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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to map out the voluntary-regulatory dynamics of the discourse of humanrights in a business context within the European Union (EU) regulatory environment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines the humanrights and corporate social responsibility (CSR) discourses at the EU institutional level, in order to identify the interplay between soft and hard
Since 1945, United Nations (UN) conferences and documents have promoted humanrights as essential to individual liberty and international peace. It took until 1994, however, for the term "sexual rights" to first appear in a UN document. Recently, other groups have also been promoting the idea of sexual rights. The professional and scientific World Association of Sexology offered a Declaration of Sexual Rights in 1999. In 2000, The World Health Organization co-authored "Promotion of Sexual Health," including a central role for sexual rights. This emerging sexual rightsdiscourse can be linked to the women's rights and gay and lesbian rights movements of the 1970s, and to the AIDS pandemic of the 1980s. PMID:12378845
Research suggests that disabled people may be at increased risk for HIV infection, yet are excluded from HIV prevention campaigns. Historically people with learning disabilities have been constructed as either being asexual or sexually uninhibited, and sex education considered to be unnecessary or potentially harmful. This article reports on findings of a qualitative study exploring the challenges expressed by participants who provide sex education for persons with learning disabilities, revealing a tension between a humanrightsdiscourse and a discourse of restriction of sexual behaviours. Sex education, in the context of HIV/AIDS, may potentially construct sex as dangerous, echoing past constructions of disabled people's sexuality as problematic. PMID:19383660
This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of humanrightsdiscourse, and of the implementation of humanrights standards, humanrights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…
Humanrightsdiscourses are increasingly being coupled to discourses on citizenship and citizenship education. In this paper, I consider the premise that humanrights might provide a theoretical underpinning for citizenship. I categorise citizenship into five main categories -- moral, legal, identity-based, participatory and cosmopolitan. Bringing…
The idea of "humanrights" is a relatively new development in history, but as this website from Britain's National Archives notes in its discussion of the long trajectory of struggles for equality and so forth, "We could do worse than characterizing this history as the struggle for humanrights." This visually compelling online exhibit uses original documents from The National Archives to take a long view of these struggles and movements. Visitors can start their journey through the site by picking a time period, and then reading an introductory essay on the period. Each time period includes a timeline and links to digitized version of relevant documents, such as The Poor Act of 1601 and a poster for a Staffordshire coal miners' union public meeting from 1831. The site is rounded out by a thorough glossary and a document index.
This paper investigates the extent to which rights-based education is utilised in textbooks from conflict-affected countries. Drawing on a unique dataset of 528 secondary social science textbooks from 71 countries from 1966 to 2008, we analyse factors that predict a rightsdiscourse in texts. We find that textbooks from conflict-affected nations…
This paper examines how global interdependencies and the consolidation of a humanrightsdiscourse are transforming national sovereignty. Social researchers frequently address the supremacy of state sovereignty and the absoluteness of humanrights as mutually exclusive categories. However, rather than presupposing that a universal rightsdiscourse is necessarily leading to the demise of sovereignty, we suggest that an increasingly de-nationalized conception of legitimacy is contributing to a reconfiguration of sovereignty itself. Through the analytic prism of historical memories - which refers to shared understandings specific pasts carry for present concerns of a political community - we provide an explanatory factor for the salience of humanrights norms as a globally available repertoire of legitimate claim making. While states retain most of their sovereign functions, their legitimacy is no longer exclusively conditioned by a contract with the nation, but also by their adherence to a set of nation-transcending humanrights ideals. Legitimacy is mediated by how willing states are to engage with 'judicial memories' of humanrights abuses and their articulation in cosmopolitan legal frames. Empirically, we focus on war crime trials and how legal inscriptions of memories of humanrights abuses are recasting the jurisdiction of International Law. The readiness of states to engage with rights abuses is becoming politically and culturally consequential, as adherence to global humanrights norms confers legitimacy. PMID:17168943
The competing discourses of HIV\\/AIDS circulating in sub-Saharan Africa are identified. These are medical, medico-moral, developmental (distinguishing between 'women in development' and gender and development perspectives), legal, ethical, and the rightsdiscourse of groups living with HIV\\/AIDS and of African pressure groups. The analytical framework is that of discourse analysis as exemplified by Michel Foucault. The medical and medico-moral are
We begin this chapter by describing the principles of humanrights and relating them to the promotion of a culture of peace.\\u000a After discussing how war interferes with humanrights, we show how people were able to further humanrights by creating a\\u000a space for peace in the midst of a war in the Philippines. We examine the history of
Includes "Introduction"; "International Labour Standards and HumanRights" (Valticos); "The Origins of Convention No. 87 on Freedom of Association and the Right to Organize" (Dunning); "HumanRights Law and Freedom of Association" (Swepston); "Freedom of Association" (von Potobsky); "The ILO [International Labour Organization] Declaration of 1998…
Background The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses. However such initiatives exemplify a top-down approach to promoting humanrights which historically has had limited impact at the level of those living with mental illness and their families. Methods This research forms part of a longitudinal anthropological study of people with severe mental illness in rural Ghana. Visits were made to over 40 households with a family member with mental illness, as well as churches, shrines, hospitals and clinics. Ethnographic methods included observation, conversation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with people with mental illness, carers, healers, health workers and community members. Results Chaining and beating of the mentally ill was found to be commonplace in homes and treatment centres in the communities studied, as well as with-holding of food ('fasting'). However responses to mental illness were embedded within spiritual and moral perspectives and such treatment provoked little sanction at the local level. Families struggled to provide care for severely mentally ill relatives with very little support from formal health services. Psychiatric services were difficult to access, particularly in rural communities, and also seen to have limitations in their effectiveness. Traditional and faith healers remained highly popular despite the routine maltreatment of the mentally ill in their facilities. Conclusion Efforts to promote the humanrights of those with mental illness must engage with the experiences of mental illness within communities affected in order to grasp how these may underpin the use of practices such as mechanical restraint. Interventions which operate at the local level with those living with mental illness within rural communities, as well as family members and healers, may have greater potential to effect change in the treatment of the mentally ill than legislation or investment in services alone.
This reference work documents the history of humanrights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights, explores the contemporary humanrights movement, and examines the major humanrights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…
Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.
How does the United Nations work to protect humanrights? This subject-specific website provides information on the various offices, officials, policy initiatives, and actions related to this important agenda. There are five main sections to the site: UN Bodies, Thematic Issues, International Courts and Tribunals, Other Resources, and Past Conferences. The UN Bodies section contains information about the UN HumanRights Council, its various charters, treaties, and more. Thematic Issues is another great feature, offering detailed information on the Secretary-General's Campaign to End Violence Against Women as well as the UNÃ¢ÂÂs Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. News items from around the world can be found on the right-hand side of the page, effectively covering everything from Sri Lankan ethnic minority groups to ongoing conflicts in Pakistan.
The symposium on which the publication is based took place on April 27, 1987 at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. The Committee on HumanRights was created by the National Academy of Sciences in 1976 in response to increased concern by ...
Why do teachers need to be familiar with humanrights? In multicultural societies, whose values take precedence? How do schools resolve tensions between children's rights and teachers' rights? Campaigners, politicians and the media cite humanrights to justify or challenge anything from peaceful protest to military action. The phrase "human…
The concept of "humanrights in patient care" refers to the application of humanrights principles to the context of patient care. It provides a principled alternative to the growing discourse of "patients' rights" that has evolved in response to widespread and severe humanrights violations in health settings. Unlike "patients' rights," which is rooted in a consumer framework, this concept derives from inherent human dignity and neutrally applies universal, legally recognized humanrights principles, protecting both patients and providers and admitting of limitations that can be justified by humanrights norms. It recognizes the interrelation between patient and provider rights, particularly in contexts where providers face simultaneous obligations to patients and the state ("dual loyalty") and may be pressured to abet humanrights violations. The humanrights lens provides a means to examine systemic issues and state responsibility. Humanrights principles that apply to patient care include both the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which covers both positive and negative guarantees in respect of health, as well as civil and political rights ranging from the patient's right to be free from torture and inhumane treatment to liberty and security of person. They also focus attention on the right of socially excluded groups to be free from discrimination in the delivery of health care. Critical rights relevant to providers include freedom of association and the enjoyment of decent work conditions. Some, but not all, of these humanrights correspond to rights that have been articulated in "patients' rights" charters. Complementary to—but distinct from—bioethics, humanrights in patient care carry legal force and can be applied through judicial action. They also provide a powerful language to articulate and mobilize around justice concerns, and to engage in advocacy through the media and political negotiation. As "patients' rights" movements and charters grow in popularity, it is important to link patient rights back to humanrights standards and processes that are grounded in international law and consensus. PMID:24421170
In an attempt to combine marine conservation and economic development, the Chilean government introduced a policy that gives formal property rights over defined areas of seabed to artisanal fishers. This study used discourse analysis to understand the impacts and consequences of this policy. Story lines based on sustainability, livelihood maintenance, and historical right claims are mechanisms by which three different
STEFAN GELCICH; GARETH EDWARDS-JONES; MICHEL J. KAISER; ELIZABETH WATSON
The Chinese Embassy site contains statements on China's foreign policy in general, Sino-US relations, and relations with other countries. In addition, the Embassy also offers statements and papers on humanrights issues. The State Visit of Chinese President Jiang Zemin last week represented a thaw in official Sino-US Relations, which have been somewhat chilly since Tiananmen in 1989. Despite reaching agreements on a broad range of security, economic, environmental and law-enforcement issues, the two Presidents were clearly far apart on the issue of humanrights. While President Clinton made mention of the right to political and religious expression, President Jiang expressed the need for political and social stability in his country. On the whole, both leaders have achieved their goals. President Clinton has secured China's cooperation on several issues, most importantly arms control and trade, while the state dinner and formal ceremony recognized China's role as a key player in the world economy and Jiang's international position as its head of state.
In order to understand the context of the role that humanrights should play in civic education in the United States, the era in which those rights were first debated (1789-1790's) must be examined, as well as contemporary political and education trends in the United States and the world. Humanrights were at the heart of the democratic…
Investigating Romanian radical right populism, I evidence the gendered nature of conceptual metaphors and provide insights on the specific masculinities that they underpin in such political discourses. With the 2004 presidential elections as a backdrop, the analysis focuses on how the radical right populist candidates articulated in their discourses the conceptual metaphor of the “strict father.” At first, the theoretical
To establish an objective conception of humanrights, one must first identify basic needs intrinsic to all people and then determine whether these needs are or can be hierarchically ordered. Many scholars have conducted research on the concept of human needs, particularly in the area of humanrights. Among these scholars are Abraham H. Maslow…
EnglishUsing humanrights violations in Eritrea as a point of reference, this article reflects on current discourses on humanrights and professional solidarity in international social work. The notion of universal humanrights is asserted, and the authors call for a more participatory and egalitarian dialogue on humanrights within the profession.FrenchEn s'appuyant sur les violations des droits de la
Discourse comprehension is a hallmark of human social behaviour and refers to the act of interpreting a written or spoken message by constructing mental representations that integrate incoming language with prior knowledge and experience. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 145) that investigates the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension (measured by the Discourse Comprehension Test) and systematically examine its relation to a broad range of psychological factors, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores obtained from these factors were submitted to voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to elucidate their neural substrates. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory and extraversion reliably predict individual differences in discourse comprehension: higher working memory scores and lower extraversion levels predict better discourse comprehension performance. Lesion mapping results indicated that these convergent variables depend on a shared network of frontal and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The observed findings motivate an integrative framework for understanding the neural foundations of discourse comprehension, suggesting that core elements of discourse processing emerge from a distributed network of brain regions that support specific competencies for executive and social function. PMID:24293267
In the present study, a cross-modal semantic priming task was used to investigate the ability of left-hemisphere-damaged (LHD) nonfluent aphasic, right-hemisphere-damaged (RHD) and non-brain-damaged (NBD) control subjects to use a discourse context to resolve lexically ambiguous words. Subjects first heard four-sentence discourse passages ending…
Provides an historical perspective on the social changes precipitated by invention of the printing press and widespread availability of books. Suggests ways in which to effectively incorporate humanrights teaching into modern children's books. (AV)
As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and humanrights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international humanrights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of HumanRights and other international humanrights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.
Several new resources are now available (in .pdf format) at the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security Website. This resource is a reprint of Peter Gleick's fifteen-page article, "The HumanRight to Water." Originally published in 1999 in Water Policy, the paper argues that "a humanright to adequate supplies of fresh water can be derived from principles of customary international law and international treaty regimes."
This article explores the meaning of sexual rights as interpreted by different stakeholders during the development of the Beijing Programme of Action and within the Southern African Development Community (SADC). It illustrates how the lack of sexual rights as understood in the African context results from poverty as well as gender inequality, particularly in sexual relationships. This lack is manifested in the circumstances surrounding the HIV/AIDS pandemic and violence against women. In the European context, in contrast, sexual rights claims are motivated specifically in relation to sexual orientation. The article explores the extent to which these different discourses are being addressed in practice in SADC member countries and the opportunities that exist for building a concrete practice of sexual rights both in the region and internationally. PMID:10796973
A study of humanrights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of humanrights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…
This paper describes the importance of humanrights education as proclaimed by UN (1994) and also the strategies for developing humanrights education by UN General assembly 2005. In proclaiming the United Nations Decade for HumanRights Education (1995-2004), in December 1994, the General Assembly defined humanrights education as "a life-long…
This curriculum is intended to further thoughtful examination and responsible action among high school students about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues. Unlike other curricula this discussion is not in the context of civil or political rights but in the broader context of humanrights. These rights, as defined in the Universal…
As this website explains in its Common Questions area, "Tactics consist of how to make a change", and given this statement, the site will be of great interest to those with a concern for international humanrights. The New Tactics in HumanRights organization is primarily concerned with providing practitioners in the field with a package of practical tools, a worldwide symposium, and a number of other strategic planning resources. The project itself is coordinated by the Center for Victims of Torture and is overseen by a board of advisors that includes novelist Mario Vargas Llosa and the Right Honorable Kim Campbell, who is the former Prime Minister of Canada. The "Tools for Action" section is a real find as it contains a number of tactical notebooks taken from various case studies around the world, including work from Turkey, Hungary, Romania, and Albania. It is worth noting that many of the materials on the site are also available in Spanish and French.
This article discusses human environmental rights, obstacles to community autonomy, and progress toward achieving environmental justice. An overview is provided of human environmental abuse case studies that are included in this issue of the "Human Ecology" journal. UN humanrights include, for instance, the right to an adequate standard of living, education, culture, equality, dignity, and security of the person and family. Human environmental rights abuse occurs because people live in the wrong place and because national needs are given priority over individual and community concerns. Abuse occurs because it is socially, culturally, and legally acceptable to protect the health of some people, while knowingly placing others at risk. Human environmental rights abuse occurs because of the present approach to defining and minimizing risk and the emphasis on short-term solutions. Immoral actions become socially responsible when the physical distance between those who live with adverse consequences and those who decide courses of action are great. Distancing mechanisms include decision makers who are removed from the reality of their decisions, employment frameworks and analytical methods that intellectually distance policy makers from reality, and abusive action within a broad ethnocentric framework. The environment has become a commodity controlled and manipulated by global market forces. The centralization of authority and capital acts to devalue the power of the community over its environment, to imply that the state has the power over decision making, and to increase distances between decisions and outcomes. The case studies strongly illustrate the key role of the community in maintaining resource integrity and the increasing alienation of the community from local resources as a result of development. Structural rearrangements of power come about through the struggles of community-based movements and supportive national and international politics. PMID:12291583
Fifty years ago, on December 10, 1948, the United Nations General Assembly ratified the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. Forty?eight member states voted for the Declaration; eight abstained, including the USSR and five of its allies, as well as South Africa and Saudi Arabia. The Declaration's preamble states that the recognition “of the inherent dignity and of the equal and
A collection of essays on linguistic humanrights includes: "Combining Immigrant and Autochthonous Language Rights: A Territorial Approach to Multilingualism" (Francois Grin); "On the Limits of Ethnolinguistic Democracy" (Joshua A. Fishman); "Linguistic HumanRights and Educational Policy in Russia" (Alexei A. Leontiev); "Linguistic HumanRights,…
The study of humanrights is inseparable from social studies. Beyond the basic political, economic, and social freedoms and rights spelled out in The Universal Declaration of HumanRights, hundreds of specialized topics have developed that demonstrate the complex nature of humanrights in the twenty-first-century world--environmental exploitation…
Claims to humanrights protection made by displaced persons are displaced from the universe of humanity and rendered ineffective by the geopolitical character of modern international humanrights law, in favour of the protection of citizens' rights claims. In response, there is increasing interest in leveraging respect for and protection of the rights of displaced persons through extension of the
Background Various investigators suggest that some discourse-level comprehension difficulties in adults with right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) have a lexical-semantic basis. As words are processed, the intact right hemisphere arouses and sustains activation of a wide-ranging network of secondary or peripheral meanings and features—a phenomenon dubbed “coarse coding”. Coarse coding impairment has been postulated to underpin some prototypical RHD comprehension deficits, such as difficulties with nonliteral language interpretation, discourse integration, some kinds of inference generation, and recovery when a reinterpretation is needed. To date, however, no studies have addressed the hypothesised link between coarse coding deficit and discourse comprehension in RHD. Aims The current investigation examined whether coarse coding was related to performance on two measures of narrative comprehension in adults with RHD. Methods & Procedures Participants were 32 adults with unilateral RHD from cerebrovascular accident, and 38 adults without brain damage. Coarse coding was operationalised as poor activation of peripheral/weakly related semantic features of words. For the coarse coding assessment, participants listened to spoken sentences that ended in a concrete noun. Each sentence was followed by a spoken target phoneme string. Targets were subordinate semantic features of the sentence-final nouns that were incompatible with their dominant mental representations (e.g., “rotten” for apple). Targets were presented at two post-noun intervals. A lexical decision task was used to gauge both early activation and maintenance of activation of these weakly related semantic features. One of the narrative tasks assessed comprehension of implied main ideas and details, while the other indexed high-level inferencing and integration. Both comprehension tasks were presented auditorily. For all tasks, accuracy of performance was the dependent measure. Correlations were computed within the RHD group between both the early and late coarse coding measures and the two discourse measures. Additionally, ANCOVA and independent t-tests were used to compare both early and sustained coarse coding in subgroups of good and poor RHD comprehenders. Outcomes & Results The group with RHD was less accurate than the control group on all measures. The finding of coarse coding impairment (difficulty activating/sustaining activation of a word’s peripheral features) may appear to contradict prior evidence of RHD suppression deficit (prolonged activation for context-inappropriate meanings of words). However, the sentence contexts in this study were unbiased and thus did not provide an appropriate test of suppression function. Correlations between coarse coding and the discourse measures were small and nonsignificant. There were no differences in coarse coding between RHD comprehension subgroups on the high-level inferencing task. There was also no distinction in early coarse coding for subgroups based on comprehension of implied main ideas and details. But for these same subgroups, there was a difference in sustained coarse coding. Poorer RHD comprehenders of implied information from discourse were also poorer at maintaining activation for semantically distant features of concrete nouns. Conclusions This study provides evidence of a variant of the postulated link between coarse coding and discourse comprehension in RHD. Specifically, adults with RHD who were particularly poor at sustaining activation for peripheral semantic features of nouns were also relatively poor comprehenders of implied information from narratives.
Tompkins, Connie A.; Scharp, Victoria L.; Meigh, Kimberly M.; Fassbinder, Wiltrud
Discursive constructions of abortion are embedded in the social and gendered power relations of a particular socio-historical space. As part of research on public discourses concerning abortion in South Africa where there has been a radical liberalisation of abortion legislation, we collected data from male group discussions about a vignette concerning abortion, and newspaper articles written by men about abortion. Our analysis revealed how discourses of equality, support and rights may be used by men to subtly undermine women's reproductive right to 'choose' an abortion. Within an Equal Partnership discourse, abortion, paired with the assumption of foetal personhood, was equated with violating an equal heterosexual partnership and a man's patriarchal duty to protect a child. A New Man discourse, which positions men as supportive of women, was paired with the assumption of men as rational and women as irrational in decision-making, to allow for the possibility of men dissuading women from terminating a pregnancy. A Rightsdiscourse was invoked to suggest that abortion violates men's paternal rights. PMID:23768420
The article explores the intersection between child rights, water scarcity, sanitation, and the human security paradigm. The recognition of child rights has been advanced through the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international legal instruments, while water rights are increasingly affirmed in international law and through the historic July 2010 United Nations General Assembly resolution that strengthened the legal foundation for water security and humanrights. Yet there remains a development gap in terms of child access to clean and secure water sources for basic human development needs. The human security paradigm provides a legal and humanitarian foundation for the extension of child rights related to water and sanitation. PMID:22773100
This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of humanrights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…
In recent years, the goals and purposes of education within the international development discourse have shifted significantly away from education for productivity or human capital development and towards education for the fulfillment of the individual through humanrights. The current global education climate provides governments with an…
HumanRights Watch is an organization whose goal is the following: "focusing international attention where humanrights are violated, we give voice to the oppressed and hold oppressors accountable for their crimes." Every year over the past twenty years HumanRights Watch has published their World Report, which is an evaluation of more than 90 countries' humanrights conditions. The staff of HumanRights Watch works closely with the humanrights activists in each country, so as to get an accurate picture. The interactive map on the lower half of the homepage allows visitors to scroll over the map, which will highlight a country, and a dialogue box will open to reveal the country highlighted, and a link to read the chapter from the current World Report, reports from the prior year, and a multimedia feature on the selected country. As a note, only the blue colored countries have had humanrights data collected on their humanrights condition.
The Australian Capital Territory's HumanRights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT HumanRights Commission have begun to create a humanrights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)
On the sixtieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights, feminists are at a critical juncture to re-envision and re-engage in a politics of humanrights that underscores the creative displays of grassroots resistance by women globally and affirms transnational feminist solidarity. In highlighting feminisms and humanrights that are antiracist and social justice oriented, this issue highlights new
Dana Collins; Sylvanna Falcón; Sharmila Lodhia; Molly Talcott
The Inter-American Court of HumanRights (the Court) has ruled that the Supreme Court of Costa Rica's judgment in 2000 prohibiting in vitro fertilization (IVF) violated the humanright to private and family life, the humanright to found and raise a family, and the humanright to non-discrimination on grounds of disability, financial means, or gender. The Court's conclusions of violations contrary to the American Convention on HumanRights followed from its ruling that, under the Convention, in vitro embryos are not "persons" and do not possess a right to life. Accordingly, the prohibition of IVF to protect embryos constituted a disproportionate and unjustifiable denial of infertile individuals' humanrights. The Court distinguished fertilization from conception, since conception-unlike fertilization-depends on an embryo's implantation in a woman's body. Under humanrights law, legal protection of an embryo "from conception" is inapplicable between its creation by fertilization and completion of its implantation in utero. PMID:23932062
Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Dickens, Bernard M; Dughman-Manzur, Sandra
Currently, in a number of public and semi-public forums in Barbados, the idea of 'sexual rights' is being discussed and debated. However, different meanings are attached to 'rights'. This paper examines how these meanings demonstrate that different interpretations of sexuality, society, and morality are circulating through Barbados today. It also addresses whether or not sexual rightsdiscourses are the best way to advocate for social justice or bring about changes to socio-sexual attitudes in the Caribbean. It is argued that framing justice and equality through rights talk may have deleterious effects for its advocates, as there is no 'clear' or transparent universality as to what rights means. It is suggested that it may be more efficacious for groups who are stigmatized based on sexual orientation to develop vernacular strategies with values and/or logics stressing elements of justice, equality, dignity and respect for personhood, which include but also move beyond sexual orientation as a principal identification. PMID:16801227
:The literature on who is responsible for the delivery of humanrights has produced two divergent perspectives. One view suggests that appropriate units for the delivery of humanrights are entities external to individuals such as nation-states or non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Another is that individuals themselves are responsible. The issue of race complicates the delivery issue even further. Discourses that
The literature on who is responsible for the delivery of humanrights has produced two divergent perspectives. One view suggests that appropriate units for the delivery of humanrights are entities external to individuals such as nation-states or non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Another is that individuals themselves are responsible. The issue of race complicates the delivery issue even further. Discourses that
HumanRights Watch has just released its twelfth annual review of humanrights practices around the globe in the 2002 HumanRights Watch World Report. This report addresses developments in sixty-six countries, covering the period from November 2000 through November 2001. Most of the chapters examine significant humanrights developments in a particular country, the response of global actors (such as the European Union, Japan, the United States, the United Nations, and various regional organizations), and the freedom of local humanrights defenders to conduct their work. Other chapters address important thematic concerns.
This study contributes an approach to understanding the cognitive models underlying rhetorical arguments about the "first wave" of women's rightsdiscourse in the United States, which began to emerge more publically with the Seneca Falls convention in 1848 and started to gain momentum in 1851 and beyond. The usage of the lexical item "sphere" (in…
This study examined the effect of emotional content on the verbal pragmatic aspects of discourse production in right-brain-damaged (RBD), left-brain-damaged (LBD), and normal control adults. In the nonemotional conditions, LBDs were particularly impaired in pragmatics, whereas in the emotional condition, RBDs demonstrated pragmatic deficits.…
The Global Migration Group (GMG) is an inter-agency group that is dedicated to encouraging the "adoption of more coherent, comprehensive and better coordinated approaches to the issue of international migration." Their number includes representatives from UNICEF, the World Bank and various regional commissions from the United Nations. In October 2008, they released this 144-page report in order to commemorate and reflect on the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. The report is divided into seven sections, including those dealing with the legal framework of migration, globalization and migration trends, migration data, and a concluding chapter which discusses some of the most pressing issues facing different migrant groups around the world. The report also includes three very useful appendices which deal with the policy instruments used in regards to human migration and the adoption of key United Nations legal instruments involved with international migration.
While respect for humanrights has long been endorsed as a goal of education, only recently has significant attention been paid to the need to incorporate rights within educational processes. Current support for humanrights within education, however, has a variety of motivations. This paper provides a theoretical exploration of these diverse…
This paper recounts development of a community college humanities course titled HumanRights/Human Wrongs: The History, Philosophy, Law, Art, and Literature of the HumanRights Movement. The author argues that a special focus, interdisciplinary course provides a broader base for exploring and understanding most of the pressing issues of our time.…
The paper argues for the existence of two powerful discourses of rurality in Denmark after World War II. The first one is termed the modernist-agriculturalist discourse. Although still influential in the current public debate, in Denmark as well as in other Western European countries, this discourse of rurality had its heyday in the 1960s. It is…
In reaction to the disasters of the first half the 20th century and World War II, a dramatic world movement arose emphasizing the humanrights of persons in global society. The contrast--celebrated in international treaties, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, and much cultural discourse--was with narrower world emphases on the…
Meyer, John W.; Bromley, Patricia; Ramirez, Francisco O.
