Science.gov

Sample records for human rights discourse

  1. Linguistic Human Rights Discourse in Deaf Community Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    The past three decades of activism for linguistic human rights (Skutnabb-Kangas 2000) have witnessed examples of language planning by various national and supranational actors in national and international spaces, with an exchange of ideas and strategies employed by national, regional, and worldwide organizations. In many countries a key goal of…

  2. Modes of Discourse about Education, Peace and Human Rights in the 1974 UNESCO Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savolainen, Kaisa; Torney-Purta, Judith

    2011-01-01

    How do culturally, politically, and economically different actors define education in the UNESCO 1974 "Recommendation concerning Education for International Understanding, Co-operation and Peace and Education relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms?" This exploration of the document aims to increase understanding of the work of…

  3. Human Rights and Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  4. Human rights

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J Enoch

    1977-01-01

    What are human rights? In this article Enoch Powell, MP (a former Conservative Minister of Health), approaches this question through a critical discussion of Article 25 (I) of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Professor R S Downie in his accompanying commentary analyses Mr Powell's statements and takes up in particular Mr Powell's argument that claiming rights for one person entails compulsion on another person. In Professor Downie's view there is nothing in Article 25 (I) that cannot embody acceptable moral rights, the commonly accepted interpretation of that Article of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights which many people think is wholly acceptable. PMID:604483

  5. Rights Discourses in Relation to Education of People with Intellectual Disability: Towards an Ethics of Care that Enables Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mckenzie, Judith Anne; Macleod, Catriona Ida

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we argue that human rights approaches for intellectually disabled people have failed to recognise the complexity of rights claims made by and on behalf of this group. Drawing on a research project into discourses of education for intellectually disabled people in the Eastern Cape, South Africa we discern three rights discourses;…

  6. Discourse deficits following right hemisphere damage in deaf signers.

    PubMed

    Hickok, G; Wilson, M; Clark, K; Klima, E S; Kritchevsky, M; Bellugi, U

    1999-02-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that hemispheric organization in deaf users of American Sign Language (ASL) parallels that of the hearing population, with the left hemisphere showing dominance for grammatical linguistic functions and the right hemisphere showing specialization for non-linguistic spatial functions. The present study addresses two further questions: first, do extra-grammatical discourse functions in deaf signers show the same right-hemisphere dominance observed for discourse functions in hearing subjects; and second, do discourse functions in ASL that employ spatial relations depend upon more general intact spatial cognitive abilities? We report findings from two right-hemisphere damaged deaf signers, both of whom show disruption of discourse functions in absence of any disruption of grammatical functions. The exact nature of the disruption differs for the two subjects, however. Subject AR shows difficulty in maintaining topical coherence, while SJ shows difficulty in employing spatial discourse devices. Further, the two subjects are equally impaired on non-linguistic spatial tasks, indicating that spared spatial discourse functions can occur even when more general spatial cognition is disrupted. We conclude that, as in the hearing population, discourse functions involve the right hemisphere; that distinct discourse functions can be dissociated from one another in ASL; and that brain organization for linguistic spatial devices is driven by its functional role in language processing, rather than by its surface, spatial characteristics. PMID:10190988

  7. Human Rights and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    Categorizing human rights into two classes, welfare rights and option rights, this article seeks to use the argument for ascribing and/or denying human rights to children as a vehicle for exploring the concepts involved with formulating an adequate theory of human rights, and further seeks to resolve some apparent contradictions within the child's…

  8. Punctuation, Prosody, and Discourse: Afterthought Vs. Right Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Kalbertodt, Janina; Primus, Beatrice; Schumacher, Petra B.

    2015-01-01

    In a reading production experiment we investigate the impact of punctuation and discourse structure on the prosodic differentiation of right dislocation (RD) and afterthought (AT). Both discourse structure and punctuation are likely to affect the prosodic marking of these right-peripheral constructions, as certain prosodic markings are appropriate only in certain discourse structures, and punctuation is said to correlate with prosodic phrasing. With RD and AT clearly differing in discourse function (comment-topic structuring vs. disambiguation) and punctuation (comma vs. full stop), critical items in this study were manipulated with regard to the (mis-)match of these parameters. Since RD and AT are said to prosodically differ in pitch range, phrasing, and accentuation patterns, we measured the reduction of pitch range, boundary strength and prominence level. Results show an effect of both punctuation and discourse context (mediated by syntax) on phrasing and accentuation. Interestingly, for pitch range reduction no difference between RDs and ATs could be observed. Our results corroborate a language architecture model in which punctuation, prosody, syntax, and discourse-semantics are independent but interacting domains with correspondence constraints between them. Our findings suggest there are tight correspondence constraints between (i) punctuation (full stop and comma in particular) and syntax, (ii) prosody and syntax as well as (iii) prosody and discourse-semantics. PMID:26648883

  9. The Rhetorical Question of Human Rights--A Preface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doxtader, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Does rhetoric have a place in the discourse of human rights? Without certain reply, as the dilemmas of defining, claiming, and promoting human rights appear both to include and exclude the rhetorical gesture, this question invites inquiry into the preface of the contemporary human rights regime, the moment of the aftermath that provokes a struggle…

  10. Clinical Relevance of Discourse Characteristics after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Margaret Lehman

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Discourse characteristics of adults with right hemisphere brain damage are similar to those reported for healthy older adults, prompting the question of whether changes are due to neurological lesions or normal aging processes. The clinical relevance of potential differences across groups was examined through ratings by speech-language…

  11. Rights-Based Education and Conflict: A Cross-National Study of Rights Discourse in Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Susan Garnett; Tiplic, Dijana

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which rights-based education is utilised in textbooks from conflict-affected countries. Drawing on a unique dataset of 528 secondary social science textbooks from 71 countries from 1966 to 2008, we analyse factors that predict a rights discourse in texts. We find that textbooks from conflict-affected nations…

  12. The Discourse of Human Dignity and Techniques of Disempowerment: Giorgio Agamben, J. M. Coetzee, and Kazuo Ishiguro 

    E-print Network

    Mohammad, Malek Hardan

    2012-02-14

    A multidisciplinary approach is needed to critique the frequently invoked but seldom questioned notion of "human dignity," a discursive tool that is subtly serving abusive power structures while seemingly promoting human rights. The discourse...

  13. Human Rights and Security

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    Migration, Human Rights and Security in Europe MRU Student Conference Proceedings 2012 Edited by Siril Berglund, Helen McCarthy and Agata Patyna #12;2 "Migration, Human Rights and Security `Brava Gente' v. Immigrazione: Immigration Approaches in Italy Elif Çetin

  14. Education Professionals and the Construction of Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on previous comparative education research by analyzing the current discourse surrounding this emerging education model--human rights education. The first section provides a brief history of human rights education in formal education. The second section reviews research on international reforms, emphasizing analyses of…

  15. carleton.ca Human Rights

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    carleton.ca Human Rights #12;Human rights contribute, through theory and practice, to people and approaches from the humanities and social sciences, the Human Rights program provides an overview of historical and contemporary human rights issues and their impact on human lives in different cultural

  16. Fighting for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Bao

    2011-01-01

    Speak Truth To Power consists of 17 teacher-developed lessons based on the stories of rights advocates from all over the world. The lessons were created for sixth-through 12th-grade students, and have come to New York schools thanks to the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights and the New York State United Teachers union. Speak…

  17. Scientists and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  18. Human Rights in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  19. Teachers and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey; Starkey, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Why do teachers need to be familiar with human rights? In multicultural societies, whose values take precedence? How do schools resolve tensions between children's rights and teachers' rights? Campaigners, politicians and the media cite human rights to justify or challenge anything from peaceful protest to military action. The phrase "human

  20. Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical framework.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan; Ezer, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "human rights in patient care" refers to the application of human rights principles to the context of patient care. It provides a principled alternative to the growing discourse of "patients' rights" that has evolved in response to widespread and severe human rights violations in health settings. Unlike "patients' rights," which is rooted in a consumer framework, this concept derives from inherent human dignity and neutrally applies universal, legally recognized human rights principles, protecting both patients and providers and admitting of limitations that can be justified by human rights norms. It recognizes the interrelation between patient and provider rights, particularly in contexts where providers face simultaneous obligations to patients and the state ("dual loyalty") and may be pressured to abet human rights violations. The human rights lens provides a means to examine systemic issues and state responsibility. Human rights principles that apply to patient care include both the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which covers both positive and negative guarantees in respect of health, as well as civil and political rights ranging from the patient's right to be free from torture and inhumane treatment to liberty and security of person. They also focus attention on the right of socially excluded groups to be free from discrimination in the delivery of health care. Critical rights relevant to providers include freedom of association and the enjoyment of decent work conditions. Some, but not all, of these human rights correspond to rights that have been articulated in "patients' rights" charters. Complementary to—but distinct from—bioethics, human rights in patient care carry legal force and can be applied through judicial action. They also provide a powerful language to articulate and mobilize around justice concerns, and to engage in advocacy through the media and political negotiation. As "patients' rights" movements and charters grow in popularity, it is important to link patient rights back to human rights standards and processes that are grounded in international law and consensus. PMID:24421170

  1. Freedom: Animal Rights, Human Rights, And Superhuman Rights

    E-print Network

    Fowler, Corbin; Manig, Thomas

    : ANIMAL RIGHTS/. HUMAN 'RIGHTS, AND SUPERHUMAN RIGHTS Corbin Fowler & Thomas Manig It is typical (even among many of the most zealous advocates of humane treatment of animals) for people to assume that the only moral issue regarding our treatment... of animals lies in our needlessly slaughtering them or causing them pain. Thus, people rightly complain about our causing the extinction of a certain species or of those who cruelly beat their pets. We, however, have come to think that this common...

