Science.gov

Sample records for human rights discourse

  1. Linguistic Human Rights Discourse in Deaf Community Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    The past three decades of activism for linguistic human rights (Skutnabb-Kangas 2000) have witnessed examples of language planning by various national and supranational actors in national and international spaces, with an exchange of ideas and strategies employed by national, regional, and worldwide organizations. In many countries a key goal of…

  2. Linguistic Human Rights Discourse in Deaf Community Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    The past three decades of activism for linguistic human rights (Skutnabb-Kangas 2000) have witnessed examples of language planning by various national and supranational actors in national and international spaces, with an exchange of ideas and strategies employed by national, regional, and worldwide organizations. In many countries a key goal of…

  3. Disabling Discourses and Human Rights Law: A Case Study Based on the Implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liasidou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the symbolic power of language to construct and convey disabling discourses, albeit ample rhetoric, on the need to reinstate and safeguard disabled people's human rights and entitlements. The role of language and its discursive ramifications need to be explored and problematized in the light of legal mandates and…

  4. Disabling Discourses and Human Rights Law: A Case Study Based on the Implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liasidou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the symbolic power of language to construct and convey disabling discourses, albeit ample rhetoric, on the need to reinstate and safeguard disabled people's human rights and entitlements. The role of language and its discursive ramifications need to be explored and problematized in the light of legal mandates and…

  5. Modes of Discourse about Education, Peace and Human Rights in the 1974 UNESCO Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savolainen, Kaisa; Torney-Purta, Judith

    2011-01-01

    How do culturally, politically, and economically different actors define education in the UNESCO 1974 "Recommendation concerning Education for International Understanding, Co-operation and Peace and Education relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms?" This exploration of the document aims to increase understanding of the work of…

  6. Human rights

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J Enoch

    1977-01-01

    What are human rights? In this article Enoch Powell, MP (a former Conservative Minister of Health), approaches this question through a critical discussion of Article 25 (I) of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Professor R S Downie in his accompanying commentary analyses Mr Powell's statements and takes up in particular Mr Powell's argument that claiming rights for one person entails compulsion on another person. In Professor Downie's view there is nothing in Article 25 (I) that cannot embody acceptable moral rights, the commonly accepted interpretation of that Article of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights which many people think is wholly acceptable. PMID:604483

  7. Human Rights and Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  8. Human Rights and Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  9. Rights Discourses in Relation to Education of People with Intellectual Disability: Towards an Ethics of Care that Enables Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mckenzie, Judith Anne; Macleod, Catriona Ida

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we argue that human rights approaches for intellectually disabled people have failed to recognise the complexity of rights claims made by and on behalf of this group. Drawing on a research project into discourses of education for intellectually disabled people in the Eastern Cape, South Africa we discern three rights discourses

  10. Discourse deficits following right hemisphere damage in deaf signers.

    PubMed

    Hickok, G; Wilson, M; Clark, K; Klima, E S; Kritchevsky, M; Bellugi, U

    1999-02-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that hemispheric organization in deaf users of American Sign Language (ASL) parallels that of the hearing population, with the left hemisphere showing dominance for grammatical linguistic functions and the right hemisphere showing specialization for non-linguistic spatial functions. The present study addresses two further questions: first, do extra-grammatical discourse functions in deaf signers show the same right-hemisphere dominance observed for discourse functions in hearing subjects; and second, do discourse functions in ASL that employ spatial relations depend upon more general intact spatial cognitive abilities? We report findings from two right-hemisphere damaged deaf signers, both of whom show disruption of discourse functions in absence of any disruption of grammatical functions. The exact nature of the disruption differs for the two subjects, however. Subject AR shows difficulty in maintaining topical coherence, while SJ shows difficulty in employing spatial discourse devices. Further, the two subjects are equally impaired on non-linguistic spatial tasks, indicating that spared spatial discourse functions can occur even when more general spatial cognition is disrupted. We conclude that, as in the hearing population, discourse functions involve the right hemisphere; that distinct discourse functions can be dissociated from one another in ASL; and that brain organization for linguistic spatial devices is driven by its functional role in language processing, rather than by its surface, spatial characteristics. PMID:10190988

  11. Punctuation, Prosody, and Discourse: Afterthought Vs. Right Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Kalbertodt, Janina; Primus, Beatrice; Schumacher, Petra B.

    2015-01-01

    In a reading production experiment we investigate the impact of punctuation and discourse structure on the prosodic differentiation of right dislocation (RD) and afterthought (AT). Both discourse structure and punctuation are likely to affect the prosodic marking of these right-peripheral constructions, as certain prosodic markings are appropriate only in certain discourse structures, and punctuation is said to correlate with prosodic phrasing. With RD and AT clearly differing in discourse function (comment-topic structuring vs. disambiguation) and punctuation (comma vs. full stop), critical items in this study were manipulated with regard to the (mis-)match of these parameters. Since RD and AT are said to prosodically differ in pitch range, phrasing, and accentuation patterns, we measured the reduction of pitch range, boundary strength and prominence level. Results show an effect of both punctuation and discourse context (mediated by syntax) on phrasing and accentuation. Interestingly, for pitch range reduction no difference between RDs and ATs could be observed. Our results corroborate a language architecture model in which punctuation, prosody, syntax, and discourse-semantics are independent but interacting domains with correspondence constraints between them. Our findings suggest there are tight correspondence constraints between (i) punctuation (full stop and comma in particular) and syntax, (ii) prosody and syntax as well as (iii) prosody and discourse-semantics. PMID:26648883

  12. Gender equality and human rights.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This editorial introduces an issue of INSTRAW News that commemorates the 50th anniversary of the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This introduction notes that the lead article in the journal expresses optimism about potential progress towards achieving gender equity and human rights because 1) industrialized countries are undergoing a "powershift" to an information society that will offer more and better jobs for women and give women greater access to the power of information, 2) women's earnings have increased worldwide, 3) more and more women are organizing on their own behalf, and 4) a public discourse is being created that promotes the mainstreaming of women's rights and their equality. In addition, several of the UN's international treaties promote gender equality and women's human rights. Foremost among these are 1) the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women; 2) the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, adopted by the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights; 3) the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women; and 4) the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on women. Counteracting these positive steps is a trend towards defining identity and rights on the basis of community membership only, which ignores the fact that cultures, traditions, and religions are not gender neutral. Given the challenges ahead, the partnership model of society created by women when they have political power is more likely to result in sustainable solutions than the dominator model that men have forwarded for the past 6000 years. PMID:12157804

  13. Clinical Relevance of Discourse Characteristics after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Margaret Lehman

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Discourse characteristics of adults with right hemisphere brain damage are similar to those reported for healthy older adults, prompting the question of whether changes are due to neurological lesions or normal aging processes. The clinical relevance of potential differences across groups was examined through ratings by speech-language…

  14. The Rhetorical Question of Human Rights--A Preface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doxtader, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Does rhetoric have a place in the discourse of human rights? Without certain reply, as the dilemmas of defining, claiming, and promoting human rights appear both to include and exclude the rhetorical gesture, this question invites inquiry into the preface of the contemporary human rights regime, the moment of the aftermath that provokes a struggle…

  15. Rights-Based Education and Conflict: A Cross-National Study of Rights Discourse in Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Susan Garnett; Tiplic, Dijana

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which rights-based education is utilised in textbooks from conflict-affected countries. Drawing on a unique dataset of 528 secondary social science textbooks from 71 countries from 1966 to 2008, we analyse factors that predict a rights discourse in texts. We find that textbooks from conflict-affected nations…

  16. Rights-Based Education and Conflict: A Cross-National Study of Rights Discourse in Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Susan Garnett; Tiplic, Dijana

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which rights-based education is utilised in textbooks from conflict-affected countries. Drawing on a unique dataset of 528 secondary social science textbooks from 71 countries from 1966 to 2008, we analyse factors that predict a rights discourse in texts. We find that textbooks from conflict-affected nations…

  17. Fighting for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Bao

    2011-01-01

    Speak Truth To Power consists of 17 teacher-developed lessons based on the stories of rights advocates from all over the world. The lessons were created for sixth-through 12th-grade students, and have come to New York schools thanks to the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights and the New York State United Teachers union. Speak…

  18. Fighting for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Bao

    2011-01-01

    Speak Truth To Power consists of 17 teacher-developed lessons based on the stories of rights advocates from all over the world. The lessons were created for sixth-through 12th-grade students, and have come to New York schools thanks to the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights and the New York State United Teachers union. Speak…

  19. Scientists and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  20. Education Professionals and the Construction of Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on previous comparative education research by analyzing the current discourse surrounding this emerging education model--human rights education. The first section provides a brief history of human rights education in formal education. The second section reviews research on international reforms, emphasizing analyses of…

  1. Local suffering and the global discourse of mental health and human rights: An ethnographic study of responses to mental illness in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Read, Ursula M; Adiibokah, Edward; Nyame, Solomon

    2009-01-01

    Background The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses. However such initiatives exemplify a top-down approach to promoting human rights which historically has had limited impact at the level of those living with mental illness and their families. Methods This research forms part of a longitudinal anthropological study of people with severe mental illness in rural Ghana. Visits were made to over 40 households with a family member with mental illness, as well as churches, shrines, hospitals and clinics. Ethnographic methods included observation, conversation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with people with mental illness, carers, healers, health workers and community members. Results Chaining and beating of the mentally ill was found to be commonplace in homes and treatment centres in the communities studied, as well as with-holding of food ('fasting'). However responses to mental illness were embedded within spiritual and moral perspectives and such treatment provoked little sanction at the local level. Families struggled to provide care for severely mentally ill relatives with very little support from formal health services. Psychiatric services were difficult to access, particularly in rural communities, and also seen to have limitations in their effectiveness. Traditional and faith healers remained highly popular despite the routine maltreatment of the mentally ill in their facilities. Conclusion Efforts to promote the human rights of those with mental illness must engage with the experiences of mental illness within communities affected in order to grasp how these may underpin the use of practices such as mechanical restraint. Interventions which operate at the local level with those living with mental illness within rural communities, as well as family members and healers, may have greater potential to effect change in the treatment of the mentally ill than legislation or investment in services alone. PMID:19825191

  2. Tackling Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, four high school students from the Tashkent International School in the capital city confronted the issue of their nation's human rights problems head on by researching the topic and publishing their findings on the Web. The site, "Uzbekistan: Opaque Reality," was created as an entry for the non-profit Global SchoolNet's Doors to…

  3. Human Rights in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  4. Teachers and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey; Starkey, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Why do teachers need to be familiar with human rights? In multicultural societies, whose values take precedence? How do schools resolve tensions between children's rights and teachers' rights? Campaigners, politicians and the media cite human rights to justify or challenge anything from peaceful protest to military action. The phrase "human…

  5. Teachers and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey; Starkey, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Why do teachers need to be familiar with human rights? In multicultural societies, whose values take precedence? How do schools resolve tensions between children's rights and teachers' rights? Campaigners, politicians and the media cite human rights to justify or challenge anything from peaceful protest to military action. The phrase "human…

  6. Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical framework.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan; Ezer, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "human rights in patient care" refers to the application of human rights principles to the context of patient care. It provides a principled alternative to the growing discourse of "patients' rights" that has evolved in response to widespread and severe human rights violations in health settings. Unlike "patients' rights," which is rooted in a consumer framework, this concept derives from inherent human dignity and neutrally applies universal, legally recognized human rights principles, protecting both patients and providers and admitting of limitations that can be justified by human rights norms. It recognizes the interrelation between patient and provider rights, particularly in contexts where providers face simultaneous obligations to patients and the state ("dual loyalty") and may be pressured to abet human rights violations. The human rights lens provides a means to examine systemic issues and state responsibility. Human rights principles that apply to patient care include both the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which covers both positive and negative guarantees in respect of health, as well as civil and political rights ranging from the patient's right to be free from torture and inhumane treatment to liberty and security of person. They also focus attention on the right of socially excluded groups to be free from discrimination in the delivery of health care. Critical rights relevant to providers include freedom of association and the enjoyment of decent work conditions. Some, but not all, of these human rights correspond to rights that have been articulated in "patients' rights" charters. Complementary to—but distinct from—bioethics, human rights in patient care carry legal force and can be applied through judicial action. They also provide a powerful language to articulate and mobilize around justice concerns, and to engage in advocacy through the media and political negotiation. As "patients' rights" movements and charters grow in popularity, it is important to link patient rights back to human rights standards and processes that are grounded in international law and consensus. PMID:24421170

  7. Civic Education and Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, R. Freeman

    In order to understand the context of the role that human rights should play in civic education in the United States, the era in which those rights were first debated (1789-1790's) must be examined, as well as contemporary political and education trends in the United States and the world. Human rights were at the heart of the democratic…

  8. John F. Kennedy's Civil Rights Discourse: The Evolution from "Principled Bystander" to Public Advocate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldzwig, Steven R.; Dionisopoulos, George N.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that President John F. Kennedy's civil rights discourse evidences an important evolutionary pattern marking a transition from legal argument to moral argument. Highlights two speeches as exemplars of this change. Asserts that this analysis is useful in the study of contemporary presidential discourse during times of domestic crisis. (MM)

  9. 75 FR 78147 - Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-31566 Filed 12-13-10; 11:15 am... Proclamation 8616--Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day,...

  10. A Hierarchy of Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Charles

    To establish an objective conception of human rights, one must first identify basic needs intrinsic to all people and then determine whether these needs are or can be hierarchically ordered. Many scholars have conducted research on the concept of human needs, particularly in the area of human rights. Among these scholars are Abraham H. Maslow…

  11. Intersectionality and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhamoon, Rita Kaur; Hankivsky, Olena

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the authors propose than an intersectionality perspective can transform understandings of the contentious content of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR). The use of an intersectionality perspective starts from the position that such discourses as racialization, gendering, capitalism, and ableism are mutually…

  12. Speaking Truth to Power: Women's Rights as Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocco, Margaret Smith

    2007-01-01

    The author considers the treatment of women's rights as human rights in the social studies curriculum. She discusses the role of the United Nations in promoting women's rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. She also reviews the treatment of women's rights within social studies curriculum today through a…

  13. Human Rights in Education for Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    Just as human rights belong equally to all human beings and the role of government is to secure those rights, education in regard to human rights belongs in the core of civic education and the role of that education is to develop within the student a reasoned commitment to human rights. The writers of human rights documents throughout history have…

  14. Scientific Freedom and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Elisa

    2000-03-01

    As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.

  15. Human rights and access to AIDS treatment in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    H G, Erling

    2006-05-01

    This article explores key issues related to the agitation for human rights in Mozambique and its weak performance power. I define human rights in the context of HIV/AIDS as well as rights-based approaches to development and health. Based on fieldwork, I describe and analyse how human rights are received and applied in HIV/AIDS organisations in Mozambique. The central argument is that the weak performance power of human rights can be explained by the absence of their invocation, social-influence ability and social agitation, with reference made to Sen's (2004) theory of human rights. The article compares original findings to a rights-based approach to AIDS treatment in South Africa reported by Jones (2005). I argue that the successful agitation of human rights depends on skilful appropriation of a rights discourse adapted to the unique social and cultural context of Mozambique. Finally, the theory of transnational governmentality by Ferguson & Gupta (2002) is used to illustrate the challenges posed to an ethnography of human rights in an environment in which civil society and international organisations are simultaneously in alliance with and in opposition to the government. PMID:25875146

  16. The human body as field of conflict between discourses.

    PubMed

    Kimsma, Gerrit K; Leeuwen, Evert van

    2005-01-01

    The approach to AIDS as a disease and a threat for social discrimination is used as an example to illustrate a conceptual thesis. This thesis is a claim that concerns what we call a medical issue or not, what is medicalised or needs to be demedicalised. In the friction between medicalisation and demedicalisation as discursive strategies the latter approach can only be effected through the employment of discourses or discursive strategies other than medicine, such as those of the law and of economics. These discourses each realise different values, promote a different subject, and have a different concept of man. The concept of discourse is briefly outlined against concepts such as the linear growth concept of science and the growth model of science as changes in paradigm. The issue of testing for AIDS shows a conflict between the medical and the legal discourse and illustrates the title of our contribution: the human body as field of conflict between discourses. PMID:16292608

  17. Gendered Constructions of Citizenship: Young Kenyans' Negotiations of Rights Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnot, Madeleine; Chege, Fatuma N.; Wawire, Violet

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the study of citizenship by interrogating how young people in Nairobi (Chege and Arnot 2012) perceive their rights of citizenship. It builds on previous analyses of the connections between gender, education and poverty's poor urban settlements by focusing on the political dimensions of the young people's lives. The…

  18. A Lovely Building for Difficult Knowledge: The Architecture of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodtke, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    One only needs to look at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) logo, with its abstract outline of the CMHR building, to see the way in which the museum's architecture has come to stand for the CMHR's immaterial meanings and content. The CMHR's architecture becomes a material intersection of discourses of cosmopolitanism, human rights, and…

  19. Thinking Locally about Global Human Rights: A Case Study of a Turkish University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandry, Antonia Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines diverse pedagogic approaches to teaching human rights and citizenship at the university level and how a particular academic community perceives of and engages with human rights and citizenship discourse. Based on fieldwork conducted at Sabanci University in Turkey, I explore how students and educators draw on, modify and…

  20. Human Rights and the Ethno-Nationalist Problematic through the Eyes of Greek-Cypriot Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Charalambous, Panayiota; Charalambous, Constadina; Lesta, Stalo

    2016-01-01

    The present article aims to examine the interplay between the transnational discourses of human rights and the particularities of local constructions and conceptualisations of human rights within the context of an ethnically divided society, Cyprus. Specifically, this interplay is examined through a qualitative study of Greek-Cypriot primary…

  1. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…

  2. Human Rights Education Ways and Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajan, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of human rights education as proclaimed by UN (1994) and also the strategies for developing human rights education by UN General assembly 2005. In proclaiming the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004), in December 1994, the General Assembly defined human rights education as "a life-long…

  3. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…

  4. Human Rights: Descriptions of Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith

    Twenty-seven classroom activities to help elementary and secondary students learn about human rights are described. The three major objectives of human rights education and teaching are: (1) to foster the attitudes of tolerance, respect, and solidarity inherent in human rights; (2) to provide knowledge about human rights, in both their national…

  5. Teaching Strategy: Using the Human Rights Poster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson focusing on a human-rights poster that provides visual reinforcement of the second article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that enforces freedom from discrimination. Presents students with examples of human-rights situations to assist them in understanding that all people are entitled to human rights. (CMK)

  6. Neural mechanisms of discourse comprehension: a human lesion study

    PubMed Central

    Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Discourse comprehension is a hallmark of human social behaviour and refers to the act of interpreting a written or spoken message by constructing mental representations that integrate incoming language with prior knowledge and experience. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 145) that investigates the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension (measured by the Discourse Comprehension Test) and systematically examine its relation to a broad range of psychological factors, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores obtained from these factors were submitted to voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to elucidate their neural substrates. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory and extraversion reliably predict individual differences in discourse comprehension: higher working memory scores and lower extraversion levels predict better discourse comprehension performance. Lesion mapping results indicated that these convergent variables depend on a shared network of frontal and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The observed findings motivate an integrative framework for understanding the neural foundations of discourse comprehension, suggesting that core elements of discourse processing emerge from a distributed network of brain regions that support specific competencies for executive and social function. PMID:24293267

  7. Linguistic Human Rights and Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    The Linguistic Human Rights (LHRs) paradigm is motivated by the desire to combat linguistic discrimination, where speakers of discriminated languages find themselves unable to use their preferred language in society at large. However, in an increasingly globalised world where speakers may feel the need or the desire to travel across state…

  8. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights: A Human Rights Perspective. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, David M.

    This curriculum is intended to further thoughtful examination and responsible action among high school students about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues. Unlike other curricula this discussion is not in the context of civil or political rights but in the broader context of human rights. These rights, as defined in the Universal…

  9. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights: A Human Rights Perspective. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, David M.

    This curriculum is intended to further thoughtful examination and responsible action among high school students about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues. Unlike other curricula this discussion is not in the context of civil or political rights but in the broader context of human rights. These rights, as defined in the Universal…

  10. Rights Language in the Sustainable Development Agenda: Has Right to Health Discourse and Norms Shaped Health Goals?

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Lisa; Ooms, Gorik; Brolan, Claire E.

    2015-01-01

    While the right to health is increasingly referenced in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) discussions, its contribution to global health and development remains subject to considerable debate. This hypothesis explores the potential influence of the right to health on the formulation of health goals in 4 major SDG reports. We analyse these reports through a social constructivist lens which views the use of rights rhetoric as an important indicator of the extent to which a norm is being adopted and/or internalized. Our analysis seeks to assess the influence of this language on goals chosen, and to consider accordingly the potential for rights discourse to promote more equitable global health policy in the future. PMID:26673463

  11. Conducting religious discourse on reproductive rights: the pesantren experience.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    The existing predominantly male interpretation of religious texts tends to discriminate against or ignore women's needs and well-being. It is necessary to deeply analyze these religious texts by female scholars and gender-sensitive male scholars. In view of this, the Indonesian Society for Pesantren and Community Development (P3M) conducted gender-awareness workshops which encourage discussion of Qur'anic verses and Ahadith (sayings and actions of Prophet Muhammad) that pertain to women. A nongovernmental organization in India, P3M gathered conventional and alternative interpretations of Islamic texts and views on reproductive and sexual health from local and overseas sources. Overall, the workshops resulted in a book on women's rights to reproductive health, marriage and fertility in the context of Islam. Such works by P3M contribute to a more balanced discussion of reproductive health and rights and provide Indonesian women with the opportunity to improve their life at home and in society in line with their faith. PMID:12296267

  12. From Civil Rights to Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the development of the "Deaf President Now" (DPN) movement and its similarities to the black civil rights movement. Movements typically begin with a concrete, precipitating event but are usually the result of known or shared incidents on the part of the participants, and the "Deaf President Now" movement…

  13. From Civil Rights to Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the development of the "Deaf President Now" (DPN) movement and its similarities to the black civil rights movement. Movements typically begin with a concrete, precipitating event but are usually the result of known or shared incidents on the part of the participants, and the "Deaf President Now" movement…

  14. Web Resources for Teaching about Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M.; Badang, Germain; Bragg, Christina; Kvasov, Aleksandr; Taylor, Nathan; Waliaula, Anne; Yamaguchi, Misato

    2012-01-01

    The study of human rights is inseparable from social studies. Beyond the basic political, economic, and social freedoms and rights spelled out in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, hundreds of specialized topics have developed that demonstrate the complex nature of human rights in the twenty-first-century world--environmental exploitation…

  15. Web Resources for Teaching about Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M.; Badang, Germain; Bragg, Christina; Kvasov, Aleksandr; Taylor, Nathan; Waliaula, Anne; Yamaguchi, Misato

    2012-01-01

    The study of human rights is inseparable from social studies. Beyond the basic political, economic, and social freedoms and rights spelled out in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, hundreds of specialized topics have developed that demonstrate the complex nature of human rights in the twenty-first-century world--environmental exploitation…

  16. Hemispheric Contributions to Lexical Ambiguity Resolution in a Discourse Context: Evidence from Individuals with Unilateral Left and Right Hemisphere Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindrod, C.M.; Baum, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, a cross-modal semantic priming task was used to investigate the ability of left-hemisphere-damaged (LHD) nonfluent aphasic, right-hemisphere-damaged (RHD) and non-brain-damaged (NBD) control subjects to use a discourse context to resolve lexically ambiguous words. Subjects first heard four-sentence discourse passages ending…

  17. Hemispheric Contributions to Lexical Ambiguity Resolution in a Discourse Context: Evidence from Individuals with Unilateral Left and Right Hemisphere Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindrod, C.M.; Baum, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, a cross-modal semantic priming task was used to investigate the ability of left-hemisphere-damaged (LHD) nonfluent aphasic, right-hemisphere-damaged (RHD) and non-brain-damaged (NBD) control subjects to use a discourse context to resolve lexically ambiguous words. Subjects first heard four-sentence discourse passages ending…

  18. Defining dignity and its place in human rights.

    PubMed

    Michael, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The concept of dignity is widely used in society, particularly in reference to human rights law and bioethics. Several conceptions of dignity are identified, falling broadly within two categories: full inherent dignity (FID) and non-inherent dignity (NID). FID is a quality belonging equally to every being with full moral status, including all members of the human natural kind; it is permanent, unconditional, indivisible and inviolable. Those beings with FID ought to be treated deferentially by others by virtue of their belonging to a noble caste. FID grounds fundamental human rights, such as the rights to freedom and equality. The concept of dignity forms a network of interconnected ideas related to worth and value particularly within legal and ethical discourse; it is a rich and meaningful concept, irreducible to one or two quasi-legal principles. Fundamentally, dignity matters because it forms the foundation of civilized society; without it, serious abuse of people is more likely to occur. PMID:24979874

  19. Bioethics, Human Rights, and Childbirth.

    PubMed

    Erdman, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The global reproductive justice community has turned its attention to the abuse and disrespect that many women suffer during facility-based childbirth. In 2014, the World Health Organization released a statement on the issue, endorsed by more than 80 civil society and health professional organizations worldwide.The statement acknowledges a growing body of research that shows widespread patterns of women's mistreatment during labor and delivery-physical and verbal abuse, neglect and abandonment, humiliation and punishment, coerced and forced care-in a range of health facilities from basic rural health centers to tertiary care hospitals. Moreover, the statement characterizes this mistreatment as a human rights violation. It affirms: "Every woman has the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which includes the right to dignified, respectful health care throughout pregnancy and childbirth."The WHO statement and the strong endorsement of it mark a critical turn in global maternal rights advocacy. It is a turn from the public health world of systems and resources in preventing mortality to the intimate clinical setting of patient and provider in ensuring respectful care. PMID:26204582

  20. Human rights issues and employee benefit plans.

    PubMed

    Campbell, F

    2001-03-01

    Canadians have human rights protections at both provincial and federal levels of government. At the federal level, the most important legislative enactments are the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (the "Charter") and the Canadian Human Rights Act. Provincially and territorially, human rights are legislatively safeguarded primarily by provincial human rights codes. Both federally and provincially, human rights may also be impacted by a variety of other statutes and regulations such as employment standards acts, workers' compensation acts, occupational health and safety acts, and pay equity legislation. PMID:11272516

  1. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  2. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  3. Sexual rights in southern Africa: a Beijing discourse or a strategic necessity?

    PubMed

    Klugman, B

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the meaning of sexual rights as interpreted by different stakeholders during the development of the Beijing Programme of Action and within the Southern African Development Community (SADC). It illustrates how the lack of sexual rights as understood in the African context results from poverty as well as gender inequality, particularly in sexual relationships. This lack is manifested in the circumstances surrounding the HIV/AIDS pandemic and violence against women. In the European context, in contrast, sexual rights claims are motivated specifically in relation to sexual orientation. The article explores the extent to which these different discourses are being addressed in practice in SADC member countries and the opportunities that exist for building a concrete practice of sexual rights both in the region and internationally. PMID:10796973

  4. 3 CFR 8616 - Proclamation 8616 of December 10, 2010. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8616 of December 10, 2010. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010 8616 Proclamation 8616 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8616 of December 10, 2010 Proc. 8616 Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and...

  5. Population and Human Rights, Education and Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A background paper for the Symposium on Population and Human Rights reviews the proceedings and resolutions of the United Nations Internal Conference on Human Rights of 1968, General Assembly resolutions, and relevant supporting statistics concerned with the relations of population and human rights. This information is organized into the following…

  6. Human Rights and Teaching for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    According to the author, teaching for social justice entails the acquisition of the following learning outcomes: (1) knowledge of the meaning, historical development, and application of human rights; (2) ability to analyze human rights from multiple perspectives; and (3) willingness to address human rights issues in local, global, intercultural,…

  7. Examining Human Rights in a Global Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Greg; Inoue, Keiko; Orrick, Stefanie

    The United Nations' founding in 1945 and the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights reflected the international community's growing commitment to the protection and recognition of what is now referred to as human rights. Despite increased international attention, human rights violations continue to occur at the local, regional,…

  8. Teaching Strategy: Human Rights in the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Offers a lesson in which the students investigate the media, in particular news stories, announcements, and advertisements, for evidence of attitudes on human rights. Assists students in developing an awareness of human-rights issues in everyday life and enables them to cite examples of human-rights protections and violations. (CMK)

  9. Building a Human Rights Youth Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyles, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)

  10. Human rights to in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Dickens, Bernard M; Dughman-Manzur, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (the Court) has ruled that the Supreme Court of Costa Rica's judgment in 2000 prohibiting in vitro fertilization (IVF) violated the human right to private and family life, the human right to found and raise a family, and the human right to non-discrimination on grounds of disability, financial means, or gender. The Court's conclusions of violations contrary to the American Convention on Human Rights followed from its ruling that, under the Convention, in vitro embryos are not "persons" and do not possess a right to life. Accordingly, the prohibition of IVF to protect embryos constituted a disproportionate and unjustifiable denial of infertile individuals' human rights. The Court distinguished fertilization from conception, since conception-unlike fertilization-depends on an embryo's implantation in a woman's body. Under human rights law, legal protection of an embryo "from conception" is inapplicable between its creation by fertilization and completion of its implantation in utero. PMID:23932062

  11. Human Rights within Education: Assessing the Justifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    While respect for human rights has long been endorsed as a goal of education, only recently has significant attention been paid to the need to incorporate rights within educational processes. Current support for human rights within education, however, has a variety of motivations. This paper provides a theoretical exploration of these diverse…

  12. Incorporating Human Rights into the College Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Pat

    This paper recounts development of a community college humanities course titled Human Rights/Human Wrongs: The History, Philosophy, Law, Art, and Literature of the Human Rights Movement. The author argues that a special focus, interdisciplinary course provides a broader base for exploring and understanding most of the pressing issues of our time.…

  13. Education Service Contracting in the Philippines: Human Rights as Trumps, Goals, or Policy Talk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the goals and purposes of education within the international development discourse have shifted significantly away from education for productivity or human capital development and towards education for the fulfillment of the individual through human rights. The current global education climate provides governments with an…

  14. Education Service Contracting in the Philippines: Human Rights as Trumps, Goals, or Policy Talk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the goals and purposes of education within the international development discourse have shifted significantly away from education for productivity or human capital development and towards education for the fulfillment of the individual through human rights. The current global education climate provides governments with an…

  15. Are Pharmaceutical Patents Protected By Human Rights?

    PubMed Central

    Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The International Bill of Rights enshrines a right to health, which includes a right to access essential medicines. This right frequently appears to conflict with the intellectual property regime that governs pharmaceutical patents. However, there is also a human right that protects creative works, including scientific productions. Does this right support intellectual property protections, even when they may negatively affect health? This article examines the recent attempt by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to resolve this issue and argues that it fails. This is problematic because it means defenders of the present patent regime can continue using human rights documents to support their position. I offer a new framework for resolving the problem by examining the values that underlie human rights. PMID:18974405

  16. Are pharmaceutical patents protected by human rights?

    PubMed

    Millum, J

    2008-11-01

    The International Bill of Rights enshrines a right to health, which includes a right to access essential medicines. This right frequently appears to conflict with the intellectual property regime that governs pharmaceutical patents. However, there is also a human right that protects creative works, including scientific productions. Does this right support intellectual property protections, even when they may negatively affect health? This article examines the recent attempt by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to resolve this issue and argues that it fails. This is problematic because it means defenders of the present patent regime can continue using human rights documents to support their position. I offer a new framework for resolving the problem by examining the values that underlie human rights. PMID:18974405

  17. Is there a human right to private health care?

    PubMed

    Gross, Aeyal

    2013-01-01

    In recent years we have noticed an increase in the turn to rights analysis in litigation relating to access to health care. Examining litigation, we can notice a contradiction between on the one hand the ability of the right to health to reinforce privatization and commodification of health care, by rearticulating claims to private health care in terms of human rights, and on the other hand, its ability to reinforce and reinstate public values, especially that of equality, against the background of privatization and commodification. While many hope that rights discourse will do the latter, and secure that access to health care should occur on the basis of need as opposed to ability to pay, it has actually been used to attempt to advance arguments that will allow access to private or semiprivate health insurance in ways that may exacerbate inequality. These types of arguments won ground in the Canadian Supreme Court, but were rejected by the Israeli Supreme Court. In order to avoid this co-optation of right to health, a notion of rights that incorporates the principles of substantive equality is required. Otherwise, one of the unintended consequences of inserting rights analysis into public health care may be that it will reinforce rather than challenge privatization in a way that may increase inequalities. PMID:23581662

  18. Coarse coding and discourse comprehension in adults with right hemisphere brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Connie A.; Scharp, Victoria L.; Meigh, Kimberly M.; Fassbinder, Wiltrud

    2009-01-01

    Background Various investigators suggest that some discourse-level comprehension difficulties in adults with right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) have a lexical-semantic basis. As words are processed, the intact right hemisphere arouses and sustains activation of a wide-ranging network of secondary or peripheral meanings and features—a phenomenon dubbed “coarse coding”. Coarse coding impairment has been postulated to underpin some prototypical RHD comprehension deficits, such as difficulties with nonliteral language interpretation, discourse integration, some kinds of inference generation, and recovery when a reinterpretation is needed. To date, however, no studies have addressed the hypothesised link between coarse coding deficit and discourse comprehension in RHD. Aims The current investigation examined whether coarse coding was related to performance on two measures of narrative comprehension in adults with RHD. Methods & Procedures Participants were 32 adults with unilateral RHD from cerebrovascular accident, and 38 adults without brain damage. Coarse coding was operationalised as poor activation of peripheral/weakly related semantic features of words. For the coarse coding assessment, participants listened to spoken sentences that ended in a concrete noun. Each sentence was followed by a spoken target phoneme string. Targets were subordinate semantic features of the sentence-final nouns that were incompatible with their dominant mental representations (e.g., “rotten” for apple). Targets were presented at two post-noun intervals. A lexical decision task was used to gauge both early activation and maintenance of activation of these weakly related semantic features. One of the narrative tasks assessed comprehension of implied main ideas and details, while the other indexed high-level inferencing and integration. Both comprehension tasks were presented auditorily. For all tasks, accuracy of performance was the dependent measure. Correlations were computed within the RHD group between both the early and late coarse coding measures and the two discourse measures. Additionally, ANCOVA and independent t-tests were used to compare both early and sustained coarse coding in subgroups of good and poor RHD comprehenders. Outcomes & Results The group with RHD was less accurate than the control group on all measures. The finding of coarse coding impairment (difficulty activating/sustaining activation of a word’s peripheral features) may appear to contradict prior evidence of RHD suppression deficit (prolonged activation for context-inappropriate meanings of words). However, the sentence contexts in this study were unbiased and thus did not provide an appropriate test of suppression function. Correlations between coarse coding and the discourse measures were small and nonsignificant. There were no differences in coarse coding between RHD comprehension subgroups on the high-level inferencing task. There was also no distinction in early coarse coding for subgroups based on comprehension of implied main ideas and details. But for these same subgroups, there was a difference in sustained coarse coding. Poorer RHD comprehenders of implied information from discourse were also poorer at maintaining activation for semantically distant features of concrete nouns. Conclusions This study provides evidence of a variant of the postulated link between coarse coding and discourse comprehension in RHD. Specifically, adults with RHD who were particularly poor at sustaining activation for peripheral semantic features of nouns were also relatively poor comprehenders of implied information from narratives. PMID:20037670

  19. On Human Dignity: The Need for Human Rights Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibbitts, Felisa

    1996-01-01

    Describes recent developments and resources in the rapidly growing field of human rights education. Explains the importance of teaching this subject with a global perspective. Includes a human rights lesson plan, student exercises, and a list of selected resources. (MJP)

  20. Men and talk about legal abortion in South Africa: equality, support and rights discourses undermining reproductive 'choice'.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Catriona Ida; Hansjee, Jateen

    2013-01-01

    Discursive constructions of abortion are embedded in the social and gendered power relations of a particular socio-historical space. As part of research on public discourses concerning abortion in South Africa where there has been a radical liberalisation of abortion legislation, we collected data from male group discussions about a vignette concerning abortion, and newspaper articles written by men about abortion. Our analysis revealed how discourses of equality, support and rights may be used by men to subtly undermine women's reproductive right to 'choose' an abortion. Within an Equal Partnership discourse, abortion, paired with the assumption of foetal personhood, was equated with violating an equal heterosexual partnership and a man's patriarchal duty to protect a child. A New Man discourse, which positions men as supportive of women, was paired with the assumption of men as rational and women as irrational in decision-making, to allow for the possibility of men dissuading women from terminating a pregnancy. A Rights discourse was invoked to suggest that abortion violates men's paternal rights. PMID:23768420

  1. [Human rights of the physician].