Using the contemporary arena of social care as an example, this article challenges the either\\/or dichotomy set up by some disability writers and activists between the favoured civil and humanrights on the one hand and discredited social rights on the other. Rather, the article concludes, claims to these differing types of right are mutually reinforcing and can be mobilised
This article discusses youth and adult education in a twofold perspective: that of a humanright and that of human development. The first perspective is related to the concept of rights and the second perspective is related to the guarantee or negation of the right to development. In this article, the author discusses the universality of rights…
Concern for humanrights is a major element in the California State Board of Education's "History-Social Science Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten through Grade Twelve," and this document contains resources and guidelines to help teachers and curriculum developers integrate the teaching of humanrights into their courses. Part…
This paper attempts to address the rather complex nexus between humanrights, information and communication technologies (ICTs), and development. The topic I wish to explore in this paper is how to incorporate ICT use in development as a HumanRights issue. The paper first briefly examines how development in the Information Age must be considered an entirely different project from
Although a discussion of humanrights is perhaps the most important topic of any social studies curriculum, such discussions are absent from even those curriculum topics where they would seem most appropriate. While the foundational principles of humanrights are basic in all cultures throughout history, these basics are seldom taught. This paper…
Although attention to the links between health and humanrights is growing globally, the full potential of a progressive humanrights approach to health has not yet been explored, and it is even more faintly understood in the United States than in the rest of the world. At the same time, global claims for sexual rights, particularly for those identifying as gay, lesbian, transsexual, or bisexual, are increasingly being made as humanrights claims. All of these approaches to rights advocacy risk limiting their own transformative impact unless advocates critique their own strategies. Paradoxically, using health as a way to bring attention to nonheteronormative sexualities can be both helpful and potentially dangerous, especially when coupled with humanrights. Recognizing sexuality as a critical element of humanity, and establishing a fundamental humanright to health, can play a role in broader social justice claims, but the tendency of both public health and humanrights advocacy to "normalize" and regulate must be scrutinized and challenged. PMID:11392922
The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of humanrights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full humanrights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of humanrights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws. PMID:24714897
This book discusses the relationship between humanrights and education. Education is discussed both within the context of humanrights, and as the ultimate sanction and guarantee of all humanrights. Part 1, "Education as a HumanRight," is comprised of the following chapters: (1) "HumanRights and Education: An Overview" (D. R. Ray; N. B.…
The effects of treaties on humanrights performance may depend in part on how domestic legal systems articulate with international law. The idea motivating this study is that constitutional law can make a difference not necessarily by including rights but by acknowledging and connecting to treaty law. This study is a first attempt to explore the interrelated effects of treaties,
HumanRights Watch has recently posted a new report. "Chemical Warfare in Bosnia? The Strange Experiences of the Srebrenica Survivors," investigates whether or not Serb forces used chemical agents in an attack against people fleeing Srebrenica in Bosnia and Hercegovina.
Discusses the three categories of the overall Soviet humanrights movement: that of the Jewish community, that which is comprised of the numerous Christian sects, and the component comprised of Soviet intellectual dissidents. (JM)
This paper serves as an introduction to the three following papers by Roth, Wahlström, and Quennerstedt, analyzing the contextual background to the different treaties—the United Nations' Universal Declaration of HumanRights, the European Convention on HumanRights, and the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of the Child—and focusing on how the relations between parents' rights and children's rights in
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to better understand agenda setting by international humanrights organizations in the online environment and at the same time contribute to agenda-setting theory. The role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the area of humanrights is clarified, and agenda setting and related concepts are discussed. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study focuses on how
Much international debate over access to medicines focuses on whether patent law accords with international humanrights law. This article argues that this is the wrong question to ask. Following an analysis of both patent and humanrights law, this article suggests that the better approach is to focus on national debates over the best calibration of patent law to achieve national objectives. PMID:23581665
Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded. PMID:16446412
This paper is concerned with the design, development and usage of a domain- and language-independent discourse ontol- ogy, useful for utterance interpretation and generation in service- oriented human-computer dialogue. Although the syntagm \\
On December 10, 1998, the world celebrated the 50th anniversary of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR). The U.S. Constitution possesses many of the political and civil rights articulated in the UDHR. The UDHR, however, goes further than the U.S. Constitution, including many social and economic rights as well. This book…
Background The right to health is recognized as a fundamental humanright. Social participation is implied in the fulfillment of health rights since Alma Ata posited its relevance for successful health programs, although a wide range of interpretations has been observed for this term. While Peruvian law recognizes community and social participation in health, it was the GFATM requirement of mixed public-civil society participation in Country Coordination Mechanisms (CCM) for proposal submission what effectively led to formal community involvement in the national response to HIV and, to a lesser extent, tuberculosis. This has not been the case, however, for other chronic diseases in Peru. This study aims to describe and compare the role of health rightsdiscourse and community involvement in the national response to HIV, tuberculosis and cancer. Methods Key health policy documents were identified and analyzed. In-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders, representatives of civil society organizations (CSO), and leaders of organizations of people affected by HIV, cancer and tuberculosis. Results and discussion A health rightsdiscourse, well established in the HIV field, is expanding to general health discussions and to the tuberculosis (TB) field in particular. Both HIV and TB programs have National Multisectoral Strategic Plans and recognize participation of affected communities’ organizations. Similar mechanisms are non-existent for cancer or other disease-focused programs, although other affected patients are starting some organization efforts. Interviewees agreed that reaching the achievements of HIV mobilization is difficult for other diseases, since the HIV response was modeled based on a global movement with strong networks and advocacy mechanisms, eventually succeeding in the establishment of financial sources like the GFATM. Nevertheless, organizations linked to cancer and other diseases are building a National Patient Network to defend health rights. Conclusions There are new efforts to promote and protect health rights in Peru, probably inspired by the achievements of organizations of people living with HIV (PLHA). The public health sector must consolidate the participation of affected communities’ organizations in decision-making processes and implementation of health programs. PLHA organizations have become a key political and social actor in Peruvian public health policy.
Although humanrights education (HRE) has a long history, it has only recently begun to realize its transformative potential. A critical catalyst in this process is the emerging global ethos of accountability. Within this context, HRE can play a crucial role in the construction of a universal culture of humanrights, inspired by a shared commitment to a humane order and a belief that human beings have both the capacity and the responsibility to make a difference. In such an effort, the training of professionals is vital, especially of those professionals who can influence public debate on accountability and governance. Innovative HRE initiatives, characterized by a commitment to experiential learning and to international and regional cooperation among state and non-state actors, constitute a step in the right direction.
In July, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) issued its HumanRights report, the third such annual report issued under Tony Blair's government. The 176-page report provides a "detailed overview of the range of FCO work in the area of humanrights, from the government's responses to major humanitarian crises in Kosovo, in East Timor, or in Sierra Leone, to grass-roots projects to promote civil society, safeguard children from conflict and exploitation, and eradicate torture around the world." The report also includes a brief section on the decision of the Home Secretary not to extradite former Chilean dictator Pinochet to Spain, with a URL included for access to the full text of his statement. According to the Secretary for FCO affairs, the document is not meant as an exhaustive report on HumanRights around the world, but rather as an in-depth examination of UK efforts in this area both at home and abroad.
The relationship between religion and humanrights is an ambiguous and complex one, but there are academic, moral and political arguments for the inclusion of humanrights in religious education (RE). The Universal Declaration of HumanRights advocates education in humanrights and the English school curriculum aims to encourage a commitment to…
This paper reviews national and cultural traditions that inform humanrights consciousness in Slovakia and examines the role of constitutionalism in humanrights protection and education on humanrights. A prospering civil society is possible only in the context of a well-functioning civil state, making education in humanrights and…
A discussion is presented of the meaning of humanrights, implications of humanrights for foreign policy, and obstacles to its realization on a global scale. Chapter I identifies humanrights as a critical issue, commends President Carter's initiative in this area, and points out difficulties of implementing a humanrights policy. Chapter II…
Compiled by David Weissbrodt and Marci Hoffman and provided by the University of Minnesota HumanRights Library (discussed in the January 5, 1996 Scout Report), this extensive bibliography contains a large number and variety of resources for researching international humanrights law. Entries include: HumanRights Instruments, HumanRights Case Law, Research Guides on the Six Major HumanRights Instruments, Refugee Law, Selected Texts, Research Guides, Periodicals, Electronic Resources, and Country Situations.
This curriculum unit presents lessons based on information and ideas gained from a 1994 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Program in the People's Republic of China. This series of three lessons is created as an introduction to Model United Nations types of activities for high school students. Lesson 1, "What are HumanRights?" deals with…
This article surveys worldwide medical, ethical, and legal trends and initiatives related to the concept of pain management as a humanright. This concept recently gained momentum with the 2004 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Chapters-, International Association for the Study of Pain- and World Health Organization-sponsored \\
The non-violent participation of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhist monks in resistance efforts to advocate for the welfare of Myanmar's people has played an important role in educating the world about humanrights violations in the country. Faced with international condemnation, Myanmar's junta released Aung San Suu Kyi from…
Arguments for animal "rights" confuse the issue of what rights are about and, in the context of the care of laboratory animals, are misleading. Only human beings have rights and they should be cherished and extended. Consideration of the welfare of animals is important, but the context is that it is for the benefit of human beings and the animals serving humanity. Scientists need to explain the worth of animal research, particularly in regard to psychological studies. They also need to expose the fallacies in the animal rightists' arguments as one of the means to help diminish the threat to science. PMID:2463233
Asserts that educators need to teach about humanrights issues, such as social and economic rights, in the social studies curriculum because these issues are disregarded throughout the country. Defines humanrights, discusses the importance of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR), and provides two lessons. (CMK)
The realisation of sexual rights remains a daunting challenge in most of sub-Saharan Africa despite the articulation of these rights in several international documents and national laws. In this paper, we highlight a possible but neglected reason why this is so. Current sexual rights declarations derive from the notion that the body, as a physical entity, belongs to the individual. However, our work in two southeastern Nigerian cultures, the Ngwa-Igbo and the Ubang, shows that there is at least one alternative view of the body, which constructs it as the property of the wider community, rather than that of the individual. In the two cultures in question, rights are embodied in the community, which also lays powerful claims on all its members, including the claim of body ownership. Individuals are thus more likely to seek and realise their rights within the communal space, rather than by standing alone. The assumption that individuals always hold the ultimate right to their bodies is problematic and may constrain the effectiveness of rights-based programmes and interventions in general, and of work around sexual rights in particular. PMID:18513617
Modern environmental- and occupational-related morbidities and mortality are determined by the power relations inherent in our existing capitalist systems of production and consumption. These systems thwart human public health rights because of the priority to maximize profit for the systems' owners rather than to establish ecologically sound and socially just development for all. The international public health community must return to its primary prevention roots and take action to eliminate the potential for population morbidities that result from hazardous substance exposures in work and community environments. The 1988 Adelaide Recommendations on Healthy Public Policy provide us with guidelines that incorporate a humanrights approach and build on several decades of international public health declarations and charters. To succeed, public health must work with the labor movement. A humanrights approach to environmental public health can help us make a transition to sustainable modes of production and consumption. The environmental justice movement's strategy for an economic greening that sets as a priority "pathways out of poverty" can help to advance environmental public health rights. PMID:21733799
This review considers how a socio-legal approach may be used to explore the relationship between humanrights and law in the new century. Drawing on the classic traditions of law and society research, including gap studies, rights consciousness, public interest lawyering, and legal resource mobilization, as well as more recent approaches to legal globalization and epistemic communities or nongovernment networks,
This article reports on a study that examined how religious discourses of inclusion and exclusion-in Roman Catholic, evangelical Protestant, and Afro-Brazilian religious traditions-affected people's rights to express same-sex sexual desires, behaviors, and identities in the socioeconomically marginalized urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using extended ethnographic observation of institutions and religious events over a period of 2 years, the authors identified how sexual rights were constructed within religious discourses and conducted ethnographic interviews with 45 religious leaders. In the low-income and violent urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, religious leaders and institutions play key roles in molding community inclusion and exclusion. A comparison of the 3 major religious denominations shows a diversity of discourses about same-sex sexual desires and their impacts on community formation. PMID:20161503
García, Jonathan; Laboy, Miguel Muñoz; de Almeida, Vagner; Parker, Richard
...unwavering support for the principles enshrined in the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of...
Written humanrights law in Europe is as scanty as in the rest of the world. Case-law however provides considerable protection of sexual rights. It guarantees comprehensive protection of autonomy in sexual life, also for minors, and provides protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation. Negative attitudes of a majority may not justify interferences with the sexual rights of a minority and society could be expected to tolerate a certain inconvenience to enable individuals to live in dignity and worth in accordance with the sexual identity chosen by them. Compensation for interference with sexual autonomy and freedom is awarded. This high-level protection (as compared to other parts of the world) is however limited. It seems to be granted only in areas where it corresponds with public attitudes and social developments. And it is seldom secured on the national level but nearly exclusively by the European Court of HumanRights, whose case-law is often weakened by inconsistency. PMID:15814503
Considers how biotechnology affects human-rights issues; in particular, the need for reexamining concerns about reproductive technology, the rights of indigenous peoples, and the rights of future generations. Maintains that the new areas for human-rights discussions, such as germ-line manipulation and genetic screening, are unprecedented concerns…
Conveying the "common language of humanity" is the whole purpose of humanrights education. Concerned citizens need to understand and embrace the fundamental principles of human dignity and equality and accept the personal responsibility to defend the rights of all people. This handbook is intended to help people who care about humanrights to…
This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional humanrights treaties, non-binding or so-called soft law instruments from international organisations and
Health inequities are clear evidence of violations of the right to health. Yet despite this common ground, action on the social determinants of health aiming to reduce health inequities is sometimes disconnected from implementation of humanrights-based approaches. This is explained in part by differing histories, disciplines, and epistemologies. The capacity of humanrights instruments to alter policies on social determinants can seem limited. An absolutist focus on individuals and processes can seem at odds with the attention to differences in population health outcomes central to the concern for health equity. However, developments in rights-based approaches have seen the terrain of humanrights increasingly address social determinants. Humanrights provide a firm legal basis for tackling the inequities in power and resources that the Commission on Social Determinants of Health identifies as fundamental to achieving health equity. Indicators and benchmarks developed for rights-based approaches to health systems can be developed further within health sectors and translated to other sectors and disciplines. The discourse and evidence base of social determinants can also contribute to implementing rights-based approaches, as its resultant policy momentum can provide essential levers to realize the right to health. Therefore, there is no clear-cut delineation between the humanrights and health equity movements, and both may constructively work together to realize their goals. Such constructive collaboration will not prove straightforward; it will, instead, require profound engagement and innovations in both theory and practice. Yet this effort represents an important opportunity for those who seek social justice in health. PMID:21178189
Reports on a teacher-education project in which English-as-a-Second-Language teachers from five community-based organizations in Chicago developed a textbook about immigrant rights in the United States. The process not only produced significant course materials, but it also changed teachers' understanding of their classes, students, and teaching…
Human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) should not be reduced to a problem of supply and demand of organs for transplantation, a problem of organized crime and criminal justice, or a problem of voiceless, abandoned victims. Rather, HTOR is at once an egregious humanrights abuse and a form of human trafficking. As such, it demands a human-rights based approach in analysis and response to this problem, placing the victim at the center of initiatives to combat this phenomenon. Such an approach requires us to consider how various measures impact or disregard victims/potential victims of HTOR and gives us tools to better advocate their interests, rights and freedoms. PMID:23743564
In the context of neo-liberal retrenchments humanitarian NGOs have become alternative healthcare providers that partially fill the vacuum left by the welfare state's withdrawal from the provision of services to migrants and other marginalized populations. In many cases they thus help to build legitimacy for the state's retreat from social responsibilities. Humanrights organizations play an important role in advocating for migrants' rights, but in many cases they represent a legalistic and individualized conceptualization of the right to health that limits their claims for social justice. This paper analyzes the interactions and tensions between the discourses of medical humanitarianism, humanrights and political advocacy using the example of an "Open Clinic" run by an Israeli humanrights organization as a case-study: In 2007 dramatically increasing patient numbers provoked an intense internal debate concerning the proposal to temporarily close the "Open Clinic" in order to press the government to take action. Based on protocols from internal meetings and parliamentary hearings and in-depth interviews, we have analyzed divergent contextualizations of the Clinic's closure. These reflect conflicting notions regarding the Clinic's variegated spectrum of roles--humanitarian, political, legitimizing, symbolic, empowering and organizational--and underlying conceptualizations of migrants' "deservingness". Our case-study thus helps to illuminate NGOs' role in the realm of migrant healthcare and points out options for a possible fruitful relationship between the divergent paradigms of medical humanitarianism, humanrights and political advocacy. PMID:21911276
Released on 1999 December 6, two new humanrights reports from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) document extensive humanrights violations in Kosovo. This page provides access to the reports, a background paper, and a press release. Totalling more than 900 pages, the reports reveal humanrights abuses on both sides of the conflict. The first report "presents probably the most extensive and systematic survey to date of humanrights in Kosovo in the first half of 1999," based on hundreds of in-country reports and statements from nearly 2,800 refugees. The report concludes that in this period, which also saw the NATO air campaign, the province's Albanian population suffered the overwhelming majority of abuses. The second report covers the period between June 14 and October 31, 1999, when over 800,000 displaced Albanians returned to Kosovo. Analyzing humanrights conditions and events in each of the five regions of Kosovo, the report finds that the vast majority of violations were committed against Kosovo Serbs, Roma, Muslim Slavs and others who were marked for revenge by the returned Albanians. Both reports are offered by chapter in HTML or .pdf format.
Emergency contraception is the only resource that women can use to avoid becoming pregnant after having sexual intercourse without contraceptive protection. It could be a powerful means to prevent unwanted pregnancies and their devastating consequences for women's health, social wellbeing and life project, and for the unwanted child, if all people had ample access to good quality information, education and services for sexual and reproductive health. In spite of the preventive medicine value of emergency contraception, conservative sectors oppose its availability, appealing to moral values that are not universally shared in pluralistic societies. Excluding the only contraceptive that can be used after intercourse because some consider the mechanism of action to be unacceptable would mean restricting the right of choice of others, and imposing one particular belief or set of values on all members of the community, thus violating the freedom of conscience. Authorities have a moral obligation to protect humanrights. PMID:16480928
Background The fields of humanrights and public health ethics are each concerned with promoting health and elucidating norms for action. To date, however, little has been written about the contribution that these two justificatory frameworks can make together. This article explores how a combined approach may make a more comprehensive contribution to resolving normative health issues and to advancing a normative framework for global health action than either approach made alone. We explore this synergy by first providing overviews of public health ethics and of international humanrights law relevant to health and, second, by articulating complementarities between humanrights and public health ethics. Discussion We argue that public health ethics can contribute to humanrights by: (a) reinforcing the normative claims of international humanrights law, (b) strengthening advocacy for humanrights, and (c) bridging the divide between public health practitioners and humanrights advocates in certain contemporary health domains. We then discuss how humanrights can contribute to public health ethics by contributing to discourses on the determinants of health through: (a) definitions of the right to health and the notion of the indivisibility of rights, (b) emphasis on the duties of states to progressively realize the health of citizens, and (c) recognition of the protection of humanrights as itself a determinant of health. We also discuss the role that humanrights can play for the emergent field of public health ethics by refocusing attention on the health and illness on marginalized individuals and populations. Summary Actors within the fields of public health, ethics and humanrights can gain analytic tools by embracing the untapped potential for collaboration inherent in such a combined approach.
Research indicates that few state departments of education have actually mandated humanrights education in their schools. Clearly, individual teachers will need to take responsibility for the integration of peace education and humanrights education. By integrating humanrights education and peace education into the daily fabric of the school…
This article explores various strategies which could be used to hold the tobacco industry accountable for humanrights violations precipitated by its conduct. First, a brief overview of the international humanrights regime and the tobacco related jurisprudence issued by humanrights treaty bodies is provided. The article then explains how tobacco control advocates could promote more systematic consideration of
Conference participants examined the attitudes toward humanrights which led to the drafting of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights in 1948, as compared to today's perceptions of the meaning of humanrights. Using Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms" as a point of departure--freedom of speech and expression, freedom of every person to…
At Northport High School, New York, the subject of humanrights is dealt with in a tenth grade European Cultures Studies course. The ten week unit treats the concept of humanrights as well as historical and current cases focusing on basic liberties. As students study the individual cases involving humanrights, they delve into the political and…
Excerpts from 100 speeches, essays, and legal documents dating from classical times to the present illustrate the record of humanrights discussion over the centuries. The compilation was made in 1968 to mark the 20th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. The readings indicate that humanrights initially meant freedom from a…
Bureau of Public Affairs (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.
International revulsion at the violation of humanrights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual humanrights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish humanrights for all, both in periods of war…
Humanrights education is a prominent concern of a number of international organisations and has been dominant on the United Nations' agenda for the past 20 years. The UN Decade for HumanRights Education (1995-2004) has been followed by the World Programme for HumanRights Education (2005-ongoing) and the recently adopted UN Declaration on…
Remarkable progress has been made towards the recognition of sexual minority rights in Africa. At the same time, a marked increase in attacks, rhetorical abuse, and restrictive legislation against sexual minorities or ‘homosexuality’ makes activism for sexual rights a risky endeavour in many African countries. Campaigns for sexual rights and ‘coming out’ are frequently perceived as a form of Western cultural imperialism, leading to an exportation of Western gay identities and provoking a patriotic defensiveness. Cultures of quiet acceptance of same-sex relationships or secretive bisexuality are meanwhile also problematic given the high rate of HIV prevalence on much of the continent. This article examines specific initiatives that are using subtle, somewhat covert means to negotiate a path between rights activism and secretive bisexuality. It argues that strategies primarily focused on health concerns that simultaneously yet discreetly promote sexual rights are having some success in challenging prevalent homophobic or ‘silencing’ cultures and discourses. PMID:22826897
Background Adults with right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) can have considerable difficulty in drawing high-level inferences from discourse. Standardised tests of language comprehension in RHD do not tap high-level inferences with many items or in much depth, but nonstandardised tasks lack reliability and validity data. It would be of great clinical value if a standardised test could predict performance on high-level inferencing measures. Aims This study addressed whether performance of adults with RHD on the Discourse Comprehension Test (DCT; Brookshire & Nicholas, 1993) could predict their performance on a nonstandardised measure of high-level inference in narrative comprehension. Methods & Procedures This study used a within-group correlational design. Participants were 32 adults with damage limited to the right cerebral hemisphere, as a result of cerebrovascular accident. Half of the participants were male and half female. Participants averaged 64.5 years of age and 14.2 years of education. Participants listened to narrative stimuli and to yes/no questions about each narrative. Each DCT narrative was followed by the standard 8 questions about stated or implied main ideas or details. The high-level inferencing task contained 6 narrative scenarios from Winner, Brownell, Happé, Blum, and Pincus (1998). Each scenario describes a character who commits a minor transgression and later denies it. Two versions of each story are designed to induce different interpretations of the character’s denial. In one version, the character tells a white lie when he is unaware that he was seen committing the transgression. In the other versions, when aware of being seen, the character makes an ironic joke. The narratives were interrupted periodically by comprehension questions. Four Pearson correlation coefficients were computed, between each of two DCT predictor variables (total accuracy for all comprehension questions; accuracy on questions about implied information) and two indicators of high-level inferencing (total accuracy to answer experimental questions in Joke stories; total accuracy to answer experimental questions in Lie stories). Outcomes & Results Correlation coefficients were low-to-moderate, and nonsignificant. Conclusions Performance on the DCT by adults with RHD did not predict their high-level inferencing performance, as measured in this study. The issue that motivated this study should be pursued further in light of the potential advantages to be gained, for both clinical and research purposes. It may be, however, that specific measures of various types of high-level inferencing will need to be developed and validated.
Tompkins, Connie A.; Meigh, Kimberly; Scott, April Gibbs; Lederer, Lisa Guttentag
This article explores various strategies which could be used to hold the tobacco industry accountable for humanrights violations precipitated by its conduct. First, a brief overview of the international humanrights regime and the tobacco related jurisprudence issued by humanrights treaty bodies is provided. The article then explains how tobacco control advocates could promote more systematic consideration of governments' tobacco related humanrights violations by reconceptualising the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the language of rights. The feasibility of using the existing humanrights framework to target the tobacco industry directly is analysed with the conclusion that this approach has serious limitations. Emerging humanrights norms, which have greater potential to affect the industry's conduct, are presented. Finally, given the questionable authoritativeness of these norms, alternative ways that they could be employed to hold tobacco companies accountable for the rights related consequences of their activities are proposed.
Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as “the problem”, and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Humanrights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally.
Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J.
The language rights of speakers of non-dominant languages are examined. It is argued that language rights are one category of humanrights, and the protection of all languages requires a universal declaration, which can serve both to promote dominant languages and to avert the death of others. Linguistic rights are discussed in terms of the six…
The United States takes a highly relativistic stance toward the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. It regards the socio-economic rights and the right to development as without status; exempts itself from all provisions of the Declaration by failing to sign the conventions designed to implement these provisions; and unilaterally qualifies its support of civil and political rights. Leading recipients of U.S. aid have traditionally included regimes with atrocious humanrights records. Those struggling for humanrights should have no illusions about the systems of power and their servants. PMID:10450550
...when same-sex couples refuse to be told whom to love. The past year saw extraordinary change in the Middle East and North Africa as square by square, town by town, country by country, people rose up to demand their humanrights. Around the...
Using an event history framework we analyze the adoption rate of national humanrights institutions. Neo-realist perspective predicts adoption rates to be positively influenced by favorable national profiles that lower the costs and make it more reasonable to establish these institutions. From a world polity perspective adoption rates will be…
Effective teachers differentiate their instruction to ensure that content is delivered to students in a way that is accessible and engaging. The differentiation of instruction in core classes such as math and English is becoming commonplace in education faculties across the United States. But what does "differentiated" humanrights education look…
Advances an approach to analysis of discursive intercontextuality through theories of space-time production. Argues management of multiple contexts within school-related discourse is an important means of discursively producing identity, agency, and power relations. Draws data from an ethnographic and discourse-based study of an extended school…
Injured workers, particularly those with more severe injuries, have long experienced workers' compensation systems as stressful and demeaning, have found it difficult to obtain benefits, and, when able to obtain benefits, have found them inadequate. Moreover, the last two decades have seen a substantial erosion of the protections offered by workers' compensation. State after state has erected additional barriers to benefit receipt, making the workers' compensation experience even more difficult and degrading. These changes have been facilitated by a framing of the political debate focused on the free market paradigm, employer costs, and worker fraud and malingering. The articles in this special issue propose an alternate framework and analysis, a humanrights approach, that values the dignity and economic security of injured workers and their families. PMID:22570018
Recently released by the US State Department, the 2001 Country Reports on HumanRights Practices was designed to give voice to those who have been denied the freedoms and rights provided in the Universal Declaration on HumanRights. Covering internationally recognized individual, civil, political, and worker rights for nearly every country, the collection of reports is separated into six regions -- Africa, East Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Eurasia, Western Hemisphere, Near East and North Africa, and South Asia. The collection also offers appendices that include notes on the preparation of the reports, a selection of International HumanRights Conventions, a selection of Assistance Programs, the HumanRights Commission voting record, and the United Nations Universal Declaration of HumanRights.
The Australian HumanRights and Equal Opportunity Commission visited over 50 communities throughout Australia to assess the state of humanrights in rural, regional, and remote Australia. Education and health services predominated the discussions. Rural children, especially Aboriginal children, have lower school attendance and completion rates…
This article presents a summary of the new guide for advocacy on HIV-related humanrights, the Guide to the UN HumanRights Machinery. It is noted that this Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS guide assists AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs), networks of people living with HIV/AIDS and other AIDS activists to access the UN humanrights bodies and to be critical players in keeping HIV/AIDS as a humanrights issue firmly on the agendas of these bodies. Section 1 of this guide provides examples of the application of relevant humanrights with regards to HIV/AIDS. Section 2 presents a general overview of two main types of UN humanrights bodies. These include methods of participation of nongovernmental organizations with consultative and with nonconsultative status into the work of commissions, subcommissions and committees. The annexes include text of relevant international instruments, lists of relevant bodies and documents, communication procedures and excerpts from letters detailing HIV-related humanrights issues. Overall, it is hoped that the guide will provide ASOs, networks and activists with practical guidance to assist them in participating in the UN humanrights fora, which is critical to breaking through the conspiracy of silence and strengthening the much-needed humanrights response to HIV/AIDS. PMID:12222377
Contents: The Carter Administration; The Reagan Administration; Critique of Carter Administration; Critique of Reagan Administration; Critique of Bush Administration; Conclusions; HumanRights Implementation and About the Participants.
