The purpose of the present study is to theorize oppositional discourse that has not yet been conceptualized within existing composition studies. The study examines the discourse of Amnesty International, a prestigious humanrights organization drawing its mandate from the UN Declaration of HumanRights. Amnesty International delineates and defines humanrights, providing forums in which victims and witnesses may speak
settings. Using Israel as a case study, and more specifically analyzing the Israeli press, we further develop some of the existing theoretical claims about how the global and local interact.We argue that in order to understand how the rightsdiscourse is imported into the domestic arena and how it expands once it enters the local scene,it is crucial to employ
The growing interest in humanrightsdiscourse is a welcome development for strategic lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) activism and the appropriation of such a global signifier continues to move LGBT political claims into the mainstream. However, such language appropriation or strategic deployment opens debate as to its meaning and the limits of its descriptive power. For example, the
The resolution of the slavery issue in the United States may have had more to do with economic development and political power than a shift in public morality, but there can be no question that abolitionist discourse played a major role in the expansion of America's republican vision in the nineteenth century. The debate over slavery occurred about a century
This article presents a critique of the concepts sexual orientation and gender identity, which are being employed to contest global humanrightsdiscourses by prevailing international lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) and humanrights activist networks notably in the Declaration of Montreal (2006) and, especially, the Yogyakarta Principles (2007). Theoretical analysis, informed by social theory and queer theory,
How do culturally, politically, and economically different actors define education in the UNESCO 1974 "Recommendation concerning Education for International Understanding, Co-operation and Peace and Education relating to HumanRights and Fundamental Freedoms?" This exploration of the document aims to increase understanding of the work of
Research suggests that disabled people may be at increased risk for HIV infection, yet are excluded from HIV prevention campaigns. Historically people with learning disabilities have been constructed as either being asexual or sexually uninhibited, and sex education considered to be unnecessary or potentially harmful. This article reports on findings of a qualitative study exploring the challenges expressed by participants who provide sex education for persons with learning disabilities, revealing a tension between a humanrightsdiscourse and a discourse of restriction of sexual behaviours. Sex education, in the context of HIV/AIDS, may potentially construct sex as dangerous, echoing past constructions of disabled people's sexuality as problematic. PMID:19383660
The idea of "humanrights" is a relatively new development in history, but as this website from Britain's National Archives notes in its discussion of the long trajectory of struggles for equality and so forth, "We could do worse than characterizing this history as the struggle for humanrights." This visually compelling online exhibit uses original documents from The National Archives to take a long view of these struggles and movements. Visitors can start their journey through the site by picking a time period, and then reading an introductory essay on the period. Each time period includes a timeline and links to digitized version of relevant documents, such as The Poor Act of 1601 and a poster for a Staffordshire coal miners' union public meeting from 1831. The site is rounded out by a thorough glossary and a document index.
Distinguishes between civil rights, which pertain to legal protections, and humanrights, which deal with basic rights as a human being. Discusses the worldwide quest for freedom, justice, and equality; and reviews the development of the civil rights movement in the United States since 1955. (FMW)
In this paper we argue that humanrights approaches for intellectually disabled people have failed to recognise the complexity of rights claims made by and on behalf of this group. Drawing on a research project into discourses of education for intellectually disabled people in the Eastern Cape, South Africa we discern three rightsdiscourses;
How people imagine themselves as citizens has increasingly been influenced by global rightsdiscourses. This paper highlights the process by which several hundred women in Oaxaca City, Mexico from different types of backgrounds took over state and then commercial media for a period of several months and in the process came to a gendered analysis of humanrights. Their thinking
This article, inspired by the activities surrounding the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights, examines both the development and potential of humanrights initiatives in sports. Following a general discussion of the development and status of humanrights, we turn specifically to the issue of humanrights in sports, both in terms of the humanrights of
Canadian law protects people from discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, but our public schools do not fulfill their ethical and legal obligations where sexual and gender minority youth are concerned. This article reports on a national survey study on homophobia and transphobia in Canadian high schools. Participants (n = 3,607) were questioned about school climate, harassment, school attachment, and institutional interventions. We found that schools were neither safe nor respectful for sexual and gender minority students, and we argue that ongoing exposure to this situation undermines students' respect for the Charter of Rights and their faith in adults. PMID:22214043
During the last 50 years, principles, institutions, and policies of humanrights have been developed worldwide. This book brings together European and international conventions on humanrights, the rights of women, and the users and uses of education, and places them in their wider context. It examines issues in how humanrights work, the ways in
This paper addresses key philosophical and social questions that shape the contemporary discourse on prostitution. The initial section outlines the contemporary challenges facing legislative practice on prostitution in England. This involves analysing moral and legal framework surrounding prostitution that has made the current legislative dilemma surrounding prostitution practice possible. The second part of the paper then outlines the history of the philosophy of humanrights from Aquinas to the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (1948). The paper concludes by analysing whether the current ontology employed by humanrights theory is effective in creating a system of just relatedness between agents, made visible in concrete legislative guidance. I argue that legislation guided by a fragmented teleology and ontological anthropology enables asymmetrical patterns of relatedness that can cause genuine physical and psychological harm to individuals. PMID:25344012
Created in 1989, HumanRights in China is one of the major sources of information on humanrights conditions in the People's Republic of China. The site offers press releases, reports, articles from its quarterly journal, China Rights Forum, organizational work reports, educational materials, action ideas and related links. In addition, the site covers a number of topics, including political prisoners and dissent, legal reform, freedom of association, women's rights, workers' rights, children's rights, and humanrights education. The entire site is also available in Chinese.
Migration, HumanRights and Security in Europe MRU Student Conference Proceedings 2012 Edited by Siril Berglund, Helen McCarthy and Agata Patyna #12;2 "Migration, HumanRights and Security...............................................................................................58 #12;3 "Migration, HumanRights and Security in Europe", MRU Student Conference Proceedings
Indigenous HumanRights is an edited selection of proceedings of the Australian Indigenous HumanRights Conference, organised by members of Southern Cross University in February 2000. The collection covers a range of issues relating to Indigenous humanrights including: racial discrimination and 'special measures'; removal of children; law and order; access to the United Nations; and prospects for the use
This essay examines the contemporary context of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) activism in Australia situating the theoretical and practical concerns in the ambit of survival strategies and rightsdiscourse. Drawing on media, interviews, and a specific piece of proposed legislation, the essay surveys and analyses the effects of LGBT strategies of survival that are demonstrated in public culture
This paper examines how global interdependencies and the consolidation of a humanrightsdiscourse are transforming national sovereignty. Social researchers frequently address the supremacy of state sovereignty and the absoluteness of humanrights as mutually exclusive categories. However, rather than presupposing that a universal rightsdiscourse is necessarily leading to the demise of sovereignty, we suggest that an increasingly de-nationalized conception of legitimacy is contributing to a reconfiguration of sovereignty itself. Through the analytic prism of historical memories - which refers to shared understandings specific pasts carry for present concerns of a political community - we provide an explanatory factor for the salience of humanrights norms as a globally available repertoire of legitimate claim making. While states retain most of their sovereign functions, their legitimacy is no longer exclusively conditioned by a contract with the nation, but also by their adherence to a set of nation-transcending humanrights ideals. Legitimacy is mediated by how willing states are to engage with 'judicial memories' of humanrights abuses and their articulation in cosmopolitan legal frames. Empirically, we focus on war crime trials and how legal inscriptions of memories of humanrights abuses are recasting the jurisdiction of International Law. The readiness of states to engage with rights abuses is becoming politically and culturally consequential, as adherence to global humanrights norms confers legitimacy. PMID:17168943
This paper investigates the extent to which rights-based education is utilised in textbooks from conflict-affected countries. Drawing on a unique dataset of 528 secondary social science textbooks from 71 countries from 1966 to 2008, we analyse factors that predict a rightsdiscourse in texts. We find that textbooks from conflict-affected nations
The impact of procreation on freedom, health and welfare of human beings, is considerable. This relationship, however, is not mirrored in texts devoted to HumanRights. This omission obviously implies a neglect of women's and children's rights. The history of anticonceptive methods exemplifies the struggle for these rights. This conquest, which has lasted two hundred years, is far from completed. Because of the demographic outbreak in Third World countries, an ideological conflict has appeared between first generation HumanRights concerned with individual freedom ("rights of") and those of second generation aiming at social fairness ("rights to"). Adequate political and economic adjustment between North and South is a prerequisite to any balanced compromise that would resolve this conflict through democratic, albeit intensive, birth control. PMID:2339216
The HumanRights Watch (HRW) is an independent, international nongovernmental organization with offices in 21 cities around the world (and field posts in 20 additional countries). Founded in 1978, HRW seeks to enforce fair treatment of all citizens, regardless of country, through investigation and publication of abuses. Each year, the group puts out a comprehensive World Report, which can be downloaded from the web site free of charge. The 2014 report features updates on dozens of countries, as well as analyses of themes such as The HumanRights Case for Drug Reform. For an overview of this essential document, read the Keynote, delivered by Kenneth Roth. Links to Essays, Photos and Videos, and Publications take the reader deeper into the HRWÃ¢ÂÂs recent findings.
, gay, bisexual and transgender pride festival celebrating the diversity of the LGBT community (lecture theatre) Chair: Becky Kent Scottish Transgender Alliance Bisi Alimi LGBT/HIV advocate and lecturer, Free University of Berlin (Nigeria) Monica Tabengwa LGBT Rights Programme, HumanRights Watch (Botswana
This paper focuses on the development of discourses around sexual rights, linking tendencies in official global dialogues with national and local realities. Recognizing some of the factors that have facilitated or impeded discourses and action to promote sexual rights around the world, we explore the principles and processes of framing sexual rights and sexual citizenship. We consider political opportunity and
The competing discourses of HIV\\/AIDS circulating in sub-Saharan Africa are identified. These are medical, medico-moral, developmental (distinguishing between 'women in development' and gender and development perspectives), legal, ethical, and the rightsdiscourse of groups living with HIV\\/AIDS and of African pressure groups. The analytical framework is that of discourse analysis as exemplified by Michel Foucault. The medical and medico-moral are
Urban governance on the basis of humanrights can help to set up problem solving\\u000amechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional humanrights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local authorities, many of these issues of urbanization can be solved. Where people organize themselves on
The Arthur W. Diamond Law Library at Columbia Law School maintains this excellent resource for finding materials on humanrights and constitutional rights. The metasite serves students, scholars, and practitioners as a portal to documents and Internet resources on international and domestic law related to human and constitutional rights. The information resources are divided into six sections: Country Reports, International Links, Regional Links, National Links, Documents, and Other Web Resources. Each section is clearly organized into neat lists or pop-up menus to ease navigation. Marylin Raisch -- the International, Comparative, and Foreign Law Librarian responsible for this metasite -- also provides a Hot Topics section, which posts information on current events related to human and constitutional rights.
Background The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses. However such initiatives exemplify a top-down approach to promoting humanrights which historically has had limited impact at the level of those living with mental illness and their families. Methods This research forms part of a longitudinal anthropological study of people with severe mental illness in rural Ghana. Visits were made to over 40 households with a family member with mental illness, as well as churches, shrines, hospitals and clinics. Ethnographic methods included observation, conversation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with people with mental illness, carers, healers, health workers and community members. Results Chaining and beating of the mentally ill was found to be commonplace in homes and treatment centres in the communities studied, as well as with-holding of food ('fasting'). However responses to mental illness were embedded within spiritual and moral perspectives and such treatment provoked little sanction at the local level. Families struggled to provide care for severely mentally ill relatives with very little support from formal health services. Psychiatric services were difficult to access, particularly in rural communities, and also seen to have limitations in their effectiveness. Traditional and faith healers remained highly popular despite the routine maltreatment of the mentally ill in their facilities. Conclusion Efforts to promote the humanrights of those with mental illness must engage with the experiences of mental illness within communities affected in order to grasp how these may underpin the use of practices such as mechanical restraint. Interventions which operate at the local level with those living with mental illness within rural communities, as well as family members and healers, may have greater potential to effect change in the treatment of the mentally ill than legislation or investment in services alone. PMID:19825191
This article describes the roles of Amnesty International's Medical Groups and the Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture in campaigning for and treating those suffering the physical and psychological effects of humanrights abuse in peace and war.
FREEDOM: ANIMAL RIGHTS/. HUMAN 'RIGHTS, AND SUPERHUMAN RIGHTS Corbin Fowler & Thomas Manig It is typical (even among many of the most zealous advocates of humane treatment of animals) for people to assume that the only moral issue regarding our... treatment of animals lies in our needlessly slaughtering them or causing them pain. Thus, people rightly complain about our causing the extinction of a certain species or of those who cruelly beat their pets. We, however, have come to think...
Why do teachers need to be familiar with humanrights? In multicultural societies, whose values take precedence? How do schools resolve tensions between children's rights and teachers' rights? Campaigners, politicians and the media cite humanrights to justify or challenge anything from peaceful protest to military action. The phrase "human
Contemporary philosophy of humanrights is dominated by two seemingly opposed approaches. This dissertation is concerned with the choice between them. The traditional approach to humanrights is characterized by the belief ...
Backgound The concept of HumanRights has become the modern civilising standard to which all should aspire and indeed attain. Discussion In an era characterised by widening disparities in health and humanrights across the world and spectacular advances in biotechnology it is necessary to reflect on the extent to which humanrights considerations are selectively applied for the benefit of the most privileged people. Attention is drawn particularly to sub-Saharan Africa as a marginalised region at risk of further marginalisation if the power associated with the new biotechnology is not used more wisely than power has been used in the past. To rectify such deficiencies it is proposed that the moral agenda should be broadened and at the very least the concept of rights should be more closely integrated with duties Summary New forms of power being unleashed by biotechnology will have to be harnessed and used with greater wisdom than power has been used in the past. Widening disparities in the world are unlikely to be diminished merely by appealing to humanrights. We recommend that a deeper understanding is required of the underlying causes of such disparities and that the moral discourse should be extended beyond humanrights language. PMID:11960562
The Chinese Embassy site contains statements on China's foreign policy in general, Sino-US relations, and relations with other countries. In addition, the Embassy also offers statements and papers on humanrights issues. The State Visit of Chinese President Jiang Zemin last week represented a thaw in official Sino-US Relations, which have been somewhat chilly since Tiananmen in 1989. Despite reaching agreements on a broad range of security, economic, environmental and law-enforcement issues, the two Presidents were clearly far apart on the issue of humanrights. While President Clinton made mention of the right to political and religious expression, President Jiang expressed the need for political and social stability in his country. On the whole, both leaders have achieved their goals. President Clinton has secured China's cooperation on several issues, most importantly arms control and trade, while the state dinner and formal ceremony recognized China's role as a key player in the world economy and Jiang's international position as its head of state.
The proliferation of international humanrights treaties, committees and courts over the last sixty years represents enormous achievement. International humanrights laws are now asserted throughout the world by individuals of many cultures and traditions. Yet, at the same time international humanrights ideas and principles continue to have difficulty in manifesting their relevance in the daily lives of those
This paper was presented at a working group on HumanRights Education (HRE), organised by Volker Lenhart and Christel Adick, as part of the biennial conference of the German Society for Educational Research (DGfE), held in 2000 in Göttingen. In the spirit of the United Nations Decade for HumanRights Education (1995-2004) it contributes to the global discourse about HRE by summarising its foundations in international declarations and conventions, by discussing some examples for diverse approaches and conceptions of HRE and, finally by introducing some major obstacles or problems. The paper is part of the author's PhD project in the field of HRE and presents only an interim résumé of her recent work.
To establish an objective conception of humanrights, one must first identify basic needs intrinsic to all people and then determine whether these needs are or can be hierarchically ordered. Many scholars have conducted research on the concept of human needs, particularly in the area of humanrights. Among these scholars are Abraham H. Maslow
Discusses confusion about the meaning of humanrights in the United States. Suggests that welfare rights usurp the more traditional freedom rights of the founding fathers. Contrasts American interpretations with those of the Soviet Union. Journal availability: see SO 507 190. (KC)
Let us begin with an unequivocal assertion: proper nutrition and health are funda- mental humanrights. What does this mean? What are the primary links between nutrition and health seen from a human-rights perspective? Firstly, nutrition is a cornerstone that affects and defines the health of all people, rich and poor. It paves the way for us to grow, develop,
was enshrined in, and given dynamic energy by, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which was officially adopted with the repatriation of the Canadian Constitution in 1982. Undoubtedly, the Charter focuses on the rights Accord debacles, and that hundreds of Charter-related cases were lodged in the courts across the country
In Asia, the lesbian and gay rights movements are clearly dominated by activists, who tend to think in terms of a binary opposition (homo- vs hetero-) and clear-cut categories. Based on Western patterns, the approach is practical, the arguments based on minority rights. Coming out is often perceived as a white model bringing more problems than real freedom. On the
The author considers the treatment of women's rights as humanrights in the social studies curriculum. She discusses the role of the United Nations in promoting women's rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights in 1948. She also reviews the treatment of women's rights within social studies curriculum today through a
Develops a taxonomy of four kinds of situations in which race and other grounds for discrimination become the focus of school-level controversy surrounding equality and equity. Examines the kinds of responses and discourses South African schools use to engage with the policy discourse of desegregation and humanrights and establishes an agenda for
As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and humanrights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international humanrights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of HumanRights and other international humanrights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.
Several new resources are now available (in .pdf format) at the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security Website. This resource is a reprint of Peter Gleick's fifteen-page article, "The HumanRight to Water." Originally published in 1999 in Water Policy, the paper argues that "a humanright to adequate supplies of fresh water can be derived from principles of customary international law and international treaty regimes."
This paper contributes to the study of citizenship by interrogating how young people in Nairobi (Chege and Arnot 2012) perceive their rights of citizenship. It builds on previous analyses of the connections between gender, education and poverty's poor urban settlements by focusing on the political dimensions of the young people's lives. The findings are based on in-depth interviews with 24
This paper contributes to the study of citizenship by interrogating how young people in Nairobi (Chege and Arnot 2012) perceive their rights of citizenship. It builds on previous analyses of the connections between gender, education and poverty's poor urban settlements by focusing on the political dimensions of the young people's lives. The
Humanrights concerns figure prominently on the global economic agenda. Yet little empirical analysis has addressed the prospective impact of humanrights for global economic interactions. To gain insight into this linkage, we assess the empirical relationship between humanrights and an important facet of the global economy, dyadic trade flows. Traditional arguments posit that respect for humanrights and
What are humanrights? After looking at the reasons why the ontology of humanrights should not be reduced to the humanrights legal infrastructure, and noting that the origin of humanrights in natural law is no longer a widely persuasive answer, I shall consider a number of recently popular alternatives. My purpose in examining these is to argue
A study of humanrights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of humanrights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the
National polls indicate strong American support for international humanrights. However, that support consistently ranks below national self-interests, appears to be strongly influenced by current events, and wanes as the cost of supporting humanrights increases. Although most Americans express agreement with the ideals of humanrights, a willingness to commit American resources to promote and defend humanrights is
On April 6, 1995, in New Delhi, India, demonstrators with the group AIDS Bhedbhav Virodhi Andolan (ABVA) protested against the death of an AIDS patient in Calcutta due to medical negligence. They observed two minutes of silence in the memory of Dipak Biswas and carried signs stating Fight AIDS Not AIDS Patients, AIDS Patients Have HumanRights, and Wake Up, National HumanRights Commission. The demonstrators also submitted a memorandum to the Chairman of the National HumanRights Commission and a 26-page report entitled Who's Afraid of AIDS drafted by the Drug Action Forum and the Health Services Association. The report accuses three well-known medical institutions in Calcutta for insensitive treatment of Dipak, and it brings to light the subsequent victimization of his family following his death. Dipak's brother was dismissed from his job. His mother and sister were forced to leave the area. Some important health care questions and humanrights issues the report brings up include: despite the commitment of the central and state governments to provide treatment to AIDS patients, AIDS patients tend not to receive care; hospital personnel from top management down are unaware of WHO guidelines on the management of AIDS patients and of the ethical norms concerning confidentiality; and AIDS patients and their families have no one to help them with treatment or with the social stigma. In the case of Dipak, hospital personnel did not tell his family that he had AIDS but told the press and members of the funeral party, who declined to touch his body. ABVA promotes AIDS-related humanrights issues, such as the rights of gays, sex workers, prisoners, international travelers, and professional blood donors. The group documents inappropriate practices. For example, some companies practice arbitrary blood testing of employees and prospective recruits without their informed consent. They then fire or refuse to hire persons found to be HIV positive. PMID:12319587
This article discusses human environmental rights, obstacles to community autonomy, and progress toward achieving environmental justice. An overview is provided of human environmental abuse case studies that are included in this issue of the "Human Ecology" journal. UN humanrights include, for instance, the right to an adequate standard of living, education, culture, equality, dignity, and security of the person and family. Human environmental rights abuse occurs because people live in the wrong place and because national needs are given priority over individual and community concerns. Abuse occurs because it is socially, culturally, and legally acceptable to protect the health of some people, while knowingly placing others at risk. Human environmental rights abuse occurs because of the present approach to defining and minimizing risk and the emphasis on short-term solutions. Immoral actions become socially responsible when the physical distance between those who live with adverse consequences and those who decide courses of action are great. Distancing mechanisms include decision makers who are removed from the reality of their decisions, employment frameworks and analytical methods that intellectually distance policy makers from reality, and abusive action within a broad ethnocentric framework. The environment has become a commodity controlled and manipulated by global market forces. The centralization of authority and capital acts to devalue the power of the community over its environment, to imply that the state has the power over decision making, and to increase distances between decisions and outcomes. The case studies strongly illustrate the key role of the community in maintaining resource integrity and the increasing alienation of the community from local resources as a result of development. Structural rearrangements of power come about through the struggles of community-based movements and supportive national and international politics. PMID:12291583
HumanRights Code prohibits harassment and discrimination on the basis of race, ancestry, place and all forms of prohibited discrimination. By this Policy, the University declares that all members will not tolerate any form of harassment, sexual harassment or discrimination in any University-related activity
Humanrights protections have developed to resist governmental intrusion in private life and choices. Abortion laws have evolved in legal practice to protect not fetuses as such but state interests, particularly in prenatal life. National and international tribunals are increasingly called upon to resolve conflicts between state enforcement of continuation of pregnancy against women's wishes and women's reproductive choices. Legal
he Millennium Declaration affirms both gender equality and humanrights as central commitments made by gov- ernments at the UN Millennium Assembly in 2000. The Millennium Development Goals constitute an attempt to set quanitifiable priorities in the development arena, but cannot be understood outside of the context of the broader Millennium Declaration. Equality, including the \\
Humanrights, health and development represent interdependent sets of values, aspirations and disciplines. Drawing on these domains, this article offers a theoretical and practical framework for the analysis, application and assessment of health, justice and progress. It provides a simple conceptual framework illustrating the interdependence of these domains and highlights their key features and underlying principles. It then describes the
Daniel Tarantola; Andrew Byrnes; Michael Johnson; Lynn Kemp; Anthony B Zwi; Sofia Gruskin
In the present study, a cross-modal semantic priming task was used to investigate the ability of left-hemisphere-damaged (LHD) nonfluent aphasic, right-hemisphere-damaged (RHD) and non-brain-damaged (NBD) control subjects to use a discourse context to resolve lexically ambiguous words. Subjects first heard four-sentence discourse passages ending
, sandy } @media.mit.edu Abstract We describe a system that tracks conversational context using speech of the conversation and establishes the situational context. In addition, the video camera detects frontal faces usingTracking Conversational Context for Machine Mediation of HumanDiscourse Tony Jebara, Yuri Ivanov
A collection of essays on linguistic humanrights includes: "Combining Immigrant and Autochthonous Language Rights: A Territorial Approach to Multilingualism" (Francois Grin); "On the Limits of Ethnolinguistic Democracy" (Joshua A. Fishman); "Linguistic HumanRights and Educational Policy in Russia" (Alexei A. Leontiev); "Linguistic HumanRights,
The study of humanrights is inseparable from social studies. Beyond the basic political, economic, and social freedoms and rights spelled out in The Universal Declaration of HumanRights, hundreds of specialized topics have developed that demonstrate the complex nature of humanrights in the twenty-first-century world--environmental exploitation
The concept of dignity is widely used in society, particularly in reference to humanrights law and bioethics. Several conceptions of dignity are identified, falling broadly within two categories: full inherent dignity (FID) and non-inherent dignity (NID). FID is a quality belonging equally to every being with full moral status, including all members of the human natural kind; it is permanent, unconditional, indivisible and inviolable. Those beings with FID ought to be treated deferentially by others by virtue of their belonging to a noble caste. FID grounds fundamental humanrights, such as the rights to freedom and equality. The concept of dignity forms a network of interconnected ideas related to worth and value particularly within legal and ethical discourse; it is a rich and meaningful concept, irreducible to one or two quasi-legal principles. Fundamentally, dignity matters because it forms the foundation of civilized society; without it, serious abuse of people is more likely to occur. PMID:24979874
Claims to humanrights protection made by displaced persons are displaced from the universe of humanity and rendered ineffective by the geopolitical character of modern international humanrights law, in favour of the protection of citizens' rights claims. In response, there is increasing interest in leveraging respect for and protection of the rights of displaced persons through extension of the
Summary Malnutrition leads to death, illness, and significantly reduced quality of life for hundreds of millions. People have a right to not be malnourished, as a matter of law. The right is articulated in the Universal Declaration of HumanRights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and several other
My dissertation asks whether there is a humanright to democracy. This is a difficult question, not least because there is no consensus about either what democracy requires or how to interpret humanrights. The introduction ...