    PubMed

    García-Romero, H

    1995-01-01

    The physician rights may be classified in those related with his quality as a person, and those derived from his relationship with his patients and the institution to which he belongs. Among the first, liberty of expression, legal security, right of free association, the right of a dignified social position and neutral attitude towards the commitment of giving medical attention to whomever the patient may be. He has the right to receive a full and up-to-date training oriented to serve the community, supported by health institutions, and to have the means of utmost quality to give medical attention of the highest standard. PMID:8549918

  2. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    PubMed

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within-and consistent with-a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights-such as autonomy and privacy-unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. PMID:26567383

  3. Ritual male infant circumcision and human rights.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Allan J; Arora, Kavita Shah

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of male circumcision have increasingly used human rights positions to articulate their viewpoint. We characterize the meaning of the term "human rights." We discuss these human rights arguments with special attention to the claims of rights to an open future and to bodily integrity. We offer a three-part test under which a parental decision might be considered an unacceptable violation of a child's right. The test considers the impact of the practice on society, the impact of the practice on the individual, and the likelihood of adverse impact. Infant circumcision is permissible under this test. We conclude that infant circumcision may be proscribed as violating local norms, even though it does not violate human rights. PMID:25674955

  4. A human rights framework for midwifery care.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Joyce Beebe

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a rights-based model for midwifery care of women and childbearing families. Salient features include discussion of the influence of values on how women are viewed within cultures and societies, universal ethical principles applicable to health care services, and human rights based on the view of women as persons rather than as objects or chattel. Examples of the health impact on women of persistent violation of basic human rights are used to support the need for using a human rights framework for midwifery care--a model supported by codes of ethics, the midwifery philosophy of care, and standards of practice. PMID:15134669

  5. Diversity, Human Rights, and Curriculum in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Neyda H.

    Although a discussion of human rights is perhaps the most important topic of any social studies curriculum, such discussions are absent from even those curriculum topics where they would seem most appropriate. While the foundational principles of human rights are basic in all cultures throughout history, these basics are seldom taught. This paper…

  6. Are (Should) Human Rights (Be) Universal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rhoda E.

    1998-01-01

    Believes that the purpose of human rights is to change many culturally ingrained habits and customs that violate the dignity of the individual. Expounds the differences between cultural relativism and cultural absolutism. States that "weak" cultural relativism is sometimes an appropriate response to human-rights violations. (CMK)

  7. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647

  8. Model Curriculum for Human Rights and Genocide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Board of Education, Sacramento.

    Concern for human rights is a major element in the California State Board of Education's "History-Social Science Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten through Grade Twelve," and this document contains resources and guidelines to help teachers and curriculum developers integrate the teaching of human rights into their courses. Part…

  9. International Human Rights and International Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buergenthal, Thomas; Torney, Judith V.

    The purpose of this book is to raise the level of awareness and understanding of educators concerning the issues, problems, and efforts in international human rights. Intended for teachers, administrators, and curriculum writers, the book discusses human rights activities of international and regional organizations, principles of international…

  10. Human Rights, Diversity, and Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a propitious time for educators to examine its implications for educating citizens in multicultural nation states. The author argues that students must experience democratic classrooms and schools that reflect their cultures and identities to internalize human rights values,…

  11. Toward a Postmodern Notion of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhihe

    2002-01-01

    The idea of human rights has increasingly been playing a very important part in people's contemporary life, the political in particular, the cultural in general. This explains why Dr. Griffin in "Beyond Anarchy and Plutocracy: the need for global democracy" includes a chapter on human rights. "My contention," Dr. Griffin writes, "is that now, in…

  12. The European Convention on Human Rights. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castberg, Frede

    This book outlines the contents of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and its Protocols 1 and 4. The major goal of the Convention, which constitutes an innovation in international law, is to guarantee the protection of "human rights" by allowing both member states and individuals to institute proceedings…

  13. A Systemwide Program of Human Rights Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Bonne Sue; Schniedewind, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    Shoreham-Wading (New York) River School Distict's long-term goal is to build awareness of human rights into teachers' and students' daily activities. Staff workshops and planned human rights activities help school community members explore preconceived beliefs and attitudes and develop personal power, group support, and critical awareness. An…

  14. Producing Neoliberal Citizens: Critical Reflections on Human Rights Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoja-Moolji, Shenila

    2014-01-01

    This paper challenges the celebratory uptake of human rights education (HRE) in postcolonial contexts by making visible the ideological and political entanglements of the discourse with neoliberal assumptions of citizenship. I draw evidence from, and critically reflect on, a specific HRE programme--a series of summer camps for girls entitled,…

  15. Human Rights in Social Science Textbooks: Cross-National Analyses, 1970-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John W.; Bromley, Patricia; Ramirez, Francisco O.

    2010-01-01

    In reaction to the disasters of the first half the 20th century and World War II, a dramatic world movement arose emphasizing the human rights of persons in global society. The contrast--celebrated in international treaties, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, and much cultural discourse--was with narrower world emphases on the…

  16. Producing Neoliberal Citizens: Critical Reflections on Human Rights Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoja-Moolji, Shenila

    2014-01-01

    This paper challenges the celebratory uptake of human rights education (HRE) in postcolonial contexts by making visible the ideological and political entanglements of the discourse with neoliberal assumptions of citizenship. I draw evidence from, and critically reflect on, a specific HRE programme--a series of summer camps for girls entitled,…

  17. Uneasy promises: sexuality, health, and human rights.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A M

    2001-01-01

    Although attention to the links between health and human rights is growing globally, the full potential of a progressive human rights approach to health has not yet been explored, and it is even more faintly understood in the United States than in the rest of the world. At the same time, global claims for sexual rights, particularly for those identifying as gay, lesbian, transsexual, or bisexual, are increasingly being made as human rights claims. All of these approaches to rights advocacy risk limiting their own transformative impact unless advocates critique their own strategies. Paradoxically, using health as a way to bring attention to nonheteronormative sexualities can be both helpful and potentially dangerous, especially when coupled with human rights. Recognizing sexuality as a critical element of humanity, and establishing a fundamental human right to health, can play a role in broader social justice claims, but the tendency of both public health and human rights advocacy to "normalize" and regulate must be scrutinized and challenged. PMID:11392922

  18. Transformative combinations: women's health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Yamin, A E

    1997-01-01

    From the human rights perspective proposed in this article, a woman's good or ill health reflects more than biology or individual behaviors; it reflects her enjoyment (or lack thereof) of fundamental human rights that enable her to exercise basic power over the course and quality of her life. The "structural" view of health that such a human rights perspective suggests is concerned first with identifying the effects of social, economic, and political relations on women's health and then with promoting "interventions" aimed at transforming the laws, institutions, and structures that deny women's rights and well-being. Yet, traditional human rights law and practice have been limited to narrowly defined abuses by public officials against individuals that fail to capture the most pervasive denials of women's rights, which, though rooted in systematic discrimination, are frequently played out in so-called "private" institutions, primarily within the family. The experiences of women's health advocates in addressing complex women's health issues makes it clear that women's lack of access to economic and political power in the public sphere creates the conditions under which they are discriminated against and physically and sexually abused in the private sphere. Combining the pragmatic understanding of women's health professionals with an expansive conception of human rights norms has the potential to transform the fields of women's health and human rights. PMID:9354045

  19. The Right to Fair and Equal Treatment: A Straightforward Guide to Human Rights and the Canadian Human Rights Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    G. Allan Roeher Inst., Toronto (Ontario).

    This book, written in simple language, explains the Canadian Human Rights Act and how and when it can be used to assist individuals with mental handicaps. The book is designed to help people learn their rights as citizens of Canada and learn that if something wrong is done to them they can do something to change it. It explains what human rights…

  20. "Sphere" as a Gendered Space: Cognitive Linguistic Models of Conceptual Metaphor and Embodiment in Nineteenth-Century Women's Rights Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carol Lynn Kay

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes an approach to understanding the cognitive models underlying rhetorical arguments about the "first wave" of women's rights discourse in the United States, which began to emerge more publically with the Seneca Falls convention in 1848 and started to gain momentum in 1851 and beyond. The usage of the lexical item "sphere" (in…

  1. "Sphere" as a Gendered Space: Cognitive Linguistic Models of Conceptual Metaphor and Embodiment in Nineteenth-Century Women's Rights Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carol Lynn Kay

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes an approach to understanding the cognitive models underlying rhetorical arguments about the "first wave" of women's rights discourse in the United States, which began to emerge more publically with the Seneca Falls convention in 1848 and started to gain momentum in 1851 and beyond. The usage of the lexical item "sphere" (in…

  2. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2014-03-01

    The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws. PMID:24714897

  3. Bioethics and international human rights.

    PubMed

    Thomasma, D C

    1997-01-01

    Noting how the spread of medical technology is creating clashes with traditional values and within cultures, the author addresses the clash between Western rights-based incentives, as used by the United Nations to guarantee respect for life and dignity, and communitarian traditions. He proposes a mean between wholesale cultural relativism and international absolutism. PMID:11066512

  4. Human Rights in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Information Service, New York, NY. Reference Div.

    This pamphlet uses the Articles of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a framework within which to describe legal safeguards of individual rights in the United Kingdom. Under each article of the Declaration, a historical perspective of the tradition of civil liberties is provided, as are descriptions of recent trends and…

  5. Human Language Rights: An Islamic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdussalam, Ahmad Shehu

    1998-01-01

    Argues that Islam considers language a human right that must be guaranteed for all people due to language's advantageous effect on sociocultural relations. Denotes "right" as any action whose fulfillment might cause advantage or prevent damage to individuals or societies; and emphasizes that it is natural for individuals to use the language of…

  6. Human Rights Problems in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubert, Judah L.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the three categories of the overall Soviet human rights movement: that of the Jewish community, that which is comprised of the numerous Christian sects, and the component comprised of Soviet intellectual dissidents. (JM)

  7. The Right to Development: Construction of a Non-Agriculturalist Discourse of Rurality in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2004-01-01

    The paper argues for the existence of two powerful discourses of rurality in Denmark after World War II. The first one is termed the modernist-agriculturalist discourse. Although still influential in the current public debate, in Denmark as well as in other Western European countries, this discourse of rurality had its heyday in the 1960s. It is…

  8. Backlash or equality?: The influence of men's and women's rights discourses on domestic violence legislation in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Girard, April L

    2009-01-01

    Through an examination of the public debates from Ontario's Bill 117, An Act to Better Protect Victims of Domestic Violence, this article explores the discourses that men's rights activists used to counter feminist constructions of domestic violence. Using a combined method, the author collapses the data into four important themes: protection, rights, and gender; funding and fairness; numerical and statistical truths; and resistance. By examining how they collectively construct the problem of domestic violence, the author exposes the ways in which men's rights advocates disqualify women's experiences and the responses to such claims. PMID:19015392

  9. Human Rights Texts: Converting Human Rights Primary Source Documents into Data

    PubMed Central

    Fariss, Christopher J.; Linder, Fridolin J.; Jones, Zachary M.; Crabtree, Charles D.; Biek, Megan A.; Ross, Ana-Sophia M.; Kaur, Taranamol; Tsai, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and make publicly available a large corpus of digitized primary source human rights documents which are published annually by monitoring agencies that include Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, and the United States Department of State. In addition to the digitized text, we also make available and describe document-term matrices, which are datasets that systematically organize the word counts from each unique document by each unique term within the corpus of human rights documents. To contextualize the importance of this corpus, we describe the development of coding procedures in the human rights community and several existing categorical indicators that have been created by human coding of the human rights documents contained in the corpus. We then discuss how the new human rights corpus and the existing human rights datasets can be used with a variety of statistical analyses and machine learning algorithms to help scholars understand how human rights practices and reporting have evolved over time. We close with a discussion of our plans for dataset maintenance, updating, and availability. PMID:26418817

  10. Human rights and implications for managers.

    PubMed

    Bunner, K L

    1994-01-01

    Although the Canadian Human Rights Act was enacted in 1977 and The Charter of Rights and Freedoms was introduced in 1981, a paucity of Canadian literature regarding their implications for nursing managers is apparent. The modern nursing unit manager is faced with a variety of decisions pertaining to employment, performance evaluations, and delegation of responsibilities, which if not sensitively and fairly handled may expose the manager and the organization to non-defensible vulnerabilities. This paper briefly reviews pertinent human rights issues in the nursing setting and the effect of human rights considerations on the management of a nursing unit. Discrimination, harassment, the hiring process, performance appraisal and discipline are discussed along with recommendations regarding mandatory inservices for managers. PMID:7918510

  11. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    PubMed

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded. PMID:16446412

  12. Human Rights Education and Training for Professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreopoulos, George

    2002-07-01

    Although human rights education (HRE) has a long history, it has only recently begun to realize its transformative potential. A critical catalyst in this process is the emerging global ethos of accountability. Within this context, HRE can play a crucial role in the construction of a universal culture of human rights, inspired by a shared commitment to a humane order and a belief that human beings have both the capacity and the responsibility to make a difference. In such an effort, the training of professionals is vital, especially of those professionals who can influence public debate on accountability and governance. Innovative HRE initiatives, characterized by a commitment to experiential learning and to international and regional cooperation among state and non-state actors, constitute a step in the right direction.

  13. Foetus or child? Abortion discourse and attributions of humanness.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczak, Małgorzata; Bilewicz, Michał

    2015-09-01

    Due to moral, religious, and cultural sensibilities, the topic of abortion still gives rise to controversy. The ongoing public debate has become visibly polarized with the usage of the pro-life versus pro-choice rhetoric. The aim of the current research was to investigate whether the language used in abortion discourse can affect people's attitudes by changing their attributions of humanity to unborn. Across three experimental studies we showed that participants who read about a 'foetus', compared to a 'child' declared higher support for elective abortion (Study 1; N = 108), this effect can be explained by greater humanness, as reflected in human nature traits, attributed to the child (vs. the foetus; Study 2; N = 121). The effect is mediated uniquely by attribution of human nature, but not by human uniqueness traits (Study 3; N = 120). These findings serve as a starting point for discussion of the role of language in shaping attitudes on abortion and other morally ambiguous issues. PMID:25418861

  14. The Human Right to Access Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, Stephen

    2006-04-15

    Electricity access is already well established within the framework of human rights, either as an implicit attribute of a pre-existing right (such as non-discrimination or sustainable development) or explicitly in the context of eliminating discrimination against women. There is also broad acknowledgement by states of the desirability of eliminating energy poverty - for all, but particularly for the rural poor, and women. (author)

  15. Gender Violence: A Development and Human Rights Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Charlotte; Carrillo, Roxanna

    This document includes two articles describing the failure of the international human rights movement to consider or remedy the situation of women outside of the basic demand for political rights of people in general. The first article, "Women's Rights as Human Rights: Toward a Re-Vision of Human Rights" (Charlotte Bunch), emphasizes the…

  16. Human Rights: Respecting Our Differences, Teachers' Manual [And] Human Rights: Respecting Our Differences, Students' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCardle, Elizabeth, Ed.

    This unit on human rights designed for secondary students in Alberta, Canada includes both student and teacher manuals. Eleven chapters in the student manual examine what human rights are, the causes and effects of prejudice and discrimination, relevant laws, and social action. Each chapter includes readings followed by discussion questions and…

  17. Educating for Human Dignity: Learning about Rights and Responsibilities. Pennsylvania Studies in Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty A.

    This book is written for both teachers and teacher educators to use in addressing issues of human rights. The conceptual development approach used throughout the book makes it suitable for a full human rights curriculum; the grade-level discussions and sample lesson plans also can be used in individual classes or to enrich ongoing programs. The…

  18. Interdependence, Human Rights and Global Health Law.

    PubMed

    Viens, A M

    2015-12-01

    The connection between health and human rights continues to play a prominent role within global health law. In particular, a number of theorists rely on the claim that there is a relation of interdependence between health and human rights. The nature and extent of this relation, however, is rarely defined, developed or defended in a conceptually robust way. This paper seeks to explore the source, scope and strength of this putative relation and what role it might play in developing a global health law framework. PMID:26240020

  19. New Right Students?: Exploring High Achieving British University Students' Discourses of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canaan, Joyce E.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the discourses working-class students at a university in Britain have about learning. The discourses include ideas about who is a good student, education as an investment, and marking. Students incorporate, in part, both neo-liberal and neo-conservative economic and political views into their perceptions of who should…

  20. Human rights, bioethics, and mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Fennell, Phil

    2008-03-01

    This article considers the international human rights instruments which set minimum standards for the content and use of mental health legislation, and the extent to which they represent 'hard law' (binding and enforceable in domestic or international courts) or 'soft law' which is not strictly binding in the same sense but which may provide persuasive authority or may be used in debate to embarrass a Government into compliance. The article considers the extent to which these various instruments impose both 'negative obligations' on states not to interfere with rights such as physical integrity or protection against arbitrary detention and 'positive' obligations on states to take positive steps to uphold the rights of individuals. The article on the case law under the European Convention on Human Rights showing how 'soft law' sources are increasingly used by the Strasbourg Court as aids to construing the scope of Convention rights. The article concludes by suggesting that whilst mentally disordered people may be afforded different treatment in relation to general bioethics instruments on the international plane, they are also entitled to rights under Disability Conventions which enjoin states to take positive steps to promote equal treatment, social inclusion and protection against discrimination and stigma. PMID:18592884

  1. Gendering Corporal Punishment: Beyond the Discourse of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Sara

    2008-01-01

    In the last few years the Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children has been gathering momentum, with a submission to "The United Nations Secretary General's study on violence against children" the most recent addition to the cause. Nevertheless, corporal punishment in schools is still condoned in many countries and its practice…

  2. The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Federico

    2003-01-01

    Since 1985, UNESCO studies ethical questions arising in genetics. In 1992, I established the International Bioethics Committee at UNESCO with the mission to draft the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, which was adopted by UNESCO in 1997 and the United Nations in 1998. The Declaration relates the human genome with human dignity, deals with the rights of the persons concerned by human genome research and provides a reference legal framework for both stimulating the ethical debate and the harmonization of the law worldwide, favouring useful developments that respect human dignity. PMID:14744123

  3. Human Rights and Foreign Policy. Headline Series 241.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Charles

    A discussion is presented of the meaning of human rights, implications of human rights for foreign policy, and obstacles to its realization on a global scale. Chapter I identifies human rights as a critical issue, commends President Carter's initiative in this area, and points out difficulties of implementing a human rights policy. Chapter II…

  4. Human Rights and Religion in the English Secondary RE Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowie, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between religion and human rights is an ambiguous and complex one, but there are academic, moral and political arguments for the inclusion of human rights in religious education (RE). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights advocates education in human rights and the English school curriculum aims to encourage a commitment to…

  5. Human Rights and Religion in the English Secondary RE Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowie, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between religion and human rights is an ambiguous and complex one, but there are academic, moral and political arguments for the inclusion of human rights in religious education (RE). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights advocates education in human rights and the English school curriculum aims to encourage a commitment to…

  6. A Human Rights Crisis in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a human rights crisis in Indian Country. This crisis--one of many--is the result of an almost universal lack of legal representation of Native people when they appear as defendants in tribal courts. The lack of lay advocates and attorneys representing Native defendants creates tremendous problems for tribal members who find themselves in…

  7. Human Rights and Cosmopolitan Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snauwaert, Dale T.

    2009-01-01

    The foundation upon which this discussion is based is the basic nature of democracy as both a political and moral ideal. Democracy can be understood as a system of rights premised upon the logic of equality. At its core is a fundamental belief in moral equality, a belief that all human beings possess an equal inherent dignity or worth. The ideal…

  8. Academic Freedom 3: Education and Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of reports gives a picture of educational systems from a human rights perspective, monitoring academic freedom in the context of freedom of thought and freedom of opinion and expression. The World University Service's Lima Declaration on Academic Freedom and Autonomy of Institutions of Higher Education of 1988 is used as the…

  9. The Struggle for Human Rights in Myanmar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The non-violent participation of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhist monks in resistance efforts to advocate for the welfare of Myanmar's people has played an important role in educating the world about human rights violations in the country. Faced with international condemnation, Myanmar's junta released Aung San Suu Kyi from…

  10. A Human Rights Crisis in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a human rights crisis in Indian Country. This crisis--one of many--is the result of an almost universal lack of legal representation of Native people when they appear as defendants in tribal courts. The lack of lay advocates and attorneys representing Native defendants creates tremendous problems for tribal members who find themselves in…

  11. Bibliography of Human Rights: High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detroit Public Schools, MI. Dept. of School Libraries.

    This annotated bibliography targeted toward high school students includes entries that reflect a variety of social, political and cultural issues in the history of human rights in the United States. Among the major topics represented are the changing roles and opportunities of women, the immigration and acculturation of various ethnic groups, and…

  12. The Struggle for Human Rights in Myanmar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The non-violent participation of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhist monks in resistance efforts to advocate for the welfare of Myanmar's people has played an important role in educating the world about human rights violations in the country. Faced with international condemnation, Myanmar's junta released Aung San Suu Kyi from…

  13. Academic Freedom 3: Education and Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of reports gives a picture of educational systems from a human rights perspective, monitoring academic freedom in the context of freedom of thought and freedom of opinion and expression. The World University Service's Lima Declaration on Academic Freedom and Autonomy of Institutions of Higher Education of 1988 is used as the…

  14. Advancing palliative care as a human right.

    PubMed

    Gwyther, Liz; Brennan, Frank; Harding, Richard

    2009-11-01

    The international palliative care community has articulated a simple but challenging proposition that palliative care is an international human right. International human rights covenants and the discipline of palliative care have, as common themes, the inherent dignity of the individual and the principles of universality and nondiscrimination. However, when we consider the evidence for the effectiveness of palliative care, the lack of palliative care provision for those who may benefit from it is of grave concern. Three disciplines (palliative care, public health, and human rights) are now interacting with a growing resonance. The maturing of palliative care as a clinical specialty and academic discipline has coincided with the development of a public health approach to global and community-wide health problems. The care of the dying is a public health issue. Given that death is both inevitable and universal, the care of people with life-limiting illness stands equal to all other public health issues. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) includes the right to health care and General Comment 14 (paragraph 34) CESCR stipulates that "States are under the obligation to respect the right to health by, inter alia, refraining from denying or limiting equal access for all persons, ... to preventive, curative and palliative health services." However, these rights are seen to be aspirational-rights to be achieved progressively over time by each signatory nation to the maximum capacity of their available resources. Although a government may use insufficient resources as a justification for inadequacies of its response to palliative care and pain management, General Comment 14 set out "core obligations" and "obligations of comparable priority" in the provision of health care and placed the burden on governments to justify "that every effort has nevertheless been made to use all available resources at its disposal in order to satisfy, as a matter of priority, [these] obligations." This article describes recent advocacy activities and explores practical strategies for the palliative care community to use within a human rights framework to advance palliative care development worldwide. PMID:19783399

  15. 3 CFR 8915 - Proclamation 8915 of December 10, 2012. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proclamation 8915 of December 10, 2012. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2012 8915 Proclamation 8915 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8915 of December 10, 2012 Proc. 8915 Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2012By the President of the United States of America A...

  16. 3 CFR 8464 - Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human Rights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., the United Nations General Assembly approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, declaring the..., justice and peace in the world.” This self-evident truth guides us today. Although every country...

  17. Working together for health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Sidel, V W

    2000-01-01

    The right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being is being denied to vast numbers of people all over the world through increasing disparities in income and in wealth. In the name of economic development, a number of international and national policies have increased the grossly uneven distribution of income, with ever-growing numbers of people living in poverty as well as in increasing depths of poverty. Globalization, crippling levels of external debt, and the 'structural adjustment' policies of international agencies have expanded the numbers and the suffering of people living in poverty and have resulted in the neglect of government-funded social programs, of regulations protecting the environment, and of human development. Access to medical care, an essential element in the protection of health, is difficult for many, including the 44 million people in the United States who lack insurance coverage for the cost of medical care services. Working together for health and human rights also requires promotion of the right to peace. The right to life and health is threatened not only by the existence and active deployment of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and anti-personnel landmines, but also other weapons. The twentieth century has been the bloodiest in human history, with an estimated 250 wars, more than 110 million people killed, countless people wounded and at the least 50 million refugees. Health workers must work together with people in our communities for the promotion of health and human rights, which, in Sandwell and elsewhere, are inextricably intertwined. PMID:11130630

  18. Education Is a Human Right. EI Barometer on Human and Trade Union Rights in the Education Sector, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Michael A.

    This 2001 edition of Educational International's (EI) "Barometer on Trade Union and Human Rights in the Education Sector" focuses on four fundamental human rights: (1) the right to education; (2) academic freedom; (3) children's right to be protected from exploitation; and (4) workers' rights to form and join trade unions and to organize and…

  19. Property rights in human gametes in Australia.

    PubMed

    White, Vanessa

    2013-03-01

    It has long been a basic tenet of the common law that there can be no property interest in human bodies or body parts. However, exceptions to the rule have been recognised from the mid-19th century and developed over time. In the early 21st century, there have been interesting developments in the common law of Australia and England, with Australian Supreme Court judges and the English Court of Appeal casting aside existing exceptions, and finding property rights in human body parts, including gametes, by relying instead on a "rational" and "logical" basis to identify property interests in human body parts. PMID:23600194

  20. Human rights and immigrants' access to care.

    PubMed

    Parmet, Wendy; Fischer, Simon

    2013-12-01

    Although the human right to health is well established under international law, many states limit non-citizens' participation in public insurance programs. In the United States, immigrants face especially high barriers due to the lack of recognition of a broad right to health as well as federal statutes restricting many immigrants' eligibility to federally-funded insurance. High rates of uninsurance among immigrants have a detrimental effect on their health, as well as on the health of citizens who live in their communities. Finch vs. Commonwealth Health Insurance Connector, a recent case decided by the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, recognized the rights of legal immigrants in Massachusetts to state-supported health care, and demonstrates the importance of insuring immigrants in broadly-based, rather than immigrant-specific, programs. PMID:24715016

  1. The Impact of Human Rights on Universalizing Health Care in Vermont, USA.

    PubMed

    MacNaughton, Gillian; Haigh, Fiona; McGill, Mariah; Koutsioumpas, Konstantinos; Sprague, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, Vermont adopted a new law embracing human rights principles as guidelines for health care reform, and in 2011, Vermont was the first state in the US to enact framework legislation to establish a universal health care system for all its residents. This article reports on the Vermont Workers' Center's human rights-based approach to universal health care and the extent to which this approach influenced decision makers. We found the following: (1) by learning about the human right to health care and sharing experiences, Vermonters were motivated to demand universal health care; (2) mobilizing Vermonters around a unified message on the right to health care made universal health care politically important; (3) using the human rights framework to assess new proposals enabled the Vermont Workers' Center to respond quickly to new policy proposals; (4) framing health care as a human right provided an alternative to the dominant economics-based discourse; and (5) while economics continues to dominate discussions among Vermont leaders, both legislative committees on health care use the human rights principles as guiding norms for health care reform. Importantly, the principles have empowered Vermonters by giving them more voice in policymaking and have been internalized by legislators as democratic principles of governance. PMID:26766864

  2. Climate Change, Human Rights, and Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect human rights, promote social justice, and avoid creating new problems or exacerbating existing problems for vulnerable populations. PMID:26615065

  3. Globalisation and health inequalities: can a human rights paradigm create space for civil society action?

    PubMed

    London, Leslie; Schneider, Helen

    2012-01-01

    While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of human rights discourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states' ability to act in their population's interests, yet implementation of human rights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central to the actions required of the state to build a health system based on a human rights approach is the notion of accountability. Two case studies are used to explore the constraints on states meeting their human rights obligations regarding health, the first drawing on data from interviews with parliamentarians responsible for health in East and Southern Africa, and the second reflecting on the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The case studies illustrate the importance of a human rights paradigm in strengthening parliamentary oversight over the executive in ways that prioritise pro-poor protections and in increasing leverage for resources for the health sector within parliamentary processes. Further, a rights framework creates the space for civil society action to engage with the legislature to hold public officials accountable and confirms the importance of rights as enabling civil society mobilization, reinforcing community agency to advance health rights for poor communities. In this context, critical assessment of state incapacity to meet claims to health rights raises questions as to the diffusion of accountability rife under modern international aid systems. Such diffusion of accountability opens the door to 'cunning' states to deflect rights claims of their populations. We argue that human rights, as both a normative framework for legal challenges and as a means to create room for active civil society engagement provide a means to contest both the real and the purported constraints imposed by globalisation. PMID:21511377

  4. Evolution of Human Rights in the Age of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hron, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    Considers how biotechnology affects human-rights issues; in particular, the need for reexamining concerns about reproductive technology, the rights of indigenous peoples, and the rights of future generations. Maintains that the new areas for human-rights discussions, such as germ-line manipulation and genetic screening, are unprecedented concerns…

  5. Influence of health rights discourses and community organizing on equitable access to health: the case of HIV, tuberculosis and cancer in Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The right to health is recognized as a fundamental human right. Social participation is implied in the fulfillment of health rights since Alma Ata posited its relevance for successful health programs, although a wide range of interpretations has been observed for this term. While Peruvian law recognizes community and social participation in health, it was the GFATM requirement of mixed public-civil society participation in Country Coordination Mechanisms (CCM) for proposal submission what effectively led to formal community involvement in the national response to HIV and, to a lesser extent, tuberculosis. This has not been the case, however, for other chronic diseases in Peru. This study aims to describe and compare the role of health rights discourse and community involvement in the national response to HIV, tuberculosis and cancer. Methods Key health policy documents were identified and analyzed. In-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders, representatives of civil society organizations (CSO), and leaders of organizations of people affected by HIV, cancer and tuberculosis. Results and discussion A health rights discourse, well established in the HIV field, is expanding to general health discussions and to the tuberculosis (TB) field in particular. Both HIV and TB programs have National Multisectoral Strategic Plans and recognize participation of affected communities’ organizations. Similar mechanisms are non-existent for cancer or other disease-focused programs, although other affected patients are starting some organization efforts. Interviewees agreed that reaching the achievements of HIV mobilization is difficult for other diseases, since the HIV response was modeled based on a global movement with strong networks and advocacy mechanisms, eventually succeeding in the establishment of financial sources like the GFATM. Nevertheless, organizations linked to cancer and other diseases are building a National Patient Network to defend health rights. Conclusions There are new efforts to promote and protect health rights in Peru, probably inspired by the achievements of organizations of people living with HIV (PLHA). The public health sector must consolidate the participation of affected communities’ organizations in decision-making processes and implementation of health programs. PLHA organizations have become a key political and social actor in Peruvian public health policy. PMID:23683817

  6. Pain management: a fundamental human right.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Frank; Carr, Daniel B; Cousins, Michael

    2007-07-01

    This article surveys worldwide medical, ethical, and legal trends and initiatives related to the concept of pain management as a human right. This concept recently gained momentum with the 2004 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Chapters-, International Association for the Study of Pain- and World Health Organization-sponsored "Global Day Against Pain," where it was adopted as a central theme. We survey the scope of the problem of unrelieved pain in three areas, acute pain, chronic noncancer pain, and cancer pain, and outline the adverse physical and psychological effects and social and economic costs of untreated pain. Reasons for deficiencies in pain management include cultural, societal, religious, and political attitudes, including acceptance of torture. The biomedical model of disease, focused on pathophysiology rather than quality of life, reinforces entrenched attitudes that marginalize pain management as a priority. Strategies currently applied for improvement include framing pain management as an ethical issue; promoting pain management as a legal right, providing constitutional guarantees and statutory regulations that span negligence law, criminal law, and elder abuse; defining pain management as a fundamental human right, categorizing failure to provide pain management as professional misconduct, and issuing guidelines and standards of practice by professional bodies. The role of the World Health Organization is discussed, particularly with respect to opioid availability for pain management. We conclude that, because pain management is the subject of many initiatives within the disciplines of medicine, ethics and law, we are at an "inflection point" in which unreasonable failure to treat pain is viewed worldwide as poor medicine, unethical practice, and an abrogation of a fundamental human right. PMID:17578977

  7. Are evolving human rights harmless? An examination of English legislation, prostitution and its effect on human relatedness.