A gross discourse on human hair fibers and their formation is presented stressing the various interdisciplinary aspects, such\\u000a as the morphological, biological, structural and biochemical data considered to be important in the field of hair analysis.\\u000a An attempt is made to explain the incorporation of drug molecules during hair fiber formation by using the classical concepts\\u000a of drug absorption based
Coronial law and practice inevitably impact upon the humanrights of those affected by deaths. It is important that such rights be incorporated in how death investigations, up to and including coronial inquests, take place. This article explores the significant impact of the jurisprudence emanating from the European Court of HumanRights, as well as the application of such law by the courts of the United Kingdom and potentially in other countries. It argues that viewing the work of coroners through the lens of humanrights is a constructive approach and that, although in the coronial legislation of Australia and New Zealand, many humanrights, especially those of family members, and civil liberties are explicitly protected, there remain real advantages in reflecting upon compliance with humanrights by death investigation procedures and decision-making. PMID:24804530
We have found marked anatomical asymmetries between the upper surfaces of the humanright and left temporal lobes. The planum temporale (the area behind Heschl's gyrus) is larger on the left in 65 percent of brains; on the right it is larger in only 11 percent. The left planum is on the average one-third longer than the right planum. This
It is argued that the view of nature and the relationship between human beings and nature that each of us holds impacts our decisions, actions, and notions of environmental responsibility and consciousness. In this study, I investigate the discursive patterns of selected environmental science classroom resources produced by three disparate…
This paper reviews how humanrights advocates during the "war-on-terror" have found new ways to use the World Wide Web (Web) to combat humanrights abuses. These include posting of humanrights reports; creating large, open-access and updated archives of government documents and other data, tracking CIA rendition flights and maintaining blogs, e-zines, list-serves and news services that rapidly distribute information between journalists, scholars and humanrights advocates. The Web is a powerful communication tool for humanrights advocates. It is international, instantaneous, and accessible for uploading, archiving, locating and downloading information. For its humanrights potential to be fully realized, international law must be strengthened to promote the declassification of government documents, as is done by various freedom of information acts. It is too early to assess the final impact of the Web on humanrights abuses in the "war-on-terror". Wide dissemination of government documents and humanrights advocates' reports has put the United States government on the defensive and some of its policies have changed in response to public pressure. Even so, the essential elements of secret prisons, detention without charges or trials, and illegal rendition remain intact. PMID:19289894
This student textbook for civic education in Romanian schools revolves around the significance of humanrights issues in a democratic state. The guide is divided into the following five chapters: (1) "The Significance of HumanRights Issues in the Context of Civic Education"; (2) "Individual Identity"; (3) "The Individual Person's Relationships to…
Research on the humanrights movement emphasizes direct changes in nation-states, focusing on the efficacy of treaties and the role of advocacy in mitigating immediate violations. However, more than 140 universities in 59 countries established academic chairs, research centers, and programs for humanrights from 1968-2000, a development that…
Every preventable death poses a challenge to health, development, and humanrights initiatives. Although the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) prioritize reducing maternal and child mortality, progress is unequal and the sustainability of related efforts beyond 2015 is a concern. Strategies that link the MDGs and humanrights would facilitate more comprehensive, equitable, and sustainable progress in health and development. Strategies
Shyama Kuruvilla; Flavia Bustreo; Paul Hunt; Amarjit Singh; Eric Friedman; Thiago Luchesi; Stefan Germann; Kim Terje Loraas; Alicia Ely Yamin; Ximena Andion; Julio Frenk
Humanrights create a protective zone around persons and allow them the opportunity to further their valued personal projects without interference from others. This article considers the relationship between humanrights and the general ethical principles and standards contained in the American Psychological Association's (APA's) code of ethics as applied to the forensic domain. First, it analyzes the concept of
This article discusses my approach to teaching a course on Islam and humanrights. I begin by examining the attention Islam has received in the media and classroom. Then, I discuss how I structure lectures on Islam and humanrights, the various readings associated with the lectures, as well as common themes discussed in class that include but are…
Democratic and autocratic states routinely violate their international agreements protecting humanrights. Scholars typically link ratification and compliance behavior theoretically but test their models separately; however, if the behaviors are jointly determined then we should treat them that way empirically. We consider how domestic judiciaries influence the joint choice to ratify and comply with international humanrights regimes. Using data
Assessed the attitudes of Nigerian college students (N=570) on humanrights issues. Results indicated that university students in Nigeria seem to have a fairly positive assessment of the institutional, political, and legal opportunities for the enjoyment and defense of humanrights in Nigeria. (LLL)
Asserts that, in teaching about humanrights, the international standards should be the fundamental core of the content and values to be communicated. Recommends that teachers should use the Universal Declaration of HumanRights as the standard by which the actions of individuals and governments should be compared. (CFR)
Presents a lesson plan for grades 9 through 12 that examines the making of foreign policy based on human-rights concerns. Helps students to understand the complexities of international relations and to clarify the beliefs and values about the appropriate role of humanrights when making foreign policy. Provides two handouts. (CMK)
The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and humanrights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community…
Produced by HumanRights Internet (HRI), this six volume report provides a country-by-country overview of humanrights issues with links to relevant UN documents. The first volume includes an introduction, an appendix of UN bodies and mechanisms, a discussion of methodological and technical issues, and notes on major developments in the United Nations humanrights system during 1997. The remaining volumes contain individual country reports, grouped by region. Each report contains links to treaties and reports to treaty bodies on a number of key topics. These include: Land and People; Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Civil and Political Rights; Discrimination against Women; and Rights of the Child. Additional resources at the site include an internal search engine.
In issue definition in rights?based policy Canada stereotypically embraces a more positive, humanrights?centered approach as compared with the American stereotype associated with the USA’s more presumptively negative, civil rights?based tack. Since exclusionary infrastructures violate the core values of democratic governance, a failure to address unnecessarily exclusive infrastructures presents a rights?based public challenge surrounding disability akin to those experienced by
Both local discourse and world knowledge are known to in- fluence sentence processing. We investigated how these two sources of information conspire in language comprehension. Two types of critical sentences, correct and world knowledge anom- alies, were preceded by either a neutral or a local context. The latter made the world knowledge anomalies more acceptable or plausible. We predicted that
Laura Menenti; Karl Magnus Petersson; René Scheeringa; Peter Hagoort
The article examines the convergences and contrasts between social epidemiology, social medicine, and humanrights approaches toward advancing global health and health equity. The first section describes the goals and work of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The second section discusses the role of humanrights in the Commission’s work. The third section evaluates, from the perspective of social epidemiology, two rights-based approaches to advancing health and health equity as compared to a view that focuses more broadly on social justice. The concluding section identifies four areas where social epidemiologists, practitioners of social medicine, and health and humanrights advocates can and must work together in order to make progress on health and health equity.
Venkatapuram, Sridhar; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael
hr-law is a mailing list for law students studying international humanrights or humanitarian law, or who are just interested in the subject. The purpose of the list is to provide a forum where people can share information, experiences and ideas. Some of the appropriate topics for this list include: information on how to do research in the humanrights area, and sharing of hints; exchanging help on papers or research projects; discussion of topics related to humanrights law; and sharing information on employment, internship and volunteer opportunities.
This paper explores the application of humanrights in (persistent) virtual world environments. The paper begins with describing a number of elements that most virtual environments share and that are relevant for the application of humanrights in such a setting; and by describing in a general nature the application of humanrights between private individuals. The paper then continues by discussing the application in virtual environments of two universally recognized humanrights, namely freedom of expression, and freedom from discrimination. As these specific rights are discussed, a number of more general conclusions on the application of humanrights in virtual environments are drawn. The first general conclusion being that, because virtual worlds are private environments, participants are subject to private ordering. The second general conclusion being that participants and non-participants alike have to accept at times that in-world expressions are to an extent private speech. The third general conclusion is that, where participants represent themselves in-world, other participants cannot assume that such in-world representation share the characteristics of the human player; and that where virtual environments contain game elements, participants and non-participants alike should not take everything that happens in the virtual environment at face value or literally, which does however not amount to having to accept a higher level of infringement on their rights for things that happen in such an environment.
An analysis was made of mass media coverage originating in four Chinese-speaking regions of the world—the People's Republic of China (PRC), Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan. The analysis was of coverage of humanrights of three types: civil and political; social and economic; and due process. Rights were also scored as to whether they pertained to individuals and businesses. One
Respect for humanrights is a defining feature of harm reduction, which is commonly characterised as a public health-based movement. The importance it attaches to ‘user-friendliness’ and the view that drug users have a right to the same respect and dignity that other users of health and social care services receive is largely undisputed among harm reductionists. Within harm reduction
Throughout history individual and collective narratives have been used in struggles for justice. We draw on Sen's theory of justice to examine the potential of narratives in teaching and researching for social justice. Humanrights are presented as powerful ethical claims that can be critically examined by learners to consider their rights and…
The Turkish Islamist understanding of rights is inspired by different sources, from the Quran to liberal humanism. When put into practice within the particular sociopolitical context of Turkey, such different conceptions of rights offer the Islamists a strategic advantage in flexibility and appeal to different parts of the population, but also lead to contradictions and potential conflict. Differences in understanding
This article examines the contribution of the European Court of HumanRights to the development of interrogational fairness at the pretrial phase in modern European criminal proceedings. Although the Convention contains no explicit reference to the right to remain silent and the privilege against self-incrimination, the Court, drawing its rationale from Article 6 of the Convention, has been steadily developing
The HumanRights Act 1998 is the most significant British statute to have been passed in the last decade. It has already been the catalyst for a series of high profile cases, ranging from the privacy rights of celebrities ("Douglas v Hello!"  QB 967) to the Home Secretary's sentencing powers in murder cases ("R (Anderson) v Secretary of…
Humanrights are those essentials of human existence that are inherent in the species. They are moral claims that satisfy the basic needs of all human beings. Ten major goals and numerous objectives were developed to undergird the Detroit (Michigan) curriculum, and this guide is established around the 10 major goals for teaching students about…
Asserting that the university as a transnational community of professors and students poses challenges to traditional conceptions of academic freedom, explores the rethinking of academic freedom as part of a humanright to education. (EV)
Brazil is a constitutional, multiparty republic. In October 2010 voters chose Dilma Rousseff as president in elections considered free and fair. Security forces reported to civilian authorities. The most significant humanrights abuses included substandar...
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have finally emerged onto the global health and development agenda. Despite the increasingly important role humanrights play in other areas of global health, their contribution to NCD prevention and control remains nascent. The recently adopted Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013–2020 is an important step forward, but the lack of concrete attention to humanrights is a missed opportunity. With practical implications for policy development, priority setting, and strategic design, humanrights offer a logical, robust set of norms and standards; define the legal obligations of governments; and provide accountability mechanisms that can be used to enhance current approaches to NCD prevention and control. Harnessing the power of humanrights can strengthen action for NCDs at the local, national, and global levels.
Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Beaglehole, Robert
At the 2012 Family Planning Summit in London, world leaders committed to providing effective family planning information and services to 120 million additional women and girls by the year 2020. Amid positive response, some expressed concern that the numeric goal could signal a retreat from the humanrights-centered approach that underpinned the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Achieving the FP2020 goal will take concerted and coordinated efforts among diverse stakeholders and a new programmatic approach supported by the public health and humanrights communities. This article presents a new conceptual framework designed to serve as a path toward fulfilling the FP2020 goal. This new unifying framework, which incorporates humanrights laws and principles within family-planning-program and quality-of-care frameworks, brings what have been parallel lines of thought together in one construct to make humanrights issues related to family planning practical. PMID:24615572
Brazil is a constitutional, multiparty republic. In 2010 voters chose Dilma Rousseff as president in elections widely considered free and fair. Security forces reported to civilian authorities. The most significant humanrights abuses included poor and at...
South Africa is a multiparty parliamentary democracy in which constitutional power is shared between the president and the parliament. A progressive constitution, written after the end of apartheid and enshrining humanrights, is the source of authority f...
This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same. PMID:22844029
A regional workshop on sexual and bodily rights as humanrights in the Middle East and North Africa was held in Malta in 2003, attended by 22 NGO representatives from Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Turkey, Pakistan and USA. The meeting aimed to develop strategies for overcoming humanrights violations in the region with reference to law and social and political practices. Session topics included sexuality and gender identity; sexuality and sexual health; sexuality and comparative penal law; sexual rights in international documents; advocacy and lobbying. Sexual rights, sexual health and education, sexual violence and adolescent sexuality were explored in depth, including taboos and emerging trends. Specific areas of concern included marital rape, early marriages, temporary marriages, sexual orientation, premarital and extramarital sexuality, honour crimes, female genital mutilation, unmarried mothers, adolescent sexuality, unwanted pregnancies and safe abortion, sexuality in education and health services. An analysis of civil codes, penal codes and personal status codes indicated a clear imperative for legal reform. Participants heard about efforts to promote the right to sexual orientation which have already been initiated in Lebanon, Turkey and Tunisia. Networking within the region and with counterparts in other regions in comparable situations and conditions was deemed essential. PMID:15242219
Humanrights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on humanrights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate humanrights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative humanrights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to humanrights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate humanrights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Humanrights impact assessment exposed impacts not foreseen in ESIA. • Corporations adopted the majority of findings, but not necessarily immediately. • Methodological advancements are expected for monitoring processes.
Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland) [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland) [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: Mitchell-g.Weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Münch, Anna K., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: email@example.com [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: email@example.com [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States) [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)
In this article, I examine the relationship between homophobic language use and its broader social context, focusing on how a U.S.-based, conservative Christian organization's institutionalized homophobic text-making practices seek to derive legitimacy from the broader political economic discourses associated with the neoliberal moment. Using the Family Research Council's statement on marriage and the family as the basis for analysis, I demonstrate how the organization seeks to represent lesbian and gay subjects and their kinship formations as a threat to human capital development because they are based on affectional relationships that neither reflect nor respond to the kinds of self-governance and marketization that neoliberalism requires of all citizen-subjects and their families. Linguistic strategies for creating such representations include lexical choices that avoid overtly identifying lesbian and gay subjects as the object of discussion, the creation of a taxonomy for what constitutes "proper" families-based on neoliberal principles--that implicitly excludes lesbian and gay kinship formations, and the use of neoliberal discourses of self-governance and marketization as the basis for that exclusion. PMID:21740208
The field of health and humanrights has grown quickly, but its boundaries have yet to be traced. Fifty-one years after the Universal Declaration of HumanRights, consensus regarding the most promising directions for the future is lacking; however, outcome-oriented assessments lead us to question approaches that rely solely on recourse to formal legal and civil rights. Similarly unpromising are approaches that rely overmuch on appeals to governments: careful study reveals that state power has been responsible for most humanrights violations and that most violations are embedded in "structural violence"--social and economic inequities that determine who will be at risk for assaults and who will be shielded. This article advances an agenda for research and action grounded in the struggle for social and economic rights, an agenda suited to public health and medicine, whose central contributions to future progress in humanrights will be linked to the equitable distribution of the fruits of scientific advancement. Such an approach is in keeping with the Universal Declaration but runs counter to several of the reigning ideologies of public health, including those favoring efficacy over equity.
Individual freedom has to be balanced with the freedom of other individuals and with the reasonable demands of the community. A significant element in the development of international instruments protecting humanrights was the movement away from the use of single limitation clauses to the elaboration of specific limitation clauses in each article. The limitation provisions are found in several
The ongoing debate about what constitutes a genocidal act is analyzed. Discussed is a humanistic definition of genocide, i.e., the wanton murder of a group of human beings on the basis of any identity whatsoever that they share--national, ethnic, racial, religious, political, geographical, or ideological. Examples of genocide are provided. (RM)
This article is the result of a grounded theory investigation into the ways PhD topics are assigned by supervisors in engineering and selected by students in the social sciences/humanities in UK universities, broadly referred to as "topic arrangement", which can be regarded as one aspect of academic socialisation into academic Discourse…
Since its first publication in 2003, the World Health Organization's "Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems" has had an influence on abortion policy, law, and practice worldwide. To reflect significant developments in the clinical, service delivery, and humanrights aspects of abortion care, the Guidance was updated in 2012. This article reviews select recommendations of the updated Guidance, highlighting 3 key themes that run throughout its chapters: evidence-based practice and assessment, humanrights standards, and a pragmatic orientation to safe and accessible abortion care. These themes not only connect the chapters into a coherent whole. They reflect the research and advocacy efforts of a growing field in women's health and humanrights. PMID:23257625
Widening disparities in health and humanrights at a global level represent the dark side of progress associated with escalation of economic and military exploitation and exponential population growth in the 20th century. Even the most basic universal humanrights cannot be achieved for all under these circumstances. The goal of improved population health will be similarly elusive while medical care is commodified and exploited for commercial gain in the marketplace. Recognition of the powerful forces that polarize our world and commitment to reversing them are essential for the achievement of humanrights for all, for the improvement of public health, and for the peaceful progress required to protect the "rational self-interest" of the most privileged people on earth against the escalation of war, disease, and other destructive forces arising from widespread poverty and ecological degradation.
The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent humanrights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international humanrights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Humanrights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm.
Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane
This paper describes the results of an investigation into how the December, 2004 tsunami and its aftermath affected the humanrights of the survivors. Teams of researchers interviewed survivors, government officials, representatives of international and local nongovernmental organisations, UN officials, the military, police, and other key informants in India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Indonesia, and Thailand. We also analysed newspaper articles, reports released by governments, UN agencies, NGOs, and private humanitarian aid groups, and we examined the laws and policies related to survivors' welfare in the affected countries. We found worsening of prior humanrights violations, inequities in aid distribution, lack of accountability and impunity, poor coordination of aid, lack of community participation in reconstruction, including coastal redevelopment. Corruption and preexisting conflict negatively impact humanitarian interventions. We make recommendations to international agencies, states, and local health service providers. A humanrights framework offers significant protection to survivors and should play a critical role in disaster response. PMID:18277529
This article provides an overview of different types of rights to aid consideration of, and debate about, children and young people's rights in the context of paediatrics and child health. It demonstrates how children's rights may or may not differ from adult rights and the implications for practice. It shows that applying a children's rights framework can be more helpful in pursuing a public child health agenda than in reducing ethical or legal conflicts when interacting with child patients and their families.
Humanrights play a vital role in citizens' political, religious and cultural life (Wang 2002, 171). Due to the prominence of humanrights in the everyday life of citizens, including those of South Africa, humanrights education has been included in many school curricula. Humanrights education aims to develop responsible citizens who "inter alia"…
de Wet, Annamagriet; Roux, Cornelia; Simmonds, Shan; ter Avest, Ina
Objectives: Advancing humanrights is a core competency of U.S. social work education; yet, humanrights attitudes and behaviors have never been measured in the social work literature. Thus, this article describes the development and initial validation of two scales, HumanRights Engagement in Social Work (HRESW) and HumanRights Exposure in…
Developing an understanding about humanrights documents, and an awareness of humanrights institutions and mechanisms of protection have become especially significant in the 21st century. Several classroom strategies have hitherto been employed to practice and experience humanrights behaviour. Usually topics on humanrights is introduced through…
High poverty levels characterise sub-Saharan Africa, Zimbabwe included. Over 80 per cent of Zimbabwe's population lived below the total consumption poverty line and 70 per cent below the food poverty line in 2003. This plummeting of social indicators resulted from the freefall suffered by the country's economy from the 1990s, after unsuccessful attempts to implement structural adjustment programmes prescribed by international financial institutions. The ensuing socioeconomic decay, political crisis and international isolation of the country from the late 1990s reversed gains made in social indicators during the 1980s. Development theories attribute poverty to unchecked population growth, political, economic and environmental mismanagement, while developing countries' leaders attribute it to historical imbalances and global political and economic injustices. Despite this debate, poverty continues to evolve, expand and deepen and the need to eradicate it has become urgent. The complex question of what causes and what drives poverty is perpetually addressed and new ideas are emerging to answer the question. One recent view is that failure to centre development on people and to declare poverty a violation of humanrights has allowed poverty to grow the world over. This study uses a hypothesised cause of poverty - civil registration - to exemplify the humanright nature of poverty, and how a humanrights' policy can be used as an instrument to eradicate poverty. The study demonstrates that civil registration is a right of instrumental relevance to poverty; and achieving civil registration grants people access to numerous other rights, some of which will lift them out of poverty, while the failure of civil registration deprives people of access to livelihoods, thereby entrenching them in poverty. PMID:20726138
Recently unveiled by the HumanRights Library of the University of Minnesota (originally reviewed in the January 5, 1996 Scout Report), this new search engine will be welcomed by researchers and activists in humanrights. Searchable by keyword and several optional operators (Boolean, proximity, truncation), the engine retrieves data from any or all of the 23 different rights-related sites that users select. Interestingly, returns are presented "as is" from the source pages (with page header, images, and unique formats) but combined into a single results page. A test search for "Northern Ireland" on four selected sites returned over 40 results. Direct links to the featured databases and, in some cases, their search tips pages are also provided.
This database was created "to meet the growing interest in the committees established to monitor the implementation of the principal international humanrights treaties (also referred as 'treaty monitoring bodies' or 'treaty bodies')" such as the HumanRights Committee, the Committee Against Torture, the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, and the Committee on the Rights of the Child. These committees are responsible for examining the "State reports" submitted by signatories to the various treaties to demonstrate their compliance. These reports and the concluding observations by the committees form the core of the database, which also contains a number of other related documents and data. Users may search the database by keyword and view results by relevance or date or browse by a variety of parameters, such as country, date, language, treaty, reporting status, or status of ratification. Documents may be in English, French, or Spanish.
The right to water was adopted as a humanright in General Comment 15 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. It provides a new framework for law and policy supplanting the Dublin Principles which have too often been understood in the African context to mean water with the 'right' price. Does a humanrights approach to water,
Contrary to what is perhaps the general view, Turkey has made progress in bringing its humanrights practices into conformity with international standards over the course of the last two decades, since the 1980 military coup. When one looks back over the period as a whole, from the time of the premiership of Turgut Ozal, which began in 1983, there
In this essay Gregory Bynum seeks to show that Immanuel Kant's thought, which was conceived in an eighteenth-century context of new, and newly widespread, pressures for nationally institutionalized humanrights-based regimes (the American and French revolutions being the most prominent examples), can help us think in new and appreciative ways…
This article questions whether humanrights education (HRE) scholarship is responding adequately to the post secular turn in thinking about the place and nature of religion in society. Here the post secular turn is used to describe the discrediting of secularisation theory, the recognition of religion as an enduring and pervasive global cultural…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of Australian managers in relation to humanrights issues and corporate responsibility inherent in their international business operations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reports findings from a qualitative research study; data were gathered from 70 face-to-face interviews with managers in the mining, textile and information technology industries who conducted
This paper focuses on the experience of South Africa in introducing water legislation based on humanrights principles (in particular the National Water Act of 1998) and reflects on some practical implications for the implementation of water management in a country with limited water and financial resources. PMID:11379211
Afghanistan has experienced civil war and political instability for 23 years. The arrival of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) forces and the collapse of the Taliban in 2001 helped to begin to bring an end the decades-long pattern of serious humanrights a...
Using literature in the social studies classroom is a useful pedagogy that is particularly well-suited in humanrights education. Literature can give voice to people who cannot speak for themselves and gives students an opportunity to consider perspectives that are often foreign to them. When used with delicacy and care, these literary…
Citizenship education, defined as learning to live together, requires agreement on certain common principles. One central purpose of a state education system is the transmission of common normative standards such as the humanrights and fundamental freedoms that underpin liberal democratic societies. The paper identifies the conceptual roots of…
In today's globally interconnected community, it is imperative that students learn how humanrights abuses are not a "thing of the past," but an ongoing exploitation that requires modern day crusaders to defend. Who might these crusaders be? None other than each student. However, if one wants to encourage these noble change agents, one needs to…
In his 1940 paper `Freedom and Science' Albert Einstein emphasized that ``intellectual independence is a primary necessity for the scientific inquirer'' and that ``political liberty is also extraordinarily important for his work.'' Raised in the tradition of intellectual independence and dedicated to the scientific truth, physicists were among the first to stand up for freedom in the USSR. It was no coincidence that the founders of the first independent HumanRights Committee (1970) were physicists: Andrei Sakharov, Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov. In 1973 a physicist, Alexander Voronel, founded a Moscow Sunday (refusenik) Seminar -- the first openly independent scientific body in the history of the USSR. In 1976 physicists Andrei Sakharov, Yuri Orlov and a mathematician Natan Sharansky were the leading force in founding the famous Moscow Helsinki HumanRights Watch group. This talk briefly describes the special position of physicists (often viewed as Einstein's colleagues) in Soviet society, as well as their unique role in the struggle for humanrights. It describes in some detail the Moscow Sunday Seminar, and extensions thereof such as International Conferences, the Computer School and the Computer Database of Refuseniks. The Soviet government considered such truly independent organizations as a challenge to Soviet authority and tried to destroy them. The Seminar's success and its very existence owed much to the support of Western scientific organizations, who persuaded their members to attend the Seminar and visit scientist-refuseniks. The humanrights struggle led by physicists contributed substantially to the demise of the Soviet system.