  2. Two approaches to human rights

    E-print Network

    Holland, Sean Jamison

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary philosophy of human rights is dominated by two seemingly opposed approaches. This dissertation is concerned with the choice between them. The traditional approach to human rights is characterized by the belief ...

  3. University of Windsor Human Rights

    E-print Network

    University of Windsor Human Rights Policy Approved by the Board of Governors June 12, 1997 #12;For further information or to obtain additional copies of this policy please contact the: HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICE: (519) 971-3673 #12;Human Rights Policy 1 PREAMBLE The University of Windsor is committed to providing

  4. International Approaches in Human Rights Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohrenscheit, Claudia

    2002-07-01

    This paper was presented at a working group on Human Rights Education (HRE), organised by Volker Lenhart and Christel Adick, as part of the biennial conference of the German Society for Educational Research (DGfE), held in 2000 in Göttingen. In the spirit of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) it contributes to the global discourse about HRE by summarising its foundations in international declarations and conventions, by discussing some examples for diverse approaches and conceptions of HRE and, finally by introducing some major obstacles or problems. The paper is part of the author's PhD project in the field of HRE and presents only an interim résumé of her recent work.

  5. Program Summary 2012 HUMAN RIGHTS MINOR

    E-print Network

    Su, Xiao

    Program Summary 2012 HUMAN RIGHTS MINOR About the Minor in Human Rights: The Minor in Human Rights and structure of human rights and international law, study any number of historical or contemporary human rights struggles, meet and work with Bay Area human rights organizations, and gain experience in a graduate style

  6. Intersectionality and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhamoon, Rita Kaur; Hankivsky, Olena

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the authors propose than an intersectionality perspective can transform understandings of the contentious content of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR). The use of an intersectionality perspective starts from the position that such discourses as racialization, gendering, capitalism, and ableism are mutually…

  7. A Hierarchy of Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Charles

    To establish an objective conception of human rights, one must first identify basic needs intrinsic to all people and then determine whether these needs are or can be hierarchically ordered. Many scholars have conducted research on the concept of human needs, particularly in the area of human rights. Among these scholars are Abraham H. Maslow…

  8. Neural mechanisms of discourse comprehension: a human lesion study

    PubMed Central

    Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Discourse comprehension is a hallmark of human social behaviour and refers to the act of interpreting a written or spoken message by constructing mental representations that integrate incoming language with prior knowledge and experience. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 145) that investigates the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension (measured by the Discourse Comprehension Test) and systematically examine its relation to a broad range of psychological factors, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores obtained from these factors were submitted to voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to elucidate their neural substrates. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory and extraversion reliably predict individual differences in discourse comprehension: higher working memory scores and lower extraversion levels predict better discourse comprehension performance. Lesion mapping results indicated that these convergent variables depend on a shared network of frontal and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The observed findings motivate an integrative framework for understanding the neural foundations of discourse comprehension, suggesting that core elements of discourse processing emerge from a distributed network of brain regions that support specific competencies for executive and social function. PMID:24293267

  9. Human rights: in the real world 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Abbe

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the relevance of human rights to litigation and exploitation of intellectual property rights in the UK. The paper considers the impact of the Human Rights Act 1998, and other human rights instruments, ...

  10. 78 FR 76029 - Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013 By the President...Universal Declaration of Human Rights, rejecting the notion...affirming every person's right to liberty, equality...rights bind us as one. All women and men--across...

  11. Human Needs, Human Rights, and Authentic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Categorizes Maslow's human needs as survival needs and developmental or personhood needs; equates these needs with moral rights. Suggests that we have a moral obligation to help others enjoy their human rights, and that development agencies should expand their policies to encompass the development of both personhood and survival needs. (SV)

  12. Speaking Truth to Power: Women's Rights as Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocco, Margaret Smith

    2007-01-01

    The author considers the treatment of women's rights as human rights in the social studies curriculum. She discusses the role of the United Nations in promoting women's rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. She also reviews the treatment of women's rights within social studies curriculum today through a…

  13. A Lovely Building for Difficult Knowledge: The Architecture of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodtke, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    One only needs to look at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) logo, with its abstract outline of the CMHR building, to see the way in which the museum's architecture has come to stand for the CMHR's immaterial meanings and content. The CMHR's architecture becomes a material intersection of discourses of cosmopolitanism, human rights, and…

  14. Thinking Locally about Global Human Rights: A Case Study of a Turkish University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandry, Antonia Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines diverse pedagogic approaches to teaching human rights and citizenship at the university level and how a particular academic community perceives of and engages with human rights and citizenship discourse. Based on fieldwork conducted at Sabanci University in Turkey, I explore how students and educators draw on, modify and…

  15. Scientific Freedom and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Elisa

    2000-03-01

    As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.

  16. Reservations to human rights treaties 

    E-print Network

    McCall-Smith, Kasey Lowe

    2012-06-26

    This thesis examines the default application of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties reservation rules to reservations to human rights treaties. The contemporary practice of formulating reservations allows ...

  17. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…

  18. Human Rights Education Ways and Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajan, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of human rights education as proclaimed by UN (1994) and also the strategies for developing human rights education by UN General assembly 2005. In proclaiming the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004), in December 1994, the General Assembly defined human rights education as "a life-long…

  19. Human Rights: Politics, Culture, Education. Current challenges and debates in Central

    E-print Network

    Kallenrode, May-Britt

    Human Rights: Politics, Culture, Education. Current challenges and debates in Central America are of vital importance for democratic politics and a demo- cratic culture as they protect human dignity. Also and human dignity in the public and political discourse. This movement is promoted by global and Latin

  20. Web Resources for Teaching about Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M.; Badang, Germain; Bragg, Christina; Kvasov, Aleksandr; Taylor, Nathan; Waliaula, Anne; Yamaguchi, Misato

    2012-01-01

    The study of human rights is inseparable from social studies. Beyond the basic political, economic, and social freedoms and rights spelled out in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, hundreds of specialized topics have developed that demonstrate the complex nature of human rights in the twenty-first-century world--environmental exploitation…

  1. Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove, Ed.; Phillipson, Robert, Ed.

    A collection of essays on linguistic human rights includes: "Combining Immigrant and Autochthonous Language Rights: A Territorial Approach to Multilingualism" (Francois Grin); "On the Limits of Ethnolinguistic Democracy" (Joshua A. Fishman); "Linguistic Human Rights and Educational Policy in Russia" (Alexei A. Leontiev); "Linguistic Human Rights,…

  2. Hemispheric Contributions to Lexical Ambiguity Resolution in a Discourse Context: Evidence from Individuals with Unilateral Left and Right Hemisphere Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindrod, C.M.; Baum, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, a cross-modal semantic priming task was used to investigate the ability of left-hemisphere-damaged (LHD) nonfluent aphasic, right-hemisphere-damaged (RHD) and non-brain-damaged (NBD) control subjects to use a discourse context to resolve lexically ambiguous words. Subjects first heard four-sentence discourse passages ending…

  3. Rights Language in the Sustainable Development Agenda: Has Right to Health Discourse and Norms Shaped Health Goals?

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Lisa; Ooms, Gorik; Brolan, Claire E.

    2015-01-01

    While the right to health is increasingly referenced in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) discussions, its contribution to global health and development remains subject to considerable debate. This hypothesis explores the potential influence of the right to health on the formulation of health goals in 4 major SDG reports. We analyse these reports through a social constructivist lens which views the use of rights rhetoric as an important indicator of the extent to which a norm is being adopted and/or internalized. Our analysis seeks to assess the influence of this language on goals chosen, and to consider accordingly the potential for rights discourse to promote more equitable global health policy in the future. PMID:26673463

  4. Defining dignity and its place in human rights.

    PubMed

    Michael, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The concept of dignity is widely used in society, particularly in reference to human rights law and bioethics. Several conceptions of dignity are identified, falling broadly within two categories: full inherent dignity (FID) and non-inherent dignity (NID). FID is a quality belonging equally to every being with full moral status, including all members of the human natural kind; it is permanent, unconditional, indivisible and inviolable. Those beings with FID ought to be treated deferentially by others by virtue of their belonging to a noble caste. FID grounds fundamental human rights, such as the rights to freedom and equality. The concept of dignity forms a network of interconnected ideas related to worth and value particularly within legal and ethical discourse; it is a rich and meaningful concept, irreducible to one or two quasi-legal principles. Fundamentally, dignity matters because it forms the foundation of civilized society; without it, serious abuse of people is more likely to occur. PMID:24979874

  5. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development. PMID:12290435

  6. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights: A Human Rights Perspective. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, David M.

