schizophrenia is frequently characterized as lacking coherence. The evaluation of disturbances in discourse is often used in diagnosis and in assessing treatment efficacy, and is an important factor in prognosis. Measuring these deviations, such as "loss of meaning" and incoherence, is difficult and requires substantial human effort. Computational procedures can be employed to characterize the nature of the anomalies in discourse. We present a set of new tools derived from network theory and information science that may assist in empirical and clinical studies of communication patterns in patients, and provide the foundation for future automatic procedures. First we review information science and complex network approaches to measuring semantic coherence, and then we introduce a representation of discourse that allows for the computation of measures of disorganization. Finally we apply these tools to speech transcriptions from patients and a healthy participant, illustrating the implications and potential of this novel framework. PMID:21640558

Cabana, Alvaro; Valle-Lisboa, Juan C; Elvevåg, Brita; Mizraji, Eduardo

2011-09-01

464

The effect of right cerebral hemisphere damage on collaborative planning in conversation: an analysis of intentional structure.  

PubMed

This study investigated the impact of right cerebral hemisphere damage on the capacity to take shared responsibility for the development of an intentional structure in conversation. Intentions are important determiners of both discourse structure and utterance meaning in context. Right-hemisphere damaged (RHD) individuals have been reported to have difficulty in the use of prosody as well as performing and appreciating the process of discourse tailoring which is dependent on recognizing speakers intentions. Audio taped samples of naturalistic conversations between RHD individuals and normal speakers were analysed. Text-level discourse processing analyses involved measures of global discourse structure and self-monitoring accuracy. Prosodic analyses included fundamental frequency (F0) resetting, pause durations and inter-turn intervals. The results revealed that speakers with right cerebral hemisphere damage do not, first, use prosody to alert listeners to changes in discourse structure, and, second, assume equal responsibility for the development and maintenance discourse structure. PMID:12945606

Hird, Kathryn; Kirsner, Kim

2003-01-01

465

Behavior modification and human rights: A legacy of Edward Stanton Sulzer, 1930-1970  

PubMed Central

Edward Stanton Sulzer was born in New York City on June 4, 1930. He attended school in Laureltown, N.Y., until the age of 15, when, after two years of high school, he was admitted into the University of Chicago. Leaving prematurely due to his mother's death, he returned to New York to work in film production. Sulzer completed his undergraduate work at the City College of New York, studying film production and psychology. In 1953 he entered the doctoral program in clinical psychology at Teachers College, Columbia. Spending two years in the Army during his graduate training, his work was completed in 1958. He then joined the faculty of the Upstate Medical School of the State University of New York, Department of Psychiatry, moving on two years later to the Psychiatry Department at the University of Minnesota. In 1965 Sulzer moved to assume the directorship of the Behavior Modification Program, in the Rehabilitation Institute at Southern Illinois University, where he remained until his death on February 28, 1970. In observance of the 10th anniversary of the death of Edward Stanton Sulzer, these reminiscences are presented. They describe how an individual psychologist could affect the professional and personal lives of many. Edward Sulzer is described in terms of the environment that shaped his values, how they affected the actions of his students and clients, and how they are reflected in current social policy. The account leads to a conclusion that the actions of single individuals may influence the course of human events. PMID:22478535

Sulzer-Azaroff, Beth

1981-01-01

466

Assistant Professor of Global Health and Human Rights and Director of Comparative Program in Health and Society, Dalla Lana School of Public Health and Munk School of Global Affairs, University of  

E-print Network

Assistant Professor of Global Health and Human Rights and Director of Comparative Program, University of Toronto invites applications for a tenurestream appointment in Global Health and Human Rights candidate will be required to supervise graduate students and develop coursework on global health

Sun, Yu

467

In the celebration of the 9th anniversary of World Citizenship Day in Taiwan, the UN/NGO Association of World Citizens will hold the 2010 World Summit on Human Rights for World  

E-print Network

In the celebration of the 9th anniversary of World Citizenship Day in Taiwan, the UN/NGO Association of World Citizens will hold the 2010 World Summit on Human Rights for World Citizens. Global elites are invited to contribute to the international issues of human rights for world citizens. Papers

Wu, Yih-Min

468

Teaching Strategy: Comparing Rights Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engages students in comparing the rights proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) with those present in the United States Bill of Rights and other constitutional amendments. Challenges the students to explore reasons for the presence or absence of certain rights and to reflect on the role of the government. (CMK)

Shiman, David A.

