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settings. Using Israel as a case study, and more specifically analyzing the Israeli press, we further develop some of the existing theoretical claims about how the global and local interact.We argue that in order to understand how the rightsdiscourse is imported into the domestic arena and how it expands once it enters the local scene,it is crucial to employ
If the legitimacy of international humanitarian and humanrights law lies, in part at least, in its capacity to confront dehumanising actions in the modern world, we may speak of the limits of this achievement. It is well known that people who commit genocide or crimes against humanity typically dehumanise those against whom their crimes are committed and that the
The resolution of the slavery issue in the United States may have had more to do with economic development and political power than a shift in public morality, but there can be no question that abolitionist discourse played a major role in the expansion of America's republican vision in the nineteenth century. The debate over slavery occurred about a century
International humanrights networks have publicized the exigencies of humanrights violations in North Korea and have mobilized international and domestic laws as part of their respective movements to pressure North Korea on humanrights. This article asks how effective these attempts at legal mobilization have been. While leveraging law has found success in other parts of the world for
: International humanrights networks have publicized the exigencies of humanrights violations in North Korea and have mobilized international and domestic laws as part of their respective movements to pressure North Korea on humanrights. This article asks how effective these attempts at legal mobilization have been. While leveraging law has found success in other parts of the world
This article analyzes how the globalization of humanrightsdiscourse enables victims of rights violations to gain presence and influence on a global stage through the concept of network power. This article argues against criticisms of humanrightsdiscourse as another form of Western cultural imperialism. This article uses the case of the Rwandan Paul Rusesabagina, especially his representations in
: This article analyzes how the globalization of humanrightsdiscourse enables victims of rights violations to gain presence and influence on a global stage through the concept of network power. This article argues against criticisms of humanrightsdiscourse as another form of Western cultural imperialism. This article uses the case of the Rwandan Paul Rusesabagina, especially his representations
Research suggests that disabled people may be at increased risk for HIV infection, yet are excluded from HIV prevention campaigns. Historically people with learning disabilities have been constructed as either being asexual or sexually uninhibited, and sex education considered to be unnecessary or potentially harmful. This article reports on findings of a qualitative study exploring the challenges expressed by participants who provide sex education for persons with learning disabilities, revealing a tension between a humanrightsdiscourse and a discourse of restriction of sexual behaviours. Sex education, in the context of HIV/AIDS, may potentially construct sex as dangerous, echoing past constructions of disabled people's sexuality as problematic. PMID:19383660
|This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of humanrightsdiscourse, and of the implementation of humanrights standards, humanrights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…
This study analysed narrative and procedural discourse samples produced by a right-hemisphere brain-damaged (RHBD) and a non-brain-damaged subject according to a model of discourse coherence. It comprised an investigation in terms of discourse grammar, syntactic complexity, clarity and organizational skills. Results indicated that the RHBD subject's discourse was verbose, noninformative, irrelevant and repetitive and characterized by some reduction in discourse
|Humanrightsdiscourses are increasingly being coupled to discourses on citizenship and citizenship education. In this paper, I consider the premise that humanrights might provide a theoretical underpinning for citizenship. I categorise citizenship into five main categories -- moral, legal, identity-based, participatory and cosmopolitan.…
The idea of "humanrights" is a relatively new development in history, but as this website from Britain's National Archives notes in its discussion of the long trajectory of struggles for equality and so forth, "We could do worse than characterizing this history as the struggle for humanrights." This visually compelling online exhibit uses original documents from The National Archives to take a long view of these struggles and movements. Visitors can start their journey through the site by picking a time period, and then reading an introductory essay on the period. Each time period includes a timeline and links to digitized version of relevant documents, such as The Poor Act of 1601 and a poster for a Staffordshire coal miners' union public meeting from 1831. The site is rounded out by a thorough glossary and a document index.
|In this paper we argue that humanrights approaches for intellectually disabled people have failed to recognise the complexity of rights claims made by and on behalf of this group. Drawing on a research project into discourses of education for intellectually disabled people in the Eastern Cape, South Africa we discern three rightsdiscourses;…
|Promotes teaching humanrights at every educational level in conjunction with the United Nations-declared HumanRights Year. Provides World Wide Web addresses for resources on humanrights and the HumanRights Year, including the United Nations and Amnesty International. Summarizes UN-suggested guidelines for humanrights commemoration…
For their effective realization, humanrights need to be perceived as culturally legitimate, and this in turn requires that they be justifiable pluralistically, engaging all reliable moral discourses. In so far as a humanright calls for a specific capability to be respected, protected, and fulfilled, the capability approach can contribute to this task of pluralistic justification in two ways.
Presentation to the 20th anniversary celebration of the 1985 UN Victims Declaration, held in Canberra on 16 November 2005.\\u000aINTRODUCTION I first would like to thank the joint organisers of this Conference, the ACT Victims of Crime Coordinator and the ACT HumanRights Office, for inviting me to this Conference that brings together the disciplines of humanrights and what
Canadian law protects people from discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, but our public schools do not fulfill their ethical and legal obligations where sexual and gender minority youth are concerned. This article reports on a national survey study on homophobia and transphobia in Canadian high schools. Participants (n = 3,607) were questioned about school climate, harassment, school attachment, and institutional interventions. We found that schools were neither safe nor respectful for sexual and gender minority students, and we argue that ongoing exposure to this situation undermines students' respect for the Charter of Rights and their faith in adults. PMID:22214043
|Purpose: Discourse characteristics of adults with right hemisphere brain damage are similar to those reported for healthy older adults, prompting the question of whether changes are due to neurological lesions or normal aging processes. The clinical relevance of potential differences across groups was examined through ratings by speech-language…
|Defends the right of nations to criticize humanrights violations within other nations. Pointing out that the humanrights protections cannot be left to domestic jurisdiction, Goldberg cites numerous treaties and declarations which make humanrights protection a matter of international law. (GEA)|
This paper examines how the increased movement of people across borders has affected the coverage of basic humanrights nation-states extend to irregular migrants and other noncitizens. Humanrights and international migration literatures have been linked in recent years, most notably by Soysal, who argues that as humanrightsdiscourse has intensified nation-states have come under growing pressure to extend
Unlike their counterparts in Asia and Africa, many Latin American humanrights scholars have passively accepted the supposed cultural relevance of the liberal discourse of humanrights and have limited academic studies to the sphere of legal analysis. Nevertheless, the work of the social sciences in the region has enriched humanrights thought and the practices of social movements have
Since the emergence of child abuse as a phenomenon of public concern, legislative responsibility for child protection as a humanright has become a leading motif within the international humanrightsdiscourse and a major policy issue within social institutions such as schools. This paper canvasses significant legislative initiatives in child protection and humanrights in Queensland and argues for
|Does rhetoric have a place in the discourse of humanrights? Without certain reply, as the dilemmas of defining, claiming, and promoting humanrights appear both to include and exclude the rhetorical gesture, this question invites inquiry into the preface of the contemporary humanrights regime, the moment of the aftermath that provokes a…
Traditional definitions of what constitutes a human being in humanrightsdiscourse fail to include the new kinds of human beings that are emerging through genetic manipulation. The prospect of such technology and the knowledge that such alterations infringe on a number of humanrights and so require further consideration, in order to be clear about their appropriateness for human
This paper examines how global interdependencies and the consolidation of a humanrightsdiscourse are transforming national sovereignty. Social researchers frequently address the supremacy of state sovereignty and the absoluteness of humanrights as mutually exclusive categories. However, rather than presupposing that a universal rightsdiscourse is necessarily leading to the demise of sovereignty, we suggest that an increasingly de-nationalized conception of legitimacy is contributing to a reconfiguration of sovereignty itself. Through the analytic prism of historical memories - which refers to shared understandings specific pasts carry for present concerns of a political community - we provide an explanatory factor for the salience of humanrights norms as a globally available repertoire of legitimate claim making. While states retain most of their sovereign functions, their legitimacy is no longer exclusively conditioned by a contract with the nation, but also by their adherence to a set of nation-transcending humanrights ideals. Legitimacy is mediated by how willing states are to engage with 'judicial memories' of humanrights abuses and their articulation in cosmopolitan legal frames. Empirically, we focus on war crime trials and how legal inscriptions of memories of humanrights abuses are recasting the jurisdiction of International Law. The readiness of states to engage with rights abuses is becoming politically and culturally consequential, as adherence to global humanrights norms confers legitimacy. PMID:17168943
AIDS and humanrights are closely related issues. This paper describes the relationship between AIDS and humanrights, the impact and consequences of discrimination and the importance of the defense of humanrights as a cornerstone strategy in AIDS prevention. Some general ethical aspects are addressed and two dilemmas which have been raised by the epidemic are discussed: the apparent conflict between individual and community rights and the reactions of intolerance and repression from those who claim that only through coercive strategies will the epidemic be brought under control. Specific problems in Mexico are described based on data collected at CONASIDA's HumanRights Department between 1992 and 1994. Finally some conclusions are stated emphasizing that, in the AIDS epidemic, the defense of humanrights is the cornerstone of any public health strategy. PMID:8599140
Rico, B; Uribe-Zúñiga, P; Panebianco-Labbé, S; del Río-Chiriboga, C
The competing discourses of HIV\\/AIDS circulating in sub-Saharan Africa are identified. These are medical, medico-moral, developmental (distinguishing between 'women in development' and gender and development perspectives), legal, ethical, and the rightsdiscourse of groups living with HIV\\/AIDS and of African pressure groups. The analytical framework is that of discourse analysis as exemplified by Michel Foucault. The medical and medico-moral are
The impact of procreation on freedom, health and welfare of human beings, is considerable. This relationship, however, is not mirrored in texts devoted to HumanRights. This omission obviously implies a neglect of women's and children's rights. The history of anticonceptive methods exemplifies the struggle for these rights. This conquest, which has lasted two hundred years, is far from completed. Because of the demographic outbreak in Third World countries, an ideological conflict has appeared between first generation HumanRights concerned with individual freedom ("rights of") and those of second generation aiming at social fairness ("rights to"). Adequate political and economic adjustment between North and South is a prerequisite to any balanced compromise that would resolve this conflict through democratic, albeit intensive, birth control. PMID:2339216
|Includes "Introduction"; "International Labour Standards and HumanRights" (Valticos); "The Origins of Convention No. 87 on Freedom of Association and the Right to Organize" (Dunning); "HumanRights Law and Freedom of Association" (Swepston); "Freedom of Association" (von Potobsky); "The ILO [International Labour Organization] Declaration of 1998…
The universalist discourse of humanrights cannot be defended without assuming a metaphysical position concerning the sanctity and inherent moral endowment of humankind. The canonical texts of Islam are accommodative of multiple interpretations. Traditionalist interpretations of the texts appear to stand in conflict with the universalist discourse of humanrights principles, whereas the contextual readings of the Qur'an reveal a
|Speak Truth To Power consists of 17 teacher-developed lessons based on the stories of rights advocates from all over the world. The lessons were created for sixth-through 12th-grade students, and have come to New York schools thanks to the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and HumanRights and the New York State United Teachers union. Speak…
Jacqueline Pitanguy outlines the political context of the ICPD +5 process on the basis of her work in Brazil and internationally on reproductive rights. She argues that the women's movement has to continue to lobby hard to decrease the gap between what has been promised and the reality of most women's lives, particularly in the context of the cuts in
|This article builds on previous comparative education research by analyzing the current discourse surrounding this emerging education model--humanrights education. The first section provides a brief history of humanrights education in formal education. The second section reviews research on international reforms, emphasizing analyses of…
The Arthur W. Diamond Law Library at Columbia Law School maintains this excellent resource for finding materials on humanrights and constitutional rights. The metasite serves students, scholars, and practitioners as a portal to documents and Internet resources on international and domestic law related to human and constitutional rights. The information resources are divided into six sections: Country Reports, International Links, Regional Links, National Links, Documents, and Other Web Resources. Each section is clearly organized into neat lists or pop-up menus to ease navigation. Marylin Raisch -- the International, Comparative, and Foreign Law Librarian responsible for this metasite -- also provides a Hot Topics section, which posts information on current events related to human and constitutional rights.
The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of humanrights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding humanrights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other humanrights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.
The Subprime Crash that started capitalism’s latest crisis was mainly a proxy for an inexistent housing policy which would benefit many impoverished middle class families. Housing being clearly recognized as a humanright, the behaviour of markets and its critical consequences could lead us to say that the Subprime Crash is above all the dramatic and global expression of the
|Why do teachers need to be familiar with humanrights? In multicultural societies, whose values take precedence? How do schools resolve tensions between children's rights and teachers' rights? Campaigners, politicians and the media cite humanrights to justify or challenge anything from peaceful protest to military action. The phrase "human…
|Humanrights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…
After the nonbinding Universal Declaration of HumanRights, many global and regional humanrights treaties have been concluded. Critics argue that these are unlikely to have made any actual difference in reality. Others contend that international regimes can improve respect for humanrights in state parties, particularly in more democratic countries or countries with a strong civil society devoted to
After the non-binding Universal Declaration of HumanRights, many global and regional humanrights treaties have been concluded. Critics argue that these are unlikely to have made any actual difference in reality. Others contend that international regimes can improve respect for humanrights in state parties, particularly in more democratic countries or countries with a strong civil society devoted to
The Chinese Embassy site contains statements on China's foreign policy in general, Sino-US relations, and relations with other countries. In addition, the Embassy also offers statements and papers on humanrights issues. The State Visit of Chinese President Jiang Zemin last week represented a thaw in official Sino-US Relations, which have been somewhat chilly since Tiananmen in 1989. Despite reaching agreements on a broad range of security, economic, environmental and law-enforcement issues, the two Presidents were clearly far apart on the issue of humanrights. While President Clinton made mention of the right to political and religious expression, President Jiang expressed the need for political and social stability in his country. On the whole, both leaders have achieved their goals. President Clinton has secured China's cooperation on several issues, most importantly arms control and trade, while the state dinner and formal ceremony recognized China's role as a key player in the world economy and Jiang's international position as its head of state.
The proliferation of international humanrights treaties, committees and courts over the last sixty years represents enormous achievement. International humanrights laws are now asserted throughout the world by individuals of many cultures and traditions. Yet, at the same time international humanrights ideas and principles continue to have difficulty in manifesting their relevance in the daily lives of those
This essay asks whether international humanrights arguments are likely to be effective in advancing immigrants' rights in the United States. There are certainly reasons to be pessimistic. Despite its history as a nation of immigrants and the ever-increasing diversity of its populace, the United States remains a deeply parochial and nationalist culture. International humanrights arguments are often seen
Abstract\\/Introduction Thanks to the hubris and brutality of the 'armed humanitarians', the discourse of human,rights has recently and understandably become,an object of suspicion in many parts of the world. However, to blame humanrights for these sins is to concede too much ground to the 'armed humanitarians' and their intellectual supporters. Whilst it is true that a liberal and overly
Background : In a previous report of topic use in semi-structured conversations (Brady, Mackenzie, & Armstrong, 2003), we did not find the often-described gross topic deficit in participants with right hemisphere brain damage (RHBD) when compared to non-brain-damaged participants (NBD). Discourse genre is known to affect the production of discourse, so topic use was further explored in this population using
Marian Brady; Linda Armstrong; Catherine Mackenzie
In order to understand the context of the role that humanrights should play in civic education in the United States, the era in which those rights were first debated (1789-1790's) must be examined, as well as contemporary political and education trends in the United States and the world. Humanrights were at the heart of the democratic…
To establish an objective conception of humanrights, one must first identify basic needs intrinsic to all people and then determine whether these needs are or can be hierarchically ordered. Many scholars have conducted research on the concept of human needs, particularly in the area of humanrights. Among these scholars are Abraham H. Maslow…
Why do we have humanrights? What ought to be the function of such rights in the global order, and to what extent does this help define what they are? Who needs to do what to realize these rights? In response to such questions this paper develops a conception of humanrights that thinks of them as membership rights in
... Proclamation 8328 of December 8, 2008. HumanRights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and HumanRights Week, 2008 8328 Proclamation 8328 ...8328 of December 8, 2008 Proc. 8328 HumanRights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human...
... Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009. HumanRights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And HumanRights Week, 2009 8464 Proclamation 8464 ...8464 of December 9, 2009 Proc. 8464 HumanRights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human...
Currently, in a number of public and semi?public forums in Barbados, the idea of ‘sexual rights’ is being discussed and debated. However, different meanings are attached to ‘rights’. This paper examines how these meanings demonstrate that different interpretations of sexuality, society, and morality are circulating through Barbados today. It also addresses whether or not sexual rightsdiscourses are the best
What role have states played in promoting humanrights education? While nongovernmental organizations have been at the forefront of humanrights education, scholars have neglected the increased activism of states, especially national humanrights commissions. This article addresses this gap by sketching the relationship between states and humanrights education, examining cross-regional trends and presenting a case study of South
Background: Right hemisphere brain damage (RHBD) has been linked to a diverse range of discourse-level communicative deficits generally based on subjective impressions. Investigative evidence to support or refute the reports is limited and what evidence is available is frequently restricted in the conclusions it can make as a result of small sample sizes, inadequate reporting of onset time, and site
Marian Brady; Catherine Mackenzie; Linda Armstrong
Although it is common for descriptions of communication ability in people with right hemisphere brain damage (RHBD) to include discourse deficits that affect pragmatic effectiveness, reports of these deficits are often made from subjective observations based on single cases. To date there is also very little objective information about spontaneous change over time in a representative clinical population in either
Marian Brady; Linda Armstrong; Catherine Mackenzie
Background: Various investigators suggest that some discourse?level comprehension difficulties in adults with right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) have a lexical?semantic basis. As words are processed, the intact right hemisphere arouses and sustains activation of a wide?ranging network of secondary or peripheral meanings and features—a phenomenon dubbed “coarse coding”. Coarse coding impairment has been postulated to underpin some prototypical RHD comprehension
Connie A. Tompkins; Victoria L. Scharp; Kimberly M. Meigh; Wiltrud Fassbinder
The argument of this article is that what I term generic globalization has created unprecedented opportunities for advances in humanrights universally, but that the dominant actually existing historical form of globalization – capitalist globalization – undermines these opportunities. Substantively, I argue that taking the globalization of humanrights seriously means eliminating the ideological distinction that exists between civil and
The author considers the treatment of women's rights as humanrights in the social studies curriculum. She discusses the role of the United Nations in promoting women's rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights in 1948. She also reviews the treatment of women's rights within social studies curriculum today through a…
|The author considers the treatment of women's rights as humanrights in the social studies curriculum. She discusses the role of the United Nations in promoting women's rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights in 1948. She also reviews the treatment of women's rights within social studies curriculum today through a…
In Asia, the lesbian and gay rights movements are clearly dominated by activists, who tend to think in terms of a binary opposition (homo- vs hetero-) and clear-cut categories. Based on “Western patterns,” the approach is practical, the arguments based on minority rights. “Coming out” is often perceived as a “white model” bringing more problems than real freedom. On the
Utilizing feminist perspectives on rhetoric and the law, this essay addresses the perpetuation of discriminatory workplace policies that historically have limited women's employment opportunities while confining their identity and agency. Focusing on naming metaphors adopted by employers, the legislature, and the Supreme Court, I argue that legal language has been detrimental to the image and rights of women in the
Utilizing feminist perspectives on rhetoric and the law, this essay addresses the perpetuation of discriminatory workplace policies that historically have limited women's employment opportunities while confining their identity and agency. Focusing on naming metaphors adopted by employers, the legislature, and the Supreme Court, I argue that legal language has been detrimental to the image and rights of women in the
|This paper contributes to the study of citizenship by interrogating how young people in Nairobi (Chege and Arnot 2012) perceive their rights of citizenship. It builds on previous analyses of the connections between gender, education and poverty's poor urban settlements by focusing on the political dimensions of the young people's lives. The…
During the Seventies, humanrights moved from the periphery to the center of American foreign policy. This action – I argue in the paper – reflected a double-headed and contradictory interest in humanrights. From a liberal perspective, humanrights concerns were a criticism toward the mistakes of the global containment. By reinforcing morality in foreign policy – liberals argued
Globalization is shifting the balance away from membership-based citizenship towards universal humanrights, thus we ask: how are new humanrights generated? We argue that the movement for humanrights follows on the heels of the much older and richer tradition of citizenship, as can be seen from the fact that many of the new claims put forward by human
Trafficking in women is regarded as both a cause and consequence of humanrights violations. This article situates trafficking within different, intersecting analytical frameworks, including gender, migration, labour law, criminal law and humanrights. It aims to contribute to the feminist project by highlighting the contested nature of the present discourse and, in particular, by paying attention to legal strategies
|In the present study, a cross-modal semantic priming task was used to investigate the ability of left-hemisphere-damaged (LHD) nonfluent aphasic, right-hemisphere-damaged (RHD) and non-brain-damaged (NBD) control subjects to use a discourse context to resolve lexically ambiguous words. Subjects first heard four-sentence discourse passages ending…
|This paper describes the importance of humanrights education as proclaimed by UN (1994) and also the strategies for developing humanrights education by UN General assembly 2005. In proclaiming the United Nations Decade for HumanRights Education (1995-2004), in December 1994, the General Assembly defined humanrights education as "a life-long…
|A study of humanrights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of humanrights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…
|This curriculum is intended to further thoughtful examination and responsible action among high school students about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues. Unlike other curricula this discussion is not in the context of civil or political rights but in the broader context of humanrights. These rights, as defined in the Universal…
As this website explains in its Common Questions area, "Tactics consist of how to make a change", and given this statement, the site will be of great interest to those with a concern for international humanrights. The New Tactics in HumanRights organization is primarily concerned with providing practitioners in the field with a package of practical tools, a worldwide symposium, and a number of other strategic planning resources. The project itself is coordinated by the Center for Victims of Torture and is overseen by a board of advisors that includes novelist Mario Vargas Llosa and the Right Honorable Kim Campbell, who is the former Prime Minister of Canada. The "Tools for Action" section is a real find as it contains a number of tactical notebooks taken from various case studies around the world, including work from Turkey, Hungary, Romania, and Albania. It is worth noting that many of the materials on the site are also available in Spanish and French.
Jacques Maritain’s concern and thoughts on humanrights and natural law are analyzed and studies in the context of the humanist\\u000a tradition of mankind. For this, St. Thomas Aquinas-J. Maritain types of law: 1) the natural law, 2) the people law, and 3)\\u000a the positive law are discussed in relation to the three Maritain characteristics of the human being, i.e.,
Reproductive health programs should adopt an approach based on humanrights at the levels of clinical management as well as national policy, especially those programs responsible for abortion and post-abortion care. Resource-poor women face greater maternal mortality and morbidity, suffer continuous risk because of a lack of access to adequate reproductive health services, and are likelier than more affluent women
he Millennium Declaration affirms both gender equality and humanrights as central commitments made by gov- ernments at the UN Millennium Assembly in 2000. The Millennium Development Goals constitute an attempt to set quanitifiable priorities in the development arena, but cannot be understood outside of the context of the broader Millennium Declaration. Equality, including the \\
|The study of humanrights is inseparable from social studies. Beyond the basic political, economic, and social freedoms and rights spelled out in The Universal Declaration of HumanRights, hundreds of specialized topics have developed that demonstrate the complex nature of humanrights in the twenty-first-century world--environmental exploitation…
Discusses the state of children's rights in the United States in the wake of U.S. Senate refusal to ratify the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child. Examines the discrepancy between the U.S. leadership role in humanrights and child advocacy and the legal system's treatment of children strictly according to law. (JPB)
|This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of humanrights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…
This article uses post-colonial theory to examine the cluster of international humanrights known as economic, social and cultural rights. The article surveys the jurisprudence of the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, making it relevant for scholars of international humanrights as well as post-colonial theory. Traditionally, international humanrights divide into two branches: 1) civil and
|In recent years, the goals and purposes of education within the international development discourse have shifted significantly away from education for productivity or human capital development and towards education for the fulfillment of the individual through humanrights. The current global education climate provides governments with an…
BACKGOUND: The concept of HumanRights has become the modern civilising standard to which all should aspire and indeed attain. DISCUSSION: In an era characterised by widening disparities in health and humanrights across the world and spectacular advances in biotechnology it is necessary to reflect on the extent to which humanrights considerations are selectively applied for the benefit
|The United Nations' founding in 1945 and the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights reflected the international community's growing commitment to the protection and recognition of what is now referred to as humanrights. Despite increased international attention, humanrights violations continue to occur at the local,…
Constance de la Vega contributes to a panel discussion her personal experiences at the HumanRights Council. Her comments first recount the humanrights successes of the former UN Commission on HumanRights. Second, she analyzes the reasons given for creating the Council to replace the Commission. Her comments conclude by assessing the pros and cons of the changes brought
|The Australian Capital Territory's HumanRights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT HumanRights Commission have begun to create a humanrights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)|
|According to the author, teaching for social justice entails the acquisition of the following learning outcomes: (1) knowledge of the meaning, historical development, and application of humanrights; (2) ability to analyze humanrights from multiple perspectives; and (3) willingness to address humanrights issues in local, global, intercultural,…
On the sixtieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights, feminists are at a critical juncture to re-envision and re-engage in a politics of humanrights that underscores the creative displays of grassroots resistance by women globally and affirms transnational feminist solidarity. In highlighting feminisms and humanrights that are antiracist and social justice oriented, this issue highlights new
Dana Collins; Sylvanna Falcón; Sharmila Lodhia; Molly Talcott
The Inter-American Court of HumanRights (the Court) has ruled that the Supreme Court of Costa Rica's judgment in 2000 prohibiting in vitro fertilization (IVF) violated the humanright to private and family life, the humanright to found and raise a family, and the humanright to non-discrimination on grounds of disability, financial means, or gender. The Court's conclusions of violations contrary to the American Convention on HumanRights followed from its ruling that, under the Convention, in vitro embryos are not "persons" and do not possess a right to life. Accordingly, the prohibition of IVF to protect embryos constituted a disproportionate and unjustifiable denial of infertile individuals' humanrights. The Court distinguished fertilization from conception, since conception-unlike fertilization-depends on an embryo's implantation in a woman's body. Under humanrights law, legal protection of an embryo "from conception" is inapplicable between its creation by fertilization and completion of its implantation in utero. PMID:23932062
Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Dickens, Bernard M; Dughman-Manzur, Sandra
Background The humanright to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.