    This curriculum is intended to further thoughtful examination and responsible action among high school students about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues. Unlike other curricula this discussion is not in the context of civil or political rights but in the broader context of human rights. These rights, as defined in the Universal…

  7. Foetus or child? Abortion discourse and attributions of humanness.

    PubMed

    Miko?ajczak, Ma?gorzata; Bilewicz, Micha?

    2015-09-01

    Due to moral, religious, and cultural sensibilities, the topic of abortion still gives rise to controversy. The ongoing public debate has become visibly polarized with the usage of the pro-life versus pro-choice rhetoric. The aim of the current research was to investigate whether the language used in abortion discourse can affect people's attitudes by changing their attributions of humanity to unborn. Across three experimental studies we showed that participants who read about a 'foetus', compared to a 'child' declared higher support for elective abortion (Study 1; N = 108), this effect can be explained by greater humanness, as reflected in human nature traits, attributed to the child (vs. the foetus; Study 2; N = 121). The effect is mediated uniquely by attribution of human nature, but not by human uniqueness traits (Study 3; N = 120). These findings serve as a starting point for discussion of the role of language in shaping attitudes on abortion and other morally ambiguous issues. PMID:25418861

  8. Education Service Contracting in the Philippines: Human Rights as Trumps, Goals, or Policy Talk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the goals and purposes of education within the international development discourse have shifted significantly away from education for productivity or human capital development and towards education for the fulfillment of the individual through human rights. The current global education climate provides governments with an…

  9. Is there a human right to democracy?

    E-print Network

    Abdul-Matin, Karim (Ishmawil Karim)

    2006-01-01

    My dissertation asks whether there is a human right to democracy. This is a difficult question, not least because there is no consensus about either what democracy requires or how to interpret human rights. The introduction ...

  10. Examining Human Rights in a Global Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Greg; Inoue, Keiko; Orrick, Stefanie

    The United Nations' founding in 1945 and the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights reflected the international community's growing commitment to the protection and recognition of what is now referred to as human rights. Despite increased international attention, human rights violations continue to occur at the local, regional,…

  11. Population and Human Rights, Education and Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A background paper for the Symposium on Population and Human Rights reviews the proceedings and resolutions of the United Nations Internal Conference on Human Rights of 1968, General Assembly resolutions, and relevant supporting statistics concerned with the relations of population and human rights. This information is organized into the following…

  12. Human Rights in These United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neylon, Lyn Beth

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the results from a survey commissioned by Human Rights USA that investigated what individuals know and think about human rights issues in the United States. Asserts that the survey gives community activists, educators, and decision makers the means to analyze local and national human-rights problems and move toward solutions. (CMK)

  13. ACCESSIBILITY Office of Human Rights, Equity and

    E-print Network

    ANNUAL REPORT 2009-2010 ACCESSIBILITY PLAN 2010-2011 Office of Human Rights, Equity and Accessibility #12;University of Windsor ­ Office of Human Rights, Equity & Accessibility 2 | P a g e TABLE ...............................................32 #12;University of Windsor ­ Office of Human Rights, Equity & Accessibility 3 | P a g e 7

  14. ANNUAL REPORT Office of Human Rights,

    E-print Network

    ANNUAL REPORT Office of Human Rights, Equity and Accessibility (OHREA) September 1, 2010 ­ August Director Office of Human Rights, Equity and Accessibility University of Windsor 17 October 2011 #12;Office of Human Rights, Equity and Accessibility ­ University of Windsor ­ Annual Report for 2010-11 Page 2 of 24

  15. Human Rights and Teaching for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    According to the author, teaching for social justice entails the acquisition of the following learning outcomes: (1) knowledge of the meaning, historical development, and application of human rights; (2) ability to analyze human rights from multiple perspectives; and (3) willingness to address human rights issues in local, global, intercultural,…

  16. Building a Human Rights Youth Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyles, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. The Social Dimension of Learning through Argumentation: Effects of Human Presence and Discourse Style

    E-print Network

    Kella, Offer

    The Social Dimension of Learning through Argumentation: Effects of Human Presence and Discourse press). The social dimension of learning through argumentation: Effects of human presence and discourse style (disputative or deliberative) and belief in interaction with a human or a computer agent. Learners

  18. Bioethics, Human Rights, and Childbirth.

    PubMed

    Erdman, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The global reproductive justice community has turned its attention to the abuse and disrespect that many women suffer during facility-based childbirth. In 2014, the World Health Organization released a statement on the issue, endorsed by more than 80 civil society and health professional organizations worldwide.The statement acknowledges a growing body of research that shows widespread patterns of women's mistreatment during labor and delivery-physical and verbal abuse, neglect and abandonment, humiliation and punishment, coerced and forced care-in a range of health facilities from basic rural health centers to tertiary care hospitals. Moreover, the statement characterizes this mistreatment as a human rights violation. It affirms: "Every woman has the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which includes the right to dignified, respectful health care throughout pregnancy and childbirth."The WHO statement and the strong endorsement of it mark a critical turn in global maternal rights advocacy. It is a turn from the public health world of systems and resources in preventing mortality to the intimate clinical setting of patient and provider in ensuring respectful care. PMID:26204582

  19. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  20. From Civil Rights to Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the development of the "Deaf President Now" (DPN) movement and its similarities to the black civil rights movement. Movements typically begin with a concrete, precipitating event but are usually the result of known or shared incidents on the part of the participants, and the "Deaf President Now" movement…

  1. 3 CFR 9069 - Proclamation 9069 of December 9, 2013. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013By the President...Universal Declaration of Human Rights, rejecting the notion...affirming every person's right to liberty, equality...rights bind us as one. All women and men—across...

  2. Incorporating Human Rights into the College Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Pat

    This paper recounts development of a community college humanities course titled Human Rights/Human Wrongs: The History, Philosophy, Law, Art, and Literature of the Human Rights Movement. The author argues that a special focus, interdisciplinary course provides a broader base for exploring and understanding most of the pressing issues of our time.…

  3. Human Rights within Education: Assessing the Justifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    While respect for human rights has long been endorsed as a goal of education, only recently has significant attention been paid to the need to incorporate rights within educational processes. Current support for human rights within education, however, has a variety of motivations. This paper provides a theoretical exploration of these diverse…

  4. Are Pharmaceutical Patents Protected By Human Rights?

    PubMed Central

    Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The International Bill of Rights enshrines a right to health, which includes a right to access essential medicines. This right frequently appears to conflict with the intellectual property regime that governs pharmaceutical patents. However, there is also a human right that protects creative works, including scientific productions. Does this right support intellectual property protections, even when they may negatively affect health? This article examines the recent attempt by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to resolve this issue and argues that it fails. This is problematic because it means defenders of the present patent regime can continue using human rights documents to support their position. I offer a new framework for resolving the problem by examining the values that underlie human rights. PMID:18974405

  5. Producing Neoliberal Citizens: Critical Reflections on Human Rights Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoja-Moolji, Shenila

    2014-01-01

    This paper challenges the celebratory uptake of human rights education (HRE) in postcolonial contexts by making visible the ideological and political entanglements of the discourse with neoliberal assumptions of citizenship. I draw evidence from, and critically reflect on, a specific HRE programme--a series of summer camps for girls entitled,…

  6. Human Rights in Social Science Textbooks: Cross-National Analyses, 1970-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John W.; Bromley, Patricia; Ramirez, Francisco O.

    2010-01-01

    In reaction to the disasters of the first half the 20th century and World War II, a dramatic world movement arose emphasizing the human rights of persons in global society. The contrast--celebrated in international treaties, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, and much cultural discourse--was with narrower world emphases on the…

  7. Diversity, Human Rights, and Curriculum in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Neyda H.

    Although a discussion of human rights is perhaps the most important topic of any social studies curriculum, such discussions are absent from even those curriculum topics where they would seem most appropriate. While the foundational principles of human rights are basic in all cultures throughout history, these basics are seldom taught. This paper…

  8. Human Rights, Diversity, and Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a propitious time for educators to examine its implications for educating citizens in multicultural nation states. The author argues that students must experience democratic classrooms and schools that reflect their cultures and identities to internalize human rights values,…

  9. Transnational Sexualities and Human Rights: Faculty Workshop

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    of Unrest: Sexuality, Citizenship, and the Freedom of Movement as a Human Right University of Connecticut of Movement as a Human Right ­ Rachel Lewis, Postdoctoral Fellow, Women's Studies, University of Connecticut 9 University Susana Peña, Bowling Green State University Salvador Vidal-Ortiz, American University Moderator

  10. Human rights enforcement: a fundamental duty of the sovereign state 

    E-print Network

    Englehart, Ellen Marie

    1997-01-01

    Human rights enforcement is an important issue within international law. Unfortunately, the status quo of human rights within international law is unsatisfactory. Men, women and children suffer daily violations of their most fundamental human rights...