1998-01-01

469

Getting the Dimensions Right - Human Nutrition as Key for the Control of Regional Nitrogen Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western society is rested upon a strong animal-based (meat, eggs, milk) nutrition, which is far of a healthy balanced diet. Furthermore, the production of animal based food consumes five to six times more resources (e.g.: area, fertilizer) compared to plant-based food and is closely connected to environmental pollution (e.g.: emission of greenhouse gases, water pollution). Especially the regional nitrogen turnover is highly driven by the request from human nutrition on agricultural production. While the efficiency of the transfer of applied nitrogen into the product is 60 - 70 % for vegetarian food, it is 15 - 25 % for animal based food. This contribution is going to demonstrate the most important nitrogen fluxes on national scale in Austria calculated using a national material flow analysis. The national nitrogen balance is driven by the production of nitrogen fertiliser and import of fooder. The airborne transport of reactive nitrogen (NOX and NHX) plays a decisive role within this balance. The main losses into the environment occur during the agricultural production process. Losses to the atmosphere exceed losses to groundwater and surface waters. After introduction of nitrogen removal at treatment plants, emissions to surface waters are dominated by land use driven fluxes via groundwater. The influence of nitrogen depositions on land (agricultural area, forest and mountain regions) on nitrogen emissions to the water system is in the same order of magnitude as the direct emissions due to fertiliser application - especially in a country as Austria with high shares of mountainous and silvicultural areas. Sources for depositions of reactive nitrogen are mainly NH3 emissions to the air from animal husbandry and NOX emissions to the air from traffic. Both substance are matter of transboundary transport and thus are highly influenced by activities outside a specific country or river catchment. Management of nitrogen on a national or catchment scale has therefore to consider emissions to the air inside and outside the considered region (NH3 volatilisation from manure and NOX-emissions from burning processes as traffic) in addition to the direct losses to the water system (optimised fertiliser application). Basically, the key to improved nutrient management on national/catchment scale is the human nutrition. Nutrition of the population in accordance to health recommendations (50 % less meet consumption, contra balanced by an increasing amount of vegetarian food) would dramatically optimise the national nitrogen balance. Assuming the same basic nitrogen efficiency of agricultural as it is performed at present, this shift in production would lead to a dramatic relief in respect to environmental pressure. It would lead to a reduction of the needed nitrogen input (mineral fertiliser and import fooder) by about 40 % and a reduction of NH3 losses to the atmosphere of about 40 % as well. Assuming that the same reduction of meet production would be realised in neighbouring countries the deposition could be reduced by about 25 %. Finally, this would lead to reduced losses of nitrogen to the water system by about 35 %, which could be counter acted to some extent, if areas no longer needed for food production are used for cultivation of crops for renewable energy production.

Zessner, M.; Thaler, S.; Ruzicka, K.; Natho, S.

2009-04-01

470

An Overview of Discourse Analysis and Its Usefulness in TESOL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of discourse analysis from a linguistic point of view, discussing why it is relevant to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). It focuses on the following: discourse and discourse analysis; discourse analysis and TESOL; approaches to discourse analysis; systemic functional linguistics; theme and…

Milne, Geraldine Veronica

471

"The ladder of the law has no top and no bottom": how therapeutic jurisprudence can give life to international human rights.  