The United Nations' founding in 1945 and the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights reflected the international community's growing commitment to the protection and recognition of what is now referred to as humanrights. Despite increased international attention, humanrights violations continue to occur at the local, regional,
This essay considers the extent to which international humanrights now protect, or might protect, GLBT communities. The counterpoint between the potential width of application of international humanrights instruments and their silence on sexuality has become the leitmotif of sexuality and gender identity within the international humanrights framework. In addition, there is a symbiotic relationship between the international
On the sixtieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights, feminists are at a critical juncture to re-envision and re-engage in a politics of humanrights that underscores the creative displays of grassroots resistance by women globally and affirms transnational feminist solidarity. In highlighting feminisms and humanrights that are antiracist and social justice oriented, this issue highlights new
Dana Collins; Sylvanna Falcón; Sharmila Lodhia; Molly Talcott
The Australian Capital Territory's HumanRights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT HumanRights Commission have begun to create a humanrights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)
The Global Migration Group (GMG) is an inter-agency group that is dedicated to encouraging the "adoption of more coherent, comprehensive and better coordinated approaches to the issue of international migration." Their number includes representatives from UNICEF, the World Bank and various regional commissions from the United Nations. In October 2008, they released this 144-page report in order to commemorate and reflect on the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. The report is divided into seven sections, including those dealing with the legal framework of migration, globalization and migration trends, migration data, and a concluding chapter which discusses some of the most pressing issues facing different migrant groups around the world. The report also includes three very useful appendices which deal with the policy instruments used in regards to human migration and the adoption of key United Nations legal instruments involved with international migration.
This paper recounts development of a community college humanities course titled HumanRights/Human Wrongs: The History, Philosophy, Law, Art, and Literature of the HumanRights Movement. The author argues that a special focus, interdisciplinary course provides a broader base for exploring and understanding most of the pressing issues of our time.
and the Cultural Politics of Desire and Belonging Salvador Vidal-Ortiz, American University Colombian LGBT RightsDRAFT 1 Transnational Sexualities and HumanRights: Faculty Workshop Bodies in Motion, States of Unrest: Sexuality, Citizenship, and the Freedom of Movement as a HumanRight University of Connecticut
This article seeks to answer the question raised in its title. To that end, the evolution of the United Nations Universal Declaration of HumanRights is discussed in the context of lesbian and gay rights, internationally and in the United States. The political and psychosocial dynamics of homophobic hatred are addressed, including the correlation of humanrights abuses to heterosexism
While respect for humanrights has long been endorsed as a goal of education, only recently has significant attention been paid to the need to incorporate rights within educational processes. Current support for humanrights within education, however, has a variety of motivations. This paper provides a theoretical exploration of these diverse
During his first year in office, President Barack Obama has outlined a humanrights doctrine. The essence of Obamas position\\u000a is that the foreign policy of the USA is dedicated to the promotion of the most basic humanrightthe right to lifeabove\\u000a and beyond all others and that the USA will systematically refrain from actively promoting other rights, even if
Students from the unit Living HumanRights, from The University of Notre Dame Australias Fremantle Campus, recently held an expo to raise awareness of human trafficking.\\u000aThe unit, Living HumanRights, introduces students to humanrights from a number of interrelated perspectives: global and local; professional and personal; present and historical. It explores how humanrights need to form an
A t the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) in Beijing, the international community agreed that humanrights include the right of women to control over their sexuality.l Although the terminology is contest- ed, this principle is frequently encapsulated as \\
The main provisions of the European Convention on HumanRights were incorporated into UK law in the HumanRights Act 1998. HumanRights were described by Lord Hoffman in 'Matthews v Ministry of Defence'  as the rights essential to the life and dignity of the individual in a democratic society. The fundamental nature of the rights demand that district nurses must inform their practice with a clear understanding of the main provisions of the Act and how they apply to health care. PMID:15788950
Humanity's lawthe merger of humanrights law and the laws of waris more ambivalent than first appears. The two regimes speak in one voice with respect to genocide and crimes against humanity, due process and detainee rights, and the prohibition of torture and cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. But on the military terrain of strategy, and in the conduct of
This article discusses youth and adult education in a twofold perspective: that of a humanright and that of human development. The first perspective is related to the concept of rights and the second perspective is related to the guarantee or negation of the right to development. In this article, the author discusses the universality of rights
In recent years we have noticed an increase in the turn to rights analysis in litigation relating to access to health care. Examining litigation, we can notice a contradiction between on the one hand the ability of the right to health to reinforce privatization and commodification of health care, by rearticulating claims to private health care in terms of humanrights, and on the other hand, its ability to reinforce and reinstate public values, especially that of equality, against the background of privatization and commodification. While many hope that rightsdiscourse will do the latter, and secure that access to health care should occur on the basis of need as opposed to ability to pay, it has actually been used to attempt to advance arguments that will allow access to private or semiprivate health insurance in ways that may exacerbate inequality. These types of arguments won ground in the Canadian Supreme Court, but were rejected by the Israeli Supreme Court. In order to avoid this co-optation of right to health, a notion of rights that incorporates the principles of substantive equality is required. Otherwise, one of the unintended consequences of inserting rights analysis into public health care may be that it will reinforce rather than challenge privatization in a way that may increase inequalities. PMID:23581662
Midwives as predominantly women caring for other women are subject to the same humanrights violations and abuse that affect all the women of the world. They need to know and recognise these humanrights violations before being able to take action that will reduce or eliminate such harmful practices. In this article, I address gender-based violations of the basic humanrights of particular concern to women during their childbearing years, such as personal safety, respect for human dignity, fair and equitable access to health services, along with autonomous decision-making based on complete and unbiased information. The ethical and legal foundations of humanrights are discussed in relation to viewing women as fully human, fully persons. Guidance for midwives taken from key documents of the International Confederation of Midwives are offered as midwives work together with women to end gender-based violations of one's humanrights. PMID:12381422
This article explores the possible contributions of a psychology of liberation for the practice of health psychology. It explores alternative psychological practices, for example participatory action research, with groups historically marginalized from access to power and resources. Selected lenses for crafting a liberatory psychology include: discourse of humanrights and mental health; cultural and constructivist psychological theory; and reflexivity. Specific
After the 2000 Water-War, access to water in Bolivia has become a major social demand and thus a prime and contentious political issue. The event has revealed an overwhelming opposition to neo-liberal approaches to water management and has allowed the articulation of a new discourse that sees water not as an economic resource but as a humanright. In this
In reaction to the disasters of the first half the 20th century and World War II, a dramatic world movement arose emphasizing the humanrights of persons in global society. The contrast--celebrated in international treaties, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, and much cultural discourse--was with narrower world emphases on the
Meyer, John W.; Bromley, Patricia; Ramirez, Francisco O.
Humandiscourse contains a rich mixture of conceptual information. Visualization of the global and local patterns within this data stream is a complex and challenging problem. Recurrence plots are an information visualization technique that can reveal trends and features in complex time series data. The recurrence plot technique works by measuring the similarity of points in a time series to all other points in the same time series and plotting the results in two dimensions. Previous studies have applied recurrence plotting techniques to textual data; however, these approaches plot recurrence using term-based similarity rather than conceptual similarity of the text. We introduce conceptual recurrence plots, which use a model of language to measure similarity between pairs of text utterances, and the similarity of all utterances is measured and displayed. In this paper, we explore how the descriptive power of the recurrence plotting technique can be used to discover patterns of interaction across a series of conversation transcripts. The results suggest that the conceptual recurrence plotting technique is a useful tool for exploring the structure of humandiscourse. PMID:22499664
of the Martyrs of El Salvador 7 Deportation, Migration, and HumanRights 8 Conversations at Lunch 9 PUBLICATIONS. Rooted in the ethical and religious traditions of Boston College, we train the next generation of human
Midwives as predominantly women caring for other women are subject to the same humanrights violations and abuse that affect all the women of the world. They need to know and recognise these humanrights violations before being able to take action that will reduce or eliminate such harmful practices. In this article, I address gender-based violations of the basic
Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and humanrights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and humanrights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and humanrights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and humanrights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and humanrights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and humanrights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and humanrights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and humanrights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647
States that moral educators can learn from North Americans who have challenged U.S. humanrights violations, especially violations within the United States. Uses race as an analytical tool to illustrate humanrights abuses. Concludes by discussing the implications for crossing boundaries between humanrights work and moral education. (CMK)
Due to a number of radical changes in society, the role of parents in the upbringing of their children has been redefined. In this essay, Paul Smeyers argues that "risk" thinking, and the technologization that goes with it in the context of child rearing, naturally leads to the rightsdiscourse, but that thinking about the relation between parents
The concept of a humanrights culture has been crucial to the incorporation of the European Convention of HumanRights into UK law. In this paper media and activist representations of humanrights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender humanrights are considered as indicative of an emerging humanrights culture, especially around the Civil Partnerships Act 2004. A typology
The paper argues for the existence of two powerful discourses of rurality in Denmark after World War II. The first one is termed the modernist-agriculturalist discourse. Although still influential in the current public debate, in Denmark as well as in other Western European countries, this discourse of rurality had its heyday in the 1960s. It is
Ireland's second periodic report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) presents the government's case that it is succeeding in protecting and promoting the rights of all children in Ireland. This article presents a critical discourse analysis of the government's Report to the CRC. Using a refined critical discourse
Presents a lesson on humanrights for middle and secondary school students in which they identify humanrights, cite examples of human-rights abuses and affirmations, and relate actions to the articles of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR). Explains that students identify human-rights issues globally and at home. (CMK)
In addition to offering a basis for the criticism of universal humanrights theorizing and practice, women's experience contributes to universal humanrights theory building. Women's humanrights activists' insights provide the foundation for a theory of universal humanrights that is cross-cultural and critical. In sharing their work and strategies, two online working groups of women's humanrights activists
The Inter-American HumanRights Database is an ongoing initiative of the Center for HumanRights and Humanitarian Law at the American University's Washington College of Law. The database is comprised of documents, in both English and Spanish, ratified by the Inter-American Commission on HumanRights, beginning with the commission's inception in 1960 and spanning to the present. The chronologically arranged documents include the commission's annual reports, sessional reports, and special situational reports. Currently, not all documents adopted by the commission are available. In the future, the site will include special country reports and thematic reports. All content at the site is searchable.
The author describes the interface between her organization's efforts to advance the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) people in the United States and the science generated in the field of mental health. The complexities involved in fighting for humanrights both in legislative activity and in the court of public opinion are discussed and the history of
This pamphlet uses the Articles of the United Nations Universal Declaration of HumanRights as a framework within which to describe legal safeguards of individual rights in the United Kingdom. Under each article of the Declaration, a historical perspective of the tradition of civil liberties is provided, as are descriptions of recent trends and
British Information Service, New York, NY. Reference Div.
HumanRights Watch has recently posted a new report. "Chemical Warfare in Bosnia? The Strange Experiences of the Srebrenica Survivors," investigates whether or not Serb forces used chemical agents in an attack against people fleeing Srebrenica in Bosnia and Hercegovina.
HumanRights Watch has recently posted a new report. "Limits of Tolerance: Freedom of Expression and the Public Debate in Chile," examines the extreme restrictions on freedom of speech and freedom of information in the ostensibly democratic nation of Chile.
leader. It now recognises the gravity of the situation. A joint statement by bilateral donors and the UN in Nepal has warned that "insecurity, armed activity and CPN/M [Maoist] blockades are pushing Nepal toward the abyss of a humanitarian crisis... ; and (c) planning, funding and implementing (most probably through the UN) all appropriate assistance it requests. 13. Help build non-governmental humanrights capacity by: (a) defending and strengthening national humanrights NGOs, including women...
Humanrights enforcement is an important issue within international law. Unfortunately, the status quo of humanrights within international law is unsatisfactory. Men, women and children suffer daily violations of their most fundamental humanrights...
HumanRights Watch/Asia offers a number of reports and press releases on humanrights abuses in China and Tibet. The State Visit of Chinese President Jiang Zemin last week represented a thaw in official Sino-US Relations, which have been somewhat chilly since Tiananmen in 1989. Despite reaching agreements on a broad range of security, economic, environmental and law-enforcement issues, the two Presidents were clearly far apart on the issue of humanrights. While President Clinton made mention of the right to political and religious expression, President Jiang expressed the need for political and social stability in his country. On the whole, both leaders have achieved their goals. President Clinton has secured China's cooperation on several issues, most importantly arms control and trade, while the state dinner and formal ceremony recognized China's role as a key player in the world economy and Jiang's international position as its head of state.
The United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning calls upon member states to prohibit all forms of human cloning. However, the Declaration is nonbinding and will not put a stop to cloning around the world. Scientists will continue to clone embryos in their quest to develop stem cell therapies, ultimately, their work will facilitate the birth of human clones.;Once born, human
Created to heighten teachers' awareness of humanrights issues, particularly those related to children's rights, this guide offers children knowledge and skills in developing both self-worth and empathy for others. These feelings, the curriculum argues, are the foundation children need if they are to understand their rights as children and the
Mannello, Play Wales; Dr Wendy Russell, University of Gloucestershire Children and the Media Â Neath PortWales Observatory on HumanRights of Children and Young People Rights Here: Right Now! A conference about children's humanrights 11th and 12th September 2014 Swansea University Rights Here: Right Now
In the last few years the Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children has been gathering momentum, with a submission to The United Nations Secretary Generals study on violence against children the most recent addition to the cause. Nevertheless, corporal punishment in schools is still condoned in many countries and its practice persists even where it is now
In the last few years the Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children has been gathering momentum, with a submission to "The United Nations Secretary General's study on violence against children" the most recent addition to the cause. Nevertheless, corporal punishment in schools is still condoned in many countries and its practice
This document includes two articles describing the failure of the international humanrights movement to consider or remedy the situation of women outside of the basic demand for political rights of people in general. The first article, "Women's Rights as HumanRights: Toward a Re-Vision of HumanRights" (Charlotte Bunch), emphasizes the
Electricity access is already well established within the framework of humanrights, either as an implicit attribute of a pre-existing right (such as non-discrimination or sustainable development) or explicitly in the context of eliminating discrimination against women. There is also broad acknowledgement by states of the desirability of eliminating energy poverty - for all, but particularly for the rural poor, and women. (author)
Holistic disability rights monitoring is essential in order to translate rights on paper into rights in reality for people with disabilities. At the same time, evidence-based knowledge produced through holistic monitoring has to be made accessible to a broad range of groups - researchers, representatives of disability community, people with disabilities, the media, policy makers, general public - and also has to contribute to building capacity within disability community around humanrights issues. This article focuses on the design process of a complex Virtual Knowledge Network (VKN) as an operational tool to support mobilization and dissemination of evidence-based knowledge produced by the Disability Rights Promotion International Canada (DRPI-Canada) project. This tool is embedded in the more general framework of the project grounded in a humanrights approach to disability and that acknowledges the importance of creating knowledgeable communities in order to make the disability rights monitoring efforts sustainable, advancing thus the decision making process in Canada in order to enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities. PMID:22874302
Instruments for protecting humanrights can help to channel tensions and manage intense communal conflicts. This understanding was reflected in the Good Friday Agreement acceded to in April 1998 in Northern Ireland. The utilization of humanrights language by the Unionists under pressure illustrates the important role that third parties and non?governmental actors can play in facilitating ethnic conflict management,
In July, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) issued its HumanRights report, the third such annual report issued under Tony Blair's government. The 176-page report provides a "detailed overview of the range of FCO work in the area of humanrights, from the government's responses to major humanitarian crises in Kosovo, in East Timor, or in Sierra Leone, to grass-roots projects to promote civil society, safeguard children from conflict and exploitation, and eradicate torture around the world." The report also includes a brief section on the decision of the Home Secretary not to extradite former Chilean dictator Pinochet to Spain, with a URL included for access to the full text of his statement. According to the Secretary for FCO affairs, the document is not meant as an exhaustive report on HumanRights around the world, but rather as an in-depth examination of UK efforts in this area both at home and abroad.
Explains provisions contained within the Universal Declaration of HumanRights, tracing historical beginnings of humanrights to 1945, detailing events after 1945 up to the adoption of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights by the United Nations, and explaining essential terminology used in describing humanrights instruments that have been
The relationship between religion and humanrights is an ambiguous and complex one, but there are academic, moral and political arguments for the inclusion of humanrights in religious education (RE). The Universal Declaration of HumanRights advocates education in humanrights and the English school curriculum aims to encourage a commitment to
Several contemporary scholars argue that people cannot have rights that are not socially recognised. Some of these scholars are influenced by Bentham's well-known protests against natural rights and others by the much more subtle thought of T.H. Green. In the most radical contemporary versions of the recognition thesis, rights can be only legal rights; a 'moral right' is no more
US Department of State: China's HumanRights Record is a brief description of the administration's policy of "engagement" and its results in China. The State Visit of Chinese President Jiang Zemin last week represented a thaw in official Sino-US Relations, which have been somewhat chilly since Tiananmen in 1989. Despite reaching agreements on a broad range of security, economic, environmental and law-enforcement issues, the two Presidents were clearly far apart on the issue of humanrights. While President Clinton made mention of the right to political and religious expression, President Jiang expressed the need for political and social stability in his country. On the whole, both leaders have achieved their goals. President Clinton has secured China's cooperation on several issues, most importantly arms control and trade, while the state dinner and formal ceremony recognized China's role as a key player in the world economy and Jiang's international position as its head of state.
, the rights of minorities and indigenous peoples, women's rights, the rights of migrants and refugeesINTERNATIONAL HUMANRIGHTS LAW CAS IR 306 Lecturer: Dr Amy Strecker Email: amy, structure and efficacy of international humanrights law. In this module students will investigate the legal
symposium course. Students interested in careers or scholarship (graduate or professional school) related, or social problems are highly encouraged to enroll. The Minor officially kicked off in Fall 2012. Now. HumanRights Minor Curriculum: Participating faculty hold advanced degrees in Law, Sociology
This article surveys worldwide medical, ethical, and legal trends and initiatives related to the concept of pain management as a humanright. This concept recently gained momentum with the 2004 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Chapters-, International Association for the Study of Pain- and World Health Organization-sponsored \\
This collection of reports gives a picture of educational systems from a humanrights perspective, monitoring academic freedom in the context of freedom of thought and freedom of opinion and expression. The World University Service's Lima Declaration on Academic Freedom and Autonomy of Institutions of Higher Education of 1988 is used as the
, Kevin, The Treatment of Prisoners Under International Law, by Nigel Rodley 11 HRQ 335 (1989) #12;Boyle Hamlin 3 HRQ 150 (1981) Bedau, Hugo, The Abolition of the Death Penalty in International Law, by William) Blackwell, J. Kenneth, The U.N. Commission on HumanRights, by Howard Tolley, Jr. 14 HRQ 485 (1992) Boyle
physical, verbal, or emotional abuse. Typically, bullying occurs as a pattern of behaviour in which who writes slowly due to a physical disability Everyone at UBC is protected from discrimination on any and by the BC HumanRights Code: age ancestry colour family status marital status physical or mental disability
This lecture examines problems of global child abuse from a humanrights perspective, balancing the "good news" of the international concern for children's welfare against the scale of the crisis it reflects. The author recommends that child advocates embrace a "pessioptimistic" attitude, acknowledging these extremes by disallowing both naivete
Let us think about the relationship between humanrights and global climate change in terms of the idea that we live or our supposed to live within the framework of a single world economy and that economic progress involves the removal of all impediments to commercial exchange. Carla Hill, George H.W. Bush's US trade representative, spoke for this vision of
"Good" Worms and HumanRights John Aycock Department of Computer Science University of Calgary 2500 to limit certain material flowing into or out of China, such as information about Tiananmen Square. On one. Attempts to access forbidden material yield results akin to network or server prob- lems [22, 32]. Accurate
This essay reconsiders anti-foundationalism, the majority position in humanrights theory, not once more from a rationalist foundationalist perspective but from a post-secular perspective. Post-secularism offers a relatively new vantage point from which to consider anti-foundationalism in humanrights theory. That vantage point leads this essay to its first claim, which is that anti-foundationalists provide no compelling motive for upholding
This article examines infectious disease laws in Japan from a humanrights perspective using international standards. Background In public health, frameworks and assessments integrating humanrights concerns are beginning to be developed. One challenging area is infectious disease control where humanrights offer and approach for addressing the rights and health of infected and vulnerable populations. Methods We examined the
This 2001 edition of Educational International's (EI) "Barometer on Trade Union and HumanRights in the Education Sector" focuses on four fundamental humanrights: (1) the right to education; (2) academic freedom; (3) children's right to be protected from exploitation; and (4) workers' rights to form and join trade unions and to organize and
It has long been a basic tenet of the common law that there can be no property interest in human bodies or body parts. However, exceptions to the rule have been recognised from the mid-19th century and developed over time. In the early 21st century, there have been interesting developments in the common law of Australia and England, with Australian Supreme Court judges and the English Court of Appeal casting aside existing exceptions, and finding property rights in human body parts, including gametes, by relying instead on a "rational" and "logical" basis to identify property interests in human body parts. PMID:23600194
The right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being is being denied to vast numbers of people all over the world through increasing disparities in income and in wealth. In the name of economic development, a number of international and national policies have increased the grossly uneven distribution of income, with ever-growing numbers of people living in poverty as well as in increasing depths of poverty. Globalization, crippling levels of external debt, and the 'structural adjustment' policies of international agencies have expanded the numbers and the suffering of people living in poverty and have resulted in the neglect of government-funded social programs, of regulations protecting the environment, and of human development. Access to medical care, an essential element in the protection of health, is difficult for many, including the 44 million people in the United States who lack insurance coverage for the cost of medical care services. Working together for health and humanrights also requires promotion of the right to peace. The right to life and health is threatened not only by the existence and active deployment of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and anti-personnel landmines, but also other weapons. The twentieth century has been the bloodiest in human history, with an estimated 250 wars, more than 110 million people killed, countless people wounded and at the least 50 million refugees. Health workers must work together with people in our communities for the promotion of health and humanrights, which, in Sandwell and elsewhere, are inextricably intertwined. PMID:11130630
This article starts from a rights-based premise: freedom of movement is an established humanright recognised in a range of international instruments. The right to leave one's own country is one aspect of this general concern with free movement. This article addresses the status of this right under international law, a right that is enshrined in several different international instruments
While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of humanrightsdiscourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states' ability to act in their population's interests, yet implementation of humanrights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central to the actions required of the state to build a health system based on a humanrights approach is the notion of accountability. Two case studies are used to explore the constraints on states meeting their humanrights obligations regarding health, the first drawing on data from interviews with parliamentarians responsible for health in East and Southern Africa, and the second reflecting on the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The case studies illustrate the importance of a humanrights paradigm in strengthening parliamentary oversight over the executive in ways that prioritise pro-poor protections and in increasing leverage for resources for the health sector within parliamentary processes. Further, a rights framework creates the space for civil society action to engage with the legislature to hold public officials accountable and confirms the importance of rights as enabling civil society mobilization, reinforcing community agency to advance health rights for poor communities. In this context, critical assessment of state incapacity to meet claims to health rights raises questions as to the diffusion of accountability rife under modern international aid systems. Such diffusion of accountability opens the door to 'cunning' states to deflect rights claims of their populations. We argue that humanrights, as both a normative framework for legal challenges and as a means to create room for active civil society engagement provide a means to contest both the real and the purported constraints imposed by globalisation. PMID:21511377
Human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) should not be reduced to a problem of supply and demand of organs for transplantation, a problem of organized crime and criminal justice, or a problem of voiceless, abandoned victims. Rather, HTOR is at once an egregious humanrights abuse and a form of human trafficking. As such, it demands a human-rights based approach in analysis and response to this problem, placing the victim at the center of initiatives to combat this phenomenon. Such an approach requires us to consider how various measures impact or disregard victims/potential victims of HTOR and gives us tools to better advocate their interests, rights and freedoms. PMID:23743564
Liberation Theology has played an important role in the development of the humanrights movement in Latin America. This paper gives an outline of its basic perspective on humanrights and refers to its historical basis. The Latin American Catholic liberation?theological perspective is described as one important voice in the emergence of a new global ethic centred on humanrights.
This ERIC Digest outlines what is meant by the phrase humanrights and the origin of the concept. It also traces the delineation of the concept of humanrights from the 17th century antecedent of "natural rights" to its eventual incarnation as inherent political or personal rights, such as freedom of speech, press, assembly, and religion. The
This article examines contributions to argument on Internet sites concerned with animal rights. As this is part of a project examining how rights and cases are constructed and contested through argument, the texts considered are selected from sites that take an explicit stance for or against animal rights. Our reading of these texts highlights the strategies used by pro- and
Proposes four elements of a humanrights strategy to achieve an equitable society: (1) strengthen humanrights law enforcement and training; (2) stop blaming the victims; (3) work together on mutual concerns; and, (4) support each other. (Author/JM)
Excerpts from 100 speeches, essays, and legal documents dating from classical times to the present illustrate the record of humanrights discussion over the centuries. The compilation was made in 1968 to mark the 20th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. The readings indicate that humanrights initially meant freedom from a
Bureau of Public Affairs (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.