    PubMed

    Westin, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses key philosophical and social questions that shape the contemporary discourse on prostitution. The initial section outlines the contemporary challenges facing legislative practice on prostitution in England. This involves analysing moral and legal framework surrounding prostitution that has made the current legislative dilemma surrounding prostitution practice possible. The second part of the paper then outlines the history of the philosophy of human rights from Aquinas to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). The paper concludes by analysing whether the current ontology employed by human rights theory is effective in creating a system of just relatedness between agents, made visible in concrete legislative guidance. I argue that legislation guided by a fragmented teleology and ontological anthropology enables asymmetrical patterns of relatedness that can cause genuine physical and psychological harm to individuals. PMID:25344012

  8. The Human Rights Education Handbook: Effective Practices for Learning, Action, and Change. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Nancy

    Conveying the "common language of humanity" is the whole purpose of human rights education. Concerned citizens need to understand and embrace the fundamental principles of human dignity and equality and accept the personal responsibility to defend the rights of all people. This handbook is intended to help people who care about human rights to…

  9. Human Rights Education Standards for Teachers and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Todd

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a set of human rights education standards for classroom teachers and, by implication, outcomes for teacher preparation programs. The discussion includes a brief description of human rights education and concludes with recommendations for teacher preparation programs.

  10. Human Rights Review Manual: Behavioral Treatment and Review System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Larry K.; Singer, George S.

    Human rights review is a process by which agencies assure that an intrusive behavioral program is appropriate in a given case. Methods are described for local education agencies to accomplish human rights review of proposed and ongoing intrusive behavioral treatment with students who have severe behavior problems. One approach to human rights…

  11. Human Rights: 1948-1978--Changing Perceptions. A Wingspread Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Louis B.; Roosevelt, Curtis

    Conference participants examined the attitudes toward human rights which led to the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, as compared to today's perceptions of the meaning of human rights. Using Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms" as a point of departure--freedom of speech and expression, freedom of every person to…

  12. Human Rights Education Can Be Integrated throughout the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childhood Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that few state departments of education have actually mandated human rights education in their schools. Clearly, individual teachers will need to take responsibility for the integration of peace education and human rights education. By integrating human rights education and peace education into the daily fabric of the school…

  13. Tensions and Dilemmas about Education in Human Rights in Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magendzo, Abraham

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that incorporating human rights issues into the curriculum causes tensions, especially in nations with histories of military dictatorships. Describes human rights education in Chile and other Latin American nations. Discusses whether human rights should be a separate curriculum subject or integrated into all courses. (CFR)

  14. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  15. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  16. Human Rights Education: Is Social Work behind the Curve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Julie A.; Mathiesen, Sally

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a descriptive assessment of human rights education within schools of social work and law. A review of course titles and descriptions within MSW programs and law programs was conducted for identification of human rights content. The results suggest a dearth of human rights content in social work curricula and a great disparity…

  17. Human Rights: Unfolding of the American Tradition. Report No. 8403.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Public Affairs (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    Excerpts from 100 speeches, essays, and legal documents dating from classical times to the present illustrate the record of human rights discussion over the centuries. The compilation was made in 1968 to mark the 20th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The readings indicate that human rights initially meant freedom from a…

  18. Human Rights: 1948-1978--Changing Perceptions. A Wingspread Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Louis B.; Roosevelt, Curtis

    Conference participants examined the attitudes toward human rights which led to the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, as compared to today's perceptions of the meaning of human rights. Using Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms" as a point of departure--freedom of speech and expression, freedom of every person to…

  19. Teaching Human Rights? "All Hell Will Break Loose!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Claire; Brunner, Richard; Webster, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Human rights education is a prominent concern of a number of international organisations and has been dominant on the United Nations' agenda for the past 20 years. The UN Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) has been followed by the World Programme for Human Rights Education (2005-ongoing) and the recently adopted UN Declaration on…

  20. Teaching Human Rights? "All Hell Will Break Loose!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Claire; Brunner, Richard; Webster, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Human rights education is a prominent concern of a number of international organisations and has been dominant on the United Nations' agenda for the past 20 years. The UN Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) has been followed by the World Programme for Human Rights Education (2005-ongoing) and the recently adopted UN Declaration on…

  1. Human Rights Education Can Be Integrated throughout the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childhood Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that few state departments of education have actually mandated human rights education in their schools. Clearly, individual teachers will need to take responsibility for the integration of peace education and human rights education. By integrating human rights education and peace education into the daily fabric of the school…

  2. Human Rights: Unfolding of the American Tradition. Report No. 8403.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Public Affairs (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    Excerpts from 100 speeches, essays, and legal documents dating from classical times to the present illustrate the record of human rights discussion over the centuries. The compilation was made in 1968 to mark the 20th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The readings indicate that human rights initially meant freedom from a…

  3. Data-driven human rights: using the electronic health record to promote human rights in jail.

    PubMed

    Glowa-Kollisch, Sarah; Andrade, Kelly; Stazesky, Richard; Teixeira, Paul; Kaba, Fatos; Macdonald, Ross; Rosner, Zachary; Selling, Daniel; Parsons, Amanda; Venters, Homer

    2014-01-01

    The electronic health record (EHR) is a commonplace innovation designed to promote efficiency, quality, and continuity of health services. In the New York City jail system, we implemented an EHR across 12 jails between 2008 and 2011. During the same time, our work increasingly focused on the importance of human rights as an essential element to the provision of medical and mental health care for our patients. Consequently, we made major modifications to the EHR to allow for better surveillance of vulnerable populations and enable reporting and analysis of patterns of abuse, neglect, and other patient concerns related to human rights. These modifications have improved our ability to find and care for patients injured in jail and those with mental health exacerbations. More work is needed, however, to optimize the potential of the EHR as a tool to promote human rights among patients in jail. PMID:25474604

  4. Men, HIV/AIDS, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J

    2009-07-01

    Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as "the problem", and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally. PMID:19553779

  5. Men, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as “the problem”, and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally. PMID:19553779

  6. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are far more complex in environments where married adolescent women and their families live in conditions of poverty and socioeconomic deprivation. PMID:22376023

  7. Exploring synergies between human rights and public health ethics: A whole greater than the sum of its parts

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Stephanie; Forman, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Background The fields of human rights and public health ethics are each concerned with promoting health and elucidating norms for action. To date, however, little has been written about the contribution that these two justificatory frameworks can make together. This article explores how a combined approach may make a more comprehensive contribution to resolving normative health issues and to advancing a normative framework for global health action than either approach made alone. We explore this synergy by first providing overviews of public health ethics and of international human rights law relevant to health and, second, by articulating complementarities between human rights and public health ethics. Discussion We argue that public health ethics can contribute to human rights by: (a) reinforcing the normative claims of international human rights law, (b) strengthening advocacy for human rights, and (c) bridging the divide between public health practitioners and human rights advocates in certain contemporary health domains. We then discuss how human rights can contribute to public health ethics by contributing to discourses on the determinants of health through: (a) definitions of the right to health and the notion of the indivisibility of rights, (b) emphasis on the duties of states to progressively realize the health of citizens, and (c) recognition of the protection of human rights as itself a determinant of health. We also discuss the role that human rights can play for the emergent field of public health ethics by refocusing attention on the health and illness on marginalized individuals and populations. Summary Actors within the fields of public health, ethics and human rights can gain analytic tools by embracing the untapped potential for collaboration inherent in such a combined approach. PMID:18237409

  8. National Incorporation of Global Human Rights: Worldwide Expansion of National Human Rights Institutions, 1966-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Jeong-Woo; Ramirez, Francisco O.

    2009-01-01

    Using an event history framework we analyze the adoption rate of national human rights institutions. Neo-realist perspective predicts adoption rates to be positively influenced by favorable national profiles that lower the costs and make it more reasonable to establish these institutions. From a world polity perspective adoption rates will be…

  9. 78 FR 76029 - Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... orientation, gender identity, or income level--share the freedoms of expression, religion, assembly, and...- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-29913 Filed 12-13-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... organizations that promote universal human rights, support good governance, and bolster economic...

  10. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    PubMed

    Donders, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it "implies a commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms." The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, adopted in 2005, states that "cultural diversity can be protected and promoted only if human rights and fundamental freedoms … are guaranteed" (Article 2[1]). The precise relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, however, is not clarified and thus leaves room for further exploration. This contribution analyses the issues surrounding the relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, in particular cultural rights. Firstly, it addresses general human rights issues such as universality and cultural relativism and the principles of equality and non-discrimination. Secondly, it explores the scope of cultural rights, as well as the cultural dimension of human rights. Thirdly, several cases are discussed in which human rights were invoked to protect cultural interests, confirming the value of cultural diversity. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented, indicating which areas require attention in order to further improve the promotion and protection of human rights in relation to cultural diversity. PMID:21132940

  11. Faith Schools: Democracy, Human Rights and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that faith-based schools are a necessary feature of democratic and pluralistic societies and a legitimate expression of human rights as constituted in the European Convention in Human Rights (2000). It further argues that if the rights of parents to have a real choice for faith-based schools (regardless of ability to pay) are…

  12. Discourse on the transformational leader metanarrative or finding the right person for the job.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Anita C

    2004-01-01

    Changes in healthcare today have called for leadership styles that place a heavy demand on organizations. Shifts in markets and reimbursement strategies call for new leaders with vision that can guide healthcare organizations to change. In a postmodern era, organizations see the transformational leader as a valuable asset in changing times. This article addresses the foundations of the transformational leader metanarrative and, through a postmodern discourse, deconstructs the concept. The article presents a review of postmodern thought in relation to the metanarrative of leadership and applications to nursing administration. PMID:15027659

  13. Convention on the rights of the child: promoting human rights in Islamic day schools in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Rivin, Beth E

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, rights-based approaches to health are changing the perspective and work of actors in the development sector. This article describes an NGO program that translates theory into practice by integrating human rights education and human rights principles into primary school health programs in Jakarta, Indonesia. Uplift International, an NGO affiliated with the University of Washington School of Law, aims to improve the rights of urban, poor children through teacher and parent training, uniquely designed for the madrasah (Islamic religious day schools) community. The school program links child rights and child health through human rights education and human rights-based methodologies. The Uplift International program is in its fourth year and plans to expand in scope. Positive outcomes include significant notice by Indonesian Government Ministries. Moreover, there is support from the new Indonesian Special Envoy to the UN for Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). PMID:22191324

  14. Contextual Constraint Treatment for coarse coding deficit in adults with right hemisphere brain damage: Generalization to narrative discourse comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Margaret Lehman; Tompkins, Connie A.; Scharp, Victoria L.; Meigh, Kimberly M.; Wambaugh, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Coarse coding is the activation of broad semantic fields that can include multiple word meanings and a variety of features, including those peripheral to a word’s core meaning. It is a partially domain-general process related to general discourse comprehension and contributes to both literal and non-literal language processing. Adults with damage to the right cerebral hemisphere (RHD) and a coarse coding deficit are particularly slow to activate features of words that are relatively distant or peripheral. This manuscript reports a pre-efficacy study of Contextual Constraint Treatment (CCT), a novel, implicit treatment designed to increase the efficiency of coarse coding with the goal of improving narrative comprehension and other language performance that relies on coarse coding. Participants were four adults with RHD. The study used a single-subject controlled experimental design across subjects and behaviors. The treatment involves pre-stimulation, using a hierarchy of strong- and moderately-biased contexts, to prime the intended distantly-related features of critical stimulus words. Three of the four participants exhibited gains in auditory narrative discourse comprehension, the primary outcome measure. All participants exhibited generalization to untreated items. No strong generalization to processing nonliteral language was evident. The results indicate that CCT yields both improved efficiency of the coarse coding process and generalization to narrative comprehension. PMID:24983133

  15. Missing people, migrants, identification and human rights.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E

    2012-11-01

    The increasing volume and complexities of migratory flow has led to a range of problems such as human rights issues, public health, disease and border control, and also the regulatory processes. As result of war or internal conflicts missing person cases and management have to be regarded as a worldwide issue. On the other hand, even in peace, the issue of a missing person is still relevant. In 2007 the Italian Ministry of Interior nominated an extraordinary commissar in order to analyse and assess the total number of unidentified recovered bodies and verify the extent of the phenomena of missing persons, reported as 24,912 people in Italy (updated 31 December 2011). Of these 15,632 persons are of foreigner nationalities and are still missing. The census of the unidentified bodies revealed a total of 832 cases recovered in Italy since the year 1974. These bodies/human remains received a regular autopsy and were buried as 'corpse without name". In Italy judicial autopsy is performed to establish cause of death and identity, but odontology and dental radiology is rarely employed in identification cases. Nevertheless, odontologists can substantiate the identification through the 'biological profile' providing further information that can narrow the search to a smaller number of missing individuals even when no ante mortem dental data are available. The forensic dental community should put greater emphasis on the role of the forensic odontology as a tool for humanitarian action of unidentified individuals and best practise in human identification. PMID:23221266

  16. Chikungunya, climate change, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Meason, Braden; Paterson, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya is a re-emerging arbovirus that causes significant morbidity and some mortality. Global climate change leading to warmer temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns allow mosquito vectors to thrive at altitudes and at locations where they previously have not, ultimately leading to a spread of mosquito-borne diseases. While mutations to the chikungunya virus are responsible for some portion of the re-emergence, chikungunya epidemiology is closely tied with weather patterns in Southeast Asia. Extrapolation of this regional pattern, combined with known climate factors impacting the spread of malaria and dengue, summate to a dark picture of climate change and the spread of this disease from south Asia and Africa into Europe and North America. This review describes chikungunya and collates current data regarding its spread in which climate change plays an important part. We also examine human rights obligations of States and others to protect against this disease. PMID:25474599

  17. Finding the Right Words: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Discourse Productivity in Non-fluent Aphasia After Stroke.

    PubMed

    Medina, Jared; Norise, Catherine; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Coslett, H Branch; Turkeltaub, Peter E; Hamilton, Roy H

    2012-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Loss of fluency is a significant source of functional impairment in many individuals with aphasia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) administered to the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) has been shown to facilitate naming in persons with chronic left hemisphere stroke and non-fluent aphasia. However, changes in fluency in aphasic subjects receiving rTMS have not been adequately explored. AIMS: To determine whether rTMS improves fluency in individuals with chronic nonfluent aphasia, and to identify aspects of fluency that are modulated in persons who respond to rTMS. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Ten individuals with left hemisphere MCA strokes and mild to moderate non-fluent aphasia participated in the study. Before treatment, subjects were asked to describe the Cookie Theft picture in three separate sessions. During treatment, all subjects received 1200 pulses of 1 Hz rTMS daily in 10 sessions over two weeks at a site that had previously been shown to improve naming. Subjects repeated the Cookie Theft description two months after treatment. Five subjects initially received sham stimulation instead of real TMS. Two months after sham treatment, these individuals received real rTMS. Performance both at baseline and after stimulation was coded using Quantitative Production Analysis (Saffran, Berndt & Schwartz, 1989) and Correct Information Unit (Nicholas & Brookshire, 1993) analysis. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: Across all subjects (n=10), real rTMS treatment resulted in a significant increase in multiple measures of discourse productivity compared to baseline performance. There was no significant increase in measures of sentence productivity or grammatical accuracy. There was no significant increase from baseline in the sham condition (n=5) on any study measures. CONCLUSIONS: Stimulation of the right IFG in patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia facilitates discourse production. We posit that this effect may be attributable to improved lexical-semantic access. PMID:23280015

  18. Local Impacts of Religious Discourses on Rights to Express Same-Sex Sexual Desires in Peri-Urban Rio de Janeiro1

    PubMed Central

    García, Jonathan; Laboy, Miguel Muñoz; de Almeida, Vagner; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined how religious discourses of inclusion and exclusion—in Roman Catholic, evangelical Protestant, and Afro-Brazilian religious traditions—affected people’s rights to express same-sex sexual desires, behaviors, and identities in the socioeconomically marginalized urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using extended ethnographic observation of institutions and religious events over a period of 2 years, the authors identified how sexual rights were constructed within religious discourses and conducted ethnographic interviews with 45 religious leaders. In the low-income and violent urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, religious leaders and institutions play key roles in molding community inclusion and exclusion. A comparison of the 3 major religious denominations shows a diversity of discourses about same-sex sexual desires and their impacts on community formation. PMID:20161503

  19. (De)constructions of Radical Humanist Discourses in South Africa's Education White Paper 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rooyen, Brenda; Le Grange, Lesley; Newmark, Rona

    2004-01-01

    In this article we (de)construct radical humanist discourses in South Africa's recently published White Paper on Special Needs Education. In particular, we (de)construct objects, agents, actions and binaries constituted by democracy, human rights and social justice discourses as well as the voices these discourses marginalise. We discuss the…

  20. Human Rights and World Order Politics. Occasional Paper Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajami, Fouad

    This paper discusses one of the major global problems facing humanity today, human rights. It is one of a series of working papers commissioned by the World Order Models Project in its effort to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action which will contribute to a movement for a just world order. Human rights have recently…

  1. Rights for All: The Human Rights of Rural Citizens. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodoti, Chris

    The Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission visited over 50 communities throughout Australia to assess the state of human rights in rural, regional, and remote Australia. Education and health services predominated the discussions. Rural children, especially Aboriginal children, have lower school attendance and completion rates…

  2. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Davis, William W.; Mullany, Luke C.; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K.; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. Methods and Findings We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Conclusion Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations. PMID:26308850

  3. The Society's Involvement in the Defense of Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerjuoy, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The history of the Society's involvement in the defense of human rights, a history of which the Society can be proud, will be summarized; the summary will include illustrative specific APS human rights defense actions in illustrative specific cases. As will be emphasized, the aforesaid involvement has been primarily through the activities of the APS Committee on International Freedom of Scientists (CIFS). It is noteworthy-and one of the reasons the Society can be proud-that CIFS is charged with ``monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists,'' not solely for physicists, and that CIFS indeed has sought to protect the human rights of nonphysicists.

  4. Los torturadores medicos: medical collusion with human rights abuses in Argentina, 1976-1983.

    PubMed

    Perechocky, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    Medical collaboration with authoritarian regimes historically has served to facilitate the use of torture as a tool of repression and to justify atrocities with the language of public health. Because scholarship on medicalized killing and biomedicalist rhetoric and ideology is heavily focused on Nazi Germany, this article seeks to expand the discourse to include other periods in which medicalized torture occurred, specifically in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, when the country was ruled by the Proceso de Reorganización Nacional military regime. The extent to which medical personnel embedded themselves within the Proceso regime's killing apparatus has escaped full recognition by both scholars and human rights activists. This article reconstructs the narrative of the Proceso's human rights abuses to argue that health professionals knowingly and often enthusiastically facilitated, oversaw, and participated in every phase of the "disappearance," torture, and mass murder process. PMID:24996628

  5. Human rights, health and the state in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Redwanur M

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper broadly discusses the role of the State of Bangladesh in the context of the health system and human rights. The interrelation between human rights, health and development are well documented. The recognition of health as a fundamental right by WHO and subsequent approval of health as an instrument of welfare by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights (ICSECR) further enhances the idea. Moreover, human rights are also recognized as an expedient of human development. The state is entrusted to realize the rights enunciated in the ICSECR. Discussion In exploring the relationship of the human rights and health situation in Bangladesh, it is argued, in this paper, that the constitution and major policy documents of the Bangladesh government have recognized the health rights and development. Bangladesh has ratified most of the international treaties and covenants including ICCPR, ICESCR; and a signatory of international declarations including Alma-Ata, ICPD, Beijing declarations, and Millennium Development Goals. However the implementation of government policies and plans in the development of health institutions, human resources, accessibility and availability, resource distribution, rural-urban disparity, the male-female gap has put the health system in a dismal state. Neither the right to health nor the right to development has been established in the development of health system or in providing health care. Summary The development and service pattern of the health system have negative correlation with human rights and contributed to the underdevelopment of Bangladesh. The government should take comprehensive approach in prioritizing the health rights of the citizens and progressive realization of these rights. PMID:16611360

  6. Gender equality is a human right. Empowerment, women and human rights, past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, R L

    1998-01-01

    This analysis opens by noting that the fact that women's equality is a human right is gaining universal acceptance and by outlining some of the major events that have marked recognition of the concept of human rights and women's rights. The analysis then considers the history of how humans have subsisted on earth in hunter-gatherer societies, horticultural (hoe-based, shifting cultivation) societies, agrarian (plow, permanent cultivation) societies, industrial societies, and information and technological societies. Next, a theory of gender stratification is applied to each situation to show how gender stratification depends upon who has control of economic resources (not who does the most work or even who legally owns the resources). Thus, women and men enjoy equality and cooperation to survive in foraging societies, men dominate in horticultural and agrarian societies, and women begin to regain ground in industrial societies. The analysis also takes into account macro- and micro-level "discount" factors that affect the amount of leverage a woman can get from money earned. The next section of the analysis deals with present conditions and notes that women can achieve equal rights via economic empowerment in combination with macro-level changes. This section also explains how "sexism kills" and considers the economic factors affecting violence against women. The article goes on to quantify progress to date, with a focus on women's gains in education, health, work and income, and political equality as well as slower gains in ratification of pertinent international treaties. The article concludes with an optimistic view of the future as the information age allows women to gain more power. PMID:12157792

  7. 'Risk or Right': a discourse analysis of midwifery and obstetric colleges' homebirth position statements.

    PubMed

    Licqurish, Sharon; Evans, Alicia

    2016-03-01

    Within the context of global debates about safety and ethics of supporting women to give birth at home, it is important to analyse documents governing midwifery and obstetric practice and influence decision-making around place of birth. In Australia, the United States and the United Kingdom, relatively small numbers of women choose to give birth at home despite their midwifery colleges' support. In the United States and Australia, the obstetric colleges do not support homebirth and these countries have lower numbers of women who birth at home, compared with the United Kingdom. There are numerous regulatory and industry challenges for midwives attending homebirths. This paper reports on a Foucauldian analysis of Australian obstetric and midwifery colleges' position statements about homebirth, who have conflicting views, with the view to understanding their arguments and underlying assumptions. The documents highlighted tensions between competing discourses of risk and autonomy and differences in academic argument. Opportunities for strengthening their statements are highlighted. The methodology is applicable for future analysis of similar documents governing practice in other countries. PMID:26345985

  8. Human rights, civil rights: prescribing disability discrimination prevention in packaging essential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Silvers, Anita; Francis, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores rights-based approaches to protecting disabled people against inequities in access to health care services. Understanding health care as a human right, as is found in the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD), fails to provide theoretical machinery for responding to certain pressing challenges. An alternative account, understanding health care as a civil right, proves more promising. This latter approach then is applied to the right to health care under the U.S. Affordable Care Act (ACA), which contains provisions that could be antithetical to, and thus fail to comply with, the nondiscrimination standard of meaningful access to health care benefits. PMID:24446937

  9. BETWEEN WOMEN’S RIGHTS AND MEN’S AUTHORITY: MASCULINITY AND SHIFTING DISCOURSES OF GENDER DIFFERENCE IN URBAN UGANDA

    PubMed Central

    Wyrod, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Across the African continent, women’s rights have become integral to international declarations, regional treaties, national legislation, and grassroots activism. Yet there is little research on how African men have understood these shifts, and how African masculinities are implicated in such changes. Drawing on a year of ethnographic research in the Ugandan capital Kampala, this article investigates how ordinary men and women in Uganda understand women’s rights, and how their attitudes are tied to local conceptions of masculinity. I argue that a new configuration of gender relations is evident in urban Uganda—one that accommodates some aspects of women’s rights while retaining previous notions of innate male authority. This article, therefore, illustrates the complex and often contradictory engagements with human rights that occur in local contexts, and how such engagements are shaped by gender relations, including conceptions of masculinity. PMID:19862350

  10. Commercial surrogacy and the human right to autonomy.

    PubMed

    Sifris, Ronli

    2015-12-01

    Arguments against commercial surrogacy frequently focus on the rights of the surrogate. For-example, those opposed to commercial surrogacy often argue that surrogacy arrangements amount to the exploitation of women and the commodification of their wombs. Phrased in the language of rights, such arguments draw on the right to be free from degrading treatment and the right to be free from discrimination. In contrast, those who support commercial surrogacy refute the arguments relating to exploitation and commodification and cite the right to work and more commonly the right to privacy/autonomy as the key rights in question. This article focuses on the human right to autonomy and interrogates whether prohibitions on commercial surrogacy violate the right of a woman to choose to be a surrogate. PMID:26939504

  11. Seeking a stable future: perspectives on population policy. The legal approach: women's rights as human rights.

    PubMed

    Pine, R N

    1994-01-01

    As it has grappled with issues of population policy, the international community has emphasized that women's reproductive rights are human rights. Scholars have also acknowledged that the right to reproductive health care exists within the scope of international human rights treaties and conventions and that gender equality, nondiscrimination, and freedom from government interference in marriage and family life are also guaranteed. Further protections extend to counseling and health information and referral. The Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development continues this trend by emphasizing the importance of human rights for attaining population and development objectives, calling on governments to focus their efforts on improving the quality of life for individuals, and endorsing the notion that reproductive rights are universal human rights. Reproductive health care options are also influenced by sovereign laws that restrict availability of contraception, sterilization, or abortion. However, universal rights and unrestricted access must be complemented by other factors controlled by domestic laws to guarantee reproductive choice. Such laws cover issues like marriage age, divorce, marital property, child support, maternity benefits, day care, sex discrimination, eligibility for insurance, confidentiality, spousal consent, rape, and sexual abuse. Countries must modify restrictive national laws and promote laws protecting women's rights. PMID:12320714

  12. Professionalizing a Global Social Movement: Universities and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David; Bromley, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Research on the human rights movement emphasizes direct changes in nation-states, focusing on the efficacy of treaties and the role of advocacy in mitigating immediate violations. However, more than 140 universities in 59 countries established academic chairs, research centers, and programs for human rights from 1968-2000, a development that…

  13. Human Rights Education and the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Nica

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP)--a program implemented in thousands of schools globally--introduced a human rights course (Makivirta, 2003). This curriculum is the first of its kind to hold potential widespread influence on human rights education in the formal education sector. In this study, I analyze the…

  14. [Ethics, inequality, poverty and human rights in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Pérez De Nucci, Armando M

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to show the existence of important failures in the field of Human Rights and equal possibilities in health. Human rights are analyzed an developed in the field of public and social health in our country. Ethics is the main field proposed to reach solutions in the context on EPEP (Etica para la erradicación de la pobreza). PMID:17643140

  15. Teacher Perspectives on Civic and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuran, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to obtain teacher perspectives on the civic and human rights education course included in the eighth grade curriculum in Turkish schools. The study group was selected with criterion sampling from among teachers who were teaching the eighth grade civic and human rights education at elementary schools in central Hatay. Using the…

  16. Education as a Human Right in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sharon E.

    2013-01-01

    According to the United Nations, education is a right to which all human beings are entitled. Since 2000, the UN has been promoting the Millennium Development Goal to achieve free universal primary education for all, regardless of gender, by 2015. If the UN is correct to suggest that education is both a human right in itself and an indispensable…

  17. Human Rights: Lesson Plan for SDAIE (Sheltered) Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husser, Michael D.

    This lesson plan on human rights uses the Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) methodology used in California to teach academic content to intermediate, threshold level limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. It sets forth three educational goals for students to reach; asks students to examine definitions of human rights…

  18. Teaching "Islam and Human Rights" in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muedini, Fait A.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses my approach to teaching a course on Islam and human rights. I begin by examining the attention Islam has received in the media and classroom. Then, I discuss how I structure lectures on Islam and human rights, the various readings associated with the lectures, as well as common themes discussed in class that include but are…

  19. Professionalizing a Global Social Movement: Universities and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David; Bromley, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Research on the human rights movement emphasizes direct changes in nation-states, focusing on the efficacy of treaties and the role of advocacy in mitigating immediate violations. However, more than 140 universities in 59 countries established academic chairs, research centers, and programs for human rights from 1968-2000, a development that…

  20. Human Rights Education, Postcolonial Scholarship, and Action for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    In our global age, educational researchers and practitioners need tools that can be applied in a range of contexts and scales: local, national, and international. This article argues that human rights education (HRE) is a site of struggle in which human rights and democracy need to be constantly renewed. It contextualizes HRE within a critical,…

  1. 75 FR 75615 - Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-30584 Filed 12-2-10; 11:15 am] Billing code... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8608 of November 30, 2010 Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010 By the President of... Act, a seminal document tying lasting security among states with respect for human rights...

  2. Images of Struggle: Teaching Human Rights with Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carano, Kenneth T.; Clabough, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    The authors explore how graphic novels can be used in the middle and high school social studies classroom to teach human rights. The article begins with a rationale on the benefits of using graphic novels. It next focuses on four graphic novels related to human rights issues: "Maus I: A Survivor's Tale: My Father Bleeds" (Speigelman…

  3. Human rights abuses, transparency, impunity and the Web.

    PubMed

    Miles, Steven H

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews how human rights advocates during the "war-on-terror" have found new ways to use the World Wide Web (Web) to combat human rights abuses. These include posting of human rights reports; creating large, open-access and updated archives of government documents and other data, tracking CIA rendition flights and maintaining blogs, e-zines, list-serves and news services that rapidly distribute information between journalists, scholars and human rights advocates. The Web is a powerful communication tool for human rights advocates. It is international, instantaneous, and accessible for uploading, archiving, locating and downloading information. For its human rights potential to be fully realized, international law must be strengthened to promote the declassification of government documents, as is done by various freedom of information acts. It is too early to assess the final impact of the Web on human rights abuses in the "war-on-terror". Wide dissemination of government documents and human rights advocates' reports has put the United States government on the defensive and some of its policies have changed in response to public pressure. Even so, the essential elements of secret prisons, detention without charges or trials, and illegal rendition remain intact. PMID:19289894

  4. Teaching "Islam and Human Rights" in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muedini, Fait A.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses my approach to teaching a course on Islam and human rights. I begin by examining the attention Islam has received in the media and classroom. Then, I discuss how I structure lectures on Islam and human rights, the various readings associated with the lectures, as well as common themes discussed in class that include but are…

  5. Human Rights Education: Imaginative Possibilities for Creating Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Human rights education has proliferated in the past four decades and can be found in policy discussions, textbook reforms, and grassroots initiatives across the globe. This article specifically explores the role of creativity and imagination in human rights education (HRE) by focusing on a case study of one non-governmental…

  6. Human Rights Education, Postcolonial Scholarship, and Action for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    In our global age, educational researchers and practitioners need tools that can be applied in a range of contexts and scales: local, national, and international. This article argues that human rights education (HRE) is a site of struggle in which human rights and democracy need to be constantly renewed. It contextualizes HRE within a critical,…

  7. Human Rights Education: Imaginative Possibilities for Creating Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Human rights education has proliferated in the past four decades and can be found in policy discussions, textbook reforms, and grassroots initiatives across the globe. This article specifically explores the role of creativity and imagination in human rights education (HRE) by focusing on a case study of one non-governmental…

  8. Human Rights and History Education: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burridge Nina; Buchanan, John; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The place of education for and about human rights within the school curriculum remains contested and this paper reports on the first national cross-sectoral investigation of its place in Australian curricula and more specifically in national and state History curriculum documents. Opportunities for the inclusion of human rights based studies were…

  9. A Guide for Improving Public School Practices in Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Univ., Norman. Southwest Center for Human Relations Studies.