Forensic services, founded upon good science and best practice, provide an inherent safeguard for humanrights. Moreover, practitioners are well placed to uphold fundamental and longstanding rights such as ‘the right to a fair hearing’. Our ability to embrace other emerging rights, however, is less clear. The increasing ambit and remit of forensic science is a cause of increasing social,
This thesis is designed as an exercise in critical thinking which attempts to trace the little-known and vaguely understood international effort to address women's rights as humanrights. Specifically, it is intended to introduce and actively engage the reader in the application of critical thinking processes through an analysis of the history and status of the Convention on the Elimination
The Global Migration Group (GMG) is an inter-agency group that is dedicated to encouraging the "adoption of more coherent, comprehensive and better coordinated approaches to the issue of international migration." Their number includes representatives from UNICEF, the World Bank and various regional commissions from the United Nations. In October 2008, they released this 144-page report in order to commemorate and reflect on the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. The report is divided into seven sections, including those dealing with the legal framework of migration, globalization and migration trends, migration data, and a concluding chapter which discusses some of the most pressing issues facing different migrant groups around the world. The report also includes three very useful appendices which deal with the policy instruments used in regards to human migration and the adoption of key United Nations legal instruments involved with international migration.
China's efforts to secure foreign oil and natural gas to meet its growing energy demand are contributing to massive humanrights violations in Sudan and Burma. These humanrights conflicts, significantly influenced by abundant oil and gas reserves, have strained U.S.-China relations and complicated international efforts to create a more effective architecture to address both rights crises and conflict management
|While respect for humanrights has long been endorsed as a goal of education, only recently has significant attention been paid to the need to incorporate rights within educational processes. Current support for humanrights within education, however, has a variety of motivations. This paper provides a theoretical exploration of these diverse…
Due to a number of radical changes in society, the role of parents in the upbringing of their children has been redefined. In this essay, Paul Smeyers argues that "risk" thinking, and the technologization that goes with it in the context of child rearing, naturally leads to the rightsdiscourse, but that thinking about the relation between parents…
|This study contributes an approach to understanding the cognitive models underlying rhetorical arguments about the "first wave" of women's rightsdiscourse in the United States, which began to emerge more publically with the Seneca Falls convention in 1848 and started to gain momentum in 1851 and beyond. The usage of the lexical item "sphere" (in…
In recent years we have noticed an increase in the turn to rights analysis in litigation relating to access to health care. Examining litigation, we can notice a contradiction between on the one hand the ability of the right to health to reinforce privatization and commodification of health care, by rearticulating claims to private health care in terms of humanrights, and on the other hand, its ability to reinforce and reinstate public values, especially that of equality, against the background of privatization and commodification. While many hope that rightsdiscourse will do the latter, and secure that access to health care should occur on the basis of need as opposed to ability to pay, it has actually been used to attempt to advance arguments that will allow access to private or semiprivate health insurance in ways that may exacerbate inequality. These types of arguments won ground in the Canadian Supreme Court, but were rejected by the Israeli Supreme Court. In order to avoid this co-optation of right to health, a notion of rights that incorporates the principles of substantive equality is required. Otherwise, one of the unintended consequences of inserting rights analysis into public health care may be that it will reinforce rather than challenge privatization in a way that may increase inequalities. PMID:23581662
In the Universal Declaration of HumanRights, the foundation of humanrights, the text and negotiating history of the “right to life” explicitly premises humanrights on birth. Likewise, other international and regional humanrights treaties, as drafted and\\/or subsequently interpreted, clearly reject claims that humanrights should attach from conception or any time before birth. They also recognise that
Rhonda Copelon; Christina Zampas; Elizabeth Brusie; Jacqueline deVore
|The paper argues for the existence of two powerful discourses of rurality in Denmark after World War II. The first one is termed the modernist-agriculturalist discourse. Although still influential in the current public debate, in Denmark as well as in other Western European countries, this discourse of rurality had its heyday in the 1960s. It is…
|In reaction to the disasters of the first half the 20th century and World War II, a dramatic world movement arose emphasizing the humanrights of persons in global society. The contrast--celebrated in international treaties, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, and much cultural discourse--was with narrower world emphases on the…
Meyer, John W.; Bromley, Patricia; Ramirez, Francisco O.
Students from the unit Living HumanRights, from The University of Notre Dame Australia’s Fremantle Campus, recently held an expo to raise awareness of human trafficking.\\u000aThe unit, Living HumanRights, introduces students to humanrights from a number of interrelated perspectives: global and local; professional and personal; present and historical. It explores how humanrights need to form an
Significant improvements in humanrights and democracy have been made since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights by the United Nations in 1948. Yet, humanrights, especially women's rights, are still being violated in many parts of the developing world. The adverse effects of such violations on women's and children's health are well known, but they are rarely measured. This study uses cross-national data from over 145 countries to estimate the impact of democracy and respect for humanrights on various measures of women's health while controlling for confounding socio-economic factors such as income, education, fertility and healthcare. It finds that democracy and regards for humanrights contribute positively to women's health outcomes, as do socio-economic variables.
Significant improvements in humanrights and democracy have been made since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights by the United Nations in 1948. Yet, humanrights, especially women's rights, are still being violated in many parts of the developing world. The adverse effects of such violations on women's and children's health are well known, but they are rarely measured. This study uses cross-national data from over 145 countries to estimate the impact of democracy and respect for humanrights on various measures of women's health while controlling for confounding socio-economic factors such as income, education, fertility and healthcare. It finds that democracy and regards for humanrights contribute positively to women's health outcomes, as do socio-economic variables. PMID:22654388
This article discusses youth and adult education in a twofold perspective: that of a humanright and that of human development. The first perspective is related to the concept of rights and the second perspective is related to the guarantee or negation of the right to development. In this article, the author discusses the universality of rights…
|This article discusses youth and adult education in a twofold perspective: that of a humanright and that of human development. The first perspective is related to the concept of rights and the second perspective is related to the guarantee or negation of the right to development. In this article, the author discusses the universality of rights…
International adoption is under siege, with the number of children placed dropping each of the last several years, and many countries imposing severe new restrictions. Key forces mounting the attack claim the child humanrights mantle, arguing that such adoption denies heritage rights, and often involves abusive practices. Many nations assert rights to hold onto the children born within their
This paper explores the potential impacts of the rights of migrant workers (“migrant rights”) on the human development of actual and potential migrants, their families, and other people in migrants’ countries of origin. A key feature of the paper is its consideration of how migrant rights affect both the capability to move and work in higher income countries (i.e. the
This paper explores the potential impacts of the rights of migrant workers (“migrant rights”) on the human development of actual and potential migrants, their families, and other people in migrants’ countries of origin. A key feature of the paper is its consideration of how migrant rights affect both the capability to move and work in higher income countries (i.e. the
Using the contemporary arena of social care as an example, this article challenges the either\\/or dichotomy set up by some disability writers and activists between the favoured civil and humanrights on the one hand and discredited social rights on the other. Rather, the article concludes, claims to these differing types of right are mutually reinforcing and can be mobilised
Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Humanrights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect humanrights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of HumanRights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects humanrights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. PMID:23586767
The work of museums is changing, radically. As the global rise of museums and museum networks dedicated to the subject of humanrights over the past few decades has confirmed, museums can be beneficial to the dialog and ongoing negotiation of humanrights between civil society and government institutions. Indeed, the foundational roles of museums as places of collecting, conserving
The idea of humanrights protection, historically, has been considered as a domestic matter, to be realized by individual states within their domestic law and national institutions. The protection and promotion of humanrights, however, have become one of the most important issues for the international community as a whole. Yet, with time, it has become increasingly difficult for the
|The 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights is a propitious time for educators to examine its implications for educating citizens in multicultural nation states. The author argues that students must experience democratic classrooms and schools that reflect their cultures and identities to internalize humanrights values,…
HumanRights Review appears in the last year of a century that has witnessed the birth of the age of humanrights. Many ventures being launched at century's end (to say nothing of one launched at the end of a millennium) are cloaked in a rhetoric of utopianism and optimism. It is tempting to announce the publication of HumanRights
HumanRights Watch issued their annual world report last week, summarizing the state of humanrights in 66 countries around the globe. Written with the clarity and detail that marked previous annual issues, this year's report is distinguished by its note of guarded optimism. The report cites two main trends as evidence of a partial dismantling of national sovereignty as an impenetrable defense for humanrights violators: international courts are increasingly attempting to bring sovereign leaders to justice and nations are more willing to act in concert against a single nation to oppose humanrights violations. Separate sections of the report address special topics, such as academic freedom, child soldiers, the international campaign to ban landmines, and lesbian and gay rights.
In this paper, we focus on a potential mechanism for revitalizing unions' influence as broader political actors: their use of familiar and appealing discourses to frame political campaigns. Through a discursive analysis of campaign texts, we show how the Australian Council of Trade Unions successfully promoted a counter-discourse, which operated as a collective action frame to mobilize alternative meanings, identities
The right to decide the number and spacing of one's children is a guideline for state policy deriving its force from the depth of conviction it can arouse. Where family planning is viewed as necessary to the exercise of the more basic and enforceable rights, it has a legally enforceable character. Family planning is necessary for the equal protection of law as well as essential for the enjoyment of some classic civil and political rights. Equally important, the right to family planning is inherent in the right of human dignity. This is enunciated in the UN Charter and reiterated in all international and regional humanrights agreements. The constitutions of many nations now grant women legal equality with men, but true equality cannot be realized until full access to family planning is attained. Where family planning services are denied or restricted, women, but not men, are denied the right to medically protect their lives and health against danger. This is particularly the case in developing countries where as many as 1/4 of all deaths among adult women are the result of pregnancy and childbirth. Restrictive family planning laws, with their accompanying detrimental health effects, violate many humanrights conventions which guarantee equal access to health care. Similarly equal protection of the law applies to racial discrimination, and prohibitions of racial discrimination might be invoked where family planning is denied to, or imposed on, certain racial groups. The right to family planning can be derived from the right to human dignity. The right to due process of law requires that individuals be treated in a fundamentally fair way. It may be argued that it is fundamentally unfair to provide contraceptive services to married but not unmarried persons. Appeals to fundamental or inherent humanrights will move neither individuals nor governments unless they are followed by well designed action. PMID:12338976
Sexuality, queer subjectivity, identity and humanrights are presently being taken up as crucial sites of ethical intervention by Indonesians and Singaporeans on the Internet. This paper examines how the Internet is helping to create new spaces of intersubjective and intercultural communication that address the issue of non-normative sexualities and the sense of belonging in society.\\u000aAs Laurence Wai-Teng Leong
Table of Content: China Country Report on HumanRights Practices for 1997; Respect for HumanRights; Section 2 Respect for Civil Liberties, Including: Section 3 Respect for Political Rights: The Right of Citizens to Change Their Government; Government Att...
|This book discusses the relationship between humanrights and education. Education is discussed both within the context of humanrights, and as the ultimate sanction and guarantee of all humanrights. Part 1, "Education as a HumanRight," is comprised of the following chapters: (1) "HumanRights and Education: An Overview" (D. R. Ray; N. B.…
Existing humanrights law, the body of law that delineates the contours of legal protections for humanrights, does not do enough to prevent or provide remedies for corporate-related humanrights abuses. Transnational corporations are generally excluded from direct responsibility under international humanrights law. The state-centered nature of modern humanrights law is inconsistent with the actual power and
The right to liberty is ubiquitous in humanrights instruments, in essence protecting all individuals from arbitrary arrest and detention. Yet, in practice, immigration detention is increasingly routine, even automatic, across Europe. Asylum seekers in particular have been targeted for detention. While international humanrights law limits detention, its protections against immigration detention are weaker than in other contexts, as
In early 2001 the US State Department released the 25th edition of its Country Reports on HumanRights Practices. The report cites continued abuses in countries that have long been noted for humanrights violations, including Iraq, North Korea, Cuba, and Afghanistan. It also notes a worsening in China's humanrights record, perhaps signalling a tougher stance towards the world's most populous nation under the new US administration. Users may read the full text of the report, which is organized by region, at the State Department site.
‘Women’s rights are humanrights!’ This notion may seem self evident, as the international system for the promotion and the protection of humanrights that was installed under the auspice of the United Nations (UN) builds on the idea of equality in dignity and rights of men and women. Yet, as was convincingly showed by critics of this system, it
Argues that Islam considers language a humanright that must be guaranteed for all people due to language's advantageous effect on sociocultural relations. Denotes "right" as any action whose fulfillment might cause advantage or prevent damage to individuals or societies; and emphasizes that it is natural for individuals to use the language of…
This paper examines the essential practices and conditions for fostering transformative learning using the Canadian HumanRights Foundation's International HumanRights Training Program as a case study. It suggests that the program's participants challenge their own values and assumptions about humanrights, their work and their society through critical reflection. Consequently, it argues that if humanrights educators are to
HumanRights Watch has recently posted a new report. "Limits of Tolerance: Freedom of Expression and the Public Debate in Chile," examines the extreme restrictions on freedom of speech and freedom of information in the ostensibly democratic nation of Chile.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to better understand agenda setting by international humanrights organizations in the online environment and at the same time contribute to agenda-setting theory. The role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the area of humanrights is clarified, and agenda setting and related concepts are discussed. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study focuses on how
From the 1648 peace treaties of Westphalia to the 1945 U.N. Charter, public international law has evolved as a system of reciprocal\\u000a rights and obligations among states based on sovereign equality and non-intervention into the internal affairs of states.1 The state-centered U.N. Charter, and its collective security system established by the victorious powers of World War II,2 assert legal priority
Do non?human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non?human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading—whether scientifically aided or not—have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non?human animals should be accorded.
HumanRights Watch issued their annual world report yesterday, summarizing the state of humanrights in 70 countries around the globe. Written with the clarity and detail that have marked previous annual issues, this year's report offers both good and bad news. On the positive side, it notes the popular overthrow of the Milosevic regime in Yugoslavia, the conclusion of a treaty barring the use of children as soldiers, and the UN Commission on HumanRights's first formal criticism of a permanent member of the UN Security Council (Russia, for its abuses in Chechnya). On the negative, the report cites the continued failure of the UN Commission to condemn China and the failure of the US to require the Colombian army to sever ties with paramilitaries as a condition for the recent huge military aid package to that country. The report begins with an essay on the global economy and then covers humanrights developments by region. Separate sections of the report address special topics such as academic freedom, censorship, access to education, children's rights, and women's humanrights. The report is available in both HTML and .rtf (zipped or uncompressed) formats.
In the last few years the Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children has been gathering momentum, with a submission to "The United Nations Secretary General's study on violence against children" the most recent addition to the cause. Nevertheless, corporal punishment in schools is still condoned in many countries and its practice…
The United Nations humanrights treaty regime has developed significantly\\u000ain the past decades. The two 1966 Covenants, the International Covenant on\\u000aCivil and Political Rights (CCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic,\\u000aSocial and Cultural Rights (CESCR), have been supplemented with treaties\\u000aaimed at eliminating discrimination, strengthening the protection of vulnerable\\u000agroups, and the protection of specific rights. Whereas
Background The right to health is recognized as a fundamental humanright. Social participation is implied in the fulfillment of health rights since Alma Ata posited its relevance for successful health programs, although a wide range of interpretations has been observed for this term. While Peruvian law recognizes community and social participation in health, it was the GFATM requirement of mixed public-civil society participation in Country Coordination Mechanisms (CCM) for proposal submission what effectively led to formal community involvement in the national response to HIV and, to a lesser extent, tuberculosis. This has not been the case, however, for other chronic diseases in Peru. This study aims to describe and compare the role of health rightsdiscourse and community involvement in the national response to HIV, tuberculosis and cancer. Methods Key health policy documents were identified and analyzed. In-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders, representatives of civil society organizations (CSO), and leaders of organizations of people affected by HIV, cancer and tuberculosis. Results and discussion A health rightsdiscourse, well established in the HIV field, is expanding to general health discussions and to the tuberculosis (TB) field in particular. Both HIV and TB programs have National Multisectoral Strategic Plans and recognize participation of affected communities’ organizations. Similar mechanisms are non-existent for cancer or other disease-focused programs, although other affected patients are starting some organization efforts. Interviewees agreed that reaching the achievements of HIV mobilization is difficult for other diseases, since the HIV response was modeled based on a global movement with strong networks and advocacy mechanisms, eventually succeeding in the establishment of financial sources like the GFATM. Nevertheless, organizations linked to cancer and other diseases are building a National Patient Network to defend health rights. Conclusions There are new efforts to promote and protect health rights in Peru, probably inspired by the achievements of organizations of people living with HIV (PLHA). The public health sector must consolidate the participation of affected communities’ organizations in decision-making processes and implementation of health programs. PLHA organizations have become a key political and social actor in Peruvian public health policy.
\\u000a Education for peace is an urgent topic in global discourse. As wisdom emerges from diverse regions of the world, this is a\\u000a good moment to deepen educational efforts by analyzing and extending the present forms. Fresh perspectives are also needed,\\u000a especially in relation to humanrights, which has had a complicated and under-investigated relationship with peace (Forsythe,\\u000a 1993). Peace educators
|This unit on humanrights designed for secondary students in Alberta, Canada includes both student and teacher manuals. Eleven chapters in the student manual examine what humanrights are, the causes and effects of prejudice and discrimination, relevant laws, and social action. Each chapter includes readings followed by discussion questions and…
The demands for humanrights being made today around the world are heir to all the great historic movements for human freedom, equality and solidarity—including the English, American, French, Russian and Chinese revolutions and the events they set in train. They derive also from the more enduring elements in the traditions both of natural law and natural rights and of
Myres S. McDougal; Lung-chu Chen; Harold D Lasswell
This unit on humanrights designed for secondary students in Alberta, Canada includes both student and teacher manuals. Eleven chapters in the student manual examine what humanrights are, the causes and effects of prejudice and discrimination, relevant laws, and social action. Each chapter includes readings followed by discussion questions and…
The United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning calls upon member states to prohibit all forms of human cloning. However, the Declaration is nonbinding and will not put a stop to cloning around the world. Scientists will continue to clone embryos in their quest to develop stem cell therapies, ultimately, their work will facilitate the birth of human clones.;Once born, human
|Explains provisions contained within the Universal Declaration of HumanRights, tracing historical beginnings of humanrights to 1945, detailing events after 1945 up to the adoption of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights by the United Nations, and explaining essential terminology used in describing humanrights instruments that have been…
In September, HumanRights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. Turkey: HumanRights And The European Union Accession Partnership is a 31-page report detailing HumanRights Watch's recommendations for the EU's Accession Partnership Document laying out the humanrights criteria Turkey will have to meet to be granted EU membership.
|The relationship between religion and humanrights is an ambiguous and complex one, but there are academic, moral and political arguments for the inclusion of humanrights in religious education (RE). The Universal Declaration of HumanRights advocates education in humanrights and the English school curriculum aims to encourage a commitment to…
Internal factors in Africa which include limited autonomy of African states, the states’ various degrees of lack of capacity, as well as inept and parasitic leadership make human trafficking and humanrights abuses in Africa inevitable. Regardless of the connections suggested to exist between globalization and human trafficking, internal factors in Africa are more fundamental than globalization in explaining human
This curriculum unit presents lessons based on information and ideas gained from a 1994 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Program in the People's Republic of China. This series of three lessons is created as an introduction to Model United Nations types of activities for high school students. Lesson 1, "What are HumanRights?" deals with…
Industry control over the production and distribution of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy data has become a serious public health and health care funding concern. Various recent scandals, several involving the use of flawed representations of scientific data in the most influential medical journals, highlight the urgency of enhancing pharmaceutical knowledge governance. This paper analyzes why this is a humanrights concern and what difference a humanrights analysis can make. The paper first identifies the challenges associated with the current knowledge deficit. It then discusses, based on an analysis of case law, how various humanrights associated interests can be invoked to support the claim that states have an obligation to actively contribute to independent knowledge governance, for example through ensuring clinical trials transparency. The paper further discusses a conceptual use of humanrights, as a methodology which requires a comprehensive analysis of the different interwoven historical, economic, cultural, and social factors that contribute to the problem. Such an analysis reveals that historically grown drug regulations have, in fact, contributed directly to industry control over pharmaceutical knowledge production. This type of finding should inform needed reforms of drug regulation. The paper ends with a recommendation for a comprehensive global response to the problem of pharmaceutical knowledge governance. PMID:23581664
The main purpose of this article is not only to publicize the gross humanrights violations against India's 250-300 million untouchables (now known as Dalits), but also to create international awareness and to seek international support for the plight of the Dalits in India. It is evident that the Afro-Americans suffered slavery for some centuries. The Jews suffered holocaust and
This article attempts to summarize the efforts that have been made during the 1970s in the search for an appropriate definition of international terrorism, its causes, and the measures to combat it. It evaluates these efforts in the context of the simultaneous interests in humanrights. It advances some propositions as to how international terrorism could be seen from the
In some parts of the world, police forces are known for the brutality with which they operate. In Kosovo, for instance, the Serbian police functioned as a kind of paramilitary organization, responsible for numerous atrocities. In countries such as Brazil and Mexico, the police are known for all kinds of gross humanrights violations: endemic brutality, torture, extrajudicial killings, and
The end of the Cold War clearly relieved the United States from a self-assigned responsibility of containing Communist Russia. The fact naturally gave the U.S. a certain leeway to seek new foreign policy goals along with continuously important security purposes. Especially since the Tiananmen Square incident in China, the humanrights situation of the world was increasingly discussed in the
This article surveys worldwide medical, ethical, and legal trends and initiatives related to the concept of pain management as a humanright. This concept recently gained momentum with the 2004 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Chapters-, International Association for the Study of Pain- and World Health Organization-sponsored \\
|The non-violent participation of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhist monks in resistance efforts to advocate for the welfare of Myanmar's people has played an important role in educating the world about humanrights violations in the country. Faced with international condemnation, Myanmar's junta released Aung San Suu Kyi…
Several countries are now experiencing serious difficulties in the field of race relations and humanrights. Economic decline has sharpened social tensions and helped to foster the emergence of extremist groups. Increases in racial harrassment and violence have been recorded and institutionalized and individual racism is seen by visible minority groups as the main and central issue in the struggle
This article starts from a rights-based premise: freedom of movement is an established humanright recognised in a range of international instruments. The right to leave one's own country is one aspect of this general concern with free movement. This article addresses the status of this right under international law, a right that is enshrined in several different international instruments
Since the recognition of the right to education by the Universal Declaration of HumanRights and a number of treaties and normative instruments, countries have included such a right in their Constitutions. In Spain, the article 27 of the current Constitution recognizes first of all the right of everyone to education as a basic right. Although the laws and their
|This paper examines the essential practices and conditions for fostering transformative learning using the Canadian HumanRights Foundation's "International HumanRights Training Program" as a case study. It suggests that the program's participants challenge their own values and assumptions about humanrights, their work and their society through…
This article focuses on the striking expansion of international and regional humanrights standards and jurisprudence that support women's humanright to abortion. It summarises pertinent developments within the United Nations, European, Inter-American and African humanrights systems regarding abortion, as they relate to women's rights to life and health, in situations of rape, incest or foetal impairment, and for
Modern environmental- and occupational-related morbidities and mortality are determined by the power relations inherent in our existing capitalist systems of production and consumption. These systems thwart human public health rights because of the priority to maximize profit for the systems' owners rather than to establish ecologically sound and socially just development for all. The international public health community must return to its primary prevention roots and take action to eliminate the potential for population morbidities that result from hazardous substance exposures in work and community environments. The 1988 Adelaide Recommendations on Healthy Public Policy provide us with guidelines that incorporate a humanrights approach and build on several decades of international public health declarations and charters. To succeed, public health must work with the labor movement. A humanrights approach to environmental public health can help us make a transition to sustainable modes of production and consumption. The environmental justice movement's strategy for an economic greening that sets as a priority "pathways out of poverty" can help to advance environmental public health rights. PMID:21733799
Describes an action research project in a church affiliated, community-based social service organisation in Aotearoa, New Zealand, in which feminist and poststructural discourse theory is drawn on to examine collaboratively the discourses available and impinging upon the work of staff developing a residential service for women and children. Managerial, psychology and humanrightsdiscourses dominated the possibilities for the work.