  11. 75 FR 75615 - Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...of November 30, 2010 Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010 By the President of...security among states with respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms within...occasion also spurred courageous human rights activists in Eastern Europe...

  12. Human Rights Act, 12 February 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document reprints major provisions of the Yukon's (Canada) 1987 Human Rights Act. The Act furthers the public policy that every individual is free and equal in dignity and rights, seeks to discourage and eliminate discrimination, and promotes the underlying principles of Canadian and international human rights instruments. Part 1 contains a Bill of Rights that protects the right to freedom of: 1) religion and conscience, 2) expression, 3) assembly and association, and 4) to enjoyment and disposition of property. Part 2 prohibits discrimination based on ancestry (including color and race), national origin, ethnic or linguistic background or origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), and marital or family status. Discrimination is also prohibited when offering services, goods, or facilities to the public; in connection with employment; in connection with membership in trade unions or trade, occupational, or professional associations; and in negotiation or performance of public contracts. The Bill of Rights lists reasonable causes for discrimination as well as exemptions, including preferential treatment for organization or family members or employment in a private home. Special programs and affirmative action programs are specifically not considered discrimination under this Act. The Act sets forth rules for providing equal pay for work of equal value and creates a Yukon Human Rights Commission to promote human rights and assist adjudication of complaints. PMID:12346749

  13. Human Rights Texts: Converting Human Rights Primary Source Documents into Data

    PubMed Central

    Fariss, Christopher J.; Linder, Fridolin J.; Jones, Zachary M.; Crabtree, Charles D.; Biek, Megan A.; Ross, Ana-Sophia M.; Kaur, Taranamol; Tsai, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and make publicly available a large corpus of digitized primary source human rights documents which are published annually by monitoring agencies that include Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, and the United States Department of State. In addition to the digitized text, we also make available and describe document-term matrices, which are datasets that systematically organize the word counts from each unique document by each unique term within the corpus of human rights documents. To contextualize the importance of this corpus, we describe the development of coding procedures in the human rights community and several existing categorical indicators that have been created by human coding of the human rights documents contained in the corpus. We then discuss how the new human rights corpus and the existing human rights datasets can be used with a variety of statistical analyses and machine learning algorithms to help scholars understand how human rights practices and reporting have evolved over time. We close with a discussion of our plans for dataset maintenance, updating, and availability. PMID:26418817

  14. Economic and Social Justice: A Human Rights Perspective. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiman, David A.

    On December 10, 1998, the world celebrated the 50th anniversary of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The U.S. Constitution possesses many of the political and civil rights articulated in the UDHR. The UDHR, however, goes further than the U.S. Constitution, including many social and economic rights as well. This book…

  15. 3 CFR 8464 - Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human Rights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...equal and inalienable rights” of all human beings...culture is unique, certain rights are universal: the freedom of people—including women and ethnic and religious...countries that protect these rights are ultimately more stable...is one of America’s greatest strengths...

  16. Human Rights and Religion in the English Secondary RE Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowie, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between religion and human rights is an ambiguous and complex one, but there are academic, moral and political arguments for the inclusion of human rights in religious education (RE). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights advocates education in human rights and the English school curriculum aims to encourage a commitment to…

  17. Human Rights Here and Now: Celebrating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Nancy, Ed.

    Although December 10, 1998, marked the 50th anniversary of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), most people living in the United States remain unaware of this document, the foundation stone of all human rights. Intended for use by both community groups and teachers in elementary and secondary schools, this educational…

  18. Human Rights: Respecting Our Differences, Teachers' Manual [And] Human Rights: Respecting Our Differences, Students' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCardle, Elizabeth, Ed.

    This unit on human rights designed for secondary students in Alberta, Canada includes both student and teacher manuals. Eleven chapters in the student manual examine what human rights are, the causes and effects of prejudice and discrimination, relevant laws, and social action. Each chapter includes readings followed by discussion questions and…

  19. The Human Right to Access Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, Stephen

    2006-04-15

    Electricity access is already well established within the framework of human rights, either as an implicit attribute of a pre-existing right (such as non-discrimination or sustainable development) or explicitly in the context of eliminating discrimination against women. There is also broad acknowledgement by states of the desirability of eliminating energy poverty - for all, but particularly for the rural poor, and women. (author)

  20. Interdependence, Human Rights and Global Health Law.

    PubMed

    Viens, A M

    2015-12-01

    The connection between health and human rights continues to play a prominent role within global health law. In particular, a number of theorists rely on the claim that there is a relation of interdependence between health and human rights. The nature and extent of this relation, however, is rarely defined, developed or defended in a conceptually robust way. This paper seeks to explore the source, scope and strength of this putative relation and what role it might play in developing a global health law framework. PMID:26240020

  1. Education Is a Human Right. EI Barometer on Human and Trade Union Rights in the Education Sector, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Michael A.

    This 2001 edition of Educational International's (EI) "Barometer on Trade Union and Human Rights in the Education Sector" focuses on four fundamental human rights: (1) the right to education; (2) academic freedom; (3) children's right to be protected from exploitation; and (4) workers' rights to form and join trade unions and to organize and…

  2. HUMAN RIGHTS AND BORDER STUDIES Anthropology Professors

    E-print Network

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    HUMAN RIGHTS AND BORDER STUDIES Anthropology Professors Diane Austin Linda Green Mark Nichter and Development ANTH 395B An Anthropology of Migration: The Borderlands of the American Southwest (regularly course related details. Please remember to select "ANTH - Anthropology Main" as the subject code. #12

  3. Human Rights and China. Lesson Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stanley T.

    This curriculum unit presents lessons based on information and ideas gained from a 1994 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Program in the People's Republic of China. This series of three lessons is created as an introduction to Model United Nations types of activities for high school students. Lesson 1, "What are Human Rights?" deals with…

  4. The Struggle for Human Rights in Myanmar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The non-violent participation of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhist monks in resistance efforts to advocate for the welfare of Myanmar's people has played an important role in educating the world about human rights violations in the country. Faced with international condemnation, Myanmar's junta released Aung San Suu Kyi from…

  5. Clinical governance, litigation and human rights.

    PubMed

    Harpwood, V

    2001-01-01

    Explores the relationship between doctors, lawyers and the government in the context of the explosion in clinical negligence litigation, clinical governance and the introduction of the Human Rights Act 1998. Examines these issues from a legal perspective. Concludes that successful risk management, careful monitoring and the implementation of authoritative guidelines hold the key to legal change. PMID:11547582

  6. Human Rights and Cosmopolitan Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snauwaert, Dale T.

    2009-01-01

    The foundation upon which this discussion is based is the basic nature of democracy as both a political and moral ideal. Democracy can be understood as a system of rights premised upon the logic of equality. At its core is a fundamental belief in moral equality, a belief that all human beings possess an equal inherent dignity or worth. The ideal…

  7. Office of Global Affairs Human Rights Lecture

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Office of Global Affairs Human Rights Lecture Songs and Secrets: South Africa from Liberation military and intelligence training with the ANC and served in the ANC's intelligence structures until his African Secret Service, as deputy head of the National Intelligence Agency, as director

  8. Influence of health rights discourses and community organizing on equitable access to health: the case of HIV, tuberculosis and cancer in Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The right to health is recognized as a fundamental human right. Social participation is implied in the fulfillment of health rights since Alma Ata posited its relevance for successful health programs, although a wide range of interpretations has been observed for this term. While Peruvian law recognizes community and social participation in health, it was the GFATM requirement of mixed public-civil society participation in Country Coordination Mechanisms (CCM) for proposal submission what effectively led to formal community involvement in the national response to HIV and, to a lesser extent, tuberculosis. This has not been the case, however, for other chronic diseases in Peru. This study aims to describe and compare the role of health rights discourse and community involvement in the national response to HIV, tuberculosis and cancer. Methods Key health policy documents were identified and analyzed. In-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders, representatives of civil society organizations (CSO), and leaders of organizations of people affected by HIV, cancer and tuberculosis. Results and discussion A health rights discourse, well established in the HIV field, is expanding to general health discussions and to the tuberculosis (TB) field in particular. Both HIV and TB programs have National Multisectoral Strategic Plans and recognize participation of affected communities’ organizations. Similar mechanisms are non-existent for cancer or other disease-focused programs, although other affected patients are starting some organization efforts. Interviewees agreed that reaching the achievements of HIV mobilization is difficult for other diseases, since the HIV response was modeled based on a global movement with strong networks and advocacy mechanisms, eventually succeeding in the establishment of financial sources like the GFATM. Nevertheless, organizations linked to cancer and other diseases are building a National Patient Network to defend health rights. Conclusions There are new efforts to promote and protect health rights in Peru, probably inspired by the achievements of organizations of people living with HIV (PLHA). The public health sector must consolidate the participation of affected communities’ organizations in decision-making processes and implementation of health programs. PLHA organizations have become a key political and social actor in Peruvian public health policy. PMID:23683817

  9. 3 CFR 8616 - Proclamation 8616 of December 10, 2010. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8616 of December 10, 2010. Human Rights... Declaration reflects the world’s commitment to the idea that “all human beings are born free and equal in... world must begin with basic security and liberty in the lives of individual human beings. Today,...