    The guide contains ideas, materials, and suggested practices for teachers and administrators in dealing with human rights issues. It is organized into six parts. Part I discusses the human rights concept, its importance in Western democratic society, its legal bases, racism, and school responsibility. Part II outlines the responsibilities of…

  10. Resources for Teaching about Human Rights: An Annotated List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    The following resources are cited in this annotated bibliography dealing with human rights: general references (background readings for teachers and students); classroom materials; fiction; audiovisuals; periodicals; and organizations and associations dedicated to the investigation of human rights infractions or education and communication on…

  11. What's in a Right? Two Variations for Interpreting the Right to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Leah K.

    2010-01-01

    The end of the Cold War ushered in a paradigmatic shift in international development discourse whereby a human rights-based approach to development was generated. This shift has stimulated the pegging of international development policy to the objectives of the human rights regime. However, in attempting to unify development and human rights…

  12. Profiles of four women. Health and human rights activists.

    PubMed

    Reiner, L; Sollom, R

    1997-01-01

    This article briefly profiles four women physicians working for health and human rights around the world. Dr. Ruchama Marton, an Israeli psychiatrist and activist for peace in the Middle East, is a founder of Physicians for Human Rights/Israel. Dr. Jane Green Schaller is a US pediatrician whose 1985 trip to South Africa initiated her human rights involvement, which includes the founding of Physicians for Human Rights. Dr. Judith van Heerden, a primary care physician in South Africa, has worked for reform of prison health care, to establish hospice care, and, most recently, for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education for medical students. Dr. Ma Thida, the only physician not interviewed for this article, is currently held in a Burmese prison because of her work on behalf of the National League for Democracy. The profiles suggest the breadth of human rights work worldwide and are a testament to what physicians can do. PMID:9354051

  13. Human rights, public health and medicinal cannabis use

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Melissa; Seddon, Toby

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the human rights and drug control frameworks and critiques case law on medicinal cannabis use to demonstrate that a bona fide human rights perspective allows for a broader conception of ‘health’. This broad conception, encompassing both medicalised and social constructionist definitions, can inform public health policies relating to medicinal cannabis use. The paper also demonstrates how a human rights lens can alleviate a core tension between the State and the individual within the drug policy field. The leading medicinal cannabis case in the UK highlights the judiciary’s failure to engage with an individual’s human right to health as they adopt an arbitrary, externalist view, focussing on the legality of cannabis to the exclusion of other concerns. Drawing on some international comparisons, the paper considers how a human rights perspective can lead to an approach to medicinal cannabis use which facilitates a holistic understanding of public health. PMID:26692654

  14. Human rights advances in women's reproductive health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ngwena, Charles G; Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Skuster, Patty

    2015-05-01

    The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights recently adopted General Comment No 2 to interpret provisions of Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights Women. The provisions relate to women's rights to fertility control, contraception, family planning, information and education, and abortion. The present article highlights the General Comment's potential to promote women's sexual and reproductive rights in multiple ways. The General Comment's human rights value goes beyond providing states with guidance for framing their domestic laws, practices, and policies to comply with treaty obligations. General Comment No 2 is invaluable in educating all stakeholders-including healthcare providers, lawyers, policymakers, and judicial officers at the domestic level-about pertinent jurisprudence. Civil society and human rights advocates can use the General Comment to render the state accountable for failure to implement its treaty obligations. PMID:25712778

  15. Human Rights and Religious Education in the Contentious Context of Conflict-Troubled Societies: Perspectives from Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some of the tensions that are created from the entanglement of religion and human rights and offers a possible response to these tensions in the context of religious education in conflict-troubled societies. It is suggested that a historicised and politicised approach in religious education in conjunction with human rights…

  16. Grassroots Responsiveness to Human Rights Abuse: History of the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community…

  17. Grassroots Responsiveness to Human Rights Abuse: History of the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community…

  18. Health and human rights of adolescent girls in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Heisler, M; Rasekh, Z; Iacopino, V

    1999-01-01

    Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) conducted a study in early 1998 to assess the health and human rights conditions of Afghan women and girls living under the Taliban regime in Kabul. This paper highlights the concerns and experiences of adolescent girls in Kabul, includes a brief overview of the political situation in Afghanistan and Taliban policies toward women and girls, and presents findings from interviews with adolescent girls and women with adolescent daughters. It concludes with a discussion of current international standards for the protection of women's and girls' rights and the crucial role of health professionals in helping defend these rights. PMID:10441924

  19. Family planning and protection of human rights.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    The discussion of human rights in China is based on the White Paper issued by the Information Office under the State Council on November 1, 1991. China is the most populous country in the world at 1.14 billion in 1990. Annual increases of 17 million are expected even with family planning (FP). The area of cultivated land/capita has dropped to 1.3 mu (16.5% of an acre)/capita, or 25% of the world average. Fresh water resources have also dropped similarly. The amount of grain.person is 22% of that in the US. 25% of additional income to the national income is consumed by newborns annually. Savings have been cut and reinvestment in economic development has been slowed. There are pressures on all social and economic systems. There is acknowledged success in FP. The birth rate has dropped to 21.06.1000 in 1990, the rate of natural increase to 14.39%/1000, and the fertility rate to 2.31. These figures are lower than the averages for other developing countries. The FP policy is to promote deferred marriage and childbearing, fewer but healthier births, and 1 child/couple. Rural families who are having difficulties may after an interval of several years have a 2nd child. Minority nationalities are being encouraged to adopt FP voluntarily. Han requirements are different. The policy has been understood and supported by the masses and has contributed to the drop in 3rd and higher parity births to 19.32% in 1989 from 62.21% in 1970. The government role is one of guidance and persuasion within the law, and cannot be accomplished by administrative decrees alone. The government has given priority to enlightening the masses through publicity and education that birth control has a direct impact on the nation's prosperity and people's happy family life. The China FP Association has set up 600,000 grass roots branches with 32 million members to assist in aiding the masses in self-education, self-management, and self-service. Ideological education has been combined with helping the masses solve practical problems. FP identifies contraception as protection of maternal and child health. 75% of couples of childbearing age practice contraception. Coercive abortions are resolutely opposed. Induced abortion in cases of contraceptive failure are voluntary and safe. The abortion ratio is comparable to world rates, but lower rates are targeted. Policy objectives are to control population growth and improve the quality of human resources. Maternal and child health care is provided. Law forbids infanticide. Policy conforms to item 9 of the UN Mexico City Declaration on Population and Development, 1984, and the UN World Population Plan of Action. PMID:12317280

  20. The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

    2014-12-01

    The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. PMID:24337891

  1. Human Rights Education as an Integral Part of General Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornberg, Sabine

    2002-07-01

    This article argues that human rights education should become an integral part of general education. The author discusses efforts to realise this aim within the German general educational system. She pays special attention to three areas. First, at the theoretical level, she examines how human rights education can be conceptualised within the context of general education and against the background of globalisation and multiculturalism. Second, she examines the political and administrative level, including questions of curriculum. Thirdly, she looks at the didactical aspect of human rights education. In conclusion she points out some of the implications for teacher training.

  2. THE RIGHT TO SUTURES: SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE

    PubMed Central

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the convergences and contrasts between social epidemiology, social medicine, and human rights approaches toward advancing global health and health equity. The first section describes the goals and work of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The second section discusses the role of human rights in the Commission’s work. The third section evaluates, from the perspective of social epidemiology, two rights-based approaches to advancing health and health equity as compared to a view that focuses more broadly on social justice. The concluding section identifies four areas where social epidemiologists, practitioners of social medicine, and health and human rights advocates can and must work together in order to make progress on health and health equity. PMID:21178186

  3. Bonhoeffer and universal health care as a human right.

    PubMed

    Clarke Chapman, G

    2013-12-01

    Bonhoeffer gave a theocentric basis for human rights, as God is the ground of ethics. In our earthly world, the "ultimate" must be prepared by what is "penultimate." That includes humanity's natural life and bodily wholeness, leading to human duties crafted by human reason. Nowadays, biblical texts should not be used as partisan weapons attacking government provision of health care, since all Scripture (even the Law) is seen as a Christ-centered focus on human redemption. Thus, Bonhoeffer implies a right to universal health care, but leaves entirely open which practical structures may best provide it. PMID:23737039

  4. Narratives in Teaching and Research for Justice and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history individual and collective narratives have been used in struggles for justice. We draw on Sen's theory of justice to examine the potential of narratives in teaching and researching for social justice. Human rights are presented as powerful ethical claims that can be critically examined by learners to consider their rights and…

  5. Africa and Discovery: Human Rights, Environment, and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, Robert K.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that, in the past 30 years, a dramatic upsurge has taken place in activities designed to promote human rights for indigenous peoples around the world. Asserts that, in the case of Africa, attention generally has been concentrated on socioeconomic rights, such as health care, sufficient water, food, and shelter. (CFR)

  6. Sex Education and Human Rights--A Lawyer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumper, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Human Rights Act 1998 is the most significant British statute to have been passed in the last decade. It has already been the catalyst for a series of high profile cases, ranging from the privacy rights of celebrities ("Douglas v Hello!" [2001] QB 967) to the Home Secretary's sentencing powers in murder cases ("R (Anderson) v Secretary of…

  7. Sex Education and Human Rights--A Lawyer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumper, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Human Rights Act 1998 is the most significant British statute to have been passed in the last decade. It has already been the catalyst for a series of high profile cases, ranging from the privacy rights of celebrities ("Douglas v Hello!" [2001] QB 967) to the Home Secretary's sentencing powers in murder cases ("R (Anderson) v Secretary of…

  8. Human-Centered Design Bill of Rights for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William A.

    This paper presents a potential solution to encourage technology adoption and integration within schools by proposing a human-centered technology "bill of rights" for educators. The intention of this bill of rights it to influence educators' beliefs towards technology and to enable educators to confront with confidence the seemingly mesmerizing…

  9. The Emerging Partnership in Human Service Civil Rights Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotson, Betty Lou

    1983-01-01

    Describes the objectives and activities of the Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Civil Rights (OCR) within the purview of the Reagan administration's civil rights policy. Describes OCR methodologies designed to ensure enforcement of nondiscrimination requirements in state implementation of programs under federal block grants. (MJL)

  10. "This Is Our Freedom Bus Going Home Right Now": Producing and Hybridizing Space-Time Contexts in Pedagogical Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leander, Kevin M.

    2001-01-01

    Advances an approach to analysis of discursive intercontextuality through theories of space-time production. Argues management of multiple contexts within school-related discourse is an important means of discursively producing identity, agency, and power relations. Draws data from an ethnographic and discourse-based study of an extended school…

  11. "This Is Our Freedom Bus Going Home Right Now": Producing and Hybridizing Space-Time Contexts in Pedagogical Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leander, Kevin M.

    2001-01-01

    Advances an approach to analysis of discursive intercontextuality through theories of space-time production. Argues management of multiple contexts within school-related discourse is an important means of discursively producing identity, agency, and power relations. Draws data from an ethnographic and discourse-based study of an extended school…

  12. Human/Nature Discourse in Environmental Science Education Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    It is argued that the view of nature and the relationship between human beings and nature that each of us holds impacts our decisions, actions, and notions of environmental responsibility and consciousness. In this study, I investigate the discursive patterns of selected environmental science classroom resources produced by three disparate…

  13. Sexual rights as human rights: a guide to authoritative sources and principles for applying human rights to sexuality and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alice M; Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia

    2015-11-01

    This Guide seeks to provide insight and resources to actors interested in the development of rights claims around sexuality and sexual health. After engaging with the vexed question of the scope of sexual rights, it explores the rules and principles governing the way in which human rights claims are developed and applied to sexuality and sexual health, and how that development is linked to law and made a matter of state obligation. This understanding is critical to policy and programming in sexual health and rights, as it supports calling on the relevant range of human rights, such as privacy, non-discrimination, health or other universally accepted human rights, as well as demanding the action of states under their international and national law obligations to support sexual health. PMID:26718993

  14. Unity in diversity and adversity: Venezuelan women's struggle for human rights.

    PubMed

    Rakowski, C A

    1998-01-01

    This article on the efforts of women in Venezuela to gain access to their human rights opens by noting that the most significant gains in this 80-year struggle have occurred in the past 20 years because activists 1) consistently framed women's issues as critical to attaining the goals of social justice and democracy, 2) built flexible coalitions among diverse groups of women, and 3) kept the issue before the public. The next section offers an historical perspective for these contemporary strategies by locating their origins in women's participation in political movements to end dictatorships and repression during the 1920s and tracing women's advancement from the gaining of the full right to vote in 1947 through the 1995 establishment of the National Council on Women. The article continues with a look at how the human rights agenda was reframed in the 1990s to include issues of violence against women and political participation and to increase public recognition of these issues. Consideration of new opportunities and continuing challenges focuses first on how spaces were created for new discourses by an erosion of confidence in public officials and a series of national protests and then on the related opportunity of a rapid rise in nontraditional presidential candidates. Next, the article details efforts to increase women's political participation as a human right and defense of democracy and to promote the idea that freedom from violence (poverty, sexual harassment, physical and emotional abuse, control over sexuality, rape and incest) is a human right. The article concludes by reemphasizing the importance of adopting a flexible style of networking and of recognizing that legislation merely provides the basis for action. PMID:12157789

  15. Intellectual property rights and detached human body parts.

    PubMed

    Pila, Justine

    2014-01-01

    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same. PMID:22844029

  16. International law, human rights and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, David; London, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the relevance of international human rights law in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic at national and international levels. Public health advocates can use arguments based on this body of law to promote responses to HIV/AIDS that reflect sound public health principles and documented best practice. Development assistance is increasingly linked to rights-based approaches, such as participatory processes, and strategic alliances between health professionals, organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS, and affected communities. Legal and human rights advocacy strategies are increasingly productive and necessary. PMID:12571725

  17. Violations of human rights: health practitioners as witnesses.

    PubMed

    Orbinski, James; Beyrer, Chris; Singh, Sonal

    2007-08-25

    For humanitarian health-care practitioners bearing witness to violations of human dignity has become synonymous with denunciations, human rights advocacy, or lobbying for political change. A strict reliance on legal interpretations of humanitarianism and human rights is inadequate for fully understanding the problems inherent in political change. With examples from the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the USA, the Rwandan genocide, and physician-led political activism in Nepal, we describe three cases in which health practitioners bearing witness to humanitarian and human-rights issues have had imperfect outcomes. However these acts of bearing witness have been central to the promotion of humanitarianism and human rights, to the pursuit of justice that they have inevitably and implicitly endorsed, and thus to the politics that have or might yet address these issues. Despite the imperfections, bearing witness, having first-hand knowledge of humanitarian and human-rights principles and their limitations, and systematically collecting evidence of abuse, can be instrumental in tackling the forces that constrain the realisation of human health and dignity. PMID:17720021

  18. International migration: security concerns and human rights standards.

    PubMed

    Crépeau, François; Nakache, Delphine; Atak, Idil

    2007-09-01

    Over the last two decades, the reinforcement of security-related migration policies has resulted in the perception of the foreigner, and especially the irregular migrant, as a category outside the circle of legality. The rights of foreigners in host countries have deteriorated due to the connection made between immigration and criminality. Restrictions imposed upon irregular migrants' basic political and civil rights have been accompanied by major obstacles to their access to economic and social rights, including the right to health. The events of 9/11 further contributed to this trend, which contradicts the basic premises of the human rights paradigm. Recent policy developments and ongoing international cooperation implementing systematic interception and interdiction mechanisms have led to the securitization of migration. The preventive and deterrent measures reinforce the security paradigm. By contrast, various national and international actors have been successful in defending irregular migrants' rights. At the domestic level, the involvement of the judiciary and civil society enhances the rights-based approach to foreigners. The role of judges is vital in holding policy-makers accountable for respecting the high national standards of human rights protection. This article elaborates on the dichotomy between the state's legitimate interest to ensure national security, and its domestic and international obligations to protect human rights for all, including irregular migrants. It focuses on the changing relationship between migration and security, on the one hand, and between state and individual, on the other hand. It affirms the necessity to recognize the pre-eminence of fundamental rights upon security concerns. PMID:17938150

  19. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Salcito, Kendyl; University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel; NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202; NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 ; Utzinger, Jürg; University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel ; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Münch, Anna K.; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Wielga, Mark; NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human rights impact assessment exposed impacts not foreseen in ESIA. • Corporations adopted the majority of findings, but not necessarily immediately. • Methodological advancements are expected for monitoring processes.

  20. Pathologies of power: rethinking health and human rights.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, P

    1999-01-01

    The field of health and human rights has grown quickly, but its boundaries have yet to be traced. Fifty-one years after the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, consensus regarding the most promising directions for the future is lacking; however, outcome-oriented assessments lead us to question approaches that rely solely on recourse to formal legal and civil rights. Similarly unpromising are approaches that rely overmuch on appeals to governments: careful study reveals that state power has been responsible for most human rights violations and that most violations are embedded in "structural violence"--social and economic inequities that determine who will be at risk for assaults and who will be shielded. This article advances an agenda for research and action grounded in the struggle for social and economic rights, an agenda suited to public health and medicine, whose central contributions to future progress in human rights will be linked to the equitable distribution of the fruits of scientific advancement. Such an approach is in keeping with the Universal Declaration but runs counter to several of the reigning ideologies of public health, including those favoring efficacy over equity. PMID:10511828

  1. Pathologies of power: rethinking health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Farmer, P

    1999-10-01

    The field of health and human rights has grown quickly, but its boundaries have yet to be traced. Fifty-one years after the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, consensus regarding the most promising directions for the future is lacking; however, outcome-oriented assessments lead us to question approaches that rely solely on recourse to formal legal and civil rights. Similarly unpromising are approaches that rely overmuch on appeals to governments: careful study reveals that state power has been responsible for most human rights violations and that most violations are embedded in "structural violence"--social and economic inequities that determine who will be at risk for assaults and who will be shielded. This article advances an agenda for research and action grounded in the struggle for social and economic rights, an agenda suited to public health and medicine, whose central contributions to future progress in human rights will be linked to the equitable distribution of the fruits of scientific advancement. Such an approach is in keeping with the Universal Declaration but runs counter to several of the reigning ideologies of public health, including those favoring efficacy over equity. PMID:10511828

  2. Issue Definition in Rights-Based Policy Focused on the Experiences of Individuals with Disabilities: An Examination of Canadian Parliamentary Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Dana Lee

    2008-01-01

    In issue definition in rights-based policy Canada stereotypically embraces a more positive, human rights-centered approach as compared with the American stereotype associated with the USA's more presumptively negative, civil rights-based tack. Since exclusionary infrastructures violate the core values of democratic governance, a failure to address…

  3. Human dignity: scenarios with doing the right thing.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2011-01-01

    Human dignity is a phenomenon of great importance to all health-related disciplines. For the professional nurse, human dignity is embedded in the ontological beliefs of a philosophical school of thought that guides the priority actions found in nurse practice. The common ethical phrase of doing the right thing is insinuated in the enduring truths of affirming human dignity in nurse practice. The author in this column examines possible meanings for doing the right thing in light of the ethical tenets of humanbecoming including reverence, awe, betrayal, and shame. PMID:21220568

  4. Teaching Human Rights: A Teaching Guide for Middle and High School Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiman, David A.

    This curriculum guide incorporates three dimensions of human rights education: teaching about human rights, teaching against human rights violations, and teaching for the creation of a world in which all human beings are treated with justice and dignity. The book is based upon the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).…

  5. Human Rights and Religious Education in the Contentious Context of Conflict-Troubled Societies: Perspectives from Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some of the tensions that are created from the entanglement of religion and human rights and offers a possible response to these tensions in the context of religious education in conflict-troubled societies. It is suggested that a historicised and politicised approach in religious education in conjunction with human rights…

  6. The Human Right to Education as a Right to Literacy in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motakef, Mona

    2007-01-01

    There are no official data, but it is estimated that four million adults in Germany have little or no reading, writing and numeracy skills, so that they are known as "functionally illiterate". This is a fact which was long ignored. In this contribution, literacy activities and research in Germany are analysed through a human rights-based approach.…

  7. Internationalizing the Right to Know: Conceptualizations of Access to Information in Human Rights Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Cheryl Ann

    2009-01-01

    Currently there exists a global movement promoting institutional transparency and freedom of information legislation. Conceptualizing access to government-held information as a human right is one of the latest developments in this global trend promoting access to information. The purpose of this dissertation is to identify and analyze the various…

  8. The Human Right to Education as a Right to Literacy in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motakef, Mona

    2007-01-01

    There are no official data, but it is estimated that four million adults in Germany have little or no reading, writing and numeracy skills, so that they are known as "functionally illiterate". This is a fact which was long ignored. In this contribution, literacy activities and research in Germany are analysed through a human rights-based approach.…

  9. Human rights and mass disaster: lessons from the 2004 tsunami.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, H M; Fletcher, L E; Stover, E

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation into how the December, 2004 tsunami and its aftermath affected the human rights of the survivors. Teams of researchers interviewed survivors, government officials, representatives of international and local nongovernmental organisations, UN officials, the military, police, and other key informants in India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Indonesia, and Thailand. We also analysed newspaper articles, reports released by governments, UN agencies, NGOs, and private humanitarian aid groups, and we examined the laws and policies related to survivors' welfare in the affected countries. We found worsening of prior human rights violations, inequities in aid distribution, lack of accountability and impunity, poor coordination of aid, lack of community participation in reconstruction, including coastal redevelopment. Corruption and preexisting conflict negatively impact humanitarian interventions. We make recommendations to international agencies, states, and local health service providers. A human rights framework offers significant protection to survivors and should play a critical role in disaster response. PMID:18277529

  10. Nepal's War on Human Rights: A summit higher than Everest

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonal; Dahal, Khagendra; Mills, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Nepal has witnessed serious human rights violations including arbitrary arrests, detentions, "disappearances", extra judicial executions, abductions and torture carried out by both the Royal Nepalese Army and the Maoist rebels in the 10 years of the "peoples war". Women and children have borne the brunt of the conflict. Massive displacement has led to adverse social and psychological consequences. While the reasons for the conflict are mainly indigenous and rooted in the social and economic in-equities, remedies for health inequities must come not only from the health sector but also from broad social policies and adopting a participatory and conflict-sensitive approach to development. Meanwhile the international community needs to use its leverage to urge both sides to accept a human rights accord and honor international human rights and humanitarian laws, while investigating allegations of abuse and prosecute those responsible. PMID:15985165

  11. Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights

    PubMed Central

    Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

  12. Global disparities in health and human rights: a critical commentary.

    PubMed

    Benatar, S R

    1998-02-01

    Widening disparities in health and human rights at a global level represent the dark side of progress associated with escalation of economic and military exploitation and exponential population growth in the 20th century. Even the most basic universal human rights cannot be achieved for all under these circumstances. The goal of improved population health will be similarly elusive while medical care is commodified and exploited for commercial gain in the marketplace. Recognition of the powerful forces that polarize our world and commitment to reversing them are essential for the achievement of human rights for all, for the improvement of public health, and for the peaceful progress required to protect the "rational self-interest" of the most privileged people on earth against the escalation of war, disease, and other destructive forces arising from widespread poverty and ecological degradation. PMID:9491027

  13. Global disparities in health and human rights: a critical commentary.

    PubMed Central

    Benatar, S R

    1998-01-01

    Widening disparities in health and human rights at a global level represent the dark side of progress associated with escalation of economic and military exploitation and exponential population growth in the 20th century. Even the most basic universal human rights cannot be achieved for all under these circumstances. The goal of improved population health will be similarly elusive while medical care is commodified and exploited for commercial gain in the marketplace. Recognition of the powerful forces that polarize our world and commitment to reversing them are essential for the achievement of human rights for all, for the improvement of public health, and for the peaceful progress required to protect the "rational self-interest" of the most privileged people on earth against the escalation of war, disease, and other destructive forces arising from widespread poverty and ecological degradation. PMID:9491027

  14. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive health services should include, leaving out the ones more prone to cause conflict and opposition, such as gender equality, abortion provision and welfare services for pregnant adolescents. Moralistic attitudes and sexism were present - even if divergences were also found-, limiting services' capability to promote girls' sexual and reproductive health and rights. PMID:20525405

  15. Girls' and Boys' Reasoning on Cultural and Religious Practices: A Human Rights Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wet, Annamagriet; Roux, Cornelia; Simmonds, Shan; ter Avest, Ina

    2012-01-01

    Human rights play a vital role in citizens' political, religious and cultural life (Wang 2002, 171). Due to the prominence of human rights in the everyday life of citizens, including those of South Africa, human rights education has been included in many school curricula. Human rights education aims to develop responsible citizens who "inter alia"…

  16. Girls' and Boys' Reasoning on Cultural and Religious Practices: A Human Rights Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wet, Annamagriet; Roux, Cornelia; Simmonds, Shan; ter Avest, Ina

    2012-01-01

    Human rights play a vital role in citizens' political, religious and cultural life (Wang 2002, 171). Due to the prominence of human rights in the everyday life of citizens, including those of South Africa, human rights education has been included in many school curricula. Human rights education aims to develop responsible citizens who "inter alia"…

  17. One Million Bones: Measuring the Effect of Human Rights Participation in the Social Work Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Jane; Cheatham, Leah P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the integration of human rights content and a national arts-activism initiative--One Million Bones--into a bachelor's-level macro practice class as a human rights teaching strategy. Two previously validated scales, the Human Rights Exposure (HRX) in Social Work and the Human Rights Engagement (HRE) in Social Work…

  18. One Million Bones: Measuring the Effect of Human Rights Participation in the Social Work Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Jane; Cheatham, Leah P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the integration of human rights content and a national arts-activism initiative--One Million Bones--into a bachelor's-level macro practice class as a human rights teaching strategy. Two previously validated scales, the Human Rights Exposure (HRX) in Social Work and the Human Rights Engagement (HRE) in Social Work…

  19. Honing Human Rights in the L[subscript 2] Classroom: Pedagogical Possibilities Using Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praveen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Developing an understanding about human rights documents, and an awareness of human rights institutions and mechanisms of protection have become especially significant in the 21st century. Several classroom strategies have hitherto been employed to practice and experience human rights behaviour. Usually topics on human rights is introduced through…

  20. Human Rights Engagement and Exposure: New Scales to Challenge Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Jane; Abell, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Advancing human rights is a core competency of U.S. social work education; yet, human rights attitudes and behaviors have never been measured in the social work literature. Thus, this article describes the development and initial validation of two scales, Human Rights Engagement in Social Work (HRESW) and Human Rights Exposure in…

  1. RISKS, REASONS AND RIGHTS: THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND ENGLISH ABORTION LAW

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Rosamund

    2016-01-01

    Although there is no right to abort in English law but rather abortion is a crime, the lawful grounds for which are instantiated in the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), the regulation of abortion is sometimes perceived as being fairly ‘liberal’. Accordingly, the idea that aspects of English law could be criticised under the European Convention on Human Rights, with which the UK must comply following the Human Rights Act 1998, may seem unlikely. Indeed, English law is compatible with the consensus amongst contracting states that abortion should be available on maternal health grounds. However, analysis of the UK's negative obligations under Article 8 shows that section 1(1)(a) of the Act is problematic as it operates in the first trimester. Further, given the European Court of Human Rights' emphasis on the reduced margin of appreciation once a state has legalised abortion to some degree and its jurisprudence relating to a state's positive obligations, the analysis shows that, while English law may not be problematic in relation to the lack of guidelines relating to the lawful grounds for abortion, it may well be in relation to the lack of a formal system for the review of any two doctors' decision not to grant a termination. Notwithstanding the morally serious nature of the decision to abort, the analysis overall raises questions about the need for at least some degree of abortion law reform, particularly in relation to the first trimester, towards a more autonomy-focused, though time-limited, rights-based approach. PMID:26546800

  2. RISKS, REASONS AND RIGHTS: THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND ENGLISH ABORTION LAW.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rosamund

    2016-01-01

    Although there is no right to abort in English law but rather abortion is a crime, the lawful grounds for which are instantiated in the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), the regulation of abortion is sometimes perceived as being fairly 'liberal'. Accordingly, the idea that aspects of English law could be criticised under the European Convention on Human Rights, with which the UK must comply following the Human Rights Act 1998, may seem unlikely. Indeed, English law is compatible with the consensus amongst contracting states that abortion should be available on maternal health grounds. However, analysis of the UK's negative obligations under Article 8 shows that section 1(1)(a) of the Act is problematic as it operates in the first trimester. Further, given the European Court of Human Rights' emphasis on the reduced margin of appreciation once a state has legalised abortion to some degree and its jurisprudence relating to a state's positive obligations, the analysis shows that, while English law may not be problematic in relation to the lack of guidelines relating to the lawful grounds for abortion, it may well be in relation to the lack of a formal system for the review of any two doctors' decision not to grant a termination. Notwithstanding the morally serious nature of the decision to abort, the analysis overall raises questions about the need for at least some degree of abortion law reform, particularly in relation to the first trimester, towards a more autonomy-focused, though time-limited, rights-based approach. PMID:26546800

  3. Carl Cohen's 'kind' arguments for animal rights and against human rights.

    PubMed

    Nobis, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    Carl Cohen's arguments against animal rights are shown to be unsound. His strategy entails that animals have rights, that humans do not, the negations of those conclusions, and other false and inconsistent implications. His main premise seems to imply that one can fail all tests and assignments in a class and yet easily pass if one's peers are passing and that one can become a convicted criminal merely by setting foot in a prison. However, since his moral principles imply that nearly all exploitive uses of animals are wrong anyway, foes of animal rights are advised to seek philosophical consolations elsewhere. I note that some other philosophers' arguments are subject to similar objections. PMID:15148951

  4. When Elephants Fly: Differential Sensitivity of Right and Left Inferior Frontal Gyri to Discourse and World Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menenti, Laura; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Scheeringa, Rene; Hagoort, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Both local discourse and world knowledge are known to influence sentence processing. We investigated how these two sources of information conspire in language comprehension. Two types of critical sentences, correct and world knowledge anomalies, were preceded by either a neutral or a local context. The latter made the world knowledge anomalies…

  5. Human Rights, Cosmopolitanism and Utopias: Implications for Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Citizenship education, defined as learning to live together, requires agreement on certain common principles. One central purpose of a state education system is the transmission of common normative standards such as the human rights and fundamental freedoms that underpin liberal democratic societies. The paper identifies the conceptual roots of…

  6. Bearing Witness: Citizen Journalism and Human Rights Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Stuart; Sonwalkar, Prasun; Carter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article assesses the potential of online news reporting to create discursive spaces for emphatic engagement--of bearing witness--at a distance, especially where human rights violations are concerned. Taking as its focus the emergent forms and practices of citizen journalism, it examines the spontaneous actions of ordinary people compelled to…

  7. International Human Rights: Politics & Law. A Syllabus. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkin, Louis; And Others

    Designed for first year graduate students in political science, international relations, and law, this course focuses on the contemporary concern with human rights in its international political context. The course is intended to be taught in 14 two-hour sessions; it can also be broken down into single-hour sessions. There are four major parts to…

  8. The Human Rights Approach to Education in International Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufner, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the work of three international governmental organisations (IGOs) dealing with human rights will be discussed, namely the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Council of Europe (CoE). In the first section, the main characteristics of the…

  9. A Relational Hermeneutical Approach to Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Daraweesh, Fuad

    2010-01-01

    This research is an effort to transcend the debate of universalism and cultural relativism by offering a new conceptualization of human rights. The conceptualization is presented through the development of a theoretical framework in the form of an epistemology. The research articulates and defends the epistemology, which is grounded on…

  10. Physicists for Human Rights in the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyak, Yuri

    2005-03-01

    In his 1940 paper `Freedom and Science' Albert Einstein emphasized that ``intellectual independence is a primary necessity for the scientific inquirer'' and that ``political liberty is also extraordinarily important for his work.'' Raised in the tradition of intellectual independence and dedicated to the scientific truth, physicists were among the first to stand up for freedom in the USSR. It was no coincidence that the founders of the first independent Human Rights Committee (1970) were physicists: Andrei Sakharov, Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov. In 1973 a physicist, Alexander Voronel, founded a Moscow Sunday (refusenik) Seminar -- the first openly independent scientific body in the history of the USSR. In 1976 physicists Andrei Sakharov, Yuri Orlov and a mathematician Natan Sharansky were the leading force in founding the famous Moscow Helsinki Human Rights Watch group. This talk briefly describes the special position of physicists (often viewed as Einstein's colleagues) in Soviet society, as well as their unique role in the struggle for human rights. It describes in some detail the Moscow Sunday Seminar, and extensions thereof such as International Conferences, the Computer School and the Computer Database of Refuseniks. The Soviet government considered such truly independent organizations as a challenge to Soviet authority and tried to destroy them. The Seminar's success and its very existence owed much to the support of Western scientific organizations, who persuaded their members to attend the Seminar and visit scientist-refuseniks. The human rights struggle led by physicists contributed substantially to the demise of the Soviet system.