This research is an effort to transcend the debate of universalism and cultural relativism by offering a new conceptualization of humanrights. The conceptualization is presented through the development of a theoretical framework in the form of an epistemology. The research articulates and defends the epistemology, which is grounded on…
At a time when the Georgian government should be protecting the humanrights of people who use drugs, Parliament enacted a law that specifically aims to increase stigma against drug users by imposing a range of administrative sanctions against them, Nina Kiknadze and David Otiashvili write. PMID:18459226
This paper focuses on the historical review of neo-liberalism in Korean education with relevance to humanrights education and teachers movement. In transition to post-colonial society, Korea confronts polarization of education. From the first stage just after the independence from Japanese Colonization in 1945 to the fifth present stage, Korean…
The purpose of this essay is to articulate and defend the epistemological foundations of international humanrights education from the perspective of a hermeneutical interpretive methodology. Fuad Al-Daraweesh and Dale Snauwaert argue here that this methodology potentially alleviates the challenges that face the cross-cultural implementation of…
My starting point for this paper is an uneasiness with the current internationalist literature on the 'linkage' of trade and humanrights, and with the effects of my attempts to teach, write and speak about this literature. In the first part of the paper, I outline my reasons for this uneasiness, and suggest that there is a need to think
Can Holocaust education be considered a tool for humanrights education? If so, to what extent? These questions elicit discussions among a wide range of educators, and interest among politicians, educational planners, and ministries in charge of memorials. At first glance the obvious answer seems to be yes; both educators and students have strong…
This 294-item annotated bibliography dealing with international education focuses on: general world problems and the new international economic order; education for peace, humanrights, international cooperation, and comprehension; the system of associated schools; and reference works and teaching materials for teacher and classroom. Suggestions…
Compliance with the reporting requirements of humanrights conventions is the basis for monitoring how, and how well, the states parties to the conventions are working towards the implementation of the norms of the conventions. This article aims to understand why some states comply with reporting requirements and others do not, and why some report on time and others do
Lawrence J. LeBlanc; Ada Huibregtse; Timothy Meister
In this article, the work of three international governmental organisations (IGOs) dealing with humanrights will be discussed, namely the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Council of Europe (CoE). In the first section, the main characteristics of the…
This study provides a discursive analysis of World Bank policy documents in order to reveal the stark omission of a rights-based approach to education, while highlighting instead the support of an economic-instrumentalist approach. Plausible explanations are provided to shed light on this exclusion, including the feasibility critique of education…
Every infant has a right to bodily integrity. Removing healthy tissue from an infant is only permissible if there is an immediate medical indication. In the case of infant male circumcision there is no evidence of an immediate need to perform the procedure. As a German court recently held, any benefit to circumcision can be obtained by delaying the procedure until the male is old enough to give his own fully informed consent. With the option of delaying circumcision providing all of the purported benefits, circumcising an infant is an unnecessary violation of his bodily integrity as well as an ethically invalid form of medical violence. Parental proxy 'consent' for newborn circumcision is invalid. Male circumcision also violates four core humanrights documents-the Universal Declaration of HumanRights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Convention Against Torture. Social norm theory predicts that once the circumcision rate falls below a critical value, the social norms that currently distort our perception of the practice will dissolve and rates will quickly fall. PMID:23698885
Humanrights are commonly conceived as more relevant to foreign policy than day-to-day living. Drawing on Eleanor Roosevelt's conception of humanrights as beginning close to home, this article illustrates how humanrights principles might inform everyday processes of schooling and learning to live together. It considers rights to, in and…
Human trafficking is an international challenge that increasingly affects industrialized countries. It represents a gross violation of a person's right to liberty and freedom of movement, and is often accompanied by violence and degrading treatment which can have detrimental effects on health. In this article, we review the definition and extent of human trafficking, and focus on the humanrights abuses and determinants of trafficking in women. Mental health and other health outcomes are reviewed, and differences between countries in organized activities for victim assistance and protection are assessed. Finally, we discuss the roles of mental health and other healthcare providers in identifying and helping trafficked women, and recommend a tailored multidisciplinary approach for victim assistance. PMID:17938151
The international community has not framed male circumcision as a violation of humanrights in the same way that it has condemned female genital mutilation. Although this article acknowledges sharp differences between the most extreme forms of female genital mutilation and male circumcision as it is most widely practiced, this article concludes that the most common forms of male and
As in most countries, humanrights education (HRE) in Hong Kong has never been high on the educational agenda. In 2009, a compulsory subject, Liberal Studies (LS), which could be used as a platform for HRE, was introduced. The Hong Kong Institute of Education launched a research and development project which, as one of its objectives, studied LS…
Like other serious infectious diseases, AIDS gives rise to a fundamental conflict between personal rights and public health. The recently developed test to detect antibody to the viral agent for AIDS is now predominantly being used to screen blood donors but it may spread to other settings. The possibility to demonstrate who is positive for the AIDS virus has raised a number of questions concerning the report-ability and confidentiality of test results; the right not to know and not to be informed about carrier status; the importance of informed consent as a requirement for testing; and the civil liberties of persons demonstrated to be seropositive. It is argued that public health policies should respect individual freedom and responsibility, not only because basic humanrights are at stake, but also because such an approach is likely to be more effective in controlling the disease. PMID:10280323
Lesbian and bisexual women's sexual health is neglected in much Government policy and practice in England and Wales. This paper examines lesbian and bisexual women's negotiation of sexual health, drawing on findings from a small research project. Themes explored include invisibility and lack of information, influences on decision-making and sexual activities and experiences of services and barriers to sexual healthcare. Key issues of importance in this respect are homophobic and heterosexist social contexts. Drawing on understandings of lesbian, gay and bisexual humanrights, sexual rights and sexual citizenship, it is argued that these are useful lenses through which to examine and address lesbian and bisexual women's sexual health and related inequalities. PMID:21972785
This paper explores the relationship between humanrights social work and issues facing Gypsies and Travellers, and argues that work with these groups cannot be properly understood outside a humanrights framework. It outlines different generations of rights, key current debates, and their significance for social work, building on other emancipatory frameworks for practice including anti-oppressive practice, structural social work
For centuries, opposition has been directed against the use of animals for the benefit of humans. For more than four centuries in Europe, and for more than a century in the United States, this opposition has targeted scientific research that involves animals. More recent movements in support of animal rights have arisen in an attempt to impede, if not prohibit, the use of animals in scientific experimentation. These movements employ various means that range from information and media campaigns to destruction of property and threats against investigators. The latter efforts have resulted in the identification of more militant animal rights bands as terrorist groups. The American Medical Association has long been a defender of humane research that employs animals, and it is very concerned about the efforts of animal rights and welfare groups to interfere with research. Recently, the Association prepared a detailed analysis of the controversy over the use of animals in research, and the consequences for research and clinical medicine if the philosophy of animal rights activists were to prevail in society. This article is a condensation of the Association's analysis. PMID:2810604
The way in which discourse features express connections back to the previous discourse has been described in the literature in terms of on a suitably defined right frontier, can be used to both process expectations and constrain discouse processing in general.
The vital role physicians can play in documenting physical and mental abuse of political prisoners, treating and rehabilitating victims, and preventing the punitive use of medicine is exemplified by the actions of three physicians whose stories are told here. Wendy Orr, a South African prison physician, took her complaint about police torture of political detainees to court after her superiors ignored her reports of prisoner abuse. An internationally known Chilean surgeon, Pedro Castillo, has been arrested twice for his work against the humanrights violations of his country's military government. Soviet psychiatrist Anatoly Koryagin is reported to be near death after several years' imprisonment for his activities against involuntary psychiatric commitment of dissidents. Nightingale and Stover remind physicians of their obligation to protest the misuse of medical skills and urge support for professional organizations actively engaged in humanrights issues. PMID:3517401
Bioethics is best viewed as both a second-order discipline and also part of public discourse. Since their goals differ, some bioethical activities are more usefully viewed as advancing public discourse than academic disciplines. For example, the "Universal Declaration on Bioethics and HumanRights" sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization seeks to promote ethical guidance on bioethical issues. From the vantage of philosophical ethics, it fails to rank or specify its stated principles, justify controversial principles, clarify key terms, or say what is meant by calling potentially conflicting norms "foundational." From the vantage of improving the public discourse about bioethical problems and seeking ethical solutions in the public arena, however, this document may have an important role. The goals and relations between bioethics as a second-order discipline and public discourse are explored. PMID:19387001
Education lies at the heart of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR): "Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for humanrights and fundamental freedoms". However, when education is mentioned in the philosophical literature on humanrights, or even within the…
This paper explores how the fair trade coffee market translates consumer action and shopping habits into the promotion of\\u000a humanrights in distant locales. This process does not occur through direct producer–consumer contact. Instead, it is channeled\\u000a through two interrelated avenues. First, the fair trade certification system which requires producer groups to be democratic,\\u000a transparent, and accountable and second, the
For a few weeks in 2009 it was not certain whether the world faced a lethal influenza pandemic. As it turned out, the H1N1 pandemic was less severe than anticipated, though the infection did affect groups not usually susceptible to influenza. The deep uncertainties of this pandemic moment were associated with immense practical, scientific and political challenges for public health agencies around the world. We examine these challenges by drawing on the sociology of uncertainty to analyse the accounts given by UK public health practitioners who managed local responses to the pandemic. We discuss the retrospective and mitigating discourse; 'we had to do what we thought was right at the time', used by interviewees to explain their experience of articulating plans for a severe pandemic influenza with one that turned out to be mild. We explore the importance of influenza's history and imagined future for pandemic management and, relatedly, how pandemic response and control plans disrupted the normal ways in which public health exercises its authority. We conclude by suggesting that difficulties in the management of pandemic influenza lie in its particular articulation of precautions, that is, securing a safe future against that which cannot be predicted. PMID:23957299
The humanrights of female children in India and elsewhere, even when protected on paper, are violated in practice. An equitable and egalitarian world order must be established. A comprehensive campaign is needed that combats gender-based inequalities, discrimination, exploitation, oppression, abuse, violence, inhuman values, and violations of humanrights, particularly against female children. People must radically change their attitudes and actions towards female children. Female children are not a commodity or sex-object but "an equally worthy human being to be loved, respected, and cared for." Strategies that accomplish these ends include the promotion of human and spiritual values of love, compassion, and nonviolence, and discouragement of values of consumerism and materialism and worthlessness of human beings. Effective education and mass media should counter corruption, dishonesty, selfishness, and inhuman actions. Family structures need to strengthened and enriched. The abuse of female children occurs due to the following interrelated factors: entrenched patriarchal value systems, the perpetuation of traditions and practices that identify girls as inferior to boys, the gender-biased and discriminatory attitude that identifies girl children as a burden or liability and as a sex-object or commodity, and prevalent illiteracy, poverty, and negative parenting life style patterns. Other factors include the low status of women, the reduction in human and spiritual values, and the rise of consumerism and corruption. Girls are subjected to female infanticide, feticide, lack of social and economic development, burdensome domestic work, early marriage and childbearing, neglect and denial of healthy living conditions, sexual abuse and exploitation, prostitution, rape, and a denial of their right to protection. PMID:12158013
Persons with intellectual disabilities are more likely to experience victimization and have their rights infringed upon than are people without such disabilities. While legislative and policy interventions have afforded a certain degree of protection against such rights violations, people with intellectual disabilities continue to experience restrictions of their basic humanrights. This article describes the development of a HumanRights
Donato Tarulli; Christine Y. Tardif; Dorothy Griffiths; Frances Owen; Maurice A. Feldman; Karen Stoner
Community organizing for humanrights provides a platform for social workers to be actively engaged in dismantling systems of oppression. Using a case study of Women In Transition, this article emphasizes strategies for organizing for economic humanrights, including opportunities and challenges in using the humanrights framework. Recommendations and implications for the social work profession are discussed.
Jennifer R. Jewell; Khalilah V. Collins; Lindsay Gargotto; Amanda J. Dishon
Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's humanrights initiatives. The efforts of humanrights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of HumanRights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical model for systematizing humanrights norms to facilitate their integration into global business decision making. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper relates a natural law conception of humanrights to global corporate governance. Findings – The paper shows that natural law theory gives a basis for integrating humanrights into
Humanrights as Eleanor Roosevelt famously said, begin in small places: 'Unless they have meaning there, they have little meaning anywhere'. In this inaugural lecture on the sociology of humanrights, Barbara Oomen sets out a model for understanding how humanrights acquire meaning in such places. Next to the laws involved, like the constitutional dispensation of a given country,
This book provides insight into humanrights activities of organizations in Zimbabwe, placing the need for humanrights education in legal, political, social, and economic contexts. Data come from a research project on humanrights education in Zimbabwe. The book criticizes the objectives and programs of people in the field from legal and…
This dissertation consists of four papers that contribute to literatures on humanrights, domestic political institutions, and international cooperation. Specifically, I look at how domestic and international political institutions affect commitment to international humanrights law and domestic respect for humanrights. In Chapter 2, I argue that the domestic incentives dictators face to support the Convention Against Torture (CAT)
Background: Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have the same human value as other children and are entitled to their basic humanrights. And yet, in developing countries they face many barriers to accessing these rights. This study focuses on children with IDs in Egypt. Method: A new measure, the HumanRights of children with…
All fundamental rights are evaluated as necessary for the sake of human dignity. They arise from human dignity and they are independent parts of it. Human dignity aims that human, as a spritual creature, judges independently and interacts with his environment in a free and conscious manner. Human is given the right to be respected and appreciated spritually and socially
Background The healthcare needs and general experience of women in detention in sub-Saharan Africa are rarely studied and poorly understood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A mixed-methods study was conducted including in-depth interviews with 38 adult female prisoners and 21 prison officers in\\u000a four Zambian prisons to assess the health and humanrights concerns of female detainees. Key informant interviews with 46\\u000a officials from government and
Although access to medicines is a vital feature of the right to the highest attainable standard of health ("right to health"), almost two billion people lack access to essential medicines, leading to immense avoidable suffering. While the humanrights responsibility to provide access to medicines lies mainly with States, pharmaceutical companies also have humanrights responsibilities in relation to access to medicines. This article provides an introduction to these responsibilities. It briefly outlines the new UN Guiding Principles on Business and HumanRights and places the humanrights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in this context. The authors draw from the work of the first UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, in particular the HumanRights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in Relation to Access to Medicines that he presented to the UN General Assembly in 2008, and his UN report on GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). While the Guiding Principles on Business and HumanRights are general humanrights standards applicable to all business entities, the HumanRights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies consider the specific humanrights responsibilities of one sector (pharmaceutical companies) in relation to one area of activity (access to medicines). The article signals the humanrights responsibilities of all pharmaceutical companies, with particular attention to patent-holding pharmaceutical companies. Adopting a right-to-health "lens," the article discusses GSK and accountability. The authors argue that humanrights should shape pharmaceutical companies' policies, and provide standards in relation to which pharmaceutical companies could, and should, be held accountable. They conclude that it is now crucial to devise independent, accessible, transparent, and effective mechanisms to monitor pharmaceutical companies and hold them publicly accountable for their humanrights responsibilities. PMID:22789042
Environmental sustainability as a social and marketing discourse has gathered momentum since the 1990s, forcing companies and consumers to consider how to apprehend this shift. However, this has proved to be challenging, given that sustainability itself remains a fuzzy concept. This paper argues that this fuzziness resides in the impetus for sustainability itself, suggesting that our concern for the environment
The humanright to adequate food is comprehended in two dimensions: being free of hunger and denutrition and having access to an adequate food. The urban context, in which the possession of food is done primarily through merchandising because of its strong consuming appealing, became a big challenge to debate this topic in poor districts today. Here we combine considerations of a qualitative study carried out in São João de Meriti, Rio de Janeiro State, joining leaders from Pastoral da Criança in focal group sessions. The unemployment, the sub-employment and the difficulty in reaching the public health system, the social assistance and basic sanitation were presented as the major obstacles to bring into effect the humanright to food. It was possible to determine that, among the strategies to fight the poverty and hunger, a big highlight is the establishment of mutual help mechanisms. The social support, generosity and religiousness were presented as the most important categories among the thoughts of the leaders. Facing a reality in which poverty and hunger appear as something inherent or become a mechanism of change during elections, the issue of the clienteles appears as a huge concern and challenge for those leaders. PMID:20694330
Casemiro, Juliana Pereira; Valla, Victor Vincent; Guimarães, Maria Beatriz Lisboa
Every year approximately 18 million people die prematurely from treatable medical conditions including infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies. The deaths occur primarily amongst the poorest citizens of poor developing nations. Various groups and individuals have advanced plans for major international medical aid to avert many of these unnecessary deaths. For example, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health estimated that eight million premature deaths could be prevented annually by interventions costing roughly US$57 bn per year. This essay advances an argument that humanrights require high-income nations to provide such aid. The essay briefly examines John Rawls' obligations of justice and the reasons that their applicability to cases of international medical aid remains controversial. Regardless, the essay argues that purely humanitarian obligations bind the governments and citizens of high-income liberal democracies at a minimum to provide major medical aid to avert premature deaths in poor nations. In refusing to undertake such medical relief efforts, developed nations fail to adequately protect a fundamental humanright to life. PMID:19143091
This article argues that the trend in the current protection of humanrights may be seen as a revival of an old idea: governments are accountable for their actions. The protection of humanrights has gone through three eras. In the first era, the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages claimed to rule from a divine mandate. This principle of natural law was a unifying factor in western Europe because it created a standard system of morality. The second era, beginning in the seventeenth century with the doctrine of state sovereignty, rejected that natural law. Rulers wanted to run their own territories and not be subject to foreign influence. Laws were created by the 'national sovereign' (king, queen, president, parliament, congress and so on). This legal doctrine survived for about three centuries, but the excesses of leaders such as Hitler in the middle of last century forced a re-think. Although the term 'natural law' is not used, there has been a revival of its essential meaning: that governments have to be answerable to a higher authority for their behaviour. PMID:17822064
The current debate over cloning and germline gene therapy is usually considered in terms of bioethics. The Council of Europe and UNESCO have, however, adopted normative instruments on the human genome, and one that draws heavily on humanrights is under consideration at the United Nations. This article suggests the need for more thorough analysis of the underlying assumptions of
Les Mêmes Droits Pour Tous (MDT) is a humanrights NGO in Guinea, West Africa that focuses on the rights of prisoners in Maison Centrale, the country's largest prison located in the capital city of Conakry. In 2007, MDT completed a survey of the prison population to assess basic legal and humanrights conditions. This article uses statistical tools to explore MDT's survey results in greater depth, shedding light on humanrights violations in Guinea. It contributes to humanrights literature that argues for greater use of econometric tools in rights reporting, and demonstrates how humanrights practitioners and academics can work together to construct an etiology of violence and torture by state actors, as physical violence is perhaps the most extreme violation of the individual's right to health. PMID:21178191
The International Migrants Bill of Rights (IMBR) addresses migrants’ rights in a variety of contexts, and this paper looks closely at some of the most crucial rights that apply to migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers who are held in immigration detention.\\u000aMigrants, refugees and asylum seekers are entitled to a broad range of rights protections. These protections are spelled out
Seventy documents including primary source materials, simulations, mock trials, short stories, vignettes, and statistical data are provided for the implementation of the elementary, middle, and high school humanrights curriculum. Original documents include: (1) the Universal Declaration of HumanRights; (2) the Declaration of the Rights of the…
Detroit Public Schools, MI. Dept. of Curriculum Development Services.
A new cartography of geopolitical and corporate interests is reshaping the international order after September 11, calling into question the state's ability to secure fundamental rights for its citizens and to preserve participatory democracy. If civil society tends, among humanrights activists, to be the preferred venue to articulate humanrights concerns against the state and other powerful entities, one
In September, HumanRights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. This report, Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International HumanRights Standards, reports on nationwide repeated violations, across all levels of employment, of federal laws and international standards protecting workers's rights to organize, to bargain collectively, and to strike.
Education in the humanrights arena has tended to emphasise, at least in the United States, civil and political rights. Into the next century, this moral educational agenda should be expanded to include more emphasis upon economic, social, and solidarity rights and the notion of the interdependency of humanrights, the official position of the UN HumanRights Commission. The
This article provides results from an online survey of humanitarian workers and volunteers that was conducted in May and June 2010. The purpose of the survey was to understand how the humanitarian aid system adopts or incorporates humanrights into its post-natural disaster work and metrics. Data collected from Haiti suggest that humanitarians have embraced a rights-based approach but that they do not agree about how this is defined or about what standards and indicators can be considered rights-based. This disagreement may reveal that humanitarians are aware of a mismatch between the rights-based approach to post-disaster humanitarian work and the legal framework of humanrights. Using participation and accountability as examples, this article identifies and examines this mismatch and suggests that the humanitarian aid system should more fully embrace engagement with the humanrights framework. To do so, the article concludes, humanitarian actors and the humanrights community should have an open dialogue about the development of metrics that accurately reflect and monitor adherence to the legal framework of humanrights. This would allow the humanitarian aid system to ensure its interventions enhance the capacity of the disaster-affected state to fulfill its humanrights obligations, and would allow humanitarian and humanrights actors alike to measure the impact of such interventions on the realization of humanrights in post-natural disaster settings. PMID:22772960
Klasing, Amanda M; Moses, P Scott; Satterthwaite, Margaret L
Marriages in which a child under the age of 18 years is involved occur worldwide, but are mainly seen in South Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A humanrights violation, child marriage directly impacts girls’ education, health, psychologic well-being, and the health of their offspring. It increases the risk for depression, sexually transmitted infection, cervical cancer, malaria, obstetric fistulas, and maternal mortality. Their offspring are at an increased risk for premature birth and, subsequently, neonatal or infant death. The tradition, driven by poverty, is perpetuated to ensure girls’ financial futures and to reinforce social ties. One of the most effective methods of reducing child marriage and its health consequences is mandating that girls stay in school.
Marriages in which a child under the age of 18 years is involved occur worldwide, but are mainly seen in South Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A humanrights violation, child marriage directly impacts girls' education, health, psychologic well-being, and the health of their offspring. It increases the risk for depression, sexually transmitted infection, cervical cancer, malaria, obstetric fistulas, and maternal mortality. Their offspring are at an increased risk for premature birth and, subsequently, neonatal or infant death. The tradition, driven by poverty, is perpetuated to ensure girls' financial futures and to reinforce social ties. One of the most effective methods of reducing child marriage and its health consequences is mandating that girls stay in school. PMID:19399295
States have a duty under international humanrights law to protect people's health. Nonetheless, while some health-related policies and laws protect basic humanrights, others violate fundamental rights when they criminalize, prohibit, and restrict access to necessary health services. For example, laws and regulations related to protection of life from conception, contraception, actions of pregnant women, and abortion can harm women and place women and health care providers in jeopardy of legal penalization. Given the adverse consequences of punitive and restrictive laws related to pregnancy, advocates, civil society groups, humanrights groups, and government institutions must work together to promote, protect, and fulfill women's fundamental reproductive rights. PMID:25006084
Background The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of humanrights as a professional\\u000a obligation prompted moves to include humanrights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A\\u000a Train-the-Trainers course in Health and HumanRights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences\\u000a institutions nationwide with the
Elena G Ewert; Laurel Baldwin-Ragaven; Leslie London
The health and humanrights communities have much in common. Recently, the international community has begun to devote more attention to the right to the highest attainable standard of health ("the right to health"). Today, this humanright presents health and humanrights professionals with a range of new opportunities and challenges. The right to health is enshrined in binding international treaties and constitutions. It has numerous elements, including the right to health care and the underlying determinants of health, such as adequate sanitation and safe water. It empowers disadvantaged individuals and communities. If integrated into national and international policies, it can help to establish policies that are meaningful to those living in poverty. The author introduces his work as the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health. By way of illustration, he briefly considers his interventions on Niger's Poverty Reduction Strategy, Uganda's neglected (or tropical or poverty-related) diseases, and the recent US-Peru trade negotiations. With the maturing of humanrights, health professionals have become an indispensable part of the global humanrights movement. While humanrights do not provide magic solutions, they have a constructive contribution to make. The failure to use them is a missed opportunity of major proportions. PMID:16650880
The AIDS pandemic has not spread in a social and economic vacuum. Indeed, HIV and AIDS have spread in the context of widespread poverty, sexism, racism, homophobia, and heterosexism throughout most nations of the world. Globally, communities have been allowed to reject or ignore that the spread of HIV/AIDS is symptomatic of underlying social injustices. It is, however, extremely difficult to combat AIDS in the context of poverty, gay bashing, low women's status, and overt violence against HIV-seropositive individuals, notably in Russia, Mexico, and the US. It is clear even at the policy level that countries around the world are still ignorant about HIV/AIDS and violate the humanrights of infected individuals. US immigration and entry restrictions against HIV-seropositive individuals is but one example of such policy. Discrimination also extends down to the fundamental need for and provision of health care to people with AIDS. These individuals are stigmatized by health care workers, discriminated against when receiving treatment, or simply denied health care services. Shapiro et al's study found that 23% of young American medical residents would not care for AIDS patients if they had a choice. The study also found that 39% of surgeons or other medical specialists have refused care to at least one of the HIV-infected patients in the respondent physicians' care. Governments must act to ensure that such discrimination is eradicated. Each country must reassess its laws which directly affect the lives of people who are most at risk, eschewing anti-gay rights initiatives and the criminalization of prostitution. PMID:12346134
This paper examines the contribution of humanrights education (HRE) to conflict prevention and to the promotion of security. It outlines the difficulties in evaluating the long-term impact of HRE, but then proposes five benefits of a rights-based approach to education--rights as secular, man-made, requiring transparency, enabling freedom from…
In 2011 it emerged that to induce the death penalty, United States authorities had begun giving injections of pentobarbital, a substance provided by Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck. Lundbeck's product pentobarbital is licensed for treatment of refractory forms of epilepsy and for usage as an anaesthetic, thus for a very different purpose. The Lundbeck case offers a difficult, but also interesting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) dilemma between choices facing a pharmaceutical company to stop the distribution of a medical substance in order to avoid complicity in humanrights violations, or to retain distribution of the substance in order not to impede access to the medicine for those patients who need it. The dilemma arose at a time when the United Nations (UN) Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and HumanRights, Professor John Ruggie, was finalizing a set of Guiding Principles to operationalize recommendations on business and humanrights that he had presented to the UN HumanRights Council in 2008. The article discusses the dilemma in which Lundbeck was placed in from the perspective of the Guiding Principles on business and humanrights and the 2008 Protect, Respect, Remedy UN Framework. The analysis seeks to assess what guidance may be gauged from the Guiding Principles in relation to the dilemma at hand and discusses the adequacy the Guiding Principles for dealing with acute humanrights dilemmas of conflicting requirements in which a decision to avoid one type of violation risks causing violation of another humanright. The article concludes by drawing up perspectives for further development of guidance on implementation of the UN Framework that could be considered by the newly established Working Group on Business and HumanRights and related UN bodies. PMID:22789041
Over the past three decades, the U.S. judiciary has grown increasingly less receptive to claims by convicted felons as to the conditions of their confinement while in prison. Although courts have not articulated a return to the "hands off" policy of the 1950s, it is clear that it has become significantly more difficult for prisoners to prevail in constitutional correctional litigation. The passage and aggressive implementation of the Prison Litigation Reform Act has been a powerful disincentive to such litigation in many areas of prisoners' rights law. From the perspective of the prisoner, the legal landscape is more hopeful in matters that relate to mental health care and treatment. Here, in spite of a general trend toward more stringent applications of standards of proof and a reluctance to order sweeping, intrusive remedies, some courts have aggressively protected prisoners' rights to be free from "deliberate indifference" to serious medical needs, and to be free from excessive force on the part of prison officials. A mostly hidden undercurrent in some prisoners' rights litigation has been the effort on the part of some plaintiffs' lawyers to look to international humanrights doctrines as a potential source of rights, an effort that has met with some modest success. It receives support by the inclination of other courts to turn to international humanrights conventions-even in nations where such conventions have not been ratified-as a kind of "best practice" in the area. The recent publication and subsequent ratification (though not, as of yet, by the United States) of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) may add new support to those using international humanrights documents as a basis for litigating prisoners' rights claims. To the best of our knowledge, there has, as of yet, been no scholarly literature on the question of the implications of the CRPD on the state of prisoners' rights law in a U.S. domestic context. In this article, we raise this question, and offer some tentative conclusions. PMID:19784942
Much of the discussion about "health as a humanright" has centered on global health initiatives, largely ignoring the application of humanrights principles to the significant socioeconomic and racial health disparities in the United States. Given the persistent gaps in insurance coverage and access to quality preventive care in the US, the health and humanrights movement has primarily focused its efforts on achieving universal health care coverage. However, this focus has left unaddressed how a humanrights strategy might also address the social determinants of health. As Americans' health continues to worsen-the US Institute of Medicine recently reported that the US now fares worse in nine areas of health than 16 peer high-income democracies--a broader social determinants approach is warranted. This article explores the application of international humanrights principles, including a "right to health" to the US context, and analyzes how existing domestic law may be used to advance health as a humanright for America's most vulnerable populations. It demonstrates that an effective health and humanrights strategy must build partnerships among health care providers, public health professionals, and lawyers to identify rights violations, hold officials and systems accountable, and mobilize communities to advocate for systems and policy change. PMID:24421171
The report on Estonian implementation of CSCE human dimension commitments will first review the substantial progress that Estonia has made in protecting humanrights and building democratic institutions, and then focus on the status of Estonia's Russian p...