PubMed

In the past two decades, therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) has become one of the most important theoretical approaches to the law. But, there has, as of yet, been puzzlingly little written about the relationship between TJ and international human rights law. To be sure, there has been some preliminary and exploratory work on the relationship between TJ and international law in general, but virtually nothing on its relationship to international human rights law in a mental disability law context. This paper seeks to focus on this lack of consideration, to speculate as to why that might be, and to offer some suggestions as to how to infuse some new vitality and vigor into this important area of law and social policy. In this article, first, I offer a brief explanation of TJ. Next, I discuss, also briefly, the impact (and the potential future greater impact) of the recently-ratified United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on this area. Then, I consider the sparse commentary currently available on the intersection between TJ and international law in general, and will speculate as to why this is so sparse. Then, I offer some thoughts as to the TJ/international human rights law connection, looking specifically at three questions that require far more attention from this perspective (access to counsel, the use of state-sanctioned psychiatry as a tool of political oppression, and the potential redemptive power of the CRPD), and describe a research agenda that scholars might turn to in furtherance of the investigation of the relationships between therapeutic jurisprudence, international human rights law and mental disability law. I conclude by calling on scholars, activists, advocates and practitioners to begin to take this connection seriously in their future work. PMID:24780300

Perlin, Michael L

2014-01-01

472

An investigation of environmental and sustainability discourses associated with the substantive purposes of environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the discursive construction of the substantive purposes of environmental assessment (EA). It addresses these purposes by exploring the complex and often multifaceted linkages between political factors and plural views of democracy, public participation, and the role of science that are embedded in environmental and sustainability discourses. The interaction between policy-making and public actors leads to the formulation of divergent and potentially competing rationales for public participation, and for social appraisal more generally. Participatory approaches have also given impetus to the development of several interpretations on the role of science in assessment procedures. Science is important in mediating public participation and the two are therefore reciprocally linked. This leads to discourses that become manifest in the construction of substantive purposes. Discourse analysis in EA is a relevant method for examining trends and patterns in sustainable development. It is argued that public participation is an important, if not decisive, variable in the articulation and civil legitimacy of certain purposes. A general proposition that results from this paper is that EA, although typically presented as an objective scientific tool, is an intrinsically normative process. Enhanced knowledge on the construction, and reconstruction over time, of substantive purposes is required if environmental and sustainability discourses are to be used and understood as meaningful analytical instruments to assess the socio-political implications of EA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substantive purposes related to environmental assessment may be best analyzed through discourse analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental and sustainability discourses are contingent on the level of participatory democracy and civic science. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Public participation is a decisive variable in the construction of the substantive purpose of environmental assessment.

Rozema, Jaap G., E-mail: j.rozema@uea.ac.uk [Science, Society and Sustainability Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (UEA), Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Bond, Alan J., E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [Science, Society and Sustainability Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (UEA), Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Cashmore, Matthew, E-mail: cashmore@plan.aau.dk [Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 13, 9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Chilvers, Jason, E-mail: jason.chilvers@uea.ac.uk [Science, Society and Sustainability Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (UEA), Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

2012-02-15

473

Learning From the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute: Documenting Teacher Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the extent to which experiences designed to help preservice teachers take advantage of the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute moved them to acquire deeper knowledge of the Civil Rights Movement. The pre-service teachers came from two teacher education programs that differ with respect to situated activity, discourse communities, and authentic practice.Before and after a visiting the museum, undergraduate

Madeleine Gregg; Gaea Leinhardt

2002-01-01

474

Pedagogy, police training, D\\/discourses - \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in this research to distinguish the prevailing D\\/discourses (words, tools, beliefs, thinking styles) in police training and to analyse the 'discourse-practice' (Cherryholmes 1988, p.1) framework of policing in a training environment. The manifestations, functions and consequences of the D\\/discourses raise concerns about the efficacy of training (its doctrinal intent and value versus its educative

Cheryl Maree Ryan

475

Lighting the Way Through Scientific Discourse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a thought-provoking lesson that compares various arrangements of lamp-battery circuits to help students develop the motivation and competence to participate in scientific discourse for knowledge construction. Through experimentation and discourse, students explore concepts about voltage, current, resistance, and Ohm's law. The discourse encourages students to become deeply engaged in the process of making sense of their own observations and ideas.