Maintains that the high poverty levels in the United States implies that the goals of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR) have not yet transformed the reality of U.S. citizens. Describes the national campaign called "Economic HumanRights: The Time Has Come!" that combats the violations of basic humanrights like poverty. (CMK)
General statements of basic entitlements are established as a guide for potential laws and regulations protecting humanrights. Humanrights are those claimed to belong to every individual regardless of nationality or position within society. The historical evolution of humanrights relative to health in the Republic of South Africa is discussed. PMID:25080665
Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent womens humanrights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on universal humanrights are often removed from the reality of adolescent womens everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent womens understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and rights exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal humanrights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are far more complex in environments where married adolescent women and their families live in conditions of poverty and socioeconomic deprivation. PMID:22376023
Joint Statement on the Rights of LGBT Persons at the HumanRights Council Fact Sheet Office not seen in previous LGBT statements at the UN, including: welcoming attention to LGBT issues as a part of the Universal Periodic Review process, noting the increased attention to LGBT issues in regional humanrights
This article explores various strategies which could be used to hold the tobacco industry accountable for humanrights violations precipitated by its conduct. First, a brief overview of the international humanrights regime and the tobacco related jurisprudence issued by humanrights treaty bodies is provided. The article then explains how tobacco control advocates could promote more systematic consideration of governments' tobacco related humanrights violations by reconceptualising the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the language of rights. The feasibility of using the existing humanrights framework to target the tobacco industry directly is analysed with the conclusion that this approach has serious limitations. Emerging humanrights norms, which have greater potential to affect the industry's conduct, are presented. Finally, given the questionable authoritativeness of these norms, alternative ways that they could be employed to hold tobacco companies accountable for the rights related consequences of their activities are proposed. PMID:16046696
Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as the problem, and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Humanrights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally. PMID:19553779
Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J.
Coarse coding is the activation of broad semantic fields that can include multiple word meanings and a variety of features, including those peripheral to a word's core meaning. It is a partially domain-general process related to general discourse comprehension and contributes to both literal and non-literal language processing. Adults with damage to the right cerebral hemisphere (RHD) and a coarse coding deficit are particularly slow to activate features of words that are relatively distant or peripheral. This manuscript reports a pre-efficacy study of Contextual Constraint Treatment (CCT), a novel, implicit treatment designed to increase the efficiency of coarse coding with the goal of improving narrative comprehension and other language performance that relies on coarse coding. Participants were four adults with RHD. The study used a single-subject controlled experimental design across subjects and behaviours. The treatment involved pre-stimulation, using a hierarchy of strong and moderately biased contexts, to prime the intended distantly related features of critical stimulus words. Three of the four participants exhibited gains in auditory narrative discourse comprehension, the primary outcome measure. All participants exhibited generalisation to untreated items. No strong generalisation to processing non-literal language was evident. The results indicate that CCT yields both improved efficiency of the coarse coding process and generalisation to narrative comprehension. PMID:24983133
Blake, Margaret Lehman; Tompkins, Connie A; Scharp, Victoria L; Meigh, Kimberly M; Wambaugh, Julie
Great progress has been made in the international protection of humanrights since 10 December 1948 (when the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of HumanRights). Amidst the doom and gloom of the media's reporting of current affairs, it is easy to overlook this progress. This article provides a definition of 'humanrights' and examines early humanrights campaigns. It then considers the areas of progress: humanrights are now part of the international political vocabulary, there is a recognition that respect for humanrights can assist a country's economic and social development, there has been a growth of humanrights treaties and techniques and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) see protecting humanrights as a major activity. State sovereignty has been eroded as national governments are being held accountable to the international community for their humanrights policies. A new challenge is to ensure respect for humanrights by non-state entities, such as transnational corporations. The growing culture of international protection of humanrights is here to stay. This is not a reason for complacency, but it is a sign of hope. PMID:12201086
Remarkable progress has been made towards the recognition of sexual minority rights in Africa. At the same time, a marked increase in attacks, rhetorical abuse, and restrictive legislation against sexual minorities or homosexuality makes activism for sexual rights a risky endeavour in many African countries. Campaigns for sexual rights and coming out are frequently perceived as a form of Western cultural imperialism, leading to an exportation of Western gay identities and provoking a patriotic defensiveness. Cultures of quiet acceptance of same-sex relationships or secretive bisexuality are meanwhile also problematic given the high rate of HIV prevalence on much of the continent. This article examines specific initiatives that are using subtle, somewhat covert means to negotiate a path between rights activism and secretive bisexuality. It argues that strategies primarily focused on health concerns that simultaneously yet discreetly promote sexual rights are having some success in challenging prevalent homophobic or silencing cultures and discourses. PMID:22826897
Dorothy Height, is a legendary figure in the American civil rights movement and in the broader worldwide humanrights movement. As President of the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW), she worked tirelessly toward the enactment of civil rights and for equal rights in education, housing, and employment. PMID:12500647
The concept of human dignity plays an important role in the public discussion about ethical questions concerning modern medicine and biology. At the same time, there is a widespread skepticism about the possibility to determine the content and the claims of human dignity. The article goes back to Kantian Moral Philosophy, in order to show that human dignity has in fact a determinable content not as a norm in itself, but as the principle and ground of humanrights and any deontological norms in biomedical ethics. When it comes to defining the scope of human dignity, i.e., the question which entities are protected by human dignity, Kant clearly can be found on the "pro life"-side of the controversy. This, however, is the result of some specific implications of Kant's transcendental approach that may be put into question. PMID:20411338
This article assesses the range of measures in place in South Africa to protect the humanrights of women and establish their equality. The Constitution, the National Action Plan, ratified international law and domestic law all aim, or claim, to prioritise the right treatment of women in South Africa. On paper then, there is a humanrights culture which is
Genetic engineering for purposes of human enhancement poses risks that justify regulation. I argue, however, that it is inappropriate to use humanrights treaties to prohibit germ-line genetic engineering whether therapeutic or for purposes of enhancement. The scope and weight of humanrights make them poor tools for regulating a rapidly developing technology such as genetic engineering. On the other hand, international treaties are appropriate regulatory tools as long as prohibitions are not put in terms of humanrights.
In the decade since its introduction, the HumanRights Act 1998 has had a profound effect on the way district nurses practice. New laws underpinning the principles and obligations of humanrights law have seen a gradual legalisation of health care and a reigning in of the discretionary powers of health professionals such as district nurses.This article reflects on the HumanRights Act 1998's influence on district nurse practice. PMID:19966686
Contemporary international legal theorists and policymakers have endorsed the concept of human security in an effort to mitigate the same categories of suffering that Hannah Arendt sought to address with her concept of a right to have rights. Like Arendt, human security theorists and practitioners today focus on the plight of individuals in distress as a consequence of the unrealizability
This article examines the fi rst International Conference on HumanRights, held in Tehran in April and May 1968. At Tehran, a powerful bloc of Asian, African, and Arab states successfully asserted their control over the UN's HumanRights Program. Their aggressive conference diplomacy was the culmination of a major transition in UN politics, with supposedly Western notions of individual
The Australian HumanRights and Equal Opportunity Commission visited over 50 communities throughout Australia to assess the state of humanrights in rural, regional, and remote Australia. Education and health services predominated the discussions. Rural children, especially Aboriginal children, have lower school attendance and completion rates
Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value
Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.
as exacerbating the sex trafficking market. And whileThe worldwide market for sex: A review of international andsex trading After Asia, Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union are extremely fast growing markets
consequences of sex trafficking in the United States. Insex trade: Trafficking of women and children in Europe and the United States.sex trade: Trafficking of women and children in Europe and the United States.
The end of the Cold War ushered in a paradigmatic shift in international development discourse whereby a humanrights-based approach to development was generated. This shift has stimulated the pegging of international development policy to the objectives of the humanrights regime. However, in attempting to unify development and humanrights
Female circumcision excites strong emotions both from those against and those in favour of its continuation. It highlights the opposition between those who argue that there are rights which are universal to the whole of humanity and those who argue that rights are relativised to particular cultures. Women's rights are particularly contentious because, unlike imprisoning political opponents, or torture, which
It is argued that the view of nature and the relationship between human beings and nature that each of us holds impacts our decisions, actions, and notions of environmental responsibility and consciousness. In this study, I investigate the discursive patterns of selected environmental science classroom resources produced by three disparate
The protection of irregular migrants' health-related rights brings to the fore the tensions that exist between humanrights, citizenship and the sovereign state, and exposes the protection gaps in the international humanrights regime. With this in mind, I consider the merits of a vulnerability analysis in international humanrights law (IHRL). I posit that, detached from specific groups and reconceptualised as universal, vulnerability can be reclaimed as a foundation and tool of IHRL. I further contend that the deployment of a vulnerability analysis can alleviate the exclusionary dimension of IHRL and extend protections to irregular migrants. On this basis, I investigate the development of a vulnerability analysis in the case law of the European Court of HumanRights. I argue that, in contrast with the Court's vulnerable population approach, a vulnerability analysis can improve protection standards for irregular migrants in the field of health. PMID:25199397
This paper reviews how humanrights advocates during the "war-on-terror" have found new ways to use the World Wide Web (Web) to combat humanrights abuses. These include posting of humanrights reports; creating large, open-access and updated archives of government documents and other data, tracking CIA rendition flights and maintaining blogs, e-zines, list-serves and news services that rapidly distribute information between journalists, scholars and humanrights advocates. The Web is a powerful communication tool for humanrights advocates. It is international, instantaneous, and accessible for uploading, archiving, locating and downloading information. For its humanrights potential to be fully realized, international law must be strengthened to promote the declassification of government documents, as is done by various freedom of information acts. It is too early to assess the final impact of the Web on humanrights abuses in the "war-on-terror". Wide dissemination of government documents and humanrights advocates' reports has put the United States government on the defensive and some of its policies have changed in response to public pressure. Even so, the essential elements of secret prisons, detention without charges or trials, and illegal rendition remain intact. PMID:19289894
This article aims to show the existence of important failures in the field of HumanRights and equal possibilities in health. Humanrights are analyzed an developed in the field of public and social health in our country. Ethics is the main field proposed to reach solutions in the context on EPEP (Etica para la erradicación de la pobreza). PMID:17643140
Humanrights create a protective zone around persons and allow them the opportunity to further their valued personal projects without interference from others. This article considers the relationship between humanrights and the general ethical principles and standards contained in the American Psychological Association's (APA's) code of ethics as applied to the forensic domain. First, it analyzes the concept of
Recent years have seen notable progress on issues of gender and humanrights in standard-setting and to some extent application of those standards through international and domestic legislation and jurisprudence, and in institutional programming and development. Some international and regional humanrights bodies now go beyond just including women in a list of vulnerable groups, and have begun to incorporate
Research on the humanrights movement emphasizes direct changes in nation-states, focusing on the efficacy of treaties and the role of advocacy in mitigating immediate violations. However, more than 140 universities in 59 countries established academic chairs, research centers, and programs for humanrights from 1968-2000, a development that
Published this month, this annotated Webliography offers a host of sites and Internet resources devoted to humanrights issues, with an emphasis on activism. Elisa Mason, the author, categorizes the resources under Starting points, Web directories and meta sites, Organizations, Annual surveys, and Lists. HumanRights on the Internet is part of the Association of College & Research Libraries News series.
Rights Conflict Resolution and Complaints Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Part VI Systemic Issues by understanding, respect, peace, trust, openness and fairness. 3. We believe that universities have a mandate
Humanrights, an issue of political debates in the last decades, listed in the United Nations Declaration of 1946 are rooted in the humanistic tradition of philosophy and religion. The UN declared their universal character and made state organizations responsible for their observation. Among all humanrights that for freedom is usually perceived as crucial. Psychiatry developed in Europe primarily a caring function. The medical model developed in psychiatry through the 19th c. supplied the criteria for medical diagnosis of mental disturbance, and elaborated a system of treatment which included long term hospitalization. Medicalization of psychiatry (recently coming back) is a force which gives courage to those who suffer, to their families, and to professionals as well. This power however, can be easily abused, when a psychiatrist adopts a position of someone who knows better that which is good for his/her patient. Legal regulations of the circumstances of psychiatric treatment, especially treatment against the patient's will should prevent the abuse of the mentally disturbed person's right for freedom. The goal is usually achieved by clear description of clinical and other conditions under which a person can be committed, and by establishing the committed person's right to claim the decision to be unjust. Poland is a country without legal regulation in the area of mental health (there are only administrative acts). For more than sixty years several projects on mental health law have been worked on. The last one which came to the Sejm (parliament) in 1980 was withdrawn by the "Solidarity" Trade Union. At present, the membership of Poland in international organizations makes an introduction of mental health law an obligation. Having no legal regulation, Polish psychiatry has been a self-regulating system. It is worth to note that even in the hard Stalinist period (1947-1956) there was no abuse of psychiatry for political reasons. The main reason for Polish psychiatry staying free from political abuse is seen in the role of internalized norm of human dignity. But others should also be taken into account. It was a specificity of the political situation that the ruling powers did not insist that psychiatrists cooperate. On the other hand the integration of the Polish psychiatric community was helpful in observing the rule of non-collaboration. One of the most important factors is seen as the experience and memory of NAZI crimes in the field of psychiatry in Poland. Extermination of psychiatric patients had to leave the feeling of the importance of psychiatrist's own responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8356170
Anthropologists working in arenas of humanrights advocacy must be prepared to negotiate dilemmas of human responsibility. Those focusing on racial discrimination as a breach of international humanrights conventions must contend with trends in social research that feed into politically consequential claims that neither race nor racism exist as significant social facts. An examination of the global sociocultural and geopolitcal landscape, the humanrights system, and models of change reveals that contemporary racism in both its marked and unmarked varieties warrants anthropologists' critical scrutiny and, depending on individual epistemological and political inclination, sociopolitical intervention. PMID:11193018
This article reports on a study that examined how religious discourses of inclusion and exclusionin Roman Catholic, evangelical\\u000a Protestant, and Afro-Brazilian religious traditionsaffected peoples rights to express same-sex sexual desires, behaviors,\\u000a and identities in the socioeconomically marginalized urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using extended ethnographic\\u000a observation of institutions and religious events over a period of 2 years, the
Jonathan García; Miguel Muñoz Laboy; Vagner de Almeida; Richard Parker
Advances an approach to analysis of discursive intercontextuality through theories of space-time production. Argues management of multiple contexts within school-related discourse is an important means of discursively producing identity, agency, and power relations. Draws data from an ethnographic and discourse-based study of an extended school
The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and humanrights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community
Physicians for HumanRights (PHR) conducted a study in early 1998 to assess the health and humanrights conditions of Afghan women and girls living under the Taliban regime in Kabul. This paper highlights the concerns and experiences of adolescent girls in Kabul, includes a brief overview of the political situation in Afghanistan and Taliban policies toward women and girls, and presents findings from interviews with adolescent girls and women with adolescent daughters. It concludes with a discussion of current international standards for the protection of women's and girls' rights and the crucial role of health professionals in helping defend these rights. PMID:10441924
s fiction subverts the human dignity discourse while Kazuo Ishiguros work is enmeshed in it. Coetzee generates sympathy for humans who lack the sense of human dignity and act on mere instinct. He offers ?disgrace? as a spiritual-ethical state of sensuality...
This article seeks to 1) stimulate debate on the tension between democracy and humanrights that arises from the fact that the organizational unit of modern democracy remains the state, which is incompatible with the quest for transnational humanrights based on a transcendent human identity, and 2) explore this tension as it is revealed in migration policy in South Africa. The introduction of the article critiques the criticisms offered by contemporary writers as grounds for an overhaul of current migration policy. Next, the article presents an analysis of modern, state-based democracy and of the rise of international humanrights, with a focus on the following trends: 1) development of the notion of citizenship resulting from a view of the state as the guarantor but not the progenitor of rights, 2) the growth of humanrights traditions in industrialized democracies as judicial activism countered populist and nationalist inclinations of national legislatures, and 3) the growth of an international humanrights juridical tradition. The article then highlights the issues raised within the migration policy debate in South Africa since 1994 and examines the 1997 Draft Green Paper on International Migration. It is concluded that, because South Africa fits the general pattern of a receiving state, an overly ambitious humanrights approach to immigration will conflict with the exigencies of the new democracy as it builds institutional capacity. PMID:12294201
Human beings have always desired to claim their rights, even in times when only a small proportion of the population was considered fully human and the rest were slaves, servants, uncivilized, colonized, underdeveloped, or, in the recent euphemism, "developing". The French Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 marked the 1st time in history that rights for all people were publicly affirmed. The rights in question were essentially constitutional and political, but the idea of claiming rights had been born. In 1948, the international community approved the Universal Declaration of HumanRights which encompassed all types of rights. Other international acts on civil and political rights and the rights of women and children have complemented and interpreted the 1948 document. The Universal Declaration of HumanRights affirmed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that all persons have a right to satisfaction of economic, social, and cultural needs. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women referred in its preamble to the particular disadvantages of women living in poverty and affirmed the right of all women to education in health and family welfare, including family planning, as well as to medical and family planning services. Women were affirmed to have the same rights as men to decide freely and in an informed manner on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education, and means to exercise these rights. The United Nations has demonstrated its interest in Population Commission in 1946 and of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, and through decennial worldwide population conferences in 1954, 1965, 1974, and 1984. UN demographic goals include reduced fertility on a worldwide basis, a reduced proportion of women not using reliable contraception, a substantial reduction of early marriage and adolescent pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal mortality, a life expectancy of at least 62 years in all countries, and a better geographic distribution of population within national territories permitting rational use of resources. Governments which subscribed to the declaration and conventions on humanrights should respect their promises. Population growth which outpaces increases in production will make it increasingly difficult to satisfy the rights and needs of all population sectors. A government confronted with this problem is obliged to explore every possible means of increasing production but must also seek to control population growth. Contraception is a legitimate means of achieving this end. PMID:12316572
This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of humanrights and womens rights\\u000a in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case\\u000a that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second misconception is that
Since Einstein first visited Shanghai on 1922, he was deeply and constantly concerned about the cases of injustice, suppression, and humanrights abuses in China. The strong sense of social responsibility shown by Einstein is an illustrious role model for Chinese intellectual, especially physicists, who advocate the universal principle of humanrights. I will briefly review this history. I will also briefly report what have been done and is doing by Chinese physicists in the long and difficult journey toward democracy and humanrights of China.
The discussion of humanrights in China is based on the White Paper issued by the Information Office under the State Council on November 1, 1991. China is the most populous country in the world at 1.14 billion in 1990. Annual increases of 17 million are expected even with family planning (FP). The area of cultivated land/capita has dropped to 1.3 mu (16.5% of an acre)/capita, or 25% of the world average. Fresh water resources have also dropped similarly. The amount of grain.person is 22% of that in the US. 25% of additional income to the national income is consumed by newborns annually. Savings have been cut and reinvestment in economic development has been slowed. There are pressures on all social and economic systems. There is acknowledged success in FP. The birth rate has dropped to 21.06.1000 in 1990, the rate of natural increase to 14.39%/1000, and the fertility rate to 2.31. These figures are lower than the averages for other developing countries. The FP policy is to promote deferred marriage and childbearing, fewer but healthier births, and 1 child/couple. Rural families who are having difficulties may after an interval of several years have a 2nd child. Minority nationalities are being encouraged to adopt FP voluntarily. Han requirements are different. The policy has been understood and supported by the masses and has contributed to the drop in 3rd and higher parity births to 19.32% in 1989 from 62.21% in 1970. The government role is one of guidance and persuasion within the law, and cannot be accomplished by administrative decrees alone. The government has given priority to enlightening the masses through publicity and education that birth control has a direct impact on the nation's prosperity and people's happy family life. The China FP Association has set up 600,000 grass roots branches with 32 million members to assist in aiding the masses in self-education, self-management, and self-service. Ideological education has been combined with helping the masses solve practical problems. FP identifies contraception as protection of maternal and child health. 75% of couples of childbearing age practice contraception. Coercive abortions are resolutely opposed. Induced abortion in cases of contraceptive failure are voluntary and safe. The abortion ratio is comparable to world rates, but lower rates are targeted. Policy objectives are to control population growth and improve the quality of human resources. Maternal and child health care is provided. Law forbids infanticide. Policy conforms to item 9 of the UN Mexico City Declaration on Population and Development, 1984, and the UN World Population Plan of Action. PMID:12317280
We reviewed evidence from more than 900 studies and reports on the link between humanrights abuses experienced by people who use drugs and vulnerability to HIV infection and access to services. Published work documents widespread abuses of humanrights, which increase vulnerability to HIV infection and negatively affect delivery of HIV programmes. These abuses include denial of harm-reduction services, discriminatory access to antiretroviral therapy, abusive law enforcement practices, and coercion in the guise of treatment for drug dependence. Protection of the humanrights of people who use drugs therefore is important not only because their rights must be respected, protected, and fulfilled, but also because it is an essential precondition to improving the health of people who use drugs. Rights-based responses to HIV and drug use have had good outcomes where they have been implemented, and they should be replicated in other countries. PMID:20650514
Jürgens, Ralf; Csete, Joanne; Amon, Joseph J; Baral, Stefan; Beyrer, Chris
The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of HumanRights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the humanright to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other humanrights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international humanrights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision-known as 'domestic-plus' services-the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. PMID:24337891
Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily
This article on the efforts of women in Venezuela to gain access to their humanrights opens by noting that the most significant gains in this 80-year struggle have occurred in the past 20 years because activists 1) consistently framed women's issues as critical to attaining the goals of social justice and democracy, 2) built flexible coalitions among diverse groups of women, and 3) kept the issue before the public. The next section offers an historical perspective for these contemporary strategies by locating their origins in women's participation in political movements to end dictatorships and repression during the 1920s and tracing women's advancement from the gaining of the full right to vote in 1947 through the 1995 establishment of the National Council on Women. The article continues with a look at how the humanrights agenda was reframed in the 1990s to include issues of violence against women and political participation and to increase public recognition of these issues. Consideration of new opportunities and continuing challenges focuses first on how spaces were created for new discourses by an erosion of confidence in public officials and a series of national protests and then on the related opportunity of a rapid rise in nontraditional presidential candidates. Next, the article details efforts to increase women's political participation as a humanright and defense of democracy and to promote the idea that freedom from violence (poverty, sexual harassment, physical and emotional abuse, control over sexuality, rape and incest) is a humanright. The article concludes by reemphasizing the importance of adopting a flexible style of networking and of recognizing that legislation merely provides the basis for action. PMID:12157789
The article examines the convergences and contrasts between social epidemiology, social medicine, and humanrights approaches toward advancing global health and health equity. The first section describes the goals and work of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The second section discusses the role of humanrights in the Commissions work. The third section evaluates, from the perspective of social epidemiology, two rights-based approaches to advancing health and health equity as compared to a view that focuses more broadly on social justice. The concluding section identifies four areas where social epidemiologists, practitioners of social medicine, and health and humanrights advocates can and must work together in order to make progress on health and health equity. PMID:21178186
Venkatapuram, Sridhar; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael
A subset of humanrights that's the focus of this briefing is the rights of workers in maquilas or maquiladoras. Maquilas are factories that produce for export; most are foreign owned. In form and function, maquilas are no different than manufacturing plants in other places of the world, except that they are located in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean
The HumanRights Act 1998 is the most significant British statute to have been passed in the last decade. It has already been the catalyst for a series of high profile cases, ranging from the privacy rights of celebrities ("Douglas v Hello!"  QB 967) to the Home Secretary's sentencing powers in murder cases ("R (Anderson) v Secretary of
Contends that, in the past 30 years, a dramatic upsurge has taken place in activities designed to promote humanrights for indigenous peoples around the world. Asserts that, in the case of Africa, attention generally has been concentrated on socioeconomic rights, such as health care, sufficient water, food, and shelter. (CFR)
This article examines the introduction of Sharia'h law in northern Nigeria, both in regard to the fundamental legal provisions of the Nigeria constitution and also as to the international rights conventions to which Nigeria is a signatory. The relationship between the new Sharia'h laws enacted in all 19 northern Nigerian states and the humanrights provisions in the 1999 Constitution
-dimensional humanrights program and initiatives with its interdisciplinary, international and pluralistic research on disability and the law, and emerging research work on the interface of the Convention on the Rights Opening Remarks 07 Highlights of 2013 Echenberg Conference Disability Seminar Series Interdisciplinary
The 1948 Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR) makes no mention of religion as a possible basis for such fundamental rights. Although there was an attempt by the Dutch delegate Father De Beaufort OP to amend the pream¬ble with a reference to Man's divine origin and his eternal des¬tiny, this was rejected as being contrary to the universal nature of
Through the end of the Cold War, public health policies were predominantly shaped and implemented by governments and these same governments committed themselves to meet their obligations for health under international and national laws. The post-Cold War era has witnessed the entry of new actors in public health and the sharing of power and influences with non-state actors, in particular the private sector and interest groups. This article examines the emergence of humanrights and the rise of health on the international development agenda as the Cold War was ending. It highlights the convergence of health and humanrights in academic and public discourse since the end of the Cold War in a context of political and economic shifts linked to the ongoing economic globalization. It describes opportunities and challenges for greater synergy between health and rights and proposes a role for health practitioners. PMID:18368018
Michèle V. Cloonan, Dean and Professor at the Simmons College Graduate School of Library & Information Science, presents "Libraries and HumanRights: Iraq in the Crossfire," April 3, 2008 at the Spooner Commons, University ...