The United Nations Decade for HumanRights Education (1995-2004) set in motion both formal and informal activities to promote the development of respect for humanrights culture through education worldwide. It is said that knowledge is power and ignorance cannot be a defence. But the maxim that says ignorance of the law is no defence is in itself…
There is a globalization trend in teacher education, emphasizing the role of teachers to make judgments based on humanrights in their teaching profession. Rather than emphasizing the epistemological dimension of acquiring knowledge "about" humanrights through teacher education, an ontological dimension is emphasized in this paper of…
This article investigates the effect of access to media reporting and press freedom on the achievement of humanrights. Past research on the role of the media on humanrights has often been limited to anecdotal examples or limited case studies. There has been little comprehensive systematic investigation on the topic. Specifically, this article answers the questions: Do large communication
Over the past several decades, there has been a disconnect between the international community and the South Pacific region in terms of humanrights. Countries in the region have been slow to adapt international declarations and conventions and slow to implement those they do ratify. Is this lack of agreement between the global humanrights movement and local leaders due
HumanRights Education (HRE) has traditionally been articulated in terms of cultivating better citizens or world citizens. The main preoccupation in this strand of HRE has been that of bridging a gap between universal notions of a humanrights subject and the actual locality and particular narratives in which students are enmeshed. This…
Advancement of humanrights is a core competency in the social work curriculum. Presented is a model to teach policy practice from a humanrights perspective based on a violence-against-women delegation visit to Guatemala. Postdelegation policy advocacy responses included White House and State Department briefings on the problems, including…
It is well-known that being efficiency-oriented and utilitarian, the International Economic Law focuses on the market itself, while the humanrights should protect the individual within the global economy. During the first part of the XXth century, humanrights experts and their trade policy counterparts ignored each other. There was no interest about how international trade policy could affect protection
In 2001, a 3-month course in humanrights based on critical inquiry was offered to 8th graders in a slum area of Santo Domingo. The students' attitudes, behaviors and knowledge of humanrights principles were measured before and after the course. The curriculum focused on international principles and entrenched local problems such as…
This article reflects on experiences of attempting to infuse humanrights in the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS). Using our experiences as members of HumanRights and Inclusivity Group (HRIWG), one of the curriculum development structures set up for the RNCS, and focusing particularly on the Learning Area of Mathematics,…
In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) published its Resource Book on Mental Health, HumanRights and Legislation (Geneva: WHO) presenting a detailed statement of humanrights issues which need to be addressed in national legislation relating to mental health. The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which revised mental health legislation in England, Wales (2007)
Gender-based violence persists in postconflict settings. Implementing an ethnographic study with Congolese refugees in Rwanda, we investigated community perspectives on justice and humanrights. As core concepts, participants described the right to equal value as human beings and the corresponding responsibility to respect humanrights as the basis for justice. Three factors that impede humanrights include cultural ideology, social distance, and lack of a rights-enabling environment. Men described gender similarities while women emphasized gender differences in humanrights. Ecological perspectives and rights-based approaches to achieving social justice seem warranted. PMID:19461231
W ork with youth on sexual and reproductive health from a rights-based approach is a relatively recent phenom- enon. It was only after the 1994 Cairo and 1995 Beijing con- ferences that attention to sexual and reproductive rights and health crystallized into international commitments that re- sulted in a boom of new initiatives, particularly public poli- cies and the creation
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a discourse approach to theorising human resource development (HRD) can open a "discursive space" to challenge dominant discourses within the field; enabling a more critical discourse to emerge. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses two approaches to discourse analysis, a "practice" and a…
This paper explores the ways in which policy discourses have constructed rationales for addressing adult literacy over the last 50 years. In particular, we examine how policy positions the literacy learner as citizen within discourses of rights and equity. Taking the case of the UK, we compare two key documents produced at different historical…
The development of the health and humanrights framework coincided with the beginning of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS. Since then, the international community has increasingly turned to humanrights language and instruments to address the disease. Not only are humanrights essential to addressing a disease that impacts marginalized groups most severely, but the spread of HIV/AIDS itself exacerbates inequality and impedes the realization of a range of humanrights. Policy developments of the past decade include the United Nations (UN) Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights’ General Comment on the ‘Right to Health’, the UN Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, and the UN’s International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and HumanRights, among others. Rights-related setbacks include the failure of the Declaration and its 5-year follow-up specifically to address men who have sex with men, sex workers, and intravenous drug users, political restrictions placed on urgently needed US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) funds, and the failure of many countries to decriminalize same-sex sex and outlaw discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS. Male circumcision as an HIV prevention measure is a topic around which important debate, touching on gender, informed consent and children’s rights, serves to illustrate the ongoing vitality of the health and humanrights dialogue. Mechanisms to increase state accountability for addressing HIV/AIDS should be explored in greater depth. Such measures might include an increase in the use of treaty-based judicial mechanisms, the linking of humanrights compliance with preferential trade agreements, and rights requirements tied to HIV/ AIDS funding.
This article examines the trope of reproduction in narratives of Tibetan refugees living in Dharamsala, India. As they make sense of their personal histories, Tibetan refugees invoke a collective story that mirrors humanrights literature on Tibet. Women come into contact with this literature through its incorporation into a political discourse expressed by the exile government and health institutions. The article traces facets of this discourse that deal centrally with reproduction. Political discourse on reproduction articulates pronatalism as a solution to the refugee community's concern with survival, and the discourse frames modernity as a site of violence through China's reproductive regulations. And yet, Tibetan refugees also employ the notion of modernity when discussing their own free reproductive decision-making, positioning modern reproductive interventions in opposition to Indian society. The article demonstrates that Tibetan refugees navigate competing figurations of modernity by expressing political resistance and affiliation through the idiom of reproduction. PMID:23804300
Fundamental rights are preconditions for any human to act with sufficient freedom and to be allowed sufficient choice to realize their potential. The right to indigenous medicine must be recognized as a fundamental humanright for indigenous peoples. In accordance with the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine, every citizen should be allowed to benefit from the placebo effect. It constitutes an essential aspect of treatment, which is rightfully theirs on the basis of payment for health care – regardless of whether the payment is made out of pocket, or from public finance. It then follows that, the right of citizens to access the medical system of their choice should be formally acknowledged. That choice should be regarded as a Fundamental HumanRight, which should under no circumstance be denied them - not for reasons of scientific prejudice, nor commercial ambition.
Fundamental rights are preconditions for any human to act with sufficient freedom and to be allowed sufficient choice to realize their potential. The right to indigenous medicine must be recognized as a fundamental humanright for indigenous peoples. In accordance with the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine, every citizen should be allowed to benefit from the placebo effect. It constitutes an essential aspect of treatment, which is rightfully theirs on the basis of payment for health care - regardless of whether the payment is made out of pocket, or from public finance. It then follows that, the right of citizens to access the medical system of their choice should be formally acknowledged. That choice should be regarded as a Fundamental HumanRight, which should under no circumstance be denied them - not for reasons of scientific prejudice, nor commercial ambition. PMID:21829297
The existing literature presents conflicting models of how "this" and "that" access different segments of a written discourse, frequently relying on implicit analogies with spoken discourse. On the basis of this literature, we hypothesized that in written discourse, "this" more readily accesses the adjacent/right…
Background The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of humanrights as a professional obligation prompted moves to include humanrights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A Train-the-Trainers course in Health and HumanRights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences institutions nationwide with the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge to teach humanrights to their students. This study followed up participants to determine the extent of curriculum implementation, support needed as well as barriers encountered in integrating humanrights into health sciences teaching and learning. Methods A survey including both quantitative and qualitative components was distributed in 2007 to past course participants from 1998-2006 via telephone, fax and electronic communication. Results Out of 162 past participants, 46 (28%) completed the survey, the majority of whom were still employed in academic settings (67%). Twenty-two respondents (48%) implemented a total of 33 formal humanrights courses into the curricula at their institutions. Respondents were nine times more likely (relative risk 9.26; 95% CI 5.14-16.66) to implement humanrights education after completing the training. Seventy-two extracurricular activities were offered by 21 respondents, many of whom had successfully implemented formal curricula. Enabling factors for implementation included: prior teaching experience in humanrights, general institutional support and the presence of allies - most commonly coworkers as well as deans. Frequently cited barriers to implementation included: budget restrictions, time constraints and perceived apathy of colleagues or students. Overall, respondents noted personal enrichment and optimism in teaching humanrights. Conclusion This Train-the-Trainer course provides the historical context, educational tools, and collective motivation to incorporate humanrights educational initiatives at health sciences institutions. Increased implementation of humanrights instruction, both formally and extracurricularly, has demonstrated the training's significance not only within academic institutions but more broadly across the health sector. Coworkers are vital allies in teaching humanrights to health sciences students, helping to alleviate institutional barriers. Training fellow staff members and those in key leadership roles is noted as vital to the sustainability of humanrights education.
Uzbekistan is an authoritarian state with limited civil rights. The Constitution provides for a presidential system with separation of powers between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches; however, in practice President Islam Karimov and the c...
Austria is a constitutional democracy with a federal parliamentary form of government. Citizens choose their representatives in periodic, free, and fair multiparty elections. In February 2000, a right-of-center coalition came to power, comprised of the co...
School is the major vehicle for humanism, which is, in essence, respect on human nature. HumanRights Education is important for the existence of human society in the modern globalising era. Education can function as a unifying factor and produce informed and active citizens of an interdependent world. It can provide the tools for advocacy and…
Veterinarians confronted with situations involving animal welfare, animal rights, and human responsibility assume practical importance in the relationships of veterinarians with clients and other constituencies. To help resolve these situations, the authors briefly compare economics and ethics and discuss the types of rights. An attempt is made to bring animal welfare and animal rights into the same conceptual framework, using an ecologic approach. This reaches the thesis that the less human beings allow animals the right of self-determination, the more we should exercise responsibility in their care and welfare. Actively exercised human responsibility in all uses of animals is offered as a practical and valid alternative to the extreme of abolitionism. This alternative also is applied in a cautionary way to the role of veterinary medicine in specieism. The veterinary profession is urged to be active in the middle ground of the field of animal rights and to firmly establish its relationships to animal welfare and human responsibility. PMID:3679952
The neural representation of segmental and tonal phonological distinctions has been shown by means of the MMN ERP, yet this is not the case for intonational discourse contrasts. In Catalan, a rising-falling intonational sequence can be perceived as a statement or as a counterexpectational question, depending exclusively on the size of the pitch range interval of the rising movement. We tested here, using the MMN, whether such categorical distinctions elicited distinct neurophysiological patterns of activity, supporting their specific neural representation. From a behavioral identification experiment, we set the boundary between the two categories and defined four stimuli across the continuum. Although the physical distance between each pair of stimuli was kept constant, the central pair represented an across-category contrast, whereas the other pairs represented within-category contrasts. These four auditory stimuli were contrasted by pairs in three different oddball blocks. The mean amplitude of the MMN was larger for the across-category contrast, suggesting that intonational contrasts in the target language can be encoded automatically in the auditory cortex. These results are in line with recent findings in other fields of linguistics, showing that, when a boundary between categories is crossed, the MMN response is not just larger but rather includes a separate subcomponent. PMID:21981669
Organizations concerned with humanrights are increasingly using remote sensing as a tool to improve their detection of humanrights and international humanitarian law violations. However, as these organizations have transitioned to humanrights monitoring campaigns conducted over large regions and extended periods of time, current methods of using fine- resolution sensors and manpower-intensive analyses have become cost- prohibitive. To support the continued growth of remote sensing in humanrights and international humanitarian law monitoring campaigns, this study researches how moderate resolution land observatories can provide complementary data to operational humanrights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates the capacity of moderate resolutions to provide data to monitoring efforts by developing an approach that uses Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) as part of a system for the detection of village destruction in Darfur, Sudan. Village destruction is an indicator of a humanrights or international humanitarian law violations in Darfur during the 2004 study period. This analysis approach capitalizes on Landsat's historical archive and systematic observations by constructing a historic spectral baseline for each village in the study area that supports automated detection of a potentially destroyed village with each new overpass of the sensor. Using Landsat's near-infrared band, the approach demonstrates high levels of accuracy when compared with a U.S. government database documenting destroyed villages. This approach is then applied to the Darfur conflict from 2002 to 2008, providing new data on when and where villages were destroyed in this widespread and long-lasting conflict. This application to the duration of a real-world conflict illustrates the abilities and shortcomings of moderate resolution sensors in humanrights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates that moderate resolution satellites have the capacity to contribute complementary data to operational humanrights monitoring efforts. While this study validates this capacity for the burning of villages in arid environments, this approach can be generalized to detect other humanrights violations if an observable signal that represents the violation is identified.
Background Humanrights abuses, denial of care, police surveillance, and violence directed at IDUs have been found to impact HIV prevention efforts due to decreased attendance in harm reduction programs. The association of mental health status with rights abuses has not been examined extensively among drug users. In India, drug control laws are often in conflict with harm reduction policies, thus increasing the likelihood of rights abuses against IDUs. The purpose of this study was to describe humanrights abuses occurring among IDUs in Delhi and examine their association with suicidal ideation. Methods 343 IDUs were recruited in two research sites in Delhi through respondent driven sampling and were interviewed with a cross sectional survey questionnaire that included items on humanrights and socio demographics. Results IDUs in the study experienced many humanrights abuses. Notably among these were denial of admission into hospital (38.5%), denial of needles and syringes (20%), police arrests for carrying needles and using drugs (85%), verbal abuse (95%) and physical abuse (88%). Several humanrights abuses were associated with suicidal ideation. These include being denied needles and syringes (OR: 7.28, 95% CI: 3.03- 17.49); being arrested by police for carrying needles and using drugs (OR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.06- 6.03), and being physically abused (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.05- 2.23). The likelihood of suicidal ideation is also strongly related to the cumulative number of abuses. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that there is a high prevalence of humanrights abuses among IDUs in Delhi. Given the alarming rate of suicidal ideation and its close relationship with humanrights abuses it is essential that IDU interventions are executed within a rights-based framework.
Sarin, Enisha; Samson, Luke; Sweat, Michael; Beyrer, Chris
This paper analyses developments and debates regarding legal and humanrights issues relevant to the Australian HIV response in the context of treatment as prevention (TasP). A refocusing of prevention priorities on individual responsibilities to 'test and treat' without regard to the legal and humanrights context is, we argue, problematic. The paper maintains that the justification of testing and treating for the greater good risks eroding the foundations of a humanrights-based approach to HIV prevention, and that the TasP agenda as presently conceived may divert attention from pressing law reform issues relating to sex work, illicit drug use, and criminalization of HIV transmission. PMID:24846483
Working at the bedside and within communities as patient advocates, nurses frequently intervene to advance individuals' health and well-being. However, the International Council of Nurses' Code of Ethics asserts that nurses should expand beyond the individual model and also promote a rights-enabling environment where respect for human dignity is paramount. This article applies the results of an ethnographic humanrights study with displaced populations in Rwanda to argue for a rights-based social advocacy role for nurses. Humanrights advocacy strategies include sensitization, participation, protection, good governance, and accountability. By adopting a rights-based approach to advocacy, nurses contribute to health agendas that include more just social relationships, equitable access to opportunities, and health-positive living situations for all persons. PMID:22496055
Women in the African region are overburdened with unsafe abortion. Abortion regimes that fail to translate any given abortion rights into tangible access are partly to blame. Historically, African abortion laws have been highly restrictive. However, the post-independence era has witnessed a change toward liberalizing abortion law, even if incremental for many jurisdictions. Furthermore, Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa has significantly augmented the regional trend toward liberalization by recognizing abortion as a humanright in given circumstances. However, states are failing to implement abortion laws. The jurisprudence that is emerging from the European Court of HumanRights and United Nations treaty bodies is a tool that can be used to render African governments accountable for failure to implement domestic abortion laws. PMID:22944215
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set out to halve the proportion of the population without access to basic sanitation between 1990 and 2015. The slow pace of progress has lead to a search for innovative responses, including social motivation approaches. One example of this type of approach is 'Community-led Total Sanitation' (CLTS). CLTS represents a major shift for sanitation projects and programmes in recognising the value of stopping open-defecation across the whole community, even when the individual toilets built are not necessarily wholly hygienic. However, recent publications on CLTS document a number of examples of practices which fail to meet basic ethical criteria and infringe humanrights. There is a general theme in the CLTS literature encouraging the use of 'shame' or 'social stigma' as a tool for promoting behaviours. There are reported cases where monetary benefits to which individuals are otherwise entitled or the means to practice a livelihood are withheld to create pressures to conform. At the very extreme end of the scale, the investigation and punishment of violence has reportedly been denied if the crime occurred while defecating in the open, violating rights to a remedy and related access to justice. While social mobilisation in general, and CLTS in particular, have drastically and positively changed the way we think about sanitation, they neither need nor benefit from an association with any infringements of humanrights. PMID:23165706
Bartram, Jamie; Charles, Katrina; Evans, Barbara; O'Hanlon, Lucinda; Pedley, Steve
The nature of education that children with disabilities should receive has been subject to much debate. This article critically assesses the ways in which the international humanrights framework has conceptualised "inclusive education". It argues that the right to education for children with disabilities in international law is…
This case note examines the Supreme Court's decision in Re E (Children) (Abduction: Custody Appeal)  UKSC 27;  2 WLR 1326, in particular, its analysis of the interrelationship between the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the European Convention on HumanRights. The
A recent judgement in February 2005 by the Lord Chief Justice in Northern Ireland that a Health and Social Services Trust had breached a parent's Article 8 Right to Family Life in the process used to take a young child into care has stimulated major debate about the interface between the HumanRights Act (1998) and professional decision-making in…
This handbook offers "how to" guidance on library management and provides a single source for laws, regulations, executive orders, guidelines, and court decisions on employee and employer rights and responsibilities. Detailed information is provided on: recruiting and selecting personnel; the employment relationship; wages and hours; employee…
Describes Amnesty International, an organization formed in order to change the sociopolitical environment so that elites will have to act in a predetermined prohuman rights manner in all situations. The issues of torture and political repression were addressed in different nations, which practice the detention of political prisoners. (Author/RK)
Examines the implications of the left brain-right brain theory on communications styles in male-female relationships. The author contends that women tend to use the vagueness of their emotional responses manipulatively. Men need to apply rational approaches to increase clarity in communication. (AM)
The recruitment of trainee surgeons is a demanding topic. Not only the question whether the number of applicants is sufficient but also the selection of the right candidates are of great importance. Therefore, it is of vital interest to establish the occupational requirements and to develop reliable and valid methods for the selection process. PMID:23292154
The paper provides some significant data, from the economic, social, cultural, and educational context, on some of the obstacles to fundamental rights in Latin America; and deals with special education in these countries, its scope and resources, and the attitudes and philosophical assumptions which help or hinder its expansion. Among…
Although humanrights are often expressed as universal tenets, the concept was conceived in a particular socio-political and historical context. Conceptualisations and practice of humanrights vary across societies, and face numerous challenges. After providing an historical account of the conceptualisation of humanrights in Japanese society,…
This article opens with a proposed framework for humanrights education (HRE), which synthesizes ideas drawn from Zinn's people's history, Sen's theory of justice and Freire's critical pedagogy. A review of the literature on HRE and humanrights-based learning suggests three existent interrelated models of HRE. Drawing on humanrights-based…
With the aim of honoring the spirit of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., by working to make his "humanrights revolution" a reality, this report considers efforts to build a humanrights society in the United States. The report celebrates the Center for HumanRights Education's (CHRE's) growth and accomplishments and documents the Center's work to…
National Center for Human Rights Education, Atlanta, GA.
"Profession 2005" begins with a series of essays titled "The Future of the Humanities." Without exception, the authors contend that literary studies must reaffirm, or in some cases reassert, its connection with the humanities in order to retain viability for the foreseeable and distant future in American higher education. In the words of Robert…
Inhumane working conditions led to a strike of Japanese silk spinners and formation of a union. Company repression provoked public opinion, resulting in acceptance of worker demands for recognition of humanrights in the workplace. (SK)
This Special Bibliography Series, Number 111 , 'In Defense of Freedom: Protection of HumanRights at Home and Abroad,' was developed by Social Sciences Bibliographer and Reference Librarian Frances K. Scott in support of the 52nd annual Academy Assembly t...
Health is increasingly seen as relevant to foreign policy; nevertheless, it remains subordinate to other interests. In particular, the interests of security and economics are often presented as more critical than health. This is due to a failure to sufficiently recognize the legal obligations that states have undertaken to ensure the humanright to health. This article argues that health should be an imperative of foreign policy, equally valid, and prioritized in resource allocation. We suggest application of the humanrights approach with attention to the legal duty of cooperation and the necessity of ensuring broad participation. We suggest that the humanrights approach to health can contribute to achieving this result and is compatible with, and beneficial to, other foreign policy concerns. Finally, we conclude that the humanrights approach to health requires that health be an imperative in foreign policymaking processes. PMID:20930253
This article presents an overview of the challenges faced by humanrights organizations and survivors of torture in seeking justice despite the availability of an anti-torture law in the Philippines. Several legal, political, and security-related impediments are cited here to raise the challenge to state agencies to undertake steps to break the culture of impunity in the country by making the anti-torture law an effective remedy to prevent torture and for the victims to obtain redress. This paper draws lessons and recommendations form the insights generated by the authors in the course of their participation in the IRCT-led FEAT project. PMID:22948401
EnglishIntercountry adoption, once viewed as a means of international charity, has recently been challenged by political and economic forces, leading to vio lation of humanrights. The authors compare the experiences of two sending countries – Romania and the Marshall Islands – and suggest the utilization of a bottom-up humanrights approach.FrenchL’adoption internationale, autrefois vue comme un moyen d’oeuvre de
A right to health is not recognized in the United States Constitution. This article examines the right to health and to health care in the U.S. in terms of expert definitions of health, international humanrights instruments, U.S. individualism, the U.S. Constitution, and the impact of stigmatization on health status as a violation of dignity. It argues that establishing a right to health care is a necessary but insufficient condition to protect health. A historically rooted ethos of individualism, in combination with a dominant biomedical paradigm of disease causation, underlies the resistance of the private and public sectors to the concept of health as a humanright. Emerging public health knowledge about social causes of disease provides a valuable locus of intervention from which a coalition of public health and humanrights advocates can advance the debate and build political will for government action. PMID:10438557
It has become fashionable to question attempts to derive internationally agreed duties of clinical care from more general theories of humanrights. For example, some argue that such attempts risk moral abstraction through their neglect for the importance of culture and community in shaping moral consciousness and thus often unhelpful in the resolution of concrete moral dilemmas within medicine. Others denounce the importance of general moral principles altogether in bioethics and attempt to articulate what are claimed to be more practical approaches to resolving moral conflict. This paper challenges such arguments. It does so through arguing that: i) all humans everywhere have the same basic human needs; ii) the satisfaction of these needs varies with culture; iii) the imputation of moral duties on others entails respect for their right to basic need satisfaction, including the right to choose between presumptions about the duties and rights of patients which follow from these more general principles and v) problems of moral indeterminancy that arise from putting these principles into practice can be resolved through associated procedural policies of rational negotiation and compromise. The moral importance and practicality of respect for individual humanrights within the practice of medicine is thus defended. Indeed, the paper concludes by arguing that without belief in humanrights linked to a theory of basic human needs, communitarian theories of morality are incoherent. PMID:12061378
Humanrights issues are brought to the attention of a larger lay public in this source book of questions, topics for discussion, and study of the United Nations Universal Declaration of HumanRights. The original declaration consists of a preamble, introduction, and 30 articles. These are all retained in this lay version which closely follows the…
Background to the debate The humanrights responsibilities of drug companies have been considered for years by nongovernmental organizations, but were most sharply defined in a report by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health, submitted to the United Nations General Assembly in August 2008. The “HumanRights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines” include responsibilities for transparency, management, monitoring and accountability, pricing, and ethical marketing, and against lobbying for more protection in intellectual property laws, applying for patents for trivial modifications of existing medicines, inappropriate drug promotion, and excessive pricing. Two years after the release of the Guidelines, the PLoS Medicine Debate asks whether drug companies are living up to their humanrights responsibilities. Sofia Gruskin and Zyde Raad from the Harvard School of Public Health say more assessment is needed of such responsibilities; Geralyn Ritter, Vice President of Global Public Policy and Corporate Responsibility at Merck & Co. argues that multiple stakeholders could do more to help States deliver the right to health; and Paul Hunt and Rajat Khosla introduce Mr. Hunt's work as the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, regarding the humanrights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies and access to medicines.
Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires stronger enforcement of existing laws and regulations, as well as accountability of local authorities charged with upholding environmental regulations. In this context, restrictions on such rights as freedom of expression, assembly, and political participation have direct consequences on the realization of the right to health. PMID:23568949
The situation and humanrights of people living with HIV and AIDS were explored through focus groups in five African countries (Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania). A descriptive qualitative research design was used. The 251 informants were people living with HIV and AIDS, and nurse managers and nurse clinicians from urban and rural settings. NVivo software was used to identify specific incidents related to humanrights, which were compared with the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. The findings revealed that the humanrights of people living with HIV and AIDS were violated in a variety of ways, including denial of access to adequate or no health care/services, and denial of home care, termination or refusal of employment, and denial of the right to earn an income, produce food or obtain loans. The informants living with HIV and AIDS were also abused verbally and physically. Country governments and health professionals need to address these issues to ensure the humanrights of all people. PMID:16838571
In the recent past, biomedical research has been repeatedly promoted on the grounds that it will lead to novel cures. Future remedies have been proposed and propagated by diverse actors such as scientists, the media and patient representatives. Proposals for novel therapies based on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have framed the initiation, reception, and implementation of novel research in
BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health.
Isabel Goicolea; Marianne Wulff; Miguel San Sebastian; Ann Öhman
Noncriminal DNA databases may serve a societal role in identifying victims of crime and human trafficking. However, how do we safeguard personal privacy of innocent victims and family members? PMID:23706944
This paper argues against a trend of humanrights education, where humanrights are taught in the form of citizenship education. In my view, citizenship education and humanrights education cannot be taken as replaceable for each other. Underpinning the idea of citizenship is a distinction between "politically qualified" and "politically…
In recognition of the profound benefits of children's engagement with their rights, this article presents an experiential account of how Bolivian adolescent indigenous girls discover, articulate, experience, and advocate humanrights. This study explores adolescent girls' demonstrations of empowerment, agency, resistance, and solidarity as part of their initiatives within non-governmentally based humanrights workshops. By featuring their voices, this study
his article seeks to define control of malaria a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by parasites from the Plasmodium family as a humanrights priority. Unlike infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or tuberculosis (TB), malaria has not been asso- ciated with systematic discrimination against individuals or groups assumed to be at high risk of infection. The his- tory of
This special issue centers around the theme of education for peace and humanrights. It contains materials concerning the practice of adult education in the Asian-South Pacific region. The journal contains 15 papers. The following papers provide regional perspectives: "Learning to Live in Harmony and Diversity" (editorial) (Rajesh Tandon); "Human…
Human-rights education can be realized in the science classroom. Taught from a critical postmodern perspective, science can serve the interest of social justice while embracing a teaching dialectic fostering critical social consciousness. First, science educators must examine scientific theory's role in promoting both human welfare and injustice.…
Designed to assist secondary school social studies, English, and humanities teachers as they teach about the Nazi Holocaust, the second of two volumes serves as a continuing introduction to the concept of humanrights. Building on the first volume, which dealt with the roots of intolerance and persecution and precursors of the Holocaust, this…
Designed to assist secondary school social studies, English, and humanities teachers as they teach about the Nazi Holocaust, the first of two volumes serves as an introduction to the concept of humanrights. Divided into a rationale and two units, each unit includes a statement of purpose, a list of objectives, and a group of learning activities…
The preparation of students for global citizenship represents a central challenge to social studies educators in the twenty-first century. Two-thirds of the world's poor are steeped in abject poverty and its grim consequences. The world refugee problem has reached staggering proportions. There is an international epidemic of human trafficking, and…
Denial of humanrights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT) centers assesses (a) the extent to which these women have experienced humanrights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b) whether there are specific risk factors for humanrights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91%) reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50%) experienced at least one humanrights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for humanrights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one’s own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed.