The right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being is being denied to vast numbers of people all over the world through increasing disparities in income and in wealth. In the name of economic development, a number of international and national policies have increased the grossly uneven distribution of income, with ever-growing numbers of people living in poverty as well as in increasing depths of poverty. Globalization, crippling levels of external debt, and the 'structural adjustment' policies of international agencies have expanded the numbers and the suffering of people living in poverty and have resulted in the neglect of government-funded social programs, of regulations protecting the environment, and of human development. Access to medical care, an essential element in the protection of health, is difficult for many, including the 44 million people in the United States who lack insurance coverage for the cost of medical care services. Working together for health and humanrights also requires promotion of the right to peace. The right to life and health is threatened not only by the existence and active deployment of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and anti-personnel landmines, but also other weapons. The twentieth century has been the bloodiest in human history, with an estimated 250 wars, more than 110 million people killed, countless people wounded and at the least 50 million refugees. Health workers must work together with people in our communities for the promotion of health and humanrights, which, in Sandwell and elsewhere, are inextricably intertwined. PMID:11130630
It has long been a basic tenet of the common law that there can be no property interest in human bodies or body parts. However, exceptions to the rule have been recognised from the mid-19th century and developed over time. In the early 21st century, there have been interesting developments in the common law of Australia and England, with Australian Supreme Court judges and the English Court of Appeal casting aside existing exceptions, and finding property rights in human body parts, including gametes, by relying instead on a "rational" and "logical" basis to identify property interests in human body parts. PMID:23600194
Neglect of women's reproductive health, perpetuated by law, is part of a larger, systematic discrimination against women. Laws obstruct women's access to reproductive health services. Laws protective of women's reproductive health are rarely or inadequately implemented. Moreover, few laws or policies facilitate women's reproductive health services. Epidemiological evidence and feminist legal methods provide insight into the law's neglect of women's reproductive health and expose long-held beliefs in the law's neutrality that harm women fundamentally. Empirical evidence can be used to evaluate how effectively laws are implemented and whether alternative legal approaches exist that would provide greater protection of individual rights. International humanrights treaties, including those discussed in this article, are being applied increasingly to expose how laws that obstruct women's access to reproductive health services violate their basic rights. PMID:8511808
We investigate whether countries with poor humanrights records oppose humanrights resolutions in the United Nations General\\u000a Assembly. An instrumental account of voting would suggest that these countries aim to weaken resolutions since they could\\u000a be future targets of these policies. We estimate determinants of voting using 13,000 individual voting decisions from 1980\\u000a to 2002. Our results from ordered
'Poverty itself is a violation of numerous basic humanrights.' (Mary Robinson, former UN High Commissioner on HumanRights) The idea that freedom from poverty is a basic humanright that gives rise to moral and legal obligations of governments and other actors has received increased international attention in recent years. Mary Robinson, the former UN High Commissioner for Human
This article reports on a study that examined how religious discourses of inclusion and exclusion—in Roman Catholic, evangelical Protestant, and Afro-Brazilian religious traditions—affected people’s rights to express same-sex sexual desires, behaviors, and identities in the socioeconomically marginalized urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using extended ethnographic observation of institutions and religious events over a period of 2 years, the authors identified how sexual rights were constructed within religious discourses and conducted ethnographic interviews with 45 religious leaders. In the low-income and violent urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, religious leaders and institutions play key roles in molding community inclusion and exclusion. A comparison of the 3 major religious denominations shows a diversity of discourses about same-sex sexual desires and their impacts on community formation.
Garcia, Jonathan; Laboy, Miguel Munoz; de Almeida, Vagner; Parker, Richard
BACKGROUND: Loss of fluency is a significant source of functional impairment in many individuals with aphasia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) administered to the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) has been shown to facilitate naming in persons with chronic left hemisphere stroke and non-fluent aphasia. However, changes in fluency in aphasic subjects receiving rTMS have not been adequately explored. AIMS: To determine whether rTMS improves fluency in individuals with chronic nonfluent aphasia, and to identify aspects of fluency that are modulated in persons who respond to rTMS. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Ten individuals with left hemisphere MCA strokes and mild to moderate non-fluent aphasia participated in the study. Before treatment, subjects were asked to describe the Cookie Theft picture in three separate sessions. During treatment, all subjects received 1200 pulses of 1 Hz rTMS daily in 10 sessions over two weeks at a site that had previously been shown to improve naming. Subjects repeated the Cookie Theft description two months after treatment. Five subjects initially received sham stimulation instead of real TMS. Two months after sham treatment, these individuals received real rTMS. Performance both at baseline and after stimulation was coded using Quantitative Production Analysis (Saffran, Berndt & Schwartz, 1989) and Correct Information Unit (Nicholas & Brookshire, 1993) analysis. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: Across all subjects (n=10), real rTMS treatment resulted in a significant increase in multiple measures of discourse productivity compared to baseline performance. There was no significant increase in measures of sentence productivity or grammatical accuracy. There was no significant increase from baseline in the sham condition (n=5) on any study measures. CONCLUSIONS: Stimulation of the right IFG in patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia facilitates discourse production. We posit that this effect may be attributable to improved lexical-semantic access. PMID:23280015
Medina, Jared; Norise, Catherine; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Coslett, H Branch; Turkeltaub, Peter E; Hamilton, Roy H
This paper investigates American public opinion supporting humanrights and willingness to engage in economic behavior consistent with such support. We look at three types of rights in particular: freedom of expression, freedom from torture, and the right to a guaranteed minimum standard of living. The current literature on humanrights largely ignores public opinion, and vice versa. Based on
This ERIC Digest outlines what is meant by the phrase humanrights and the origin of the concept. It also traces the delineation of the concept of humanrights from the 17th century antecedent of "natural rights" to its eventual incarnation as inherent political or personal rights, such as freedom of speech, press, assembly, and religion. The…
The 20th century could be characterized as the "Age of Rights." Never before has there been such progress and interest in humanrights standards. To ensure this progress, humanrights education (HRE) needs to look at the world history of the struggles for rights and against tyranny and injustice. The notions of HRE originated in the text of the…
|Considers how biotechnology affects human-rights issues; in particular, the need for reexamining concerns about reproductive technology, the rights of indigenous peoples, and the rights of future generations. Maintains that the new areas for human-rights discussions, such as germ-line manipulation and genetic screening, are unprecedented concerns…
The paper hightlights the common themes in the interwar journalistic writings discourse of the French Extreme-Right representatives, characters of great intellectual mobility, but dominated by ethnic-spiritual cliches and prejudices, assumed by them ina deliberate manner. A very complex and also controversial phenomenon, the ideological radicalism of right-wing is fought against with equal energy by the communist doctrine and by the
The paper hightlights the common themes in the interwar journalistic writings discourse of the French Extreme-Right representatives, characters of great intellectual mobility, but dominated by ethnic-spiritual cliches and prejudices, assumed by them ina deliberate manner. A very complex and also controversial phenomenon, the ideological radicalism of right-wing is fought against with equal energy by the communist doctrine and by the
|This article proposes a set of humanrights education standards for classroom teachers and, by implication, outcomes for teacher preparation programs. The discussion includes a brief description of humanrights education and concludes with recommendations for teacher preparation programs.|
Health inequities are clear evidence of violations of the right to health. Yet despite this common ground, action on the social determinants of health aiming to reduce health inequities is sometimes disconnected from implementation of humanrights-based approaches. This is explained in part by differing histories, disciplines, and epistemologies. The capacity of humanrights instruments to alter policies on social determinants can seem limited. An absolutist focus on individuals and processes can seem at odds with the attention to differences in population health outcomes central to the concern for health equity. However, developments in rights-based approaches have seen the terrain of humanrights increasingly address social determinants. Humanrights provide a firm legal basis for tackling the inequities in power and resources that the Commission on Social Determinants of Health identifies as fundamental to achieving health equity. Indicators and benchmarks developed for rights-based approaches to health systems can be developed further within health sectors and translated to other sectors and disciplines. The discourse and evidence base of social determinants can also contribute to implementing rights-based approaches, as its resultant policy momentum can provide essential levers to realize the right to health. Therefore, there is no clear-cut delineation between the humanrights and health equity movements, and both may constructively work together to realize their goals. Such constructive collaboration will not prove straightforward; it will, instead, require profound engagement and innovations in both theory and practice. Yet this effort represents an important opportunity for those who seek social justice in health. PMID:21178189
Human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) should not be reduced to a problem of supply and demand of organs for transplantation, a problem of organized crime and criminal justice, or a problem of voiceless, abandoned victims. Rather, HTOR is at once an egregious humanrights abuse and a form of human trafficking. As such, it demands a human-rights based approach in analysis and response to this problem, placing the victim at the center of initiatives to combat this phenomenon. Such an approach requires us to consider how various measures impact or disregard victims/potential victims of HTOR and gives us tools to better advocate their interests, rights and freedoms. PMID:23743564
The Women's International Conference in1995 in Beijing proposed the idea that women's rights be considered within the category of general humanrights. Our concepts about humanrights are rooted in the liberal traditions of a relatively homogeneous Western culture. In recent years, however, this culture has become increasingly heterogeneous. As a result of this greater diversity of beliefs and subcultures,
Background The fields of humanrights and public health ethics are each concerned with promoting health and elucidating norms for action. To date, however, little has been written about the contribution that these two justificatory frameworks can make together. This article explores how a combined approach may make a more comprehensive contribution to resolving normative health issues and to advancing a normative framework for global health action than either approach made alone. We explore this synergy by first providing overviews of public health ethics and of international humanrights law relevant to health and, second, by articulating complementarities between humanrights and public health ethics. Discussion We argue that public health ethics can contribute to humanrights by: (a) reinforcing the normative claims of international humanrights law, (b) strengthening advocacy for humanrights, and (c) bridging the divide between public health practitioners and humanrights advocates in certain contemporary health domains. We then discuss how humanrights can contribute to public health ethics by contributing to discourses on the determinants of health through: (a) definitions of the right to health and the notion of the indivisibility of rights, (b) emphasis on the duties of states to progressively realize the health of citizens, and (c) recognition of the protection of humanrights as itself a determinant of health. We also discuss the role that humanrights can play for the emergent field of public health ethics by refocusing attention on the health and illness on marginalized individuals and populations. Summary Actors within the fields of public health, ethics and humanrights can gain analytic tools by embracing the untapped potential for collaboration inherent in such a combined approach.
|Excerpts from 100 speeches, essays, and legal documents dating from classical times to the present illustrate the record of humanrights discussion over the centuries. The compilation was made in 1968 to mark the 20th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. The readings indicate that humanrights initially meant freedom from a…
Bureau of Public Affairs (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.
Basic humanrights are supposed to protect people from abuse and harm. They are the means whereby we protect our humanity. One would expect, therefore, that basic humanrights would be valid and sacred in any context, including industrial relations. However, the complexity of the employee–employer relationship obscures this issue, and it is not clear whether such rights can be
words Document: 9831 words Abstract We contest the unconditional claim that political democracy decreases humanrights abuses arguing that democracy only increases humanrights abuses at low levels of past repression. Employing first-order Markov ordered probit models - appropriate for the study of qualitative time series - of global humanrights abuses covering the period 1976-2004 across multiple measures of
This article explores various strategies which could be used to hold the tobacco industry accountable for humanrights violations precipitated by its conduct. First, a brief overview of the international humanrights regime and the tobacco related jurisprudence issued by humanrights treaty bodies is provided. The article then explains how tobacco control advocates could promote more systematic consideration of
This article discusses the appeal of humanrights as a normative basis for stakeholder claims in the context of international business. This appeal to humanrights has proven to be an effective way to legitimize (in the sociological sense) the claims of stakeholders due to their proclaimed universal validity and the media interest in stories about humanright violations. A
Maintains that the high poverty levels in the United States implies that the goals of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR) have not yet transformed the reality of U.S. citizens. Describes the national campaign called "Economic HumanRights: The Time Has Come!" that combats the violations of basic humanrights like poverty. (CMK)
|Conference participants examined the attitudes toward humanrights which led to the drafting of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights in 1948, as compared to today's perceptions of the meaning of humanrights. Using Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms" as a point of departure--freedom of speech and expression, freedom of every person to…
Research indicates that few state departments of education have actually mandated humanrights education in their schools. Clearly, individual teachers will need to take responsibility for the integration of peace education and humanrights education. By integrating humanrights education and peace education into the daily fabric of the school…
The legitimacy and role of reservations to international humanrights treaties is a heavily contested issue. From one perspective, reservations, understandings, and declarations (RUDs) are a legitimate means to account for diversity and are used predominantly by those countries that take humanrights seriously. From an alternative perspective, RUDs are regrettable at best and detrimental to the international humanrights
|International revulsion at the violation of humanrights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual humanrights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish humanrights for all, both in periods of war…
This article looks at a disagreement that emerged at an international humanrights conference between health professionals and humanrights activists. The disagreement centred on the scope of the responsibilities of health professionals in relation to potential systemic humanrights violations. In this article, the nature of the disagreement that emerged at the conference is explored. It is first situated
|This article presents a descriptive assessment of humanrights education within schools of social work and law. A review of course titles and descriptions within MSW programs and law programs was conducted for identification of humanrights content. The results suggest a dearth of humanrights content in social work curricula and a great…
Background: The assessment and rehabilitation of acquired neurogenic communication disorders rarely involves a systematic analysis of gesture use. The right cerebral hemisphere has been identified as a possible locus of control for gesture. McNeill's (McNeill & Duncan, 2000) growth point theory posits a structure for the organisation of processes from both cerebral hemispheres which serves to support the integration of
Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as “the problem”, and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Humanrights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally.
Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J.
This article examines several factors that influence the production of requests for behavior. Using a role-play methodology, we elicited request productions from well-recovered patients with right-hemisphere brain damage (RHD) and from non brain-damaged control participants. The stimulus items represented variation both on interpersonal factors based on characteristics of the people in the interaction and on situational factors based on what
This paper reports on an intensive day-long symposium on Proposition 9 (also called the Victims' Bill of Rights Act, or Marsy's Law) held inside San Quentin, a maximum security prison for men in Northern California. This new law essentially ends parole for inmates serving terms of 25-years-to-life by extending the wait time between a parole denial and a new hearing
Great progress has been made in the international protection of humanrights since 10 December 1948 (when the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of HumanRights). Amidst the doom and gloom of the media's reporting of current affairs, it is easy to overlook this progress. This article provides a definition of 'humanrights' and examines early humanrights campaigns. It then considers the areas of progress: humanrights are now part of the international political vocabulary, there is a recognition that respect for humanrights can assist a country's economic and social development, there has been a growth of humanrights treaties and techniques and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) see protecting humanrights as a major activity. State sovereignty has been eroded as national governments are being held accountable to the international community for their humanrights policies. A new challenge is to ensure respect for humanrights by non-state entities, such as transnational corporations. The growing culture of international protection of humanrights is here to stay. This is not a reason for complacency, but it is a sign of hope. PMID:12201086
This document contains major provisions of the 1987 HumanRights Code of Manitoba, Canada. The Code describes "discrimination" as differential treatment based on membership in a group or on ancestry (including race), national origin, ethnic origin, religion, age, sex (including pregnancy), gender-determined characteristics or circumstances, sexual orientation, marital or family status, source of income, political belief, or physical or mental disability. "Discrimination" is also defined as the failure to reasonably accommodate special needs based upon the above characteristics. Affirmative action programs are deemed nondiscriminatory if the object is to ameliorate the conditions of disadvantaged individuals or groups. The Code allows the right to discriminate in cases where bona fide and reasonable cause exists, provides an exception for individuals who have not reached the age of majority if a denial to provide services is required by law, and prohibits discrimination in employment unless the discrimination is based upon bona fide and reasonable requirements or qualifications for the employment. Specific directions are included for the aspects of employment which are to be free of discrimination, for employment advertising, for preemployment inquiries, for employment agencies, for labor organizations, and in cases of employee benefits. Exceptions are made for employing a person to provide personal services in a private residence and for limiting the employment of a person under the age of majority in accordance with the law. Specific provisions are made to prevent a reduction of wages, termination of employment, or changes in employment to comply with this section of the law. Discrimination is expressly forbidden in contracts, life insurance, rental or premises (with an exception for private residences), the purchase of real property, and advertising. Harassment of individuals responsible for an activity to which this Code applies is forbidden as are reprisals against individuals who have contributed to a complaint or any other proceeding covered by the Code. Compliance with the Code is to be in the purview of a HumanRights Commission. PMID:12289242
|The end of the Cold War ushered in a paradigmatic shift in international development discourse whereby a humanrights-based approach to development was generated. This shift has stimulated the pegging of international development policy to the objectives of the humanrights regime. However, in attempting to unify development and humanrights…
In recent years, rights-based approaches to health are changing the perspective and work of actors in the development sector. This article describes an NGO program that translates theory into practice by integrating humanrights education and humanrights principles into primary school health programs in Jakarta, Indonesia. Uplift International, an NGO affiliated with the University of Washington School of Law, aims to improve the rights of urban, poor children through teacher and parent training, uniquely designed for the madrasah (Islamic religious day schools) community. The school program links child rights and child health through humanrights education and humanrights-based methodologies. The Uplift International program is in its fourth year and plans to expand in scope. Positive outcomes include significant notice by Indonesian Government Ministries. Moreover, there is support from the new Indonesian Special Envoy to the UN for Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). PMID:22191324
Terrorism systematically violates humanrights and disrupts basic political processes common to liberal democracies. Combating terrorism is thus necessary in order to protect these fundamental rights and maintain the well functioning of tolerant polities. However, state initiatives put in place to cope with terrorism may also damage humanrights, even when these measures are formulated by elected accountable authorities and
|This article argues that faith-based schools are a necessary feature of democratic and pluralistic societies and a legitimate expression of humanrights as constituted in the European Convention in HumanRights (2000). It further argues that if the rights of parents to have a real choice for faith-based schools (regardless of ability to pay) are…
The US State Department released its annual Country Reports on HumanRights Practices to the US Congress on February 25. Composed from evidence and data gathered by embassy staff, government officials, military sources, human-rights monitors, journalists, and others, the reports are designed to serve as a tool for shaping policy, conducting diplomacy, and determining international resource allocations. Reports are offered for nearly every country, grouped by region. Each report contains a brief overview of the country's political and economic systems and a detailed review of its record on respecting "internationally recognized individual, civil, political, and worker rights, as set forth in the Universal Declaration of HumanRights." Appendixes include a list of International HumanRights Conventions, the 54th UNHRC (UN Commission on HumanRights) Voting Record, and the text of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights.
The US State Department released its annual Country Reports on HumanRights Practices to the US Congress on February 26. Composed from evidence and data gathered by embassy staff, government officials, military sources, human-rights monitors, journalists, and others, the reports are designed to serve as a resource for shaping policy, conducting diplomacy, and determining international resource allocations. Reports are offered for nearly every country, grouped by region. Each report contains a brief overview of the country's political and economic systems and a detailed review of its record on respecting "internationally recognized individual, civil, political, and worker rights, as set forth in the Universal Declaration of HumanRights." Appendixes include a list of International HumanRights Conventions, the 54th UNHRC (UN Commission on HumanRights) Voting Record, and the text of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights.
|Using an event history framework we analyze the adoption rate of national humanrights institutions. Neo-realist perspective predicts adoption rates to be positively influenced by favorable national profiles that lower the costs and make it more reasonable to establish these institutions. From a world polity perspective adoption rates will be…
|Effective teachers differentiate their instruction to ensure that content is delivered to students in a way that is accessible and engaging. The differentiation of instruction in core classes such as math and English is becoming commonplace in education faculties across the United States. But what does "differentiated" humanrights education look…
Humanrights and HIV-testing is a complex issue, especially where it pertains to the military. In this article an attempt is made to answer the question of whose rights are paramount—the right of the individual to serve in the military, to be promoted, and to be deployed versus the state's obligation to ensure that the armed forces are operationally effective
Existing humanrights doctrine and enforcement structures often fail to protect human welfare. The new agora project (Jenlink\\u000a and Banathy 2002) offers a structure to democratically re-build humanrights. To examine the role of new agoras in re-crafting old institutions,\\u000a I begin by identifying the context of humanrights: globalization, diverse identities, and democracy. After analyzing the\\u000a impact of diversity
Injured workers, particularly those with more severe injuries, have long experienced workers' compensation systems as stressful and demeaning, have found it difficult to obtain benefits, and, when able to obtain benefits, have found them inadequate. Moreover, the last two decades have seen a substantial erosion of the protections offered by workers' compensation. State after state has erected additional barriers to benefit receipt, making the workers' compensation experience even more difficult and degrading. These changes have been facilitated by a framing of the political debate focused on the free market paradigm, employer costs, and worker fraud and malingering. The articles in this special issue propose an alternate framework and analysis, a humanrights approach, that values the dignity and economic security of injured workers and their families. PMID:22570018
This article reports on a study that examined how religious discourses of inclusion and exclusion—in Roman Catholic, evangelical\\u000a Protestant, and Afro-Brazilian religious traditions—affected people’s rights to express same-sex sexual desires, behaviors,\\u000a and identities in the socioeconomically marginalized urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using extended ethnographic\\u000a observation of institutions and religious events over a period of 2 years, the
Jonathan García; Miguel Muñoz Laboy; Vagner de Almeida; Richard Parker
Three studies were carried out to examine attitudes and behavior toward humanrights. ‘Universal’ humanrights implies that there should be cross-situational consistency in attitudes and behavior toward humanrights. An alternative interpretation is that attitudes and behavior toward humanrights may shift across contexts, as a function of ideology. We reasoned that Canadian subjects would be more critical of
The African Studies Center site at the University of Pennsylvania has posted this 1997 report on the political and social condition of Ethiopia. It is an announcement released by HumanRights Watch (HRW)/Africa in December 1997, which criticizes "the failure of the Ethiopian government to live up to its professed commitment to humanrights, and calling on the US in particular to put pressure for the government to live up to its humanrights obligations."