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have finally emerged onto the global health and development agenda. Despite the increasingly important role humanrights play in other areas of global health, their contribution to NCD prevention and control remains nascent. The recently adopted Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 20132020 is an important step forward, but the lack of concrete attention to humanrights is a missed opportunity. With practical implications for policy development, priority setting, and strategic design, humanrights offer a logical, robust set of norms and standards; define the legal obligations of governments; and provide accountability mechanisms that can be used to enhance current approaches to NCD prevention and control. Harnessing the power of humanrights can strengthen action for NCDs at the local, national, and global levels. PMID:24625165
Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Beaglehole, Robert
Asserting that the university as a transnational community of professors and students poses challenges to traditional conceptions of academic freedom, explores the rethinking of academic freedom as part of a humanright to education. (EV)
on the agenda. With this resurgence has come a startling increase in the use of humanrights to litigate institutions have in grasping the subjective importance of manifestations of belief, such as the hijab
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have finally emerged onto the global health and development agenda. Despite the increasingly important role humanrights play in other areas of global health, their contribution to NCD prevention and control remains nascent. The recently adopted Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020 is an important step forward, but the lack of concrete attention to humanrights is a missed opportunity. With practical implications for policy development, priority setting, and strategic design, humanrights offer a logical, robust set of norms and standards; define the legal obligations of governments; and provide accountability mechanisms that can be used to enhance current approaches to NCD prevention and control. Harnessing the power of humanrights can strengthen action for NCDs at the local, national, and global levels. PMID:24625165
Gruskin, Sofia; Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Beaglehole, Robert
In issue definition in rights-based policy Canada stereotypically embraces a more positive, humanrights-centered approach as compared with the American stereotype associated with the USA's more presumptively negative, civil rights-based tack. Since exclusionary infrastructures violate the core values of democratic governance, a failure to address
This article explores the relevance of international humanrights law in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic at national and international levels. Public health advocates can use arguments based on this body of law to promote responses to HIV/AIDS that reflect sound public health principles and documented best practice. Development assistance is increasingly linked to rights-based approaches, such as participatory processes, and strategic alliances between health professionals, organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS, and affected communities. Legal and humanrights advocacy strategies are increasingly productive and necessary. PMID:12571725
Humanrights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on humanrights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate humanrights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projectsa uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative humanrights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to humanrights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: We developed a novel methodology for corporate humanrights impact assessment. We piloted the methodology on two corporate projectsa mine and a plantation. Humanrights impact assessment exposed impacts not foreseen in ESIA. Corporations adopted the majority of findings, but not necessarily immediately. Methodological advancements are expected for monitoring processes.
Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland) [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland) [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: Mitchell-g.Weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Münch, Anna K., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: email@example.com [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: email@example.com [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States) [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)
Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive health services should include, leaving out the ones more prone to cause conflict and opposition, such as gender equality, abortion provision and welfare services for pregnant adolescents. Moralistic attitudes and sexism were present - even if divergences were also found-, limiting services' capability to promote girls' sexual and reproductive health and rights. PMID:20525405
The principle of respect for human dignity plays a crucial role in the emerging global norms relating to bioethics, in particular in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and HumanRights. This instrument, which is a legal, not merely an ethical document, can be regarded as an extension of international humanrights law into the field of biomedicine. Although the
Almost two years after the ICC prosecutor announced the opening of the investigation, the court last month issued a sealed arrest warrant against Thomas Lubanga, leader of the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC), an armed group responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the Ituri region of north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The warrant, unsealed today, charges Lubanga
This article considers the impact of the European Convention on HumanRights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR), both in its own right since the 1950s, and in conjunction with the HumanRights Act 1998 (HRA) when this brought these rights home by incorporating them into the domestic law of the UK thus enabling our judiciary to give effect to them directly. The ECHR and the HRA say very little, if anything, expressly about health or health care, but have been relied on by litigants in a wide range of contexts, including but not limited to, assisted reproduction, abortion, access to treatment, management of health records, end of life issues and the investigation of potentially negligent or criminal conduct by professionals. PMID:19373189
rights including: genocide, torture, human trafficking, women's rights, civil and political rightsIntroduction to HumanRights Theory and Practice GLBL S341 01 (30312) /PLSCS134 Summer 2013 June 1: After class or by appointment Course Description: Humanrights become an important area of international
In this article, I examine the relationship between homophobic language use and its broader social context, focusing on how a U.S.-based, conservative Christian organization's institutionalized homophobic text-making practices seek to derive legitimacy from the broader political economic discourses associated with the neoliberal moment. Using the Family Research Council's statement on marriage and the family as the basis for analysis, I demonstrate how the organization seeks to represent lesbian and gay subjects and their kinship formations as a threat to human capital development because they are based on affectional relationships that neither reflect nor respond to the kinds of self-governance and marketization that neoliberalism requires of all citizen-subjects and their families. Linguistic strategies for creating such representations include lexical choices that avoid overtly identifying lesbian and gay subjects as the object of discussion, the creation of a taxonomy for what constitutes "proper" families-based on neoliberal principles--that implicitly excludes lesbian and gay kinship formations, and the use of neoliberal discourses of self-governance and marketization as the basis for that exclusion. PMID:21740208
We examined the effects of International Monetary Fund (IMF) supervised programs on changes in government respect for physical\\u000a integrity rights in developing countries between 1981 and 2003. A longer period under an IMF program increased government\\u000a use of torture and extra judicial killing and also worsened the overall humanrights conditions in developing countries. The\\u000a use of a two-stage model
media, situating this within a larger discussion of how views of children Children factored into the three primary arguments they identified in national media: children of immigrants are framed, viewed and treated in contemporary public discourse in the media.
This rapid response piece, submitted under the Sexuality and the Church theme, examines claims by Christian writers that lesbian and gay parenting is bad for children. The author analyses aspects of what he terms a Christian homophobic discourse in order to demonstrate the problematic claim to neutrality made by these writers. In addition, the author shows how the Christian writers
This paper describes the results of an investigation into how the December, 2004 tsunami and its aftermath affected the humanrights of the survivors. Teams of researchers interviewed survivors, government officials, representatives of international and local nongovernmental organisations, UN officials, the military, police, and other key informants in India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Indonesia, and Thailand. We also analysed newspaper articles, reports released by governments, UN agencies, NGOs, and private humanitarian aid groups, and we examined the laws and policies related to survivors' welfare in the affected countries. We found worsening of prior humanrights violations, inequities in aid distribution, lack of accountability and impunity, poor coordination of aid, lack of community participation in reconstruction, including coastal redevelopment. Corruption and preexisting conflict negatively impact humanitarian interventions. We make recommendations to international agencies, states, and local health service providers. A humanrights framework offers significant protection to survivors and should play a critical role in disaster response. PMID:18277529
The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent humanrights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international humanrights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Humanrights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246
Amon, Joseph J; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane
The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent humanrights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international humanrights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Humanrights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246
Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane
Nepal has witnessed serious humanrights violations including arbitrary arrests, detentions, "disappearances", extra judicial executions, abductions and torture carried out by both the Royal Nepalese Army and the Maoist rebels in the 10 years of the "peoples war". Women and children have borne the brunt of the conflict. Massive displacement has led to adverse social and psychological consequences. While the reasons for the conflict are mainly indigenous and rooted in the social and economic in-equities, remedies for health inequities must come not only from the health sector but also from broad social policies and adopting a participatory and conflict-sensitive approach to development. Meanwhile the international community needs to use its leverage to urge both sides to accept a humanrights accord and honor international humanrights and humanitarian laws, while investigating allegations of abuse and prosecute those responsible. PMID:15985165
There are no official data, but it is estimated that four million adults in Germany have little or no reading, writing and numeracy skills, so that they are known as "functionally illiterate". This is a fact which was long ignored. In this contribution, literacy activities and research in Germany are analysed through a humanrights-based approach.
Currently there exists a global movement promoting institutional transparency and freedom of information legislation. Conceptualizing access to government-held information as a humanright is one of the latest developments in this global trend promoting access to information. The purpose of this dissertation is to identify and analyze the various
Objectives: Advancing humanrights is a core competency of U.S. social work education; yet, humanrights attitudes and behaviors have never been measured in the social work literature. Thus, this article describes the development and initial validation of two scales, HumanRights Engagement in Social Work (HRESW) and HumanRights Exposure in
The Dag Hammarskjold Library of the United Nations has begun to add Special Topics Guides to its Research Guide Site. The first pertains to humanrights and contains annotated pointers to UN resources from two charter-based bodies and six treaty-based bodies. These sections contain pointers to the bodies themselves, and to bibliographic information and selected full texts of the reports of those bodies. In addition, there is bibliographic information on relevant conference proceedings and declarations, as well as a bibliography of general UN humanrights literature.
This article is the result of a grounded theory investigation into the ways PhD topics are assigned by supervisors in engineering and selected by students in the social sciences/humanities in UK universities, broadly referred to as "topic arrangement", which can be regarded as one aspect of academic socialisation into academic Discourse
Many people believe that an informed and thoughtful citizenry is essential to the maintenance of democratic ideals within the United States and the spread of those ideals abroad. Since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the evidence that Americans consider issues of human dignity and rights when making judgments about the U.S. government's war on terror has been mixed. In our study, we assessed the relative contributions of ideological, belief, and cognitive-motivational factors to the prediction of humanrights and civil liberties attitudes. Individuals scoring high on measures of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the belief that the structure of knowledge is simple were the most likely to support restrictions on humanrights and civil liberties as part of the war on terror. In a subsequent regression analysis, individuals scoring higher on personal need for structure or exhibiting lower levels of epistemological belief complexity tended to score higher on RWA. Additionally, men were generally more likely to support restrictions on rights and liberties and to score higher on RWA than were women. PMID:18605179
This database was created "to meet the growing interest in the committees established to monitor the implementation of the principal international humanrights treaties (also referred as 'treaty monitoring bodies' or 'treaty bodies')" such as the HumanRights Committee, the Committee Against Torture, the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, and the Committee on the Rights of the Child. These committees are responsible for examining the "State reports" submitted by signatories to the various treaties to demonstrate their compliance. These reports and the concluding observations by the committees form the core of the database, which also contains a number of other related documents and data. Users may search the database by keyword and view results by relevance or date or browse by a variety of parameters, such as country, date, language, treaty, reporting status, or status of ratification. Documents may be in English, French, or Spanish.
RIGHT and left mammalian gonads do not usually differ noticeably either in size or development, in contrast to the situation in birds, where ovarian development is usually confined to the left side1. Nevertheless, when the differentiation of the gonads follows an abnormal course, lateral asymmetry becomes apparent also in mammals. In human hermaphrodites, who have a testis as well as
This paper focuses on the historical review of neo-liberalism in Korean education with relevance to humanrights education and teachers movement. In transition to post-colonial society, Korea confronts polarization of education. From the first stage just after the independence from Japanese Colonization in 1945 to the fifth present stage, Korean
The paper tests informational assumptions underlying strategic interaction and collective action models of government repression and dissent. Based on directly comparable data from 18 Central and East European countries collected between 1991 and 1996, this paper investigates whether citizens' perceptions of humanrights conditions in a country are systematically related to that country's conditions of government repression. The analysis suggests
Christopher J. Anderson; Patrick M. Regan; Robert L. Ostergard
While modern trade law and humanrights law constitute two of the most active spheres in international law, follow similar intellectual trajectories, and often feature the same key actors and arenas, neither field has actively engaged with the other. They co-exist in relative isolation at best, peppered by occasional hostile debates. It has come to be a given that pro-trade
st century the death penalty should still be an adhered to practice or not it will trace the development of capital punishment as a humanrights issue in the international forum and examine recent challenges to the death penalty. The structure that this paper adopts is discussed in short herein, any paper on death penalty in the current times would
Defines the teacher's role in influencing students to stand up against intolerance in the classroom and in society. Suggests that teachers can become catalysts of needed social change by encouraging questions, sharing information, rebutting preconceived ideas, and generally championing the case of humanrights in all its forms. (DB)
and humanrights has been highlighted by the present United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan, decalring of public order based on the rule of law, and legitimacy. In this respect the expanding international for fundamental justice and conflict prevention at different international and national levels. #12
The following commentary serves as a response to the article, Sex Trafficking of Minors in the U.S.: Implications for Policy, Prevention and Research, drawing the important, though not often mentioned, connection between the sex trafficking of minors and humanrights. The commentary argues that child trafficking has been inadequately addressed due to its relative invisibility, a lack of knowledge about
the education I received was invaluable, it was disheartening for me to be the only black student in most of my inner city public school with some of the lowest test scores in the district. I wanted to tell my story249 Orange County HumanRights Association: A New Law Student Group for a New Era Denisha P. Mc
The state-based system of global governance has struggled for more than a generation to adjust to the expanding reach and growing influence of transnational corporations, the most visible embodiment of globalization. This paper reviews two recent chapters in this endeavor, focused specifically on humanrights: the Draft Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with Regard
UC San Diego 4th Annual HumanRights Symposium Wednesday, January 16, 2013 9:30 AM 3:30 PM frameworks for the defense of individual dignity and adjudica on of conflicts. The UC San Diego in San Diego, and at UC San Diego. 9:30 am Welcome and Introduc on Gershon Shafir Professor
This article assesses the potential of online news reporting to create discursive spaces for emphatic engagement--of bearing witness--at a distance, especially where humanrights violations are concerned. Taking as its focus the emergent forms and practices of citizen journalism, it examines the spontaneous actions of ordinary people compelled to
The fast-paced movement of globalization has affected all walks of life including professional counselors. As the world becomes more accessible, increased instances of social injustice on a global scale have become more apparent, with women and children being especially identified as victims of social injustice and humanrights violations (World
The "Dowa" (HumanRights) education program has become an effective method of changing concept and situations of "Burakumin," a group of people that has been discriminated against in Japan. One educational strategy was to speak out their personal stories, which has become a trigger to some sexual minority teachers to come out, as well as others to
("Convention") and Rule 44 para. 2 of the Rules of the Court. 2. The present case, KAOS GL v. Turkey, raises, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, as well as Canada, regarding obscenity and evolving standards of state 1 THIRD PARTY INTERVENTION IN THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMANRIGHTS Application No. 4982/07 Between
The purpose of this essay is to articulate and defend the epistemological foundations of international humanrights education from the perspective of a hermeneutical interpretive methodology. Fuad Al-Daraweesh and Dale Snauwaert argue here that this methodology potentially alleviates the challenges that face the cross-cultural implementation of
This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a humanrights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive-cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children's development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the
and to mark the challenging environment faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex (LGBTI) people with laws banning same-sex sexual acts are in the Commonwealth. Across the Commonwealth lesbian, gay, housing and humanrights. In 2013 the Commonwealth Charter was formally adopted by all member nations
in a respectful environment AND an environment free from discrimination and harassment Â· All are equally deserving or otherwise hostile environment Â·OR is severe enough to constitute an abuse of power or authority #12 Â· Discrimination and any form of harassment is counter-intuitive to a Respectful Environment and humanrights
High poverty levels characterise sub-Saharan Africa, Zimbabwe included. Over 80 per cent of Zimbabwe's population lived below the total consumption poverty line and 70 per cent below the food poverty line in 2003. This plummeting of social indicators resulted from the freefall suffered by the country's economy from the 1990s, after unsuccessful attempts to implement structural adjustment programmes prescribed by international financial institutions. The ensuing socioeconomic decay, political crisis and international isolation of the country from the late 1990s reversed gains made in social indicators during the 1980s. Development theories attribute poverty to unchecked population growth, political, economic and environmental mismanagement, while developing countries' leaders attribute it to historical imbalances and global political and economic injustices. Despite this debate, poverty continues to evolve, expand and deepen and the need to eradicate it has become urgent. The complex question of what causes and what drives poverty is perpetually addressed and new ideas are emerging to answer the question. One recent view is that failure to centre development on people and to declare poverty a violation of humanrights has allowed poverty to grow the world over. This study uses a hypothesised cause of poverty - civil registration - to exemplify the humanright nature of poverty, and how a humanrights' policy can be used as an instrument to eradicate poverty. The study demonstrates that civil registration is a right of instrumental relevance to poverty; and achieving civil registration grants people access to numerous other rights, some of which will lift them out of poverty, while the failure of civil registration deprives people of access to livelihoods, thereby entrenching them in poverty. PMID:20726138
Health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social impacts of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation . This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international humanrights standards be integrated into HIA to provide a universal value system backed up by international and domestic laws and mechanisms of accountability. The idea of mainstreaming humanrights into HIA is illustrated with the example of impact assessments that have been carried out to predict the potential effects of intellectual property rights in international trade agreements on the availability and affordability of medicines. The article concludes by recommending international humanrights standards as a legal and ethical framework for HIA that will enhance the universal values of nondiscrimination, participation, transparency and accountability and bring legitimacy and coherence to HIA practice as well. PMID:25264683
Health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social impacts of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation . This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international humanrights standards be integrated into HIA to provide a universal value system backed up by international and domestic laws and mechanisms of accountability. The idea of mainstreaming humanrights into HIA is illustrated with the example of impact assessments that have been carried out to predict the potential effects of intellectual property rights in international trade agreements on the availability and affordability of medicines. The article concludes by recommending international humanrights standards as a legal and ethical framework for HIA that will enhance the universal values of nondiscrimination, participation, transparency and accountability and bring legitimacy and coherence to HIA practice as well. PMID:25264683
Humanrights are arguably the most significant political force shaping the life experience of people with disability. The "United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" sets the standard at an international level, creating both positive and negative rights, and calls upon member states of the United Nations (UN)
This article explores why many advocates concerned with lesbian, gay, and transgendered (LGBT) rights in the US have not chosen to frame their struggles in humanrights terms. The article recognizes that framing a cause in humanrights terms can be an effective way of claiming the moral high ground and of asserting affinity with others throughout the world who
Education lies at the heart of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR): "Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for humanrights and fundamental freedoms". However, when education is mentioned in the philosophical literature on humanrights, or even within the
A broad range of coercive measures has been considered internationally and applied in some countries in the interest of controlling the spread of HIV. Although a couple such measures are on the books in South Africa, they have never been invoked and will soon be officially repealed. There is, however, a problem in South Africa with the violation by health care workers, employers, and others of individuals' rights to dignity, privacy, and autonomy. The exaggerated and undue fear that doctors and other health workers have of being infected by patients with HIV has led to widespread and gross humanrights abuses in clinical management and treatment. Abuses include the refusal of treatment, testing patients for HIV without their informed or any consent, insisting upon HIV testing devoid of diagnostic or therapeutic justification, and widespread breaches of confidentiality. Persons with AIDS and HIV are also denied access to their fair share of national resources. This latter phenomenon is likely to become the principal form of humanrights abuse, with racism and class differences exacerbating the problem. The practice is proliferating and takes many forms including pre-employment HIV testing; exclusionary discrimination in insurance; discrimination between HIV and other life-threatening conditions in corporate medical, pension, and provident funds; and the discriminatory denial of fair and adequate health care to people with HIV or AIDS. Discrimination of all kinds, however, retards preventive efforts. Public health therefore demands the recognition and enforcement of individual humanrights and that structures of discrimination be eliminated. Humanrights protection may, by limiting the effect of discrimination, play a significant part in fighting the epidemic. Protective measures could include enacting legislation to prohibit pre-employment testing, legislation to regulate the provision of insurance and to prohibit or regulate pre-insurance HIV testing and the wholesale refusal of AIDS-related coverage, and more broadly drafted legislation to prohibit public enterprises from discriminating against persons on the basis of HIV or AIDS and to enshrine the principle of nondiscrimination. PMID:12287721
Access to clean water should be declared a basic humanright for three reasons. First, access to clean water can substantially reduce the global burden of disease caused by water-borne infections. Second, the privatization of waterâas witnessed in Bolivia, Ghana, and other countriesâhas not effectively served the poor, who suffer the most from lack of access to clean water. Third,
This article seeks to contribute to a culture of humanrights by challenging the use of Hebrew and Christian scriptures to characterize LGBT persons as moral transgressors and to justify or rationalize hate crimes against them. Scriptural passages used to support claims of immorality of LGBT personstexts of terrorare examined. Then scriptural passages that are affirming of LGBT relationshipstexts of
Recent transnational HIV research projects have raised questions about the ethics of research in developing countries, and with good reason. Lower ethical standards are often applied in these settings, yet the field of bioethics has remained relatively quiet on the subject, concerning itself primarily with issues that only affect affluent countries. Here we call for a new focus on equity and humanrights in bioethics. PMID:15301189
This Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex and marital status, among other things, with respect to accommodation practices, employment practices, and publications. In its employment practices provisions, it mandates equal pay for equal work and outlaws harassment and unwelcome sexual solicitation. Under the Act, the Newfoundland HumanRights Commission, already established, is given the power to investigate complaints, effect settlements, and refer matters to a board of inquiry for further action. PMID:12289244
The humanrights of female children in India and elsewhere, even when protected on paper, are violated in practice. An equitable and egalitarian world order must be established. A comprehensive campaign is needed that combats gender-based inequalities, discrimination, exploitation, oppression, abuse, violence, inhuman values, and violations of humanrights, particularly against female children. People must radically change their attitudes and actions towards female children. Female children are not a commodity or sex-object but "an equally worthy human being to be loved, respected, and cared for." Strategies that accomplish these ends include the promotion of human and spiritual values of love, compassion, and nonviolence, and discouragement of values of consumerism and materialism and worthlessness of human beings. Effective education and mass media should counter corruption, dishonesty, selfishness, and inhuman actions. Family structures need to strengthened and enriched. The abuse of female children occurs due to the following interrelated factors: entrenched patriarchal value systems, the perpetuation of traditions and practices that identify girls as inferior to boys, the gender-biased and discriminatory attitude that identifies girl children as a burden or liability and as a sex-object or commodity, and prevalent illiteracy, poverty, and negative parenting life style patterns. Other factors include the low status of women, the reduction in human and spiritual values, and the rise of consumerism and corruption. Girls are subjected to female infanticide, feticide, lack of social and economic development, burdensome domestic work, early marriage and childbearing, neglect and denial of healthy living conditions, sexual abuse and exploitation, prostitution, rape, and a denial of their right to protection. PMID:12158013
After achieving breathtaking successes in securing state and local restrictions on smoking in public places and restricting youth access to tobacco products, the tobacco movement faces difficult decisions on its future strategic directions. The thesis of this article is that the tobacco control movement is at a point of needing to secure its recent successes and avoiding any public retrenchment. To do so requires rethinking the movement's strategic direction. We use the familiar trans-theoretical model of change to describe where the movement is currently and the threats it faces. The new tobacco control strategy should encompass a focus on voluntary non-smoking strategies, use humanrights rhetoric to its advantage, and strengthen the public health voice to be more effective in political battles. In developing a new strategy, tobacco control advocates need to build a social movement based on a more forceful public health voice, along with the strategic use of humanrights rhetoric, to focus on the power of voluntary non-smoking efforts. Using humanrights rhetoric can help frame the movement in ways that have traditionally appealed to the American public. Perhaps more importantly, doing so can help infuse the tobacco control movement with a broader sense of purpose and mission. PMID:16046702
Persons with intellectual disabilities are more likely to experience victimization and have their rights infringed upon than are people without such disabilities. While legislative and policy interventions have afforded a certain degree of protection against such rights violations, people with intellectual disabilities continue to experience restrictions of their basic humanrights. This article describes the development of a HumanRights
Donato Tarulli; Christine Y. Tardif; Dorothy Griffiths; Frances Owen; Maurice A. Feldman; Karen Stoner
ECTS 90 PROGRAMME SUMMARY Since the Universal Declaration of HumanRights was signed at the United rights is set out as a key responsibility of states and the international community as a whole, the right the expansion of global civil society throughout the 20 th century. The importance of humanrights has only
A humanrights approach to health is critical to address growing global health inequalities. Three aspects of the nature of health as a right are relevant to shaping a humanrights approach to health: (1) the indivisibility of civil and political rights, and socio-economic rights; (2) active agency by those vulnerable to humanrights violations; and (3) the powerful normative role of humanrights in establishing accountabiliy for protections and freedoms. Health professionals' practice, tpically governed by ethical codes, may benefit from humanrights guidelines, particularly in situations of dual loyalty where clients' or communities' humanrights are threatened Moreover, institutional accountability for protecting humanrights is essential to avoid shifting responsibility solely onto the health professional Humanrights approaches can include holding states and other parties accountable, developing policies and programs consistent with humanrights, and facilitating redress for victims of violations of the right to health. However, underlying all models is the need to enable active social mobilization, without which legal approaches to rights lack sustainability and power. Evidence from South and Southern Africa has shown that different conceptions of what is meant by humanrights impact substantially on state willingness and abiliy to meet constitutional obligations with regard to the right to health. New approaches to health polity development, which draw on the agency of vulnerable groups, link local struggles with their global context, and explicitly incorporate rights frameworks into public health planning are needed. Models that move away from individualizing conflict over rights between health professionals as disempowered duty bearers and patients as frustrated rights holders, toward more mutual approaches to shared rights objectives may be possible and are being actively pursued through the development of a learning network to realize the right to health in South Africa. PMID:20845830
There are seven sins in the world: Wealth without work, Pleasure without conscience, Knowledge without character, Commerce without morality, Science without humanity, Worship without sacrifice and Politics without principle. (Mahatma Gandhi)
What explains the discrepancy between the avowed commitment of the Georgian
government to humanrights and praxis of humanrights in the post-Rose Revolution
republic? This article engages with this question and attributes ...