  11. Human Rights and the Law-Terms to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Identifies 10 terms on human rights and the law that have been introduced and discussed throughout this issue of "Update on Law-Related Education." Offers students a chance to match each item to its definition by writing the letter of the terms on the line next to the number of the definition. (CMK)

  12. Transforming Global Civics: The Need for Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Goldberg, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    In today's globally interconnected community, it is imperative that students learn how human rights abuses are not a "thing of the past," but an ongoing exploitation that requires modern day crusaders to defend. Who might these crusaders be? None other than each student. However, if one wants to encourage these noble change agents, one needs to…

  13. A Relational Hermeneutical Approach to Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Daraweesh, Fuad

    2010-01-01

    This research is an effort to transcend the debate of universalism and cultural relativism by offering a new conceptualization of human rights. The conceptualization is presented through the development of a theoretical framework in the form of an epistemology. The research articulates and defends the epistemology, which is grounded on…

  14. Immanuel Kant's Account of Cognitive Experience and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Gregory Lewis

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Gregory Bynum seeks to show that Immanuel Kant's thought, which was conceived in an eighteenth-century context of new, and newly widespread, pressures for nationally institutionalized human rights-based regimes (the American and French revolutions being the most prominent examples), can help us think in new and appreciative ways…

  15. Toward a Hermeneutical Theory of International Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Daraweesh, Fuad; Snauwaert, Dale T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to articulate and defend the epistemological foundations of international human rights education from the perspective of a hermeneutical interpretive methodology. Fuad Al-Daraweesh and Dale Snauwaert argue here that this methodology potentially alleviates the challenges that face the cross-cultural implementation of…

  16. Social Studies: High School Guide for Teaching about Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Evelyn; And Others

    The implementation of the Detroit (Michigan) human rights curriculum at the high school level is done through a series of classroom activities and resources appropriate for high school students. Each of the lessons is structured around one of the 10 major goals identified in the curriculum and provides objectives, learner outcomes, activities, and…

  17. Social Studies: Middle School Guide for Teaching about Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorov, Karen; And Others

    Implementation of the 10 major goals and various objectives of the Detroit (Michigan) curriculum for teaching middle school students about human rights is done through a number of activities and resources. Each of the lessons is structured around one of the major goals and provides objectives, learner outcomes, activities, and resources. An…

  18. Human Rights Attitude Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Recep; Yaman, Tugba; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable attitude scale having quality psychometric features that can measure secondary school students' attitudes towards human rights. The study group of the research is comprised by 710 6th, 7th and 8th grade students who study at 4 secondary schools in the centre of Sivas. The study group…

  19. Exploring the Relevance of Holocaust Education for Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckmann, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Can Holocaust education be considered a tool for human rights education? If so, to what extent? These questions elicit discussions among a wide range of educators, and interest among politicians, educational planners, and ministries in charge of memorials. At first glance the obvious answer seems to be yes; both educators and students have strong…

  20. Human Rights, Cosmopolitanism and Utopias: Implications for Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Citizenship education, defined as learning to live together, requires agreement on certain common principles. One central purpose of a state education system is the transmission of common normative standards such as the human rights and fundamental freedoms that underpin liberal democratic societies. The paper identifies the conceptual roots of…

  1. Human Rights and Peace Education in the Lebanese Civics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuayb, Maha

    2015-01-01

    In 1997 the Lebanese government published its newly developed curriculum and textbooks following a long and fierce civil war, which started in 1975. The new curriculum emphasized nation building, reconciliation and citizenship. This study aims to examine how the civics textbooks in Lebanon addressed human rights and peace education, both of which…

  2. Toward a Hermeneutical Theory of International Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Daraweesh, Fuad; Snauwaert, Dale T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to articulate and defend the epistemological foundations of international human rights education from the perspective of a hermeneutical interpretive methodology. Fuad Al-Daraweesh and Dale Snauwaert argue here that this methodology potentially alleviates the challenges that face the cross-cultural implementation of…

  3. Women, Human Rights, and Counseling: Crossing International Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    2005-01-01

    The fast-paced movement of globalization has affected all walks of life including professional counselors. As the world becomes more accessible, increased instances of social injustice on a global scale have become more apparent, with women and children being especially identified as victims of social injustice and human rights violations (World…

  4. Immanuel Kant's Account of Cognitive Experience and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Gregory Lewis

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Gregory Bynum seeks to show that Immanuel Kant's thought, which was conceived in an eighteenth-century context of new, and newly widespread, pressures for nationally institutionalized human rights-based regimes (the American and French revolutions being the most prominent examples), can help us think in new and appreciative ways…

  5. The Human Rights Approach to Education in International Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufner, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the work of three international governmental organisations (IGOs) dealing with human rights will be discussed, namely the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Council of Europe (CoE). In the first section, the main characteristics of the…

  6. Bearing Witness: Citizen Journalism and Human Rights Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Stuart; Sonwalkar, Prasun; Carter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article assesses the potential of online news reporting to create discursive spaces for emphatic engagement--of bearing witness--at a distance, especially where human rights violations are concerned. Taking as its focus the emergent forms and practices of citizen journalism, it examines the spontaneous actions of ordinary people compelled to…

  7. Sexual Minority Issues and Human Rights Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofuji, Keiko

    2007-01-01

    The "Dowa" (Human Rights) education program has become an effective method of changing concept and situations of "Burakumin," a group of people that has been discriminated against in Japan. One educational strategy was to speak out their personal stories, which has become a trigger to some sexual minority teachers to come out, as well as others to…

  8. Using Literature for Young People to Teach about Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Caroline C.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    Using literature in the social studies classroom is a useful pedagogy that is particularly well-suited in human rights education. Literature can give voice to people who cannot speak for themselves and gives students an opportunity to consider perspectives that are often foreign to them. When used with delicacy and care, these literary…

  9. Building Intercultural Citizenship through Education: A Human Rights Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavenhagen, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the challenges posed by traditional ethnic and linguistic minorities in multicultural states and more specifically the problems faced by indigenous peoples and communities. Their educational and cultural needs and demands are increasingly being framed in the language of human rights, based on the expanding international legal…

  10. Integrated human rights and poverty eradication strategy: the case of civil registration rights in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Musarandega, Reuben

    2009-01-01

    High poverty levels characterise sub-Saharan Africa, Zimbabwe included. Over 80 per cent of Zimbabwe's population lived below the total consumption poverty line and 70 per cent below the food poverty line in 2003. This plummeting of social indicators resulted from the freefall suffered by the country's economy from the 1990s, after unsuccessful attempts to implement structural adjustment programmes prescribed by international financial institutions. The ensuing socioeconomic decay, political crisis and international isolation of the country from the late 1990s reversed gains made in social indicators during the 1980s. Development theories attribute poverty to unchecked population growth, political, economic and environmental mismanagement, while developing countries' leaders attribute it to historical imbalances and global political and economic injustices. Despite this debate, poverty continues to evolve, expand and deepen and the need to eradicate it has become urgent. The complex question of what causes and what drives poverty is perpetually addressed and new ideas are emerging to answer the question. One recent view is that failure to centre development on people and to declare poverty a violation of human rights has allowed poverty to grow the world over. This study uses a hypothesised cause of poverty - civil registration - to exemplify the human right nature of poverty, and how a human rights' policy can be used as an instrument to eradicate poverty. The study demonstrates that civil registration is a right of instrumental relevance to poverty; and achieving civil registration grants people access to numerous other rights, some of which will lift them out of poverty, while the failure of civil registration deprives people of access to livelihoods, thereby entrenching them in poverty. PMID:20726138

  11. Human Rights Law for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific: The Need for a Disability Rights Tribunal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlin, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Human rights are arguably the most significant political force shaping the life experience of people with disability. The "United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" sets the standard at an international level, creating both positive and negative rights, and calls upon member states of the United Nations (UN)…

  12. The Value of Mainstreaming Human Rights into Health Impact Assessment

    PubMed Central

    MacNaughton, Gillian; Forman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social impacts of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation [1]. This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international human rights standards be integrated into HIA to provide a universal value system backed up by international and domestic laws and mechanisms of accountability. The idea of mainstreaming human rights into HIA is illustrated with the example of impact assessments that have been carried out to predict the potential effects of intellectual property rights in international trade agreements on the availability and affordability of medicines. The article concludes by recommending international human rights standards as a legal and ethical framework for HIA that will enhance the universal values of nondiscrimination, participation, transparency and accountability and bring legitimacy and coherence to HIA practice as well. PMID:25264683

  13. Human Rights and/or Market Logic: Neoliberalism, Difficult Knowledge, and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) has been plagued by controversy since before its construction even began. Outcries regarding perceived oversights in the museum's programming and objections to the cost of construction, curatorial development, and staffing have erupted frequently in local media. Critical analyses of public responses to…

  14. Are Liberal Studies Teachers Ready to Prepare Human Rights Respecting Students? A Portrait of Teachers' Attitudes towards Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Yan Wing; Lo, Yan Lam

    2012-01-01

    As in most countries, human rights education (HRE) in Hong Kong has never been high on the educational agenda. In 2009, a compulsory subject, Liberal Studies (LS), which could be used as a platform for HRE, was introduced. The Hong Kong Institute of Education launched a research and development project which, as one of its objectives, studied LS…

  15. Human Rights and/or Market Logic: Neoliberalism, Difficult Knowledge, and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) has been plagued by controversy since before its construction even began. Outcries regarding perceived oversights in the museum's programming and objections to the cost of construction, curatorial development, and staffing have erupted frequently in local media. Critical analyses of public responses to…

  16. Health and human development: nursing and the human right to health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2008-03-01

    This article aims at understanding the influence of the right to health legal framework to Brazilian Nursing. To achieve this purpose the historical evolution of the right to development is described and the concept of right to health is introduced. Then, the right to health in Brazil and Nursing actions to guarantee this right in their daily practice is discussed. In Brazil, health is a right of all and a duty of the State. However, there is a great inequality in the distribution of health services among regions, rural and urban areas, the rich and the poor. Nursing professionals face several challenges in their practice to provide the care as stated by the laws. They play an important role as transformation agents, helping the community to acquire a sense of collective identity regarding their human rights and right to health. PMID:18770904

  17. Bringing Human Rights Back Home: Learning from "Superman" and Addressing Political Issues at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Human rights are commonly conceived as more relevant to foreign policy than day-to-day living. Drawing on Eleanor Roosevelt's conception of human rights as beginning close to home, this article illustrates how human rights principles might inform everyday processes of schooling and learning to live together. It considers rights to, in and…

  18. Bringing Human Rights Back Home: Learning from "Superman" and Addressing Political Issues at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Human rights are commonly conceived as more relevant to foreign policy than day-to-day living. Drawing on Eleanor Roosevelt's conception of human rights as beginning close to home, this article illustrates how human rights principles might inform everyday processes of schooling and learning to live together. It considers rights to, in and…

  19. Human Rights and Citizenship: A Community Resource Manual. Foreign Area Materials Center Occasional Publication 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyquist, Corinne

    Human Rights Week (December 10-17) has been proclaimed by the U.S. President for a number of years because Bill of Rights Day (December 15) and Human Rights Day (December 10) are observed within a week's period. This comprehensive survey of resources for the study of human rights contains books, films, filmstrips, organizations, and learning…

  20. Women's human rights at the World Summit for Social Development.

    PubMed

    Fried, S

    1995-01-01

    The Copenhagen Hearing on Economic Justice and Women's Human Rights was held on March 7, 1995 in conjunction with the NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum during the UN World Summit on Social Development (the Social Summit). During the Copenhagen Hearing, 10 women from around the world testified on a wide range of topics connected with the issue of providing tangible meaning to the indivisibility of women's human rights. Also emphasized was the complexity of the US government in perpetrating abuses against women's human rights, either directly or indirectly. The NGO Forum resulted in several hundred NGOs signing The Quality Benchmark for the Social Summit and The Copenhagen Alternative Declaration, which pointed out the need to critique conventional economic and social policies. While many of the concerns raised at the NGO Forum were not reflected in the Summit's Programme of Action, one of the Programme's 10 commitments called for the promotion of gender equality and improvement in the status of women. The Programme also recognized the burden placed on women by poverty and social disintegration; accepted a broad definition of "family"; called for a quantitative consideration of the value of unremunerated work; and advanced the rights of workers in general, migrant workers, and indigenous people. The capacity of NGOs and other grassroots groups to demand implementation of international agreements and adherence to international human rights standards was also strengthened. Specifically, such groups may urge governments to 1) meet with women's NGOs to discuss implementation of the Social Summit Declaration and Programme of Action; 2) make a national commitment to implement the Platform of Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women; and 3) commit to the Pledge to Gender Justice, particularly to the implementation of international agreements in local and national laws and policies. PMID:12346443

  1. Attentional asymmetries – cause or consequence of human right handedness?

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, Gavin; Carey, David P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the vast majority of the population favors their right hand when performing complex manual tasks. However, the developmental and evolutionary underpinnings of human manual asymmetries remain contentious. One often overlooked suggestion is that right handedness may stem from an asymmetrical bias in attention, with the right hand being allocated more attentional resources during bimanual tasks than the left hand (Peters, 1981). This review examines the evidence for attentional asymmetries during a variety of bimanual tasks, and critically evaluates the explanatory power of this hypothesis for explaining the depth and breadth of individual- and population-level manual asymmetries. We conclude that, while the attentional bias hypothesis is well-supported in adults, it requires further validation from a developmental perspective to explain the full breadth of adult manual laterality. PMID:25628594

  2. Evolving Human Rights and the Science of Antiretroviral Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Matthew; Cohn, Jennifer; Mabote, Lynette; Meier, Benjamin Mason; Williams, Brian; Russell, Asia; Sikwese, Kenly; Baker, Brook

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen significant advances in the science of using antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) to fight HIV. Where not long ago ARVs were used late in disease to prevent sick people from dying, today people living with HIV can use ARVs to achieve viral suppression early in the course of disease. This article reviews the mounting new scientific evidence of major clinical and prevention ARV benefits. This has changed the logic of the AIDS response, eliminating competition between "treatment" and "prevention" and encouraging early initiation of treatment for individual and public health benefit. These breakthroughs have implications for the health-related human rights duties of States. With medical advance, the "highest attainable standard" of health has taken a leap, and with it the rights obligations of States. We argue that access to early treatment for all is now a core State obligation and restricting access to, or failing to provide accurate information about, it violates both individual and collective rights. In a context of real political and technical challenges, however, in this article we review the policy implications of evolving human rights obligations given the new science. National and international legal standards require action on budget, health and intellectual property policy, which we outline. PMID:26204587

  3. Circumcision. A medical or a human rights issue?

    PubMed

    Milos, M F; Macris, D

    1992-01-01

    American parents and health care professionals are faced with medical/ethical dilemmas regarding whether or not to respect the natural integrity of the male newborn's body. In the English-speaking countries, where circumcision of infants was initially adopted to prevent masturbation, medical "reasons" were postulated to justify a practice most of the world has never considered. This resulted in a spectrum of medical recommendations for surgical removal of normal genital tissue in all male newborns to prevent diseases (foreskin inflammation, urinary tract infections, and sexually transmitted diseases) that could be effectively treated medically without the risks of surgery. Only by denying the existence of excruciating pain, perinatal encoding of the brain with violence, interruption of maternal-infant bonding, betrayal of infant trust, the risks and effects of permanently altering normal genitalia, the right of human beings to sexually intact and functional bodies, and the right to individual religious freedoms can human beings continue this practice. PMID:1573462

  4. Rights-Based Reasoning in Discussions about Lesbian and Gay Issues: Implications for Moral Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Sonja J.

    2004-01-01

    Despite a paucity of psychological research exploring the interface between lesbian and gay issues and human rights, a human rights framework has been widely adopted in debates to gain equality for lesbians and gay men. Given this prominence within political discourse of human rights as a framework for the promotion of positive social change for…

  5. PhD Topic Arrangement in "D"iscourse Communities of Engineers and Social Sciences/Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasrati, Mostafa; Street, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This article is the result of a grounded theory investigation into the ways PhD topics are assigned by supervisors in engineering and selected by students in the social sciences/humanities in UK universities, broadly referred to as "topic arrangement", which can be regarded as one aspect of academic socialisation into academic Discourse…

  6. Girl child abuse: violation of her human rights.

    PubMed

    Kapur, P

    1995-01-01

    The human rights of female children in India and elsewhere, even when protected on paper, are violated in practice. An equitable and egalitarian world order must be established. A comprehensive campaign is needed that combats gender-based inequalities, discrimination, exploitation, oppression, abuse, violence, inhuman values, and violations of human rights, particularly against female children. People must radically change their attitudes and actions towards female children. Female children are not a commodity or sex-object but "an equally worthy human being to be loved, respected, and cared for." Strategies that accomplish these ends include the promotion of human and spiritual values of love, compassion, and nonviolence, and discouragement of values of consumerism and materialism and worthlessness of human beings. Effective education and mass media should counter corruption, dishonesty, selfishness, and inhuman actions. Family structures need to strengthened and enriched. The abuse of female children occurs due to the following interrelated factors: entrenched patriarchal value systems, the perpetuation of traditions and practices that identify girls as inferior to boys, the gender-biased and discriminatory attitude that identifies girl children as a burden or liability and as a sex-object or commodity, and prevalent illiteracy, poverty, and negative parenting life style patterns. Other factors include the low status of women, the reduction in human and spiritual values, and the rise of consumerism and corruption. Girls are subjected to female infanticide, feticide, lack of social and economic development, burdensome domestic work, early marriage and childbearing, neglect and denial of healthy living conditions, sexual abuse and exploitation, prostitution, rape, and a denial of their right to protection. PMID:12158013

  7. Human rights, cultural pluralism, and international health research.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    In the field of bioethics, scholars have begun to consider carefully the impact of structural issues on global population health, including socioeconomic and political factors influencing the disproportionate burden of disease throughout the world. Human rights and social justice are key considerations for both population health and biomedical research. In this paper, I will briefly explore approaches to human rights in bioethics and review guidelines for ethical conduct in international health research, focusing specifically on health research conducted in resource-poor settings. I will demonstrate the potential for addressing human rights considerations in international health research with special attention to the importance of collaborative partnerships, capacity building, and respect for cultural traditions. Strengthening professional knowledge about international research ethics increases awareness of ethical concerns associated with study design and informed consent among researchers working in resource-poor settings. But this is not enough. Technological and financial resources are also necessary to build capacity for local communities to ensure that research results are integrated into existing health systems. Problematic issues surrounding the application of ethical guidelines in resource-poor settings are embedded in social history, cultural context, and the global political economy. Resolving the moral complexities requires a commitment to engaged dialogue and action among investigators, funding agencies, policy makers, governmental institutions, and private industry. PMID:16292607

  8. The Role of Education in Freedom from Poverty as a Human Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhillon, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Education lies at the heart of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR): "Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms". However, when education is mentioned in the philosophical literature on human rights, or even within the…

  9. The Role of Education in Freedom from Poverty as a Human Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhillon, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Education lies at the heart of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR): "Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms". However, when education is mentioned in the philosophical literature on human rights, or even within the…

  10. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Civil Rights

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Us Filing with OCR Civil Rights Health Information Privacy Newsroom HHS Home > Office for Civil Rights (OCR) ... for Civil Rights Section 1557: Nondiscrimination Health Information Privacy Section 1557 Civil Rights Provision of the Affordable ...

  11. Gender, health, and human rights in sites of political exclusion.

    PubMed

    Laurie, M; Petchesky, R P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the intersections of gender, health and human rights in sites of political exclusion. We apply the political theory of Giorgio Agamben on 'states of exception', seeking to better understand how the recent 'war on terror', that seemingly knows no limits of time or space, is driving health outcomes in refugee and Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps. Reproductive health, militarization, and gender-based violence in camps are explored in depth. The evidence presented reveals a number of contradictions of refugee and IDP camps, further highlighting the need for a more rights based humanitarianism. We conclude that foregrounding states of exception, as a way of understanding current gender dynamics in the social determinants of health, is both epidemiologically necessary and conceptually useful. We find that, in these sites of exclusion, the indispensability of a human rights approach to gender and health equity issues is revealed most directly. Furthermore, we are able to make new connections between the 'crisis of humanitarianism', gender, and health. PMID:19288341

  12. "The Path of Social Justice": A Human Rights History of Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carl A.; Gibson, Melissa Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's human rights initiatives. The efforts of human rights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…

  13. Mind the Gap: The Human Rights of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobrial, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have the same human value as other children and are entitled to their basic human rights. And yet, in developing countries they face many barriers to accessing these rights. This study focuses on children with IDs in Egypt. Method: A new measure, the Human Rights of children with…

  14. "The Path of Social Justice": A Human Rights History of Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carl A.; Gibson, Melissa Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's human rights initiatives. The efforts of human rights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…

  15. Human Rights Education in Canada: Results from a CTF Teacher Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froese-Germain, Bernie; Riel, Rick; Theoret, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations has placed a high priority on human rights education. Building on the foundation laid by the UN Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004), the UN General Assembly launched the World Programme for Human Rights Education in December 2004 "as a global initiative, structured in consecutive phases, to advance the implementation…

  16. Human Rights and Curricular Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights have become increasingly salient for nations, organizations, and individuals since the end of World War II (Lauren 2003). Discussions of human rights now are common in formal education, including in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). A variety of indicators suggest that countries in Latin America have integrated human rights into…

  17. Supporting Teachers as Transformative Intellectuals: Participatory Action Research in Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersey, Page Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Human rights education (HRE) holds the potential for educators to begin an honest dialogue with students and to connect local issues with international struggles for human rights. However, HRE and other teaching approaches that build understanding of systems of power and oppression that lead to human rights violations are not widely embraced in…

  18. Human Rights Education and Religious Education: From Mutual Suspicion to Elective Affinity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyette, Frederick W.

    2009-01-01

    What are the prospects for joining religious education and human rights education? (1) Human rights educators may cite good historical and philosophical reasons for teaching about human rights without making any reference whatsoever to a religious foundation. (2) For their part, many religious communities have resisted opportunities to form…

  19. The Social Studies Should Include More Discussion of International Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney, Judith V.

    1980-01-01

    Students need more exposure to the concept of human rights. They need to know The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the subsequent covenants. Also, they need to know that substantial agreement exists in the international community about what constitutes human rights. (Author/KC)

  20. Supporting Teachers as Transformative Intellectuals: Participatory Action Research in Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersey, Page Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Human rights education (HRE) holds the potential for educators to begin an honest dialogue with students and to connect local issues with international struggles for human rights. However, HRE and other teaching approaches that build understanding of systems of power and oppression that lead to human rights violations are not widely embraced in…

  1. 3 CFR 8608 - Proclamation 8608 of November 30, 2010. Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... States, do hereby proclaim December 1, 2010, as Helsinki Human Rights Day. I call upon all the people of... Human Rights Day, 2010 8608 Proclamation 8608 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8608 of November 30, 2010 Proc. 8608 Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010By the President of the United States...

  2. Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Kestenbaum, Jocelyn Getgen; Amjad, Urooj Quezon; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international human rights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for human rights realization. To understand the relevance of human rights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that human rights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes. PMID:24381084

  3. The needs of refugee women: a human-rights perspective.

    PubMed

    Beyani, C

    1995-06-01

    While the issue of giving women their human rights has been firmly placed on the agendas of international conferences, the plight of refugee women has gone largely unrecognized. Refugee women face rape, sexual abuse, sexual extortion, and physical insecurity. Such violations precipitate their flight, characterize their attempts to gain refugee status, and continue during their tenure in refugee camps, where they are excluded from positions of authority. Because the definition of refugees in the 1951 UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees omits sex as a grounds for determining refugee status or as a grounds on which it prohibits discrimination based on sex, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees decided in 1985 that such claims must fall under the classification of membership of a particular group. Unfortunately, agreement with this is discretionary for states. It has been argued that states which protect aliens from discrimination based on sex must afford the same privilege to refugees, but, again, such behavior is subject to debate. Concerns about the human rights of refugee women should be strengthened by being addressed in the existing framework of human rights conventions in international law, such as the Commission on the Status of Women and the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). One recent advance in this area was the establishment of the Yugoslav and Rwanda War Crimes Tribunals which will investigate the sexual abuse of women during the armed conflicts. The issue of violence against women in every situation must remain on CEDAW's agenda. In addition, the Fourth World Conference on Women provides a welcome opportunity to place these issues in the forefront of global efforts to protect women. PMID:12290124

  4. Interrogating an Omission: The Absence of a Rights-Based Approach to Education in World Bank Policy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menashy, Francine

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a discursive analysis of World Bank policy documents in order to reveal the stark omission of a rights-based approach to education, while highlighting instead the support of an economic-instrumentalist approach. Plausible explanations are provided to shed light on this exclusion, including the feasibility critique of education…

  5. [Health policies and politicized health? An analysis of sexual and reproductive health policies in Peru from the perspective of medical ethics, quality of care, and human rights].

    PubMed

    Miranda, J Jaime; Yamin, Alicia Ely

    2008-01-01

    Health professionals view medical ethics as a discipline that provides the basis for more adequate patient care. In recent years the concepts of quality of care and human rights - with their attending discourses - have joined the concept of medical ethics among the paradigms to consider in care for humans both at the individual and health policy levels. The current study seeks to analyze such paradigms, based on a case study of sexual and reproductive health policies in Peru in the last 10 years. PMID:18209830

  6. Intellectual property rights and innovation: Evidence from the human genome*

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    Do intellectual property (IP) rights on existing technologies hinder subsequent innovation? Using newly-collected data on the sequencing of the human genome by the public Human Genome Project and the private firm Celera, this paper estimates the impact of Celera’s gene-level IP on subsequent scientific research and product development. Genes initially sequenced by Celera were held with IP for up to two years, but moved into the public domain once re-sequenced by the public effort. Across a range of empirical specifications, I find evidence that Celera’s IP led to reductions in subsequent scientific research and product development on the order of 20 to 30 percent. Taken together, these results suggest that Celera’s short-term IP had persistent negative effects on subsequent innovation relative to a counterfactual of Celera genes having always been in the public domain. PMID:24639594

  7. Human rights and the requirement for international medical aid.

    PubMed

    Tolchin, Benjamin

    2008-08-01

    Every year approximately 18 million people die prematurely from treatable medical conditions including infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies. The deaths occur primarily amongst the poorest citizens of poor developing nations. Various groups and individuals have advanced plans for major international medical aid to avert many of these unnecessary deaths. For example, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health estimated that eight million premature deaths could be prevented annually by interventions costing roughly US$57 bn per year. This essay advances an argument that human rights require high-income nations to provide such aid. The essay briefly examines John Rawls' obligations of justice and the reasons that their applicability to cases of international medical aid remains controversial. Regardless, the essay argues that purely humanitarian obligations bind the governments and citizens of high-income liberal democracies at a minimum to provide major medical aid to avert premature deaths in poor nations. In refusing to undertake such medical relief efforts, developed nations fail to adequately protect a fundamental human right to life. PMID:19143091

  8. The third era of human rights: global accountability.

    PubMed

    Suter, Keith

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that the trend in the current protection of human rights may be seen as a revival of an old idea: governments are accountable for their actions. The protection of human rights has gone through three eras. In the first era, the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages claimed to rule from a divine mandate. This principle of natural law was a unifying factor in western Europe because it created a standard system of morality. The second era, beginning in the seventeenth century with the doctrine of state sovereignty, rejected that natural law. Rulers wanted to run their own territories and not be subject to foreign influence. Laws were created by the 'national sovereign' (king, queen, president, parliament, congress and so on). This legal doctrine survived for about three centuries, but the excesses of leaders such as Hitler in the middle of last century forced a re-think. Although the term 'natural law' is not used, there has been a revival of its essential meaning: that governments have to be answerable to a higher authority for their behaviour. PMID:17822064

  9. Patients' privacy of the person and human rights.

    PubMed

    Woogara, Jay

    2005-05-01

    The UK Government published various circulars to indicate the importance of respecting the privacy and dignity of NHS patients following the implementation of the Human Rights Act, 1998. This research used an ethnographic method to determine the extent to which health professionals had in fact upheld the philosophy of these documents. Fieldwork using nonparticipant observation, and unstructured and semistructured interviews with patients and staff, took place over six months in three acute care wards in a large district NHS trust hospital. Applying the principles of phenomenology and grounded theory, the data were analysed and the contents organized into 11 key categories, leading to the formulation of a privacy model. The level of intrusion into patients' privacy by health professionals was measured against the benchmarking of the 'dignity and privacy' factors contained in the Department of Health's The essence of care document and Article 8(2) of the Human Rights Act. The findings established that patients had little privacy in the wards, and that the terms 'privacy of the person' and 'dignity' are interrelated. PMID:15921344

  10. Reflections on human rights as a reality for women and midwives.

    PubMed

    Murphy-Lawless, Jo

    2015-10-01

    We often speak of a woman's right to choose the way she wishes to give birth. This article discusses how 'real' that right is. Some of the legal background to human rights as they relate to childbirth is set out, centred on the 2010 European Court of Human Rights ruling in the home birth case, Ternovszky v Hungary. The limitations of this case point to why resorting to the law to achieve their rights about birth may not be the most fruitful remedy for women. Instead the argument is made for creating equality of voice in the clinical area to achieve a stronger collective voice for anchoring human rights in practice. PMID:26638648

  11. A discourse on human hair fibers and reflections on the conservation of drug molecules.

    PubMed

    Pötsch, L

    1996-01-01

    A gross discourse on human hair fibers and their formation is presented stressing the various interdisciplinary aspects, such as the morphological, biological, structural and biochemical data considered to be important in the field of hair analysis. An attempt is made to explain the incorporation of drug molecules during hair fiber formation by using the classical concepts of drug absorption based on lipoid theory and the pH-partition hypothesis as well as a modern biological approach on the permeability of cell membranes. In addition to the physiochemical considerations of the transport properties of a particular drug molecule such as a) the lipophilicity, which determines permeability through the membrane, b) the pKa value, c) the plasma protein binding and d) the molecular size and shape of the drug molecule, drug absorption is thought to be limited by the surface area and the residence time in the hair bulb. The thermodynamic approach according to the Kedem-Katchalsky equations seems even more satisfying. When the principles of biological transport across cell membranes are applied to the cell populations present in the hair root, a hypothesis of extracellular and intracellular drug localizations results. It is speculated that the cell membrane complex (CMC) and the melanin granules present the main sources of incorporated drug molecules within the keratinized hair fibers. PMID:8793635

  12. Correlates of violence in Guinea's Maison Centrale Prison: a statistical approach to documenting human rights abuses.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Ronald E

    2010-01-01

    Les Mêmes Droits Pour Tous (MDT) is a human rights NGO in Guinea, West Africa that focuses on the rights of prisoners in Maison Centrale, the country's largest prison located in the capital city of Conakry. In 2007, MDT completed a survey of the prison population to assess basic legal and human rights conditions. This article uses statistical tools to explore MDT's survey results in greater depth, shedding light on human rights violations in Guinea. It contributes to human rights literature that argues for greater use of econometric tools in rights reporting, and demonstrates how human rights practitioners and academics can work together to construct an etiology of violence and torture by state actors, as physical violence is perhaps the most extreme violation of the individual's right to health. PMID:21178191

  13. Palestine Refugees Today. Human Rights Day: Twenty-Fifth Anniversary. Newsletter Number 76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Relief and Works Agency, New York, NY.

    A special issue of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) newsletter relates the ideals of human rights as carried out for the Palestine refugees. An overview of the publication and its contents is followed by a copy of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Three articles--The Right to Education, An Adequate Standard of Living,…

  14. Social Studies: Appendix for Elementary, Middle, and High School Guides for Teaching about Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detroit Public Schools, MI. Dept. of Curriculum Development Services.