Background This paper broadly discusses the role of the State of Bangladesh in the context of the health system and humanrights. The interrelation between humanrights, health and development are well documented. The recognition of health as a fundamental right by WHO and subsequent approval of health as an instrument of welfare by the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR) and the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights (ICSECR) further enhances the idea. Moreover, humanrights are also recognized as an expedient of human development. The state is entrusted to realize the rights enunciated in the ICSECR. Discussion In exploring the relationship of the humanrights and health situation in Bangladesh, it is argued, in this paper, that the constitution and major policy documents of the Bangladesh government have recognized the health rights and development. Bangladesh has ratified most of the international treaties and covenants including ICCPR, ICESCR; and a signatory of international declarations including Alma-Ata, ICPD, Beijing declarations, and Millennium Development Goals. However the implementation of government policies and plans in the development of health institutions, human resources, accessibility and availability, resource distribution, rural-urban disparity, the male-female gap has put the health system in a dismal state. Neither the right to health nor the right to development has been established in the development of health system or in providing health care. Summary The development and service pattern of the health system have negative correlation with humanrights and contributed to the underdevelopment of Bangladesh. The government should take comprehensive approach in prioritizing the health rights of the citizens and progressive realization of these rights.
This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional humanrights treaties, non-binding or so-called soft law instruments from international organisations and the jurisprudence of international humanrights bodies. It explores the use of economic, social and cultural rights mechanisms, and those within civil and political rights, as they engage the right to health of prisoners, and identifies the minimum legal obligations of governments in order to remain compliant with humanrights norms as defined within the international case law. In addressing these issues, this article adopts a holistic approach to the definition of the highest attainable standard of health. This includes a consideration of adequate standards of general medical care, including preventative health and mental health services. It also examines the question of environmental health, and those poor conditions of detention that may exacerbate health decline, disease transmission, mental illness or death. The paper examines the approach to prison health of the United Nations humanrights system and its various monitoring bodies, as well as the regional humanrights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Based upon this analysis, the paper draws conclusions on the current fulfilment of the right to health of prisoners on an international scale, and proposes expanded mechanisms under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment to monitor and promote the health rights of prisoners at the international and domestic levels. PMID:18382849
Relatively little empirical research on the protection of humanrights considers the significance of legal rules and institutions. This article examines the effects of legal institutions on the general protection of political rights and on the protection of one discrete right—freedom from unreasonable search and seizure. A cross-sectional analysis reveals that legal institutions, and in particular judicial independence, are significant
As it has grappled with issues of population policy, the international community has emphasized that women's reproductive rights are humanrights. Scholars have also acknowledged that the right to reproductive health care exists within the scope of international humanrights treaties and conventions and that gender equality, nondiscrimination, and freedom from government interference in marriage and family life are also guaranteed. Further protections extend to counseling and health information and referral. The Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development continues this trend by emphasizing the importance of humanrights for attaining population and development objectives, calling on governments to focus their efforts on improving the quality of life for individuals, and endorsing the notion that reproductive rights are universal humanrights. Reproductive health care options are also influenced by sovereign laws that restrict availability of contraception, sterilization, or abortion. However, universal rights and unrestricted access must be complemented by other factors controlled by domestic laws to guarantee reproductive choice. Such laws cover issues like marriage age, divorce, marital property, child support, maternity benefits, day care, sex discrimination, eligibility for insurance, confidentiality, spousal consent, rape, and sexual abuse. Countries must modify restrictive national laws and promote laws protecting women's rights. PMID:12320714
Important scientific, ethical and sociological debates are emerging over the trans-humanist goal to achieve therapeutic treatments\\u000a to ‘cure’ the debilitation of age-related illness and extend the healthy life span of individuals through “interventive biogerontological\\u000a research”. The scientific and moral discourses surrounding this contentious scientific field are mapped out, followed by a\\u000a normative argument favouring ‘strong’ deliberative democratic control of human
|Research on the humanrights movement emphasizes direct changes in nation-states, focusing on the efficacy of treaties and the role of advocacy in mitigating immediate violations. However, more than 140 universities in 59 countries established academic chairs, research centers, and programs for humanrights from 1968-2000, a development that…
Humanrights create a protective zone around persons and allow them the opportunity to further their valued personal projects without interference from others. This article considers the relationship between humanrights and the general ethical principles and standards contained in the American Psychological Association's (APA's) code of ethics as applied to the forensic domain. First, it analyzes the concept of
This study furthers the inquiry into the relationship between humanrights and U.S. bilateral foreign aid. We build the most comprehensive data set to date, extending the time period (1976-1995) and enlarging the number of countries under review (140). Rhetoric aside, humanrights considera- tions did play a role in determining whether or not a state received military aid during
|According to the United Nations, education is a right to which all human beings are entitled. Since 2000, the UN has been promoting the Millennium Development Goal to achieve free universal primary education for all, regardless of gender, by 2015. If the UN is correct to suggest that education is both a humanright in itself and an indispensable…
After a discussion of the United Kingdom's responsibilities under the European Convention of HumanRights and the political background to the re?emergence in 1968–69 of terrorism and the stationing of British troops in the Province, the article analyses those humanrights issues which derive from the way the fight against terrorism has been conducted over the past 20 years. The
|This lesson plan on humanrights uses the Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) methodology used in California to teach academic content to intermediate, threshold level limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. It sets forth three educational goals for students to reach; asks students to examine definitions of humanrights…
On March 15, 2006, the U.N. General Assembly passed a resolution replacing the Commission on HumanRights with a new HumanRights Council (the Council). The U.N. Secretariat and some governments, including the United States, view the establishment of the ...
On March 15, 2006, the U.N. General Assembly passed a resolution replacing the Commission on HumanRights with a new HumanRights Council (the Council). The U.N. Secretariat and some governments, including the United States, view the establishment of the ...
On March 15, 2006, the U.N. General Assembly passed a resolution replacing the Commission on HumanRights with a new HumanRights Council (the Council). The U.N. Secretariat and some governments, including the United States, view the establishment of the ...
What are the priorities when it comes to health and humanrights? This article is subtended by the following principle, i.e. issues of health and humanrights must be considered from different angles in industrial countries and developing countries. Indeed, the subjects that preoccupy the countries of 'the North,' such as the ethics of mandatory screening, assisted insemination, and euthanasia,
Reports on a study of the structure of attitudes toward humanrights among 619 college-age students and adults. Discusses attitudes related to nationalism, patriotism, internationalism, belief in world government, and support for civil liberties. Discusses findings in light of existing conceptualizations regarding humanrights. (CFR)
To investigate the structure of attitudes toward humanrights, the authors developed the HumanRights Questionnaire (HRQ) and administered it to two North American samples; the first sample included 365 college students, and the second included 212 college students and 42 adults. Exploratory factor analysis was performed on the data from the first sample, and four factors were extracted and
Jeannette Diaz-Veizades; Keith F. Widaman; Todd D. Little; Katherine W. Gibbs
The UN Secretary General has properly stressed the importance of humanrights in his 1999 Annual Report. At the outset it is important to recall that globalization is more than an economic process. It is a multifaceted process made up of economic, social, ecological, and military elements all undergirded by the global principles of science and technology. Humanrights and
We will begin our study with the consideration of the philosophical and historical foundation of the concept in western liberal democracies and its applicability across cultures. We will evaluate regional perspectives on humanrights to determine how divergent they are and analyze what these disparate views reflect about the universality of humanrights. Taking a law and society approach we
|This article discusses my approach to teaching a course on Islam and humanrights. I begin by examining the attention Islam has received in the media and classroom. Then, I discuss how I structure lectures on Islam and humanrights, the various readings associated with the lectures, as well as common themes discussed in class that include but are…
Scholars have identified a number of societal features that contribute to the support of humanrights. Controlling for the most prominent of these factors, we examine the degree to which judicial independence (JI) exerts an autonomous positive effect on humanrights. We use a cross-sectional design, drawing on data for the 27 European Union members and its four prospective members,
This article briefly profiles four women physicians working for health and humanrights around the world. Dr. Ruchama Marton, an Israeli psychiatrist and activist for peace in the Middle East, is a founder of Physicians for HumanRights/Israel. Dr. Jane Green Schaller is a US pediatrician whose 1985 trip to South Africa initiated her humanrights involvement, which includes the founding of Physicians for HumanRights. Dr. Judith van Heerden, a primary care physician in South Africa, has worked for reform of prison health care, to establish hospice care, and, most recently, for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education for medical students. Dr. Ma Thida, the only physician not interviewed for this article, is currently held in a Burmese prison because of her work on behalf of the National League for Democracy. The profiles suggest the breadth of humanrights work worldwide and are a testament to what physicians can do. PMID:9354051
Humanrights create a protective zone around persons and allow them the opportunity to further their valued personal projects without interference from others. This article considers the relationship between humanrights and the general ethical principles and standards contained in the American Psychological Association's (APA's) code of ethics as applied to the forensic domain. First, it analyzes the concept of humanrights, their structure, and their justification. Second, it briefly describes the APA's most recent code of ethics and the principles and standards that compose it. Third, it concludes by explicitly examining the relationship between the present humanrights model and the APA's code, demonstrating how it is able to provide an additional ethical resource for forensic practitioners in their clinical work and so deepen their ethical sensibilities and decision making. Finally, the article presents a case study and discusses the humanrights issues confronting practitioners inherent in such situations. PMID:18268080
The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and humanrights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community…
|The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and humanrights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community…
Produced by HumanRights Internet (HRI), this six volume report provides a country-by-country overview of humanrights issues with links to relevant UN documents. The first volume includes an introduction, an appendix of UN bodies and mechanisms, a discussion of methodological and technical issues, and notes on major developments in the United Nations humanrights system during 1997. The remaining volumes contain individual country reports, grouped by region. Each report contains links to treaties and reports to treaty bodies on a number of key topics. These include: Land and People; Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Civil and Political Rights; Discrimination against Women; and Rights of the Child. Additional resources at the site include an internal search engine.
The present article investigates the linkages between conserving cultural heritage, maintaining cultural diversity and enforcing humanrights. While there seems to be a growing awareness of these linkages in international heritage and humanrights circles, they remain poorly understood by many heritage practitioners who see their conservation work merely as a technical matter. The article argues that it is essential
This paper analyses transformations within the Israeli radical right in the era of the “Oslo war”: Palestinian terror attacks which began as a response to the Oslo agreements. Those terror activities have reshaped the Israeli political right wing, which transferred itself to what we call the “new” Israeli right. Politically and socially the “new right” became similar to right-wing movements
Physicians for HumanRights (PHR) conducted a study in early 1998 to assess the health and humanrights conditions of Afghan women and girls living under the Taliban regime in Kabul. This paper highlights the concerns and experiences of adolescent girls in Kabul, includes a brief overview of the political situation in Afghanistan and Taliban policies toward women and girls, and presents findings from interviews with adolescent girls and women with adolescent daughters. It concludes with a discussion of current international standards for the protection of women's and girls' rights and the crucial role of health professionals in helping defend these rights. PMID:10441924
Human beings have always desired to claim their rights, even in times when only a small proportion of the population was considered fully human and the rest were slaves, servants, uncivilized, colonized, underdeveloped, or, in the recent euphemism, "developing". The French Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 marked the 1st time in history that rights for all people were publicly affirmed. The rights in question were essentially constitutional and political, but the idea of claiming rights had been born. In 1948, the international community approved the Universal Declaration of HumanRights which encompassed all types of rights. Other international acts on civil and political rights and the rights of women and children have complemented and interpreted the 1948 document. The Universal Declaration of HumanRights affirmed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that all persons have a right to satisfaction of economic, social, and cultural needs. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women referred in its preamble to the particular disadvantages of women living in poverty and affirmed the right of all women to education in health and family welfare, including family planning, as well as to medical and family planning services. Women were affirmed to have the same rights as men to decide freely and in an informed manner on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education, and means to exercise these rights. The United Nations has demonstrated its interest in Population Commission in 1946 and of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, and through decennial worldwide population conferences in 1954, 1965, 1974, and 1984. UN demographic goals include reduced fertility on a worldwide basis, a reduced proportion of women not using reliable contraception, a substantial reduction of early marriage and adolescent pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal mortality, a life expectancy of at least 62 years in all countries, and a better geographic distribution of population within national territories permitting rational use of resources. Governments which subscribed to the declaration and conventions on humanrights should respect their promises. Population growth which outpaces increases in production will make it increasingly difficult to satisfy the rights and needs of all population sectors. A government confronted with this problem is obliged to explore every possible means of increasing production but must also seek to control population growth. Contraception is a legitimate means of achieving this end. PMID:12316572
The article examines the convergences and contrasts between social epidemiology, social medicine, and humanrights approaches toward advancing global health and health equity. The first section describes the goals and work of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The second section discusses the role of humanrights in the Commission’s work. The third section evaluates, from the perspective of social epidemiology, two rights-based approaches to advancing health and health equity as compared to a view that focuses more broadly on social justice. The concluding section identifies four areas where social epidemiologists, practitioners of social medicine, and health and humanrights advocates can and must work together in order to make progress on health and health equity.
Venkatapuram, Sridhar; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael
The discussion of humanrights in China is based on the White Paper issued by the Information Office under the State Council on November 1, 1991. China is the most populous country in the world at 1.14 billion in 1990. Annual increases of 17 million are expected even with family planning (FP). The area of cultivated land/capita has dropped to 1.3 mu (16.5% of an acre)/capita, or 25% of the world average. Fresh water resources have also dropped similarly. The amount of grain.person is 22% of that in the US. 25% of additional income to the national income is consumed by newborns annually. Savings have been cut and reinvestment in economic development has been slowed. There are pressures on all social and economic systems. There is acknowledged success in FP. The birth rate has dropped to 21.06.1000 in 1990, the rate of natural increase to 14.39%/1000, and the fertility rate to 2.31. These figures are lower than the averages for other developing countries. The FP policy is to promote deferred marriage and childbearing, fewer but healthier births, and 1 child/couple. Rural families who are having difficulties may after an interval of several years have a 2nd child. Minority nationalities are being encouraged to adopt FP voluntarily. Han requirements are different. The policy has been understood and supported by the masses and has contributed to the drop in 3rd and higher parity births to 19.32% in 1989 from 62.21% in 1970. The government role is one of guidance and persuasion within the law, and cannot be accomplished by administrative decrees alone. The government has given priority to enlightening the masses through publicity and education that birth control has a direct impact on the nation's prosperity and people's happy family life. The China FP Association has set up 600,000 grass roots branches with 32 million members to assist in aiding the masses in self-education, self-management, and self-service. Ideological education has been combined with helping the masses solve practical problems. FP identifies contraception as protection of maternal and child health. 75% of couples of childbearing age practice contraception. Coercive abortions are resolutely opposed. Induced abortion in cases of contraceptive failure are voluntary and safe. The abortion ratio is comparable to world rates, but lower rates are targeted. Policy objectives are to control population growth and improve the quality of human resources. Maternal and child health care is provided. Law forbids infanticide. Policy conforms to item 9 of the UN Mexico City Declaration on Population and Development, 1984, and the UN World Population Plan of Action. PMID:12317280
Bonhoeffer gave a theocentric basis for humanrights, as God is the ground of ethics. In our earthly world, the "ultimate" must be prepared by what is "penultimate." That includes humanity's natural life and bodily wholeness, leading to human duties crafted by human reason. Nowadays, biblical texts should not be used as partisan weapons attacking government provision of health care, since all Scripture (even the Law) is seen as a Christ-centered focus on human redemption. Thus, Bonhoeffer implies a right to universal health care, but leaves entirely open which practical structures may best provide it. PMID:23737039
Human reproductive technologies and reproductive rights have been controversial issues for two decades. As cloning techniques develop, it appears that they will only increase their role as one of society’s most controversial subjects. In this annotated bibliography, Rupp-Serrano presents articles and books written from 1990 through 1997 that address reproductive rights and technologies, as well as relevant Web sites. Her
|Throughout history individual and collective narratives have been used in struggles for justice. We draw on Sen's theory of justice to examine the potential of narratives in teaching and researching for social justice. Humanrights are presented as powerful ethical claims that can be critically examined by learners to consider their rights and…
Holistic integration of faces has been widely studied. More recently, investigations have explored whether similar processing is used for human bodies. Here we show that holistic processing, as measured by the composite task, does occur for bodies but is stronger for left and right halves than for top and bottom halves. We also found composite effects for left–right halves of
Between 1850 and 1920 most U.S. states passed laws that expanded the rights of married women to own and control their separate property and to own their market earnings. We examine the effects of these legal changes on investment by families in the human capital of girls and young women. Standard approaches to the economics of property rights imply that,
|Explains that the Internet is a good source of information and misinformation about the rights that Canadians do and do not enjoy. Provides websites that address humanrights issues, such as government and non-governmental organizations, and information for locating newsgroups and listservs. (CMK)|
Throughout history individual and collective narratives have been used in struggles for justice. We draw on Sen's theory of justice to examine the potential of narratives in teaching and researching for social justice. Humanrights are presented as powerful ethical claims that can be critically examined by learners to consider their rights and…
|The HumanRights Act 1998 is the most significant British statute to have been passed in the last decade. It has already been the catalyst for a series of high profile cases, ranging from the privacy rights of celebrities ("Douglas v Hello!"  QB 967) to the Home Secretary's sentencing powers in murder cases ("R (Anderson) v Secretary of…
This article examines the introduction of Sharia'h law in northern Nigeria, both in regard to the fundamental legal provisions of the Nigeria constitution and also as to the international rights conventions to which Nigeria is a signatory. The relationship between the new Sharia'h laws enacted in all 19 northern Nigerian states and the humanrights provisions in the 1999 Constitution
Governments have failed to tackle malnutrition successfully. Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) are supposed to behave differently. Few NGOs, however, have been able to affect the humanrights violations behind the malnutrition suffered by millions of losers under globalization and NGOs should be working to reverse this process. Nevertheless, there is now recognition of the political roots of violations of the right
Since the death of Mao Zedong and the subsequent implementation of an ‘open door’ economic policy, foreign criticism of China's humanrights record has greatly increased. China maintains that it possesses a distinct understanding of rights deriving from its own history and national conditions. In particular, China cites the doctrine of Marxism, its state ideology since 1949, as the primary
Some feminists have seen sex role theory as limited, even dangerous; others see it as useful mid-range theory. This article sheds light on this debate through an examination of the discourse of the men's liberation movement of the 1970s. Men's liberation leaders grappled with the paradox of simultaneously acknowledging men's institutional privileges and the costs of masculinity to men. The
based approaches are consistent with the values of those whom such an approach is designed to help. The values underlying rights-based approaches and those with experience of poverty are identified and then compared in three ways: in general; in relation to the specific issue of welfare conditionality; and as prescriptions for action. The comparative analysis is facilitated by linking the
The right to a standard of living adequate for health and well?being is being denied to vast numbers of people all over the world through increasing disparities in income and in wealth. In the name of economic development, a number of international and national policies have increased the grossly uneven distribution of income, with ever?growing numbers of people living in
In Asia, the lesbian and gay rights movements are clearly dominated by activists, who tend to think in terms of a binary opposition (homo- vs hetero-) and clear-cut categories. Based on "Western patterns," the approach is practical, the arguments based on minority rights. "Coming out" is often perceived as a "white model" bringing more problems than real freedom. On the contrary, "Asian values" put the emphasis on family and social harmony, often in contradiction to what is pictured as "lesbian and gay rights." Homophobia follows very subtle ways in Asian countries. Asian gays have to negotiate their freedom, lifestyle and identities in an atmosphere of heterosexism, and not the endemic violent homophobia prevalent in many western countries. In Asia, one's identity relates to one's position in the group and sexuality plays a relatively insignificant role in its cultural construction. That Asian gays often marry and have children shows the elasticity their sexual identity encompasses. Fluidity of sexuality does not really match the Western approach in terms of essentialist categories that have a right to exist. Most Asian societies can be thought of as "tolerant" as long as homosexuality remains invisible. Procreative sexuality can be seen as a social duty, and heterosexual marriage is often not considered incompatible with a "homosexual life." The development of the Internet has even facilitated the encounters while allowing secrecy. Unfortunately, the traditional figures of transgender and transvestites have often been separated from the gay liberation movement. PMID:15814505
Psychiatry has the potential to affect fundamental individual rights and liberties in a way which is different from other areas of medicine. This is so because of (i) its focus on behaviour as well as on pathology; and (ii) the powers granted to medical profes- sionals which can lead to deprivation of liberty for certain incompetent individuals. - This short
Humanrights and health care under apartheid in South Africa were studied. Humanrights violations, such as detention without charge or trial, assault and torture in police custody, and restriction orders, have had devastating effects on the health of persons experiencing them. These violations have occurred in the context of a deliberate policy of discriminatory health care favoring the white minority over the black majority. South Africa's medical societies have had mixed responses to the health problems raised by humanrights violations and inequities in the health care system. The amelioration of health care for all and prevention of humanrights violations depend on ending apartheid and discrimination and greater government attention to these problems. PMID:2214078
Nightingale, E O; Hannibal, K; Geiger, H J; Hartmann, L; Lawrence, R; Spurlock, J
It is unnecessary and counterproductive to sacrifice basic humanrights to re- spond to bioterrorism. Constructive public health legislation, which must be federal, cannot be carefully drafted under panic conditions. When it is, like the \\
|Presents a general discussion of migration from the perspective of humanrights. Focuses on refugees; women, children, and the aged; freedom to migrate; internal migration; and refugees in Canada. (KH)|
The new, so?called ‘ethical’ foreign policy of the UK Government places the promotion of humanrights at its heart, and emphasizes multilateral and especially European action as a key strategy for its implementation. The recent Asia?Europe Meeting in London (ASEM?2) was dominated by consideration of the East Asian financial crisis, and humanrights issues appear to have been marginalized. This
Recent decades have seen the emergence of two new fields of inquiry into ethical issues in medicine. These are the fields of bioethics and of health and humanrights. In this critical review of these fields, the author argues that bioethics, partly because it has been construed so broadly, suffers from quality control problems. The author also argues that the field of health and humanrights is superfluous because it does nothing that cannot be done by either bioethics of the law.
..AJDS-related humanrights activism, sharing the ori- entation of the mainstream humanrights movement, has focused on visible and purposeful governmental acts that jeop- ardize individual privacy, liberty, and protection against dis- crimination. Humanrights obligations stemming from the right to health care, to social assistance, or from the neces- sity to improve the enjoyment of humanrights through in-
This article explores the relevance of international humanrights law in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic at national and international levels. Public health advocates can use arguments based on this body of law to promote responses to HIV/AIDS that reflect sound public health principles and documented best practice. Development assistance is increasingly linked to rights-based approaches, such as participatory processes, and strategic alliances between health professionals, organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS, and affected communities. Legal and humanrights advocacy strategies are increasingly productive and necessary.
Background There has been an increased interest in the role of a humanrights framework to mobilize resources for health. Discussion This paper argues that the humanrights framework does provide us with an appropriate understanding of what values should guide a nation's health policy, and a potentially powerful means of moving the health agenda forward. It also, however, argues that appeals to humanrights may not necessarily be effective at mobilizing resources for specific health problems one might want to do something about. Specifically, it is not possible to argue that a particular allocation of scarce health care resources should be changed to a different allocation, benefiting other groups. Lack of access to health care services by some people only shows that something has to be done, but not what should be done. Summary The somewhat weak claim identified above together with the obligation to realize progressively a right to health can be used to mobilize resources for health.