How resilient is the humanrights norm in the counter-terrorist era? This question is explored through examining the record of two of the UN Security Council's counter-terrorist committees. The article argues that, initially, the procedures of these two committees damaged humanrights protections, an outcome criticized by UN officials, humanrights NGOs, and certain, mainly middle-power, states. Using the UN
This article explores the usefulness of the humanrights paradigm for dealing with the legal, political, and social ques- tions raised by health issues, with particular emphasis on the role of health professionals. Health and humanrights, each ways of defining and advancing human well-being, have the individual as their major concern. The concept of health rights encompasses individual autonomy
Kirsten Moore; Kate Randolph; Nahid Toubia; Elizabeth Kirberger
ichard Claude, who has worked to make humanrights a part of the agenda of the world community, offers Science in the Service of HumanRights, a far-reaching book that addresses such contemporary humanrights concerns as the threats and opportunities of Internet technology, the explosive growth of biotechnology, and the profound effects of globalization. 1 His is a visionary
The Symposium on Population and HumanRights drew together 28 experts in various disciplines to formulate scientific opinion on the interrelationships between population and humanrights and, more specifically, to provide inputs for the World Population Plan of Action. The symposium devoted its attention to the humanrights standards which have a
Humanrights as Eleanor Roosevelt famously said, begin in small places: 'Unless they have meaning there, they have little meaning anywhere'. In this inaugural lecture on the sociology of humanrights, Barbara Oomen sets out a model for understanding how humanrights acquire meaning in such places. Next to the laws involved, like the constitutional dispensation of a given country,
The Women's Studies Program and the HumanRights Institute present a film screening and panel is sponsored by: the Women's Studies Program, the HumanRights Institute, the Institute for Puerto Rican Society Coalition on HumanRights and Constitutional Law, explores the reality that for some LGBTI
International HumanRights Clinic WOMEN IN PRISON IN ARGENTINA: CAUSES, CONDITIONS, AND CONSEQUENCES May 2013's Avon Global Center for Women and Justice and International HumanRights Clinic DefensorÃa General de la NaciÃ³n Argentina The University of Chicago Law School International HumanRights Clinic WOMEN IN PRISON
with the Ugandan Civil Society Coalition on HumanRights and Constitutional Law, explores the reality that for some, States of Unrest: Sexuality, Citizenship, and the Freedom of Movement as a HumanRight." The workshopThe Women's Studies Program and the HumanRights Institute present a film screening and panel
Background: Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have the same human value as other children and are entitled to their basic humanrights. And yet, in developing countries they face many barriers to accessing these rights. This study focuses on children with IDs in Egypt. Method: A new measure, the HumanRights of children with
Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's humanrights initiatives. The efforts of humanrights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of HumanRights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in
The development of a humanright to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement humanrights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new humanright in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international humanrights into local water and sanitation practice, concluding that system operators, utilities, and management boards remain largely unaffected by the changing public policy landscape for humanrights realization. To understand the relevance of humanrights standards to water and sanitation practitioners, this article frames a research agenda to ensure that humanrights aspirations lead to public policy reforms and public health outcomes. PMID:24381084
We report that adult nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) and newborn domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) show a leftward bias when required to locate an object in a series of identical ones on the basis of its ordinal position. Birds were trained to peck at either the fourth or sixth element in a series of 16 identical and aligned positions. These were placed in front of the bird, sagittally with respect to its starting position. When, at test, the series was rotated by 90° lying frontoparallel to the bird's starting position, both species showed a bias for identifying selectively the correct position from the left but not from the right end. The similarity with the well-known phenomenon of the left-to-right spatially oriented number line in humans is considered. PMID:20071393
Rugani, Rosa; Kelly, Debbie M.; Szelest, Izabela; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio
We report that adult nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) and newborn domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) show a leftward bias when required to locate an object in a series of identical ones on the basis of its ordinal position. Birds were trained to peck at either the fourth or sixth element in a series of 16 identical and aligned positions. These were placed in front of the bird, sagittally with respect to its starting position. When, at test, the series was rotated by 90 degrees lying frontoparallel to the bird's starting position, both species showed a bias for identifying selectively the correct position from the left but not from the right end. The similarity with the well-known phenomenon of the left-to-right spatially oriented number line in humans is considered. PMID:20071393
Rugani, Rosa; Kelly, Debbie M; Szelest, Izabela; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio
While the issue of giving women their humanrights has been firmly placed on the agendas of international conferences, the plight of refugee women has gone largely unrecognized. Refugee women face rape, sexual abuse, sexual extortion, and physical insecurity. Such violations precipitate their flight, characterize their attempts to gain refugee status, and continue during their tenure in refugee camps, where they are excluded from positions of authority. Because the definition of refugees in the 1951 UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees omits sex as a grounds for determining refugee status or as a grounds on which it prohibits discrimination based on sex, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees decided in 1985 that such claims must fall under the classification of membership of a particular group. Unfortunately, agreement with this is discretionary for states. It has been argued that states which protect aliens from discrimination based on sex must afford the same privilege to refugees, but, again, such behavior is subject to debate. Concerns about the humanrights of refugee women should be strengthened by being addressed in the existing framework of humanrights conventions in international law, such as the Commission on the Status of Women and the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). One recent advance in this area was the establishment of the Yugoslav and Rwanda War Crimes Tribunals which will investigate the sexual abuse of women during the armed conflicts. The issue of violence against women in every situation must remain on CEDAW's agenda. In addition, the Fourth World Conference on Women provides a welcome opportunity to place these issues in the forefront of global efforts to protect women. PMID:12290124
will not qualify you to practice in the medical field, it can lead onto further study in medicine or otherMedical Sciences and Humanities Is Medical Sciences and Humanitiesright for me? If you are interested in Medicine but want to experience it from a different point of view then Medical Sciences
The current debate over cloning and germline gene therapy is usually considered in terms of bioethics. The Council of Europe and UNESCO have, however, adopted normative instruments on the human genome, and one that draws heavily on humanrights is under consideration at the United Nations. This article suggests the need for more thorough analysis of the underlying assumptions of
This new report from HumanRights Watch details continued cases within Rwanda of "assassination, murder, arbitrary detention, torture and other abuses perpetrated chiefly by soldiers of the Rwandan Patriotic Army, and by members of a government-backed citizens' militia called the Local Defense Force." According to the report, the Local Defense Force, while supposedly acting under the auspices of local authorities, commits abuses without fear of reprisal since these authorities are often either allied with or afraid of the government-supported militia.
The US State Department has released the 1997 version of country humanrights practices reports for 194 countries around the world. The reports are issued to meet a statutory requirement of the Department, and cover countries that receive US foreign aid, as well as many countries that do not. The reports are produced by US embassies around the world, in collaboration with various State Department offices; they inform policy making and diplomatic decisions, among other activities. This major annual series of documents is watched closely by journalists, diplomats, and policy makers.
This article provides an overview of different types of rights to aid consideration of, and debate about, children and young people's rights in the context of paediatrics and child health. It demonstrates how children's rights may or may not differ from adult rights and the implications for practice. It shows that applying a children's rights framework can be more helpful in pursuing a public child health agenda than in reducing ethical or legal conflicts when interacting with child patients and their families. PMID:17642486
The management of acutely disturbed patients in smaller Pacific island communities presents many clinical challenges as well as ethical and humanrights questions. The aggressive, excited, sexually inappropriate, and possibly violent disturbed person frequently will need physical restraint and possible seclusion in a secure environment. In practical terms, on many Pacific islands the only physically secure room is a jail cell. This environment will protect others and possibly protect the out-of-control person from themselves. After protection, the next requirements are adequate information about the person and clinically informed individuals who can make a diagnosis and commence treatment in the jail environment. Adequately trained people who can diagnose and suggest initial treatment are few and widely dispersed in Pacific island communities. Two representative case vignettes from the author's experience as a World Health Organization short-term consultant in Tonga and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana islands illustrate the tension between a disturbed person's right to adequate treatment and the right of a citizen/patient to be free of coercion. PMID:9895162
??Arbeitsthema: Menschenrechts-Diskurse und deren Kontext in der Islamischen Republik Iran. Die Menschenrechts-Diskurse werden in ihrem Kontext erkundet, in dem Globalisierungseinflüsse und die Dynamik von "Tradition" (more)
Alleged reports from the warfronts over the past few years have been shocking: bombing of hospitals and ambulances, health workers refusing to care for wounded members of the opposition, medical involvement in the torture of prisoners, etc. Such conduct is in violation of professional codes of conduct and the Geneva Conventions. Yet the combatants and health care personnel in too many instances remain impervious. In many economically and politically unstable countries, where uprisings and war can explode any day, anyone can become involved, but particularly health care professionals because of the nature of their work. When confronted with a dilemma in a conflict situation, nurses must remember that they are accountable for their own professional actions and as such must be aware of patient/client rights and of their rights and obligations under the terms of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the Additional Protocols of 1977. To assist nurses in making the right decisions, ICN developed a Code for Nurses and in 1984, with the League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, prepared an educational package for nurses on the Geneva conventions and the principles of humanitarian law. Subsequently ICN, with its member nurses' associations, developed position papers on the role of nurses in caring for prisoners and detainees and in safeguarding humanrights. And today in face of daily reports of humanitarian violations, ICN urges NNAs to reconfirm their commitment and to take concrete moves to assure that their members fully understand what is expected of nurses in conflict situations. Extracts of the Geneva Conventions' essential provisions and ICN's position statements are provided below as one step in bringing about this awareness. PMID:1582772
The UK Government published various circulars to indicate the importance of respecting the privacy and dignity of NHS patients following the implementation of the HumanRights Act, 1998. This research used an ethnographic method to determine the extent to which health professionals had in fact upheld the philosophy of these documents. Fieldwork using nonparticipant observation, and unstructured and semistructured interviews with patients and staff, took place over six months in three acute care wards in a large district NHS trust hospital. Applying the principles of phenomenology and grounded theory, the data were analysed and the contents organized into 11 key categories, leading to the formulation of a privacy model. The level of intrusion into patients' privacy by health professionals was measured against the benchmarking of the 'dignity and privacy' factors contained in the Department of Health's The essence of care document and Article 8(2) of the HumanRights Act. The findings established that patients had little privacy in the wards, and that the terms 'privacy of the person' and 'dignity' are interrelated. PMID:15921344
The humanright to adequate food is comprehended in two dimensions: being free of hunger and denutrition and having access to an adequate food. The urban context, in which the possession of food is done primarily through merchandising because of its strong consuming appealing, became a big challenge to debate this topic in poor districts today. Here we combine considerations of a qualitative study carried out in São João de Meriti, Rio de Janeiro State, joining leaders from Pastoral da Criança in focal group sessions. The unemployment, the sub-employment and the difficulty in reaching the public health system, the social assistance and basic sanitation were presented as the major obstacles to bring into effect the humanright to food. It was possible to determine that, among the strategies to fight the poverty and hunger, a big highlight is the establishment of mutual help mechanisms. The social support, generosity and religiousness were presented as the most important categories among the thoughts of the leaders. Facing a reality in which poverty and hunger appear as something inherent or become a mechanism of change during elections, the issue of the clienteles appears as a huge concern and challenge for those leaders. PMID:20694330
Casemiro, Juliana Pereira; Valla, Victor Vincent; Guimarães, Maria Beatriz Lisboa
Every year approximately 18 million people die prematurely from treatable medical conditions including infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies. The deaths occur primarily amongst the poorest citizens of poor developing nations. Various groups and individuals have advanced plans for major international medical aid to avert many of these unnecessary deaths. For example, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health estimated that eight million premature deaths could be prevented annually by interventions costing roughly US$57 bn per year. This essay advances an argument that humanrights require high-income nations to provide such aid. The essay briefly examines John Rawls' obligations of justice and the reasons that their applicability to cases of international medical aid remains controversial. Regardless, the essay argues that purely humanitarian obligations bind the governments and citizens of high-income liberal democracies at a minimum to provide major medical aid to avert premature deaths in poor nations. In refusing to undertake such medical relief efforts, developed nations fail to adequately protect a fundamental humanright to life. PMID:19143091
Background Although attention to humanrights in Indonesia has been improving over the past decade, the humanrights situation of persons with mental disorders is still far from satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to examine the legal framework for protection of humanrights of persons with mental disorder and the extent to which Indonesia's international obligations concerning the right to health are being met. Methods We examined the Indonesian constitution, Indonesian laws relevant to the right to health, the structure and operation of the National HumanRights Commission, and what is known about violations of the humanrights of persons with mental illness from research and the media. Results The focus of the Indonesian Constitution on rights pre-dated the Universal Declaration, Indonesia has ratified relevant international covenants and domestic law provides an adequate legal framework for humanrights protections. However, humanrights abuses persist, are widespread, and go essentially unremarked and unchallenged. The National HumanRights Commission has only recently become engaged in the issue of protection of the rights of persons with mental illness. Conclusion More than legislation is needed to protect the humanrights of persons with mental illness. Improving the humanrights situation for persons with mental illness in Indonesia will require action by governments at national, provincial and district levels, substantial increases in the level of investment in mental health services, coordinated action by mental health professionals and consumer and carer organisations, and a central role for the National HumanRights Commission in protecting the rights of persons with mental illness. PMID:19545362
Les Mêmes Droits Pour Tous (MDT) is a humanrights NGO in Guinea, West Africa that focuses on the rights of prisoners in Maison Centrale, the country's largest prison located in the capital city of Conakry. In 2007, MDT completed a survey of the prison population to assess basic legal and humanrights conditions. This article uses statistical tools to explore MDT's survey results in greater depth, shedding light on humanrights violations in Guinea. It contributes to humanrights literature that argues for greater use of econometric tools in rights reporting, and demonstrates how humanrights practitioners and academics can work together to construct an etiology of violence and torture by state actors, as physical violence is perhaps the most extreme violation of the individual's right to health. PMID:21178191
The concept of workers rights as humanrights has only recently begun to influence the formation and implementation of labor policy in the United States. In the workplace, the growing humanrights movement challenges long-held beliefs and practices in labor relations. The author explores this issue and its implications for U.S. labor policy and practice, focusing specifically on individual versus
In September, HumanRights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. This report, Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International HumanRights Standards, reports on nationwide repeated violations, across all levels of employment, of federal laws and international standards protecting workers's rights to organize, to bargain collectively, and to strike.
In the management of mentally ill patients, there is a tension between protecting the rights of individual patients and safeguarding public safety. The HumanRights Act 1998 emphasises on the former while two recent white papers focus on the latter. This article first examines the extent to which the Mental Health Act 1983 is consistent with the HumanRights Act. It argues that while the recent white papers exploit the gaps in the judgments given by the European courts, its compatibility with humanrights is very doubtful. The practical implications of the HumanRights Act for doctors are discussed. PMID:11884706
For a few weeks in 2009 it was not certain whether the world faced a lethal influenza pandemic. As it turned out, the H1N1 pandemic was less severe than anticipated, though the infection did affect groups not usually susceptible to influenza. The deep uncertainties of this pandemic moment were associated with immense practical, scientific and political challenges for public health agencies around the world. We examine these challenges by drawing on the sociology of uncertainty to analyse the accounts given by UK public health practitioners who managed local responses to the pandemic. We discuss the retrospective and mitigating discourse; 'we had to do what we thought was right at the time', used by interviewees to explain their experience of articulating plans for a severe pandemic influenza with one that turned out to be mild. We explore the importance of influenza's history and imagined future for pandemic management and, relatedly, how pandemic response and control plans disrupted the normal ways in which public health exercises its authority. We conclude by suggesting that difficulties in the management of pandemic influenza lie in its particular articulation of precautions, that is, securing a safe future against that which cannot be predicted. PMID:23957299
Humanrights and patent rights have become increasingly intertwined in discussions surrounding access to pharmaceutical drugs by citizens of developing countries. This discussion is a particularly contentious one for reasons of socioeconomics...
The International Migrants Bill of Rights (IMBR) addresses migrants rights in a variety of contexts, and this paper looks closely at some of the most crucial rights that apply to migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers who are held in immigration detention.\\u000aMigrants, refugees and asylum seekers are entitled to a broad range of rights protections. These protections are spelled out
All individual differences that predict support for international humanrights are first reviewed: support for humanrights is linked most positively to "globalism" (other international and environmental concerns), "identification with all humanity," principled moral reasoning, benevolence, and dispositional empathy. It is related most negatively to ethnocentrism and its root dispositions, the social dominance orientation, and authoritarianism. Other correlates are also noted. Secondly, a structural model of the effects of authoritarianism, social dominance, ethnocentrism and identification with all humanity upon commitment to humanrights is presented and tested. Across 2 studies (Study 1, N=218 nonstudent adults; Study 2, N=102 university students), ethnocentrism and identification with all humanity directly predicted humanrights commitment. The effects of authoritarianism upon this commitment were fully mediated through enhanced ethnocentrism and reduced identification with all humanity. The effects of social dominance were similar, but its direct effect upon humanrights commitment remained significant and was not, in the second study, mediated by reduced dispositional empathy. PMID:21039530
Background The healthcare needs and general experience of women in detention in sub-Saharan Africa are rarely studied and poorly understood. Methods A mixed-methods study was conducted including in-depth interviews with 38 adult female prisoners and 21 prison officers in four Zambian prisons to assess the health and humanrights concerns of female detainees. Key informant interviews with 46 officials from government and non-governmental organizations and a legal and policy review were also conducted. Results Despite special protection under international and regional law, incarcerated women's health needsincluding prenatal care, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and nutritional support during pregnancy and breastfeedingare not being adequately met in Zambian prisons. Women are underserved by general healthcare programs including those offering tuberculosis and HIV testing, and reported physical and sexual abuse conducted by police and prison officers that could amount to torture under international law. Conclusions There is an urgent need for women's healthcare services to be expanded, and for general prison health campaigns, including HIV and tuberculosis testing and treatment, to ensure the inclusion of female inmates. Abuses against women in Zambian police and prison custody, which violate their rights and compromise their health, must be halted immediately. PMID:21696625
Simply put, humanrights education is learning that develops the knowledge, skills, and values of humanrights. Growing consensus around the world recognizes education for and about humanrights as essential. It can contribute to the building of free, just, and peaceful societies. Humanrights education also is increasingly recognized as an
Four years have passed since the institution of the cease-fire in Yugoslavia, and questions remain as to how Kosovar women are faring in the country's postwar reconstruction. Reports, albeit fragmented, suggest that violence against women began to increase in 1998 and 1999. This trend continued through 2001, even while rates of other major crimes decreased. Despite considerable local efforts to address the conditions of women, there remains a lack of systematic data documenting the scope and frequency of violent acts committed against women. A centralized surveillance system focused on tracking humanrights abuses needs to be established to address this critical need for empirically based reports and to ultimately guide reform efforts. PMID:15284030
Authored by Ryan Goodman and Derek Jinks, this working paper from the University of ChicagoÃ¢ÂÂs Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper series was published first in March 2004, and is due to appear later this year in the Duke Law Journal. In its 57-pages, the paper deals with the ways in which states might effectively change their humanrights regime based on various processes of socialization where so-called "bad actors" might be persuaded to incorporate globally legitimated models of state behavior and, on the other side of the coin, how "good actors" might also be persuaded to act better. The paper begins by discussing three mechanisms of social influence, namely coercion, persuasion, and acculturation, then continues on to discuss the nature of conditional membership, the precision of obligations, and concludes with a section on implementation.
Four years have passed since the institution of the cease-fire in Yugoslavia, and questions remain as to how Kosovar women are faring in the countrys postwar reconstruction. Reports, albeit fragmented, suggest that violence against women began to increase in 1998 and 1999. This trend continued through 2001, even while rates of other major crimes decreased. Despite considerable local efforts to address the conditions of women, there remains a lack of systematic data documenting the scope and frequency of violent acts committed against women. A centralized surveillance system focused on tracking humanrights abuses needs to be established to address this critical need for empirically based reports and to ultimately guide reform efforts. PMID:15284030
The health and humanrights movement (HHR) shows obvious signs of maturation both internally and externally. Yet there are still many questions to be addressed. These issues include the movement's epistemological status and its perspectives of development. This paper discusses critically the conditions of emergence of HHR, its identity, its dominant schools of thought, its epistemological postures and its methodological issues. Our analysis shows that: (a) the epistemological status of HHR is ambiguous; (b) its identity is uncertain in the absence of a validated definition: is it an action movement, an interdisciplinary field, a domain, an approach, a setting or a scientific discipline? (c) its main schools of thoughts are defined as "advocacists", "ethicists", "interventionists", "normativists"; (d) the movement is in the maturation process as a discipline in which "interface", "distance", "interference" and "fusion" epistemological postures represent the fundamental steps; (e) parent disciplines (health sciences and law) competences, logics and cultures introduce duality and difficulties in knowledge production, validation and diffusion; (f) there is need to re-write the history of the HHR movement by inscribing it not only into the humanitarian or public health perspectives but also into the evolution of sciences and its social, political and economical conditions of emergence. The ambiguous epistemological status of this field, the need to re-write its history, the methodological duality in its research, the question of the competence of the knowledge validation, as well as the impact of HHR practice on national and international health governance are the challenges of its future development. To meet those challenges; we call for the creation and implementation of an international research agenda, the exploration of new research topics and the evaluation of the movement's contribution to the national and global public health and humanrights governance. PMID:21264518
Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; London, Leslie; Chastonay, Philippe
Despite the existence of laws in India that prohibit the labor of children under age 14, 70 to 115 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are estimated to be part of India's labor force. Child labor in the agriculture sector accounts for 80% of child laborers in India and 70% of working children globally. From May 2001 to July 2001, Physicians for HumanRights (PHR) investigated the health experiences of 100 children in hybrid cottonseed production in rural Andhra Pradesh. Eighty-eight percent of the survey participants were girls, ages 7 to 14. PHR found that children worked on average 12 hours a day, were frequently exposed to pesticides, and were not provided with safety equipment, not even shoes or water to wash their hands and clothes. Children reported having frequent headaches and dizziness and skin and eye irritations after pesticide spraying. All 100 children reported that they were unable to go to school during the hybrid cottonseed season due to work demands. Ninety-four children reported to PHR that they would rather be in school. In addition, a majority of child workers interviewed by PHR reported physical and/or verbal abuse by their employers. Moreover, PHR interviews with representatives of multinational and national companies revealed knowledge of child labor practices for up to 10 years. Child labor is a significant health and humanrights problem for children in India. The progressive elimination of child labor practices will require the support of a wide cross-section of civil society. PMID:12698932
1 First International Conference on Religion at ECU Religion, Immigration, Health, & HumanRights and religious leaders in social welfare. Religion is a force in many social issues such as immigration, health such as immigration, health and humanrights integrate with religion? 2. Can those in the humanities and the sciences
Intended for junior or senior high school students, this pamphlet examines the status of the world community in upholding the promise of the United Nations'"Universal Declaration of HumanRights" of 1948. The five chapters include definitions for a human being, and discussions of humanrights and whether laws and treaties are effective in
In this article, I argue that the contribution of the Latin American tradition of humanrights includes, but does not limit itself, to being a crucible to unite different doctrinal trends in the Universal Declaration of HumanRights; a contribution already recognized by Mary Ann Glendon. Besides this unifying function and the concomitant emphasis on common humanity, the Latin American
\\u000a The chapter explores the role that regional legislation plays in framing humanrights and ethical principles in psychiatry\\u000a by considering the Council of Europes Convention on HumanRights and Biomedicine. The chapter identifies the Conventions\\u000a contribution to an emergent legislative, regulatory and discursive formation, which is characterized by its alloy of human\\u000a rights and bioethics. The author draws attention to
As an institutionalized form of humanrightsdiscourses, rights talk plays a prominent role in recently democratized countries. It also poses a challenge to critical analysts of language, because its contribution to maintaining inequalities is not apparent in its emancipatory rhetoric. This article examines rights talk at a non-governmental centre for free legal aid in Malawi. By deploying the notion
This article examines the utility of a health and humanrights framework for conceptualizing and responding to the causes and consequences of substance use among young people. It provides operational definitions of youth and substances, a review of current international and national efforts to address substance use among youths, and an introduction to humanrights and the intersection between health and humanrights. A methodology for modeling vulnerability in relation to harmful substance use is introduced and contemporary international and national responses are discussed. When governments uphold their obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill humanrights, vulnerability to harmful substance use and its consequences can be reduced. PMID:11726374
The present article examines a concern I have had for some time about the compatibility of humanistic psychology with the emerging animal rights movement. Beyond working out my position, the paper has the additional educational and, frankly, political purpose of bringing animal rights issues to the attention of humanistic psychologists. The article applies certain concepts of contemporary animal rights philosophy,
This paper empirically investigates whether globalization can improve women's rights. Using panel data from 150 countries over the 1981-2008 period, I find that social globalization positively affects women's economic and social rights. When controlling for social globalization however, economic globalization does not have any effect on women's rights. Despite the positive effect of (social) globalization on women's standing in a
In the absence of centralized humanrights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of humanrights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream humanrights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream humanrights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American humanrights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers in implementing humanrights through PAHO governance. Analyzing the themes arising from this narrative, the authors examine the structural role of secretariat leadership, state support, legal expertise, and technical unit commitment in facilitating a rights-based approach to the health in the Americas. Humanrights are increasingly framing PAHO efforts, and this analysis of the structures underlying PAHO's approach provides an understanding of the institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health, highlighting generalizable themes for the mainstreaming of humanrights through regional health governance. With this regional-level understanding of health governance, future national-level research can begin to understand the causal forces linking regional humanrights work with national policy reforms and public health outcomes. PMID:25264093
In this paper we consider how particular discourses have come to dominate early childhood education (ECE) policy in Indonesia. We briefly explain the governance of Indonesian ECE and then our approach to policy analysis using critical discourse analysis. Three prevalent discourses are identified and discussed: "developmentalism",
This study reveals that Canadian secondary school students' knowledge of civil liberties and humanrights laws is inadequate and that their attitudes are negative and inconsistent. Items on the survey include freedom of speech, assembly, and religion; right to counsel; access to a public facility; right of employment; and rental accommodation.