Yang, Li-Hsuan

2008-12-01

476

Right brain damage and the verbal expression of emotion: A preliminary investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Emotional expression or evaluation is intrinsically involved in all communication. In discourse, it has the function of expressing the speaker's opinions, building rapport with the listener, and providing a discourse framework. Emotion may be expressed verbally (lexically), nonverbally (e.g., gesture), or extralinguistically (e.g., prosody). Although it has been established that individuals with right brain damage (RBD) are impaired in

Sue Sherratt

2007-01-01

477

Children's Rights in Practice: A Study of Change within a Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How might a concern with children's spirituality "touch down" within the different spaces, discourses and performances within a school? This article is concerned with the affordances of children's rights discourse in relation to young people's participation, deliberation, and ethical work upon the self, within one primary school in Scotland. We…

I'Anson, John; Allan, Julie

2006-01-01

478

Discourse Markers in Turn-Initial Positions in Interruptive Speech in a Malaysian Radio Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourse markers play significant roles in any spoken interaction. This research examines the functions of the discourse markers (DMs) well, now and and used as turn-initial interruptive devices in a Malaysian radio discourse. Using Schegloff's (2002) framework of what constitutes an interruption in turn-taking and previous studies on the…

Nor, Siti Nurbaya Mohd

2012-01-01

479

Lexical Bundles in Discourse Structure: A Corpus-Based Study of Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study applies corpus-based methods to document the distributional patterns of previously reported lexical bundle functions as they relate to discourse structure. Specifically, 84 lexical bundles and their discourse functions (Biber "et al." 2004a) were tracked in 1,176 discourse units extracted from the initial phases of 196 university…

Csomay, Eniko

2013-01-01

480

The right time, the right place: will targeting human cancer-associated mutations to the mouse provide the perfect preclinical model?  

PubMed

Over the past 10 years the realisation that genetic mouse models of cancer may play a key role in preclinical drug development has gained strong momentum. Moreover sequencing studies of human tumours have provided key insights into the mutational complexity of epithelial cancer, unleashing important clues for researchers to generate accurate genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models of cancer. Thus by targeting multiple cancer associated human mutations to the appropriate murine epithelia, mice develop tumours that more closely recapitulate the human disease. As a number of excellent models now exist, the next 5-10 years will ascertain whether these models will predict response of human cancer to intervention. If so they might become the 'gold standard' where all drugs are required to be tested in mouse models of disease before proceeding into the patient. However, although this principle is very attractive, it is relatively untested and here, using examples of prevalent human cancers, we will review the latest data on preclinical GEM studies and comment on what challenges are left to overcome. PMID:22406017

Blyth, Karen; Morton, Jennifer P; Sansom, Owen J

2012-02-01

481

Discourse on Discourse. Workshop Reports from the Macquarie Workshop on Discourse Analysis (Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, February 21-25, 1983). Occasional Papers Number 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four group summary papers from an Australian national workshop on discourse analysis discuss verbal and written discourse and the classroom. Papers reflect the four workshop discussion groups of casual conversation, classroom discourse, expository discourse, and literary narrative. They include: "On Casual Conversation" (M. A. K. Halliday and G.…

Hasan, Ruqaiya, Ed.

482

Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.  

PubMed

This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority. PMID:24908456

Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

2014-05-01

483

Regulation of sexuality in Indonesian discourse: normative gender, criminal law and shifting strategies of control.  