For humanitarian health-care practitioners bearing witness to violations of human dignity has become synonymous with denunciations, humanrights advocacy, or lobbying for political change. A strict reliance on legal interpretations of humanitarianism and humanrights is inadequate for fully understanding the problems inherent in political change. With examples from the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the USA, the Rwandan genocide, and physician-led political activism in Nepal, we describe three cases in which health practitioners bearing witness to humanitarian and human-rights issues have had imperfect outcomes. However these acts of bearing witness have been central to the promotion of humanitarianism and humanrights, to the pursuit of justice that they have inevitably and implicitly endorsed, and thus to the politics that have or might yet address these issues. Despite the imperfections, bearing witness, having first-hand knowledge of humanitarian and human-rights principles and their limitations, and systematically collecting evidence of abuse, can be instrumental in tackling the forces that constrain the realisation of human health and dignity. PMID:17720021
Although the humanrights movement and the sphere of research ethics have overlapping principles and goals, there has been little attempt to incorporate external political and humanrights contexts into research ethics codes or ethics reviews. Every element of a research ethics review--the balance of risks and benefits, the assurance of rights for individual participants, and the fair selection of research populations--can be affected by the political and humanrights background in which a study is done. Research that at first seems to be low in risk may become high in risk if implemented in a country where the government might breach the confidentiality of study results or where results might be used to deport a refugee group. Researchers should determine whether research could or should be done by consulting humanrights organisations and, when possible, a trusted colleague, to learn the background political context and humanrights conditions of the settings in which they propose to do research. PMID:12133674
The field of health and humanrights has grown quickly, but its boundaries have yet to be traced. Fifty-one years after the Universal Declaration of HumanRights, consensus regarding the most promising directions for the future is lacking; however, outcome-oriented assessments lead us to question approaches that rely solely on recourse to formal legal and civil rights. Similarly unpromising are approaches that rely overmuch on appeals to governments: careful study reveals that state power has been responsible for most humanrights violations and that most violations are embedded in "structural violence"--social and economic inequities that determine who will be at risk for assaults and who will be shielded. This article advances an agenda for research and action grounded in the struggle for social and economic rights, an agenda suited to public health and medicine, whose central contributions to future progress in humanrights will be linked to the equitable distribution of the fruits of scientific advancement. Such an approach is in keeping with the Universal Declaration but runs counter to several of the reigning ideologies of public health, including those favoring efficacy over equity. PMID:10511828
The field of health and humanrights has grown quickly, but its boundaries have yet to be traced. Fifty-one years after the Universal Declaration of HumanRights, consensus regarding the most promising directions for the future is lacking; however, outcome-oriented assessments lead us to question approaches that rely solely on recourse to formal legal and civil rights. Similarly unpromising are approaches that rely overmuch on appeals to governments: careful study reveals that state power has been responsible for most humanrights violations and that most violations are embedded in "structural violence"--social and economic inequities that determine who will be at risk for assaults and who will be shielded. This article advances an agenda for research and action grounded in the struggle for social and economic rights, an agenda suited to public health and medicine, whose central contributions to future progress in humanrights will be linked to the equitable distribution of the fruits of scientific advancement. Such an approach is in keeping with the Universal Declaration but runs counter to several of the reigning ideologies of public health, including those favoring efficacy over equity.
OBJECTIVESThe aim of the present study was to determine if myocytes can die by apoptosis in fibrillating and dilated human atria.BACKGROUNDThe cellular remodeling that occurs during atrial fibrillation (AF) may reflect a degree of dedifferentiation of the atrial myocardium, a process that may be reversible.METHODSWe examined humanright atrial myocardium specimens (n = 50) for the presence of apoptotic myocytes.
Christine Aimé-Sempé; Thierry Folliguet; Catherine Rücker-Martin; Maryla Krajewska; Stanislaw Krajewski; Michèle Heimburger; Michel Aubier; Jean-Jacques Mercadier; John C Reed; Stephane N Hatem
We live in a time in which a growing number of social scientists and philosophers- theologians are discussing, with growing frequency, themes of common interest, advancing new avenues of research and proposing new grounds for debate. This renewed interest comes after several decades during which the two scientific areas, once quite close to each other, developed in substantial isolation from
This study examines an Israeli right-wing pirate radio station, Channel 7. Channel 7 was established in 1988 as a sea-based pirate radio station of the right-wing block in the religious-Zionist movement. Three questions were posed in the research: (a) What is the social representation of right-wing pirate radio station in the Knesset (Israeli parliament) discussions? (b) Did Yitzhak Rabin (Israeli
There are no official data, but it is estimated that four million adults in Germany have little or no reading, writing and numeracy skills, so that they are known as "functionally illiterate". This is a fact which was long ignored. In this contribution, literacy activities and research in Germany are analysed through a humanrights-based approach.…
|Currently there exists a global movement promoting institutional transparency and freedom of information legislation. Conceptualizing access to government-held information as a humanright is one of the latest developments in this global trend promoting access to information. The purpose of this dissertation is to identify and analyze the various…
We examined the effects of International Monetary Fund (IMF) supervised programs on changes in government respect for physical\\u000a integrity rights in developing countries between 1981 and 2003. A longer period under an IMF program increased government\\u000a use of torture and extra judicial killing and also worsened the overall humanrights conditions in developing countries. The\\u000a use of a two-stage model
|Despite a paucity of psychological research exploring the interface between lesbian and gay issues and humanrights, a humanrights framework has been widely adopted in debates to gain equality for lesbians and gay men. Given this prominence within political discourse of humanrights as a framework for the promotion of positive social change for…
This article addresses the proliferation of humanrights in international public health over the last 20 years by examining recent attempts at framing the global smoking epidemic as a humanrights problem. Rather than advocating in favour or against humanrights-based approaches, the article purports to understand how and why such approaches are being articulated and disseminated. First, it argues that the representation of the global smoking epidemic as a humanrights issue has been the product of a small, international network of public health experts and lawyers: the humanrights and tobacco control collective or community (HTC). The article describes in particular the HTC's membership, its style of thinking and its efforts to articulate and disseminate humanrights-based approaches to tobacco control. Second, the article argues that the aim of the HTC when framing tobacco control as a humanrights issue was not to generate public attention for and the political will to tackle the global smoking epidemic, as the literature on framing and humanrights presupposes. Instead, as the article shows, the HTC framed tobacco control as a humanrights problem to tap into the powerful, judicial monitoring and enforceability mechanisms that make up international humanrights. PMID:23088214
The theme will primarily be treated in terms of “HumanRights and Democracy”, anda)Universal Agreements and HumanRights in War,b)Illegal Immigrants and Refugee Rights,c)Women Rightssub-headings will be analyzed and evaluated.
Almost two years after the ICC prosecutor announced the opening of the investigation, the court last month issued a sealed arrest warrant against Thomas Lubanga, leader of the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC), an armed group responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the Ituri region of north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The warrant, unsealed today, charges Lubanga
In this article, I examine the relationship between homophobic language use and its broader social context, focusing on how a U.S.-based, conservative Christian organization's institutionalized homophobic text-making practices seek to derive legitimacy from the broader political economic discourses associated with the neoliberal moment. Using the Family Research Council's statement on marriage and the family as the basis for analysis, I demonstrate how the organization seeks to represent lesbian and gay subjects and their kinship formations as a threat to human capital development because they are based on affectional relationships that neither reflect nor respond to the kinds of self-governance and marketization that neoliberalism requires of all citizen-subjects and their families. Linguistic strategies for creating such representations include lexical choices that avoid overtly identifying lesbian and gay subjects as the object of discussion, the creation of a taxonomy for what constitutes "proper" families-based on neoliberal principles--that implicitly excludes lesbian and gay kinship formations, and the use of neoliberal discourses of self-governance and marketization as the basis for that exclusion. PMID:21740208
This paper describes the results of an investigation into how the December, 2004 tsunami and its aftermath affected the humanrights of the survivors. Teams of researchers interviewed survivors, government officials, representatives of international and local nongovernmental organisations, UN officials, the military, police, and other key informants in India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Indonesia, and Thailand. We also analysed newspaper articles, reports released by governments, UN agencies, NGOs, and private humanitarian aid groups, and we examined the laws and policies related to survivors' welfare in the affected countries. We found worsening of prior humanrights violations, inequities in aid distribution, lack of accountability and impunity, poor coordination of aid, lack of community participation in reconstruction, including coastal redevelopment. Corruption and preexisting conflict negatively impact humanitarian interventions. We make recommendations to international agencies, states, and local health service providers. A humanrights framework offers significant protection to survivors and should play a critical role in disaster response. PMID:18277529
Nepal has witnessed serious humanrights violations including arbitrary arrests, detentions, "disappearances", extra judicial executions, abductions and torture carried out by both the Royal Nepalese Army and the Maoist rebels in the 10 years of the "peoples war". Women and children have borne the brunt of the conflict. Massive displacement has led to adverse social and psychological consequences. While the reasons for the conflict are mainly indigenous and rooted in the social and economic in-equities, remedies for health inequities must come not only from the health sector but also from broad social policies and adopting a participatory and conflict-sensitive approach to development. Meanwhile the international community needs to use its leverage to urge both sides to accept a humanrights accord and honor international humanrights and humanitarian laws, while investigating allegations of abuse and prosecute those responsible.
Widening disparities in health and humanrights at a global level represent the dark side of progress associated with escalation of economic and military exploitation and exponential population growth in the 20th century. Even the most basic universal humanrights cannot be achieved for all under these circumstances. The goal of improved population health will be similarly elusive while medical care is commodified and exploited for commercial gain in the marketplace. Recognition of the powerful forces that polarize our world and commitment to reversing them are essential for the achievement of humanrights for all, for the improvement of public health, and for the peaceful progress required to protect the "rational self-interest" of the most privileged people on earth against the escalation of war, disease, and other destructive forces arising from widespread poverty and ecological degradation.
The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent humanrights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international humanrights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Humanrights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246
Amon, Joseph J; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane
Food as a humanright was first laid down 50 years ago in the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. The last 10 years in particular, has witnessed an increased recognition of the importance of the humanrights approach for designing policies and interventions that promote food and nutrition security, as evidenced by the highly visible role given to humanrights
International humanrights NGOs have warned that humanrights have been threatened since September 11. However, the matter is complicated since what is involved is in reality a relationship between two concepts: humanrights and security against terrorism. This article demonstrates that there is a tendency for international humanrights NGOs to brush aside questions on security against terrorism. NGOs
In 1997 Australia changed its humanrights policy regarding China from its support for resolutions on China at the UN Commission on HumanRights (UNCHR) to the adoption of the bilateral humanrights dialogue process. From 1991 to 1997 the UNCHR process had greatly contributed to the Chinese government making humanrights concessions such that China could be considered to
|Objectives: Advancing humanrights is a core competency of U.S. social work education; yet, humanrights attitudes and behaviors have never been measured in the social work literature. Thus, this article describes the development and initial validation of two scales, HumanRights Engagement in Social Work (HRESW) and HumanRights Exposure in…
The United States prides itself on being a champion of humanrights and pressures other countries to improve their humanrights practices, and yet appears less willing than other nations to embrace international humanrights treaties. Many commentators attribute this phenomenon to the particular historical context that existed in the late 1940s and early 1950s when humanrights treaties were
|Humanrights play a vital role in citizens' political, religious and cultural life (Wang 2002, 171). Due to the prominence of humanrights in the everyday life of citizens, including those of South Africa, humanrights education has been included in many school curricula. Humanrights education aims to develop responsible citizens who "inter…
de Wet, Annamagriet; Roux, Cornelia; Simmonds, Shan; ter Avest, Ina
This paper examines how Britain tries to defend its national sovereignty against European challenges in the area of humanrights policies and how the British approach to humanrights has evolved after adjusting complicated demands from Europe. I explore the three British Acts of humanrights and immigration policies: the Humanrights Act of 1998, the 1999 Immigration and Asylum
The most pervasive form of humanrights abuse is violence against women. This violence includes domestic violence, sexual abuse, rape, forced prostitution, female genital mutilation, and murder. It cuts across socioeconomic lines and is so deeply embedded in tradition that millions of women consider violence their lot in life, yet international efforts to combat violence against women are currently in a fledgling state. Most women experience violence in their homes, and as many as 20% of women worldwide have been raped (most know their attacker). More than half of all sexual assaults target girls aged 15 years and younger, and armies continue to use rape as a weapon of war. The female infanticide and sex selective abortions that are caused by son preference have led to imbalances in sex ratios characterized by millions of females "missing" from populations in Asia, China, and north Africa. India is the site of an estimated 5000 dowry-related deaths each year, and an estimated 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital mutilation with two million more at risk each year. In response to this problem, more than 160 countries have ratified the UN's Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Violence Against Women, and many countries have included provisions to protect women against violence in their constitutions and criminal codes. Only 44 countries specifically protect women against domestic violence, however, and only 17 countries consider marital rape a crime (12 countries in Latin America excuse a rapist from prosecution if he marries his victim). The US has worked to place women's rights on the humanrights agenda by increasing monitoring of women's humanrights abuses, supporting national efforts to revise legislation, supporting campaigns to help women reduce their dependency on men and understand their rights, and equating women's rights with humanrights. PMID:12321050
The paper explores issues of human resource diversity in the multi-ethnic societies of sub-Saharan Africa, arguing that ethnicity constitutes a primary dimension of diversity. The influence of ethnicity on employment relations in organizational life in this region is examined and whether the discourse of managing diversity could be applied to manage such diversity. The paper argues that, if the ethnic
|This article is the result of a grounded theory investigation into the ways PhD topics are assigned by supervisors in engineering and selected by students in the social sciences/humanities in UK universities, broadly referred to as "topic arrangement", which can be regarded as one aspect of academic socialisation into academic Discourse…
In Africa, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) focussing on humanrights have mushroomed during the past 10-15 years, and, with several of these organizations run by and for women, it is possible to find free legal aid for women in almost every capital city. The collapse of the extended family and, thus, the framework for customary law has meant that women are faced with problems of maintenance and widows with problems of inheritance. Customary law and the protection it afforded women and children has also been weakened by a poverty-driven shift in urban areas from a focus on community support to a focus on individual survival. The vacuum left by this change in legal and social structure is being filled by the humanrights NGOs. Paradoxically, in the face of such change, a static, communal, and neutral concept of "culture" was held out by African state representatives at the 1993 UN Conference on HumanRights to justify their opposition to the acceptance of the crosscultural legitimacy of humanrights, especially for women. While these arguments were being aired at the Conference, African NGOs were vigorously using examples of the marginalization of women to promote the opposite view. The most important aspect of these conflicting views is which group has the most power and resources to voice its interpretation of the situation. With most African countries governed by a dual system of laws, customary law and common or civil law (left over from colonialism), humanrights groups are working to instill humanrights principles into common law through the ratification of international conventions. Thus, persons in need could be viewed not as victims but as individuals entitled to enforceable and universal rights. Misuse of the term "culture" can marginalize women even as it is being promoted as a protective device for women. A more useful view of culture is as something which transcends traditional boundaries and locates people and institutions in the global community where they are protected by the acknowledgement of their humanrights. PMID:12290125
This article aims to explore the increasing interconnection between bioethics and humanrights that can be observed in recent international norms relating to biomedicine. To this end, the analysis has been focused on the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and HumanRights (UDBHR) adopted by UNESCO in 2005. Investigating the meanings of the intersection perceived in the UDBHR has led to the understanding of how bioethics and humanrights are in accordance, under the normative perspective. Hence, in normative terms, the intersection between bioethics and humanrights is clearly undisputable. However, there is no way to affirm that it is consolidated, as UDBHR's adoption is recent and its consolidation, together with its precepts, depends on state and non-state agents. The efficacy of a norm and its content depends on social, cultural and economic conditions, that is, it depends on a series of factors that influence the normative system. In the case of the UDBHR, its effective application and assimilation of its principles are directly linked to the use that bioethical institutions make of them and to how the community of bioethicists will project them in their thoughts and theory production. If, on the one hand UDBHR symbolizes the intersection confirmation--which is of extreme importance for its consolidation--on the other hand its range and consequent stabilization are submitted to the actions from governments, social institutions and bioethicists. Hence, there is still a lot to do in terms of introducing the humanrights precepts into bioethics. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this goal. Thus based on the meanings of the intersection between bioethics and humanrights identified in the UDBHR, this article presents five ways to understand the connection between these two fields. PMID:22977955
High poverty levels characterise sub-Saharan Africa, Zimbabwe included. Over 80 per cent of Zimbabwe's population lived below the total consumption poverty line and 70 per cent below the food poverty line in 2003. This plummeting of social indicators resulted from the freefall suffered by the country's economy from the 1990s, after unsuccessful attempts to implement structural adjustment programmes prescribed by international financial institutions. The ensuing socioeconomic decay, political crisis and international isolation of the country from the late 1990s reversed gains made in social indicators during the 1980s. Development theories attribute poverty to unchecked population growth, political, economic and environmental mismanagement, while developing countries' leaders attribute it to historical imbalances and global political and economic injustices. Despite this debate, poverty continues to evolve, expand and deepen and the need to eradicate it has become urgent. The complex question of what causes and what drives poverty is perpetually addressed and new ideas are emerging to answer the question. One recent view is that failure to centre development on people and to declare poverty a violation of humanrights has allowed poverty to grow the world over. This study uses a hypothesised cause of poverty - civil registration - to exemplify the humanright nature of poverty, and how a humanrights' policy can be used as an instrument to eradicate poverty. The study demonstrates that civil registration is a right of instrumental relevance to poverty; and achieving civil registration grants people access to numerous other rights, some of which will lift them out of poverty, while the failure of civil registration deprives people of access to livelihoods, thereby entrenching them in poverty. PMID:20726138
...Rights, our futures have grown increasingly interconnected. We have a stake not only in...who reach for the dream of a free, just, and...NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President...WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my...
Recently unveiled by the HumanRights Library of the University of Minnesota (originally reviewed in the January 5, 1996 Scout Report), this new search engine will be welcomed by researchers and activists in humanrights. Searchable by keyword and several optional operators (Boolean, proximity, truncation), the engine retrieves data from any or all of the 23 different rights-related sites that users select. Interestingly, returns are presented "as is" from the source pages (with page header, images, and unique formats) but combined into a single results page. A test search for "Northern Ireland" on four selected sites returned over 40 results. Direct links to the featured databases and, in some cases, their search tips pages are also provided.
In this paper, we investigate the intersections of gender, health and humanrights in sites of political exclusion. We apply the political theory of Giorgio Agamben on ‘states of exception’, seeking to better understand how the recent ‘war on terror’, that seemingly knows no limits of time or space, is driving health outcomes in refugee and Internally Displaced Persons (IDP)
This article examines states' decisions to commit to humanrights treaties. It argues that the effect of a treaty on a state--and hence the state's willingness to commit to it--is largely determined by the domestic enforcement of the treaty and the treaty's collateral consequences. These broad claims give rise to several specific predictions. For…
|Humanrights issues need to be taught in the context of Western civilization values, using literature and history sources, and not as separate courses based on newsworthy events. Students need to appreciate the desirability of democratic governments and the complexities of introducing democracy to nations lacking political and legal traditions.…
The paper tests informational assumptions underlying strategic interaction and collective action models of government repression and dissent. Based on directly comparable data from 18 Central and East European countries collected between 1991 and 1996, this paper investigates whether citizens' perceptions of humanrights conditions in a country are systematically related to that country's conditions of government repression. The analysis suggests
Christopher J. Anderson; Patrick M. Regan; Robert L. Ostergard
This article argues that due to the particular position of crime in South Africa, the resurgence of vigilantism needs to be re-evaluated in light of the country's attempt at institutionalising humanrights as the new society's founding values. Because many township dwellers see vigilantes as their protection against crime, vigilantism should be seen as a criticism of and a comment
During spatial navigation, lesion and functional imaging studies suggest that the right hemisphere has a unique functional role. However, studies of direct human brain recordings have not reported interhemisphere differences in navigationrelated oscillatory activity. We investigated this apparent discrepancy using intracranial electroencephalographic recordings from 24 neurosurgical patients playing a virtual taxi driver game. When patients were virtually moving in the
Joshua Jacobs; Joseph R. Madsen; Michael J. Kahana
During spatial navigation, lesion and functional imaging studies suggest that the right hemisphere has a unique func- tional role. However, studies of direct human brain recordings have not reported interhemisphere differences in navigation- related oscillatory activity. We investigated this apparent dis- crepancy using intracranial electroencephalographic recordings from 24 neurosurgical patients playing a virtual taxi driver game. When patients were virtually
Joshua Jacobs; Igor O. Korolev; Jeremy B. Caplan; Arne D. Ekstrom; Brian Litt; Gordon Baltuch; Itzhak Fried; Andreas Schulze-Bonhage; Joseph R. Madsen; Michael J. Kahana
|Using literature in the social studies classroom is a useful pedagogy that is particularly well-suited in humanrights education. Literature can give voice to people who cannot speak for themselves and gives students an opportunity to consider perspectives that are often foreign to them. When used with delicacy and care, these literary…
|Citizenship education, defined as learning to live together, requires agreement on certain common principles. One central purpose of a state education system is the transmission of common normative standards such as the humanrights and fundamental freedoms that underpin liberal democratic societies. The paper identifies the conceptual roots of…
The fast-paced movement of globalization has affected all walks of life including professional counselors. As the world becomes more accessible, increased instances of social injustice on a global scale have become more apparent, with women and children being especially identified as victims of social injustice and humanrights violations (World…
|In this article, the work of three international governmental organisations (IGOs) dealing with humanrights will be discussed, namely the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Council of Europe (CoE). In the first section, the main characteristics of the…
The following commentary serves as a response to the article, “Sex Trafficking of Minors in the U.S.: Implications for Policy, Prevention and Research,” drawing the important, though not often mentioned, connection between the sex trafficking of minors and humanrights. The commentary argues that child trafficking has been inadequately addressed due to its relative invisibility, a lack of knowledge about
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of Australian managers in relation to humanrights issues and corporate responsibility inherent in their international business operations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reports findings from a qualitative research study; data were gathered from 70 face-to-face interviews with managers in the mining, textile and information technology industries who conducted
|Although adolescent students often do not have knowledge of specific laws, they usually have a keen sense of justice and fairness. In this article, the author discusses the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR) as a powerful tool to channel students' sense of fairness into visible actions. Adopted in December 1948 by the General Assembly…
This article analyses the challenges posed by traditional ethnic and linguistic minorities in multicultural states and more specifically the problems faced by indigenous peoples and communities. Their educational and cultural needs and demands are increasingly being framed in the language of humanrights, based on the expanding international legal…
st century the death penalty should still be an adhered to practice or not it will trace the development of capital punishment as a humanrights issue in the international forum and examine recent challenges to the death penalty. The structure that this paper adopts is discussed in short herein, any paper on death penalty in the current times would
|This article assesses the potential of online news reporting to create discursive spaces for emphatic engagement--of bearing witness--at a distance, especially where humanrights violations are concerned. Taking as its focus the emergent forms and practices of citizen journalism, it examines the spontaneous actions of ordinary people compelled to…
While modern trade law and humanrights law constitute two of the most active spheres in international law, follow similar intellectual trajectories, and often feature the same key actors and arenas, neither field has actively engaged with the other. They co-exist in relative isolation at best, peppered by occasional hostile debates. It has come to be a given that pro-trade
|This article questions whether humanrights education (HRE) scholarship is responding adequately to the post secular turn in thinking about the place and nature of religion in society. Here the post secular turn is used to describe the discrediting of secularisation theory, the recognition of religion as an enduring and pervasive global cultural…
Many people believe that an informed and thoughtful citizenry is essential to the maintenance of democratic ideals within the United States and the spread of those ideals abroad. Since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the evidence that Americans consider issues of human dignity and rights when making judgments about the U.S. government's war on terror has been mixed. In
BACKGROUND: By using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) and subsequent tractography, a perisylvian language network in the human left hemisphere recently has been identified connecting Brocas's and Wernicke's areas directly (arcuate fasciculus) and indirectly by a pathway through the inferior parietal cortex. RESULTS: Applying DTI tractography in the present study, we found a similar three-way pathway in the right