rights are a form of Western neo-colonialism, according to Fateh Azzam, the newly-appointed director guarantees rights in a manner largely consistent with humanrights law," he added. The presentation offered to implement them." #12;Despite some protestations to the contrary, states in the Arab region are cognizant
rights agenda in multilateral organizations such as the United Nations, the Council of Europe the legitimacy of domestic and international judicial review of humanrights within their own polities. Moreover rights ambitions whenever they collide with national or corporate interests overseas. Existing
Nine presentations from a conference on advocacy of the legal and humanrights of the mentally handicapped are given. Robert Segal considers parents and professionals to be the primary advocates for the retarded, while Virginia Nordin examines the implications of recent court cases for the retarded's right to legal process and redress. The right
Given current constraints on universal treatment campaigns, recent advances in public health prevention initiatives have revitalized efforts to stem the tide of HIV transmission. Yet, despite a growing imperative for preventionsupported by the promise of behavioral, structural and biomedical approaches to lower the incidence of HIVhumanrights frameworks remain limited in addressing collective prevention policy through global health governance. Assessing the evolution of rights-based approaches to global HIV/AIDS policy, this review finds that humanrights have shifted from collective public health to individual treatment access. While the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic gave meaning to rights in framing global health policy, the application of rights in treatment access litigation came at the expense of public health prevention efforts. Where the humanrights framework remains limited to individual rights enforced against a state duty bearer, such rights have faced constrained application in framing population-level policy to realize the public good of HIV prevention. Concluding that humanrights frameworks must be developed to reflect the complementarity of individual treatment and collective prevention, this article conceptualizes collective rights to public health, structuring collective combination prevention to alleviate limitations on individual rights frameworks and frame rights-based global HIV/AIDS policy to assure research expansion, prevention access and health system integration. PMID:23226723
Meier, Benjamin Mason; Brugh, Kristen Nichole; Halima, Yasmin
This paper examines the contribution of humanrights education (HRE) to conflict prevention and to the promotion of security. It outlines the difficulties in evaluating the long-term impact of HRE, but then proposes five benefits of a rights-based approach to education--rights as secular, man-made, requiring transparency, enabling freedom from
At the international level, Canada has in the past played an important role as an advocate for the recognition of access to adequate housing as a fundamental humanright. Canada ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) in 1976 and played a leading role in promoting the adoption and ratification of the Convention on the Rights
In 2011 it emerged that to induce the death penalty, United States authorities had begun giving injections of pentobarbital, a substance provided by Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck. Lundbeck's product pentobarbital is licensed for treatment of refractory forms of epilepsy and for usage as an anaesthetic, thus for a very different purpose. The Lundbeck case offers a difficult, but also interesting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) dilemma between choices facing a pharmaceutical company to stop the distribution of a medical substance in order to avoid complicity in humanrights violations, or to retain distribution of the substance in order not to impede access to the medicine for those patients who need it. The dilemma arose at a time when the United Nations (UN) Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and HumanRights, Professor John Ruggie, was finalizing a set of Guiding Principles to operationalize recommendations on business and humanrights that he had presented to the UN HumanRights Council in 2008. The article discusses the dilemma in which Lundbeck was placed in from the perspective of the Guiding Principles on business and humanrights and the 2008 Protect, Respect, Remedy UN Framework. The analysis seeks to assess what guidance may be gauged from the Guiding Principles in relation to the dilemma at hand and discusses the adequacy the Guiding Principles for dealing with acute humanrights dilemmas of conflicting requirements in which a decision to avoid one type of violation risks causing violation of another humanright. The article concludes by drawing up perspectives for further development of guidance on implementation of the UN Framework that could be considered by the newly established Working Group on Business and HumanRights and related UN bodies. PMID:22789041
ACCOMMODATING CREED/RELIGION York University & the Ontario HumanRights Code In accordance grounds, including creed. What is "creed"? Creed has been broadly defined by the Ontario HumanRights Commission (OHRC) to mean "religious creed" or "religion", but also includes bodies of faith
The health, physiological, sexual, psychological, and humanrights effects of female genital mutilation (FGM) are described and various ways to address the problem are outlined, including the health approach, the cultural approach, the womens empowerment approach, and the humanrights approach. Long-term complications include sexual frigidity; genital malformation; urine retention resulting in repeated urinary infections; obstruction of menstrual flow leading
This article reflects on experiences of attempting to infuse humanrights in the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS). Using our experiences as members of HumanRights and Inclusivity Group (HRIWG), one of the curriculum development structures set up for the RNCS, and focusing particularly on the Learning Area of Mathematics,
International Internships Available! HumanRights Internet (HRI) is an NGO committed to social justice, good governance and conflict prevention. HRI works in conjunction with the Canadian International international internships. What are you waiting for? Check out this opportunity NOW! HumanRights Internet (www
Explores how ethics and power interact in the arena of politics with particular emphasis on foreign policy and humanrights issues. Topics discussed include President Carter's humanrights stance, the ubiquity of moral choice, perspectives on world politics, traditional diplomatic approaches, the legal perspective, and diplomatic-legal issues.
...With Respect to HumanRights Abuses in Syria By the authority vested in me as President...2008, finding that the Government of Syria's humanrights abuses, including those related to the repression of the people of Syria, manifested most recently by the use...
Children would benefit substantially if governments legally recognized same sex marriages and parenting. This article analyzes international humanrights law, co-parent adoption, and the legal recognition of gay and lesbian families. It addresses civil marriage and adoption challenges for same sex families and assesses European Court of HumanRights jurisprudence relating to same-sex adoption. This Article considers the international community's
Daniel Price in his analysis of Islamic Political Culture and HumanRights concluded that "... government rooted in Islam does not facilitate the abuse of humanrights." A re-analysis of his data for 23 Islamic governments demonstrates otherwise. There is a significant trend (p<.03), despite the low statistical power available in only 23 cases, for an inverted quadratic relationship between Islamic Political Culture and HumanRights. Among the nations scoring low on Islamic Political Culture, the correlation between the two variables is -.01 (ns); among those scoring high on Islamic Political Culture, the correlation shifts to -.78 (p<.02). At lower scores for Islamic Political Culture, there may indeed be little relationship between Political Culture and HumanRights; however, at higher scores there appears to be a significant relationship between increasing Islamic Political Culture and a decline in HumanRights. The data suggest that extreme applications of Sharia law (if not any secular or religious legal system) may have serious implications for humanrights--or at least, Western Euro-American conceptualizations of humanrights. At the same time, support for humanrights may increase as Islamic governments shift from mostly secular to moderate applications of Islamic law. PMID:14765607
As shown by Amnesty International's annual report, humanrights violations which result in serious consequences for their health have assumed epidemic proportions. By treating the survivors of torture, performing post-mortem examinations, and carrying out other professional tasks, physicians, psychologists and nurses become accessories. As such, they play a key role in terms of exposing or hushing up humanrights violations.
of 2003, an accounting of the national origins, job categories and salaries of its employees in EquatorialAPPENDIX A I. GLOBAL LABOR STANDARDS AND HUMANRIGHTS 1. Dillard's Incorporated (Meeting date: May and to work toward ensuring that the company's technology is not used to further human or labor rights abuses
Provides a brief background on Eleanor Roosevelt and the Declaration of HumanRights. Presents a lesson wherein students simulate the creation of the Declaration of HumanRights and consider the leadership skills of Eleanor Roosevelt. Explains that the activity requires three class periods and some student preparation before the lesson. (CMK)
Describes a health and humanrights framework for conceptualizing and responding to the causes and consequences of youth substance use, reviewing international and national efforts to address youth substance use and discussing the intersection between health and humanrights. A methodology for modeling vulnerability in relation to harmful
Protecting People and the Planet a proposal to address the humanrights impacts of climate change Francisco School of Law #12;#12;Protecting People and the Planet a proposal to address the humanrights, death penalty law, and detention without due process and other post-9/11 issues. The Center protects
Under what conditions are effective international regimes for the promotion of humanrights likely to emerge? Case studies of European institutions the European Convention on HumanRights, the European Community and the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe confirm hypotheses more consistent with Liberal theories of international relations than their Institutionalist or Realist counterparts. The uniquely successful
In 2001, a 3-month course in humanrights based on critical inquiry was offered to 8th graders in a slum area of Santo Domingo. The students' attitudes, behaviors and knowledge of humanrights principles were measured before and after the course. The curriculum focused on international principles and entrenched local problems such as
This thesis analyzes the construction of humanrights norms, institutions, and practices in Brazil. Bridging international relations and comparative politics, this study builds on the literature of socialization to international norms. The study argues that, in the post-transition context of democratic politics, state and societal actors and interests play a primordial role in the promotion of humanrights. It also
This article investigates the effect of access to media reporting and press freedom on the achievement of humanrights. Past research on the role of the media on humanrights has often been limited to anecdotal examples or limited case studies. There has been little comprehensive systematic investigation on the topic. Specifically, this article answers the questions: Do large communication
There is a globalization trend in teacher education, emphasizing the role of teachers to make judgments based on humanrights in their teaching profession. Rather than emphasizing the epistemological dimension of acquiring knowledge "about" humanrights through teacher education, an ontological dimension is emphasized in this paper of
This article examines the moral, political and pedagogical tensions that are created from the entanglement of patriotism and humanrights, and sketches a response to these tensions in the context of critical education. The article begins with a brief review of different forms of patriotism, especially as those relate to humanrights, and explains
Advancement of humanrights is a core competency in the social work curriculum. Presented is a model to teach policy practice from a humanrights perspective based on a violence-against-women delegation visit to Guatemala. Postdelegation policy advocacy responses included White House and State Department briefings on the problems, including
The purpose of this study was to explore middle school (grade 6-8) students' understanding and interpretation of humanrights issues with local and global implications as they engaged in the process of creating a film after reading print and multimedia texts and participating in humanrights education activities. As the students explored
HumanRights Education (HRE) has traditionally been articulated in terms of cultivating better citizens or world citizens. The main preoccupation in this strand of HRE has been that of bridging a gap between universal notions of a humanrights subject and the actual locality and particular narratives in which students are enmeshed. This
In this essay, the author focuses on an underlying theoretical issue which she believes seriously affects our collective response to the idea of group rights in the genetic-control context. That issue is to what extent are our responses to claims of group rights hampered by our bringing to the table (consciously or unconsciously) a model which is structured to acknowledge only individual concerns? Put another way, to what extent are our objections to group rights in this context a product of our inability (or refusal) to imagine the idea of group rights, rather than the product of truly substantive concerns? PMID:17714249
Gender-based violence persists in postconflict settings. Implementing an ethnographic study with Congolese refugees in Rwanda, we investigated community perspectives on justice and humanrights. As core concepts, participants described the right to equal value as human beings and the corresponding responsibility to respect humanrights as the basis for justice. Three factors that impede humanrights include cultural ideology, social distance, and lack of a rights-enabling environment. Men described gender similarities while women emphasized gender differences in humanrights. Ecological perspectives and rights-based approaches to achieving social justice seem warranted. PMID:19461231
This article explores whether laws that restrict the communication of genetic test results may, under certain circumstances, violate the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The focus is whether investigators have a right to return results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories in situations where a research participant requests the results and the investigator is willing to share them but is concerned that doing so may violate regulations under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA). This article takes no position on whether investigators can be compelled to return results when they do not wish to do so. It examines only whether investigators may, not whether they must, return results to a willing research participant. The article: (1) surveys state and federal laws that block communication of genetic test results to research participants; (2) examines the historical use of speech restrictions as a tool for protecting human research subjects; (3) traces how First Amendment doctrine has evolved since the 1970s when foundations of modern research bioethics were laid; (4) inquires whether recent bioethical and policy debate has accorded due weight to the First Amendment. The article applies two common methods of legal analysis, textual and constitutional analysis. It concludes that the CLIA regulations, when properly construed, do not treat the return of results as an event that triggers CLIAs certification requirements. Moreover, there is a potential First Amendment problem in construing CLIAs research exception in a way that bans the return of results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories.
For scientists in a totalitarian society, the line between the professional and the political collapses, because to one degree or another they face the forced option of complicity with or resistance to the regime. A look at the history of Soviet scientists' fight for democracy and humanrights in the former Soviet Union -- including the author's personal involvement from 1956 -- exposes the radically diverse responses of Soviet scientists to this option: ideological confrontation with the regime, sacrifice of scientific careers, and worse by a small minority; strong professional and public support for the regime by another small but significant minority; and ambiguous or hypocritical public silence by the majority. These responses mostly reflected differences of character, but sometimes different answers to such fundamental questions as: What is more dangerous for domestic and international peace and security -- a repressive totalitarian superpower that may be gradually improved, or an unstable democracy? Where to draw the line between scientific activity within and complicity with a totalitarian regime? When seeking how to express solidarity with persecuted colleagues, many Western scientists have also raised these questions. In the post-Soviet era both still deserve analysis, if only because of China. The Soviet experience points to democratization, with all its instability, as being better insurance of future peace and security -- both locally and internationally -- than any repressive regime. The second question has been given a tragic new dimension recently, as it bears on collaboration with scientific colleagues who hold official or prestigious positions in a country that deliberately starves abandoned children to death.
Fundamental rights are preconditions for any human to act with sufficient freedom and to be allowed sufficient choice to realize their potential. The right to indigenous medicine must be recognized as a fundamental humanright for indigenous peoples. In accordance with the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine, every citizen should be allowed to benefit from the placebo effect. It constitutes an essential aspect of treatment, which is rightfully theirs on the basis of payment for health care - regardless of whether the payment is made out of pocket, or from public finance. It then follows that, the right of citizens to access the medical system of their choice should be formally acknowledged. That choice should be regarded as a Fundamental HumanRight, which should under no circumstance be denied them - not for reasons of scientific prejudice, nor commercial ambition. PMID:21829297
Background The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of humanrights as a professional obligation prompted moves to include humanrights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A Train-the-Trainers course in Health and HumanRights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences institutions nationwide with the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge to teach humanrights to their students. This study followed up participants to determine the extent of curriculum implementation, support needed as well as barriers encountered in integrating humanrights into health sciences teaching and learning. Methods A survey including both quantitative and qualitative components was distributed in 2007 to past course participants from 1998-2006 via telephone, fax and electronic communication. Results Out of 162 past participants, 46 (28%) completed the survey, the majority of whom were still employed in academic settings (67%). Twenty-two respondents (48%) implemented a total of 33 formal humanrights courses into the curricula at their institutions. Respondents were nine times more likely (relative risk 9.26; 95% CI 5.14-16.66) to implement humanrights education after completing the training. Seventy-two extracurricular activities were offered by 21 respondents, many of whom had successfully implemented formal curricula. Enabling factors for implementation included: prior teaching experience in humanrights, general institutional support and the presence of allies - most commonly coworkers as well as deans. Frequently cited barriers to implementation included: budget restrictions, time constraints and perceived apathy of colleagues or students. Overall, respondents noted personal enrichment and optimism in teaching humanrights. Conclusion This Train-the-Trainer course provides the historical context, educational tools, and collective motivation to incorporate humanrights educational initiatives at health sciences institutions. Increased implementation of humanrights instruction, both formally and extracurricularly, has demonstrated the training's significance not only within academic institutions but more broadly across the health sector. Coworkers are vital allies in teaching humanrights to health sciences students, helping to alleviate institutional barriers. Training fellow staff members and those in key leadership roles is noted as vital to the sustainability of humanrights education. PMID:21787421
An essential step in understanding connected discourse is the ability to link the meanings of successive sentences together. Given a growing database to which new sentence meanings must be linked, which out of many possible ...
Designed for teachers of undergraduate students with some familiarity with political theory, moral philosophy, and social history, this course outline focuses on individual rights and their realization in the United States and the world at large. The syllabus, arranged in 3 major parts, is subdivided into 16 sections that outline major course
The current challenges posed by hate speech across the globe have prompted the need to better understand the evolution of the right to be free from the harm of hate speech as codified within Article 20(2) of the International Covenant on Civil...
The author warns that ultra-conservatism is growing in strength and sophistication as a political force. He cites literature from various right-wing groups attacking the public schools and suggests that educators must learn to cope with social stress and the political extremism it generates. (SJL)
Background Humanrights abuses, denial of care, police surveillance, and violence directed at IDUs have been found to impact HIV prevention efforts due to decreased attendance in harm reduction programs. The association of mental health status with rights abuses has not been examined extensively among drug users. In India, drug control laws are often in conflict with harm reduction policies, thus increasing the likelihood of rights abuses against IDUs. The purpose of this study was to describe humanrights abuses occurring among IDUs in Delhi and examine their association with suicidal ideation. Methods 343 IDUs were recruited in two research sites in Delhi through respondent driven sampling and were interviewed with a cross sectional survey questionnaire that included items on humanrights and socio demographics. Results IDUs in the study experienced many humanrights abuses. Notably among these were denial of admission into hospital (38.5%), denial of needles and syringes (20%), police arrests for carrying needles and using drugs (85%), verbal abuse (95%) and physical abuse (88%). Several humanrights abuses were associated with suicidal ideation. These include being denied needles and syringes (OR: 7.28, 95% CI: 3.03- 17.49); being arrested by police for carrying needles and using drugs (OR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.06- 6.03), and being physically abused (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.05- 2.23). The likelihood of suicidal ideation is also strongly related to the cumulative number of abuses. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that there is a high prevalence of humanrights abuses among IDUs in Delhi. Given the alarming rate of suicidal ideation and its close relationship with humanrights abuses it is essential that IDU interventions are executed within a rights-based framework. PMID:21439808
Sarin, Enisha; Samson, Luke; Sweat, Michael; Beyrer, Chris
This paper analyses developments and debates regarding legal and humanrights issues relevant to the Australian HIV response in the context of treatment as prevention (TasP). A refocusing of prevention priorities on individual responsibilities to 'test and treat' without regard to the legal and humanrights context is, we argue, problematic. The paper maintains that the justification of testing and treating for the greater good risks eroding the foundations of a humanrights-based approach to HIV prevention, and that the TasP agenda as presently conceived may divert attention from pressing law reform issues relating to sex work, illicit drug use, and criminalization of HIV transmission. PMID:24846483
DIANA, a joint project provided by an international consortium of libraries and humanrights organizations, is dedicated to the construction of a comprehensive database of documents essential to humanrights research. Currently, segments of the database are hosted by four libraries. Each library provides a unique set of documents for the collaborative database. The Bora Laskin Law Library at the University of Toronto archives women's humanrights resources. Unfortunately, users cannot query all four hosts at the same time; however, each host attempts to eliminate document duplication within the database as a whole in order to minimize overlap. Consequently, users must select a relevant host before searching or conduct parallel searches.
The question of whether a patient can rely upon a right to treatment in the courts is a topical and controversial one. This article provides a short summary of the current law on this issue and concludes that, while there is no substantive right to treatment as such, the courts are increasingly willing to enforce procedural requirements onto those bodies that make funding decisions. These procedural requirements seek to ensure that each patient is assessed on the basis of his or her individual clinical needs. Blanket policies against funding particular treatments are not permitted, but neither are funding decisions based on exceptional personal (non-clinical) circumstances. Individual clinical needs are always relevant and must be taken into account. Provided that the body making funding decisions satisfies this requirement, the courts will be reluctant to intervene with decisions about the provision of medical treatment. PMID:19966746
The expansion of the corpus of international humanrights to include the right to water and sanitation has implications both for the process of recognizing humanrights and for future developments in the relationships between technology, engineering and humanrights. Concerns with threats to humanrights resulting from developments in science and technology were expressed in the early days of the United Nations (UN), along with the recognition of the ambitious humanright of everyone "to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications." This comment explores the hypothesis that the emerging concepts most likely to follow recognition of the humanright to water primarily involve issues of science and technology, such as access to medicines or clean and healthy environment. Many threats to humanrights from advances in science, which were identified in the past as potential, have become real today, such as invasion of privacy from electronic recording, deprivation of health and livelihood as a result of climate change, or control over individual autonomy through advances in genetics and neuroscience. This comment concludes by urging greater engagement of scientists and engineers, in partnership with humanrights specialists, in translating normative pronouncements into defining policy and planning interventions. PMID:24519531
, the rights of women, children, and political prisoners in Iran. She was the first Muslim woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize and only the fifth Muslim to receive a Nobel Prize in any field. Dr. Ebadi was also the Society for Protecting the Rights of the Child, the Defenders of HumanRights Center, the Nobel Women
, the rights of women, children, and political prisoners in Iran. She was the first Muslim woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize and only the fifth Muslim to receive a Nobel Prize in any field. Dr. Ebadi was also the Society for Protecting the Rights of the Child, the Defenders of HumanRights Center, the Nobel Women
This paper analyzes the development of legal mechanisms and micro-level institutional reforms aimed at consolidating the rights of indigenous peoples in post-conflict Guatemala. The research is based on prolonged fieldwork carried out with the Office of the Defender of Indigenous Peoples Rights of the Guatemalan HumanRights Ombudsman's Office (PDH), established in 1998. The paper argues that the establishment of
Working at the bedside and within communities as patient advocates, nurses frequently intervene to advance individuals' health and well-being. However, the International Council of Nurses' Code of Ethics asserts that nurses should expand beyond the individual model and also promote a rights-enabling environment where respect for human dignity is paramount. This article applies the results of an ethnographic humanrights study with displaced populations in Rwanda to argue for a rights-based social advocacy role for nurses. Humanrights advocacy strategies include sensitization, participation, protection, good governance, and accountability. By adopting a rights-based approach to advocacy, nurses contribute to health agendas that include more just social relationships, equitable access to opportunities, and health-positive living situations for all persons. PMID:22496055
Minority communities face discrimination and abuse. The main health problems they face are those of severe and early chronic disease and poor well-being due to inequality in jobs, education and access to health care. The Sandwell community health network provides support workers to six major minority groups in Sandwell, providing information and access to skilled health services. Without securing health as a basic right for our minorities we perpetuate divisions in our society which cause mistrust, conflict and violence. The health system has a vital role to play in securing people's rights and campaigning for equality and justice for all our communities, to enhance community cohesion. PMID:18771200
Discusses how Elizabeth Cady Stanton's "The Solitude of Self" grounds rights in the material paradox of chance life events and the corporeal permanence of human isolation by enacting human solitude through what J. Campbell calls lyric tragedy. Reverses the ground for humanism from the disembodied rationalism of the Enlightenment to an embodied
Every region in the world is affected by some form of human trafficking. This article discusses the complex factors involved in child trafficking from a cultural perspective. The role of the psychologist in addressing humanrights and social issues such as child trafficking is also discussed. The article also provides recommendations on how psychologists can be proactive advocates on human
"Profession 2005" begins with a series of essays titled "The Future of the Humanities." Without exception, the authors contend that literary studies must reaffirm, or in some cases reassert, its connection with the humanities in order to retain viability for the foreseeable and distant future in American higher education. In the words of Robert
With the aim of honoring the spirit of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., by working to make his "humanrights revolution" a reality, this report considers efforts to build a humanrights society in the United States. The report celebrates the Center for HumanRights Education's (CHRE's) growth and accomplishments and documents the Center's work to
National Center for Human Rights Education, Atlanta, GA.
Mission Faculty Profiles Programs Projects Overview Migration and HumanRights Project Jesuit RefugeeAnnual Report 2011-2012 #12;center for humanrights and international justice | annual report 2011-2012 Director David Hollenbach, SJ university chair in humanrights and international justice Associate
Women for Women's HumanRights (WWHR) -- New Ways has been carrying out a "HumanRights Education Program for Women" throughout Turkey for over a decade, in cooperation with community centers. The training has a holistic, comprehensive nature, linking several areas of humanrights through a critical gender perspective lens. One of the overarching
Although humanrights are often expressed as universal tenets, the concept was conceived in a particular socio-political and historical context. Conceptualisations and practice of humanrights vary across societies, and face numerous challenges. After providing an historical account of the conceptualisation of humanrights in Japanese society,
A recent judgement in February 2005 by the Lord Chief Justice in Northern Ireland that a Health and Social Services Trust had breached a parent's Article 8 Right to Family Life in the process used to take a young child into care has stimulated major debate about the interface between the HumanRights Act (1998) and professional decision-making in
This review considers some recent humanrights cases in the field of assisted reproduction and explores how the UK courts are seeking to weave their way through the complex legal and ethical issues in this sensitive field to balance the competing rights of those seeking infertility treatment, gamete donors and their offspring. PMID:16192077
The Canadian HumanRights Act extends the laws in Canada that proscribe discrimination by establishing that each individual has the right to make the life for him- or herself that he or she is able and wishes to have, consistent with the duties and obligations of a member of society, without being hindered or prevented from doing so by
Department of Supply and Services, Ottawa (Ontario).
The Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR) was unanimously adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations through the General Assembly Resolution 217A(111) on the 10 th of December, 1948. Since its declaration, it has become fashionable for most countries of the world (Nigeria inclusive) to entrench the catalogue of rights in their national constitutions. Regrettably, in Nigeria and indeed in
A study was done of the civil rights status of Hispanics in Idaho with respect to issues raised at a series of community hearings sponsored by the Idaho HumanRights Commission. Testimony included concerns about state and local hiring practices; the perceived need for bilingual state social service providers and educators; the need for outreach
This paper analyses, from the perspective of women's humanrights, an unsuccessful attempt to amend the abortion law in the Penal Code of Sri Lanka in 1995. The Parliamentary debate brought to the surface a number of contentious issues relating to women's right to control their sexuality and reproductive capacities, in which women were variously assumed to be promiscuous and
This paper presents the findings of an action research project designed to examine the dynamics of classroom relationships and perceptions of how rights and identities operate in an all boys' comprehensive school in the English West Midlands. The principal aims of the research were to examine the feasibility of adopting a humanrights framework as a basis for school life
Describes Amnesty International, an organization formed in order to change the sociopolitical environment so that elites will have to act in a predetermined prohuman rights manner in all situations. The issues of torture and political repression were addressed in different nations, which practice the detention of political prisoners. (Author/RK)
The recruitment of trainee surgeons is a demanding topic. Not only the question whether the number of applicants is sufficient but also the selection of the right candidates are of great importance. Therefore, it is of vital interest to establish the occupational requirements and to develop reliable and valid methods for the selection process. PMID:23292154
Iranians have been fighting for their rights since early 1900. The history of this struggle will be reviewed with emphasis on what might be termed the modern era, which began with the return of Ayatollah Khomeini to Iran in February 1979. A brief summary of the modern era Iran Constitution also will be presented. Although Iranians had been promised a
America, 10 Hum. Rts. Q. 177. ______, A Visit to the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, 9 Hum. Rts. Q. 426 and Abortion Under the Draft Convention on the Rights #12;2 of the Child, 12 Hum. Rts. Q. 156. ______, The UN
The Principality of Liechtenstein is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government. Prince Hans-Adam II is the head of state. On August 15, Hereditary Prince Alois took on the duties of head of state, exercising the rights of office on behalf ...
as noncommunicable illnesses like hypertension and diabetes. The needs assessment will reflect humanrights, public. 19 Â 25, 43 Â 73); Flores v. Southern Peru Copper Corporation; World Health Organization Country
This course provides a rigorous and critical introduction to the foundation, structure and operation of the international humanrights movement. It includes leading theoretical and institutional issues and the functioning ...
In recent years, a number of international and cross-sectoral initiatives have attempted to respond to the humanrights impacts of corporations. Foremost among these is the United Nations 2008 Protect, Respect, and Remedy ...
Inhumane working conditions led to a strike of Japanese silk spinners and formation of a union. Company repression provoked public opinion, resulting in acceptance of worker demands for recognition of humanrights in the workplace. (SK)
Among the explanations for state ratification of humanrights treaties, few are more common and widely accepted than the conjecture that states are rewarded for ratification by other states. These rewards are expected to ...
Adopted by the General Affairs Council in Luxembourg on October 11, 1999, this report covers the period June 1, 1998 to June 30, 1999 and "intends to explain how the [European] Union's headway towards integration is paralleled in the field of humanrights." The Report is offered as part of a wider effort to promote transparency of the EU's humanrights policies. To that end, it explains the major actors of the Union's humanrights policies and their goals, methods, and activities. While concentrating on external relations, the Report does explore some humanrights issues within the EU area, specifically racism. The report is offered in six sections in HTML or MS Word format.
The report on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is discussed in three separate sections on Serbia, Kosovo, and Montenegro and addresses humanrights situations in each of these entities. Since federal authority was exercised effectively only over the Rep...
On 22 January 2008, the European Court of HumanRights held that there had been a violation of the Convention for the Protection of HumanRights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention) in the case of E.B. v. France, concerning a refusal by the French authorities to grant E.B.'s request to adopt a child, allegedly on account of her sexual orientation. PMID:18727204
How can we reconcile, in a non-ethnocentric fashion, the enforcement of international, universal humanrights standards with the protection of cultural diversity? Examining this question, taking the controversy over female circumcision as a case study, this article will try to bridge the gap between the traditional anthropological view that humanrights are non-existent -- or completely relativised to particular cultures -- and the view of Western naturalistic philosophers (including Lockeian philosophers in the natural rights tradition, and Aquinas and neo-Thomists in the natural law tradition) that they are universal -- simply derived from a basic human nature we all share. After briefly defending a universalist conception of humanrights, the article will provide a critique of female circumcision as a humanrights violation by three principal means: by an internal critique of the practice using the condoning cultures' own functionalist criteria; by identifying supra-national norms the cultures subscribe to which conflict with the practice; and by the identification of traditional and novel values in the cultures, conducive to those norms. Through this analysis, it will be seen that cultural survival, diversity and flourishing need not be incompatible with upholding international, universal humanrights standards. PMID:11657373
The UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), a global pact for advancing women's rights, was brought to Senate by nine female House members after 20 years of waiting to be ratified. Ratifying countries agree to fight all types of discrimination, including reproductive rights violations as well as the exploitation of prostitution, inequalities in marriage laws and unequal access to health care. Senator Jesse Helms, the head of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, is against the ratification of the CEDAW because he believes that it will do little to improve the lives of women. Meanwhile, other organizations in other states such as the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy, are showing their support to the CEDAW by submitting a number of Shadow Reports to the committee which highlights discriminatory laws and policies against women in other countries. PMID:12349420
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set out to halve the proportion of the population without access to basic sanitation between 1990 and 2015. The slow pace of progress has lead to a search for innovative responses, including social motivation approaches. One example of this type of approach is 'Community-led Total Sanitation' (CLTS). CLTS represents a major shift for sanitation projects and programmes in recognising the value of stopping open-defecation across the whole community, even when the individual toilets built are not necessarily wholly hygienic. However, recent publications on CLTS document a number of examples of practices which fail to meet basic ethical criteria and infringe humanrights. There is a general theme in the CLTS literature encouraging the use of 'shame' or 'social stigma' as a tool for promoting behaviours. There are reported cases where monetary benefits to which individuals are otherwise entitled or the means to practice a livelihood are withheld to create pressures to conform. At the very extreme end of the scale, the investigation and punishment of violence has reportedly been denied if the crime occurred while defecating in the open, violating rights to a remedy and related access to justice. While social mobilisation in general, and CLTS in particular, have drastically and positively changed the way we think about sanitation, they neither need nor benefit from an association with any infringements of humanrights. PMID:23165706
Bartram, Jamie; Charles, Katrina; Evans, Barbara; O'Hanlon, Lucinda; Pedley, Steve
Is addressed in this work if you can accept that in Spain a reproductive rights through the use of assisted reproductive techniques, especially when the client is a single woman and when the baby has undergone a substitution pregnancy or surrogacy, regardless of those who have come to this possibility, which still continues to be considered without any efficacy in the rules governing the matter. PMID:24340827
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a discourse approach to theorising human resource development (HRD) can open a "discursive space" to challenge dominant discourses within the field; enabling a more critical discourse to emerge. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses two approaches to discourse analysis, a "practice" and a
This paper explores the ways in which policy discourses have constructed rationales for addressing adult literacy over the last 50 years. In particular, we examine how policy positions the literacy learner as citizen within discourses of rights and equity. Taking the case of the UK, we compare two key documents produced at different historical
Background to the debate The humanrights responsibilities of drug companies have been considered for years by nongovernmental organizations, but were most sharply defined in a report by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health, submitted to the United Nations General Assembly in August 2008. The HumanRights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines include responsibilities for transparency, management, monitoring and accountability, pricing, and ethical marketing, and against lobbying for more protection in intellectual property laws, applying for patents for trivial modifications of existing medicines, inappropriate drug promotion, and excessive pricing. Two years after the release of the Guidelines, the PLoS Medicine Debate asks whether drug companies are living up to their humanrights responsibilities. Sofia Gruskin and Zyde Raad from the Harvard School of Public Health say more assessment is needed of such responsibilities; Geralyn Ritter, Vice President of Global Public Policy and Corporate Responsibility at Merck & Co. argues that multiple stakeholders could do more to help States deliver the right to health; and Paul Hunt and Rajat Khosla introduce Mr. Hunt's work as the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, regarding the humanrights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies and access to medicines. PMID:20927356
Background to the debate The humanrights responsibilities of drug companies have been considered for years by nongovernmental organizations, but were most sharply defined in a report by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health, submitted to the United Nations General Assembly in August 2008. The HumanRights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines include responsibilities for transparency, management, monitoring and accountability, pricing, and ethical marketing, and against lobbying for more protection in intellectual property laws, applying for patents for trivial modifications of existing medicines, inappropriate drug promotion, and excessive pricing. Two years after the release of the Guidelines, the PLoS Medicine Debate asks whether drug companies are living up to their humanrights responsibilities. Sofia Gruskin and Zyde Raad from the Harvard School of Public Health say more assessment is needed of such responsibilities; Geralyn Ritter, Vice President of Global Public Policy and Corporate Responsibility at Merck & Co. argues that multiple stakeholders could do more to help States deliver the right to health; and Paul Hunt and Rajat Khosla introduce Mr. Hunt's work as the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, regarding the humanrights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies and access to medicines. PMID:20927355
It has widely been recognized that the media play a key role in framing debates about genetic issues. This paper provides an overview of the major areas of debate within the social scientific literature on media, public understanding of science and human genetics. It evaluates current approaches to assessing the role of the media in influencing public policy debates. It
In the recent past, biomedical research has been repeatedly promoted on the grounds that it will lead to novel cures. Future remedies have been proposed and propagated by diverse actors such as scientists, the media and patient representatives. Proposals for novel therapies based on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have framed the initiation, reception, and implementation of novel research in
This paper sets out findings from research that considered the interplay between English national policy developments in human resources management in higher education and the personal stories of academic staff as career participants. Academic careers are pursued in an institutional and national policy context but it was not clear that the formal
Most countries have acceded to at least one global or regional covenant or treaty confirming the right to health. After years of international discussions on humanrights, many governments are now moving towards practical implementation of their commitments. A practical example may be of help to those governments who aim to translate their international treaty obligations into practice. WHO's Essential Medicines Programme is an example of how this transition from legal principles to practical implementation may be achieved. This programme has been consistent with humanrights principles since its inception in the early 1980s, through its focus on equitable access to essential medicines. This paper provides a brief overview of what the international humanrights instruments mention about access to essential medicines, and proposes five assessment questions and practical recommendations for governments. These recommendations cover the selection of essential medicines, participation in programme development, mechanisms for transparency and accountability, equitable access by vulnerable groups, and redress mechanisms. PMID:16710546
Recently, international humanrights leaders have renewed the call for advocacy on economic, social, and cultural rights and suggested partnerships with local organizations. The Thai Drug Users' Network (TDN) promotes the humanrights of a marginalized and medically underserved population within Thailand. It also works internationally to reduce drugrelated harms. Thus, TDN transcends a strict local-international dichotomy. The group grew out of professional and personal ties between Thai drug users and international health and humanrights actors. Border-crossing connections and two-way transfer of knowledge, particularly through bridging individuals or "cultural translators," have benefited both TDN and the non-Thai organizations that work with it. This case study shows how international-local, and even donor-recipient, relationships may be navigated in ways that are symbiotic and mutually empowering. PMID:17136908
UK law on education and sex discrimination does not protect the right of girls to equality in education. The European Convention on HumanRights and the Treaty of Rome offer better protection. The Convention provides for the right to education and the right of parents to have their philosophical convictions considered in the education of their child. The European Court
The international community has affirmed the humanright to water in a number of international treaties, declarations and other documents. Most notably, the United Nations (UN) Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted in November 2002 a General Comment on the Right to Water setting out international standards and obligations relating to the right to water. Based on the
\\u000a A new concept of converging technologies (CT) evolved mainly out of activities within the US National Nanotechnology Initiative\\u000a (NNI), which were strongly tied to the ethical and societal implications of nanotechnology. It became more widely known after\\u000a the publication of a workshop report entitled Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Nanotechnology, Biotechnology,\\u000a Information Technology and Cognitive Science (Roco and Bainbridge
The existing literature presents conflicting models of how "this" and "that" access different segments of a written discourse, frequently relying on implicit analogies with spoken discourse. On the basis of this literature, we hypothesized that in written discourse, "this" more readily accesses the adjacent/right
Background & objectives: The objectives of the study were to examine: right to access maternal health; right to access child health; and right to access improved water and sanitation in India. Methods: We used large-scale data sets like District Level Household Survey conducted in 2007-08 and National Family Health Surveys conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 to fulfil the objectives. The selection of the indicator variables was guided by the HumanRights Framework for Health and Convention of the Rights of the Child- Articles 7, 24 and 27. We used univariate and bivariate analysis along with ratio of access among non-poor to access among poor to fulfil the objectives. Results: Evidence clearly suggested gross violation of humanrights starting from the birth of an individual. Even after 60 years of independence, significant proportions of women and children do not have access to basic services like improved drinking water and sanitation. Interpretation & conclusions: There were enormous socio-economic and residence related inequalities in maternal and child health indicators included in the study. These inequalities were mostly to the disadvantage of the poor. The fulfilment of the basic humanrights of women and children is likely to pay dividends in many other domains related to overall population and health in India. PMID:23703339
Pre-colonial Africa was neither an educationally nor a technologically unsophisticated continent. While education was an integral part of the culture, issues of language identification and standardisation which are subject to contentious debate today were insignificant. Children learned community knowledge and history by asking questions instead of being taught in a hegemonic alien language. This article argues that education and development should take place in a broader context of humanrights, and explores the links between three areas often dealt with separately, namely: language, education and development. The authors of this paper demonstrate that changing the face of the multi-dimensionalities of poverty within societies is possible only when education is constructed in a rights perspective over the favoured colonial languages, which are not an integral part of the culture and resources of a community. The authors make a distinction between the right to education and rights in education, the latter of which are found to be more significant for the challenges Africa faces. It is argued here that the elements of Amartya Sen's "threshold" conditions for inclusion in humanrights and self-development in education are essential, and that a more promising architecture of education would include what the authors term meta-narrative frameworks, i.e. interrelated policies. The authors contend that the neoliberal commodification of the knowledge sector has only exacerbated humanrights and capabilities deprivation - which encompasses both human and income poverty.
The preparation of students for global citizenship represents a central challenge to social studies educators in the twenty-first century. Two-thirds of the world's poor are steeped in abject poverty and its grim consequences. The world refugee problem has reached staggering proportions. There is an international epidemic of human trafficking, and
Denial of humanrights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT) centers assesses (a) the extent to which these women have experienced humanrights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b) whether there are specific risk factors for humanrights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91%) reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50%) experienced at least one humanrights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for humanrights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one's own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed. PMID:22532779
Denial of humanrights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT) centers assesses (a) the extent to which these women have experienced humanrights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b) whether there are specific risk factors for humanrights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91%) reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50%) experienced at least one humanrights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for humanrights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on ones own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed. PMID:22532779
Stigma and discrimination constitute one of the greatest barriers to dealing effectively with the HIV epidemic, underlying a range of humanrights violations and hindering access to prevention, care, treatment and support. There is some existing protection against HIV-based discrimination under international law, but the extent of states' obligations to address such discrimination has not been comprehensively addressed in an international instrument. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities entered into force in May 2008. As countries ratify the convention, they are required to amend national laws and policies to give greater protection to the humanrights of people with disabilities, including abolishing disability-based discrimination by the state and protecting persons against such discrimination by others. The Disability Convention addresses many of the issues faced by people living with HIV (PLHIV) but does not explicitly include HIV or AIDS within its open-ended definition of "disability". Therefore, the advent of the Disability Convention prompts us to consider the links between HIV and disability and, specifically, to consider the opportunities it and other legal mechanisms, international or domestic, may afford for advancing the humanrights of PLHIV facing humanrights infringements. We do so in the belief that the movement for humanrights is stronger when constituencies with so many common and overlapping interests are united, and that respectful and strategic collaboration ultimately strengthens both the disability rights and the AIDS movements. In this article, we first examine the links between HIV and disability. We then provide a brief overview of how international humanrights law has treated both disability and HIV/AIDS. We note some of the different ways in which national anti-discrimination laws have reflected the links between HIV and disability, illustrated with representative examples from a number of countries. Finally, we offer some conclusions and recommendations about ways forward for collaboration between HIV and disability rights advocates in advancing humanrights at the international level, including the use of the new tool that is the Disability Convention. We hope these reflections will promote further discussion across movements, ultimately to the benefit of all persons with disabilities and/or HIV. PMID:19900283
The third planning workshop of the Human Genome Diversity Project was held on the campus of the US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from February 16 through February 18, 1993. The second day of the workshop was devoted to an exploration of the ethical and human-rights implications of the Project. This open meeting centered on three roundtables, involving 12 invited participants, and the resulting discussions among all those present. Attendees and their affiliations are listed in the attached Appendix A. The discussion was guided by a schedule and list of possible issues, distributed to all present and attached as Appendix B. This is a relatively complete, and thus lengthy, summary of the comments at the meeting. The beginning of the summary sets out as conclusions some issues on which there appeared to be widespread agreement, but those conclusions are not intended to serve as a set of detailed recommendations. The meeting organizer is distributing his recommendations in a separate memorandum; recommendations from others who attended the meeting are welcome and will be distributed by the meeting organizer to the participants and to the Project committee.
After 9\\/11, the United States and its allies took measures to protect their citizens from future terrorist attacks. While these measures aim to increase security, they have often been criticized for violating humanrights. But violating rights is difficult in a constitutional democracy with separated powers and checks and balances. This paper empirically investigates the effect of the post-9\\/11 terror
After 9\\/11, the United States and its allies took measures to protect their citizens from future terrorist attacks. While these measures aim to increase security, they have often been criticized for violating humanrights. But violating rights is di¢ cult in a constitutional democracy with separated powers and checks and balances. This paper empirically investigates the eect of the post-9\\/11
Public policy decisions in both the social and economic spheres have enormous impact on global public health. As a result of this, and of the skewed global distribution of power and resources, health impact assessment (HIA) potentially has a key role to play in foreign policy-making and global public policy-making. Governments, multilateral bodies and transnational corporations need to be held to account for the health impacts of their policies and practices. One route towards achieving this objective involves the inclusion of humanrights assessments within HIA. International commitments to humanrights instruments and standards can be used as a global auditing tool. Methodological issues may limit the effectiveness of HIA in promoting health equity. These issues include the use of procedures that favour those holding power in the policy process or the use of procedures that fail to apply values of equity and participation. The identification and production of evidence that includes the interests of less powerful groups is a priority for HIA and would be furthered if a humanrights-based method of HIA were developed. Because HIA considers all types of policies and examines all potential determinants of health, it can play a part when foreign policy is developed and global decisions are made to treat people as rights holders. Since the humanright to health is shaped by the determinants of health, developing links between the right to health assessment (that is, an assessment of the impact of policies on the right to health) and HIA--as recently proposed by the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the right to health--could strengthen the development of foreign policy and global decisions. Such links should be pursued and applied to the development of foreign policy and to the operation of multilateral bodies. PMID:17486213
One-third of all human lives end in early death from poverty-related causes. Most of these premature deaths are avoidable through global institutional reforms that would eradicate extreme poverty. Many are also avoidable through global health-system reform that would make medical knowledge freely available as a global public good. The rules should be redesigned so that the development of any new
While associations between number and space, in the form of a spatially oriented numerical representation, have been extensively reported in human adults, the origins of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. The commonly accepted view is that this number-space association is a product of human invention, with accounts proposing that culture, symbolic knowledge, and mathematics education are at the roots of this phenomenon. Here we show that preverbal infants aged 7 months, who lack symbolic knowledge and mathematics education, show a preference for increasing magnitude displayed in a left-to-right spatial orientation. Infants habituated to left-to-right oriented increasing or decreasing numerical sequences showed an overall higher looking time to new left-to-right oriented increasing numerical sequences at test (Experiment 1). This pattern did not hold when infants were presented with the same ordinal numerical information displayed from right to left (Experiment 2). The different pattern of results was congruent with the presence of a malleable, context-dependent baseline preference for increasing, left-to-right oriented, numerosities (Experiment 3). These findings are suggestive of an early predisposition in humans to link numerical order with a left-to-right spatial orientation, which precedes the acquisition of symbolic abilities, mathematics education, and the acquisition of reading and writing skills. PMID:24802083
de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Girelli, Luisa; Addabbo, Margaret; Macchi Cassia, Viola
The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross humanrights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross humanrights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals. PMID:23671765
What are the humanrights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies with regard to access to medicines? The state-based international humanrights framework has long struggled with the issue of the humanrights obligations of non-state actors, a question sharpened by economic globalization and the concomitant growing power of private for-profit actors ("business"). In 2011, after a six-year development process, the UN HumanRights Council unanimously endorsed the Guiding Principles advanced by the UN Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and HumanRights, John Ruggie. The Ruggie Principles sought to clarify and differentiate the responsibilities of states and non-state actors-in this case, "business" -with respect to humanrights. The framework centered on "three core principles: the state duty to protect against humanrights abuses by third parties, including business; the corporate responsibility to respect humanrights; and the need for more effective access to remedies." The "Protect, Respect, and Remedy" Framework emerged from a review of many industrial sectors operating from local to global scales, in many regions of the world, and involving multiple stakeholder consultations. However, their implications for the pharmaceutical industry regarding access to medicines remain unclear. This article analyzes the 2008 HumanRights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines advanced by then-UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health, Paul Hunt, in light of the Ruggie Principles. It concludes that some guidelines relate directly to the industry's responsibility to respect the right to access to medicines, and form a normative baseline to which firms should be held accountable. It also finds that responsibility for other guidelines may better be ascribed to states than to private actors, based on conceptual and practical considerations. While not discouraging the pharmaceutical industry from making additional contributions to fulfilling the right to health, this analysis concludes that greater attention is merited to ensure that, first and foremost, the industry demonstrates baseline respect for the right to access to medicines. PMID:25006088
Abstract This paper describes the development of a tool that uses humanrights concepts and methods to improve relevant laws, regulations and policies related to sexual and reproductive health. This tool aims to improve awareness and understanding of States humanrights obligations. It includes a method for systematically examining the status of vulnerable groups, involving non-health sectors, fostering a genuine process of civil society participation and developing recommendations to address regulatory and policy barriers to sexual and reproductive health with a clear assignment of responsibility. Strong leadership from the ministry of health, with support from the World Health Organization or other international partners, and the serious engagement of all involved in this process can strengthen the links between humanrights and sexual and reproductive health, and contribute to national achievement of the highest attainable standard of health. PMID:20616975
Little research into neurobehavioural methods and effects occurs in developing countries, where established neurotoxic chemicals continue to pose significant occupational and environmental burdens, and where agents newly identified as neurotoxic are also widespread. Much of the morbidity and mortality associated with neurotoxic agents remains hidden in developing countries as a result of poor case detection, lack of skilled personnel, facilities and equipment for diagnosis, inadequate information systems, limited resources for research and significant competing causes of ill-health, such as HIV/AIDS and malaria. Placing the problem in a humanrights context enables researchers and scientists in developing countries to make a strong case for why the field of neurobehavioural methods and effects matters because there are numerous international humanrights commitments that make occupational and environmental health and safety a humanrights obligation. PMID:19963102
The article aims to explore and discuss the occupational care giving conditions pitting them against humanrights. The articles objective is to initiate discussions and generate literature pertaining to occupational care giving load and assessing the humanrights challenge it poses. The article uses analysis of the literature review from an array of eclectic data sources. The following factors were found besetting the caregivers humanrights: (1) Aging; (2) Cultural and community attitudes towards care giving; (3) Risk of contagion; (4) Health hazards and lack of compensation. Recommendations: (1) Adoption of grandparents/grandchildren care symbiosis system; (2) Government remuneration policy for caregivers; (3) Mainstreaming of gender education to encourage men and youth develop an interest in care giving; (4) Institution of laws and policies by countries to provide for the compensation of caregivers occupational hazards and risks. PMID:21811353
DIANA, a joint project provided by an international consortium of libraries and humanrights organizations, is dedicated to the construction of a comprehensive database of documents essential to humanrights research. Currently, segments of the database are hosted by four libraries. Each library provides a unique set of documents for the collaborative database. The Yale Law School Library contains legal briefs, organizational charters, treaty texts, and bibliographies related to humanrights. Unfortunately, users cannot query all four hosts at the same time; however, each host attempts to eliminate document duplication within the database as a whole in order to minimize overlap. Consequently, users must select a relevant host before searching or conduct parallel searches.
... § 560.545 Democracy and humanrights in Iran and academic...conferences and training, to support humanrights, democratic freedoms...institutions and to meet basic human needs; and (2) The establishment...includes items such as many laptop computers, personal computers,...