  10. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are far more complex in environments where married adolescent women and their families live in conditions of poverty and socioeconomic deprivation. PMID:22376023

  11. Human rights and immigrants' access to care.

    PubMed

    Parmet, Wendy; Fischer, Simon

    2013-12-01

    Although the human right to health is well established under international law, many states limit non-citizens' participation in public insurance programs. In the United States, immigrants face especially high barriers due to the lack of recognition of a broad right to health as well as federal statutes restricting many immigrants' eligibility to federally-funded insurance. High rates of uninsurance among immigrants have a detrimental effect on their health, as well as on the health of citizens who live in their communities. Finch vs. Commonwealth Health Insurance Connector, a recent case decided by the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, recognized the rights of legal immigrants in Massachusetts to state-supported health care, and demonstrates the importance of insuring immigrants in broadly-based, rather than immigrant-specific, programs. PMID:24715016

  12. Evolution of Human Rights in the Age of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hron, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    Considers how biotechnology affects human-rights issues; in particular, the need for reexamining concerns about reproductive technology, the rights of indigenous peoples, and the rights of future generations. Maintains that the new areas for human-rights discussions, such as germ-line manipulation and genetic screening, are unprecedented concerns…

  13. Climate Change, Human Rights, and Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect human rights, promote social justice, and avoid creating new problems or exacerbating existing problems for vulnerable populations. PMID:26615065

  14. Registration of the Conference Religion, Immigration, Health and Human Rights

    E-print Network

    Gopalakrishnan, K.

    Registration of the Conference Religion, Immigration, Health and Human Rights 2013 Conference plan to attend: _____Theme 1. Religion & Immigrants _____Theme 2. Domestic Violence _____Theme 3 _____ Theme 6. Honor Killings _____Theme 7. Religion and Health Care _____Theme 8. Health & Human Rights

  15. Human Rights Education Standards for Teachers and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Todd

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a set of human rights education standards for classroom teachers and, by implication, outcomes for teacher preparation programs. The discussion includes a brief description of human rights education and concludes with recommendations for teacher preparation programs.

  16. Bioterrorism, public health, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Annas, George J

    2002-01-01

    It is unnecessary and counterproductive to sacrifice basic human rights to respond to bioterrorism. Constructive public health legislation, which must be federal, cannot be carefully drafted under panic conditions. When it is, like the "model act," it will predictably rely on broad, arbitrary state authority exercised without public accountability. Public health should resist reverting to its nineteenth-century practices of forced examination and quarantine, which will simply encourage people to avoid physicians, hospitals, and public health practitioners they now trust and actively seek out in emergencies. Upholding human rights is essential to public trust and is ultimately our best defense against the threat of terrorism in the twenty-first century. PMID:12442843

  17. Ebola Virus: Sensationalism, Science, and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Bausch, Daniel G; Clougherty, Marguerite M

    2015-10-01

    Outbreaks of the filoviruses, Ebola and Marburg, usually garner immense public attention, often with a sensationalist bent in the lay press, focused on the apparently mysterious origins of the outbreak and the high mortality rates. The scientific community may present a more objective viewpoint, but usually with a rather technical focus on identifying epidemiological risk factors and experimental therapies and vaccines. Often lost in the discussion are the human rights elements that consistently underlie large outbreaks of these dangerous viruses. PMID:26203057

  18. Medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy: the case of the Israeli Open Clinic.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Nora; Filc, Dani; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2012-03-01

    In the context of neo-liberal retrenchments humanitarian NGOs have become alternative healthcare providers that partially fill the vacuum left by the welfare state's withdrawal from the provision of services to migrants and other marginalized populations. In many cases they thus help to build legitimacy for the state's retreat from social responsibilities. Human rights organizations play an important role in advocating for migrants' rights, but in many cases they represent a legalistic and individualized conceptualization of the right to health that limits their claims for social justice. This paper analyzes the interactions and tensions between the discourses of medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy using the example of an "Open Clinic" run by an Israeli human rights organization as a case-study: In 2007 dramatically increasing patient numbers provoked an intense internal debate concerning the proposal to temporarily close the "Open Clinic" in order to press the government to take action. Based on protocols from internal meetings and parliamentary hearings and in-depth interviews, we have analyzed divergent contextualizations of the Clinic's closure. These reflect conflicting notions regarding the Clinic's variegated spectrum of roles--humanitarian, political, legitimizing, symbolic, empowering and organizational--and underlying conceptualizations of migrants' "deservingness". Our case-study thus helps to illuminate NGOs' role in the realm of migrant healthcare and points out options for a possible fruitful relationship between the divergent paradigms of medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy. PMID:21911276

  19. Moral pressure : American democracy and Chinese human rights

    E-print Network

    Chan, Stephanie Tze-Hua

    2011-01-01

    China and Its Implications on Families, Labor, and Human Rights, Trade and the EconomyChina and Its Implications on Families, Labor and Human Rights, Trade and the Economy,China and Its Implications on Families, Labor and Human Rights, Trade and the Economy,

  20. Human Rights: 1948-1978--Changing Perceptions. A Wingspread Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Louis B.; Roosevelt, Curtis

    Conference participants examined the attitudes toward human rights which led to the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, as compared to today's perceptions of the meaning of human rights. Using Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms" as a point of departure--freedom of speech and expression, freedom of every person to…

  1. Human Rights: Unfolding of the American Tradition. Report No. 8403.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Public Affairs (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    Excerpts from 100 speeches, essays, and legal documents dating from classical times to the present illustrate the record of human rights discussion over the centuries. The compilation was made in 1968 to mark the 20th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The readings indicate that human rights initially meant freedom from a…

  2. McGill Centre for Human Rights and Legal Pluralism

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    McGill Centre for Human Rights and Legal Pluralism Centre sur les droits de la personne et le pluralisme juridique de McGill 2014 ANNUAL REPORT #12;2CENTRE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND LEGAL PLURALISM | ANNUAL REPORT 2014 McGill Centre for Human Rights and Legal Pluralism Centre sur les droits de la personne et le

  3. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  4. Teaching Human Rights? "All Hell Will Break Loose!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Claire; Brunner, Richard; Webster, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Human rights education is a prominent concern of a number of international organisations and has been dominant on the United Nations' agenda for the past 20 years. The UN Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) has been followed by the World Programme for Human Rights Education (2005-ongoing) and the recently adopted UN Declaration on…

  5. Tropes and Topoi of Anti-Intellectualism in the Discourse of the Christian Right 

    E-print Network

    Carney, Zoe L.

    2011-08-08

    Christianity is not anti-intellectual; however, there is a distinct quality of anti-intellectualism in the rhetoric of the Christian Right. This thesis explores the ways in which rhetors in the Christian Right encourage anti-intellectual sentiment...