Alireza Gharabaghi; Frank Kunath; Michael Erb; Ralf Saur; Stefan Heckl; Marcos Tatagiba; Wolfgang Grodd; Hans-Otto Karnath
This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a humanrights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive-cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children's development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the…
In Roberts v Parole Board  UKHL 45 (7 July 2005) the House of Lords was asked whether the legal procedure for parole of even the vilest criminals should remain transparent and accord with natural justice under domestic law and\\/or the European Convention on HumanRights. In powerfully persuasive dissents, Lord Bingham and Lord Steyn struck a powerful plea for
|Can Holocaust education be considered a tool for humanrights education? If so, to what extent? These questions elicit discussions among a wide range of educators, and interest among politicians, educational planners, and ministries in charge of memorials. At first glance the obvious answer seems to be yes; both educators and students have strong…
|In today's globally interconnected community, it is imperative that students learn how humanrights abuses are not a "thing of the past," but an ongoing exploitation that requires modern day crusaders to defend. Who might these crusaders be? None other than each student. However, if one wants to encourage these noble change agents, one needs to…
|This research is an effort to transcend the debate of universalism and cultural relativism by offering a new conceptualization of humanrights. The conceptualization is presented through the development of a theoretical framework in the form of an epistemology. The research articulates and defends the epistemology, which is grounded on…
|In this essay Gregory Bynum seeks to show that Immanuel Kant's thought, which was conceived in an eighteenth-century context of new, and newly widespread, pressures for nationally institutionalized humanrights-based regimes (the American and French revolutions being the most prominent examples), can help us think in new and appreciative ways…
|This article analyses the challenges posed by traditional ethnic and linguistic minorities in multicultural states and more specifically the problems faced by indigenous peoples and communities. Their educational and cultural needs and demands are increasingly being framed in the language of humanrights, based on the expanding international…
|This article examines states' decisions to commit to humanrights treaties. It argues that the effect of a treaty on a state--and hence the state's willingness to commit to it--is largely determined by the domestic enforcement of the treaty and the treaty's collateral consequences. These broad claims give rise to several specific predictions. For…
My starting point for this paper is an uneasiness with the current internationalist literature on the 'linkage' of trade and humanrights, and with the effects of my attempts to teach, write and speak about this literature. In the first part of the paper, I outline my reasons for this uneasiness, and suggest that there is a need to think
In this essay Gregory Bynum seeks to show that Immanuel Kant's thought, which was conceived in an eighteenth-century context of new, and newly widespread, pressures for nationally institutionalized humanrights-based regimes (the American and French revolutions being the most prominent examples), can help us think in new and appreciative ways…
This article takes a critical look at the question of whether hard international boundaries that prevent migration can be justified from an ethical standpoint, or whether these hard boundaries represent a violation of humanrights. The question is first addressed from a theoretical perspective, drawing on theories of justice and of boundaries. The article then examines policy decisions and the
There are more than 400,000 legal or illegal immigrant workers in South Korea who are suffering from insecurity of their linguistic humanrights (LHRs). The immigrant workers are trying to re-establish their identity through voicing their LHRs. However, Korean society seems not ready to recognise LHRs of immigrant workers. This article examines this issue with the perspective of ‘ecology of
This paper uses diversity management as a placeholder for humanrights policy. By diversity management, I mean those policy techniques that a society can use to deal with diversity, which include not only decisions to make diversity a subject of active legal and governmental intervention, but also decisions to leave diversity to informal, unregulated choices by individuals or civil society
This paper deals with the relation between the humanright to migrate and the objectives of immigration policies. We argue that the temporary work migration is the clearest sign of the failure of political governance in both the host and native states, even if we may argue, to a different degree. The only way to reduce the pressure of immigration
|As in most countries, humanrights education (HRE) in Hong Kong has never been high on the educational agenda. In 2009, a compulsory subject, Liberal Studies (LS), which could be used as a platform for HRE, was introduced. The Hong Kong Institute of Education launched a research and development project which, as one of its objectives, studied LS…
|As the ubiquitous force of globalization further erodes the nation-state and political activity increasingly focuses on global issues, there is renewed attention to models of global education. Within this global context, humanrights education emerges as a response to the demands of global education. One of the main objectives of the United…
Right-hemisphere brain damaged (RHD) patients and a normal control group were tested for their ability to infer first- and second-order mental states and to understand the communicative intentions underlying ironic jokes and lies. Subjects listened to stories involving a character who had either a true or a false belief about another character's knowledge. Stories ended either with an ironic joke
Ellen Winner; Hiram Brownell; Francesca Happé; Ari Blum; Donna Pincus
Humanrights provisions addressing technology have been much ignored. The connections between technology and humanrights have, however, received renewed interest recently. Patent disputes, stagnation in publicly funded research, and the role of technology in meeting the Millennium Development Goals are three areas of substantial interest. After an analysis of the two main provisions on technology of the International Covenant
This paper explores the relationship between humanrights social work and issues facing Gypsies and Travellers, and argues that work with these groups cannot be properly understood outside a humanrights framework. It outlines different generations of rights, key current debates, and their significance for social work, building on other emancipatory frameworks for practice including anti-oppressive practice, structural social work
WeQ1 investigated a total of 4997 postings on an extreme right-wing Internet discussion board with regard to the groups and themes mentioned. The most frequently mentioned target groups were Africans, Jews, Muslims, Poles, and Turks; the most prominent themes and contextswere conspiracy, criminality, exploitation, threats to German identity, infiltration, mind control and harassment, procreation, rape, and sex. We analysed in
The purpose of this paper is to argue the need for an African Court of HumanRights if African states truly wish to maintain an African humanrights mechanism. In other words, for an effective African regional humanrights protection and enforcement mechanism to exist, the African system must be made more effective and supplemented with a court of human
|Education lies at the heart of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR): "Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for humanrights and fundamental freedoms". However, when education is mentioned in the philosophical literature on humanrights, or even within the…
This paper explores how the fair trade coffee market translates consumer action and shopping habits into the promotion of\\u000a humanrights in distant locales. This process does not occur through direct producer–consumer contact. Instead, it is channeled\\u000a through two interrelated avenues. First, the fair trade certification system which requires producer groups to be democratic,\\u000a transparent, and accountable and second, the
This Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex and marital status, among other things, with respect to accommodation practices, employment practices, and publications. In its employment practices provisions, it mandates equal pay for equal work and outlaws harassment and unwelcome sexual solicitation. Under the Act, the Newfoundland HumanRights Commission, already established, is given the power to investigate complaints, effect settlements, and refer matters to a board of inquiry for further action. PMID:12289244
Persons with intellectual disabilities are more likely to experience victimization and have their rights infringed upon than are people without such disabilities. While legislative and policy interventions have afforded a certain degree of protection against such rights violations, people with intellectual disabilities continue to experience restrictions of their basic humanrights. This article describes the development of a HumanRights
Donato Tarulli; Christine Y. Tardif; Dorothy Griffiths; Frances Owen; Maurice A. Feldman; Karen Stoner
Advocacy for sexual rights, including the application of international humanrights to sexual orientation and gender identity, has seen many gains but has failed to protect and promote lesbian rights adequately. This article explores some of the obstacles to making visible in international humanrights law and activism women who transgress social norms around gender and sexuality: specifically, gendered understandings
The humanrights of female children in India and elsewhere, even when protected on paper, are violated in practice. An equitable and egalitarian world order must be established. A comprehensive campaign is needed that combats gender-based inequalities, discrimination, exploitation, oppression, abuse, violence, inhuman values, and violations of humanrights, particularly against female children. People must radically change their attitudes and actions towards female children. Female children are not a commodity or sex-object but "an equally worthy human being to be loved, respected, and cared for." Strategies that accomplish these ends include the promotion of human and spiritual values of love, compassion, and nonviolence, and discouragement of values of consumerism and materialism and worthlessness of human beings. Effective education and mass media should counter corruption, dishonesty, selfishness, and inhuman actions. Family structures need to strengthened and enriched. The abuse of female children occurs due to the following interrelated factors: entrenched patriarchal value systems, the perpetuation of traditions and practices that identify girls as inferior to boys, the gender-biased and discriminatory attitude that identifies girl children as a burden or liability and as a sex-object or commodity, and prevalent illiteracy, poverty, and negative parenting life style patterns. Other factors include the low status of women, the reduction in human and spiritual values, and the rise of consumerism and corruption. Girls are subjected to female infanticide, feticide, lack of social and economic development, burdensome domestic work, early marriage and childbearing, neglect and denial of healthy living conditions, sexual abuse and exploitation, prostitution, rape, and a denial of their right to protection. PMID:12158013
After achieving breathtaking successes in securing state and local restrictions on smoking in public places and restricting youth access to tobacco products, the tobacco movement faces difficult decisions on its future strategic directions. The thesis of this article is that the tobacco control movement is at a point of needing to secure its recent successes and avoiding any public retrenchment. To do so requires rethinking the movement's strategic direction. We use the familiar trans-theoretical model of change to describe where the movement is currently and the threats it faces. The new tobacco control strategy should encompass a focus on voluntary non-smoking strategies, use humanrights rhetoric to its advantage, and strengthen the public health voice to be more effective in political battles. In developing a new strategy, tobacco control advocates need to build a social movement based on a more forceful public health voice, along with the strategic use of humanrights rhetoric, to focus on the power of voluntary non-smoking efforts. Using humanrights rhetoric can help frame the movement in ways that have traditionally appealed to the American public. Perhaps more importantly, doing so can help infuse the tobacco control movement with a broader sense of purpose and mission.
The way in which discourse features express connections back to the previous discourse has been described in the literature in terms of on a suitably defined right frontier, can be used to both process expectations and constrain discouse processing in general.
This paper has attempted to provide rational analysis and justification for the present administration's policy on humanrights by examining the problem, humanrights theory, and practical action. There is a remaining dimension which has not been dealt wi...
This chapter has four main points. First, I argue that the humanrights approach to public health ethics, championed by Jonathan\\u000a Mann and others, needs to engage with philosophical accounts of moral humanrights. Second, I argue that, while both interest-based\\u000a and agency accounts of moral humanrights are defensible as philosophical accounts of humanrights, and both have advantages
This review examines the role of donor human milk banking in international humanrights documents and global health policies. For countries looking to improve child health, promotion, protection and support of donor human milk banks has an important role to play for the most vulnerable of infants and children. This review is based on qualitative triangulation research conducted for a
Background Development of the digestive tract during the human fetal period has been the subject of many studies, but there are no works\\u000a that study the ontogeny of both the right colon and the peritoneum.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Based on the dissections of adult male cadavers and human fetuses, the aim of this anatomical study was to demonstrate the\\u000a rules of the morpho-functional group,
Philippe Rigoard; Silke V. Haustein; Carole Doucet; Michel Scepi; Jean Pierre Richer; Jean Pierre Faure
The humanrights of women in The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) have been a subject of unresolved debate among sociologists, economists, and political scientists alike, as this region's gender related humanrights performance remains uniquely weaker compared to other geographic regions in the world. Most notably, the humanrights of women in the region have been lagging in
The development of the health and humanrights framework coincided with the beginning of the rapid spread of HIV\\/AIDS. Since then, the international community has increasingly turned to humanrights language and instruments to address the disease. Not only are humanrights essential to addressing a disease that impacts marginalized groups most severely, but the spread of HIV\\/AIDS itself exacerbates
On 26 March 2007, a group of humanrights experts launched the Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of HumanRights Law in Relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (the Yogyakarta Principles). The Principles are intended as a coherent and comprehensive identification of the obligation of States to respect, protect and fulfil the humanrights of all persons regardless of
Several studies have focused on the effect of military trade and defence spending on humanrights, particularly the effect of US military aid in Latin America. Little is known, however, about the humanrights effects of the proliferation of small arms and light weapons (SALW). Humanrights groups, such as Amnesty International, are adamant that any future Arms Trade treaty
Indra de Soysa; Thomas Jackson; Christin M. Ormhaug
This dissertation consists of four papers that contribute to literatures on humanrights, domestic political institutions, and international cooperation. Specifically, I look at how domestic and international political institutions affect commitment to international humanrights law and domestic respect for humanrights. In Chapter 2, I argue that the domestic incentives dictators face to support the Convention Against Torture (CAT)
|Background: Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have the same human value as other children and are entitled to their basic humanrights. And yet, in developing countries they face many barriers to accessing these rights. This study focuses on children with IDs in Egypt. Method: A new measure, the HumanRights of children with…
|What are the prospects for joining religious education and humanrights education? (1) Humanrights educators may cite good historical and philosophical reasons for teaching about humanrights without making any reference whatsoever to a religious foundation. (2) For their part, many religious communities have resisted opportunities to form…
|Humanrights have become increasingly salient for nations, organizations, and individuals since the end of World War II (Lauren 2003). Discussions of humanrights now are common in formal education, including in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). A variety of indicators suggest that countries in Latin America have integrated humanrights into…
There has been increasing attention to the importance of respecting the humanrights of addicts with regard to illicit drug trafficking and abuse. The debate is multifaceted, encompassing issues involving drug control as it relates to criminal justice, the death penalty, mandated treatment, and, most prominently, the right to the highest attainable standard of health. This article addresses each of
Holistic integration of faces has been widely studied. More recently, investigations have explored whether similar processing is used for human bodies. Here we show that holistic processing, as measured by the composite task, does occur for bodies but is stronger for left and right halves than for top and bottom halves. We also found composite effects for left-right halves of inverted bodies. Standard composite effects were found for top halves of faces, tested as a control. We argue that our results suggest that holistic processing of faces and bodies might not exclusively occur for identification, but instead may also have evolved to aid communication and/or decisions about mate choice (through judging symmetry). PMID:22524623
Recent work has stressed the importance of the concept of solidarity to bioethics and social philosophy generally. But can and should it feature in documents such as the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and HumanRights as anything more than a vague notion with multiple possible interpretations? Although noting the tension between universality and particularity that such documents have to deal with, and also noting that solidarity has a political content, the paper explores the suggestion that solidarity should feature more centrally in international regulations. The paper concludes with the view that when solidarity is seen aright, the UDBHR is an implicitly solidaristic document. PMID:19387000
This new report from HumanRights Watch details continued cases within Rwanda of "assassination, murder, arbitrary detention, torture and other abuses perpetrated chiefly by soldiers of the Rwandan Patriotic Army, and by members of a government-backed citizens' militia called the Local Defense Force." According to the report, the Local Defense Force, while supposedly acting under the auspices of local authorities, commits abuses without fear of reprisal since these authorities are often either allied with or afraid of the government-supported militia.
The main contentions of this paper are two fold. First, there is a more than century-old Japanese tradition of humanrights based on a fusion of Western concepts of natural rights and a radical reinterpretation of Confucianism, the major proponent of which was the Japanese thinker Nakae Chomin. Secondly, this tradition, although a minority view, is crucial for remedying the serious defects in the present Japanese medical system. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, Nakae Chomin sought to reinterpret Chinese tradition, especially Confucianism, by injecting the concepts of popular sovereignty and democratic equality, drawn from Western sources. The resulting view maintained the Confucian commitment to a moral nexus for society, but replaced hierarchy with egalitarianism. The pressing need for such an approach to patients' rights in present-day Japan is illustrated by two recent cases: the photographing and commercial exploitation of patients' genitals without serious response by authorities, and the attempt by physicians to manipulate the time of death and, possibly, to improperly pressure family members in order to transplant organs from the brain-dead victim of a criminal assault. Such problems stem from hierarchy and paternalism, which seem to be a legacy of the rapid, state-sponsored introduction of Western medicine in the mid-nineteenth century, and in particular from the government's adoption of and support for German military medicine as a model for Japan. PMID:11654787
This article undertakes a comparative analysis of the right to a fair trial and due process under international humanrights law, Islamic law and Saudi Arabian domestic law. It argues that it is important to identify the existence and scope of this right within the domestic law of every state to ensure the protection of other humanrights generally. The
Background Although attention to humanrights in Indonesia has been improving over the past decade, the humanrights situation of persons with mental disorders is still far from satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to examine the legal framework for protection of humanrights of persons with mental disorder and the extent to which Indonesia's international obligations concerning the right to health are being met. Methods We examined the Indonesian constitution, Indonesian laws relevant to the right to health, the structure and operation of the National HumanRights Commission, and what is known about violations of the humanrights of persons with mental illness from research and the media. Results The focus of the Indonesian Constitution on rights pre-dated the Universal Declaration, Indonesia has ratified relevant international covenants and domestic law provides an adequate legal framework for humanrights protections. However, humanrights abuses persist, are widespread, and go essentially unremarked and unchallenged. The National HumanRights Commission has only recently become engaged in the issue of protection of the rights of persons with mental illness. Conclusion More than legislation is needed to protect the humanrights of persons with mental illness. Improving the humanrights situation for persons with mental illness in Indonesia will require action by governments at national, provincial and district levels, substantial increases in the level of investment in mental health services, coordinated action by mental health professionals and consumer and carer organisations, and a central role for the National HumanRights Commission in protecting the rights of persons with mental illness.
Les Mêmes Droits Pour Tous (MDT) is a humanrights NGO in Guinea, West Africa that focuses on the rights of prisoners in Maison Centrale, the country's largest prison located in the capital city of Conakry. In 2007, MDT completed a survey of the prison population to assess basic legal and humanrights conditions. This article uses statistical tools to explore MDT's survey results in greater depth, shedding light on humanrights violations in Guinea. It contributes to humanrights literature that argues for greater use of econometric tools in rights reporting, and demonstrates how humanrights practitioners and academics can work together to construct an etiology of violence and torture by state actors, as physical violence is perhaps the most extreme violation of the individual's right to health. PMID:21178191
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited cardiomyopathy primarily of the right ventricle characterized through fibrofatty replacement of cardiomyocytes. The genetic etiology in ARVC patients is most commonly caused by dominant inheritance and high genetic heterogeneity. Though histological examinations of ARVC-affected human myocardium reveals fibrolipomatous replacement, the molecular mechanisms leading to loss of cardiomyocytes are largely unknown. We therefore analyzed the transcriptomes of six ARVC hearts and compared our findings to six nonfailing donor hearts (NF). To characterize the ARVC-specific transcriptome, we compared our findings to samples from seven patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The myocardial DCM and ARVC samples were prepared from hearts explanted during an orthotopic heart transplantation representing myocardium from end-stage heart failure patients (NYHA IV). From each heart, left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) myocardial samples were analyzed by Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays, adding up to six sample groups. Unsupervised cluster analyses of the groups revealed a clear separation of NF and cardiomyopathy samples. However, in contrast to the other samples, the analyses revealed no distinct expression pattern in LV and RV of myocardial ARVC samples. We further identified differentially expressed transcripts using t-tests and found transcripts separating diseased and NF ventricular myocardium. Of note, in failing myocardium only ~15-16% of the genes are commonly regulated compared with NF samples. In addition both cardiomyopathies are clearly distinct on the transcriptome level. Comparison of the expression patterns between the failing RV and LV using a paired t-test revealed a lack of major differences between LV and RV gene expression in ARVC hearts. Our study is the first analysis of specific ARVC-related RV and LV gene expression patterns in terminal failing human hearts. PMID:22085907
The current debate over cloning and germline gene therapy is usually considered in terms of bioethics. The Council of Europe and UNESCO have, however, adopted normative instruments on the human genome, and one that draws heavily on humanrights is under consideration at the United Nations. This article suggests the need for more thorough analysis of the underlying assumptions of
In this article we explore the epistemic and ontological relationship between science and law through the concept of individual in the Universal Declaration of the Human Genome and HumanRights. We argue for a better understanding of this relationship in order to foresee ethical and social consequences derived from Law adopting concepts with a strong scientific meaning. PMID:23520917
Siqueiros, Jesús M; Saruwatari, Garbiñe; Oliva-Sánchez, Pablo Francisco
This article argues that the trend in the current protection of humanrights may be seen as a revival of an old idea: governments are accountable for their actions. The protection of humanrights has gone through three eras. In the first era, the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages claimed to rule from a divine mandate. This principle of natural law was a unifying factor in western Europe because it created a standard system of morality. The second era, beginning in the seventeenth century with the doctrine of state sovereignty, rejected that natural law. Rulers wanted to run their own territories and not be subject to foreign influence. Laws were created by the 'national sovereign' (king, queen, president, parliament, congress and so on). This legal doctrine survived for about three centuries, but the excesses of leaders such as Hitler in the middle of last century forced a re-think. Although the term 'natural law' is not used, there has been a revival of its essential meaning: that governments have to be answerable to a higher authority for their behaviour. PMID:17822064
Can international criminal courts contribute to the strengthening of local humanrights cultures? This article approaches this issue by conducting a comparative survey in post-war societies across the former Yugoslavia. Populations who collectively endured systematic humanrights violations were more critical toward national authorities and less tolerant toward rights abuses. Findings revealed a specific pattern for communities that had been
What explains the discrepancy between the avowed commitment of the Georgian government to humanrights and praxis of humanrights in the post-Rose Revolution republic? This article engages with this question and attributes persistent breaches of civil, political, and personal integrity rights in Georgia not only to its domestic circumstances but also to the international impact. The study develops a
This article examines whether the international “women's rights as humanrights” movement has influenced the field of domestic violence in the United States and the possible barriers to redefining domestic violence as a violation of humanrights. The qualitative study that is presented was based on semistructured interviews with key individuals throughout the United States who work in national organizations
A new cartography of geopolitical and corporate interests is reshaping the international order after September 11, calling into question the state's ability to secure fundamental rights for its citizens and to preserve participatory democracy. If civil society tends, among humanrights activists, to be the preferred venue to articulate humanrights concerns against the state and other powerful entities, one
Environmental sustainability as a social and marketing discourse has gathered momentum since the 1990s, forcing companies and consumers to consider how to apprehend this shift. However, this has proved to be challenging, given that sustainability itself remains a fuzzy concept. This paper argues that this fuzziness resides in the impetus for sustainability itself, suggesting that our concern for the environment
Background The healthcare needs and general experience of women in detention in sub-Saharan Africa are rarely studied and poorly understood. Methods A mixed-methods study was conducted including in-depth interviews with 38 adult female prisoners and 21 prison officers in four Zambian prisons to assess the health and humanrights concerns of female detainees. Key informant interviews with 46 officials from government and non-governmental organizations and a legal and policy review were also conducted. Results Despite special protection under international and regional law, incarcerated women's health needs–including prenatal care, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and nutritional support during pregnancy and breastfeeding–are not being adequately met in Zambian prisons. Women are underserved by general healthcare programs including those offering tuberculosis and HIV testing, and reported physical and sexual abuse conducted by police and prison officers that could amount to torture under international law. Conclusions There is an urgent need for women's healthcare services to be expanded, and for general prison health campaigns, including HIV and tuberculosis testing and treatment, to ensure the inclusion of female inmates. Abuses against women in Zambian police and prison custody, which violate their rights and compromise their health, must be halted immediately.
Four years have passed since the institution of the cease-fire in Yugoslavia, and questions remain as to how Kosovar women are faring in the country’s postwar reconstruction. Reports, albeit fragmented, suggest that violence against women began to increase in 1998 and 1999. This trend continued through 2001, even while rates of other major crimes decreased. Despite considerable local efforts to address the conditions of women, there remains a lack of systematic data documenting the scope and frequency of violent acts committed against women. A centralized surveillance system focused on tracking humanrights abuses needs to be established to address this critical need for empirically based reports and to ultimately guide reform efforts.
Authored by Ryan Goodman and Derek Jinks, this working paper from the University of ChicagoÂs Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper series was published first in March 2004, and is due to appear later this year in the Duke Law Journal. In its 57-pages, the paper deals with the ways in which states might effectively change their humanrights regime based on various processes of socialization where so-called "bad actors" might be persuaded to incorporate globally legitimated models of state behavior and, on the other side of the coin, how "good actors" might also be persuaded to act better. The paper begins by discussing three mechanisms of social influence, namely coercion, persuasion, and acculturation, then continues on to discuss the nature of conditional membership, the precision of obligations, and concludes with a section on implementation.