    Seventy documents including primary source materials, simulations, mock trials, short stories, vignettes, and statistical data are provided for the implementation of the elementary, middle, and high school human rights curriculum. Original documents include: (1) the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; (2) the Declaration of the Rights of the…

  15. Human Rights. Selected Documents, No. 5 (Revised). General Foreign Policy Series 310, Report No. 8961.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Public Affairs (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    The booklet contains the text of eight selected documents on human rights. The documents are Excerpts from the UN Charter; Universal Declaration of Human Rights; Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide; International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights; International Covenant on Civil and Political…

  16. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Joscelyne, Amy; Knuckey, Sarah; Satterthwaite, Margaret L; Bryant, Richard A; Li, Meng; Qian, Meng; Brown, Adam D

    2015-01-01

    Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work. PMID:26700305

  17. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Joscelyne, Amy; Knuckey, Sarah; Satterthwaite, Margaret L.; Bryant, Richard A.; Li, Meng; Qian, Meng; Brown, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work. PMID:26700305

  18. Comfort Women in Human Rights Discourse: Fetishized Testimonies, Small Museums, and the Politics of Thin Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Hee-Jung Serenity

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, the issue of comfort women--the women and girls who were forced into sex slavery for the Japanese army before and during WWII--has risen to global attention. Tens of thousands of comfort women (the average estimate is anywhere between 80,000 and 200,000) were confined at comfort stations managed by the Japanese Imperial…

  19. Comfort Women in Human Rights Discourse: Fetishized Testimonies, Small Museums, and the Politics of Thin Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Hee-Jung Serenity

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, the issue of comfort women--the women and girls who were forced into sex slavery for the Japanese army before and during WWII--has risen to global attention. Tens of thousands of comfort women (the average estimate is anywhere between 80,000 and 200,000) were confined at comfort stations managed by the Japanese Imperial…

  20. Health and human rights of women imprisoned in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The healthcare needs and general experience of women in detention in sub-Saharan Africa are rarely studied and poorly understood. Methods A mixed-methods study was conducted including in-depth interviews with 38 adult female prisoners and 21 prison officers in four Zambian prisons to assess the health and human rights concerns of female detainees. Key informant interviews with 46 officials from government and non-governmental organizations and a legal and policy review were also conducted. Results Despite special protection under international and regional law, incarcerated women's health needs–including prenatal care, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and nutritional support during pregnancy and breastfeeding–are not being adequately met in Zambian prisons. Women are underserved by general healthcare programs including those offering tuberculosis and HIV testing, and reported physical and sexual abuse conducted by police and prison officers that could amount to torture under international law. Conclusions There is an urgent need for women's healthcare services to be expanded, and for general prison health campaigns, including HIV and tuberculosis testing and treatment, to ensure the inclusion of female inmates. Abuses against women in Zambian police and prison custody, which violate their rights and compromise their health, must be halted immediately. PMID:21696625

  1. Evaluating Human Rights Advocacy on Criminal Justice and Sex Work.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph; Wurth, Margaret; McLemore, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Between October 2011 and September 2013, we conducted research on the use, by police and/or prosecutors, of condom possession as evidence of intent to engage in prostitution-related offenses. We studied the practice in five large, geographically diverse cities in the U.S. To facilitate our advocacy on this issue, conducted concurrent to and following our research, we developed an advocacy framework consisting of six dimensions: (1) raising awareness, (2) building and engaging coalitions, (3) framing debate, (4) securing rhetorical commitments, (5) reforming law and policy, and (6) changing practice. Using a case study approach, we describe how this framework also provided a basis for the evaluation of our work, and discuss additional considerations and values related to the measurement and evaluation of human rights advocacy. PMID:26204588

  2. Forced migration: health and human rights issues among refugee populations.

    PubMed

    Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2015-01-01

    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that is manifest in diverse contexts. In this article, we examine the situations that precipitate the movement of large numbers of people across several African countries, producing a unique type of undocumented migrant--the refugee. These refugee movements impact already fragile African health care systems and often involve human rights violations that are of particular concern, such as gender-based violence and child soldiers. We use examples from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current research, and our personal international experiences, we provide an overview of forced migration and discuss implications and opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice, and policy related to refugee health. PMID:25645484

  3. Child Marriage: A Silent Health and Human Rights Issue

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Nawal M

    2009-01-01

    Marriages in which a child under the age of 18 years is involved occur worldwide, but are mainly seen in South Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A human rights violation, child marriage directly impacts girls’ education, health, psychologic well-being, and the health of their offspring. It increases the risk for depression, sexually transmitted infection, cervical cancer, malaria, obstetric fistulas, and maternal mortality. Their offspring are at an increased risk for premature birth and, subsequently, neonatal or infant death. The tradition, driven by poverty, is perpetuated to ensure girls’ financial futures and to reinforce social ties. One of the most effective methods of reducing child marriage and its health consequences is mandating that girls stay in school. PMID:19399295

  4. Health as a Human Right: Who is Eligible?

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Aaron; Schiff, Teresa; Rieth, Katherine; Yamada, Seiji; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2010-01-01

    In Hawai‘i, health care is a commodity, not a human right: those who can afford it receive care, those who cannot often don't. As health workers and health professional students, we witness the consequences that public policies and budget considerations have on people, on patients, on the health of those that we are dedicated to assisting. Beginning with a case study, we examine the historical antecedents leading to the increasing migration of Micronesians to Hawai‘i, examine the special relation that “Compact of Free Association” citizens have with the United States, and seek to reframe the political discussion regarding their health care status in this state as a debate in which medical considerations, not political or economic ones, should be the primary voice. PMID:20539993

  5. Pains of probation: effective practice and human rights.

    PubMed

    Durnescu, Ioan

    2011-06-01

    This article explores the experience of offenders while under probation supervision and analyses the "pains of probation" in connection to rehabilitation aspirations. The article has two main parts. In the first part of the article, the experiences of probationers are examined using thematic analysis, and eight different pains of probation are identified. In the second part of the article, these pains of probation are examined from two different perspectives: human rights and the Good Lives Model. The conclusion is that these two perspectives support each other and can help reduce the frustrations and deprivations experienced by individuals on probation. By implementing these two perspectives, probation services may overcome the obstacles toward desistance and earn more legitimacy in the eyes of probation recipients. PMID:20442271

  6. Do Human Rights Exist for Korean Gay Men and Lesbians?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youn, Gahyun

    All talk of sex was taboo in Korean society until the middle of this century. Only during the last decade has sexuality been a topic of discussion, but still the discourse was dominated by traditional male views regarding sex. Today, the number of homosexuals living openly is growing, and active debate about homosexuality in Korea is now emerging.…

  7. Personality and support for universal human rights: a review and test of a structural model.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Sam

    2010-12-01

    All individual differences that predict support for international human rights are first reviewed: support for human rights is linked most positively to "globalism" (other international and environmental concerns), "identification with all humanity," principled moral reasoning, benevolence, and dispositional empathy. It is related most negatively to ethnocentrism and its root dispositions, the social dominance orientation, and authoritarianism. Other correlates are also noted. Secondly, a structural model of the effects of authoritarianism, social dominance, ethnocentrism and identification with all humanity upon commitment to human rights is presented and tested. Across 2 studies (Study 1, N=218 nonstudent adults; Study 2, N=102 university students), ethnocentrism and identification with all humanity directly predicted human rights commitment. The effects of authoritarianism upon this commitment were fully mediated through enhanced ethnocentrism and reduced identification with all humanity. The effects of social dominance were similar, but its direct effect upon human rights commitment remained significant and was not, in the second study, mediated by reduced dispositional empathy. PMID:21039530

  8. Right ventricular long noncoding RNA expression in human heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan; Su, Yan Ru; Clark, Travis; Brittain, Evan; Absi, Tarek; Maltais, Simon; Hemnes, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human heart failure (HF) has not been widely studied. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), we compared lncRNA expression in 22 explanted human HF hearts with lncRNA expression in 5 unused donor human hearts. We used Cufflinks to identify isoforms and DESeq to identify differentially expressed genes. We identified the noncoding RNAs by cross-reference to Ensembl release 73 (Genome Reference Consortium human genome build 37) and explored possible functional roles using a variety of online tools. In HF hearts, RNA-Seq identified 84,793 total messenger RNA coding and noncoding different transcripts, including 13,019 protein-coding genes, 2,085 total lncRNA genes, and 1,064 pseudogenes. By Ensembl noncoding RNA categories, there were 48 lncRNAs, 27 pseudogenes, and 30 antisense RNAs for a total of 105 differentially expressed lncRNAs in HF hearts. Compared with donor hearts, HF hearts exhibited differential expression of 7.7% of protein-coding genes, 3.7% of lncRNAs (including pseudogenes), and 2.5% of pseudogenes. There were not consistent correlations between antisense lncRNAs and parent genes and between pseudogenes and parent genes, implying differential regulation of expression. Exploratory in silico functional analyses using online tools suggested a variety of possible lncRNA regulatory roles. By providing a comprehensive profile of right ventricular polyadenylated messenger RNA transcriptome in HF, RNA-Seq provides an inventory of differentially expressed lncRNAs, including antisense transcripts and pseudogenes, for future mechanistic study. PMID:25992278

  9. Human Rights: The Struggle for Freedom, Dignity and Equality. Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.

    Every human being deserves the right to live in freedom and dignity. Yet human rights violations dominate the headlines. In addition to becoming sensitive to human pain and suffering, young adults must also begin the lifelong process of creating, recognizing, and exercising options. This resource guide contains suggested questions and projects…

  10. Carrots or sticks?--experiences of human rights education by the subordinate staff of an Indian prison.

    PubMed

    Martin, T

    2000-06-01

    The author in this article tries to find out the other aspect of human rights as it is felt by the subordinate staff of an Indian prison. He tried to put the problem on headings like 'human rights in prisons', 'human rights and prison staff', 'the problem of subordinate prison staff' and concludes with human rights education and prison staff. PMID:11002639

  11. Public health, conflict and human rights: toward a collaborative research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Thoms, Oskar NT; Ron, James

    2007-01-01

    Although epidemiology is increasingly contributing to policy debates on issues of conflict and human rights, its potential is still underutilized. As a result, this article calls for greater collaboration between public health researchers, conflict analysts and human rights monitors, with special emphasis on retrospective, population-based surveys. The article surveys relevant recent public health research, explains why collaboration is useful, and outlines possible future research scenarios, including those pertaining to the indirect and long-term consequences of conflict; human rights and security in conflict prone areas; and the link between human rights, conflict, and International Humanitarian Law. PMID:18005430

  12. Reframing violence against women as a human rights violation: Evan Stark's Coercive Control.

    PubMed

    Libal, Kathryn; Parekh, Serena

    2009-12-01

    Evan Stark claims that partner-perpetrated physical abuse and other forms of violence against women ought to be understood as a human rights violation. The authors engage Stark's rhetorically powerful political and analytical innovation by outlining one theoretical and one practical challenge to shifting the paradigm that researchers, advocates, and policy makers use to describe, explain, and remedy the harms of coercive control from misdemeanor assault to human rights violation. The theoretical challenge involves overcoming the public/ private dichotomy that underpins liberal conceptions of human rights.The practical challenge involves using the human rights framework in the United States, given public indifference to human rights rhetoric or law, reluctance of U.S. policy makers to submit to scrutiny or justice-oriented processes under international law on issues of human rights and especially war crimes, and the consequent U.S. legacy of refusal to participate meaningfully in the international human rights process. The authors conclude that employing a human rights framework holds potential in the United States, but the paradigm shift Stark advocates will not materialize without widespread mobilization of interest in and understanding of human rights among domestic violence advocates and the society in general. PMID:19834069

  13. The Pan American Health Organization and the mainstreaming of human rights in regional health governance.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Ayala, Ana S

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of centralized human rights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of human rights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream human rights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream human rights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American human rights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers in implementing human rights through PAHO governance. Analyzing the themes arising from this narrative, the authors examine the structural role of secretariat leadership, state support, legal expertise, and technical unit commitment in facilitating a rights-based approach to the health in the Americas. Human rights are increasingly framing PAHO efforts, and this analysis of the structures underlying PAHO's approach provides an understanding of the institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health, highlighting generalizable themes for the mainstreaming of human rights through regional health governance. With this regional-level understanding of health governance, future national-level research can begin to understand the causal forces linking regional human rights work with national policy reforms and public health outcomes. PMID:25264093

  14. Conceptualizing a Human Right to Prevention in Global HIV/AIDS Policy

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Brugh, Kristen Nichole; Halima, Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    Given current constraints on universal treatment campaigns, recent advances in public health prevention initiatives have revitalized efforts to stem the tide of HIV transmission. Yet, despite a growing imperative for prevention—supported by the promise of behavioral, structural and biomedical approaches to lower the incidence of HIV—human rights frameworks remain limited in addressing collective prevention policy through global health governance. Assessing the evolution of rights-based approaches to global HIV/AIDS policy, this review finds that human rights have shifted from collective public health to individual treatment access. While the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic gave meaning to rights in framing global health policy, the application of rights in treatment access litigation came at the expense of public health prevention efforts. Where the human rights framework remains limited to individual rights enforced against a state duty bearer, such rights have faced constrained application in framing population-level policy to realize the public good of HIV prevention. Concluding that human rights frameworks must be developed to reflect the complementarity of individual treatment and collective prevention, this article conceptualizes collective rights to public health, structuring collective combination prevention to alleviate limitations on individual rights frameworks and frame rights-based global HIV/AIDS policy to assure research expansion, prevention access and health system integration. PMID:23226723

  15. The Potential of Human Rights Education for Conflict Prevention and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of human rights education (HRE) to conflict prevention and to the promotion of security. It outlines the difficulties in evaluating the long-term impact of HRE, but then proposes five benefits of a rights-based approach to education--rights as secular, man-made, requiring transparency, enabling freedom from…

  16. Curricular Choices of Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Communities: Translating International Human Rights Law into Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Hazan, Lotem

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs the provisions of international human rights law in order to analyse whether and how liberal states should regulate Haredi educational practices, which sanctify the exclusive focus on religious studies in schools for boys. It conceptualises the conflict between the right to acceptable education and the right to adaptable…

  17. Curricular Choices of Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Communities: Translating International Human Rights Law into Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Hazan, Lotem

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs the provisions of international human rights law in order to analyse whether and how liberal states should regulate Haredi educational practices, which sanctify the exclusive focus on religious studies in schools for boys. It conceptualises the conflict between the right to acceptable education and the right to adaptable…

  18. Damned if you do, damned if you don't? The Lundbeck case of pentobarbital, the guiding principles on business and human rights, and competing human rights responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Buhmann, Karin

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 it emerged that to induce the death penalty, United States authorities had begun giving injections of pentobarbital, a substance provided by Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck. Lundbeck's product pentobarbital is licensed for treatment of refractory forms of epilepsy and for usage as an anaesthetic, thus for a very different purpose. The Lundbeck case offers a difficult, but also interesting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) dilemma between choices facing a pharmaceutical company to stop the distribution of a medical substance in order to avoid complicity in human rights violations, or to retain distribution of the substance in order not to impede access to the medicine for those patients who need it. The dilemma arose at a time when the United Nations (UN) Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, Professor John Ruggie, was finalizing a set of Guiding Principles to operationalize recommendations on business and human rights that he had presented to the UN Human Rights Council in 2008. The article discusses the dilemma in which Lundbeck was placed in from the perspective of the Guiding Principles on business and human rights and the 2008 Protect, Respect, Remedy UN Framework. The analysis seeks to assess what guidance may be gauged from the Guiding Principles in relation to the dilemma at hand and discusses the adequacy the Guiding Principles for dealing with acute human rights dilemmas of conflicting requirements in which a decision to avoid one type of violation risks causing violation of another human right. The article concludes by drawing up perspectives for further development of guidance on implementation of the UN Framework that could be considered by the newly established Working Group on Business and Human Rights and related UN bodies. PMID:22789041

  19. The First Amendment Right to Speak About the Human Genome.

    PubMed

    Evans, Barbara J

    2014-02-01

    This article explores whether laws that restrict the communication of genetic test results may, under certain circumstances, violate the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The focus is whether investigators have a right to return results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories in situations where a research participant requests the results and the investigator is willing to share them but is concerned that doing so may violate regulations under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 ("CLIA"). This article takes no position on whether investigators can be compelled to return results when they do not wish to do so. It examines only whether investigators may, not whether they must, return results to a willing research participant. The article: (1) surveys state and federal laws that block communication of genetic test results to research participants; (2) examines the historical use of speech restrictions as a tool for protecting human research subjects; (3) traces how First Amendment doctrine has evolved since the 1970s when foundations of modern research bioethics were laid; (4) inquires whether recent bioethical and policy debate has accorded due weight to the First Amendment. The article applies two common methods of legal analysis, textual and constitutional analysis. It concludes that the CLIA regulations, when properly construed, do not treat the return of results as an event that triggers CLIA's certification requirements. Moreover, there is a potential First Amendment problem in construing CLIA's research exception in a way that bans the return of results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories. PMID:25473380

  20. Human rights from the grassroots up: Vermont's campaign for universal health care.

    PubMed

    McGill, Mariah

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, the Vermont Workers' Center launched the "Healthcare Is a Human Right Campaign," a grassroots campaign to secure the creation of a universal health care system in Vermont. Campaign organizers used a human rights framework to mobilize thousands of voters in support of universal health care. In response to this extraordinary grassroots effort, the state legislature passed health care legislation that incorporates human rights principles into Vermont law and provides a framework for universal health care. The United States has often lagged behind other nations in recognizing economic, social, and cultural (ESC) rights, including the right to health. Nonetheless, activists have begun to incorporate ESC rights into domestic advocacy campaigns, and state and local governments are beginning to respond where the federal government has not. Vermont serves as a powerful example of how a human rights framework can inform health care policy and inspire grassroots campaigns in the United States. This three-part article documents the Vermont Workers' Center campaign and discusses the impact that human rights activity at the grassroots level may have on attitudes towards ESC rights in the United States. The first part describes the Vermont health care crisis and explains why the center adopted international human rights principles for their campaign. The article then goes on to discuss the three-year campaign and analyze the health care reform bill that the Vermont legislature passed. Finally, the article discusses the campaign's local and national impact. PMID:22773094

  1. "It's doom alone that counts": can international human rights law be an effective source of rights in correctional conditions litigation?

    PubMed

    Perlin, Michael L; Dlugacz, Henry A

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the U.S. judiciary has grown increasingly less receptive to claims by convicted felons as to the conditions of their confinement while in prison. Although courts have not articulated a return to the "hands off" policy of the 1950s, it is clear that it has become significantly more difficult for prisoners to prevail in constitutional correctional litigation. The passage and aggressive implementation of the Prison Litigation Reform Act has been a powerful disincentive to such litigation in many areas of prisoners' rights law. From the perspective of the prisoner, the legal landscape is more hopeful in matters that relate to mental health care and treatment. Here, in spite of a general trend toward more stringent applications of standards of proof and a reluctance to order sweeping, intrusive remedies, some courts have aggressively protected prisoners' rights to be free from "deliberate indifference" to serious medical needs, and to be free from excessive force on the part of prison officials. A mostly hidden undercurrent in some prisoners' rights litigation has been the effort on the part of some plaintiffs' lawyers to look to international human rights doctrines as a potential source of rights, an effort that has met with some modest success. It receives support by the inclination of other courts to turn to international human rights conventions-even in nations where such conventions have not been ratified-as a kind of "best practice" in the area. The recent publication and subsequent ratification (though not, as of yet, by the United States) of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) may add new support to those using international human rights documents as a basis for litigating prisoners' rights claims. To the best of our knowledge, there has, as of yet, been no scholarly literature on the question of the implications of the CRPD on the state of prisoners' rights law in a U.S. domestic context. In this article, we raise this question, and offer some tentative conclusions. PMID:19784942

  2. Employing human rights frameworks to realize access to an HIV cure

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Gelpi, Adriane; Kavanagh, Matthew M; Forman, Lisa; Amon, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The scale of the HIV pandemic – and the stigma, discrimination and violence that surrounded its sudden emergence – catalyzed a public health response that expanded human rights in principle and practice. In the absence of effective treatment, human rights activists initially sought to protect individuals at high risk of HIV infection. With advances in antiretroviral therapy, activists expanded their efforts under international law, advocating under the human right to health for individual access to treatment. Discussion As a clinical cure comes within reach, human rights obligations will continue to play a key role in political and programmatic decision-making. Building upon the evolving development and implementation of the human right to health in the global response to HIV, we outline a human rights research agenda to prepare for HIV cure access, investigating the role of human rights law in framing 1) resource allocation, 2) international obligations, 3) intellectual property and 4) freedom from coercion. Conclusions The right to health is widely recognized as central to governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental responses to the pandemic and critical both to addressing vulnerability to infection and to ensuring universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. While the advent of an HIV cure will raise new obligations for policymakers in implementing the right to health, the resolution of past debates surrounding HIV prevention and treatment may inform claims for universal access. PMID:26568056

  3. Advancing the sexual and reproductive health and human rights of women living with HIV: a review of UN, regional and national human rights norms and standards

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Rajat; Van Belle, Nuna; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is an essential part of the right to health and is dependent upon substantive equality, including freedom from multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination that result in exclusion in both law and practice. Nonetheless, general and specific SRH needs of women living with HIV are often not adequately addressed. For example, services that women living with HIV need may not be available or may have multiple barriers, in particular stigma and discrimination. This study was conducted to review United Nations Human Rights Council, Treaty Monitoring Bodies and Special Rapporteur reports and regional and national mechanisms regarding SRH issues of women living with HIV. The objective is to assess areas of progress, as well as gaps, in relation to health and human rights considerations in the work of these normative bodies on health and human rights. Methods The review was done using keywords of international, regional and national jurisprudence on findings covering the 2000 to 2014 period for documents in English; searches for the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and national judgments were also conducted in Spanish. Jurisprudence of UN Treaty Monitoring Bodies, regional mechanisms and national bodies was considered in this regard. Results and discussion In total, 236 findings were identified using the search strategy, and of these 129 were selected for review based on the inclusion criteria. The results highlight that while jurisprudence from international, regional and national bodies reflects consideration of some health and human rights issues related to women living with HIV and SRH, the approach of these bodies has been largely ad hoc and lacks a systematic integration of human rights concerns of women living with HIV in relation to SRH. Most findings relate to non-discrimination, accessibility, informed decision-making and accountability. There are critical gaps on normative standards regarding the human rights of women living with HIV in relation to SRH. Conclusions A systematic approach to health and human rights considerations related to women living with HIV and SRH by international, regional and national bodies is needed to advance the agenda and ensure that policies and programmes related to SRH systematically take into account the health and human rights of women living with HIV. PMID:26643455

  4. Mental disability, human rights and the capabilities approach: searching for the foundations.

    PubMed

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2014-08-01

    Those seeking to improve the well-being of individuals with disabilities worldwide often draw on the idea of human rights. More recently, a variety of international human rights legislation such as the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) has come into force worldwide. The present article aims to ground human rights of people with disabilities such as those in the CRPD in a theory of social justice called the capabilities approach (CA). This article discusses the reasons for grounding rights in a theory of justice, the links between the CA and human rights, the central concern for disability and individuals with disabilities in the CA, and seven central components of the CA. PMID:25137106

  5. Hope without Consolation: Prospects for Critical Learning at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failler, Angela

    2015-01-01

    From atop the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR), juts the Tower of Hope, a 23-story illuminated glass architectural feature meant to symbolize "the goal of the human-rights journey," namely, "hope for a changed world." The prominence of hope as an ideal is literally set in stone at the CMHR. Hope for the museum itself is…

  6. Beyond Study Abroad: A Human Rights Delegation to Teach Policy Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammonley, Denise; Rotabi, Karen Smith; Forte, Janett; Martin, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Advancement of human rights is a core competency in the social work curriculum. Presented is a model to teach policy practice from a human rights perspective based on a violence-against-women delegation visit to Guatemala. Postdelegation policy advocacy responses included White House and State Department briefings on the problems, including…

  7. Economic and Political Theories of Organization: The Case of Human Rights INGOs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaser, Arthur W.

    This paper reviews research on international nongovernmental organizations dealing with human rights (INGOs), and interprets this research in light of the overlap of the fields of organizational theory (including group theory) and human rights. The purpose is to contribute toward a useful exchange between social scientists who seek to explain…

  8. Re-Thinking Relations in Human Rights Education: The Politics of Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adami, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Human Rights Education (HRE) has traditionally been articulated in terms of cultivating better citizens or world citizens. The main preoccupation in this strand of HRE has been that of bridging a gap between universal notions of a human rights subject and the actual locality and particular narratives in which students are enmeshed. This…

  9. Human Rights Education and Student Self-Conception in the Dominican Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, a 3-month course in human rights based on critical inquiry was offered to 8th graders in a slum area of Santo Domingo. The students' attitudes, behaviors and knowledge of human rights principles were measured before and after the course. The curriculum focused on international principles and entrenched local problems such as…

  10. Recasting Justice and Ethics through Human Rights Education: The Nigerian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbode, Olusola

    2006-01-01

    The United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) set in motion both formal and informal activities to promote the development of respect for human rights culture through education worldwide. It is said that knowledge is power and ignorance cannot be a defence. But the maxim that says ignorance of the law is no defence is in itself…

  11. Recasting Justice and Ethics through Human Rights Education: The Nigerian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbode, Olusola

    2006-01-01

    The United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) set in motion both formal and informal activities to promote the development of respect for human rights culture through education worldwide. It is said that knowledge is power and ignorance cannot be a defence. But the maxim that says ignorance of the law is no defence is in itself…

  12. Using indicators to determine the contribution of human rights to public health efforts

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Abstract There is general agreement on the need to integrate human rights into health policies and programmes, although there is still reluctance to go beyond rhetorical acknowledgement of their assumed significance. To determine the actual value of human rights for the effectiveness of public health efforts requires clarity about what their incorporation looks like in practice and how to assess their contribution. Despite the pervasive use of indicators in the public health field, indicators that specifically capture human rights concerns are not well developed and those that exist are inconsistently used. Even though “health and human rights indicators” are increasingly being constructed, it is often the case that health indicators are used to draw conclusions about some interaction between human rights and health; or that law and policy or other indicators, traditionally the domain of the human rights community, are used to make conclusions about health outcomes. To capture the added value that human rights bring to health, the differences in the contributions offered by these indicators need to be understood. To determine the value of different measures for advancing programme effectiveness, improving health outcomes and promoting human rights, requires questioning the intended purpose behind the construction of an indicator, who uses it, the kind of indicator it is, the extent to which it provides information about vulnerable populations, as well as how the data are collected and used. PMID:19784452

  13. "This Is a Public Record": Teaching Human Rights through the Performing Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Andrea McEvoy

    2012-01-01

    Urban youth in the United States often experience daily human rights violations such as racism and violence. Therefore, Human Rights Education (HRE) can strengthen their understanding of these issues and unleash their power to act toward positive change. This qualitative study attempted to gain a deeper understanding of the use of performance arts…

  14. "We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident . . . ": Human Rights as an Educational Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    1986-01-01

    In the last decade, human rights has become a highly visible isssue in United States foreign policy. Schools can't sidestep this controversy, since human rights concerns are an inextricable part of U.S. political heritage. Schools can use a number of teaching approaches to help students understand the complexities and contradictions involved. (2…

  15. Teaching Recent History in Countries that Have Experienced Human Rights Violations: Case Studies from Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Maria Isabel; Magendzo, Abraham; Gazmuri, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating recent history into the educational curricula of countries that have experienced human rights violations combines the complexities of teaching history, teaching recent history, and human rights education. Recent history makes a historical analysis of social reality and a historiographical analysis of the immediate. It is located…

  16. The Transformative Power of Democracy and Human Rights in Nonformal Education: The Case of Tostan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Diane; Melching, Molly

    2010-01-01

    This case study analyzes the introduction of democracy and human rights into the educational program of Tostan, a nongovernmental organization working in Africa. The authors show how Tostan's original educational approach created a meaningful context for integrating democracy and human rights into its curriculum, a process that took place from…

  17. "No-One Respects Them Anyway": Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Human Rights Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cayir, Kenan; Bagli, Melike Turkan

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of compulsory courses on human rights into the secondary school curriculum in 1998 has been an important first step in developing respect for human rights and responsibilities among the younger generation in Turkey. Yet, these courses have many shortcomings in terms of materials, pedagogy and teacher attitudes. This paper…

  18. Hope without Consolation: Prospects for Critical Learning at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failler, Angela

    2015-01-01

    From atop the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR), juts the Tower of Hope, a 23-story illuminated glass architectural feature meant to symbolize "the goal of the human-rights journey," namely, "hope for a changed world." The prominence of hope as an ideal is literally set in stone at the CMHR. Hope for the museum itself is…

  19. Let's Talk about Human Rights. Students' Books 1-3. Teacher's Guides, Books 1-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Ricki; Sarna, Shirley

    These documents are designed to introduce students to some of the fundamental concepts, principles, and values of human rights and to a basic knowledge of human rights legal instruments as they apply to daily lives. Student handbook 1 is a series of lessons and activities that stimulate reading and discussion around the following ideas: What is a…

  20. 76 FR 24787 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria By the authority vested in me as..., and in Executive Order 13460 of February 13, 2008, finding that the Government of Syria's human rights abuses, including those related to the repression of the people of Syria, manifested most recently by...

  1. Infusing Human Rights into the Curriculum: The Case of the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrim, Nazir; Keet, Andre

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects on experiences of attempting to infuse human rights in the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS). Using our experiences as members of Human Rights and Inclusivity Group (HRIWG), one of the curriculum development structures set up for the RNCS, and focusing particularly on the Learning Area of Mathematics,…

  2. Moral and Human Rights Education: The Contribution of the United Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Print, Murray; Ugarte, Carolina; Naval, Concepcion; Mihr, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Moral education can take many forms. With the end of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (UNDHRE) (1995-2004), we critically review developments in human rights education (HRE) during those ten years in the context of moral education. We argue that, despite some modest successes, the decade lacked direction and a major impact and…

  3. Toward Cosmopolitan Ethics in Teacher Education: An Ontological Dimension of Learning Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adami, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    There is a globalization trend in teacher education, emphasizing the role of teachers to make judgments based on human rights in their teaching profession. Rather than emphasizing the epistemological dimension of acquiring knowledge "about" human rights through teacher education, an ontological dimension is emphasized in this paper of…

  4. Re-Thinking Relations in Human Rights Education: The Politics of Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adami, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Human Rights Education (HRE) has traditionally been articulated in terms of cultivating better citizens or world citizens. The main preoccupation in this strand of HRE has been that of bridging a gap between universal notions of a human rights subject and the actual locality and particular narratives in which students are enmeshed. This…

  5. Seeking Asylum: Adolescents Explore the Crossroads of Human Rights Education and Cosmopolitan Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkerly-Bean, Judith; Bean, Thomas; Alnajjar, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school (grade 6-8) students' understanding and interpretation of human rights issues with local and global implications as they engaged in the process of creating a film after reading print and multimedia texts and participating in human rights education activities. As the students explored…

  6. The Teaching of Patriotism and Human Rights: An Uneasy Entanglement and the Contribution of Critical Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the moral, political and pedagogical tensions that are created from the entanglement of patriotism and human rights, and sketches a response to these tensions in the context of critical education. The article begins with a brief review of different forms of patriotism, especially as those relate to human rights, and explains…

  7. Network Television Coverage of Human Rights in Central America during the Carter Administration, 1977-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jarice; Miller, Christine

    A study examined the United States television networks' news coverage of human rights in Central America during the administration of President Jimmy Carter to determine whether the President's hopes for greater media coverage of human rights issues were acknowledged by network newscasts. A content analysis of "Television News Index and Abstracts"…

  8. Human Rights on the Internet: A Select Bibliography of Web Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Christina E.; Davidson, Russ

    1997-01-01

    Presents a cross-section of categories of Internet sites that deal with human rights issues: (1) gateway sites; (2) sites that focus on particular broad groups; (3) international organizations; (4) human rights documents; (5) regional and country sites; and (6) news services and periodicals. For each site, information on the sponsor(s), contents,…

  9. Beyond Study Abroad: A Human Rights Delegation to Teach Policy Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammonley, Denise; Rotabi, Karen Smith; Forte, Janett; Martin, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Advancement of human rights is a core competency in the social work curriculum. Presented is a model to teach policy practice from a human rights perspective based on a violence-against-women delegation visit to Guatemala. Postdelegation policy advocacy responses included White House and State Department briefings on the problems, including…

  10. Toward Cosmopolitan Ethics in Teacher Education: An Ontological Dimension of Learning Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adami, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    There is a globalization trend in teacher education, emphasizing the role of teachers to make judgments based on human rights in their teaching profession. Rather than emphasizing the epistemological dimension of acquiring knowledge "about" human rights through teacher education, an ontological dimension is emphasized in this paper of…

  11. The Teaching of Patriotism and Human Rights: An Uneasy Entanglement and the Contribution of Critical Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the moral, political and pedagogical tensions that are created from the entanglement of patriotism and human rights, and sketches a response to these tensions in the context of critical education. The article begins with a brief review of different forms of patriotism, especially as those relate to human rights, and explains…

  12. Seeking Asylum: Adolescents Explore the Crossroads of Human Rights Education and Cosmopolitan Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkerly-Bean, Judith; Bean, Thomas; Alnajjar, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school (grade 6-8) students' understanding and interpretation of human rights issues with local and global implications as they engaged in the process of creating a film after reading print and multimedia texts and participating in human rights education activities. As the students explored…

  13. Infusing Human Rights into the Curriculum: The Case of the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrim, Nazir; Keet, Andre

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects on experiences of attempting to infuse human rights in the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS). Using our experiences as members of Human Rights and Inclusivity Group (HRIWG), one of the curriculum development structures set up for the RNCS, and focusing particularly on the Learning Area of Mathematics,…

  14. Human Rights Education in Schools in the Post-Communist Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibbitts, Felisa

    1994-01-01

    The imperatives and complexities of introducing human rights principles at primary and secondary school levels in postcommunist societies are presented, focusing on presentation of concepts of individualism, democracy, and human rights in textbooks; teaching practices that reinforce learner-centered approaches; and consideration of a national…

  15. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-01-01

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated. PMID:26377091

  16. Nicholson Medal Lecture: Science, Politics, and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Yuri F.

    1996-05-01

    For scientists in a totalitarian society, the line between the professional and the political collapses, because to one degree or another they face the forced option of complicity with or resistance to the regime. A look at the history of Soviet scientists' fight for democracy and human rights in the former Soviet Union -- including the author's personal involvement from 1956 -- exposes the radically diverse responses of Soviet scientists to this option: ideological confrontation with the regime, sacrifice of scientific careers, and worse by a small minority; strong professional and public support for the regime by another small but significant minority; and ambiguous or hypocritical public silence by the majority. These responses mostly reflected differences of character, but sometimes different answers to such fundamental questions as: What is more dangerous for domestic and international peace and security -- a repressive totalitarian superpower that may be gradually improved, or an unstable democracy? Where to draw the line between scientific activity within and complicity with a totalitarian regime? When seeking how to express solidarity with persecuted colleagues, many Western scientists have also raised these questions. In the post-Soviet era both still deserve analysis, if only because of China. The Soviet experience points to democratization, with all its instability, as being better insurance of future peace and security -- both locally and internationally -- than any repressive regime. The second question has been given a tragic new dimension recently, as it bears on collaboration with scientific colleagues who hold official or prestigious positions in a country that deliberately starves abandoned children to death.