This session has been organized to remedy the possibility that many APS members do not fully appreciate how important and praiseworthy a role scientists in general, and physicists in particular, have played in the defense of humanrights worldwide. The preceding talks in this session have described the efforts, often at great personal risk, of physicists and other scientists residing in a few selected oppressive states (namely China, the former Soviet Union, and Iran), to defend their and their fellow citizens' humanrights. The preceding talks also have made reference to the frequently crucial support these embattled foreign scientists have received from scientists in the United States; the ready availability of such support is another important aspect of the scientific community's dedication to humanrights. In this talk I shall concentrate on the support activities of this sort undertaken by the U.S. physics community through the APS, via the APS Committee on the International Freedom of Scientists (CIFS), of which activities the U.S. physics community can be justly proud. More specifically, I will review the history of CIFS since its formation, including details of its more noteworthy efforts on behalf of humanrights. I also will very briefly summarize the important humanrights efforts undertaken independently of the APS by several other organizations of American scientists, e.g. (to name just two), the Committee of Concerned Scientists (CCS) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science AAAS).
We compared contractile performance in trabeculae carneae (n=25) from non-failing right and left ventricles (n=25) of brain dead organ donors without known cardiovascular disease and measured connective tissue content in trabeculae carneae from both non-failing and failing human hearts. Peak twitch force and time-course of contraction were not different between muscles taken from right or left ventricles. Peak twitch force
E. J. Grover; J. P. Morgan; B. S. Stambler; J. K. Gwathmey
The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross humanrights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states' obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross humanrights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals. PMID:23671765
While associations between number and space, in the form of a spatially oriented numerical representation, have been extensively reported in human adults, the origins of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. The commonly accepted view is that this number-space association is a product of human invention, with accounts proposing that culture, symbolic knowledge, and mathematics education are at the roots of this phenomenon. Here we show that preverbal infants aged 7 months, who lack symbolic knowledge and mathematics education, show a preference for increasing magnitude displayed in a left-to-right spatial orientation. Infants habituated to left-to-right oriented increasing or decreasing numerical sequences showed an overall higher looking time to new left-to-right oriented increasing numerical sequences at test (Experiment 1). This pattern did not hold when infants were presented with the same ordinal numerical information displayed from right to left (Experiment 2). The different pattern of results was congruent with the presence of a malleable, context-dependent baseline preference for increasing, left-to-right oriented, numerosities (Experiment 3). These findings are suggestive of an early predisposition in humans to link numerical order with a left-to-right spatial orientation, which precedes the acquisition of symbolic abilities, mathematics education, and the acquisition of reading and writing skills.
de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Girelli, Luisa; Addabbo, Margaret; Macchi Cassia, Viola
This article explores the legal implications of a scientific fantasy: the fantasy of building artificial wombs that could gestate a human child from conception. It takes as its touchstone a claim by sociologist Barbara Katz Rothman, who writes, “Every human child has a right to a human mother.”\\u000aWhile the article discusses the legal principles that would apply to artificial
du Abstract. In this paper, we present a multimodal discourse ontology that serves as a knowledge representation and annotation framework for the discourse understanding component of an artificial personal office assistant. The ontology models components of natural language, mul- timodal communication, multi-party dialogue structure, meeting struc- ture, and the physical and temporal aspects of human communication. We compare our models
In this paper, we present a multimodal discourse ontology that serves as a knowledge representation and annotation framework for the discourse understanding component of an artificial personal oce assistant. The ontology models components of natural language, mul- timodal communication, multi-party dialogue structure, meeting struc- ture, and the physical and temporal aspects of human communication. We compare our models to those
The third planning workshop of the Human Genome Diversity Project was held on the campus of the US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from February 16 through February 18, 1993. The second day of the workshop was devoted to an exploration of the ethical and human-rights implications of the Project. This open meeting centered on three roundtables, involving 12 invited participants, and the resulting discussions among all those present. Attendees and their affiliations are listed in the attached Appendix A. The discussion was guided by a schedule and list of possible issues, distributed to all present and attached as Appendix B. This is a relatively complete, and thus lengthy, summary of the comments at the meeting. The beginning of the summary sets out as conclusions some issues on which there appeared to be widespread agreement, but those conclusions are not intended to serve as a set of detailed recommendations. The meeting organizer is distributing his recommendations in a separate memorandum; recommendations from others who attended the meeting are welcome and will be distributed by the meeting organizer to the participants and to the Project committee.
Australia has been a global leader in balancing public health law, humanrights and HIV. The first National HIV/AIDS Strategy launched in 1989 set the agenda for law reform. The Intergovernmental Committee on AIDS subsequently established a legal working party with one of its key tasks to formulate public health legislation that would protect public health and humanrights. The NSW Public Health Act 1991 has provided the framework for managing HIV in NSW over the subsequent decades. Recent changes to criminal law in NSW and opportunities to redefine public health law may affect how HIV transmission risks are managed in the future. PMID:20513311
The human heart is composed of a helical network of musclefibers. Anisotropic least squares filtering followed by fiber trackingtechniques were applied to Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging(DTMRI) data of the excised human heart. The fiber configuration wasvisualized by using thin tubes to increase 3-dimensional visualperception of the complex structure. All visualizations were performedusing the high-quality ray-tracing software POV-Ray. The fibers are shownwithin the left and right ventricles. Both ventricles exhibit similarfiber architecture and some bundles of fibers are shown linking right andleft ventricles on the posterior region of the heart.
Rohmer, Damien; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gullberg, Grant T.
This paper is about the conceptual design of the IT support for humanrights watching, police transparency and police performance evaluation. Firstly we understand that humanrights are rights that humans have by the fact of being human, and which are neither created nor can be abrogated by any governmental institution. These include cultural, economic, and political rights, such as
Narayan Debnath; Roberto Uzal; German Montejano; Daniel Riesco
Religious communities have been a challenge to HIV prevention globally. Focusing on the acceptability component of the right to health, this intervention study examined how local Catholic, Evangelical and Afro-Brazilian religious communities can collaborate to foster young people’s sexual health and ensure their access to comprehensive HIV prevention in their communities in Brazil. This article describes the process of a three-stage sexual health promotion and HIV prevention initiative that used a multicultural humanrights approach to intervention. Methods included 27 in-depth interviews with religious authorities on sexuality, AIDS prevention and humanrights, and training 18 young people as research-agents, who surveyed 177 youth on the same issues using self-administered questionnaires. The results, analysed using a rights-based perspective on health and the vulnerability framework, were discussed in daylong interfaith workshops. Emblematic of the collaborative process, workshops are the focus of the analysis. Our findings suggest that this humanrights framework is effective in increasing inter-religious tolerance and in providing a collective understanding of the sexuality and prevention needs of youth from different religious communities, and also serves as a platform for the expansion of state AIDS programmes based on laical principles.
The practice of conscientious objection by healthcare workers is growing across the globe. It is most common in reproductive healthcare settings because of the religious or moral values placed on beliefs as to when life begins. It is often invoked in the context of abortion and contraceptive services, including the provision of information related to such services. Few states adequately regulate the practice, leading to denial of access to lawful reproductive healthcare services and violations of fundamental humanrights. International ethical, health, and humanrights standards have recently attempted to address these challenges by harmonizing the practice of conscientious objection with women's right to sexual and reproductive health services. FIGO ethical standards have had an important role in influencing humanrights development in this area. They consider regulation of the unfettered use of conscientious objection essential to the realization of sexual and reproductive rights. Under international humanrights law, states have a positive obligation to act in this regard. While ethical and humanrights standards regarding this issue are growing, they do not yet exhaustively cover all the situations in which women's health and humanrights are in jeopardy because of the practice. The present article sets forth existing ethical and humanrights standards on the issue and illustrates the need for further development and clarity on balancing these rights and interests. PMID:24332237
A harm reduction and humanrights approach, grounded in the principles of neutrality, humanism, and pragmatism, supports women's access to information on the safer self- use of misoprostol in diverse legal settings. Neutrality refers to a focus on the risks and harms of abortion rather than its legal or moral status. Humanism refers to the entitlement of all women to care and concern for their lives and health, to be treated with respect, worth, and dignity, and to the empowerment of women to participate in decision-making and political action. Pragmatism accepts the historical reality that women will engage in unsafe abortion, including self-induction, while addressing factors that render them vulnerable to this reality, and requires assessment of interventions to reduce abortion-related harms on evidence of their real rather than intended effect. Criminal law reform is a necessary conclusion to a harm reduction and humanrights approach. PMID:22608022
With almost universal ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the growing number of States Parties that have signed or ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the majority of countries in the world have now committed to implementing the humanrights articulated in these treaties. In this article,…
The greatest promise of international humanrights law is in stimulating thoughtful self-examination by those who strive to do what is right. Perhaps more than any other instrument, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC; 1989) offers the opportunity to use a global moral consensus to transform life at the neighborhood level in order to…
“We have humanrights not because we are nice or because we are white or because we are Christian but because we are human.” [Julian Burnside QC]Over 100 graduates and staff attended The University of Notre Dame Australia’s annual Alumni reunion and listened to prominent lawyer and activist, Julian Burnside AO QC, talk about his views on Australia’s lack of
The overwhelming majority of humanrights violations in Turkey from 1984 to 1999 was directly linked to the Kurdish issue, and especially to the war between Turkish state forces and the guerrilla Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), which began in 1984 and officially ended in 1999. According to most common estimates, 1 more than 37,000 people died in the war. More
Although studies involving linguistic humanrights (LHRs) have focused at length on cases of inter-language discrimination, much less attention has been given to intra-language discrimination (Blommaert 2001a; Skutnabb-Kangas et al. 2001). This paper highlights a number of theoretical issues that the LHRs framework needs to deal with once…
This article profiles Sarah Winnemucca, a Native educator and dedicated humanrights advocate who devoted her life to building communication and creating understanding between the Native and white cultures. On March 1, 2005, Congressman Jon Porter of Nevada addressed Congress on a bill to allow for the placement of a statue of Sarah Winnemucca…
Globalization has made humanrights both increasingly important as the normative standards that seek to shape the diverse religious, cultural, political, and economic interactions of the world, and also increasingly controversial in the face of the realities of cultural diversity and economic inequality. Over the past half century, hopes that…
WTO rules routinely are linked to the inability of nations to make meaningful progress in sharpening environmental and other humanrights protections, for example, the failure of the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development to usher in any new treaties despite the bright promise of the Rio Earth Summit of the previous decade. The common brief of environmental, medical,
In the past two decades, humanrights has been a principal area of U.S. concern regarding the People's Republic of China (PRC), along with security and bilateral trade. Some U.S. leaders argue that U.S. policies of engagement with China, particularly sinc...
Humanrights has been a principal area of U.S. concern in its relations with the People's Republic of China (PRC), particularly since the violent government crackdown on the Tiananmen democracy movement in 1989. Some policy makers contend that the U.S. po...
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials evaluating interventions for infectious diseases require enrolling participants that are vulnerable to infection. As clinical trials are conducted in increasingly vulnerable populations, issues of protection of these populations become challenging. In settings where populations are forseeably oppressed, the conduct of research requires considerations that go beyond common ethical concerns and into issues of international humanrights law.
This paper is a case study of the repression practised in Chile under the military dictatorship between 1973 and 1990. It outlines the psycho?dynamic mechanisms of terror and of the struggle against it. It raises critically the issue of impunity (officially declared amnesty for humanrights violations) and its consequences for the sense of justice in a process of transition
In response to the task of designing curriculum that helps youth engage thoughtfully with digital stories of humanrights violations, the authors articulate the central tenets of a pedagogy of listening that draws upon elements of oral history, concepts of witnessing and testimony, the work on listening of Dewey, Freire and Rinaldi and the…
Despite its commonality rape in war has long been an invisible war crime. Gender-based violence has escaped sanction because it has been shielded into the private sphere. Although rape in war is a form of public violence committed by soldiers representing a state it continues to be conceived as a private crime, committed by individual men. If women's humanrights
This study examines children's images in constitutions and/or amendments as articulated in the Convention on the Rights of the Child while they intersect with the three dimensions of the Human Development Index (HDI) of 2008: life expectancy, educational index, and GDP. The connection between the images of the child and the fulfillment of the…
Habashi, Janette; Wright, Lynne; Hathcoat, John D.
The evolution of humanrights and the world women's movement have combined for the first time to place rape as an instrument of war on the agenda of international politics. Rape in war has been regarded as an incidental, accidental and individual violatio...
This article reviews the moral dilemmas that a teacher faces in the classroom when teaching recent history which deals with military regimes, violation of humanrights (1973-1990) and the transition to democracy in Chile (1990-2008). Furthermore, it explores the neutrality of the content taught; the ideological standpoints of the teachers and the…
This report documents the many ways the United States worked in 2006 to foster respect for humanrights and promote democracy worldwide. President Bush has committed us to conduct a foreign policy rooted in freedom, and he has identified the advancement o...
This article addresses the dilemmas emerging from efforts to integrate humanrights values within a peace education programme being carried out in a conflict situation. Although the article is largely theoretical, it is grounded in the author's reflections on a series of teacher workshops and his overall experiences conducting ethnographic…
Most studies posit and identify a linear and negative relationship between democracy and the violation of humanrights. Some research challenges this finding, however, suggesting that nonlinear influences exist. Within this article, we examine the structure of the relationship between democracy and repression during the time period from 1976 to 1996. To conduct our analysis, we utilize diverse statistical approaches
The author asks to what extent peace and human-rights education programs for Israeli and Palestinian children have fostered peaceful solutions to the differences between the Israeli and Palestinian people. He concludes that the programs are very limited and have made little impact in reversing the long educational legacy of mutual distrust and…
Although interest in the consolidation and expansion of the international humanrights regime has grown in recent years, little attention is accorded to the formal procedures that allow individuals aggrieved by states to appeal directly to an international audience. Using data for 82 countries between 1976 and 1999, this article examines the…
BackgroundHealth indicators are poor and humanrights violations are widespread in eastern Burma. Reproductive and maternal health indicators have not been measured in this setting but are necessary as part of an evaluation of a multi-ethnic pilot project exploring strategies to increase access to essential maternal health interventions. The goal of this study is to estimate coverage of maternal health
Luke C. Mullany; Catherine I. Lee; Lin Yone; Palae Paw; Eh Kalu Shwe Oo; Cynthia Maung; Thomas J. Lee; Chris Beyrer
Whether globalization improves or undermines humanrights is not a matter that can be observed in the short term. Globalization is the second “great transformation” spreading capitalism over the entire world. Many of its short-term effects will be negative. Nevertheless, its medium and long-term effects may well be positive, as it impels social changes that will result in greater moves
Provides a concise overview of Canada's many provincial and federal humanrights codes. The codes address issues of discrimination and harassment based on race, religion, creed, color, national origin, and/or gender. Discusses the commissions that oversee these codes and gives examples of specific provisions. (MJP)
Using the writings of the late social psychologist Ignacio Martín-Baró and other Latin American and Latino social scientists as a framework, this article examines the issue of domestic violence from a humanrights perspective. As suggested by these writers, the antecedents, dynamics, and effects of domestic abuse are explored, bringing to bear the historical, philosophical, cultural, social, spiritual, and political
William Tolley, a teaching fellow with the Choices Program, is the Learning and Innovation Coach and head of history at the International School of Curitiba, Brazil (IB). He writes in this article that he has found that the "Competing Visions of HumanRights" teaching unit, developed by Brown University's Choices Program, provides a…
The article explores the relationship of multiculturalism to social solidarity. The multicultural nature of Britain is accepted as a welcome reality but certain problems in relation to the development of multiculturalism in Britain are acknowledged. Various approaches to buttress or replace multiculturalism are reviewed. These are: a strengthened and\\/or reconstituted nationalism (`Britishness'); humanrights; and social equality. The issue of
The British government has proposed a new Mental Health Act, which incorporates detention for 'dangerous severe personality disorder' (DSPD), but is nevertheless to be 'fully compatible' with the European Convention on the HumanRights Act. A very broad interpretation had indeed been given by the European Court to the key phrase 'persons of unsound mind', in the landmark case of
This lay version of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (the original version was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948) has been written in simplified vocabulary to make it understandable to a wider range of ages and reading abilities. The declaration consists of a preamble followed by a listing of 30 goals common to…
Nagorik Uddyog (Citizen's Initiative) is a non-profit, non-governmental Bangladeshi organization focused on empowering women at the grassroots level through humanrights education. Although women constitute half of the total population of Bangladesh, their participation in social, cultural, and political activities is limited. Recently,…
While some aspects of the “waterboarding” debate are largely political, the practice also implicates deeply normative underpinnings of humanrights and law. Attorney General Michael Mukasey has steadfastly declined to declare waterboarding illegal or to launch an investigation into past waterboarding. His equivocations have generated anguished controversy because they raise a fundamental question: should we balance “heinousness and cruelty” against
This article presents data collected at the level of practice to highlight one non-governmental organization's approach to humanrights education and how household-, school-, and community-level factors mediated student impact. Findings suggest that a variety of factors at the three levels contribute to the program's successful implementation in…
This report examines how and why Australia's HumanRights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act (1986) and the Racial Discrimination Act (1975) produced changes in the provision of education services by Queensland and New South Wales for residents of Toomelah. Toomelah is an economically and educationally disadvantaged Aboriginal community in upper…
The aim of this study is to conduct an exploratory baseline survey of West Bank students to assess student attitudes and practices towards HumanRights and Democracy (HDR). To achieve the goal of this research, a survey of 3450 youth was conducted that included students from the 8th, 10th and 12th grades throughout the West Bank. The specific…
The question of what are today the legitimate and proper role and purposes of public schools can only be answered by a close examination and analysis of the humanright to education which has been developed by such international organizations as the United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and by…
This article analyzes the 2008 HumanRights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines advanced by then-UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health, Paul Hunt, in light of the Ruggie Principles. It concludes that some guidelines relate directly to the industry's responsibility to respect the right to access to medicines, and form a normative baseline to which firms should be held accountable. It also finds that responsibility for other guidelines may better be ascribed to states than to private actors, based on conceptual and practical considerations. While not discouraging the pharmaceutical industry from making additional contributions to fulfilling the right to health, this analysis concludes that greater attention is merited to ensure that, first and foremost, the industry demonstrates baseline respect for the right to access to medicines. PMID:25006088
A brief, vivid portrait of the humanrights conditions for women in Asia was presented: "kapit sa patalim" or utter despair, urban migration, export processing zones, tourism and prostitution, political repression, and military sexual slavery. Advocates of women's humanrights for Asian women must contend with patriarchal and male-dominated systems that oppress and exploit women to a much greater extent than men. Liberation from these systems and the domination and exploitation by wealthier nations must be a goal of a new economic world order. Unjust and repressive structures must be destroyed, and equitable distribution of wealth and democracy and popular initiatives promoted. The status of women must be raised to coequal status with men. The most important objective of humanrights advocates should be the empowerment of women at the individual, community, national, regional, and international level. The Asian Women's HumanRights Council was established as an addition to 3 already operating regional commissions of women's organizations. The aim was not just to describe women as victims, but to pressure development activity to account for women's humanrights. Sex tribunals have been scheduled between 1993 and 1994 to address the following issues: 1) sex trafficking (Japan, May 1993); 2) violence against women (Pakistan, December 1993); 3) militarism, environment, and violence against women (Korea, March 1994); 4) crimes of development against women in Asia (India); 5) religion and violence against women (Malaysia, 1994); and 6) indigenous women (December 1994). Women were victims when Filipino domestic workers were stranded and raped in Iraq during the chaos of war, when girls from landless peasant families migrated near Clark Air Force Base to earn a living as prostitutes for US servicemen, when women were forced to work 36-hour shifts in foreign-owned garment factories in Bataan, when women migrated for work, and when women were abused and battered in Bangladesh and India. Many other examples of abuse were indicated in the discussion. PMID:12345217
Background Given that many low income countries are heavily reliant on external assistance to fund their health sectors the acceptance of obligations of international assistance and cooperation with regard to the right to health (global health obligations) is insufficiently understood and studied by international health and humanrights scholars. Over the past decade Global Health Initiatives, like the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) have adopted novel approaches to engaging with stakeholders in high and low income countries. This article explores how this experience impacted on acceptance of the international obligation to (help) fulfil the right to health beyond borders. Methods The authors conducted an extensive review of international humanrights law literature, transnational legal process literature, global public health literature and grey literature pertaining to Global Health Initiatives. To complement this desk work and deepen their understanding of how and why different legal norms evolve the authors conducted 19 in-depth key informant interviews with actors engaged with three stakeholders; the European Union, the United States and Belgium. The authors then analysed the interviews through a transnational legal process lens. Results Through according value to the process of examining how and why different legal norms evolve transnational legal process offers us a tool for engaging with the dynamism of developments in global health suggesting that operationalising global health obligations could advance the right to health for all. Conclusions In many low-income countries the health sector is heavily dependent on external assistance to fulfil the right to health of people thus it is vital that policies and tools for delivering reliable, long-term assistance are developed so that the right to health for all becomes more than a dream. Our research suggests that the Global Fund experience offers lessons to build on.
For nearly two decades the term sexual rights has been increasingly used in multiple disciplines, including family planning, public health, and sexology, as well as in advocacy campaigns for groups working to expand sexual health services and to promote nondiscrimination policies for those with nonnormative sexual or gender identities. International organizations such as the World Health Organization, the World Association of Sexual Health, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation have all presented lists of sexual rights and given arguments for why sexual rights are humanrights. Nevertheless, I argue that a comprehensive understanding of human/sexual rights is lacking not only by many in sexuality fields but also by the vast majority of the general public. I agree with those who stress that applications of sexual rights are often not straightforward; rather they involve complexities and critical analyses of multiple areas. In this article, I discuss principles of humanrights and rights-based approaches to sexual health policies, describe conceptualizations of sexual rights, and present views about controversies and advantages of using sexual rights frameworks. My aim is to promote an understanding of discourses about and applications of sexual rights. Such understanding can be a starting point for those who want to integrate rights principles into their work. PMID:23480078
Daniel Meyer, Président de la ligue française de défense de droits de l'homme et du citoyen fait un exposé sur son engagement (politique). Dans la deuxième partie, une avocate brésilienne (en exil)donne un témoignage de la violation des droits de l'homme sous la dictature militaire de son pays; elle a défendu pendant 6 ans des prisonniers politiques.
We are pleased to provide the July 2012 edition of the Curriculum and Resource Guide for "The World As It Could Be" HumanRights Education Program. This program, is an outgrowth of a series of successful initiatives carried out since 2006 to educate and inspire youth and adults to further humanrights for all people and have greater understanding…
Categorizing certain gender identities as mental illness or disorder undermines humanrights. The diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder has contributed to stigma and bias against gender-variant people and to the restriction of their human and civil rights; however, in some cases, it has also facilitated validation and availability of necessary treatment. Although there was some disagreement within the work group
Jamison Green; Sharon McGowan; Jennifer Levi; Rachael Wallbank; Stephen Whittle
In post-Katrina New Orleans, housing and community development (HCD) advocates clashed over the future of public housing. This case study examines the evolution of and limits to a humanright to housing frame introduced by one non-governmental organization (NGO). Ferree's concept of the discursive opportunity structure and Bourdieu's social field ground this NGO's failure to advance aradical economic humanrights
My professional interest originally focused on curriculum planning and development, but for the last 30 years I have been researching, publishing and teaching in the field of humanrights education. Suddenly, I became a humanrights educator. Suddenly? No, nothing in our personal and professional life is the result of an abrupt occurrence. We are…
BACKGROUND: Humanrights violations have adverse consequences for health. However, to date, there remains little empirical evidence documenting this association, beyond the obvious physical and psychological effects of torture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether Australian asylum policies and practices, which arguably violate humanrights, are associated with adverse health outcomes. METHODS: We designed a mixed
Vanessa Johnston; Pascale Allotey; Kim Mulholland; Milica Markovic
Mary Robinson, former President of Ireland and the newly appointed United Nations High Commissioner for HumanRights was interviewed by correspondents from ten regional and international radio networks on five continents on a wide range of humanrights issues. This site contains a transcript of the September 26, 1997 interview.
This paper examines the discourses that dominate thinking about assessment in mathematics education; that is, to analyze the sets of constructs, assumptions, and values that underpin research, curriculum development, and teacher education with regard to assessment. Dominant discourses within mathematics education are analyzed and the social…
A critic of Deborah Tannen's book "Gender and Discourse" responds to comments made about her critique, arguing that the book's analysis of the relationship of gender and discourse tends to seek, and perhaps force, explanations only in those terms. Another linguist's analysis of similar phenomena is found to be more rigorous. (MSE)
The HIV/AIDS field is addressing how legal and policy restrictions affect access to health promotion and care, e.g., in relation to criminalization of HIV transmission, drug use and sex work. Work to address the reproductive rights of women living with HIV, particularly regarding unwanted pregnancy and abortion, has nevertheless lagged behind, despite its potential to contribute to broader advocacy for access to comprehensive reproductive health information and services for all women. It is in that context that this paper examines abortion in relation to the rights of women and girls living with HIV. The paper first presents findings from recent research on HIV-positive women's reasons for seeking abortions and experiences with abortion-related care. This is followed by a discussion of abortion in relation to humanrights and how this has been both addressed and neglected in policy and guidance related to the reproductive health of women living with HIV. The concluding remarks offer recommendations for expanding efforts to provide comprehensive, humanrights-based sexual and reproductive health care to women living with HIV by including abortion-related information and services. PMID:23177682
In October 2005, UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and HumanRights. This was the culmination of nearly 2 years of deliberations and negotiations. As a non-binding instrument, the declaration\\u000a must be incorporated by UNESCO’s member states into their national laws, regulations or policies in order to take effect.\\u000a Based on documentary
Conclusions Taken as a whole, these articles build a strong scientific and humanrights case against AOE. Together, they find that the\\u000a very idea of an abstinence-only approach to sexuality education is scientifically and ethically flawed. Such programs reflect\\u000a a religious and cultural belief system of socially conservative groups who have attained considerable political leverage at\\u000a both state and federal levels.
Continuation of the brisk pace of international economic growth with its necessarily increased use of natural resources—often at unsustainable levels—and its higher levels of pollution—often at the cost of citizen health—combine with the rules of the global trading system to threaten humanrights to health, to freedom from forced or child labor, to non-discrimination, to a fair wage, to a
Continuation of the brisk pace of international economic growth with its necessarily increased use of natural resources—often at unsustainable levels—and its higher levels of pollution—often at the cost of citizen health—combine with the rules of the global trading system to threaten humanrights to health, to freedom from forced or child labor, to non-discrimination, to a fair wage, to a
This is a comprehensive, well-presented, carefully-researched study on humanrights effects of structural adjustment programs (SAPs) conducted by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF). The study stands out as one of the first large-N, systematic quantitative studies in book form that employs multivariate models to test an issue that has thus far been dominated by case studies. The
Background: Humanrights violations among the people with mental illness were not an uncommon occurrence. The present study was aimed to compare persons with psychiatric illness and their caregivers’ perceptions regarding the humanrights status of people with mental illness in the community. Materials and Methods: A descriptive design was carried out among randomly selected asymptomatic psychiatric patients and their caregivers (N=200) at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview, using a structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed and interpreted using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Our findings revealed that the caregivers than psychiatric patients perceived negatively to the statements i.e., ‘Receiving equal information and encouragement about career opportunities’ (?2=10.779, P<0.029), ‘Opposing discriminatory actions, slurs’ (?2=9.472, P<0.050) ‘Resolving the conflicts with people with mental illness through nonviolent ways’ (?2=27.091, P<0.000), ‘Responding to the complaints of harassment or discrimination against the people with mental illness’ (?2=18.697, P<0.001), ‘Encouraged to continue their education’ (?2=13.029, P<0.023) ‘Exploitation by the community members’ (?2=18.653, P<0.001) and working under fair conditions (?2=13.470, P<0.009). Conclusion: The study suggests that there is an urgent need to take necessary steps to protect, promote, and fulfill humanrights of people with mental illness through providing care, educating the community, and strengthening the legislations.
Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Reddemma, Konduru; Math, Suresh Bada
Abstract The health of prisoners is among the poorest of any population group and the apparent inequalities pose both a challenge and an opportunity for country health systems. The high rates of imprisonment in many countries, the resulting overcrowding, characteristics of prison populations and the disproportionate prevalence of health problems in prison should make prison health a matter of public health importance. Women prisoners constitute a minority within all prison systems and their special health needs are frequently neglected. The urgent need to review current services is clear from research, expert opinion and experience from countries worldwide. Current provision of health care to imprisoned women fails to meet their needs and is, in too many cases, far short of what is required by humanrights and international recommendations. The evidence includes a lack of gender sensitivity in policies and practices in prisons, violations of women’s humanrights and failure to accept that imprisoned women have more and different health-care needs compared with male prisoners, often related to reproductive health issues, mental health problems, drug dependencies and histories of violence and abuse. Additional needs stem from their frequent status as a mother and usually the primary carer for her children. National governments, policy-makers and prison management need to address gender insensitivity and social injustice in prisons. There are immediate steps which could be taken to deal with public health neglect, abuses of humanrights and failures in gender sensitivity.
Occasions when public health practitioners engage in professional learning increasingly involve them in encounters with (a) concepts that originate from unfamiliar disciplines and that may be multidisciplinary, complex and sometimes contested, (b) colleagues who have different discipline and profession backgrounds, and (c) modes of learning and teaching that are unfamiliar. While these factors can enhance both the processes and products of learning, they can also present significant challenges when those learning occasions are designed and facilitated. Drawing on our own reflected-on experience of working in such contexts and a body of related literature, we elaborate on these interrelated challenges and propose three strategies that can help address them. The strategies entail encouragement and support for establishing common commitments and values, perspective-taking and self-reflexivity, conversation and storytelling. Specific examples of challenges and strategies are derived, in particular, from a learning agenda associated with the mainstreaming of a humanrights approach to public health. That agenda requires practitioners to understand the concept of humanrights, appreciate its relevance for public health work and be capable of integrating a humanright perspective into their day-to-day work. PMID:18038293
We developed an index to measure progressive realization for the humanright to water and sanitation. While in this study we demonstrate its application to the non-discrimination and equality component for water, the conceptual approach of the index can be used for all the different components of the humanright. The index was composed of one structural, one process, and two outcome indicators and is bound between -1 and 1, where negative values indicate regression and positive values indicate progressive realization. For individual structural and process indicators, only discrete values such as -1, -0.5, 0, 0.5, and 1 were allowed. For the outcome indicators, any value between -1 and 1 was possible, and a State's progress was evaluated using rates of change. To create an index that would allow for fair comparisons between States and across time, these rates of change were compared to benchmarked rates, which reflect the maximum rates a State can achieve. Using this approach, we calculated the index score for 56 States in 2010 for which adequate data were available and demonstrated that these index scores were not dependent on factors such as achieved level of coverage or gross national income. The proposed index differs from existing measures of inequality as it measures rate of change and not level of achievement, and thus addresses the principle of progressive realization that is fundamental to humanrights. PMID:23333082
The pervasive use of girls as soldiers for sexual and domestic purposes is a common global phenomenon. From a public health perspective, the impact of sexual violence on the mental and physical health and development of these girls is profoundly different from that experienced by boys and adult women in armed conflict. Humanrights frameworks — restricted to either women
How do slaves acquire information about their customary and legal rights and how does that knowledge impel them to action? This article explores the discourses that developed from the experiences of a diaspora of slaves taken from disparate parts of Asia and Africa as well as creole slaves born at the Cape. A range of factors from geographical origin, legal
Background Health indicators are poor and humanrights violations are widespread in eastern Burma. Reproductive and maternal health indicators have not been measured in this setting but are necessary as part of an evaluation of a multi-ethnic pilot project exploring strategies to increase access to essential maternal health interventions. The goal of this study is to estimate coverage of maternal health services prior to this project and associations between exposure to humanrights violations and access to such services. Methods and Findings Selected communities in the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions of eastern Burma that were accessible to community-based organizations operating from Thailand were surveyed to estimate coverage of reproductive, maternal, and family planning services, and to assess exposure to household-level humanrights violations within the pilot-project target population. Two-stage cluster sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15–45 y) documented access to essential antenatal care interventions, skilled attendance at birth, postnatal care, and family planning services. Mid-upper arm circumference, hemoglobin by color scale, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia by rapid diagnostic dipstick were measured. Exposure to humanrights violations in the prior 12 mo was recorded. Between September 2006 and January 2007, 2,914 surveys were conducted. Eighty-eight percent of women reported a home delivery for their last pregnancy (within previous 5 y). Skilled attendance at birth (5.1%), any (39.3%) or ? 4 (16.7%) antenatal visits, use of an insecticide-treated bed net (21.6%), and receipt of iron supplements (11.8%) were low. At the time of the survey, more than 60% of women had hemoglobin level estimates ? 11.0 g/dl and 7.2% were Pf positive. Unmet need for contraceptives exceeded 60%. Violations of rights were widely reported: 32.1% of Karenni households reported forced labor and 10% of Karen households had been forced to move. Among Karen households, odds of anemia were 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95–2.40) times higher among women reporting forced displacement, and 7.47 (95% CI 2.21–25.3) higher among those exposed to food security violations. The odds of receiving no antenatal care services were 5.94 (95% CI 2.23–15.8) times higher among those forcibly displaced. Conclusions Coverage of basic maternal health interventions is woefully inadequate in these selected populations and substantially lower than even the national estimates for Burma, among the lowest in the region. Considerable political, financial, and human resources are necessary to improve access to maternal health care in these communities.
Mullany, Luke C; Lee, Catherine I; Yone, Lin; Paw, Palae; Oo, Eh Kalu Shwe; Maung, Cynthia; Lee, Thomas J; Beyrer, Chris
Fostering data sharing is a scientific and ethical imperative. Health gains can be achieved more comprehensively and quickly by combining large, information-rich datasets from across conventionally siloed disciplines and geographic areas. While collaboration for data sharing is increasingly embraced by policymakers and the international biomedical community, we lack a common ethical and legal framework to connect regulators, funders, consortia, and research projects so as to facilitate genomic and clinical data linkage, global science collaboration, and responsible research conduct. Governance tools can be used to responsibly steer the sharing of data for proper stewardship of research discovery, genomics research resources, and their clinical applications. In this article, we propose that an international code of conduct be designed to enable global genomic and clinical data sharing for biomedical research. To give this proposed code universal application and accountability, however, we propose to position it within a humanrights framework. This proposition is not without precedent: international treaties have long recognized that everyone has a right to the benefits of scientific progress and its applications, and a right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from scientific productions. It is time to apply these twin rights to internationally collaborative genomic and clinical data sharing. PMID:24573176
Knoppers, Bartha M; Harris, Jennifer R; Budin-Ljøsne, Isabelle; Dove, Edward S
Across the United States, laws, policies, and practices put women living with HIV in jeopardy. In particular, the dignity, health, and well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV as well as the health and well-being of their families and communities is hampered by punitive laws and policies. Laws and policies that do not meet, or worse, criminalize women's sexual and reproductive rights result in the economic, social and political deprivation of marginalized women and girls-and especially those living with and at risk of HIV. These laws and policies exacerbate an already outsized HIV epidemic in underserved communities, and communities of color in the United States. This article draws from and builds on a humanrights workshop that took place as part of the forum "Bringing Gender Home: Implementing Gender Responsive HIV/AIDS Programming for US Women and Girls," sponsored by the Office of Women's Health. It focuses on the damaging impact of laws, policies, and practices that criminalize women's sexuality. These laws significantly impact the well-being of women living with and at risk for HIV, and have an impact on the capacity of poor women of color in the United States to fully exercise their rights. When laws that purport to protect public health have the result of limiting women's reproductive choices, or have a disproportionate impact on marginalized groups such as sex workers, fundamental breaches of women's rights occur. PMID:22055674
Ethical principles guiding public health and genomic medicine are often at odds: whereas public health practice adopts collectivist principles that emphasize population-based benefits, recent advances in genomic and personalized medicine are grounded in an individualist ethic that privileges informed consent, and the balancing of individual risk and benefit. Indeed, the attraction of personalized medicine is the promise it holds out to help individuals get the "right medicine for the right problem at the right time." Research biobanks are an effective tool in the genomic medicine toolbox. Biobanking in public health presents a unique case study to unpack some of these issues in more detail. For example, there is a long history of using banked tissue obtained under clinical diagnostic conditions for later public health uses. But despite the collectivist approach of public health, the principles applied to the ethical challenges of biobanking (e.g. informed consent, autonomy, privacy) remain individualist. We demonstrate the value of using humanrights as a public health ethics framework to address this tension in biobanking by applying it to two illustrative cases. PMID:21761137
This paper discusses right problem solving to define\\/solve a right problem for doing the right thing right. In so doing, the paper operationally considers purposeful complex adaptive systems (PCAS), Evolutionary Systems Design (ESD), group\\/negotiation support systems, consciousness, connectedness, spirituality, rationality, problems, and right rationality in theory and practice. System agents may be natural (human) and\\/or artificial.
This literature review focuses on the literature on disability from the ethical and humanrights perspective in the light of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in the period from January 1, 2008, to June 30, 2010. This article identifies and examines studies that deal with the subject of disability with reference to rights, ethical issues, and justice. A total of 42 articles and 33 books were selected. The subject most frequently dealt with in studies on disability is that of humanrights (76% of the articles and 79% of the books examined), followed by topics relating to welfare (52% of articles and 64% of books), International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (38% of articles and 45% of books), justice (24% of articles and 48% of books), education (21% of articles and 61% of books), and work (19% of articles and 39% of books). The subject of disability is dealt with in various fields of study and various disciplines. Most of the studies are based on the legal approach. It is to be hoped that there will be an increase in the philosophical and ethical study of disability, which has only recently entered the European debate. PMID:22193322
This article makes a contribution to current debates in humanrights-based approaches to lesbian and bisexual (LB) women's health. With reference to concepts embodied in the Yogyakarta Principles, it is proposed that the right to health includes access to health information, participation, equity, equality and non-discrimination. Specifically, the article examines how LB women's health can be considered as a health inequality and discusses international developments to reduce disparities. Drawing on qualitative data collected in an online survey, the article reports on sexual minority women's experiences of health-care. Participants were recruited via a purposive sampling strategy; questionnaires were completed by 6490 respondents of whom 5909 met the study criteria of residence in the UK, sexual orientation and completing the survey once. Analysis revealed four broad themes: heteronormativity in health-care; improving attitudes among healthcare professionals; equality in access; raising awareness and informed communities. The accounts highlight the centrality of humanrights principles: fairness, respect, equality, dignity and autonomy. The implications for healthcare policy and practice are discussed including ways to empower staff and service users with knowledge and skills and ensuring non-discrimination in health service delivery. PMID:20113366
This curriculum resource grew out of a grass roots effort to promote the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child through education and political action. Designed primarily for young children and their parents, the curriculum builds on the power of the parent-child relationship to help build a positive self-image for both parent and…
The often observed directional asymmetry (DA) in human limb bones may have a genetic/developmental basis and/or could emerge from different mechanical loadings across sides due to handedness. Because behavioural lateralization in itself has a genetic basis, it has been suggested that DA in limbs could develop prenatally as a pre-adaptation to adult life. However, the presence of consistent differences in the size of left and right limb bones in early development is understudied. We study asymmetry in limb bones during early development (10-20 weeks of gestation) in a sample of 178 aborted foetuses. Statistically significant DA was found in several upper and lower limb bones, where the right-hand side was consistently larger than the left. We argue that this pattern is probably the consequence of developmental processes related to internal asymmetric positioning of organs. PMID:24579655
Van Dongen, Stefan; Galis, Frietson; Ten Broek, Clara; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Wijnaendts, Liliane C D; Delen, Sofie; Bots, Jessica
The recent case of David Bradley, who shot and killed four members of his family after telling his doctor he 'wanted to kill someone', has raised the question of whether a healthcare professional could ever be held liable for failing to take steps to constrain a potentially dangerous patient. Until recently, it was considered that the United Kingdom courts would be reluctant to impose a duty to protect third parties. However, the European Court of HumanRights' decision in Osman v UK--while not directly concerning healthcare professionals--has opened the door for just such a duty. When this duty will arise, and how it can be discharged, remain challenging questions. Furthermore, healthcare professionals face the unenviable task of balancing competing duties, in which the rights--and safety--of their patients must also be borne in mind. PMID:17847828
Released on March 4, 1999, as part of its Rights For All campaign on the US, this comprehensive report from Amnesty International documents "violations of the internationally guaranteed humanrights of women incarcerated in the United States," including sexual misconduct and abuse by prison officials, mistreatment of pregnant prisoners, and inadequate medical care. As the report reveals, these abuses are occurring amidst a huge increase in the women's prison population, mostly due to sentencing guidelines imposed by recent anti-drug legislation. The report also indicates that the underlying cause of the problem is the large number of male guards in US women's prisons and their unrestricted access to women's cells, which contravenes UN standards. Users can read the full text of the report as well as an overview, stories, and fact sheets at the site.
Provides an acoustic profile of the prosody of right-dislocations in French, using the CECIL computer hardware and software package to analyze 28 right-dislocations occurring in a corpus of natural French discourse. It was found that, although right-dislocations appear to fulfill various functional roles in discourse, no correlation appears…
Emotional processing is lateralized to the non-dominant brain hemisphere. However, there is no clear spatial model for lateralization of emotional domains in the basal ganglia. The subthalamic nucleus (STN), an input structure in the basal ganglia network, plays a major role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). This role is probably not limited only to the motor deficits of PD, but may also span the emotional and cognitive deficits commonly observed in PD patients. Beta oscillations (12–30 Hz), the electrophysiological signature of PD, are restricted to the dorsolateral part of the STN that corresponds to the anatomically defined sensorimotor STN. The more medial, more anterior and more ventral parts of the STN are thought to correspond to the anatomically defined limbic and associative territories of the STN. Surprisingly, little is known about the electrophysiological properties of the non-motor domains of the STN, nor about electrophysiological differences between right and left STNs. In this study, microelectrodes were utilized to record the STN spontaneous spiking activity and responses to vocal non-verbal emotional stimuli during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries in human PD patients. The oscillation properties of the STN neurons were used to map the dorsal oscillatory and the ventral non-oscillatory regions of the STN. Emotive auditory stimulation evoked activity in the ventral non-oscillatory region of the right STN. These responses were not observed in the left ventral STN or in the dorsal regions of either the right or left STN. Therefore, our results suggest that the ventral non-oscillatory regions are asymmetrically associated with non-motor functions, with the right ventral STN associated with emotional processing. These results suggest that DBS of the right ventral STN may be associated with beneficial or adverse emotional effects observed in PD patients and may relieve mental symptoms in other neurological and psychiatric diseases.
The Holocaust HumanRights Center of Maine is dedicated to providing assistance and support to Maine's teachers on the study and participation of humanrights and on teaching the Holocaust. This guide was created to reinforce the purpose and objectives of "Maine's Common Core of Learning," relating to citizenship, humanrights, and cultural…
In 1985 the Inter-American Court of HumanRights ruled that a Costa Rican statute requiring journalists to be licensed violates the American Convention on HumanRights and, by extension, all humanrights conventions. Though press freedom advocates hailed it as a major triumph for freedom of expression, the court's ruling was only advisory and has…
A content analysis of ten years of New York Times coverage of humanrights in China has found that The Times set its own agenda in covering humanrights in China, apart from the US presidential agenda. While presidential concern about humanrights in China subsided and US-China trade became a priority in the presidential agenda, The Times increasingly continued
Alexander Tsai and colleagues review medical records from the Amel Centre, Sudan, to assess consistency between recorded medical evidence and patient reports of humanrights violations by the Government of Sudan and Janjaweed forces.
Alexander C. Tsai; Mohammed A. Eisa; Sondra S. Crosby; Susannah Sirkin; Michele Heisler; Jennifer Leaning; Vincent Iacopino
This booklet discusses some consequences of internationalization for national training systems from the standpoint of the following two broad approaches often taken by international organizations: (1) the human capital ideology, which assumes human capital is an appropriate basis for education policy; and (2) the humanrights and human development…
In this paper, I explore the formation of humanrights attitudes among what I call the “silent majority” in the post-communist\\u000a countries of Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. This is the large, diverse group of people never directly confronted\\u000a with harsh methods of repression under communism. I argue here that the foundations for conceptualizing humanrights are based
The Ugandan Anti-Homosexuality Bill of October 2009 caused an international outcry and sparked intense debate in the local and international media. Particularly contentious was its proposal to impose the death penalty for acts of 'aggravated homosexuality'. Through a quantitative content analysis of 176 items from two main daily newspapers, the government-owned New Vision and the privately-owned Daily Monitor, over the period October 2009-June 2010, combined with qualitative interviews with humanrights defenders in Uganda, this study explores attempts made by local humanrights advocates to influence the media's coverage of the Bill and the extent to which these attempts were successful. The study finds that while there are significant differences between the frequency of reporting on the Bill in the two newspapers, both papers devoted little editorial space to the public health and humanrights concerns put forward by local humanrights organizations. Despite Uganda's recent and often lauded history of openly addressing HIV/AIDS, humanright organizations' attempts to highlight the Bill's potentially adverse effects on the country's ability to tackle the epidemic effectively were only partially successful and, interestingly, awarded much less attention than the potential humanrights implications of the proposed change in legislation. PMID:21714747
Humans and cetaceans are exposed to a wide range of contaminants. In this study, we compared the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of a metal pollutant, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which has been shown to cause damage in lung cells from both humans and North Atlantic right whales. Our results show that Cr induces increased cell death and chromosome damage in lung cells from both species with increasing intracellular Cr ion levels. Soluble Cr(VI) induced less of a cytotoxic and genotoxic effect on administered dose in right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) cells than in human (Homo sapiens) cells. Whereas, particulate Cr(VI) induced a similar cytotoxic effect but less of a genotoxic effect based on administered dose in right whale cells than in human cells. Differences in chromium ion uptake explained some but not all of the soluble chromate-induced cell death and chromosome damage. Uptake differences of lead ions could explain the differences in particulate chromate-induced toxicity. The data show that both forms of Cr(VI) are less genotoxic to right whale than human lung cells, and that soluble Cr(VI) induces a similar cytotoxic effect in both right whale and human cells, while particulate Cr(VI) is more cytotoxic to right whale lung cells.
Chen, Tania Li; Wise, Sandra S.; Holmes, Amie; Shaffiey, Fariba; Wise, John Pierce; Thompson, W. Douglas; Kraus, Scott; Wise, John Pierce
This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a humanright. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.
It is well-known that there are polysemous words like appears two or more times in a well-written discourse, it is extremely likely that they will all share the same sense. This paper describes an experiment which confirmed this hypothesis and found that the tendency to share sense in the same discourse is extremely strong (98%). This result can be used
William A. Gale; Kenneth W. Church; David Yarowsky
The meaning of text appears to be tightly related to intentions and circumstances. Context sensitivity of meaning is addressed by theories of discourse structure. Few attempts have been made to exploit text organization in summarization. This thesis is an exploration of what knowledge of discourse structure can do for content selection as a subtask of automatic summarization, and query-based summarization
This collection of articles includes: "Introduction: Discourse Analysis Today" (Dagmar Schue and M.D. Lopez-Maestre); "The Metaphorical and Metonymic Understanding of the Trinitarian Dogma" (Antonio Barcelona); "Symmetry as Conceptual Metaphor in Walker's The Color Purple" (Elena Tapia); "And She's Like it's Terrible, Like: Spoken Discourse,…
A discourse recognition theory derived from more general memory formulations would be broad in its psychological implications. This study compared discourse recognition with some established profiles of item recognition. Participants read 10 stories either once or twice each. They then rated their confidence in recognizing explicit, paraphrased,…
This paper examines the interface between humanrights and humanitarian action in the context of the conflict and tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia, between 1998 and 2007. It looks at the challenges international humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) faced as they engaged in humanrights work in the conflict period and in conflict-related activities in the post-tsunami period. The paper argues that many large NGOs may have compromised what some would hold to be essential principles for humanitarian action because of domestic political concerns, donor restrictions and resistance among certain NGO chiefs. In contrast with the pre-tsunami period, in which NGOs worked for years amid military operations, in the post-tsunami period NGOs were decidedly apolitical, neglecting the conflict in their tsunami response--despite significant developments that permitted greater political engagement in Aceh's post-conflict transformation. The evidence suggests that NGOs are challenged in contextualising humanitarian responses and that there is a need to underscore donor flexibility and independence in humanitarian action. PMID:21054497
This is an unusual moment in the history of psychology because of landmark advances in digital information technologies, computational linguistics, and other fields that use the computer to analyze language, discourse, and behavior. The technologies developed from this interdisciplinary fusion are helping students learn and think in ways that are sensitive to their cognitive and emotional states. Recent projects have developed computer technologies that help us understand the nature of conversational discourse and text comprehension in addition to improving learning. AutoTutor and other systems with conversational agents (i.e., talking heads) help students learn by holding conversations in natural language. One version of AutoTutor is sensitive to the emotions of students in addition to their cognitive states. Coh-Metrix analyzes texts on multiple levels of language and discourse, such as text genre, cohesion, syntax, and word characteristics. Coh-Metrix can assist students, teachers, principals, and policymakers when they make decisions on the right text to assign to the right student at the right time. Computers are not perfect conversation partners and comprehenders of text, but the current systems are undeniably useful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22082403
This article explores the peat production impacts on Jukajoki river in Finland by implementing discourse analysis. Four discourses are explored: state truth statements; company statements that are in close proximity of state power; discourses provided by the local community Selkie, who provided counter-narratives to the official views; and finally media and related discourses. In conclusion, the discourses by the state and closely related actors (A-B) comprised implementation of their power and justifying it at the expense of those who are excluded from such power, in this case the village. The village narrative (C) contains elements that strongly contradict the statements provided by those with power. The results indicate local communities should be taken more seriously. The systematic denial of local peoples' rights should be reviewed, and local participation in environmental permit assessments implemented. PMID:23852881
Research ethics boards adjudicate between competing sacred discourses in the knowledge industries. The traditional rights of researchers to initiate and conduct enquiry, the rights of research subjects to have stewardship over their own experiential knowledge and the legal responsibilities of universities and other institutions often compete in the process of adjudication. The justification narrative leading to the establishment of boards
Background In this paper the real role and place of human resource (HR) in health system reform will be discussed and determined within the whole system through the comprehensive Human Resource Management (HRM) model. Method: Delphi survey and a questionnaire were used to 1) collect HR manager ideas and comments and 2) identify the main challenges of HRM. Then the results were discussed in an expert panel after being analyzed by content analysis method. Also, a deep focus study of recorded documents related to Health Human Resource Management was done. Then based on all achieved results, a rich picture was drawn to illustrate the right place of HRM in health sector. Finally, the authors revitalize the missed function of HRM within the health sector by drawing a holistic conceptual model. Result: The most percentage of frequency about HR belongs to “Lack of reliable HR information system” (91%) and the least percentage of frequency belongs to “Low responsibility of HR” (28%). The most percentage of frequency about HR manager belongs to “Inattention to HR managers as key managers and consider them in background” (80%) and the least percentage of frequency belongs to “Lack of coordination between universities’ policies” (30%). According to the conceptual framework, human resources employed in health system are viewed from two comprehensive approaches: instrumental approach and institutional. Conclusion: Unlike the common belief that looks HRM through the supportive approach, it is discussed that HRM not only has an instrumental role, but also do have a driver role.
Increased dispersion of repolarization has been suggested to underlie increased arrhythmogenesis in human heart failure (HF). However, no detailed repolarization mapping data were available to support the presence of increased dispersion of repolarization in failing human heart. In the present study, we aimed to determine the existence of enhanced repolarization dispersion in the right ventricular (RV) endocardium from failing human heart and examine its association with arrhythmia inducibility. RV free wall preparations were dissected from five failing and five nonfailing human hearts, cannulated and coronary perfused. RV endocardium was optically mapped from an ?6.3 × 6.3 cm2 field of view. Action potential duration (APD), dispersion of APD, and conduction velocity (CV) were quantified for basic cycle lengths (BCL) ranging from 2,000 ms to the functional refractory period. We found that RV APD was significantly prolonged within the failing group compared with the nonfailing group (560 ± 44 vs. 448 ± 39 ms, at BCL = 2,000 ms, P < 0.05). Dispersion of APD was increased in three failing hearts (161 ± 5 vs. 86 ± 19 ms, at BCL = 2,000 ms). APD alternans were induced by rapid pacing in these same three failing hearts. CV was significantly reduced in the failing group compared with the nonfailing group (81 ± 11 vs. 98 ± 8 cm/s, at BCL = 2,000 ms). Arrhythmias could be induced in two failing hearts exhibiting an abnormally steep CV restitution and increased dispersion of repolarization due to APD alternans. Dispersion of repolarization is enhanced across the RV endocardium in the failing human heart. This dispersion, together with APD alternans and abnormal CV restitution, could be responsible for the arrhythmia susceptibility in human HF.
Lou, Qing; Janks, Deborah L.; Holzem, Katherine M.; Lang, Di; Onal, Birce; Ambrosi, Christina M.; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Wang, I-Wen
The global spread of clinical trials activity is accompanied by a parallel growth in research governance and human subject protection. In this paper we analyse how dominant ideas of the ‘human subject’ in clinical trials are played out in countries that are deemed to be scientifically under-developed. Specifically, we show how rhetorics of individualism, rationality and autonomy implicit in international
We draw on the experience of a Learning Network for Health and HumanRights (LN) involving collaboration between academic institutions and civil society organizations in the Western Cape, South Africa, aimed at identifying and disseminating best practice related to the right to health. The LN's work in materials development, participatory research, training and capacity-building for action, and advocacy for intervention illustrates important lessons for humanrights practice. These include (i) the importance of active translation of knowledge and awareness into action for rights to be made real; (ii) the potential tension arising from civil society action, which might relieve the state of its obligations by delivering services that should be the state's responsibility-and hence the importance of emphasizing civil society's role in holding services accountable in terms of the right to health; (iii) the role of civil society organizations in filling a gap related to obligations to promote rights; (iv) the critical importance of networking and solidarity for building civil society capacity to act for health rights. Evidence from evaluation of the LN is presented to support the argument that civil society can play a key role in bridging a gap between formal state commitment to creating a humanrights culture and realizing services and policies that enable the most vulnerable members of society to advance their health. Through access to information and the creation of spaces, both for participation and as a safe environment in which learning can be turned into practice, the agency of those most affected by rights violations can be redressed. We argue that civil society agency is critical to such action. PMID:22773101
London, Leslie; Fick, Nicole; Tram, Khai Hoan; Stuttaford, Maria
Rhetorical acknowledgment of the value of humanrights for the AIDS response continues, yet practical application of humanrights principles to national efforts appears to be increasingly deficient. We assess the ways in which international and national strategic plans and other core documents take into account the commitments made by countries to uphold humanrights in their efforts towards achieving Universal Access. Key documents from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria (GFATM) and the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) were reviewed along with 14 national HIV strategic plans chosen for their illustration of the diversity of HIV epidemic patterns, levels of income and geographical location. Whereas humanrights concepts overwhelmingly appeared in both international and national strategic documents, their translation into actionable terms or monitoring frameworks was weak, unspecific or absent. Future work should analyse strategic plans, plans of operation, budgets and actual implementation so that full advantage can be taken, not only of the moral and legal value of humanrights, but also their instrumental value for achieving Universal Access.