... § 560.545 Democracy and humanrights in Iran and academic...conferences and training, to support humanrights, democratic freedoms...institutions and to meet basic human needs; and (2) The establishment...includes items such as many laptop computers, personal computers,...
The human heart is composed of a helical network of musclefibers. Anisotropic least squares filtering followed by fiber trackingtechniques were applied to Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging(DTMRI) data of the excised human heart. The fiber configuration wasvisualized by using thin tubes to increase 3-dimensional visualperception of the complex structure. All visualizations were performedusing the high-quality ray-tracing software POV-Ray. The fibers are shownwithin the left and right ventricles. Both ventricles exhibit similarfiber architecture and some bundles of fibers are shown linking right andleft ventricles on the posterior region of the heart.
Rohmer, Damien; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gullberg, Grant T.
This article opens with a proposed framework for humanrights education (HRE), which synthesizes ideas drawn from Zinns peoples history, Sens theory of justice and Freires critical pedagogy. A review of the literature on HRE and humanrights-based learning suggests three existent interrelated models of HRE. Drawing on humanrights-based programmes designed to benefit Philippine society, this article then presents
Health professionals have expressed concern that the UK HumanRights Act 1988, which came into force in 2000, may threaten their autonomy in clinical practice/decision-making and resource allocation by health authorities. Although healthcare-related cases have so far been slow to emerge under the Act, it seems clear that in clinical practice the transition from duty to legal obligation will involve a degree of change for health professionals, in attitude if not in behaviour. With regard to resource allocation, it appears that the UK courts are likely to consider challenges to health authorities' decisions in a way that takes into account the need to set priorities, so long as these decisions do not discriminate unfairly and can be shown to have been made in the best interest of the wider community. PMID:11792086
The HumanRights Act (HR Act) 1998 (UK) (HumanRights Act, 1998) came into effect on October 2, 2000. Instead of taking a case to the European Court of HumanRights in Strasbourg, litigants can enforce their rights in the UK. The Act will have an unprecedented effect in virtually all areas of the UK legal systems. In line with those countries who have incorporated the 'Convention' in domestic law, litigation is expected to increase. The extensive body of Convention law, as well as decisions of the domestic courts of other states which have incorporated the Convention, now becomes an integral part of UK jurisprudence. Broadly, the Act applies to public and not private bodies. The relevant bodies which embody reproductive issues and concerns are for example the National Health Service (NHS) and the regulatory bodies such as the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) (Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority Act, 1990) and the Human Genetics Advisory Commission (HGAC). A profound impact on the NHS practice, interpretations of the HFEA Act and its Code of Practice can be envisaged in relation to the Convention rights. Cases involving reproductive issues are already emerging in relation to the HR Act and which include sex selection, the present embryo transfer policy, interpretation of fatherless offspring and the provision of fertility services under the NHS. This review is intended to raise awareness of the HR Act 1998 for persons interested in human reproductive issues and how the HR Act could impact on the current laws and practice. Whilst it is only possible to speculate on what might happen in relation to the HR Act, what is certain is that UK law will radically change to accommodate the requirements of the HR Act 1998. PMID:11278235
The right to health is recognised in humanrights law and is also part of the catalogue of patients' rights. It imposes a duty on governments to put in place a system of health protection making it possible for individuals to enjoy the highest attainable standard of health. However, disease patterns are constantly changing, and more and more attention is being paid to so-called lifestyle diseases. Individuals may expose themselves to health threats due to personal choices like eating and smoking habits, and this raises the issue of the individual's obligation with regard to ill health. Hence, is there not only a right to health but also a duty to be healthy? Using obesity as an example, and based on a cross-disciplinary research project, the article analyses selected European and national public health policy papers to see how individual rights and duties are framed and to analyse the use of stigmatisation as a public-health strategy from a health and humanrights perspective. PMID:25199398
Religious communities have been a challenge to HIV prevention globally. Focusing on the acceptability component of the right to health, this intervention study examined how local Catholic, Evangelical and Afro-Brazilian religious communities can collaborate to foster young peoples sexual health and ensure their access to comprehensive HIV prevention in their communities in Brazil. This article describes the process of a three-stage sexual health promotion and HIV prevention initiative that used a multicultural humanrights approach to intervention. Methods included 27 in-depth interviews with religious authorities on sexuality, AIDS prevention and humanrights, and training 18 young people as research-agents, who surveyed 177 youth on the same issues using self-administered questionnaires. The results, analysed using a rights-based perspective on health and the vulnerability framework, were discussed in daylong interfaith workshops. Emblematic of the collaborative process, workshops are the focus of the analysis. Our findings suggest that this humanrights framework is effective in increasing inter-religious tolerance and in providing a collective understanding of the sexuality and prevention needs of youth from different religious communities, and also serves as a platform for the expansion of state AIDS programmes based on laical principles. PMID:20373192
There is no doubting the fact that the social construction of race is sensitive, complex and controversial. For so many people, there is no difference between black and white people. For a few others, we are simply different in a number of different ways. Such racial discourse is neither confined to academic debate nor is it new to those who
Introduction In Kenya, humanrights violations have a marked impact on the health of people living with HIV. Integrating legal literacy and legal services into healthcare appears to be an effective strategy to empower vulnerable groups and address underlying determinants of health. Methods We carried out an evaluation to collect evidence about the impact of legal empowerment programmes on health and humanrights. The evaluation focused on Open Society Foundation-supported legal integration activities at four sites: the Academic Model of Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) facility, where the Legal Aid Centre of Eldoret (LACE) operates, in Eldoret; Kenyatta National Hospital's Gender-based Violence Recovery Centre, which hosts the COVAW legal integration program; and Christian Health Association of Kenya (CHAK) facilities in Mombasa and Naivasha. In consultation with the organizations implementing the programs, we designed a conceptual logic model grounded in humanrights principles, identified relevant indicators and then coded structure, process and outcome indicators for the rights-related principles they reflect. The evaluation included a resource assessment questionnaire, a review of program records and routine data, and semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with clients and service providers. Data were collected in MayAugust 2010 and AprilJune 2011. Results Clients showed a notable increase in practical knowledge and awareness about how to access legal aid and claim their rights, as well as an enhanced ability to communicate with healthcare providers and to improve their access to healthcare and justice. In turn, providers became more adept at identifying humanrights violations and other legal difficulties, which enabled them to give clients basic information about their rights, refer them to legal aid and assist them in accessing needed support. Methodological challenges in evaluating such activities point to the need to strengthen rights-oriented evaluation methods. Conclusions Legal empowerment programmes have the potential to promote accountability, reduce stigma and discrimination and contribute to altering unjust structures and systems. Given their apparent value as a health and humanrights intervention, particularly for marginalized populations, further rigorous evaluations are called for to support the scale-up of such programmes. PMID:24242267
Global challenges raised by biomedical advances require global responses. Some international organizations have made significant efforts over the last few years to establish common standards that can be regarded as the beginning of an international biomedical law. One of the main features of this new legal discipline is the integration of its principles into a humanrights framework. This strategy seems the most appropriate, given the role of "universal ethics" that humanrights play in our world of philosophical pluralism. In addition to the general standards that are gradually being established, a widespread consensus exists on the urgency of preventing two specific procedures: human germ-line interventions and human reproductive cloning. PMID:12571724
The purpose of this paper is to present some of the contributions of the gender discourse to the bioethical debate, specifically in the field of nursing. At the same time, it will explain the contribution of the different feminist theories to the recognition and respect of human dignity. Basically, it will describe the three fundamental models in the gender discourse: the egalitarian model, the difference model, and the model of reciprocity or complementarity. The starting point is that even though the first two models have made significant contributions in the field of bioethics, they have nonetheless brought with them some deficiencies and reductionisms inherent in their thinking. The complementarity model, on the contrary, when properly understood, allows for the combination of the principles of equality and difference between man and woman, which places it at a much more enriching standpoint within the bioethical debate. PMID:25329418
Malaria, a parasitic infection, causes hundreds of millions of disease episodes and more than a million deaths every year, nearly all of them occurring in the poorer and more vulnerable sectors of the world's developing countries. In spite of the great burden of suffering caused by malaria, the humanrights implications of this disease have not been well described. This article summarizes important associations between the spread of malaria and humanrights abuses (such as those associated with slavery and armed conflict) and between poverty, socio-economic inequity, and access to malaria-control measures. The author concludes that malaria control merits inclusion as a core element in global strategies to achieve progressive realization of the right to health. PMID:17265753
Using archival sources, the authors report on the debates and diverse perspectives of United Nations representatives responsible for formulating Article 25 (relating to health and medical care) and 27 (relating to science) of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. These articles supply important normative guidelines for humanrights and public health policy. The question of whether health-related rights should depend on state and/or private sponsorship was left open. There was agreement that scientists deserve freedom in their work but the elitist tone of Article 27 was modified by adding that the general public should share in its benefits. The political nature of drafting these articles shows they have no one dominant progenitor, but finally reflect hard-won consensus in a process ably chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt. PMID:10343298
We have humanrights not because we are nice or because we are white or because we are Christian but because we are human. [Julian Burnside QC]Over 100 graduates and staff attended The University of Notre Dame Australias annual Alumni reunion and listened to prominent lawyer and activist, Julian Burnside AO QC, talk about his views on Australias lack of
This article argues that the novel Disgrace points toward a politics of illegiblity and opacity that aligns more readily with anti-identitarian queer theory instead of rights- and recognition-based humanrightsdiscourses. Through an extended consideration of the relation between national allegory, history, and legibility, I argue that the novel sustains two interpretations of the category of lesbian-first, the national allegorical reading that erases her rights of lesbian desire in the transmission of racialized and sexual historical debts and second, Lucy's refusal of legibility as a lesbian in the national narrative and legal structures. PMID:23316842
This paper addresses the sensitive issue of the teaching of religions and beliefs in schools by analysing two recent decisions of the European Court of HumanRights. In these cases, the Court asserts that students should be exempted from compulsory courses on religion or from courses that are not conveyed in an objective, critical and pluralist
This article analyses the dramatic contrast in outcomes from the reform process in China and Russia. This experience sheds new light on the old debate about the relationship between political institutions, economic progress and humanrights. It explores the arguments of principle involved in the debate about democratization in the communist countries. It examines the political setting within which the
Background Recent evidence from developed and developing countries shows clear clinical and public health benefit to starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) earlier. While discussions about when to start ART have often focused on the clinical risks and benefits, the main issue is one of fair limit-setting. We applied a humanrights framework to assess a policy of early treatment initiation according to the following criteria: public-health purpose; likely effectiveness; specificity; humanrights burdens and benefits; potential for less restrictive approaches; and fair administration. Discussion According to our analysis, a policy of earlier ART initiation would better serve both public health and humanrights objectives. We highlight a number of policy approaches that could be taken to help meet this aim, including increased international financial support, alternative models of care, and policies to secure the most affordable sources of appropriate antiretroviral drugs. Summary Widespread implementation of earlier ART initiation is challenging in resource-limited settings. Nevertheless, rationing of essential medicines is a restriction of humanrights, and the principle of least restriction serves to focus attention on alternative measures such as adapting health service models to increase capacity, decreasing costs, and seeking additional international funding. Progressive realisation using well-defined steps will be necessary to allow for a phased implementation as part of a framework of short-term targets towards nationwide policy adoption, and will require international technical and financial support. PMID:20356356
This article adapts Burt's 1992 network theory of structural holes to explore dynamic developments within global organizational networks, questioning the proposition that alternative forms of organizing are replacing the nation state as the central figure on the global stage. Our analysis of structural holes within the emerging global humanrights regime moves beyond Burt's ideal conception of communication as information
Numerous subsidiary organs of the General Assembly and of the Economic and Social Council have played a part in the humanrights program of the United Nations. For the first thirty years or so of its life the organization concentrated primarily on the development of normative texts; more recent efforts have emphasized implementation. The United Nations Committee on Crime Prevention
Using the writings of the late social psychologist Ignacio Martín-Baró and other Latin American and Latino social scientists as a framework, this article examines the issue of domestic violence from a humanrights perspective. As suggested by these writers, the antecedents, dynamics, and effects of domestic abuse are explored, bringing to bear the historical, philosophical, cultural, social, spiritual, and political
Contends that popular, or a form of alternative, education stands in the background of most efforts in humanrights education in Latin America. Maintains that education must educate people as producers, citizens, and individuals. Discusses challenges to this task in light of liberation theology and the Peruvian experience. (CFR)
with other people who, in the eyes of God, are our neighbors. Hence, it is our responsibility or denied by an all-powerful state, but a God-given humanright. Indeed, religious liberty is the bedrock of the State Department and the Congress in the mid-1990s. And, as we will see, many of the assumptions
Examines humanrights violations in education in Guyana, and identifies the socioeconomic factors that produced the current condition. Findings indicate that, although education is highly valued in the culture, the state has abandoned the educational needs of the nation to ensure the survival of the elite political regime. (JB)
Since 9/11 the European Court of HumanRights (the European Court) has raised anew the question of the relationship between religion and public education. In its reasoning, the European Court has had to consider competing normative accounts of the secular, either to accept or deny claims to religious liberty within Europe's public education
1 Children in Vulnerable Situations: A multi-disciplinary, humanrights-based approach PHS 650-Madison, FACES Initiative (FAmilies and Children Everywhere deserve Support) of the Center for Global Health CORE started on an optimistic note for children Â with an increasing focus on children in various social
The detention and interrogation policies adopted by the United State's government in the wake of the 11 September 2001 attacks have raised several questions about its commitment to international law and humanrights. Initially a bipartisan issue, the instances of torture and prisoner abuse brought before the public were condemned by both Democrats and Republicans, and both party's presidential candidates
This paper considers the effectiveness of Angolan government and United Nations (UN) and non-governmental attempts to protect humanrights in Angola from early 1998 to date, during and in the immediate aftermath of the recent conflict. Angola has suffered from one of the longest-running conflicts in Africa. The country was originally a battleground for a proxy war between the Cold
Our specific topic is Guantanamo, but in my brief remarks I would like to take the long view of U.S. counterterrorism policy (including Guantanamo) and link it to the question of the compliance of the United States, as today's superpower, with international humanrights norms, its relationship to the United Nations and, speaking very broadly, international law norms as conceived
University of Essex Rules of Assessment for LLM in International HumanRights Law UNIVERSITY OF ESSEX GRADUATE SCHOOL RULES OF ASSESSMENT FOR TAUGHT MASTERS DEGREES 2009, will be condoned provided the overall weighted average for the taught modules is 50. #12;University of Essex Rules
The article considers how young people in Swiss schools are taught about the history and background of the Holocaust within the wider perspective of humanrights education, as an important basis for education concerning democratic citizenship. Given the country's specific history, for decades the Holocaust was not a matter of great interest in
The Burakumin, a culturally defined minority group among ethnic Japanese, face continued discrimination even as effective national policies and programs offering educational and social equity are terminated. Based on interviews and conversations in Japan with activist educators, teachers and administrators, the schooling for children of Burakumin families is discussed in the context of humanrights education and the changing economic
Provides description and analysis of numerous adolescent novels that all deal with humanrights issues in a variety of cultures and national settings. Focuses on works by James Watson and Rachel Anderson. Claims that using such works honestly will foster in students a hopeful sense of motivation. (HB)
International collaborations, with which scientists have long been involved, have made them staunch defenders of humanrights around the world. Collaborations involving a pair, or a small group, of scientists from different countries have been common for more than 100 years. Starting more than 50 years ago, CERN has become the quintessential example of the benefits of large scale international
he availability, transfer and misuse of small arms have dramatic adverse consequences on humanrights. Hundreds of thousands of men, women and children are killed or injured each year by small arms and light weapons. The estimated number of firearms in circulation in the world is 640 million.1 It is likely that the actual global stockpile of small arms is
Many would acknowledge that immigration is a major issue in the United States and that immigration reform should be a priority. However, there is little attention to the humanrights crisis on the U.S.-Mexican border. As a result of tightened border security since 1994, it is estimated that over 5,000 migrants have died in the Sonoran desert. The
Plan Colombia is the United States aid package to Colombia designed to counteract drug production and trafficking, while developing the country economically and decreasing humanrights abuses. In actuality, Plan Columbia has a negative impact on all three areas it is designed to improve. This is a result of the civil war in Colombia combined with the fact the underlying
Over the past two decades, substantial progress has been made toward a theoretical understanding of why physical integrity abuses are committed. Unfortunately, these theoretical developments have been devoid of much practical application. In this article, the authors explore the feasibility of risk assessment in the study of these humanrights.
Examines domestic violence from a humanrights perspective. Explores the antecedents, dynamics, and effects of domestic abuse in light of the historical, philosophical, cultural, social, spiritual, and political realities of Latino immigrants in the United States. Discusses levels of awareness and responsibility necessary to break the
Although interest in the consolidation and expansion of the international humanrights regime has grown in recent years, little attention is accorded to the formal procedures that allow individuals aggrieved by states to appeal directly to an international audience. Using data for 82 countries between 1976 and 1999, this article examines the
I begin this essay with a paradox: The variety of sexual harms experienced by women or men are nowhere under- stood, effectively prevented, or responded to; and yet, sexual threats to girls and women are in the headlines everywhere. Not only are they in the headlines, but increasingly they are framed as women's humanrights issues. A moment that epitomizes
in humanrights will enhance the learning experience for all that are engaged and involved to help build://twitter.com/uwinnipeg and on Facebook http://www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Winnipeg-youofwcom-Where-You-Matter-Most/40526795732://humanrightsmuseum.ca/ or follow us on Twitter: http://twitter.com /cmhr_news and on Facebook: For more information
Sexual minorities must meet the same evidentiary burden as all other refugee claimants. Independent country information produced by international humanrights organisations plays an important role in meeting this burden. However, in the case of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender claimants, existing country documentation still fails to provide the kind of information refugees need to support their claims. This is
This article profiles Sarah Winnemucca, a Native educator and dedicated humanrights advocate who devoted her life to building communication and creating understanding between the Native and white cultures. On March 1, 2005, Congressman Jon Porter of Nevada addressed Congress on a bill to allow for the placement of a statue of Sarah Winnemucca
In areas of war and armed conflict it is difficult to get trustworthy and coherent information. Civil society and humanrights groups often face problems of dealing with fragmented witness reports, disinformation of war propaganda, and difficult direct access to these areas. Turkish Kurdistan was used as a case study of armed conflict to evaluate the potential use of satellite
This book presents theoretical studies and national experiences of how education might respond to war, natural catastrophes, or disease, thereby making people more aware and successful at managing difficult situations. The volume's 15 authors, drawn from many parts of the world, deal with humanrights (especially those of women, children,
Payback" attacks by "Anonymous" on sites perceived to oppose Wikileaks, we expect these attacks to become of cyber attacks, including filtering, intrusions, and defacements in addition to DDoS attacks, and those1 Distributed Denial of Service Attacks Against Independent Media and HumanRights Sites Ethan
Teacher expression on the subject of sexual orientation is a hotly contested topic that has led to many recent legal challenges in the United States and Canada. The purpose of this article is to offer readers an introduction to Canadian cases regarding teacher expression and sexual orientation and demonstrate how the application of a humanrights
Advances in information and communications technologies (ICT) have created not only a range of new crime problems, but also facilitated prevention, detection, investigation, prosecution and punishment of crime. Although technology has assisted criminal justice agencies and offered many protections for suspects and offenders, risks of infringement of humanrights have arisen from the way in which the law has responded
The question of what are today the legitimate and proper role and purposes of public schools can only be answered by a close examination and analysis of the humanright to education which has been developed by such international organizations as the United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and by
This article addresses the dilemmas emerging from efforts to integrate humanrights values within a peace education programme being carried out in a conflict situation. Although the article is largely theoretical, it is grounded in the author's reflections on a series of teacher workshops and his overall experiences conducting ethnographic
Although studies involving linguistic humanrights (LHRs) have focused at length on cases of inter-language discrimination, much less attention has been given to intra-language discrimination (Blommaert 2001a; Skutnabb-Kangas et al. 2001). This paper highlights a number of theoretical issues that the LHRs framework needs to deal with once
1. Summary Disability and health are humanrights issues. The mainstreaming and implementation of these development themes is a complex process both in North and South particularly because many actors are involved under the peculiar development cooperation system. We have highlighted some of the main challenges in our previous work.1 While the disability case study in the previous research focused
The interface between HIV/AIDS, education and humanrights is an important issue in Jamaican society. The spread of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean is second only to that in Africa, and Jamaica itself has the second highest numbers of HIV+ individuals within the Caribbean region. Using a qualitative methodology, this exploratory study aimed to discern
With almost universal ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the growing number of States Parties that have signed or ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the majority of countries in the world have now committed to implementing the humanrights articulated in these treaties. In this article,
The greatest promise of international humanrights law is in stimulating thoughtful self-examination by those who strive to do what is right. Perhaps more than any other instrument, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC; 1989) offers the opportunity to use a global moral consensus to transform life at the neighborhood level in order to
A brief, vivid portrait of the humanrights conditions for women in Asia was presented: "kapit sa patalim" or utter despair, urban migration, export processing zones, tourism and prostitution, political repression, and military sexual slavery. Advocates of women's humanrights for Asian women must contend with patriarchal and male-dominated systems that oppress and exploit women to a much greater extent than men. Liberation from these systems and the domination and exploitation by wealthier nations must be a goal of a new economic world order. Unjust and repressive structures must be destroyed, and equitable distribution of wealth and democracy and popular initiatives promoted. The status of women must be raised to coequal status with men. The most important objective of humanrights advocates should be the empowerment of women at the individual, community, national, regional, and international level. The Asian Women's HumanRights Council was established as an addition to 3 already operating regional commissions of women's organizations. The aim was not just to describe women as victims, but to pressure development activity to account for women's humanrights. Sex tribunals have been scheduled between 1993 and 1994 to address the following issues: 1) sex trafficking (Japan, May 1993); 2) violence against women (Pakistan, December 1993); 3) militarism, environment, and violence against women (Korea, March 1994); 4) crimes of development against women in Asia (India); 5) religion and violence against women (Malaysia, 1994); and 6) indigenous women (December 1994). Women were victims when Filipino domestic workers were stranded and raped in Iraq during the chaos of war, when girls from landless peasant families migrated near Clark Air Force Base to earn a living as prostitutes for US servicemen, when women were forced to work 36-hour shifts in foreign-owned garment factories in Bataan, when women migrated for work, and when women were abused and battered in Bangladesh and India. Many other examples of abuse were indicated in the discussion. PMID:12345217
This article discusses the humanright to health in the context of patent protection and access to medicines. It considers the limitations in international humanrights law, especially in relation to socioeconomic rights, that make it difficult for the right to health to be a potent justification for derogation from trade or intellectual property agreements. It concludes by taking the view that while the right to health may be somewhat unenforceable in international law, its close association with enforceable rights such as the right to life can be a legitimate basis for making maximum use of the flexibilities in the international intellectual property regime to protect public health. The article takes the view that trade and intellectual property agreements must be interpreted in a way that endeavours as much as possible to resolve any seeming inconsistency with the right to health. PMID:25087369
Worldwide, far more people migrate within than across borders, and although internal migrants do not risk a loss of citizenship, they frequently confront significant social, financial and health consequences, as well as a loss of rights. The recent global financial crisis has exacerbated the vulnerability internal migrants face in realizing their rights to health care generally and to antiretroviral therapy in particular. For example, in countries such as China and Russia, internal migrants who lack official residence status are often ineligible to receive public health services and may be increasingly unable to afford private care. In India, internal migrants face substantial logistical, cultural and linguistic barriers to HIV prevention and care, and have difficulty accessing treatment when returning to poorly served rural areas. Resulting interruptions in HIV services may lead to a wide range of negative consequences, including: individual vulnerability to infection and risk of death; an undermining of state efforts to curb the HIV epidemic and provide universal access to treatment; and the emergence of drug-resistant disease strains. International humanrights law guarantees individuals lawfully within a territory the right to free movement within the borders of that state. This guarantee, combined with the right to the highest attainable standard of health set out in international humanrights treaties, and the fundamental principle of non-discrimination, creates a duty on states to provide a core minimum of health care services to internal migrants on a non-discriminatory basis. Targeted HIV prevention programs and the elimination of restrictive residence-based eligibility criteria for access to health services are necessary to ensure that internal migrants are able to realize their equal rights to HIV prevention and treatment. PMID:19925647
Since the first WHO Model List of Essential Medicines was adopted in 1977, it has become a popular tool among health professionals and Member States. WHO's joint effort with the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has resulted in the inclusion of access to essential medicines in the core content of the right to health. The Committee states that the right to health contains a series of elements, such as availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of health goods, services and programmes, which are in line with the WHO statement that essential medicines are intended to be available within the context of health systems in adequate amounts at all times, in the appropriate dosage forms, with assured quality and information, and at a price that the individual and the community can afford. The author considers another perspective by looking at the obligations to respect, protect and fulfil the right to health undertaken by the states adhering to the International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and explores the relationship between access to medicines, the protection of intellectual property, and humanrights. PMID:16710552
The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and HumanRights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups. PMID:22984748
The 21st century has seen a significant increase in the use of remote sensing technology in the international humanrights arena for the purposes of documenting crimes against humanity. The nexus between remote sensing, humanrights activism, and international criminal prosecutions sits at a significant crossroads within geogr