In Hawaii, health care is a commodity, not a humanright: those who can afford it receive care, those who cannot often don't. As health workers and health professional students, we witness the consequences that public policies and budget considerations have on people, on patients, on the health of those that we are dedicated to assisting. Beginning with a case study, we examine the historical antecedents leading to the increasing migration of Micronesians to Hawaii, examine the special relation that (Compact of Free Association) citizens have with the United States, and seek to reframe the political discussion regarding their health care status in this state as a debate in which medical considerations, not political or economic ones, should be the primary voice. PMID:20539993
The principle of respect for human dignity plays a crucial role in the emerging global norms relating to bioethics, in particular in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and HumanRights. This instrument, which is a legal, not merely an ethical document, can be regarded as an extension of international humanrights law into the field of biomedicine. Although the Declaration does not explicitly define human dignity, it would be a mistake to see the emphasis put on this notion as a mere rhetorical strategy. Rather, the appeal to dignity reflects a real concern about the need to promote respect both for the intrinsic worth of human beings and for the integrity of the human species. But dignity alone cannot solve most of the dilemmas posed by biomedical practice. This is why international biolaw combines, on the one hand, the appeal to human dignity as an overarching principle with, on the other hand, the recourse to humanrights, which provide an effective and practical way forward for dealing with bioethical issues at a global level. PMID:19386998
The health and humanrights movement (HHR) shows obvious signs of maturation both internally and externally. Yet there are still many questions to be addressed. These issues include the movement's epistemological status and its perspectives of development. This paper discusses critically the conditions of emergence of HHR, its identity, its dominant schools of thought, its epistemological postures and its methodological issues. Our analysis shows that: (a) the epistemological status of HHR is ambiguous; (b) its identity is uncertain in the absence of a validated definition: is it an action movement, an interdisciplinary field, a domain, an approach, a setting or a scientific discipline? (c) its main schools of thoughts are defined as "advocacists", "ethicists", "interventionists", "normativists"; (d) the movement is in the maturation process as a discipline in which "interface", "distance", "interference" and "fusion" epistemological postures represent the fundamental steps; (e) parent disciplines (health sciences and law) competences, logics and cultures introduce duality and difficulties in knowledge production, validation and diffusion; (f) there is need to re-write the history of the HHR movement by inscribing it not only into the humanitarian or public health perspectives but also into the evolution of sciences and its social, political and economical conditions of emergence. The ambiguous epistemological status of this field, the need to re-write its history, the methodological duality in its research, the question of the competence of the knowledge validation, as well as the impact of HHR practice on national and international health governance are the challenges of its future development. To meet those challenges; we call for the creation and implementation of an international research agenda, the exploration of new research topics and the evaluation of the movement's contribution to the national and global public health and humanrights governance. PMID:21264518
Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; London, Leslie; Chastonay, Philippe
|Every human being deserves the right to live in freedom and dignity. Yet humanrights violations dominate the headlines. In addition to becoming sensitive to human pain and suffering, young adults must also begin the lifelong process of creating, recognizing, and exercising options. This resource guide contains suggested questions and projects…
Observers of international relations frequently assume that humanrights challenge realpolitik. This article shows that in the context of negotiations about European security in the early 1970s, the two went hand-in-hand. Despite significant transatlantic differences, Americans and Europeans conceptualized humanrights as products of the Cold War, and principles for assuming more order and stability in the international system. Human
Public health and humanrights are complementary approaches to promoting and protecting human dignity and well-being. The aim of this paper is to examine international provisions and national policies on health and humanrights that regulate the health system in Nigeria, along with the institutional arrangements created for the design and implementation of health services. The paper reviews the framework
In this article, I argue that the contribution of the Latin American tradition of humanrights includes, but does not limit itself, to being a crucible to unite different doctrinal trends in the Universal Declaration of HumanRights; a contribution already recognized by Mary Ann Glendon. Besides this unifying function and the concomitant emphasis on common humanity, the Latin American
Paradoxically, the political success of humanrights is often taken to be its philosophical failing. From US interventions\\u000a to International NGOs to indigenous movements, humanrights have found a place in diverse political spaces, while being applied\\u000a to disparate goals and expressed in a range of practices. This heteronomy is vital to the global appeal of humanrights, but\\u000a for
Background The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of humanrights as a professional\\u000a obligation prompted moves to include humanrights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A\\u000a Train-the-Trainers course in Health and HumanRights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences\\u000a institutions nationwide with the
Elena G Ewert; Laurel Baldwin-Ragaven; Leslie London
In the late 1960s and 1970s, internationally-focused humanrights groups in the United States worked to raise public awareness and generate popular opprobrium of repressive regimes overseas, and lobbied policymakers for more stringent congressional control over foreign aid funding to regimes violating humanrights. By the mid-1970s, non-governmental humanrights advocates and their sympathisers in Congress had created a strong
In the late 1960s and 1970s, internationally-focused humanrights groups in the United States worked to raise public awareness and generate popular opprobrium of repressive regimes overseas, and lobbied policymakers for more stringent congressional control over foreign aid funding to regimes violating humanrights. By the mid-1970s, non-governmental humanrights advocates and their sympathisers in Congress had created a strong
A strong record of humanrights protections is an important factor for a state to maintain a positive international reputation.\\u000a In this article, we suggest that states will use compliance with humanrights treaties as a mechanism by which to improve\\u000a their reputations to help achieve their foreign policy goals. We hypothesize that international humanrights compliance is\\u000a a means
In this article, I examine the relationship between homophobic language use and its broader social context, focusing on how a U.S.-based, conservative Christian organization's institutionalized homophobic text-making practices seek to derive legitimacy from the broader political economic discourses associated with the neoliberal moment. Using the Family Research Council's statement on marriage and the family as the basis for analysis, I
Evan Stark claims that partner-perpetrated physical abuse and other forms of violence against women ought to be understood as a humanrights violation. The authors engage Stark's rhetorically powerful political and analytical innovation by outlining one theoretical and one practical challenge to shifting the paradigm that researchers, advocates, and policy makers use to describe, explain, and remedy the harms of coercive control from misdemeanor assault to humanrights violation. The theoretical challenge involves overcoming the public/ private dichotomy that underpins liberal conceptions of humanrights.The practical challenge involves using the humanrights framework in the United States, given public indifference to humanrights rhetoric or law, reluctance of U.S. policy makers to submit to scrutiny or justice-oriented processes under international law on issues of humanrights and especially war crimes, and the consequent U.S. legacy of refusal to participate meaningfully in the international humanrights process. The authors conclude that employing a humanrights framework holds potential in the United States, but the paradigm shift Stark advocates will not materialize without widespread mobilization of interest in and understanding of humanrights among domestic violence advocates and the society in general. PMID:19834069
Although epidemiology is increasingly contributing to policy debates on issues of conflict and humanrights, its potential is still underutilized. As a result, this article calls for greater collaboration between public health researchers, conflict analysts and humanrights monitors, with special emphasis on retrospective, population-based surveys. The article surveys relevant recent public health research, explains why collaboration is useful, and outlines possible future research scenarios, including those pertaining to the indirect and long-term consequences of conflict; humanrights and security in conflict prone areas; and the link between humanrights, conflict, and International Humanitarian Law.
Part I of this Note briefly discusses the development of International HumanRights Law as embodied in international covenants today. Part I also discusses Islamic law, the traditional role of women under Islamic law and culture, Algeria's Constitution and Family Code, and other dynamics specific to Algeria that have hindered women's obtainment of equal rights in the modern era. Part
|Some African leaders have made the argument that the promotion of an international humanrights standard is a strategy that is used and abused by hypocritical Western governments to justify their intervention into the affairs of African countries. The tacit objective behind this articulation is the desire to avoid an external evaluation or…
While we live in an Age of Rights, culture continues to be a major challenge to the humanrights project. During the drafting of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR) in the 1940s and during the Cold War era, the periodic disputes that erupted over civil and political rights in contrast to economic, social and cultural rights could be
This paper examines the contribution of humanrights education (HRE) to conflict prevention and to the promotion of security. It outlines the difficulties in evaluating the long-term impact of HRE, but then proposes five benefits of a rights-based approach to education--rights as secular, man-made, requiring transparency, enabling freedom from…
Given current constraints on universal treatment campaigns, recent advances in public health prevention initiatives have revitalized efforts to stem the tide of HIV transmission. Yet, despite a growing imperative for prevention—supported by the promise of behavioral, structural and biomedical approaches to lower the incidence of HIV—humanrights frameworks remain limited in addressing collective prevention policy through global health governance. Assessing the evolution of rights-based approaches to global HIV/AIDS policy, this review finds that humanrights have shifted from collective public health to individual treatment access. While the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic gave meaning to rights in framing global health policy, the application of rights in treatment access litigation came at the expense of public health prevention efforts. Where the humanrights framework remains limited to individual rights enforced against a state duty bearer, such rights have faced constrained application in framing population-level policy to realize the public good of HIV prevention. Concluding that humanrights frameworks must be developed to reflect the complementarity of individual treatment and collective prevention, this article conceptualizes collective rights to public health, structuring collective combination prevention to alleviate limitations on individual rights frameworks and frame rights-based global HIV/AIDS policy to assure research expansion, prevention access and health system integration.
Meier, Benjamin Mason; Brugh, Kristen Nichole; Halima, Yasmin
The South African constitutional discourse is the foundational agency that produces citizenship, centring subjectivity as a relational engagement with the existential reality of the everyday life of ordinary people. In this paper, however, it is pointed out that in terms of the constitutional provisions, the nature of inter-subjectivity, i.e. subject-to-subject relations, orients and indeed frames relations of power undergirding citizenship.
In 2011 it emerged that to induce the death penalty, United States authorities had begun giving injections of pentobarbital, a substance provided by Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck. Lundbeck's product pentobarbital is licensed for treatment of refractory forms of epilepsy and for usage as an anaesthetic, thus for a very different purpose. The Lundbeck case offers a difficult, but also interesting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) dilemma between choices facing a pharmaceutical company to stop the distribution of a medical substance in order to avoid complicity in humanrights violations, or to retain distribution of the substance in order not to impede access to the medicine for those patients who need it. The dilemma arose at a time when the United Nations (UN) Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and HumanRights, Professor John Ruggie, was finalizing a set of Guiding Principles to operationalize recommendations on business and humanrights that he had presented to the UN HumanRights Council in 2008. The article discusses the dilemma in which Lundbeck was placed in from the perspective of the Guiding Principles on business and humanrights and the 2008 Protect, Respect, Remedy UN Framework. The analysis seeks to assess what guidance may be gauged from the Guiding Principles in relation to the dilemma at hand and discusses the adequacy the Guiding Principles for dealing with acute humanrights dilemmas of conflicting requirements in which a decision to avoid one type of violation risks causing violation of another humanright. The article concludes by drawing up perspectives for further development of guidance on implementation of the UN Framework that could be considered by the newly established Working Group on Business and HumanRights and related UN bodies. PMID:22789041
In the human brain, the left and right hemispheres are anatomically asymmetric and have distinctive cognitive function, although the molecular basis for this asymmetry has not yet been characterized. We compared gene expression levels in the perisylvian regions of human left--right cortex at fetal weeks 12, 14, and 19 using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). We identified dozens of
Tao Sun; Randall V. Collura; Maryellen Ruvolo; Christopher A. Walsh
This thesis analyzes the construction of humanrights norms, institutions, and practices in Brazil. Bridging international relations and comparative politics, this study builds on the literature of socialization to international norms. The study argues that, in the post-transition context of democratic politics, state and societal actors and interests play a primordial role in the promotion of humanrights. It also
Despite ongoing attention to the subject, cultural accounts of the globalization of humanrights are surprisingly scarce. Most accounts describe this phenomenon either as a function of evolutionary progress or the rational\\/strategic action of states and social movement organizations. As a result, they have difficulty explaining both the moral impulse to act on behalf of humanrights and the tremendous
Daniel Price in his analysis of Islamic Political Culture and HumanRights concluded that "... government rooted in Islam does not facilitate the abuse of humanrights." A re-analysis of his data for 23 Islamic governments demonstrates otherwise. There is a significant trend (p<.03), despite the low statistical power available in only 23 cases, for an inverted quadratic relationship between Islamic Political Culture and HumanRights. Among the nations scoring low on Islamic Political Culture, the correlation between the two variables is -.01 (ns); among those scoring high on Islamic Political Culture, the correlation shifts to -.78 (p<.02). At lower scores for Islamic Political Culture, there may indeed be little relationship between Political Culture and HumanRights; however, at higher scores there appears to be a significant relationship between increasing Islamic Political Culture and a decline in HumanRights. The data suggest that extreme applications of Sharia law (if not any secular or religious legal system) may have serious implications for humanrights--or at least, Western Euro-American conceptualizations of humanrights. At the same time, support for humanrights may increase as Islamic governments shift from mostly secular to moderate applications of Islamic law. PMID:14765607
For a long time, the relationship between trade law and humanrights has been a subject of hot debate between scholars from both trade law and humanrights circles. The latest Google episode in China provided yet another chance to revisit the debate. Compared to previous cases, this case is even more intriguing for the following reasons: First, unlike previous
The incorporation of compulsory courses on humanrights into the secondary school curriculum in 1998 has been an important first step in developing respect for humanrights and responsibilities among the younger generation in Turkey. Yet, these courses have many shortcomings in terms of materials, pedagogy and teacher attitudes. This paper…
This article investigates the effect of access to media reporting and press freedom on the achievement of humanrights. Past research on the role of the media on humanrights has often been limited to anecdotal examples or limited case studies. There has been little comprehensive systematic investigation on the topic. Specifically, this article answers the questions: Do large communication
Purpose – The paper seeks to explore how globalization processes have shaped the nature, scope, and time frame of considerations of social responsibility and the development of a corporate social responsibility (CSR) regime. The paper identifies three generations of humanrights' values embedded within the Universal Declaration of HumanRights and aims to argue that they inspire and influence contemporary
This article investigates the question of how to address, in an appropriate and effective way, an internationally defined violation of humanrights that is also a cultural tradition. The practice of female genital cutting (FGC), an accepted and valued tradition, which has existed for centuries in some parts of the world, is investigated, and Amartya Sen's framework of humanrights
Children would benefit substantially if governments legally recognized same sex marriages and parenting. This article analyzes international humanrights law, co-parent adoption, and the legal recognition of gay and lesbian families. It addresses civil marriage and adoption challenges for same sex families and assesses European Court of HumanRights jurisprudence relating to same-sex adoption. This Article considers the international community's
Supporting HumanRights and Democracy: The U.S. Record 2002-2003 identifies in a more systematic way, for Congress, the American public and audiences overseas, how the U.S. Government is integrating policy with reporting on humanrights. Around the world,...
This article analyzes the effect of the Europeanization process in promoting the adaptation of universal humanrights in Turkey. I argue that the recent humanrights reforms by the Turkish government occurred as a result of Turkey's bid to join the European Union. I discuss the contradiction between the exercise of domestic sovereignty and implementation of the universal standards of
This article aims to provide an overview of the current humanrights situation of the Moro people in Mindanao. The article is divided in three parts. First, I will outline some recent evidences of massive humanrights violations resulting from the joint US-Philippine military operations. Second, I will discuss that US military intervention is not the answer to the problem
In 2001, a 3-month course in humanrights based on critical inquiry was offered to 8th graders in a slum area of Santo Domingo. The students' attitudes, behaviors and knowledge of humanrights principles were measured before and after the course. The curriculum focused on international principles and entrenched local problems such as discrimination against Haitian migrants, police brutality, violence
|In 2001, a 3-month course in humanrights based on critical inquiry was offered to 8th graders in a slum area of Santo Domingo. The students' attitudes, behaviors and knowledge of humanrights principles were measured before and after the course. The curriculum focused on international principles and entrenched local problems such as…
This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a humanrights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive?cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children’s development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the physical world, the community and the individual child. Findings support a humanrights framework
Humanrights increasingly form part of the language and approach of many international organizations, governments, nongovernmental organizations and civil society groups con- cerned with sexual and reproductive health. This application is now so widely accepted that humanrights have been named as central to achieving the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration, and also as guiding principles in the
Jane Cottingham; Eszter Kismodi; Adriane Martin Hilber; Ornella Lincetto; Marcus Stahlhofer; Sofia Gruskin
Corporate responsibility for humanrights violations has historically been approached as a domestic national issue in the United States. That is, despite international legislation governing humanrights violations in an international context, courts have generally held that the activities of U.S. corporations outside the United States involving individuals who are not U.S. citizens does not fall within the jurisdiction of
This Article focuses on the plight of the Igbo ethnic group of southeast Nigeria. It traces the historical and political evolution of Nigeria with emphasis on ethnic relations. In arguing that the Igbo are victims of fundamental humanrights violations, references are made to relevant international humanrights instruments, as well as to the various constitutional guarantees entrenched in various
Humanrights and global feminist praxis have enabled important political work that addresses the transnational scope of gender violence. While the notion of women's humanrights has this great positive potential, it has also been critiqued by scholars and activists as yet another site where uneven, global relationships are perpetuated and where addressing a material violence can perpetuate another kind
The relationship between globalization and humanrights remains highly controversial in African context. Neoliberals argue that globalization lead to growth and development generating respect for humanrights. While skeptics contend that globalization process always tends to be 'exclusive of poor' increasing inequality leading to social unrest and economic insecurity. This leads to domestic violence and conflicts, allowing governments to resort
The relationship between globalization and humanrights remains highly controversial in African context. Neoliberals argue that globalization lead to growth and development generating respect for humanrights. While skeptics contend that globalization process always tends to be ‘exclusive of poor’ increasing inequality leading to social unrest and economic insecurity. This leads to domestic violence and conflicts, allowing governments to resort
|This article reflects on experiences of attempting to infuse humanrights in the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS). Using our experiences as members of HumanRights and Inclusivity Group (HRIWG), one of the curriculum development structures set up for the RNCS, and focusing particularly on the Learning Area of…
|The incorporation of compulsory courses on humanrights into the secondary school curriculum in 1998 has been an important first step in developing respect for humanrights and responsibilities among the younger generation in Turkey. Yet, these courses have many shortcomings in terms of materials, pedagogy and teacher attitudes. This paper…
|The United Nations Decade for HumanRights Education (1995-2004) set in motion both formal and informal activities to promote the development of respect for humanrights culture through education worldwide. It is said that knowledge is power and ignorance cannot be a defence. But the maxim that says ignorance of the law is no defence is in itself…
|This case study analyzes the introduction of democracy and humanrights into the educational program of Tostan, a nongovernmental organization working in Africa. The authors show how Tostan's original educational approach created a meaningful context for integrating democracy and humanrights into its curriculum, a process that took place from…
|Incorporating recent history into the educational curricula of countries that have experienced humanrights violations combines the complexities of teaching history, teaching recent history, and humanrights education. Recent history makes a historical analysis of social reality and a historiographical analysis of the immediate. It is located…
Toledo, Maria Isabel; Magendzo, Abraham; Gazmuri, Renato
Humanrights is unique in that it has a universal affect on everyone world-wide no matter his or her nationality, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs or economic standing. In order to narrow this down, the intention of this thesis is to explore a specific topic in regards to the overlying issue of humanrights. This thesis provides evidence of
With the rise of international humanrights regimes, the continued relevance of state sovereignty is being called into question. This paper engages with the possibility for the emergence of post-national citizenship, in which universal humanrights are attached to persons rather than territories. The case of detainees held by the US at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, brings to the fore questions
Fundamental rights are preconditions for any human to act with sufficient freedom and to be allowed sufficient choice to realize their potential. The right to indigenous medicine must be recognized as a fundamental humanright for indigenous peoples. In accordance with the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine, every citizen should be allowed to benefit from the placebo effect. It constitutes an essential aspect of treatment, which is rightfully theirs on the basis of payment for health care – regardless of whether the payment is made out of pocket, or from public finance. It then follows that, the right of citizens to access the medical system of their choice should be formally acknowledged. That choice should be regarded as a Fundamental HumanRight, which should under no circumstance be denied them - not for reasons of scientific prejudice, nor commercial ambition.
Fundamental rights are preconditions for any human to act with sufficient freedom and to be allowed sufficient choice to realize their potential. The right to indigenous medicine must be recognized as a fundamental humanright for indigenous peoples. In accordance with the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine, every citizen should be allowed to benefit from the placebo effect. It constitutes an essential aspect of treatment, which is rightfully theirs on the basis of payment for health care - regardless of whether the payment is made out of pocket, or from public finance. It then follows that, the right of citizens to access the medical system of their choice should be formally acknowledged. That choice should be regarded as a Fundamental HumanRight, which should under no circumstance be denied them - not for reasons of scientific prejudice, nor commercial ambition. PMID:21829297
|Designed for teachers of undergraduate students with some familiarity with political theory, moral philosophy, and social history, this course outline focuses on individual rights and their realization in the United States and the world at large. The syllabus, arranged in 3 major parts, is subdivided into 16 sections that outline major course…
Despite the fact that the United States spends more per capita than any other nation on healthcare for its citizens, the quality of American health outcomes lags well behind every other developed country in the world. This paper proposes that it is no coincidence that the United States is also the only developed nation that does not guarantee the right
Once considered a disease primarily affecting homosexual men, HIV\\/AIDS is increasingly affecting heterosexual, monogamous women—particularly in South Africa. In its examination of HIV\\/AIDS as a gendered epidemic, this paper addresses the following: the notion of health as a humanright; the legacy of apartheid vis-à-vis gender inequality and the spread of HIV; the patriarchic nature of South African society and
|School is the major vehicle for humanism, which is, in essence, respect on human nature. HumanRights Education is important for the existence of human society in the modern globalising era. Education can function as a unifying factor and produce informed and active citizens of an interdependent world. It can provide the tools for advocacy and…
This paper explores the ways in which policy discourses have constructed rationales for addressing adult literacy over the last 50 years. In particular, we examine how policy positions the literacy learner as citizen within discourses of rights and equity. Taking the case of the UK, we compare two key documents produced at different historical…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a discourse approach to theorising human resource development (HRD) can open a "discursive space" to challenge dominant discourses within the field; enabling a more critical discourse to emerge. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses two approaches to discourse analysis, a "practice" and a…
This presentation is part of the Disability and Dependence track.\\u000a“Dependency Discourse, Disability Rhetoric and Expediency Arguments – A Genealogy of the Relationship between Feminism and Eugenic Philosophy”\\u000aAll known theories of humanrights, whether based on humanity, social contract theory, utilitarianism, or citizenship, exclude individuals from the rights-bearing community if they do not possess the specific abilities required for
Background Humanrights abuses, denial of care, police surveillance, and violence directed at IDUs have been found to impact HIV prevention efforts due to decreased attendance in harm reduction programs. The association of mental health status with rights abuses has not been examined extensively among drug users. In India, drug control laws are often in conflict with harm reduction policies, thus increasing the likelihood of rights abuses against IDUs. The purpose of this study was to describe humanrights abuses occurring among IDUs in Delhi and examine their association with suicidal ideation. Methods 343 IDUs were recruited in two research sites in Delhi through respondent driven sampling and were interviewed with a cross sectional survey questionnaire that included items on humanrights and socio demographics. Results IDUs in the study experienced many humanrights abuses. Notably among these were denial of admission into hospital (38.5%), denial of needles and syringes (20%), police arrests for carrying needles and using drugs (85%), verbal abuse (95%) and physical abuse (88%). Several humanrights abuses were associated with suicidal ideation. These include being denied needles and syringes (OR: 7.28, 95% CI: 3.03- 17.49); being arrested by police for carrying needles and using drugs (OR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.06- 6.03), and being physically abused (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.05- 2.23). The likelihood of suicidal ideation is also strongly related to the cumulative number of abuses. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that there is a high prevalence of humanrights abuses among IDUs in Delhi. Given the alarming rate of suicidal ideation and its close relationship with humanrights abuses it is essential that IDU interventions are executed within a rights-based framework.
Sarin, Enisha; Samson, Luke; Sweat, Michael; Beyrer, Chris
This review examines the role of donor human milk banking in international humanrights documents and global health policies. For countries looking to improve child health, promotion, protection and support of donor human milk banks has an important role to play for the most vulnerable of infants and children. This review is based on qualitative triangulation research conducted for a doctoral dissertation. The three methods used in triangulation were 1) writing as a method of inquiry, 2) an integrative research review, and 3) personal experience and knowledge of the topic. Discussion of the international humanrights documents and global health policies shows that there is a wealth of documentation to support promotion, protection and support of donor milk banking as an integral part of child health and survival. By utilizing these policy documents, health ministries, professional associations, and donor milk banking associations can find rationales for establishing, increasing or continuing to provide milk banking services in any country, and thereby improve the health of children and future generations of adults.
Since World War II, a comprehensive body of international law has developed to protect and promote humanrights. Three generations of rights can be delineated: civil and political; economic, social and cultural; and collective rights. The convergence of a medical rights-based campaign in the late 1970s with the emergence of the new trauma model resulted in mental health professionals playing a prominent role in documenting and protecting civil and political rights. Economic, social, and cultural rights also emerged as being pivotal, particularly in the Australian context as mental health professionals began to work with excluded populations such as asylum seekers. Consideration of third-generation rights raises important questions about the responsibilities facing mental health professionals applying the trauma model to non-Western settings. PMID:19743479
Steel, Zachary; Steel, Catherine R Bateman; Silove, Derrick
This article investigates how the idea of universal humanrights has been co-opted by the prevailing (neo)liberal consensus in support of processes associated with capitalist globalization. So-called “civil and political” rights form the core of (neo)liberal values upon which free market, laissez-faire economics are based, but the idealism of the dichotomy of first and second generation rights is profoundly ideological.