PubMed

This paper examines changes in the regulation of sexuality in Indonesia in the period since 1980 as seen through state, religious and lesbian and gay activist discourses on sexuality. Three different eras during that period of Indonesian history are compared. Under the New Order regime of Suharto, the Indonesian state sought to control sexuality through a deployment of gender. During the 1990s, state Islamic discourses of sexuality shifted in response to international pressures to support same-sex marriage and sexual rights. During the third period following the end of the Suharto regime in 1998, a conservative Islamic minority pushed for more restrictive laws in the State Penal Code, initiating intense public debate on the role of the state in questions of sexuality and morality. Over this time period, the dominant discourse on sexuality moved from strategically linking normative gender with heterosexuality and marriage to direct attempts to legislate heterosexual marriage by criminalizing a wide range of sexual practices. PMID:17457732

Blackwood, Evelyn

2007-01-01

484

Natural Law Reasoning and American Constitutional Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay will suggest a link between the relative decline of natural law as a characteristic feature of American public debate, and concern over the possible decline of constitutional discourse. The first part of the essay will describe a particular understanding of constitutional discourse, sharing vital elements with natural law reasoning. Essential to this understanding is the notion that constitutional

Stephen A. Simon

2003-01-01

485

Supportive Discourse Moves in Persian Requests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the types of supportive discourse moves employed by Persian speakers in their Requestive Speech Acts. 372 respondents took a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) with six scenarios ranging from formal to informal degrees of Perceived Situational Seriousness, and returned 2232 Requestive…

Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Allami, Hamid

2011-01-01

486

Effects of Discourse Type on Recall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in discourse type were expected to result in differences in processing text. The more organized discourse types of comparison, problem/solution, and causation were predicted to yield superior recall of information than a collection of descriptions about a topic. Results from two studies supported this prediction. (Author/BW)

Meyer, Bonnie J. F.; Freedle, Roy O.

1984-01-01

487

Corporate Discourse and the Academy: A Polemic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical analysis of vocabulary, imagery, and rhetoric in business texts shows that higher education is adopting a free-market discourse depicting the academy in terms of a knowledge industry or revenue generator in which intellectual resources are "leveraged" and knowledge is a "commodity." This discourse is characterized as management centered,…

Webster, Gary

2003-01-01

488

Topic-Based Analysis of Classroom Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an analysis of classroom discourse by identifying the topics in the discourse and following their development. To identify topics, bottom-up approaches based on theme-rheme progression and lexical networks were used together with a top-down schematic approach producing semantic networks of keywords. (Author/VWL)

Todd, Richard Watson

1998-01-01

489

Conceptions of Limited Attention and Discourse Focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Walker (1996) presents a cache model of the operation of attention in the processing of discourse as an alternative to the focus space stack that was proposed previously by Grosz and Sidner (Grosz 1977a; Grosz and Sidner 1986). In this squib, we present a critical analysis of the cache model and of Walker's supporting evidence from anaphora in discourses with

Barbara J. Grosz; Peter C. Gordon

1999-01-01

490

Participial Constructions as Discourse Markers in Hindi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the use of participial constructions in Hindi as discourse strategies for cohesion in speech. The data from the "Analyzing Narratives" project indicates that participial constructions are used fairly extensively as discourse connectors. The conjunctive participle is used more extensively than the others. Some of the major…

Mukherjee, Aditi

2010-01-01

491

Asking Questions & Promoting Discourse (Part 2)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief NCTM article presents Part 2 (Part 1 cataloged separately) of their collection of tips on asking good questions and promoting discourse, which is an integral part of the teaching and learning in a classroom. The article includes suggestions on how teachers can improve their questioning techniques as well as how they respond to student discourse.