Background—Recent studies have demonstrated spatiotemporal organization in atrial fibrillation (AF), with a left-to-right atrial frequency gradient during AF in isolated sheep hearts. We hypothesized that human AF would also manifest a left-to-right atrial frequency gradient. Methods and Results—Thirty-one patients aged 56.710.5 years with a history of paroxysmal or persistent (1 month) AF were included. Recordings were made at each pulmonary
Sorin Lazar; Sanjay Dixit; Francis E. Marchlinski; David J. Callans; Edward P. Gerstenfeld
Background Normal development of the atria requires left-right differentiation during embryonic development. Reduced expression of Pitx2c (paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2, isoform c), a key regulator of left-right asymmetry, has recently been linked to atrial fibrillation. We therefore systematically studied the molecular composition of left and right atrial tissue in adult murine and human atria. Methods We compared left and right atrial gene expression in healthy, adult mice of different strains and ages by employing whole genome array analyses on freshly frozen atrial tissue. Selected genes with enriched expression in either atrium were validated by RT-qPCR and Western blot in further animals and in shock-frozen left and right atrial appendages of patients undergoing open heart surgery. Results We identified 77 genes with preferential expression in one atrium that were common in all strains and age groups analysed. Independent of strain and age, Pitx2c was the gene with the highest enrichment in left atrium, while Bmp10, a member of the TGF? family, showed highest enrichment in right atrium. These differences were validated by RT-qPCR in murine and human tissue. Western blot showed a 2-fold left-right concentration gradient in PITX2 protein in adult human atria. Several of the genes and gene groups enriched in left atria have a known biological role for maintenance of healthy physiology, specifically the prevention of atrial pathologies involved in atrial fibrillation, including membrane electrophysiology, metabolic cellular function, and regulation of inflammatory processes. Comparison of the array datasets with published array analyses in heterozygous Pitx2c+/? atria suggested that approximately half of the genes with left-sided enrichment are regulated by Pitx2c. Conclusions Our study reveals systematic differences between left and right atrial gene expression and supports the hypothesis that Pitx2c has a functional role in maintaining “leftness” in the atrium in adult murine and human hearts.
Fabritz, Larissa; Greber, Boris; Scholer, Hans; Scheld, Hans H.; Hoffmeier, Andreas; Brown, Nigel A.; Kirchhof, Paulus
The following article analyzes the process of conception, elaboration, and adoption of the Universal Declaration of Bioethics and HumanRights, and reflects on the lessons it might hold for public bioethics on the international level. The author was involved in the process at a variety of levels: he provided advice to the IBC on behalf of the President's Council of Bioethics; he served as the U.S. representative to UNESCO's Intergovernmental Bioethics Committee; and led the U.S. Delegation in the multilateral negotiation of Government experts that culminated in the adoption of the declaration in its final form. The author is currently serving a 4-year term as a member of UNESCO's International Bioethics Committee. PMID:19395366
I briefly review the process of community organization, education, and advocacy activities that ended the harmful military practices in the island-municipality of Vieques, Puerto Rico, while drawing attention to the intersection of humanrights and social justice in the context of local and global implications. The Viequense experience was one of building an organization based on people’s experiences and strengths, educating people to increase individual and collective efficacy and power, and advocating for policy change with an assertive cohesive action. Public health practitioners must continue supporting community-led interventions in the restoration of the island’s environment and other resources vital for people’s health and well-being.
Asylum seekers represent a highly traumatized group with experiences of systematic oppression, loss, displacement, and exposure to violence. Around the world many are viewed with distrust and anxiety. The Australian response to asylum seekers is one that has used prolonged detention with significant negative impact on mental health. This has prompted much social debate and the involvement of clinicians and researchers in advocating for the humanrights of asylum seekers. This article reviews the impact of mandatory prolonged detention on the mental health of asylum seekers and the significance of this for recovery and adaption. It concludes that the mandatory detention of high-risk and oppressed groups compounds trauma, with a potential long-term negative impact on mental health. PMID:23406225
UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and HumanRights (2005) was drawn up by an independent panel of experts (the International Bioethics Committee) and negotiated by member states. UNESCO aimed for a participatory and transparent drafting process, holding national and regional consultations and seeking the views of various interest groups, including religious and spiritual ones. Furthermore, reflecting UNESCO’s broad interpretation of bioethics, the IBC included medics, scientists, lawyers and philosophers among its membership. Nevertheless, several potential stakeholders—academic scientists and ethicists, government policy-makers and NGO representatives—felt they had not been sufficiently consulted or even represented during the Declaration’s development. Better communications and understanding within and between national, regional and international layers of governance would help to avoid a recurrence of this problem in future negotiations.
The United Nations Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization Universal Declaration on Bioethics and HumanRights (UDBHR) expresses in its title and substance a controversial linkage of two normative systems: international humanrights law and bioethics. The UDBHR has the status of what is known as a "nonbinding" declaration under public international law. The UDBHR's foundation within bioethics (and association, e.g., with virtue-based or principlist bioethical theories) is more problematic. Nonetheless, the UDBHR contains socially important principles of technology transfer and transnational benefit (articles 14, 15, and 21). This paper is one of the first to explore how the disciplines of bioethics and international humanrights law may interact in the UDBHR to advance the policy relevance and health impact of such principles. It investigates their normative ancestry in the UDBHR, as well as relevant conceptual differences between bioethics and public international law in this respect, and how these may be relevant to their conceptual evolution and application. PMID:19395367
The pesticide poisoning deaths of 24 children in an isolated Peruvian village make a compelling case that corporate accountability for pesticide poisonings in the developing south should be examined from a humanrights perspective. Highly toxic pesticides cannot be used safely under prevailing socioeconomic conditions. The industry asserts that the deaths of these children were accidental, blaming misuse. Tragedies such as these poisonings are not accidents, but foreseeable, and therefore preventable. Sales of highly toxic pesticides that cause repeated and predictable poisonings violate the fundamental humanrights to life, health, and security of person. The Tauccamarca tragedy is a clear example of the urgency of applying a precautionary, humanrights approach to pesticide issues in the developing south. PMID:12749631
The fight against HIV/AIDS is an example of a global struggle for the promotion of sexual health and the protection of humanrights for all, including sexual minorities. It represents a challenge for the understanding of its impact on political, social, and economic processes. My central goal in this piece is twofold. First, I underline the importance of a political and humanrights perspective to the analysis of the global response to the pandemic, and I introduce the concept of policy networks for a better understanding of these dynamics. Second, I argue that, in the case of Mexico, the constitution of HIV/AIDS policy networks, which incorporate civil society and state actors, such as sexual minority activists and public officials, and their actions—both domestic and international—have resulted in a more inclusive HIV/AIDS policy-making process. However, serious humanrights violations of HIV/AIDS patients and sexual minorities still remain. PMID:21751474
The leading question of this Forest Policy and Economics special issue is whether, how and to what extent forest governance processes can be better understood by means of discourse analysis and the science-policy interface. This article focuses on discourses only, but it does so from an institutional perspective. The reasons to advocate this so-called discursive-institutional approach are threefold: (1) to
Maternal mortality and morbidity (MMM) and HIV represent interlinked challenges arising from common causes, magnifying their respective impacts and producing related consequences. Accordingly, an integrated response will lead to the most effective approach for both. Shared structural drivers include gender inequality; gender-based violence (including sexual violence); economic disempowerment; and stigma and discrimination in access to services or opportunities based on gender and HIV. Further, shared system-related drivers also contribute to a lack of effective access to acceptable, high-quality health services and other development resources from birth forward. HIV and MMM are connected in both outcomes and solutions: in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV is the leading cause of maternal death, while the most recent global report on HIV identifies prevention of unintended pregnancy and access to contraception as two of the most important HIV-related prevention efforts.1 Both are central to reducing unsafe abortion--another leading cause of maternal death globally, and particularly in Africa. A humanrights-based framework helps to identify these shared determinants. A humanrights-based approach works to establish the health-related humanrights standards to which all women are entitled, as well to outline the indivisible and intersecting humanrights principles which inform and guide efforts to prevent, protect from, respond to, and provide remedy for humanrights violations-in this case related to HIV and maternal mortality and morbidity.The Millennium Declaration and Development Goals (MDGs) help to both set quantifiable goals for achieving the components identified within the humanrights-based framework and document the international consensus that no single goal--such as those addressing HIV and MMM--can be achieved without progress on all development goals. PMID:23568945
Space imagery offers remote surveillance of ethnic people groups at risk of humanrights abuse. We highlight work in alleged violations in Burma and Sudan, using satellite imagery for verification with Amnesty International. We consider how imaging may effectively support small to medium-sized Non Governmental Organisations and charities, e.g. HART, working in dangerous zones on the ground. Satellite based sensing applications are now at a sufficiently mature stage for moderate Governmental funding levels to help prevent humanrights abuse, rather than the greater cost of rebuilding communities and healing sectarian divisions after abuse has taken place.
The article by Goodrich-Hunsaker and Hopkins (2010, this issue) takes up an important place among in the recent contributions on the role of the hippocampus in memory. They evaluate the effect of bilateral damage to the hippocampus on performance by human participants in a virtual 8-arm radial maze. The hippocampal damage appears to be highly selective and nearly complete. Exactly as with selective hippocampal damage in rats, the human participants showed a deficit in accurately choosing rewarded versus never-rewarded arms and a deficit in avoiding reentering recently visited arms. The results are triply significant: (1) They provide good support for the idea that the wealth of neurobiological information, from network to synapse to gene, on spatial memory in the rat may apply as a whole to the human hippocampal memory system; (2) They affirm the utility of human virtual task models of rat spatial memory tasks; (3) They support one interpretation of the dampening of the hippocampal functional MRI (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during performance of the virtual radial arm maze observed by Astur et al. (2005). PMID:20528089
Background The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar) is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and humanrights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and humanrights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported humanrights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. Methods and Findings Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other humanrights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%–94.1%) reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project) definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. Conclusions Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of humanrights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Sollom, Richard; Richards, Adam K.; Parmar, Parveen; Mullany, Luke C.; Lian, Salai Bawi; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris
Background: Children's rights education in schools has many social and educational benefits. Among them are a deeper understanding of rights and social responsibility, an improved school climate, and greater school engagement and achievement. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether children's rights education has the power to…
Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; Polegato, Jillian L.
As part of a feminist commitment to collaboration, this article appears as a companion essay to Mimi Thi Nguyen's "The Biopower of Beauty: Humanitarian Imperialisms and Global Feminisms" and offers a point of departure for thinking about fashion and beauty as processes that produce subjects recruited to, and aligned with, the national interests of the United States in the war on terror. The Muslim woman in the veil and her imagined opposite in the fashionably modern - and implicitly Western - woman become convenient metaphors for articulating geopolitical contests of power as a humanrights concern, as a rescue mission, as a beautifying mandate. This article examines newer iterations of this opposition, in the wake of September 11, 2001, in order to demonstrate the critical resonance of a biopolitics on fashion and beauty. In "The Right to Fashion in the Age of Terrorism," the author examines the relationship between the U.S. war on terror, targeting persons whose sartorial choices are described as terrorist-looking and oppressive, and the right-to-fashion discourse, which promotes fashion's mass-market diffusion as a civil liberty. Looking at these multiple invocations of the democratization of fashion, this article argues that the right-to-fashion discourse colludes with the war on terror by fabricating a neoliberal consumer-citizen who is also a couture-citizen and whose right to fashion reasserts U.S.exceptionalism, which is secured by private property, social mobility, and individualism. PMID:21114081
Gestures are pervasive in human communication across cultures; they clearly constitute an embodied aspect of cognition. In this study, evidence is provided for the contention that gestures are not only a co-expression of meaning in a different modality but also constitute an important stepping stone in the evo- lution of discourse. Data are provided from a Grade 10 physics course
Humanrights are a central part of a social worker's value base in contemporary practice, but the structures by which social work services are delivered can adversely affect practitioners’ abilities to uphold service user rights. This article describes the organizational development of social work services in England and the evolution of a rights focus for the practice of social work.
The practice of conscientious objection often arises in the area of individuals refusing to fulfil compulsory military service requirements and is based on the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion as protected by national, international and regional humanrights law. The practice of conscientious objection also arises in the field of health care, when individual health care providers or institutions refuse to provide certain health services based on religious, moral or philosophical objections. The use of conscientious objection by health care providers to reproductive health care services, including abortion, contraceptive prescriptions, and prenatal tests, among other services is a growing phenomena throughout Europe. However, despite recent progress from the European Court of HumanRights on this issue (RR v. Poland, 2011), countries and international and regional bodies generally have failed to comprehensively and effectively regulate this practice, denying many women reproductive health care services they are legally entitled to receive. The Italian Ministry of Health reported that in 2008 nearly 70% of gynaecologists in Italy refuse to perform abortions on moral grounds. It found that between 2003 and 2007 the number of gynaecologists invoking conscientious objection in their refusal to perform an abortion rose from 58.7 percent to 69.2 percent. Italy is not alone in Europe, for example, the practice is prevalent in Poland, Slovakia, and is growing in the United Kingdom. This article outlines the international and regional humanrights obligations and medical standards on this issue, and highlights some of the main gaps in these standards. It illustrates how European countries regulate or fail to regulate conscientious objection and how these regulations are working in practice, including examples of jurisprudence from national level courts and cases before the European Court of HumanRights. Finally, the article will provide recommendations to national governments as well as to international and regional bodies on how to regulate conscientious objection so as to both respect the practice of conscientious objection while protecting individual's right to reproductive health care. PMID:22916532
In the wake of the Holocaust, as humanrights norms have come to the fore, NGOs have become major actors in international politics in general and in the Arab-Israeli conflict in particular. These organizations and their leaders form an extremely powerful \\
:The fight against HIV\\/AIDS is an example of a global struggle for the promotion of sexual health and the protection of humanrights for all, including sexual minorities. It represents a challenge for the understanding of its impact on political, social, and economic processes. My central goal in this piece is twofold. First, I underline the importance of a political
Recent reports highlight the extent to which many people with learning disabilities are not afforded access to their basic humanrights. In addition, traditional approaches to risk management often focus on professional assessments of risks and challenging behaviour and exclude service user perspectives. In this paper, we outline what we believe…
This article presents an overview of the recurring themes presented at the 26th Session of the Administrative Committee on Coordination/Sub-Committee on Nutrition (ACC/SCN) symposium entitled ¿The Substance and Politics of a HumanRights Approach to Food and Nutrition Policies and Programmes¿, held on April 12-13, 1999. The symposium consists of speeches delivered by High Commissioner for HumanRights Mary Robinson, WHO Director-General Gro Harlem Brundtland, and other senior officials from various international organizations. Among the main topics discussed were the adoption of humanrights perspective and food and nutrition related indicators. This article also focused on the need to develop an explicit conceptual and legislative framework to clarify what constitutes a violation and develop mechanisms to obtain information on violations. Issues involving enforcement and allocation were some of the questions that emerged from the ACC/SCN symposium. As an end result, the symposium demonstrated the potential of the humanrights approach in accelerating the decline in malnutrition rates. The challenge, therefore, is on the way to make this approach a reality for all parties concerned. PMID:12290433
Although projects were pre-selected and informally approved in the first semester of 2001, official approval and funds disbursement to IOM for the Small-Grants Program for Promoting Peace and HumanRights in Colombia (hereafter referred to as Peace and Hu...
This article is an examination of some of the key aspects of the new Commission for Equality and HumanRights in Britain proposed in the Fairness for All White Paper in 2003. The article focuses on the role the new Commission will play in the specific areas of revitalizing citizenship, building community cohesion and in conflict resolution in contemporary Britain.
Background Measuring humanrights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in\\u000a the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed\\u000a conflict, using an approach known as the \\
Background Reliable evidence of the frequency and severity of humanrights abuses in Haiti after the departure of the elected president in 2004 was scarce. We assessed data from a random survey of households in the greater Port-au-Prince area. Methods Using random Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinate sampling, 1260 households (5720 individuals) were sampled. They were interviewed with a structured
...HumanRights Abuses by the Government of Iran and Taking Certain Other Actions By the...C. 1601et seq.), the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment...to be an official of the Government of Iran or a person acting on behalf of the...
Despite the constitutional ban on the practice of untouchability and caste-based discrimination, this article elaborates on a gendered-caste-based discriminatory reality in rural India, the difficulties of enforcing legal remedies, and on related humanrights praxis to address gendered-caste atrocities by drawing on the experiences of a Canadian…
Gives a brief history of the field of international adult education regarding sexual orientation, including events at the Sixth World Assembly. Presents 13 strategies for the elimination of homophobia and discrimination. Asserts that difference is a fundamental humanright. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)
If an instructor teaches in a rhetoric and composition program, one of the most important ways to teach discourse study as a resistance to discourse theory is by tracing the fundamental founding dichotomies of discourse theory through the history of rhetorical theory, examining how assumptions of the legitimacy of such founding dichotomies has…
Within the literature on Systemic Operational Design, discourse is generally treated as a mechanical communicative process. The monograph presents alternative ways to consider discourse, the implications of this for theory of Systemic Operational Design, ...
Months after a 7.0 magnitude earthquake hit Port-au-Prince, Haiti, over one million remain homeless and living in spontaneous internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Billions of dollars from aid organizations and government agencies have been pledged toward the relief effort, yet many basic human needs, including food, shelter, and sanitation, continue to be unmet. The Sphere Project, “Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response,” identifies the minimum standards to be attained in disaster response. From a humanrights perspective and utilizing key indicators from the Sphere Project as benchmarks, this article reports on an assessment of the living conditions approximately 12 weeks after the earthquake in Parc Jean Marie Vincent, a spontaneous IDP camp in Port-au-Prince. A stratified random sample of households in the camp, proportionate to the number of families living in each sector, was selected. Interview questions were designed to serve as “key indicators” for the Sphere Project minimum standards. A total of 486 interviews were completed, representing approximately 5% of households in each of the five sectors of the camp. Our assessment identified the relative achievements and shortcomings in the provision of relief services in Parc Jean Marie Vincent. At the time of this survey, the Sphere Project minimum standards for access to health care and quantity of water per person per day were being met. Food, shelter, sanitation, and security were below minimum accepted standard and of major concern. The formal assessment reported here was completed by September 2010, and is necessarily limited to conditions in Haiti before the cholera outbreak in October.
Two years ago, in May 2007, UNAIDS and WHO issued new guidelines on HIV testing. Prepared to meet the demands of the AIDS pandemic and the prospects of extending the benefits of antiretroviral therapy to regions where such treatment had been all but out of reach, the new guidance was the product of an extended period of sometimes acrimonious controversy both within the two UN agencies and globally. Those pressing for change had argued that a paradigm of testing that had emerged at a time when little could be done for those infected with HIV was inappropriate to the current moment. Those who viewed with skepticism, if not hostility, the claims that current practice and stringent ethical standards had become an impediment to effectively confronting the challenge of AIDS saw in the proposed changes a threat to the bedrock ethical principles of informed consent. In the end, of course, decisions about HIV testing will be taken by nation - states, with the recommendations of international organizations constituting but one element, however important, that will shape policy. Nevertheless, an examination of the history and the dynamics of the recent controversy and its outcome will provide a unique resource to those faced with policy choices; it will also provide a unique opportunity to lay bare the complex and politically charged relationships evolving between public health and humanrights. PMID:19451406
This article explores the effectiveness of the decision of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women in the case of Alyne da Silva Pimentel Teixeira (deceased) v. Brazil, concerning a poor, Afro-Brazilian woman. This is the first decision of an international humanrights treaty body to hold a state accountable for its failure to prevent an avoidable death in childbirth. Assessing the future effectiveness of this decision might be undertaken concretely by determining the degree of Brazil's actual compliance with the Committee's recommendations, and how this decision influences pending domestic litigation arising from the maternal death. Alternative approaches include: determining whether, over time, the decision leads to the elimination of discrimination against women of poor, minority racial status in the health sector, and if it narrows the wide gap between rates of maternal mortality of poor, Afro-Brazilian women and the country's general female population. Determining the effectiveness of this decision will guide whether to pursue a more general strategy of judicializing maternal mortality. PMID:23581660
Policy advocates and health programmers concerned about U.S. abstinence-only-until-marriage programs can strategically employ\\u000a international humanrights principles and practices in their arguments. One nongovernmental organization’s on-the-ground investigations\\u000a in the United States and Uganda exemplify how to assess the impacts of abstinence-only policies on all young people—gay and\\u000a straight; transgender, male, and female. The authors pair this evidence with international rights
This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…
BACKGROUND: Organised crime and political violence (OPV) and humanrights violations have marred Bangladesh history since 1971. Little is known about the consequences for the oppressed population. This study describes the patterns of OPV and humanrights violations in a disturbed area of Bangladesh and assesses the physical, emotional and social functioning of victims. METHODS: A total of 236 of
This article considers humanrights education at the elementary school level in the United States. It explores some of the benefits of including humanrights education in the elementary curriculum and provides suggestions on how to incorporate it. The article focuses on a discussion of the book "A Life Like Mine: How Children Live around the…
Contributes to scholarship on agency building (how sources influence media agenda). Shows that President Jimmy Carter's elevation of humanrights to a major foreign policy concern brought more news coverage to the region, more coverage of humanrights, and measurable changes in the caliber of the reporting. (SR)
Communication ability following right brain damage (RBD) has been frequently investigated, but almost exclusively in the right handed (R) population and where non-right handers (NRs) have been studied their inclusion has been motivated by the presence of aphasia. Communication assessment, covering aspects of spoken discourse and comprehension, which in Rs are sensitive to the effects of RBD, was carried out
D espite significant health gains in post-apartheid South Africa, particularly related to the expansion of cov- erage by basic services and a Bill of Rights hailed worldwide as among the most progressive in the world, the realization of health as a right in South Africa remains elusive. 1,2 For example, a recent review suggested that between 1996 and 2002, infant
The social programs of the Kennedy and Johnson Administrations which were designed to extend basic rights to all citizens and to develop new social rights for those in need are examined in this book of papers presented at a conference. The initiation and development of the various programs are described and analyzed by scholars and policy makers.…
Expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has both individual health benefits and potential to decrease HIV incidence. Ensuring access to HIV services is a significant humanrights issue and successful programmes require adequate humanrights protections and community support. However, the cost of specific humanrights and community support interventions for equitable, sustainable and non-discriminatory access to ART are not well described. Humanrights and community support interventions were identified using the literature and through consultations with experts. Specific costs were then determined for these health sector interventions. Population and epidemic data were provided through the Statistics South Africa 2009 national mid-year estimates. Costs of scale up of HIV prevention and treatment were taken from recently published estimates. Interventions addressed access to services, minimising stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV, confidentiality, informed consent and counselling quality. Integrated HIV programme interventions included training for counsellors, ‘Know Your Rights’ information desks, outreach campaigns for most at risk populations, and adherence support. Complementary measures included post-service interviews, humanrights abuse monitoring, transportation costs, legal assistance, and funding for humanrights and community support organisations. Other essential non-health sector interventions were identified but not included in the costing framework. The annual costs for the humanrights and community support interventions are United States (US) $63.8 million (US $1.22 per capita), representing 1.5% of total health sector HIV programme costs. Respect for humanrights and community engagement can be understood both as an obligation of expanded ART programmes and as a critically important factor in their success. Basic rights-based and community support interventions constitute only a small percentage of overall programmes costs. ART programs should consider measuring the cost and impact of humanrights and community support interventions as key aspects of successful programme expansion.
Jones, Louisa; Akugizibwe, Paula; Clayton, Michaela; Amon, Joseph J; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Bennett, Rod; Stegling, Christine; Baggaley, Rachel; Kahn, James G; Holmes, Charles B; Garg, Navneet; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Mack, Christina DeFilippo; Williams, Phoebe; Smyth, Caoimhe; Vitoria, Marco; Crowley, Siobhan; Williams, Brian; McClure, Craig; Granich, Reuben; Hirnschall, Gottfried
The present paper analyses and evaluates spoken discourse in the bilingual classroom at Damascus University. It looks at the mechanism of classroom interaction: the use of questions, initiations, repetitions and expansions. Although this paper deals with classroom interaction at Damascus University, it is believed that the results arrived at may…
Thirty physical education students and 30 music education students read a passage which could be given two distinct interpretations. Multiple-choice test scores, theme-revealing disambiguations and instrusions in free recall indicate that high-level schemata provide the interpretive framework for comprehending discourse. Schema theory and its…
In this paper we describe a method to obtain summaries fo- cussed on chosen characters of a free text. Summaries are extracted from discourse structures, which resemble rhetorical trees. They are obtained by exploiting cohesion and coherence properties of the text. Evaluation intends to evidence the contribution of each module in the final result. In this paper we describe an
International collaborations, with which scientists have long been involved, have made them staunch defenders of humanrights around the world. Collaborations involving a pair, or a small group, of scientists from different countries have been common for more than 100 years. Starting more than 50 years ago, CERN has become the quintessential example of the benefits of large scale international cooperation. Now many national laboratories and projects have major participation by foreign scientists. As a result, scientists around the world quickly become aware when their colleagues are persecuted for opinions and activities that are commonly accepted in most countries. Their prompt and sustained protests to the offending governments have often resulted in the release of imprisoned colleagues. They have helped dissidents leave the danger in their home countries and provided employment opportunities to sustain them in other countries, and allow them to continue to function as scientists. In 2001 I became aware that an Iranian colleague, with whom I had worked on the SESAME Project (www.sesame.org.jo), was imprisoned for opinions critical of his government. I had long been involved with efforts to help scientists and other dissidents being persecuted in countries such as China and the Soviet Union. However this was the first time that someone with whom I had a working relationship, and who I respected and admired, was severely persecuted (solitary confinement, torture) for opinions which I shared. In this talk I will review what I have learned from this case and other experience about coming to the aid of dissidents. In particular I will describe the activities of Scholars at Risk (http://scholarsatrisk.nyu.edu/) and the Scholars Rescue Fund (http://www.scholarrescuefund.org/pages/intro.php). Their offer of 20K to any institution which will provide matching funds to support an endangered dissident has saved careers and lives. )
Objective To compare distributions of humanrights violations and disease risk; to juxtapose these patterns against demographic and structural environmental variables, and to formulate implications for structural interventions. Methods Female sex workers who inject drugs were surveyed in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Structured interviews and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were conducted (October 2008 to October 2009). Frequencies of individual and environmental factors, including police abuse, risk of HIV infection, and protective behaviors, were compared between sites using univariate logistic regression. Results Of 624 women, almost half reported police syringe confiscation despite syringes being legal; 55.6% reported extortion (past 6 months), with significantly higher proportions in Ciudad Juarez (P < 0.001). Reports of recent solicitation of sexual favors (28.5% in Tijuana, 36.5% in Ciudad Juarez, P = 0.04) and sexual abuse (15.7% in Tijuana, 18.3% in Ciudad Juarez) by police were commonplace. Prevalence of STIs was significantly lower in Tijuana than in Ciudad Juarez (64.2% and 83.4%, P < 0.001), paralleling the lower prevalence of sexual risk behaviors there. Ciudad Juarez respondents reported significantly higher median number of monthly clients (6.8 versus 1.5, P < 0.001) and lower median pay per sex act (US$ 10 versus US$ 20, P < 0.001) (in the past month). Relative to Tijuana, security deployment, especially the army’s presence, was perceived to have increased more in Ciudad Juarez in the past year (72.1% versus 59.2%, P = 0.001). Conclusions Collateral damage from police practices in the context of Mexico’s drug conflict may affect public health in the Northern Border Region. Itinerant officers may facilitate disease spread beyond the region. The urgency for mounting structural interventions is discussed.