Women in the African region are overburdened with unsafe abortion. Abortion regimes that fail to translate any given abortion rights into tangible access are partly to blame. Historically, African abortion laws have been highly restrictive. However, the post-independence era has witnessed a change toward liberalizing abortion law, even if incremental for many jurisdictions. Furthermore, Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa has significantly augmented the regional trend toward liberalization by recognizing abortion as a humanright in given circumstances. However, states are failing to implement abortion laws. The jurisprudence that is emerging from the European Court of HumanRights and United Nations treaty bodies is a tool that can be used to render African governments accountable for failure to implement domestic abortion laws. PMID:22944215
Summary Previous lesion and functional imaging studies in humans suggest a greater involvement of right rather than left auditory cortical areas in certain aspects of pitch processing. In the present study, adaptive psychophysical procedures were used to determine auditory perceptual thresholds in 14 neurologically normal subjects, and in 31 patients who had undergone surgical resection from either the right or
Ingrid S. Johnsrude; Virginia B. Penhune; Robert J. Zatorre
As the United States moves toward the inauguration in January 2009 of a new President, greater attention is paid to what the country might do to restore and reinforce its traditional role as a leader in the promotion of humanrights. This essay warns against any assumption that innovation alone will assure greater enforcement of rights; its points of reference
This paper analyses, from the perspective of women's humanrights, an unsuccessful attempt to amend the abortion law in the Penal Code of Sri Lanka in 1995. The Parliamentary debate brought to the surface a number of contentious issues relating to women's right to control their sexuality and reproductive capacities, in which women were variously assumed to be promiscuous and
This article examines Kazuo Ishiguro's novel Never Let Me Go as a type of Bildungsroman that presents coded models of contemporary humanrights issues. It shows how autobiographical storytelling functions within the novel as a form of rights claim that gives voice to the suffering of an oppressed social group. The article demonstrates how the text grapples with the effects
This review considers some recent humanrights cases in the field of assisted reproduction and explores how the UK courts are seeking to weave their way through the complex legal and ethical issues in this sensitive field to balance the competing rights of those seeking infertility treatment, gamete donors and their offspring. PMID:16192077
Most labour market analyses take money wages as the sole measure of compensation for labour, thus excluding fringe benefits. We examine an extended compensation measure by incorporating mandatory collective earnings-related insurance rights: the rights of individual old age pension, sickness benefit insurance and survivors’ pension. We estimate the return on investment in human capital and the gender earnings gap in
Lena Granqvist; Jan Selén; Ann-Charlotte Ståhlberg
The nature of education that children with disabilities should receive has been subject to much debate. This article critically assesses the ways in which the international humanrights framework has conceptualised ‘inclusive education’. It argues that the right to education for children with disabilities in international law is constitutive of hidden contradictions and conditionality. This is most evident with respect
|A study was done of the civil rights status of Hispanics in Idaho with respect to issues raised at a series of community hearings sponsored by the Idaho HumanRights Commission. Testimony included concerns about state and local hiring practices; the perceived need for bilingual state social service providers and educators; the need for outreach…
|The Canadian HumanRights Act extends the laws in Canada that proscribe discrimination by establishing that each individual has the right to make the life for him- or herself that he or she is able and wishes to have, consistent with the duties and obligations of a member of society, without being hindered or prevented from doing so by…
Department of Supply and Services, Ottawa (Ontario).
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set out to halve the proportion of the population without access to basic sanitation between 1990 and 2015. The slow pace of progress has lead to a search for innovative responses, including social motivation approaches. One example of this type of approach is 'Community-led Total Sanitation' (CLTS). CLTS represents a major shift for sanitation projects and programmes in recognising the value of stopping open-defecation across the whole community, even when the individual toilets built are not necessarily wholly hygienic. However, recent publications on CLTS document a number of examples of practices which fail to meet basic ethical criteria and infringe humanrights. There is a general theme in the CLTS literature encouraging the use of 'shame' or 'social stigma' as a tool for promoting behaviours. There are reported cases where monetary benefits to which individuals are otherwise entitled or the means to practice a livelihood are withheld to create pressures to conform. At the very extreme end of the scale, the investigation and punishment of violence has reportedly been denied if the crime occurred while defecating in the open, violating rights to a remedy and related access to justice. While social mobilisation in general, and CLTS in particular, have drastically and positively changed the way we think about sanitation, they neither need nor benefit from an association with any infringements of humanrights. PMID:23165706
Bartram, Jamie; Charles, Katrina; Evans, Barbara; O'Hanlon, Lucinda; Pedley, Steve
Part I of this Note first illustrates the science of climate change and the push for biofuel development. Next, this Note uses humanrights to define the problems associated with biofuel development in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, and introduces the environmental law framework that can address these humanrights violation. Part II details the main humanrights violations in Brazil,
|Although humanrights are often expressed as universal tenets, the concept was conceived in a particular socio-political and historical context. Conceptualisations and practice of humanrights vary across societies, and face numerous challenges. After providing an historical account of the conceptualisation of humanrights in Japanese society,…
This paper examines the ways in which the relatively new, yet rapidly expanding discipline of forensic archaeology may contribute to the investigation of humanrights abuses. A brief history of the development and applications of forensic archaeology in the investigation of global humanrights abuses is provided. The paper then outlines the current procedures for investigating humanrights abuses in
There are many points of intersection between the law of the World Trade Organization and international humanrights law. This article looks at one such, where WTO law requires developing countries to introduce measures that may have disproportionately adverse impacts on the humanrights of individuals or groups who are protected under humanrights law from discrimination. Indirect discrimination of
|This article opens with a proposed framework for humanrights education (HRE), which synthesizes ideas drawn from Zinn's people's history, Sen's theory of justice and Freire's critical pedagogy. A review of the literature on HRE and humanrights-based learning suggests three existent interrelated models of HRE. Drawing on humanrights-based…
|Discusses how Elizabeth Cady Stanton's "The Solitude of Self" grounds rights in the material paradox of chance life events and the corporeal permanence of human isolation by enacting human solitude through what J. Campbell calls lyric tragedy. Reverses the ground for humanism from the disembodied rationalism of the Enlightenment to an embodied…
This handbook offers "how to" guidance on library management and provides a single source for laws, regulations, executive orders, guidelines, and court decisions on employee and employer rights and responsibilities. Detailed information is provided on: recruiting and selecting personnel; the employment relationship; wages and hours; employee…
Pakistan is a federal republic with a population of approximately 168 million. The head of state is President Pervez Musharraf, who assumed power after overthrowing the civilian government in 1999 and was elected president in 2002. He affirmed his right t...
In his address to the International Parliament of Writers in Strasbourg, 1996, Derrida proposes ‘an audacious call for a genuine innovation in the history of the right to asylum or the duty of hospitality’. Here cosmopolitanism characterises the International Parliament of Writers call for the opening of refugee cities across the world. In 2007 we have more than 40 million
Background Nepal has experienced sporadic reports of humanrights violations among sexual and gender minorities. Our objective was to identify a range of humanrights that are enshrined in international law and/or are commonly reported by sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu, to be nonprotected or violated. Methods In September 2009 three focus group discussions were conducted by trained interviewers among a convenience sample of sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu Nepal. The modified Delphi technique was utilized to elicit and rank participant-generated definitions of humanrights and their subsequent violations. Data was analyzed independently and cross checked by another investigator. Results Participants (n?=?29) reported experiencing a range of humanrights violations at home, work, educational, health care settings and in public places. Lack of adequate legal protection, physical and mental abuse and torture were commonly reported. Access to adequate legal protection and improvements in the family and healthcare environment were ranked as the most important priority areas. Conclusions Sexual and gender minorities in Nepal experienced a range of humanrights violations. Future efforts should enroll a larger and more systematic sample of participants to determine frequency, timing, and/or intensity of exposure to rights violations, and estimate the population-based impact of these rights violations on specific health outcomes
This article analyses selected cases of mass killings and genocide during the civil wars in El Salvador and Guatemala in the 1980s and the way in which the truth commissions in both countries reframed locally grounded narratives to fit the state-centred language of humanrights. Redefining wrongdoings as humanrights violations produces stories that communicate poorly with local worldviews because the 'truths' that humanrights language proposes disregard local realities and transform local conflicts into a type of 'modern', nationwide struggles. Thus, while the concept of genocide might capture well the horrendous nature of a mass killing, it will also ethnify the conflict. Comparisons between local readings and humanrights-based reinterpretations reveal a 'modernizing' or 'Westernizing' bias of international law; the article argues for more awareness about such effects in analysis as well as in policy-making. PMID:21280381
This Special Bibliography Series, Number 111 , 'In Defense of Freedom: Protection of HumanRights at Home and Abroad,' was developed by Social Sciences Bibliographer and Reference Librarian Frances K. Scott in support of the 52nd annual Academy Assembly t...
In democratic countries common standards available from international and domestic law, court decisions, scholarly works and other sources have formed on the the contents of individual humanrights. There are no common standards, however, on the applicati...
Medical ethics and law education in the UK is undergoing continuous transformation. In parallel, humanrights teaching with respect to health is expanding as a distinct field. Yet a resistance to the inclusion of humanrights in the medical ethics and law curriculum persists. In response to Stirrat and colleagues, this article seeks to highlight the mutual benefit that could be derived from an integration of humanrights into the already established medical ethics and law teaching in medical schools. It proposes that incorporating humanrights into the curriculum would add value to traditional medical ethics and law teaching and provide a promising opportunity to enhance the interest from the student body. PMID:21335572
Fitchett, Joseph Robert; Ferran, Elena; Footer, Katherine; Ahmed, Natasha
Humanrights organizations have documented a widespread pattern of abuse in Russia's orphanages and institutions for children with disabilities. Community integration is critical to attack the underlying causes of discrimination and abuse of children in institutions. While there is an immediate need to protect children in institutions, investment in improving orphanages may inadvertently strengthen an outmoded system of segregated services, delaying long-term reform. This article describes a response to abuses in institutions based on the internationally recognized right to community integration for all children, including children with mental and physical disabilities. While tailored to Russia, the framework for action described here applies to many countries in which children and adults with disabilities are similarly segregated from society in closed institutions. PMID:10438556
This article sets forth a bio-psycho-social-spiritual perspective on the needs and rights of children. Consideration is first given to the philosophical nature of need. The nature of rights is then examined in relation to need as a basis for social justice claims. Various need paradigms, such as human development needs, socially constructed needs, and needs hierarchies, are considered and compared to the rights paradigm presented in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Rationale for ratification is then presented. PMID:21361165
This article argues that the extension of the international regime of humanrights to companies has not changed the essentially\\u000a state-centric nature of the regime. The analysis focuses on three recent United Nations initiatives: (1) ‘Norms on the Responsibilities\\u000a of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with Regard to HumanRights’, (2) the Global Compact, and (3)\\u000a the work of
The goal of this chapter is to describe briefly the functions of the Commission and the Inter-American Court and provide some examples on how these organs have addressed humanrights violations in regard to English-speaking States. The States of the Americas currently have a more constructive relationship with the Inter-American Commission on HumanRights (‘Commission’) and the Inter-American Court, which
Since the early 1990s, humanrights have been a contentious issue for relations between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the European Union (EU), especially in the Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM). It is an issue that has constantly led to tensions in interregional cooperation. However, the ASEAN–EU dialogue on humanrights has, in fact, had a significant impact on
A. History and Ground Rules The causes of the 1830s 'Great Trek' of Afrikaner farmers from British rule in the Cape of Good Hope were complex but probably would have been perceived by them to be a matter of the 'humanrights' of a people with roots in the country going back close to two centuries. South African history until
An increase in average body weight has been the subject of intense attention from public health authorities over the past decade. The weight-centered health paradigm and resulting concerns about the “obesity epidemic” are the foundation for public health policies and programs around the world. International humanrights treaties describe the legal obligations of states and the moral obligations of other
|In Hong Kong, humanrights education (HRE) is considered an aspect of civic education. For decades, HRE has been poorly attended. In 2009, a new compulsory subject, Liberal Studies, where HRE can be infused, will be introduced to senior secondary students (15-18 years old). This article reviews the development of HRE within civic education,…
Immigration appeals have not received much attention from legal scholars or from public administrators. This is despite the increased interest in asylum law, practice and decisions. There is much to be considered in relation to the jurisdiction of the immigration appellate process to include humanrights issues arising in immigration and asylum decisions taken by the Home Office after 2
This report reviews the evidence for the types of humanrights violations experienced by people with mental and psychosocial disabilities in low-income and middle-income countries as well as strategies to prevent these violations and promote humanrights in line with the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The article draws on the views, expertise, and experience of 51 people with mental and psychosocial disabilities from 18 low-income and middle-income countries as well as a review of English language literature including from UN publications, non-governmental organisation reports, press reports, and the academic literature. PMID:22008426
Global challenges raised by biomedical advances require global responses. Some international organizations have made significant efforts over the last few years to establish common standards that can be regarded as the beginning of an international biomedical law. One of the main features of this new legal discipline is the integration of its principles into a humanrights framework. This strategy seems the most appropriate, given the role of "universal ethics" that humanrights play in our world of philosophical pluralism. In addition to the general standards that are gradually being established, a widespread consensus exists on the urgency of preventing two specific procedures: human germ-line interventions and human reproductive cloning.
Conclusions The HIV\\/AIDS pandemic, now well into its third decade and spreading in states as diverse as Belarus, Ukraine, Indonesia, and\\u000a Papua New Guinea, has shown us that we truly are sharing an interconnected world. As we struggle to deal with both ongoing\\u000a and emerging threats to public health, and to reach just balances of the rights of individuals and communities,
Sister Namibia (firstname.lastname@example.org), a feminist women's rights organisation based in Windhoek, Namibia, was founded in 1989 on the eve of national inde- pendence to give women a voice in the building of a democratic post-colonial society. For the first ten years, the main activity of the organisation was the production of Sister Namibia magazine. From 1999 onwards, we began to
Background to the debate The humanrights responsibilities of drug companies have been considered for years by nongovernmental organizations, but were most sharply defined in a report by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health, submitted to the United Nations General Assembly in August 2008. The “HumanRights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines” include responsibilities for transparency, management, monitoring and accountability, pricing, and ethical marketing, and against lobbying for more protection in intellectual property laws, applying for patents for trivial modifications of existing medicines, inappropriate drug promotion, and excessive pricing. Two years after the release of the Guidelines, the PLoS Medicine Debate asks whether drug companies are living up to their humanrights responsibilities. Sofia Gruskin and Zyde Raad from the Harvard School of Public Health say more assessment is needed of such responsibilities; Geralyn Ritter, Vice President of Global Public Policy and Corporate Responsibility at Merck & Co. argues that multiple stakeholders could do more to help States deliver the right to health; and Paul Hunt and Rajat Khosla introduce Mr. Hunt's work as the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, regarding the humanrights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies and access to medicines.
The WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) ascribed health disparities within and between countries to "a toxic combination of poor social policies and programmes, unfair economic arrangements, and bad politics." This article analyzes the relevance of the international humanrights framework (IHRF) to the Commission's goal of reducing health disparities with reference to both social scientific and legal scholarship. We begin with an overview of the IHRF, demonstrating its potential as a challenge to the normative foundations of the emerging global economic order. We then survey the research literature on mechanisms to ensure accountability for realization of health-related rights, emphasizing the potential effectiveness of making humanrights enforceable through the courts, and the special need for mechanisms to hold countries and international institutions accountable for obligations related to the humanright to health. We conclude by identifying three key directions for further research, policy and advocacy: comparative humanrights litigation, specifically the willingness of courts to address broad policy and budgetary issues; the conditions under which governments legislate or constitutionalize economic and social rights; and how rich, powerful countries affect economic and social rights outside their borders. PMID:20822839
Schrecker, Ted; Chapman, Audrey R; Labonté, Ronald; De Vogli, Roberto
Millennium Development Goal 8 is arguably the most significant step since the Covenant on Economic Social Rights in taking the idea of global solidarity and international responsibilities for development from a statement of principle to international policy. It commits the international community to strengthen partnership for poverty reduction, and defines benchmark targets and indicators of progress. This article examines this
Most countries have acceded to at least one global or regional covenant or treaty confirming the right to health. After years of international discussions on humanrights, many governments are now moving towards practical implementation of their commitments. A practical example may be of help to those governments who aim to translate their international treaty obligations into practice. WHO's Essential Medicines Programme is an example of how this transition from legal principles to practical implementation may be achieved. This programme has been consistent with humanrights principles since its inception in the early 1980s, through its focus on equitable access to essential medicines. This paper provides a brief overview of what the international humanrights instruments mention about access to essential medicines, and proposes five assessment questions and practical recommendations for governments. These recommendations cover the selection of essential medicines, participation in programme development, mechanisms for transparency and accountability, equitable access by vulnerable groups, and redress mechanisms.
We propose a methodology to evaluate fulfillment of the humanright to health, using eight health indicators as proxies. Each health indicator was plotted against purchasing power parity US dollars gross domestic product (GDP)/capita to control for wealth. Generalized linear regression was used to derive a "best fit" curve. An "expected" value for each variable was calculated based on the GDP/capita of each country. The observed (reported) value was then divided by the "expected" value to give a score for that variable. Scores for each variable were averaged to give an overall health-related humanrights score for each country. We believe that this report card is an initial step in the development of an effective means of monitoring health and humanrights and can become a useful tool to quantify the fulfillment of the right to health. We invite comment on the approach. PMID:17265764
Evans, Dabney P; Price, Megan E; Gulrajani, Tarun L; Hinman, Alan R
The international community has affirmed the humanright to water in a number of international treaties, declarations and other documents. Most notably, the United Nations (UN) Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted in November 2002 a General Comment on the Right to Water setting out international standards and obligations relating to the right to water. Based on the
In the human brain, the left and right hemispheres are anatomically asymmetric and have distinctive cognitive function, although the molecular basis for this asymmetry has not yet been characterized. We compared gene expression levels in the perisylvian regions of human left-right cortex at fetal weeks 12, 14, and 19 using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). We identified dozens of genes with evidence of differential expression by SAGE and confirmed these by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Most genes with differential levels of expression in the left and right hemispheres function in signal transduction and gene expression regulation during early cortical development. By comparing genes differentially expressed in left and right fetal brains with those previously reported to be differently expressed in human versus chimpanzee adult brains, we identified a subset of genes that shows evidence of asymmetric expression in humans and altered expression levels between chimps and humans. We also compared the coding sequences of genes differentially expressed between left and right hemispheres and found genes that show both asymmetric expression and evidence of positive evolutionary selection in the primate lineage leading to humans. Our results identify candidate genes involved in the evolution of human cerebral cortical asymmetry. PMID:16766703
Sun, Tao; Collura, Randall V; Ruvolo, Maryellen; Walsh, Christopher A
The situation and humanrights of people living with HIV and AIDS were explored through focus groups in five African countries (Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania). A descriptive qualitative research design was used. The 251 informants were people living with HIV and AIDS, and nurse managers and nurse clinicians from urban and rural settings. NVivo software was used to identify specific incidents related to humanrights, which were compared with the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. The findings revealed that the humanrights of people living with HIV and AIDS were violated in a variety of ways, including denial of access to adequate or no health care/services, and denial of home care, termination or refusal of employment, and denial of the right to earn an income, produce food or obtain loans. The informants living with HIV and AIDS were also abused verbally and physically. Country governments and health professionals need to address these issues to ensure the humanrights of all people. PMID:16838571
With the question “What is ‘discourse?’ “ as the starting point, this paper addresses ways of identifying particular discourses, and attends to how these discourses should be distinguished from texts. The emergence of discourse analysis within psychology, and the continuing influence of linguistic and post?structuralist ideas on practitioners, provide the basis on which discourse?analytic research can be developed fruitfully. This
|This paper argues against a trend of humanrights education, where humanrights are taught in the form of citizenship education. In my view, citizenship education and humanrights education cannot be taken as replaceable for each other. Underpinning the idea of citizenship is a distinction between "politically qualified" and "politically…
According to the United Nations, the global industry of human trafficking generates an estimated 5–7 billion dollars annually, with at least 700,000 victims every year. By all accounts, trafficking in human beings is increasing at staggering rates. Increased economic inequality, with its discriminatory impact on girls and women, ensures a supply of desperately poor women and girls willing to do
Background & objectives: The objectives of the study were to examine: right to access maternal health; right to access child health; and right to access improved water and sanitation in India. Methods: We used large-scale data sets like District Level Household Survey conducted in 2007-08 and National Family Health Surveys conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 to fulfil the objectives. The selection of the indicator variables was guided by the HumanRights’ Framework for Health and Convention of the Rights of the Child- Articles 7, 24 and 27. We used univariate and bivariate analysis along with ratio of access among non-poor to access among poor to fulfil the objectives. Results: Evidence clearly suggested gross violation of humanrights starting from the birth of an individual. Even after 60 years of independence, significant proportions of women and children do not have access to basic services like improved drinking water and sanitation. Interpretation & conclusions: There were enormous socio-economic and residence related inequalities in maternal and child health indicators included in the study. These inequalities were mostly to the disadvantage of the poor. The fulfilment of the basic humanrights of women and children is likely to pay dividends in many other domains related to overall population and health in India.
In recognition of the profound benefits of children's engagement with their rights, this article presents an experiential account of how Bolivian adolescent indigenous girls discover, articulate, experience, and advocate humanrights. This study explores adolescent girls' demonstrations of empowerment, agency, resistance, and solidarity as part of their initiatives within non-governmentally based humanrights workshops. By featuring their voices, this study
This article focuses on the Marxist characteristics of North Korea in its interpretation of humanrights. The author's main argument is that many Marxist features pre-existed in Korea. Complying with Marxist orthodoxy, North Korea is fundamentally hostile to the notion of humanrights in capitalist society, which existed in the pre-modern Donghak (Eastern Learning) ideology. Rights are strictly contingent upon
This article argues that the novel Disgrace points toward a politics of illegiblity and opacity that aligns more readily with anti-identitarian queer theory instead of rights- and recognition-based humanrightsdiscourses. Through an extended consideration of the relation between national allegory, history, and legibility, I argue that the novel sustains two interpretations of the category of lesbian-first, the national allegorical reading that erases her rights of lesbian desire in the transmission of racialized and sexual historical debts and second, Lucy's refusal of legibility as a lesbian in the national narrative and legal structures. PMID:23316842
This special issue centers around the theme of education for peace and humanrights. It contains materials concerning the practice of adult education in the Asian-South Pacific region. The journal contains 15 papers. The following papers provide regional perspectives: "Learning to Live in Harmony and Diversity" (editorial) (Rajesh Tandon); "Human…
The protection of humanrights will be critical to the success of HIV vaccine trials throughout the world. A vaccine for HIV remains our best hope to control the global epidemic. In order to launch and sustain useful and successful human trials of HIV vaccines, a partnership between scientists, governments, pharmaceutical companies, and affected communities is essential. This article provides a review of some of the key issues relevant to humanrights in the design, testing, and dissemination of HIV vaccines. The article gives specific examples from three countries -- Brazil, Thailand, and the United States -- which may initiate large-scale trials in the near future. PMID:10347374
Beloqui, Jorge; Chokevivat, Vichai; Collins, Chris
|This paper sets out findings from research that considered the interplay between English national policy developments in human resources management in higher education and the personal stories of academic staff as career participants. Academic careers are pursued in an institutional and national policy context but it was not clear that the formal…
This paper was first presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Christian Ethics, Toronto School of Theology, Toronto, Ontario in January 1977. Robert Shelton aims to focus on the concept of 'right to health care,' its related principle, 'distributive justice' in an attempt to suggest 'where we are' at present and where we perhaps ought to be heading. The paper is divided into three parts, which in their turn explore the moral grounds, the US general public's policy and the part justice and government are likely to play in the development and distribution of health care. He concludes by highlighting 'omissions', an intentional one of his own and the other a major gap in the literature.
BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health.
Isabel Goicolea; Marianne Wulff; Miguel San Sebastian; Ann Öhman
The discourse of humanrights in armed conflict situations is well adapted to respond to violence and violation, invoking internationally agreed principles of civil and political rights. However, in areas where the subject or domain of rightsdiscourse is contested or controversial, humanrights advocates appear less prepared to promote and defend such rights. Sexuality is one such domain. This paper explores the complex sexual choices women in Sri Lanka have had to negotiate, particularly widows and sex workers, within a context of ethnic conflict, militarisation and war. It argues that sexuality cannot be defined exclusively in terms of violation, even in a context dominated by violence, and that the sexual ordering of society may be subverted in such conditions. Newly widowed women and sex workers have had to negotiate self-determination as well as take responsibility for earning income and heading households, in spite of contrary community pressures. For women, political and economic rights are closely linked with the ability to determine their sexual and reproductive choices. The challenge to women's and humanrights advocates is how to articulate sexual autonomy as a necessary right on a par with others, and strategise to secure this right during armed conflict and postwar reconstruction. PMID:15242213