  17. The First Amendment Right to Speak About the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether laws that restrict the communication of genetic test results may, under certain circumstances, violate the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The focus is whether investigators have a right to return results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories in situations where a research participant requests the results and the investigator is willing to share them but is concerned that doing so may violate regulations under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (“CLIA”). This article takes no position on whether investigators can be compelled to return results when they do not wish to do so. It examines only whether investigators may, not whether they must, return results to a willing research participant. The article: (1) surveys state and federal laws that block communication of genetic test results to research participants; (2) examines the historical use of speech restrictions as a tool for protecting human research subjects; (3) traces how First Amendment doctrine has evolved since the 1970s when foundations of modern research bioethics were laid; (4) inquires whether recent bioethical and policy debate has accorded due weight to the First Amendment. The article applies two common methods of legal analysis, textual and constitutional analysis. It concludes that the CLIA regulations, when properly construed, do not treat the return of results as an event that triggers CLIA’s certification requirements. Moreover, there is a potential First Amendment problem in construing CLIA’s research exception in a way that bans the return of results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories. PMID:25473380

  18. Nursing care of vulnerable populations using a framework of cultural competence, social justice and human rights.

    PubMed

    Pacquiao, Dula F

    2008-04-01

    The article attempts to present a model linking cultural competence with advocacy for social justice and protection of human rights in caring for vulnerable groups such as refugees and asylum seekers. Using the human rights principle focuses the moral obligation to address social inequities and suffering of vulnerable populations. Cultural competent care and culturally-congruent actions place the universal principles of social justice and protection of human rights within the cultural contexts of people's lives and the environment in which they are situated. Compassion is identified as the key component for culturally-competent advocacy for social justice and human rights protection. Compassion compels actions advocating social justice and protection of human rights for marginalised and powerless groups. Educational strategies for developing compassion are centered on collaboration, partnership and advocacy. Integration of experiential and didactic learning relevant to cultural competent care for refugees and asylum seekers are recommended. PMID:18844572

  19. Pathway to social justice: research on human rights and gender-based violence in a Rwandan refugee cAMP.

    PubMed

    Pavlish, Carol; Ho, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Gender-based violence persists in postconflict settings. Implementing an ethnographic study with Congolese refugees in Rwanda, we investigated community perspectives on justice and human rights. As core concepts, participants described the right to equal value as human beings and the corresponding responsibility to respect human rights as the basis for justice. Three factors that impede human rights include cultural ideology, social distance, and lack of a rights-enabling environment. Men described gender similarities while women emphasized gender differences in human rights. Ecological perspectives and rights-based approaches to achieving social justice seem warranted. PMID:19461231

  20. Health and human rights in today's fight against HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stemple, Lara

    2008-08-01

    The development of the health and human rights framework coincided with the beginning of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS. Since then, the international community has increasingly turned to human rights language and instruments to address the disease. Not only are human rights essential to addressing a disease that impacts marginalized groups most severely, but the spread of HIV/AIDS itself exacerbates inequality and impedes the realization of a range of human rights. Policy developments of the past decade include the United Nations (UN) Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights' General Comment on the 'Right to Health', the UN Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, and the UN's International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights, among others. Rights-related setbacks include the failure of the Declaration and its 5-year follow-up specifically to address men who have sex with men, sex workers, and intravenous drug users, political restrictions placed on urgently needed US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) funds, and the failure of many countries to decriminalize same-sex sex and outlaw discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS. Male circumcision as an HIV prevention measure is a topic around which important debate, touching on gender, informed consent and children's rights, serves to illustrate the ongoing vitality of the health and human rights dialogue. Mechanisms to increase state accountability for addressing HIV/AIDS should be explored in greater depth. Such measures might include an increase in the use of treaty-based judicial mechanisms, the linking of human rights compliance with preferential trade agreements, and rights requirements tied to HIV/AIDS funding. PMID:18641463

  1. Health and human rights in today’s fight against HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Stemple, Lara

    2012-01-01

    The development of the health and human rights framework coincided with the beginning of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS. Since then, the international community has increasingly turned to human rights language and instruments to address the disease. Not only are human rights essential to addressing a disease that impacts marginalized groups most severely, but the spread of HIV/AIDS itself exacerbates inequality and impedes the realization of a range of human rights. Policy developments of the past decade include the United Nations (UN) Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights’ General Comment on the ‘Right to Health’, the UN Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, and the UN’s International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights, among others. Rights-related setbacks include the failure of the Declaration and its 5-year follow-up specifically to address men who have sex with men, sex workers, and intravenous drug users, political restrictions placed on urgently needed US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) funds, and the failure of many countries to decriminalize same-sex sex and outlaw discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS. Male circumcision as an HIV prevention measure is a topic around which important debate, touching on gender, informed consent and children’s rights, serves to illustrate the ongoing vitality of the health and human rights dialogue. Mechanisms to increase state accountability for addressing HIV/AIDS should be explored in greater depth. Such measures might include an increase in the use of treaty-based judicial mechanisms, the linking of human rights compliance with preferential trade agreements, and rights requirements tied to HIV/ AIDS funding. PMID:18641463

  2. The Growth of Individual Rights: Ideas and Politics. International Human Rights Syllabi No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Dennis

    Designed for teachers of undergraduate students with some familiarity with political theory, moral philosophy, and social history, this course outline focuses on individual rights and their realization in the United States and the world at large. The syllabus, arranged in 3 major parts, is subdivided into 16 sections that outline major course…

  3. Rise of the New Right: Human and Civil Rights in Jeopardy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, J. Charles

    1980-01-01

    The author warns that ultra-conservatism is growing in strength and sophistication as a political force. He cites literature from various right-wing groups attacking the public schools and suggests that educators must learn to cope with social stress and the political extremism it generates. (SJL)

  4. The Growth of Individual Rights: Ideas and Politics. International Human Rights Syllabi No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Dennis

    Designed for teachers of undergraduate students with some familiarity with political theory, moral philosophy, and social history, this course outline focuses on individual rights and their realization in the United States and the world at large. The syllabus, arranged in 3 major parts, is subdivided into 16 sections that outline major course…

  5. Psychiatry and human rights: a difficult relationship, but with a growing potential.

    PubMed

    Jarab, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Persons with psychosocial disabilities (mental health problems) are under the protection of the new United Nations Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The CRPD brings a human rights-based approach to disability: it challenges paternalistic views by emphasizing the person as a rights-holder, an active subject, and not just a passive object of care. It also represents a challenge to mainstream human rights movements and mechanisms who have long paid insufficient attention to human rights of persons with (psychosocial) disabilities. It is increasingly understood that human rights of persons with psychosocial disabilities (mental health problems) should not be seen in the narrow perspective, as if the only issue was the most controversial one, that is, deprivation of liberty. In many areas, reform-minded psychiatrists have themselves initiated human rights-friendly reforms. For instance, efforts to implement article 19 of the CRPD—independent living and inclusion in the community—are increasingly becoming part of the mainstream in mental health care. There is potential for further synergy between mental health professionals and human rights activists in looking at the whole range of civil, political, economic, and social rights listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights—realizing that all these rights apply also to persons with psychosocial disabilities, and working together towards removing real-life obstacles to their enjoyment.The building of bridges between the two different types of expertise should be encouraged. In this regard, psychiatry would benefit from more cooperation across borders as well as with international human rights bodies, non-governmental organizations and persons with psychosocial disabilities themselves PMID:26464182

  6. Citizen's choice of preferred system of healthcare as a fundamental human right

    PubMed Central

    Burford, Gemma

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental rights are preconditions for any human to act with sufficient freedom and to be allowed sufficient choice to realize their potential. The right to indigenous medicine must be recognized as a fundamental human right for indigenous peoples. In accordance with the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine, every citizen should be allowed to benefit from the placebo effect. It constitutes an essential aspect of treatment, which is rightfully theirs on the basis of payment for health care – regardless of whether the payment is made out of pocket, or from public finance. It then follows that, the right of citizens to access the medical system of their choice should be formally acknowledged. That choice should be regarded as a Fundamental Human Right, which should under no circumstance be denied them - not for reasons of scientific prejudice, nor commercial ambition. PMID:21829297

  7. Training Trainers in health and human rights: Implementing curriculum change in South African health sciences institutions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of human rights as a professional obligation prompted moves to include human rights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A Train-the-Trainers course in Health and Human Rights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences institutions nationwide with the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge to teach human rights to their students. This study followed up participants to determine the extent of curriculum implementation, support needed as well as barriers encountered in integrating human rights into health sciences teaching and learning. Methods A survey including both quantitative and qualitative components was distributed in 2007 to past course participants from 1998-2006 via telephone, fax and electronic communication. Results Out of 162 past participants, 46 (28%) completed the survey, the majority of whom were still employed in academic settings (67%). Twenty-two respondents (48%) implemented a total of 33 formal human rights courses into the curricula at their institutions. Respondents were nine times more likely (relative risk 9.26; 95% CI 5.14-16.66) to implement human rights education after completing the training. Seventy-two extracurricular activities were offered by 21 respondents, many of whom had successfully implemented formal curricula. Enabling factors for implementation included: prior teaching experience in human rights, general institutional support and the presence of allies - most commonly coworkers as well as deans. Frequently cited barriers to implementation included: budget restrictions, time constraints and perceived apathy of colleagues or students. Overall, respondents noted personal enrichment and optimism in teaching human rights. Conclusion This Train-the-Trainer course provides the historical context, educational tools, and collective motivation to incorporate human rights educational initiatives at health sciences institutions. Increased implementation of human rights instruction, both formally and extracurricularly, has demonstrated the training's significance not only within academic institutions but more broadly across the health sector. Coworkers are vital allies in teaching human rights to health sciences students, helping to alleviate institutional barriers. Training fellow staff members and those in key leadership roles is noted as vital to the sustainability of human rights education. PMID:21787421

  8. Cultural values embodying universal norms: a critique of a popular assumption about cultures and human rights.

    PubMed

    Jing-Bao, Nie

    2005-09-01

    In Western and non-Western societies, it is a widely held belief that the concept of human rights is, by and large, a Western cultural norm, often at odds with non-Western cultures and, therefore, not applicable in non-Western societies. The Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights reflects this deep-rooted and popular assumption. By using Chinese culture(s) as an illustration, this article points out the problems of this widespread misconception and stereotypical view of cultures and human rights. It highlights the often ignored positive elements in Chinese cultures that promote and embody universal human values such as human dignity and human rights. It concludes, accordingly, with concrete suggestions on how to modify the Declaration. PMID:16128856

  9. Human Rights Education: The United Nations Endeavour and the Importance of Childhood and Intelligent Sympathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantzi, Katerina K.

    2004-01-01

    School is the major vehicle for humanism, which is, in essence, respect on human nature. Human Rights Education is important for the existence of human society in the modern globalising era. Education can function as a unifying factor and produce informed and active citizens of an interdependent world. It can provide the tools for advocacy and…

  10. Discourse as Medium of Knowledge: Transmission of Knowledge by Transmission of Discourse People Live

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassen, Rukya

    2015-01-01

    This is a study on discourse as medium of knowledge. Informal education is a system of transmission of knowledge by transmission of discourse people live by. In the humanities and social sciences, the term discourse describes a formal way of thinking that can be expressed through language. Discourses are seen to affect our views on all things; it…

  11. Tensions between Discourses of Development, Religion, and Human Capital in Early Childhood Education Policy Texts: The Case of Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formen, Ali; Nuttall, Joce

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider how particular discourses have come to dominate early childhood education (ECE) policy in Indonesia. We briefly explain the governance of Indonesian ECE and then our approach to policy analysis using critical discourse analysis. Three prevalent discourses are identified and discussed: "developmentalism",…

  12. Tensions between Discourses of Development, Religion, and Human Capital in Early Childhood Education Policy Texts: The Case of Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formen, Ali; Nuttall, Joce

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider how particular discourses have come to dominate early childhood education (ECE) policy in Indonesia. We briefly explain the governance of Indonesian ECE and then our approach to policy analysis using critical discourse analysis. Three prevalent discourses are identified and discussed: "developmentalism",…

  13. Employing moderate resolution sensors in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andrew J.

    Organizations concerned with human rights are increasingly using remote sensing as a tool to improve their detection of human rights and international humanitarian law violations. However, as these organizations have transitioned to human rights monitoring campaigns conducted over large regions and extended periods of time, current methods of using fine- resolution sensors and manpower-intensive analyses have become cost- prohibitive. To support the continued growth of remote sensing in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring campaigns, this study researches how moderate resolution land observatories can provide complementary data to operational human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates the capacity of moderate resolutions to provide data to monitoring efforts by developing an approach that uses Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) as part of a system for the detection of village destruction in Darfur, Sudan. Village destruction is an indicator of a human rights or international humanitarian law violations in Darfur during the 2004 study period. This analysis approach capitalizes on Landsat's historical archive and systematic observations by constructing a historic spectral baseline for each village in the study area that supports automated detection of a potentially destroyed village with each new overpass of the sensor. Using Landsat's near-infrared band, the approach demonstrates high levels of accuracy when compared with a U.S. government database documenting destroyed villages. This approach is then applied to the Darfur conflict from 2002 to 2008, providing new data on when and where villages were destroyed in this widespread and long-lasting conflict. This application to the duration of a real-world conflict illustrates the abilities and shortcomings of moderate resolution sensors in human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates that moderate resolution satellites have the capacity to contribute complementary data to operational human rights monitoring efforts. While this study validates this capacity for the burning of villages in arid environments, this approach can be generalized to detect other human rights violations if an observable signal that represents the violation is identified.

  14. Human rights and the challenges of science and technology: Commentary on Meier et al. "Translating the human right to water and sanitation into public policy reform" and Hall et al. "The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights".

    PubMed

    Marks, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    The expansion of the corpus of international human rights to include the right to water and sanitation has implications both for the process of recognizing human rights and for future developments in the relationships between technology, engineering and human rights. Concerns with threats to human rights resulting from developments in science and technology were expressed in the early days of the United Nations (UN), along with the recognition of the ambitious human right of everyone "to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications." This comment explores the hypothesis that the emerging concepts most likely to follow recognition of the human right to water primarily involve issues of science and technology, such as access to medicines or clean and healthy environment. Many threats to human rights from advances in science, which were identified in the past as potential, have become real today, such as invasion of privacy from electronic recording, deprivation of health and livelihood as a result of climate change, or control over individual autonomy through advances in genetics and neuroscience. This comment concludes by urging greater engagement of scientists and engineers, in partnership with human rights specialists, in translating normative pronouncements into defining policy and planning interventions. PMID:24519531

  15. Amnesty International: Evaluating Effectiveness in the Human Rights Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoble, Harry M.; Wiseberg, Laurie S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes Amnesty International, an organization formed in order to change the sociopolitical environment so that elites will have to act in a predetermined prohuman rights manner in all situations. The issues of torture and political repression were addressed in different nations, which practice the detention of political prisoners. (Author/RK)

  16. Human rights violations against sex workers: burden and effect on HIV.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michele R; Crago, Anna-Louise; Chu, Sandra K H; Sherman, Susan G; Seshu, Meena S; Buthelezi, Kholi; Dhaliwal, Mandeep; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-10

    We reviewed evidence from more than 800 studies and reports on the burden and HIV implications of human rights violations against sex workers. Published research documents widespread abuses of human rights perpetrated by both state and non-state actors. Such violations directly and indirectly increase HIV susceptibility, and undermine effective HIV-prevention and intervention efforts. Violations include homicide; physical and sexual violence, from law enforcement, clients, and intimate partners; unlawful arrest and detention; discrimination in accessing health services; and forced HIV testing. Abuses occur across all policy regimes, although most profoundly where sex work is criminalised through punitive law. Protection of sex workers is essential to respect, protect, and meet their human rights, and to improve their health and wellbeing. Research findings affirm the value of rights-based HIV responses for sex workers, and underscore the obligation of states to uphold the rights of this marginalised population. PMID:25059943

  17. Hidden Contradictions and Conditionality: Conceptualisations of Inclusive Education in International Human Rights Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Bronagh

    2013-01-01

    The nature of education that children with disabilities should receive has been subject to much debate. This article critically assesses the ways in which the international human rights framework has conceptualised "inclusive education". It argues that the right to education for children with disabilities in international law is…

  18. Canadian Human Rights Act. Office Consolidation = Loi canadienne sur les droits de la personne. Codification administrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Supply and Services, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Canadian Human Rights Act extends the laws in Canada that proscribe discrimination by establishing that each individual has the right to make the life for him- or herself that he or she is able and wishes to have, consistent with the duties and obligations of a member of society, without being hindered or prevented from doing so by…

  19. Advocacy for the Legal and Human Rights of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Robert M., Ed.

    Nine presentations from a conference on advocacy of the legal and human rights of the mentally handicapped are given. Robert Segal considers parents and professionals to be the primary advocates for the retarded, while Virginia Nordin examines the implications of recent court cases for the retarded's right to legal process and redress. The right…

  20. Human Rights and Decision-Making in Child Protection through Explicit Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joe; Taylor, Brian; Mc Call, Susannah

    2006-01-01

    A recent judgement in February 2005 by the Lord Chief Justice in Northern Ireland that a Health and Social Services Trust had breached a parent's Article 8 Right to Family Life in the process used to take a young child into care has stimulated major debate about the interface between the Human Rights Act (1998) and professional decision-making in…

  1. School Attendance as a Civic Duty v. Home Education as a Human Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Franz

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the legal situation of home education in Germany as a multi-level problem touching upon German constitutional law, State (Länder) constitutional law as well as administrative law, and the liberties of the European Convention of Human Rights. Whereas the parents' right to care for their children is explicitly granted by…

  2. Canadian Human Rights Act. Office Consolidation = Loi canadienne sur les droits de la personne. Codification administrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Supply and Services, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Canadian Human Rights Act extends the laws in Canada that proscribe discrimination by establishing that each individual has the right to make the life for him- or herself that he or she is able and wishes to have, consistent with the duties and obligations of a member of society, without being hindered or prevented from doing so by…

  3. Citizenship, Nationalism, Human Rights and Democracy: A Tangling of Terms in the Kuwaiti Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Nakib, Rania

    2011-01-01

    Background: Citizenship, nationalism, human rights and democracy are four terms and concepts that are inextricably linked. In Kuwait, the status of citizen is based on nationality, gender and age, with women, children, naturalised citizens, expatriates and "bidoon" (stateless people) denied many freedoms, rights and services. Citizenship is…

  4. Human Rights in Education: Recently Published Canadian Sources and an Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Douglas; Franco, Beatriz

    1986-01-01

    Bibliographies of 180 recent studies of Canadian themes or by Canadian authors on human rights in Canadian education are alphabetically listed. The studies are also indexed by the following topics: children's rights; education; ethnicity; financial; language; migration; multiculturalism; racism; sexism; special education; and theory. (SLD)

  5. Embodied Humanism: Performative Argument for Natural Rights in "The Solitude of Self."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormer, Nathan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how Elizabeth Cady Stanton's "The Solitude of Self" grounds rights in the material paradox of chance life events and the corporeal permanence of human isolation by enacting human solitude through what J. Campbell calls lyric tragedy. Reverses the ground for humanism from the disembodied rationalism of the Enlightenment to an embodied…

  6. Advancing sexual health through human rights: the role of the law.

    PubMed

    Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia; Miller, Alice M

    2015-01-01

    Since the International Conference on Population and Development, definitions of sexuality and sexual health have been greatly elaborated alongside widely accepted recognition that sexual health requires respect, protection and fulfilment of human rights. Considerable progress has also been made in enacting or changing laws that affect sexuality and sexual health, in line with human rights standards. These measures include legal guarantees against non-discrimination and violence, decriminalisation of consensual sexual conduct and guaranteeing availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of sexual health information and services to all. Such legal actions have had positive effects on health and specifically on sexual health, particularly for marginalised populations. Yet in all regions of the world, laws still exist which jeopardise health, including sexual health, and violate human rights. In order to ensure accountability for the rights and health of their populations, states have an obligation to bring their laws into line with international, regional and national human rights standards. These rights-based legal guarantees, while insufficient alone, are essential for effective systems of accountability, achieving positive sexual health outcomes and the respect and protection of human rights. PMID:25539286

  7. Human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities in Kathmandu, Nepal: a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nepal has experienced sporadic reports of human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities. Our objective was to identify a range of human rights that are enshrined in international law and/or are commonly reported by sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu, to be nonprotected or violated. Methods In September 2009 three focus group discussions were conducted by trained interviewers among a convenience sample of sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu Nepal. The modified Delphi technique was utilized to elicit and rank participant-generated definitions of human rights and their subsequent violations. Data was analyzed independently and cross checked by another investigator. Results Participants (n = 29) reported experiencing a range of human rights violations at home, work, educational, health care settings and in public places. Lack of adequate legal protection, physical and mental abuse and torture were commonly reported. Access to adequate legal protection and improvements in the family and healthcare environment were ranked as the most important priority areas. Conclusions Sexual and gender minorities in Nepal experienced a range of human rights violations. Future efforts should enroll a larger and more systematic sample of participants to determine frequency, timing, and/or intensity of exposure to rights violations, and estimate the population-based impact of these rights violations on specific health outcomes PMID:22591775

  8. Advancing sexual health through human rights: The role of the law

    PubMed Central

    Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia; Miller, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the International Conference on Population and Development, definitions of sexuality and sexual health have been greatly elaborated alongside widely accepted recognition that sexual health requires respect, protection and fulfilment of human rights. Considerable progress has also been made in enacting or changing laws that affect sexuality and sexual health, in line with human rights standards. These measures include legal guarantees against non-discrimination and violence, decriminalisation of consensual sexual conduct and guaranteeing availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of sexual health information and services to all. Such legal actions have had positive effects on health and specifically on sexual health, particularly for marginalised populations. Yet in all regions of the world, laws still exist which jeopardise health, including sexual health, and violate human rights. In order to ensure accountability for the rights and health of their populations, states have an obligation to bring their laws into line with international, regional and national human rights standards. These rights-based legal guarantees, while insufficient alone, are essential for effective systems of accountability, achieving positive sexual health outcomes and the respect and protection of human rights. PMID:25539286

  9. Human Rights Education in Japan: An Historical Account, Characteristics and Suggestions for a Better-Balanced Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Sachiko

    2012-01-01

    Although human rights are often expressed as universal tenets, the concept was conceived in a particular socio-political and historical context. Conceptualisations and practice of human rights vary across societies, and face numerous challenges. After providing an historical account of the conceptualisation of human rights in Japanese society,…

  10. Social Injustice, Human Rights-Based Education and Citizens' Direct Action to Promote Social Transformation in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ty, Reynaldo

    2011-01-01

    This article opens with a proposed framework for human rights education (HRE), which synthesizes ideas drawn from Zinn's people's history, Sen's theory of justice and Freire's critical pedagogy. A review of the literature on HRE and human rights-based learning suggests three existent interrelated models of HRE. Drawing on human rights-based…

  11. Human Rights Education in Japan: An Historical Account, Characteristics and Suggestions for a Better-Balanced Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Sachiko

    2012-01-01

    Although human rights are often expressed as universal tenets, the concept was conceived in a particular socio-political and historical context. Conceptualisations and practice of human rights vary across societies, and face numerous challenges. After providing an historical account of the conceptualisation of human rights in Japanese society,…

  12. Social Injustice, Human Rights-Based Education and Citizens' Direct Action to Promote Social Transformation in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ty, Reynaldo

    2011-01-01

    This article opens with a proposed framework for human rights education (HRE), which synthesizes ideas drawn from Zinn's people's history, Sen's theory of justice and Freire's critical pedagogy. A review of the literature on HRE and human rights-based learning suggests three existent interrelated models of HRE. Drawing on human rights-based…

  13. Poetry and Metaphor as Instruments in Promoting Human Rights in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladding, Samuel T.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the uses of poetry and metaphor in promoting the human rights of silence/thought; discovery/awareness; communication bridges; being creative; and altering perceptions while promoting hope. (SR)

  14. Do the Rights Thing?: The Canadian Museum for Human Rights and the MA in Cultural Studies at the University of Winnipeg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Kathryn; Keshavjee, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Education is the self-declared "heart" of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR), already generating partnership projects and programs with such organizations as the Canadian Teachers' Federation, the Assembly of First Nations, the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, and the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights. The CMHR has…

  15. Court says French government's refusal to authorize adoption violates woman's human rights.

    PubMed

    Chu, Sandra Ka Hon

    2008-07-01

    On 22 January 2008, the European Court of Human Rights held that there had been a violation of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention) in the case of E.B. v. France, concerning a refusal by the French authorities to grant E.B.'s request to adopt a child, allegedly on account of her sexual orientation. PMID:18727204

  16. Discerning the meaning of human suffering through the discourse of Judeo-Christian scriptures and other faith teachings.

    PubMed

    Vitillo, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    When confronted with the meaning of human suffering, many experts from a variety of professional disciplines admit to being incapable of formulating, on the basis of scientific method, a coherent explanation or rationale. Within that perspective, this article proposes another approach to the dilemma-that of reflection rooted in faith. The author examines the discourse of the Judeo-Christian scriptures and the comprehensive and cohesive doctrine developed by Pope John Paul II to find and track an evolving theology on the meaning of human suffering-one that includes understanding of this phenomenon as a "punishment for sin or evil," a test for fidelity, an occasion for God to show mercy and love, and a redemptive act by which Jesus took on all human suffering through his own death on the Cross and gave a salvific meaning to suffering through his resurrection from the dead. Further scriptural reflection and later Christian doctrines acknowledged that the suffering of other believers has its own redemptive value and that human suffering presents an occasion for all believers to respond with compassion and care to the pain of others. PMID:25149388

  17. Reconciling international human rights and cultural relativism: the case of female circumcision.

    PubMed

    James, Stephen A

    1994-01-01

    How can we reconcile, in a non-ethnocentric fashion, the enforcement of international, universal human rights standards with the protection of cultural diversity? Examining this question, taking the controversy over female circumcision as a case study, this article will try to bridge the gap between the traditional anthropological view that human rights are non-existent -- or completely relativised to particular cultures -- and the view of Western naturalistic philosophers (including Lockeian philosophers in the natural rights tradition, and Aquinas and neo-Thomists in the natural law tradition) that they are universal -- simply derived from a basic human nature we all share. After briefly defending a universalist conception of human rights, the article will provide a critique of female circumcision as a human rights violation by three principal means: by an internal critique of the practice using the condoning cultures' own functionalist criteria; by identifying supra-national norms the cultures subscribe to which conflict with the practice; and by the identification of traditional and novel values in the cultures, conducive to those norms. Through this analysis, it will be seen that cultural survival, diversity and flourishing need not be incompatible with upholding international, universal human rights standards. PMID:11657373

  18. Using the human rights paradigm in health ethics: the problems and the possibilities.

    PubMed

    Austin, W

    2001-05-01

    Human rights may be the most globalized political value of our times. The rights paradigm has been criticized, however, for being theoretically unsound, legalistic, individualistic and based on the assumption that there is a given and universal humanness. Its use in the area of health is relatively new. Proponents point to its power to frame health as an entitlement rather than a commodity. The problems and the possibilities of a rights approach in addressing health ethics issues are explored in this article. PMID:16010913

  19. Human rights violations of people with mental and psychosocial disabilities: an unresolved global crisis.

    PubMed

    Drew, Natalie; Funk, Michelle; Tang, Stephen; Lamichhane, Jagannath; Chávez, Elena; Katontoka, Sylvester; Pathare, Soumitra; Lewis, Oliver; Gostin, Lawrence; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2011-11-01

    This report reviews the evidence for the types of human rights violations experienced by people with mental and psychosocial disabilities in low-income and middle-income countries as well as strategies to prevent these violations and promote human rights in line with the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The article draws on the views, expertise, and experience of 51 people with mental and psychosocial disabilities from 18 low-income and middle-income countries as well as a review of English language literature including from UN publications, non-governmental organisation reports, press reports, and the academic literature. PMID:22008426

  20. Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Cohen JE; Amon JJ

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires stronger enforcement of existing laws and regulations, as well as accountability of local authorities charged with upholding environmental regulations. In this context, restrictions on such rights as freedom of expression, assembly, and political participation have direct consequences on the realization of the right to health.

  1. Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires stronger enforcement of existing laws and regulations, as well as accountability of local authorities charged with upholding environmental regulations. In this context, restrictions on such rights as freedom of expression, assembly, and political participation have direct consequences on the realization of the right to health. PMID:23568949

  2. Pillars for progress on the right to health: harnessing the potential of human rights through a Framework Convention on Global Health.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Eric A; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2012-01-01

    Ever more constitutions incorporate the right to health, courts continue to expand their right to health jurisprudence, and communities and civil society increasingly turn to the right to health in their advocacy. Yet the right remains far from being realized. Even with steady progress on numerous fronts of global health, vast inequities at the global and national levels persist, and are responsible for millions of deaths annually. We propose a four-part approach to accelerating progress towards fulfilling the right to health: 1) national legal and policy reform, incorporating right to health obligations and principles including equity, participation, and accountability in designing, implementing, and monitoring the health sector, as well as an all-of-government approach in advancing the public's health; 2) litigation, using creative legal strategies, enhanced training, and promotion of progressive judgments to increase courts' effectiveness in advancing the right to health; 3) civil society and community engagement, empowering communities to understand and claim this right and building the capacity of right to health organizations; and 4) innovative global governance for health, strengthening World Health Organization leadership on health and human rights, further clarifying the international right to health, ensuring sustained and scalable development assistance, and conforming other international legal regimes (e.g., trade, intellectual property, and finance) to health and human rights norms. We offer specific steps to advance each of these areas, including how a new global health treaty, a Framework Convention on Global Health, could help construct these four pillars. PMID:22773097

  3. Essential medicines and human rights: what can they learn from each other?

    PubMed Central

    Hogerzeil, Hans V.