2013-01-01

492

Metaphor Practices in the German "Wende" Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a method for computer-based analyses of metaphor in discourse, combining quantitative and qualitative elements. This method is illustrated with data from research on German newspaper discourse concerning the ongoing system transformations of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Methodological aspects of the research procedure are…

Zinken, Jorg

2004-01-01

493

Metaphor Practices in the German Wende Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a method for computer-based analyses of metaphor in discourse, combining quantitative and qualitative elements. This method is illustrated with data from research on German newspaper discourse concerning the ongoing system transformations of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Methodological aspects of the research procedure are discussed and it is argued that quantitative elements can enhance comparability in

Jörg Zinken

2004-01-01

494

Transforming classroom discourse: An inuit example  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents primarily quantitative data regarding forms of classroom discourse and turn allocation that emerged from a larger ethnographic study examining Inuit classroom interactions and discourse patterns in three kindergarten and three first grade Inuit?taught classrooms in three Ungava Bay communities. The focus is on the transformational effects of the incorporation of culturally?congruous social interaction patterns and the promotion

Martha B. Crago

1994-01-01

495

Reconstructing Eastern paradigms of discourse studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current scholarship on language and communication has largely been culturally monological rather than dialogical and diversified. In this paper, I respond to this sorry state by arguing for the reconstruction of Eastern paradigms in favour of multiculturalism in discourse research. To that end, I first critique the ethnocentrism of Discourse Analysis, then point to the cultural realities of the Eastern

2009-01-01

496

Bilingual Discourse Markers in Indigenous Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of research considers the occurrence and function of Spanish discourse markers and other particles in indigenous speech. I discuss important research that has examined these phenomena and refer to studies of bilingual discourse markers in other non-indigenous language contact situations to address unresolved issues concerning the form…

Torres, Lourdes

2006-01-01

497

Argumentations in proving discourses in mathematics classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on argumentations in proving discourses in mathematics classrooms. Examples of different types of argumentations that were observed in a comparative study of French and German lessons on the Pythagorean Theorem are presented. These illustrate different argumentations within two kinds of proving discourse. In one case the argumentation is characterised as intuitive-visual, and in the other as conceptual.

Christine Knipping

498

Science Learning in the Context of Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The original article by Kamberelis and Wehunt (2012) discusses an interesting and important research subject in science education as it focus on classroom interactions and the characteristics of the discourse production of interlocutors. The authors start from the premise that discourse heterogeneity is constitutive of social activities, which is…

do Nascimento, Silvania Sousa

2013-01-01

499

Discourse Variation in Oral Proficiency Interviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the discourse structure of oral language proficiency interviews focused on (1) one principal discourse variable, topic, for analyzing contingency and goal orientation in dyadic interactions, and (2) contextual factors (interlocutor, theme, task, participant gender). Data came from 30 dyadic oral interviews in English as a Second…

Young, Richard; Milanovic, Michael

500

Spared and Impaired Spoken Discourse Processing in Schizophrenia: Effects of Local and Global Language Context  

PubMed Central

Individuals with schizophrenia are impaired in a broad range of cognitive functions, including impairments in the controlled maintenance of context-relevant information. In this study, we used ERPs in human subjects to examine whether impairments in the controlled maintenance of spoken discourse context in schizophrenia lead to overreliance on local associations among the meanings of individual words. Healthy controls (n = 22) and patients (n = 22) listened to short stories in which we manipulated global discourse congruence and local priming. The target word in the last sentence of each story was globally congruent or incongruent and locally associated or unassociated. ERP local association effects did not significantly differ between control participants and schizophrenia patients. However, in contrast to controls, patients only showed effects of discourse congruence when targets were primed by a word in the local context. When patients had to use discourse context in the absence of local priming, they showed impaired brain responses to the target. Our findings indicate that schizophrenia patients are impaired during discourse comprehension when demands on controlled maintenance of context are high. We further found that ERP measures of increased reliance on local priming predicted reduced social functioning, suggesting that alterations in the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension have functional consequences in the illness. PMID:24068824

Boudewyn, Megan A.; Long, Debra L.; Luck, Steve J.; Kring, Ann M.; Ragland, J. Daniel; Ranganath, Charan; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Solomon, Marjorie; Mangun, George R.; Carter, Cameron S.

2013-01-01