  6. Human and peoples' rights: social representations among Cameroonian students.

    PubMed

    Pirttilä-Backman, Anna-Maija; Kassea, Raul; Sakki, Inari

    2009-12-01

    Social representations of human and peoples' rights were studied among Cameroonian university students (N = 666) with a questionnaire based on the UN Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and Duties. The respondents were asked how important and how well realized they regarded the 39 human and peoples' rights to be. A 13-factor model provided the best fit with Cameroonian students' perceptions of human and peoples' rights. Taken as a whole, our results are in line with previous quantitative studies on human rights, confirming structural similarity but also country-specific variation in the aggregation of specific rights. Moreover, our data showed that Cameroonian students value human and peoples' rights highly (M = 6.18), whereas their fulfillment is not regarded as highly (M = 5.09). Same law for all, equality and freedom, and right to work and living were highly appreciated but lowly realized rights. Higher than average in importance and realization were right to education and self-fulfillment, right to marriage and property, peoples' social and political basic rights and right to life and safety. Low in importance and realization were peoples' right to their country's natural resources and independence, right to meetings, and right to express opinion. Women appreciated the rights more than men and thought of their rights as better realized compared to men. We suggest that when women say that their rights are better fulfilled than men do, it is in comparison with the older generation, who are still very dependent on men. Nowadays, thanks to education and urbanization, young women have wider choices or opportunities for marriage and jobs. Men may feel frustrated in the context of political liberalization because the freedoms are more theoretical than fulfilled; the economic crises and cultural changes have hindered their economic domination and their prerogatives. PMID:22029663

  7. Sexual minorities, human rights and public health strategies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Epprecht, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made towards the recognition of sexual minority rights in Africa. At the same time, a marked increase in attacks, rhetorical abuse, and restrictive legislation against sexual minorities or ‘homosexuality’ makes activism for sexual rights a risky endeavour in many African countries. Campaigns for sexual rights and ‘coming out’ are frequently perceived as a form of Western cultural imperialism, leading to an exportation of Western gay identities and provoking a patriotic defensiveness. Cultures of quiet acceptance of same-sex relationships or secretive bisexuality are meanwhile also problematic given the high rate of HIV prevalence on much of the continent. This article examines specific initiatives that are using subtle, somewhat covert means to negotiate a path between rights activism and secretive bisexuality. It argues that strategies primarily focused on health concerns that simultaneously yet discreetly promote sexual rights are having some success in challenging prevalent homophobic or ‘silencing’ cultures and discourses. PMID:22826897

  8. Human dignity and human rights in bioethics: the Kantian approach.

    PubMed

    Rothhaar, Markus

    2010-08-01

    The concept of human dignity plays an important role in the public discussion about ethical questions concerning modern medicine and biology. At the same time, there is a widespread skepticism about the possibility to determine the content and the claims of human dignity. The article goes back to Kantian Moral Philosophy, in order to show that human dignity has in fact a determinable content not as a norm in itself, but as the principle and ground of human rights and any deontological norms in biomedical ethics. When it comes to defining the scope of human dignity, i.e., the question which entities are protected by human dignity, Kant clearly can be found on the "pro life"-side of the controversy. This, however, is the result of some specific implications of Kant's transcendental approach that may be put into question. PMID:20411338

  9. Children's Concepts of Human Rights and Social Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney, Judith V.; Brice, Patrick J.

    Recent literature on children's conceptions of social institutions is reviewed, and the results of a pilot study on children's concepts of human rights are described. A series of interview questions was developed based on rights specified in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Questions in Part I of the interview concerned a presumed…

  10. Faith Schools: Democracy, Human Rights and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that faith-based schools are a necessary feature of democratic and pluralistic societies and a legitimate expression of human rights as constituted in the European Convention in Human Rights (2000). It further argues that if the rights of parents to have a real choice for faith-based schools (regardless of ability to pay) are…

  11. Local Impacts of Religious Discourses on Rights to Express Same-Sex Sexual Desires in Peri-Urban Rio de Janeiro1

    PubMed Central

    García, Jonathan; Laboy, Miguel Muñoz; de Almeida, Vagner; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined how religious discourses of inclusion and exclusion—in Roman Catholic, evangelical Protestant, and Afro-Brazilian religious traditions—affected people’s rights to express same-sex sexual desires, behaviors, and identities in the socioeconomically marginalized urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using extended ethnographic observation of institutions and religious events over a period of 2 years, the authors identified how sexual rights were constructed within religious discourses and conducted ethnographic interviews with 45 religious leaders. In the low-income and violent urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, religious leaders and institutions play key roles in molding community inclusion and exclusion. A comparison of the 3 major religious denominations shows a diversity of discourses about same-sex sexual desires and their impacts on community formation. PMID:20161503

  12. Men, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as “the problem”, and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally. PMID:19553779

  13. Contextual Constraint Treatment for coarse coding deficit in adults with right hemisphere brain damage: Generalization to narrative discourse comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Margaret Lehman; Tompkins, Connie A.; Scharp, Victoria L.; Meigh, Kimberly M.; Wambaugh, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Coarse coding is the activation of broad semantic fields that can include multiple word meanings and a variety of features, including those peripheral to a word’s core meaning. It is a partially domain-general process related to general discourse comprehension and contributes to both literal and non-literal language processing. Adults with damage to the right cerebral hemisphere (RHD) and a coarse coding deficit are particularly slow to activate features of words that are relatively distant or peripheral. This manuscript reports a pre-efficacy study of Contextual Constraint Treatment (CCT), a novel, implicit treatment designed to increase the efficiency of coarse coding with the goal of improving narrative comprehension and other language performance that relies on coarse coding. Participants were four adults with RHD. The study used a single-subject controlled experimental design across subjects and behaviors. The treatment involves pre-stimulation, using a hierarchy of strong- and moderately-biased contexts, to prime the intended distantly-related features of critical stimulus words. Three of the four participants exhibited gains in auditory narrative discourse comprehension, the primary outcome measure. All participants exhibited generalization to untreated items. No strong generalization to processing nonliteral language was evident. The results indicate that CCT yields both improved efficiency of the coarse coding process and generalization to narrative comprehension. PMID:24983133

  14. Contextual Constraint Treatment for coarse coding deficit in adults with right hemisphere brain damage: generalisation to narrative discourse comprehension.

    PubMed

    Blake, Margaret Lehman; Tompkins, Connie A; Scharp, Victoria L; Meigh, Kimberly M; Wambaugh, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Coarse coding is the activation of broad semantic fields that can include multiple word meanings and a variety of features, including those peripheral to a word's core meaning. It is a partially domain-general process related to general discourse comprehension and contributes to both literal and non-literal language processing. Adults with damage to the right cerebral hemisphere (RHD) and a coarse coding deficit are particularly slow to activate features of words that are relatively distant or peripheral. This manuscript reports a pre-efficacy study of Contextual Constraint Treatment (CCT), a novel, implicit treatment designed to increase the efficiency of coarse coding with the goal of improving narrative comprehension and other language performance that relies on coarse coding. Participants were four adults with RHD. The study used a single-subject controlled experimental design across subjects and behaviours. The treatment involved pre-stimulation, using a hierarchy of strong and moderately biased contexts, to prime the intended distantly related features of critical stimulus words. Three of the four participants exhibited gains in auditory narrative discourse comprehension, the primary outcome measure. All participants exhibited generalisation to untreated items. No strong generalisation to processing non-literal language was evident. The results indicate that CCT yields both improved efficiency of the coarse coding process and generalisation to narrative comprehension. PMID:24983133

  15. Human/Nature Discourse in Environmental Science Education Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    It is argued that the view of nature and the relationship between human beings and nature that each of us holds impacts our decisions, actions, and notions of environmental responsibility and consciousness. In this study, I investigate the discursive patterns of selected environmental science classroom resources produced by three disparate…

  16. What's in a Right? Two Variations for Interpreting the Right to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Leah K.

    2010-01-01

    The end of the Cold War ushered in a paradigmatic shift in international development discourse whereby a human rights-based approach to development was generated. This shift has stimulated the pegging of international development policy to the objectives of the human rights regime. However, in attempting to unify development and human rights

  17. Los torturadores medicos: medical collusion with human rights abuses in Argentina, 1976-1983.

    PubMed

    Perechocky, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    Medical collaboration with authoritarian regimes historically has served to facilitate the use of torture as a tool of repression and to justify atrocities with the language of public health. Because scholarship on medicalized killing and biomedicalist rhetoric and ideology is heavily focused on Nazi Germany, this article seeks to expand the discourse to include other periods in which medicalized torture occurred, specifically in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, when the country was ruled by the Proceso de Reorganización Nacional military regime. The extent to which medical personnel embedded themselves within the Proceso regime's killing apparatus has escaped full recognition by both scholars and human rights activists. This article reconstructs the narrative of the Proceso's human rights abuses to argue that health professionals knowingly and often enthusiastically facilitated, oversaw, and participated in every phase of the "disappearance," torture, and mass murder process. PMID:24996628

  18. 75 FR 78147 - Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...commitment to the idea that ``all human beings are born free and equal in dignity...liberty in the lives of individual human beings. Today, we continue the fight...perfect world--one in which each human being lives with dignity,...