    2006-01-01

    Most countries have acceded to at least one global or regional covenant or treaty confirming the right to health. After years of international discussions on human rights, many governments are now moving towards practical implementation of their commitments. A practical example may be of help to those governments who aim to translate their international treaty obligations into practice. WHO's Essential Medicines Programme is an example of how this transition from legal principles to practical implementation may be achieved. This programme has been consistent with human rights principles since its inception in the early 1980s, through its focus on equitable access to essential medicines. This paper provides a brief overview of what the international human rights instruments mention about access to essential medicines, and proposes five assessment questions and practical recommendations for governments. These recommendations cover the selection of essential medicines, participation in programme development, mechanisms for transparency and accountability, equitable access by vulnerable groups, and redress mechanisms. PMID:16710546

  4. Functional asymmetry between the left and right human fusiform gyrus explored through electrical brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, Vinitha; Parvizi, Josef

    2016-03-01

    The ventral temporal cortex (VTC) contains several areas with selective responses to words, numbers, faces, and objects as demonstrated by numerous human and primate imaging and electrophysiological studies. Our recent work using electrocorticography (ECoG) confirmed the presence of face-selective neuronal populations in the human fusiform gyrus (FG) in patients implanted with intracranial electrodes in either the left or right hemisphere. Electrical brain stimulation (EBS) disrupted the conscious perception of faces only when it was delivered in the right, but not left, FG. In contrast to our previous findings, here we report both negative and positive EBS effects in right and left FG, respectively. The presence of right hemisphere language dominance in the first, and strong left-handedness and poor language processing performance in the second case, provide indirect clues about the functional architecture of the human VTC in relation to hemispheric asymmetries in language processing and handedness. PMID:26277460

  5. Genomic and evolutionary analyses of asymmetrically expressed genes in human fetal left and right cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Collura, Randall V; Ruvolo, Maryellen; Walsh, Christopher A

    2006-07-01

    In the human brain, the left and right hemispheres are anatomically asymmetric and have distinctive cognitive function, although the molecular basis for this asymmetry has not yet been characterized. We compared gene expression levels in the perisylvian regions of human left-right cortex at fetal weeks 12, 14, and 19 using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). We identified dozens of genes with evidence of differential expression by SAGE and confirmed these by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Most genes with differential levels of expression in the left and right hemispheres function in signal transduction and gene expression regulation during early cortical development. By comparing genes differentially expressed in left and right fetal brains with those previously reported to be differently expressed in human versus chimpanzee adult brains, we identified a subset of genes that shows evidence of asymmetric expression in humans and altered expression levels between chimps and humans. We also compared the coding sequences of genes differentially expressed between left and right hemispheres and found genes that show both asymmetric expression and evidence of positive evolutionary selection in the primate lineage leading to humans. Our results identify candidate genes involved in the evolution of human cerebral cortical asymmetry. PMID:16766703

  6. Measuring the Impact of the Human Rights on Health in Global Health Financing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sara L M

    2015-01-01

    In response to new scientific developments, UNAIDS, WHO, and global health financing institutions have joined together to promote a "fast-track" global scale-up of testing and treatment programs. They have set ambitious targets toward the goal of ending the three diseases by 2030. These numerical indicators, based on infectious disease modeling, can assist in measuring countries' progressive realization of the right to health. However, they only nominally reference the catastrophic impact that human rights abuses have on access to health services; they also do not measure the positive impact provided by law reform, legal aid, and other health-related human rights programs. Drawing on experience at the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, which has incorporated expanded stakeholder consultation and human rights programming into its grants, the article argues that addressing human rights barriers to access is often an ad hoc activity occurring on the sidelines of a health grantmaking process that has focused on the scale-up of biomedical programs to meet global health indicators. To ensure that these biomedical programs have impact, UN agencies and health financing mechanisms must begin to more systematically and proactively integrate human rights policy and practice into their modeling and measurement tools. PMID:26766865

  7. Discourse comprehension.

    PubMed

    Graesser, A C; Millis, K K; Zwaan, R A

    1997-01-01

    The field of discourse processing has dissected many of the levels of representation that are constructed when individuals read or listen to connected discourse. These levels include the surface code, the propositional textbase, the referential situation model, the communication context, and the discourse genre. Discourse psychologists have developed models that specify how these levels are mentally represented and how they are dynamically built during comprehension. This chapter focuses on the meaning representations that are constructed when adults read written text, such as literary stories, technical expository text, and experimenter-generated "textoids." Recent psychological models have attempted to account for the identification of referents of referring expressions (e.g. which person in the text does she refer to), the connection of explicit text segments, the establishment of local and global coherence, and the encoding of knowledge-based inferences. PMID:15012477

  8. Being Human or Being a Citizen? Rethinking Human Rights and Citizenship Education in the Light of Agamben and Merleau-Ponty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ruyu

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues against a trend of human rights education, where human rights are taught in the form of citizenship education. In my view, citizenship education and human rights education cannot be taken as replaceable for each other. Underpinning the idea of citizenship is a distinction between "politically qualified" and "politically…

  9. Being Human or Being a Citizen? Rethinking Human Rights and Citizenship Education in the Light of Agamben and Merleau-Ponty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ruyu

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues against a trend of human rights education, where human rights are taught in the form of citizenship education. In my view, citizenship education and human rights education cannot be taken as replaceable for each other. Underpinning the idea of citizenship is a distinction between "politically qualified" and "politically…

  10. Decolonizing Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Post-Secondary Humanities Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Kimberly C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines nine post-secondary humanities textbooks published between 2001 and 2011 using an approach that includes both qualitative and quantitative methodology to analyze the written and visual content of humanities textbooks. This dissertation engages in current debates that address bias in humanities textbooks and contributes…

  11. Humanity and Social Responsibility, Solidarity, and Social Rights.

    PubMed

    Ahola-Launonen, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    This article discusses the suggestion of having the notion of solidarity as the foundational value for welfare scheme reforms. Solidarity is an emerging concept in bioethical deliberations emphasizing the need for value-oriented discussion in revising healthcare structures, and the notion has been contrasted with liberal justice and rights. I suggest that this contrast is unnecessary, flawed, and potentially counterproductive. As necessary as the sense of solidarity is in a society, it is an insufficient concept to secure the goals related to social responsibility. The discussion on solidarity is also based on a questionable sense of nostalgia. Furthermore, solidarity and liberal justice share essential objectives concerning welfare schemes; therefore, the question arises whether the proper comparison should in the first place be within justice and solidarity. PMID:26957443

  12. Education and language: A human right for sustainable development in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaci-Wilhite, Zehlia; Geo-JaJa, Macleans A.; Lou, Shizhou

    2012-10-01

    Pre-colonial Africa was neither an educationally nor a technologically unsophisticated continent. While education was an integral part of the culture, issues of language identification and standardisation which are subject to contentious debate today were insignificant. Children learned community knowledge and history by asking questions instead of being taught in a hegemonic alien language. This article argues that education and development should take place in a broader context of human rights, and explores the links between three areas often dealt with separately, namely: language, education and development. The authors of this paper demonstrate that changing the face of the multi-dimensionalities of poverty within societies is possible only when education is constructed in a rights perspective over the favoured colonial languages, which are not an integral part of the culture and resources of a community. The authors make a distinction between the right to education and rights in education, the latter of which are found to be more significant for the challenges Africa faces. It is argued here that the elements of Amartya Sen's "threshold" conditions for inclusion in human rights and self-development in education are essential, and that a more promising architecture of education would include what the authors term meta-narrative frameworks, i.e. interrelated policies. The authors contend that the neoliberal commodification of the knowledge sector has only exacerbated human rights and capabilities deprivation - which encompasses both human and income poverty.

  13. Report from ERIC/CHESS: Curricula on Human Rights and Civil Liberties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes nine entries from the ERIC database that deal with civil liberties. Topics include the teaching of the morality of citizenship, censorship in schools, classroom research in the humanities, development of human-rights laws in the international community, and the addition of peace education to the curriculum. (KO)

  14. Science Education and Human Rights: Explorations into Critical Social Consciousness and Postmodern Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Todd E.; Eichinger, John

    1999-01-01

    Human-rights education can be realized in the science classroom. Taught from a critical postmodern perspective, science can serve the interest of social justice while embracing a teaching dialectic fostering critical social consciousness. First, science educators must examine scientific theory's role in promoting both human welfare and injustice.…

  15. Teaching about the Holocaust and Genocide: Introduction. The Human Rights Series, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Clayton; And Others

    Designed to assist secondary school social studies, English, and humanities teachers as they teach about the Nazi Holocaust, the first of two volumes serves as an introduction to the concept of human rights. Divided into a rationale and two units, each unit includes a statement of purpose, a list of objectives, and a group of learning activities…

  16. Teaching about the Holocaust and Genocide: Introduction. The Human Rights Series, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Clayton; And Others

    Designed to assist secondary school social studies, English, and humanities teachers as they teach about the Nazi Holocaust, the first of two volumes serves as an introduction to the concept of human rights. Divided into a rationale and two units, each unit includes a statement of purpose, a list of objectives, and a group of learning activities…

  17. Preparing Global Citizens through the Study of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood-Tucker, Toni Fuss

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of students for global citizenship represents a central challenge to social studies educators in the twenty-first century. Two-thirds of the world's poor are steeped in abject poverty and its grim consequences. The world refugee problem has reached staggering proportions. There is an international epidemic of human trafficking, and…

  18. Preparing Global Citizens through the Study of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood-Tucker, Toni Fuss

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of students for global citizenship represents a central challenge to social studies educators in the twenty-first century. Two-thirds of the world's poor are steeped in abject poverty and its grim consequences. The world refugee problem has reached staggering proportions. There is an international epidemic of human trafficking, and…

  19. [Right to privacy, reservation or secret. Changes in perspective of research on human genome].

    PubMed

    Figueroa Yañez, G

    1999-01-01

    1. Three kinds of privacy can be identified: territorial, bodily and, thirdly, psychological or spiritual. Cases and examples of each. 2. Two aspects are involved in breaches of the right to privacy--in any of its three forms-: the actual invasion of someone's privacy and the subsequent publication of the product thereof. 3. The right to privacy can enter into conflict with other constitutionally protected right such as the right to information, freedom of expression and freedom of scientific enquiry. 4. Research on the human genome has opened up a new area in privacy, given that it is unlawful to intrude into the genetic structure of a person without said person's lawful consent. Nothing is more private than a person's own individual genetic code. There may be exceptions to the right to genetic privacy: cases of lawful intrusion. 5. Unwarranted intrusion: discrimination in school admissions, employment contracts and insurance policies. PMID:10822652

  20. Human Rights in Iran after the 1978 Islamic Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadizadeh, Hadi

    2005-03-01

    Iranians have been fighting for their rights since early 1900. The history of this struggle will be reviewed with emphasis on what might be termed the modern era, which began with the return of Ayatollah Khomeini to Iran in February 1979. A brief summary of the modern era Iran Constitution also will be presented. Although Iranians had been promised a democracy within the framework of Islam, in reality Khomeini instituted a theocratic regime dominated by himself as ``Supreme Leader'' with almost unlimited powers. Surprisingly, these powers actually were expanded after Khomeini's passing. For years now, many Iranian intellectuals, as well as a good portion of the nation, religious or not, have been challenging the absolute powers of the Supreme Leader through legal means. Big prices have been paid, but the friction between the so called ``reformists'' and the ``fundamentalists'' are on the rise without a bright future. These frictions, stemming in large part from the conflicts between the ``elected'' and ``non-elected'' bodies in the political system, will be discussed. The roles of political activists, reformists, and the ``so-called'' ``religious nationalists'' -- and the prices they are paying -- will also be discussed.

  1. The Discourse on Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Examines technology as a current professional issue and suggests strategies of interpretation from anthropology, history, sociology, and the humanities that will promote understanding. Highlights include a review of education and technology over the last century; interactions between society and technology; and recommended reading on the discourse…

  2. Setting a Minimum Standard of Care in Clinical Trials: Human Rights and Bioethics as Complementary Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Marouf, Fatma E; Esplin, Bryn S

    2015-01-01

    For the past few decades, there has been intense debate in bioethics about the standard of care that should be provided in clinical trials conducted in developing countries. Some interpret the Declaration of Helsinki to mean that control groups should receive the best intervention available worldwide, while others interpret this and other international guidelines to mean the best local standard of care. Questions of justice are particularly relevant where limited resources mean that the local standard of care is no care at all. Introducing human rights law into this complex and longstanding debate adds a new and important perspective. Through non-derogable rights, including the core obligations of the right to health, human rights law can help set a minimum standard of care. PMID:26204581

  3. Examining human rights and mental health among women in drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, Melissa Harris; Shamblen, Stephen R; Johnson, Knowlton; Thompson, Kirsten; Young, Linda; Courser, Matthew; Vanderhoff, Jude; Browne, Thom

    2012-01-01

    Denial of human rights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT) centers assesses (a) the extent to which these women have experienced human rights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b) whether there are specific risk factors for human rights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91%) reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50%) experienced at least one human rights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for human rights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one’s own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed. PMID:22532779

  4. State Education as High-Yield Investment: Human Capital Theory in European Policy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Human Capital Theory has been an increasingly important phenomenon in economic thought over the last 50 years. The central role it affords to education has become even more marked in recent years as the concept of the "knowledge economy" has become a global concern. In this paper, the prevalence of Human Capital Theory within European…

  5. The shrinking of human rights: the controversial revision of the Helsinki Declaration.

    PubMed

    Botbol-Baum, M

    2000-10-01

    The right of access to health care for HIV patients in developing countries has been weakened by the 1999 revision of the Helsinki Declaration. There is a dichotomy between discussions of human rights and liberal international public health policy. Utilitarian ethics, devoid of a sound notion of universal justice, encourage discrimination against economically vulnerable patients in developing countries. Greater coherence is needed between ethical principles and practical issues, particularly with regard to scientific research. PMID:11737355

  6. Human Genome Diversity Project. Summary of planning workshop 3(B): Ethical and human-rights implications

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The third planning workshop of the Human Genome Diversity Project was held on the campus of the US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from February 16 through February 18, 1993. The second day of the workshop was devoted to an exploration of the ethical and human-rights implications of the Project. This open meeting centered on three roundtables, involving 12 invited participants, and the resulting discussions among all those present. Attendees and their affiliations are listed in the attached Appendix A. The discussion was guided by a schedule and list of possible issues, distributed to all present and attached as Appendix B. This is a relatively complete, and thus lengthy, summary of the comments at the meeting. The beginning of the summary sets out as conclusions some issues on which there appeared to be widespread agreement, but those conclusions are not intended to serve as a set of detailed recommendations. The meeting organizer is distributing his recommendations in a separate memorandum; recommendations from others who attended the meeting are welcome and will be distributed by the meeting organizer to the participants and to the Project committee.

  7. Human rights and the politics of risk and blame: lessons from the international reproductive health movement.

    PubMed

    Freedman, L P

    1997-01-01

    Recent debates about the "politicization" of public health obscure the ways in which epidemiological concepts of risk are routinely used in the legal and political systems to apportion blame and responsibility for poor health. This article uses the example of reproductive health and rights to argue that new understandings of the connection between socioeconomic conditions and poor health will only generate change when they are reframed into political claims and pressed by social movements. In this connection, human rights language, principles, and practice hold great potential for the US reproductive rights movement, which has sometimes been constrained by the narrow scope of court rulings. PMID:9354044

  8. Respecting the right to access to medicines: Implications of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights for the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Moon, Suerie

    2013-01-01

    What are the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies with regard to access to medicines? The state-based international human rights framework has long struggled with the issue of the human rights obligations of non-state actors, a question sharpened by economic globalization and the concomitant growing power of private for-profit actors ("business"). In 2011, after a six-year development process, the UN Human Rights Council unanimously endorsed the Guiding Principles advanced by the UN Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, John Ruggie. The Ruggie Principles sought to clarify and differentiate the responsibilities of states and non-state actors-in this case, "business" -with respect to human rights. The framework centered on "three core principles: the state duty to protect against human rights abuses by third parties, including business; the corporate responsibility to respect human rights; and the need for more effective access to remedies." The "Protect, Respect, and Remedy" Framework emerged from a review of many industrial sectors operating from local to global scales, in many regions of the world, and involving multiple stakeholder consultations. However, their implications for the pharmaceutical industry regarding access to medicines remain unclear. This article analyzes the 2008 Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines advanced by then-UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health, Paul Hunt, in light of the Ruggie Principles. It concludes that some guidelines relate directly to the industry's responsibility to respect the right to access to medicines, and form a normative baseline to which firms should be held accountable. It also finds that responsibility for other guidelines may better be ascribed to states than to private actors, based on conceptual and practical considerations. While not discouraging the pharmaceutical industry from making additional contributions to fulfilling the right to health, this analysis concludes that greater attention is merited to ensure that, first and foremost, the industry demonstrates baseline respect for the right to access to medicines. PMID:25006088

  9. Assessing corporate project impacts in changeable contexts: A human rights perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    Project-level impact assessment was originally conceived as a snapshot taken in advance of project implementation, contrasting current conditions with a likely future scenario involving a variety of predicted impacts. Current best practice guidance has encouraged a shift towards longitudinal assessments from the pre-project stage through the implementation and operating phases. Experience and study show, however, that assessment of infrastructure-intensive projects rarely endures past the project's construction phase. Negative consequences for environmental, social and health outcomes have been documented. Such consequences clarify the pressing need for longitudinal assessment in each of these domains, with human rights impact assessment (HRIA) as an umbrella over, and critical augmentation of, environmental, social and health assessments. Project impacts on human rights are more closely linked to political, economic and other factors beyond immediate effects of a company's policy and action throughout the project lifecycle. Delineating these processes requires an adequate framework, with strategies for collecting longitudinal data, protocols that provide core information for impact assessment and guidance for adaptive mitigation strategies as project-related effects change over time. This article presents general principles for the design and implementation of sustained, longitudinal HRIA, based on experience assessing and responding to human rights impact in a uranium mining project in Malawi. The case study demonstrates the value of longitudinal assessment both for limiting corporate risk and improving human welfare. - Graphical abstract: Assessing changes in human rights condition as affected by both project and context, over time. - Highlights: • Corporate capital projects affect human rights in myriad ways. • Ongoing, longitudinal impact assessment techniques are needed. • We present an approach for conducting longitudinal human rights impact assessment. • Our methodology allows distinguishing corporate impacts from contextual changes. • Promptly observing context changes and impacts enables companies to react nimbly.

  10. Gross human rights violations and reparation under international law: approaching rehabilitation as a form of reparation

    PubMed Central

    Sveaass, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states’ obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals. PMID:23671765

  11. Gross human rights violations and reparation under international law: approaching rehabilitation as a form of reparation.

    PubMed

    Sveaass, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states' obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals. PMID:23671765

  12. Changing Policy Discourses: Constructing Literacy Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary; Pitt, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which policy discourses have constructed rationales for addressing adult literacy over the last 50 years. In particular, we examine how policy positions the literacy learner as citizen within discourses of rights and equity. Taking the case of the UK, we compare two key documents produced at different historical…

  13. Peace and Human Rights Education in the Middle East: Comparing Jewish and Palestinian Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velloso, Agustín

    1998-07-01

    The Washington agreement of 1993 gave a new impetus to attempts by Palestinian and Israeli leaders to find a peaceful solution to their differences. The author asks to what extent this process has been accompanied by peace/human rights education programmes for Israeli and Palestinian children. While such programmes exist, they are very limited and have so far made little impact in reversing the long educational legacy of mutual distrust and hostility, which the article examines in detail. Furthermore, the continuing conflicts between the two communities make peace/human rights education difficult. However, despite the enormous obstacles, the author concludes that the efforts of peace/human rights educators are not wasted.

  14. Occupational Care Giving Conditions and Human Rights: A Study of Elderly Caregivers in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Kangethe, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The article aims to explore and discuss the occupational care giving conditions pitting them against human rights. The article’s objective is to initiate discussions and generate literature pertaining to occupational care giving load and assessing the human rights challenge it poses. The article uses analysis of the literature review from an array of eclectic data sources. The following factors were found besetting the caregivers’ human rights: (1) Aging; (2) Cultural and community attitudes towards care giving; (3) Risk of contagion; (4) Health hazards and lack of compensation. Recommendations: (1) Adoption of grandparents/grandchildren care symbiosis system; (2) Government remuneration policy for caregivers; (3) Mainstreaming of gender education to encourage men and youth develop an interest in care giving; (4) Institution of laws and policies by countries to provide for the compensation of caregivers’ occupational hazards and risks. PMID:21811353

  15. Images of war: using satellite images for human rights monitoring in Turkish Kurdistan.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Hugo; Jongerden, Joost; van Etten, Jacob

    2008-09-01

    In areas of war and armed conflict it is difficult to get trustworthy and coherent information. Civil society and human rights groups often face problems of dealing with fragmented witness reports, disinformation of war propaganda, and difficult direct access to these areas. Turkish Kurdistan was used as a case study of armed conflict to evaluate the potential use of satellite images for verification of witness reports collected by human rights groups. The Turkish army was reported to be burning forests, fields and villages as a strategy in the conflict against guerrilla uprising. This paper concludes that satellite images are useful to validate witness reports of forest fires. Even though the use of this technology for human rights groups will depend on some feasibility factors such as prices, access and expertise, the images proved to be key for analysis of spatial aspects of conflict and valuable for reconstructing a more trustworthy picture. PMID:18958914

  16. Human rights abuses and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: the experiences of Burmese women in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Karen; Suwanvanichkij, Voravit; Tamm, Ingrid; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2006-01-01

    We investigated human rights concerns related to migration, living and working conditions, and access to HIV/AIDS services and reproductive health services for Burmese women in Thailand. Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS for Burmese women stemmed from abuses they experienced: gender and ethnic discrimination, including violence; unsafe migration and trafficking; labor and sexual exploitation; and denial of health care. Despite having bound itself to human rights laws, the Thai government is failing to fulfill its obligations to Burmese women, with particularly devastating impacts for their well-being, including the risk of HIV/AIDS. Moreover, as our documentation shows, this failure to incorporate human rights concerns into its national response to the epidemic virtually guarantees that HIV/AIDS will continue to be a problem in Thailand. PMID:17265756

  17. The human right to water and sanitation: a new perspective for public policies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Colin; Neves-Silva, Priscila; Heller, Léo

    2016-03-01

    The recognition of the human right to water and sanitation (HRtWS) by the United Nations General Assembly and Human Rights Council in 2010 constituted a significant political measure whose direct consequences are still being assessed. Previous to this date, the HRtWS and its link to a healthy life and adequate standard of living had been recognised in diverse legal and judicial spheres worldwide, in some cases under the pressure of the initiatives of strong social movements. However, while the HRtWS is recognised by the UN State Members, it constitutes a concept in construction that has not been approached and interpreted in consensual ways by all concerned stakeholders. The present article presents a formal definition of this right with a base in human rights regulation. It attempts to dialogue with the different existing perspectives regarding the impact of its international recognition as a human right. It then elucidates the progressive development of the HRtWS in law and jurisprudence. Finally, it considers the urgency and challenge of monitoring the HRtWS and discusses important implications for public policies. PMID:26960080

  18. Assistive technology use and human rights enjoyment: a cross-sectional study in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background About half a billion people with disabilities in developing countries have limited access to assistive technology. The Convention on the Rights of persons with Disabilities requires governments to take measures to ensure provision of such technologies. To guide implementation of these measures there is a need for understanding health outcomes from a human rights perspective. The objective of this study was therefore to explore the relation between assistive technology use and enjoyment of human rights in a low-income country. Methods Data was collected in eight districts of Bangladesh through interviews of people with hearing impairments using and not using hearings aids, and people with ambulatory impairments using and not using manual wheelchairs (N?=?583). Using logistic regression, self-reported outcomes on standard of living, health, education, work, receiving information and movement were analyzed. Results The adjusted likelihood of reporting greater enjoyment of human rights was significantly higher among people using hearing aids compared to non-users for all outcomes except working status. Compared to non-users, users of wheelchairs reported a significantly higher adjusted likelihood of good ambulatory performance and a significantly lower adjusted likelihood of reporting a positive working status. Further analyses indicated that physical accessibility to working places and duration of wheelchair use had a statistically significant impact on the likelihood of reporting positive work outcomes. Conclusions The findings support the notion that assistive technology use increases the likelihood of human rights enjoyment, particularly hearing aid use. Physical accessibility should always be addressed in wheelchair provision. PMID:22992413

  19. Considerations for a Human Rights Impact Assessment of a Population Wide Treatment for HIV Prevention Intervention.

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Bond, Virginia; Seeley, Janet; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the potential of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for HIV prevention. The possibility of eliminating HIV from a population through a universal test and treat intervention, where all people within a population are tested for HIV and all positive people immediately initiated on ART, as part of a wider prevention intervention, was first proposed in 2009. Several clinical trials testing this idea are now in inception phase. An intervention which relies on universally testing the entire population for HIV will pose challenges to human rights, including obtaining genuine consent to testing and treatment. It also requires a context in which people can live free from fear of stigma, discrimination and violence, and can access services they require. These challenges are distinct from the field of medical ethics which has traditionally governed clinical trials and focuses primarily on patient researcher relationship. This paper sets out the potential impact of a population wide treatment as prevention intervention on human rights. It identifies five human right principles of particular relevance: participation, accountability, the right to health, non-discrimination and equality, and consent and confidentiality. The paper proposes that explicit attention to human rights can strengthen a treatment as prevention intervention, contribute to mediating likely health systems challenges and offer insights on how to reach all sections of the population. PMID:26524615

  20. Visualization of Fiber Structurein the Left and Right Ventricleof a Human Heart

    SciTech Connect

    Rohmer, Damien; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2006-07-12

    The human heart is composed of a helical network of musclefibers. Anisotropic least squares filtering followed by fiber trackingtechniques were applied to Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging(DTMRI) data of the excised human heart. The fiber configuration wasvisualized by using thin tubes to increase 3-dimensional visualperception of the complex structure. All visualizations were performedusing the high-quality ray-tracing software POV-Ray. The fibers are shownwithin the left and right ventricles. Both ventricles exhibit similarfiber architecture and some bundles of fibers are shown linking right andleft ventricles on the posterior region of the heart.

  1. A Discourse Approach to Theorising HRD: Opening a Discursive Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Aileen; Sambrook, Sally; Garavan, Tom; Valentin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a discourse approach to theorising human resource development (HRD) can open a "discursive space" to challenge dominant discourses within the field; enabling a more critical discourse to emerge. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses two approaches to discourse analysis, a "practice" and a…

  2. A Discourse Approach to Theorising HRD: Opening a Discursive Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Aileen; Sambrook, Sally; Garavan, Tom; Valentin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a discourse approach to theorising human resource development (HRD) can open a "discursive space" to challenge dominant discourses within the field; enabling a more critical discourse to emerge. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses two approaches to discourse analysis, a "practice" and a…

  3. The Career Perceptions of Academic Staff and Human Resource Discourses in English Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Tony; Taylor, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets out findings from research that considered the interplay between English national policy developments in human resources management in higher education and the personal stories of academic staff as career participants. Academic careers are pursued in an institutional and national policy context but it was not clear that the formal…

  4. Deixis: "This" and "That" in Written Narrative Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çokal, Derya; Sturt, Patrick; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature presents conflicting models of how "this" and "that" access different segments of a written discourse, frequently relying on implicit analogies with spoken discourse. On the basis of this literature, we hypothesized that in written discourse, "this" more readily accesses the adjacent/right…

  5. Religious communities and HIV prevention: an intervention-study using a human rights-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, V.; Garcia, J.; Rios, L.F.; Santos, A.O.; Terto, V.; Munõz-Laboy, M.

    2011-01-01

    Religious communities have been a challenge to HIV prevention globally. Focusing on the acceptability component of the right to health, this intervention study examined how local Catholic, Evangelical and Afro-Brazilian religious communities can collaborate to foster young people’s sexual health and ensure their access to comprehensive HIV prevention in their communities in Brazil. This article describes the process of a three-stage sexual health promotion and HIV prevention initiative that used a multicultural human rights approach to intervention. Methods included 27 in-depth interviews with religious authorities on sexuality, AIDS prevention and human rights, and training 18 young people as research-agents, who surveyed 177 youth on the same issues using self-administered questionnaires. The results, analysed using a rights-based perspective on health and the vulnerability framework, were discussed in daylong interfaith workshops. Emblematic of the collaborative process, workshops are the focus of the analysis. Our findings suggest that this human rights framework is effective in increasing inter-religious tolerance and in providing a collective understanding of the sexuality and prevention needs of youth from different religious communities, and also serves as a platform for the expansion of state AIDS programmes based on laical principles. PMID:20373192

  6. Facing negative reactions to sexuality education through a Multicultural Human Rights framework.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Vera; Silva, Valeria N

    2015-11-01

    Sexuality education, its protocols and planning are contingent on an ever-changing political environment that characterizes the field of sexuality in most countries. In Brazil, human rights perspectives shaped the country's response to the AIDS epidemic, and indirectly influenced the public acceptability of sexuality education in schools. Since 2011, however, as multiple fundamentalist movements emerged in the region, leading to recurrent waves of backlashes in all matters related to sexuality, both health and educational policies have begun to crawl backwards. This article explores human rights-based approaches to health, focusing on a multicultural rights-based framework and on productive approaches to broadening the dialogue about sustained consent to sexuality education. Multicultural human rights (MHR) approaches are dialogical in two domains: the communication process that guarantees consent and community agreements and the constructionist psychosocial-educational methodologies. In its continuous process of consent, the MHR approach allowed for distinct values translation and diffused the resistance to sexuality education in the participant schools/cities, successfully sustaining notions of equality and protection of the right to a comprehensive sexuality education that does not break group solidarity and guarantees acceptability of differences. PMID:26719001

  7. Biomedicine and international human rights law: in search of a global consensus.

    PubMed Central

    Andorno, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Global challenges raised by biomedical advances require global responses. Some international organizations have made significant efforts over the last few years to establish common standards that can be regarded as the beginning of an international biomedical law. One of the main features of this new legal discipline is the integration of its principles into a human rights framework. This strategy seems the most appropriate, given the role of "universal ethics" that human rights play in our world of philosophical pluralism. In addition to the general standards that are gradually being established, a widespread consensus exists on the urgency of preventing two specific procedures: human germ-line interventions and human reproductive cloning. PMID:12571724

  8. Harm reduction, human rights, and access to information on safer abortion.

    PubMed

    Erdman, Joanna N

    2012-07-01

    A harm reduction and human rights approach, grounded in the principles of neutrality, humanism, and pragmatism, supports women's access to information on the safer self- use of misoprostol in diverse legal settings. Neutrality refers to a focus on the risks and harms of abortion rather than its legal or moral status. Humanism refers to the entitlement of all women to care and concern for their lives and health, to be treated with respect, worth, and dignity, and to the empowerment of women to participate in decision-making and political action. Pragmatism accepts the historical reality that women will engage in unsafe abortion, including self-induction, while addressing factors that render them vulnerable to this reality, and requires assessment of interventions to reduce abortion-related harms on evidence of their real rather than intended effect. Criminal law reform is a necessary conclusion to a harm reduction and human rights approach. PMID:22608022

  9. Deaths in the Desert: The Human Rights Crisis on the U.S.--Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Androff, David K.; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y.

    2012-01-01

    Many would acknowledge that immigration is a major issue in the United States and that immigration reform should be a priority. However, there is little attention to the human rights crisis on the U.S.-Mexican border. As a result of tightened border security since 1994, it is estimated that over 5,000 migrants have died in the Sonoran desert. The…

  10. Exploring School Ethos: An Investigation of Children's Human Rights in Two Secondary Institutions in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Yan Lam; Leung, Yan Wing; Yuen, Wai Wa

    2015-01-01

    From 2009 to 2011, the authors launched the Basic Law Education Project: Education for Human Rights and the Rule of Law in Hong Kong. This article focuses on a subset of the overarching data-set and discusses the findings that resulted from a comparative analysis of two participating schools. A survey was deployed to assess the extent to which a…

  11. Using "Competing Visions of Human Rights" in an International IB World School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, William J.

    2013-01-01

    William Tolley, a teaching fellow with the Choices Program, is the Learning and Innovation Coach and head of history at the International School of Curitiba, Brazil (IB). He writes in this article that he has found that the "Competing Visions of Human Rights" teaching unit, developed by Brown University's Choices Program, provides a…

  12. Patterns of Human Development Indicators across Constitutional Analysis of Children's Rights to Protection, Provision, and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habashi, Janette; Wright, Lynne; Hathcoat, John D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines children's images in constitutions and/or amendments as articulated in the Convention on the Rights of the Child while they intersect with the three dimensions of the Human Development Index (HDI) of 2008: life expectancy, educational index, and GDP. The connection between the images of the child and the fulfillment of the…

  13. The Role and Purposes of Public Schools and Religious Fundamentalism: An International Human Rights Law Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Douglas Charles

    2012-01-01

    The question of what are today the legitimate and proper role and purposes of public schools can only be answered by a close examination and analysis of the human right to education which has been developed by such international organizations as the United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and by…

  14. Intra-Language Discrimination and Linguistic Human Rights: The Case of Singlish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Lionel

    2005-01-01

    Although studies involving linguistic human rights (LHRs) have focused at length on cases of inter-language discrimination, much less attention has been given to intra-language discrimination (Blommaert 2001a; Skutnabb-Kangas et al. 2001). This paper highlights a number of theoretical issues that the LHRs framework needs to deal with once…

  15. Human Rights as Safeguarding: The Schooling Experiences of HIV+ Children in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul; Kelly, Kemesha; Spawls, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The interface between HIV/AIDS, education and human rights is an important issue in Jamaican society. The spread of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean is second only to that in Africa, and Jamaica itself has the second highest numbers of HIV+ individuals within the Caribbean region. Using a qualitative methodology, this exploratory study aimed to discern…

  16. Governing Difficult Knowledge: The Canadian Museum for Human Rights and Its Publics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) comes to invoke, realize, and mediate museum publics. The author writes that she is interested in how the museum's architecture, rhetoric, and governance framings imagine, and engage with the public. As Canada's newest national museum and the first to be built outside of the…

  17. Peace and Human Rights Education: Dilemmas of Compatibility and Prospects for Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the dilemmas emerging from efforts to integrate human rights values within a peace education programme being carried out in a conflict situation. Although the article is largely theoretical, it is grounded in the author's reflections on a series of teacher workshops and his overall experiences conducting ethnographic…

  18. The Effect of Constructivist Instruction on Prospective Teachers' Attitudes toward Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundogdu, Kerim

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigates the effect of employing constructivist methods and materials on the attitudes of prospective teachers' (psychological counseling students) toward human rights education. Method: The research employed a quasi-experimental pre test-post test control group design. The experimental group, consisted of 23 male and…

  19. Governing Difficult Knowledge: The Canadian Museum for Human Rights and Its Publics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) comes to invoke, realize, and mediate museum publics. The author writes that she is interested in how the museum's architecture, rhetoric, and governance framings imagine, and engage with the public. As Canada's newest national museum and the first to be built outside of the…

  20. Learning To Live in Harmony and Diversity: Focus on Human Rights Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special issue centers around the theme of education for peace and human rights. It contains materials concerning the practice of adult education in the Asian-South Pacific region. The journal contains 15 papers. The following papers provide regional perspectives: "Learning to Live in Harmony and Diversity" (editorial) (Rajesh Tandon); "Human…