  19. The Human Rights Code, 17 July 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1987 Human Rights Code of Manitoba, Canada. The Code describes "discrimination" as differential treatment based on membership in a group or on ancestry (including race), national origin, ethnic origin, religion, age, sex (including pregnancy), gender-determined characteristics or circumstances, sexual orientation, marital or family status, source of income, political belief, or physical or mental disability. "Discrimination" is also defined as the failure to reasonably accommodate special needs based upon the above characteristics. Affirmative action programs are deemed nondiscriminatory if the object is to ameliorate the conditions of disadvantaged individuals or groups. The Code allows the right to discriminate in cases where bona fide and reasonable cause exists, provides an exception for individuals who have not reached the age of majority if a denial to provide services is required by law, and prohibits discrimination in employment unless the discrimination is based upon bona fide and reasonable requirements or qualifications for the employment. Specific directions are included for the aspects of employment which are to be free of discrimination, for employment advertising, for preemployment inquiries, for employment agencies, for labor organizations, and in cases of employee benefits. Exceptions are made for employing a person to provide personal services in a private residence and for limiting the employment of a person under the age of majority in accordance with the law. Specific provisions are made to prevent a reduction of wages, termination of employment, or changes in employment to comply with this section of the law. Discrimination is expressly forbidden in contracts, life insurance, rental or premises (with an exception for private residences), the purchase of real property, and advertising. Harassment of individuals responsible for an activity to which this Code applies is forbidden as are reprisals against individuals who have contributed to a complaint or any other proceeding covered by the Code. Compliance with the Code is to be in the purview of a Human Rights Commission. PMID:12289242

  20. 78 FR 76029 - Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-29913 Filed 12-13-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... empires, and affirming every person's right to liberty, equality, and justice under the law. On Human... orientation, gender identity, or income level--share the freedoms of expression, religion, assembly,...

  1. 76 FR 77363 - Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...of individuals. On this anniversary, we recognize human rights as universal, and we stand with all those who reach for the dream of a free, just, and equal world. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by...

  2. National Incorporation of Global Human Rights: Worldwide Expansion of National Human Rights Institutions, 1966-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Jeong-Woo; Ramirez, Francisco O.

    2009-01-01

    Using an event history framework we analyze the adoption rate of national human rights institutions. Neo-realist perspective predicts adoption rates to be positively influenced by favorable national profiles that lower the costs and make it more reasonable to establish these institutions. From a world polity perspective adoption rates will be…

  3. Finding the Right Words: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Improves Discourse Productivity in Non-fluent Aphasia After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Jared; Norise, Catherine; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Coslett, H. Branch; Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Hamilton, Roy H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Loss of fluency is a significant source of functional impairment in many individuals with aphasia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) administered to the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) has been shown to facilitate naming in persons with chronic left hemisphere stroke and non-fluent aphasia. However, changes in fluency in aphasic subjects receiving rTMS have not been adequately explored. Aims To determine whether rTMS improves fluency in individuals with chronic nonfluent aphasia, and to identify aspects of fluency that are modulated in persons who respond to rTMS. Methods & Procedures Ten individuals with left hemisphere MCA strokes and mild to moderate non-fluent aphasia participated in the study. Before treatment, subjects were asked to describe the Cookie Theft picture in three separate sessions. During treatment, all subjects received 1200 pulses of 1 Hz rTMS daily in 10 sessions over two weeks at a site that had previously been shown to improve naming. Subjects repeated the Cookie Theft description two months after treatment. Five subjects initially received sham stimulation instead of real TMS. Two months after sham treatment, these individuals received real rTMS. Performance both at baseline and after stimulation was coded using Quantitative Production Analysis (Saffran, Berndt & Schwartz, 1989) and Correct Information Unit (Nicholas & Brookshire, 1993) analysis. Outcomes & Results Across all subjects (n=10), real rTMS treatment resulted in a significant increase in multiple measures of discourse productivity compared to baseline performance. There was no significant increase in measures of sentence productivity or grammatical accuracy. There was no significant increase from baseline in the sham condition (n=5) on any study measures. Conclusions Stimulation of the right IFG in patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia facilitates discourse production. We posit that this effect may be attributable to improved lexical-semantic access. PMID:23280015

  4. The Equity and Human Rights Office champions UVic's commitment to

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    people...simply because they are human beings. They embody the basic standards without which peopleThe Equity and Human Rights Office champions UVic's commitment to practices of equity, fairness eqhradir@uvic.ca 250-721-7007 Moussa Magassa Human Rights Advisor-Education mmagassa@uvic.ca 250

  5. The Society's Involvement in the Defense of Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerjuoy, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The history of the Society's involvement in the defense of human rights, a history of which the Society can be proud, will be summarized; the summary will include illustrative specific APS human rights defense actions in illustrative specific cases. As will be emphasized, the aforesaid involvement has been primarily through the activities of the APS Committee on International Freedom of Scientists (CIFS). It is noteworthy-and one of the reasons the Society can be proud-that CIFS is charged with ``monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists,'' not solely for physicists, and that CIFS indeed has sought to protect the human rights of nonphysicists.

  6. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Davis, William W.; Mullany, Luke C.; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K.; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. Methods and Findings We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Conclusion Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations. PMID:26308850

  7. BETWEEN WOMEN’S RIGHTS AND MEN’S AUTHORITY: MASCULINITY AND SHIFTING DISCOURSES OF GENDER DIFFERENCE IN URBAN UGANDA

    PubMed Central

    Wyrod, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Across the African continent, women’s rights have become integral to international declarations, regional treaties, national legislation, and grassroots activism. Yet there is little research on how African men have understood these shifts, and how African masculinities are implicated in such changes. Drawing on a year of ethnographic research in the Ugandan capital Kampala, this article investigates how ordinary men and women in Uganda understand women’s rights, and how their attitudes are tied to local conceptions of masculinity. I argue that a new configuration of gender relations is evident in urban Uganda—one that accommodates some aspects of women’s rights while retaining previous notions of innate male authority. This article, therefore, illustrates the complex and often contradictory engagements with human rights that occur in local contexts, and how such engagements are shaped by gender relations, including conceptions of masculinity. PMID:19862350

  8. 75 FR 78147 - Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-31566 Filed 12-13-10; 11:15 am... race, gender, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, or circumstance. From the freedom to associate... Union and a more perfect world--one in which each human being lives with dignity, security, and...

  9. Between Discourse and Practice; Immigrant Rights, Curriculum Development, and ESL Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Char

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a teacher-education project in which English-as-a-Second-Language teachers from five community-based organizations in Chicago developed a textbook about immigrant rights in the United States. The process not only produced significant course materials, but it also changed teachers' understanding of their classes, students, and teaching…

  10. Teaching "Islam and Human Rights" in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muedini, Fait A.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses my approach to teaching a course on Islam and human rights. I begin by examining the attention Islam has received in the media and classroom. Then, I discuss how I structure lectures on Islam and human rights, the various readings associated with the lectures, as well as common themes discussed in class that include but are…

  11. Women's health and human rights in Afghanistan: continuing challenges.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Barbara

    2002-04-01

    Physicians for Human Rights has released a ground-breaking survey of more than 1,000 Afghan women and men on their attitudes and experiences regarding health and human rights for Afghan women. Health care for women in Afghanistan still poses daunting challenges. PMID:11995198

  12. Solidarity Immersion 2015 Human Rights in the Global Economy

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Solidarity Immersion 2015 Human Rights in the Global Economy Dominican Republic July 30th - August the Dominican Republic and Haiti for an up-close look at how our global economy and fight for change is woven-hand understanding of the bigger picture of human rights in the global economy through direct testimony from workers

  13. Education as a Human Right in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sharon E.

    2013-01-01

    According to the United Nations, education is a right to which all human beings are entitled. Since 2000, the UN has been promoting the Millennium Development Goal to achieve free universal primary education for all, regardless of gender, by 2015. If the UN is correct to suggest that education is both a human right in itself and an indispensable…

  14. Teacher Perspectives on Civic and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuran, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to obtain teacher perspectives on the civic and human rights education course included in the eighth grade curriculum in Turkish schools. The study group was selected with criterion sampling from among teachers who were teaching the eighth grade civic and human rights education at elementary schools in central Hatay. Using the…

  15. 2005 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved. Human Systems Integration

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    © 2005 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved. Human Systems Integration: Issues and Challenges@mitre.org #12;1© 2005 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved. Research Problem Network Centric Operations Greater complexity, increased reliance on teams Human decision making processes remain difficult, time

  16. Professionalizing a Global Social Movement: Universities and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David; Bromley, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Research on the human rights movement emphasizes direct changes in nation-states, focusing on the efficacy of treaties and the role of advocacy in mitigating immediate violations. However, more than 140 universities in 59 countries established academic chairs, research centers, and programs for human rights from 1968-2000, a development that…

  17. Human Rights Education and the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Nica

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP)--a program implemented in thousands of schools globally--introduced a human rights course (Makivirta, 2003). This curriculum is the first of its kind to hold potential widespread influence on human rights education in the formal education sector. In this study, I analyze the…

  18. Human Rights Education, Postcolonial Scholarship, and Action for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    In our global age, educational researchers and practitioners need tools that can be applied in a range of contexts and scales: local, national, and international. This article argues that human rights education (HRE) is a site of struggle in which human rights and democracy need to be constantly renewed. It contextualizes HRE within a critical,…

  19. 75 FR 75615 - Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-30584 Filed 12-2-10; 11:15 am] Billing code... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8608 of November 30, 2010 Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010 By the President of... Act, a seminal document tying lasting security among states with respect for human rights...

  20. Human Rights Education: Imaginative Possibilities for Creating Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Human rights education has proliferated in the past four decades and can be found in policy discussions, textbook reforms, and grassroots initiatives across the globe. This article specifically explores the role of creativity and imagination in human rights education (HRE) by focusing on a case study of one non-governmental…

  1. Human Rights and History Education: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burridge Nina; Buchanan, John; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The place of education for and about human rights within the school curriculum remains contested and this paper reports on the first national cross-sectoral investigation of its place in Australian curricula and more specifically in national and state History curriculum documents. Opportunities for the inclusion of human rights based studies were…

  2. The object of "Rights" : third world women and the production of global human rights discourse

    E-print Network

    Hua, Julietta Y.

    2006-01-01

    consequences of sex trafficking in the United States. Insex trade: Trafficking of women and children in Europe and the United States.sex trade: Trafficking of women and children in Europe and the United States.

  3. Human rights, public health and medicinal cannabis use

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Melissa; Seddon, Toby

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the human rights and drug control frameworks and critiques case law on medicinal cannabis use to demonstrate that a bona fide human rights perspective allows for a broader conception of ‘health’. This broad conception, encompassing both medicalised and social constructionist definitions, can inform public health policies relating to medicinal cannabis use. The paper also demonstrates how a human rights lens can alleviate a core tension between the State and the individual within the drug policy field. The leading medicinal cannabis case in the UK highlights the judiciary’s failure to engage with an individual’s human right to health as they adopt an arbitrary, externalist view, focussing on the legality of cannabis to the exclusion of other concerns. Drawing on some international comparisons, the paper considers how a human rights perspective can lead to an approach to medicinal cannabis use which facilitates a holistic understanding of public health. PMID:26692654

  4. 3 CFR 8765 - Proclamation 8765 of December 8, 2011. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proclamation 8765 of December 8, 2011. Human Rights... their human rights. Around the world, we witnessed significant progress in consolidating democracy and... equal world. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue...

  5. 3 CFR 9069 - Proclamation 9069 of December 9, 2013. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 9069 of December 9, 2013. Human Rights... world convened to adopt the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, rejecting the notion that individual... our own destiny. But in many parts of the world, people are still persecuted for their...

  6. Human Rights and Religious Education in the Contentious Context of Conflict-Troubled Societies: Perspectives from Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some of the tensions that are created from the entanglement of religion and human rights and offers a possible response to these tensions in the context of religious education in conflict-troubled societies. It is suggested that a historicised and politicised approach in religious education in conjunction with human rights

  7. Human rights advances in women's reproductive health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ngwena, Charles G; Brookman-Amissah, Eunice; Skuster, Patty

    2015-05-01

    The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights recently adopted General Comment No 2 to interpret provisions of Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights Women. The provisions relate to women's rights to fertility control, contraception, family planning, information and education, and abortion. The present article highlights the General Comment's potential to promote women's sexual and reproductive rights in multiple ways. The General Comment's human rights value goes beyond providing states with guidance for framing their domestic laws, practices, and policies to comply with treaty obligations. General Comment No 2 is invaluable in educating all stakeholders-including healthcare providers, lawyers, policymakers, and judicial officers at the domestic level-about pertinent jurisprudence. Civil society and human rights advocates can use the General Comment to render the state accountable for failure to implement its treaty obligations. PMID:25712778

  8. Health and human rights of adolescent girls in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Heisler, M; Rasekh, Z; Iacopino, V

    1999-01-01

    Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) conducted a study in early 1998 to assess the health and human rights conditions of Afghan women and girls living under the Taliban regime in Kabul. This paper highlights the concerns and experiences of adolescent girls in Kabul, includes a brief overview of the political situation in Afghanistan and Taliban policies toward women and girls, and presents findings from interviews with adolescent girls and women with adolescent daughters. It concludes with a discussion of current international standards for the protection of women's and girls' rights and the crucial role of health professionals in helping defend these rights. PMID:10441924

  9. Grassroots responsiveness to human rights abuse: history of the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community education on immigration issues, and political action toward a more humane immigration reform. Detailed examples of human rights abuses and the WICIR activities described in response to the abuses serve as illustrations of social work advocacy, education, and policy formulation that affect the general public, policymakers, and law enforcement officials. PMID:23724575

  10. Democracy and human rights: a paradox for migration policy.

    PubMed

    Hill, L B

    1997-01-01

    This article seeks to 1) stimulate debate on the tension between democracy and human rights that arises from the fact that the organizational unit of modern democracy remains the state, which is incompatible with the quest for transnational human rights based on a transcendent human identity, and 2) explore this tension as it is revealed in migration policy in South Africa. The introduction of the article critiques the criticisms offered by contemporary writers as grounds for an overhaul of current migration policy. Next, the article presents an analysis of modern, state-based democracy and of the rise of international human rights, with a focus on the following trends: 1) development of the notion of citizenship resulting from a view of the state as the guarantor but not the progenitor of rights, 2) the growth of human rights traditions in industrialized democracies as judicial activism countered populist and nationalist inclinations of national legislatures, and 3) the growth of an international human rights juridical tradition. The article then highlights the issues raised within the migration policy debate in South Africa since 1994 and examines the 1997 Draft Green Paper on International Migration. It is concluded that, because South Africa fits the general pattern of a receiving state, an overly ambitious human rights approach to immigration will conflict with the exigencies of the new democracy as it builds institutional capacity. PMID:12294201

  11. [Family planning and diverse declarations of human rights].

    PubMed

    Gakwaya, D

    1990-08-01

    Human beings have always desired to claim their rights, even in times when only a small proportion of the population was considered fully human and the rest were slaves, servants, uncivilized, colonized, underdeveloped, or, in the recent euphemism, "developing". The French Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 marked the 1st time in history that rights for all people were publicly affirmed. The rights in question were essentially constitutional and political, but the idea of claiming rights had been born. In 1948, the international community approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which encompassed all types of rights. Other international acts on civil and political rights and the rights of women and children have complemented and interpreted the 1948 document. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirmed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that all persons have a right to satisfaction of economic, social, and cultural needs. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women referred in its preamble to the particular disadvantages of women living in poverty and affirmed the right of all women to education in health and family welfare, including family planning, as well as to medical and family planning services. Women were affirmed to have the same rights as men to decide freely and in an informed manner on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education, and means to exercise these rights. The United Nations has demonstrated its interest in Population Commission in 1946 and of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, and through decennial worldwide population conferences in 1954, 1965, 1974, and 1984. UN demographic goals include reduced fertility on a worldwide basis, a reduced proportion of women not using reliable contraception, a substantial reduction of early marriage and adolescent pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal mortality, a life expectancy of at least 62 years in all countries, and a better geographic distribution of population within national territories permitting rational use of resources. Governments which subscribed to the declaration and conventions on human rights should respect their promises. Population growth which outpaces increases in production will make it increasingly difficult to satisfy the rights and needs of all population sectors. A government confronted with this problem is obliged to explore every possible means of increasing production but must also seek to control population growth. Contraception is a legitimate means of achieving this end. PMID:12316572

  12. Human Rights Education as an Integral Part of General Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornberg, Sabine

    2002-07-01

    This article argues that human rights education should become an integral part of general education. The author discusses efforts to realise this aim within the German general educational system. She pays special attention to three areas. First, at the theoretical level, she examines how human rights education can be conceptualised within the context of general education and against the background of globalisation and multiculturalism. Second, she examines the political and administrative level, including questions of curriculum. Thirdly, she looks at the didactical aspect of human rights education. In conclusion she points out some of the implications for teacher training.

  13. Grassroots Responsiveness to Human Rights Abuse: History of the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community…

  14. Bonhoeffer and universal health care as a human right.

    PubMed

    Clarke Chapman, G

    2013-12-01

    Bonhoeffer gave a theocentric basis for human rights, as God is the ground of ethics. In our earthly world, the "ultimate" must be prepared by what is "penultimate." That includes humanity's natural life and bodily wholeness, leading to human duties crafted by human reason. Nowadays, biblical texts should not be used as partisan weapons attacking government provision of health care, since all Scripture (even the Law) is seen as a Christ-centered focus on human redemption. Thus, Bonhoeffer implies a right to universal health care, but leaves entirely open which practical structures may best provide it. PMID:23737039

  15. "This Is Our Freedom Bus Going Home Right Now": Producing and Hybridizing Space-Time Contexts in Pedagogical Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leander, Kevin M.

    2001-01-01

    Advances an approach to analysis of discursive intercontextuality through theories of space-time production. Argues management of multiple contexts within school-related discourse is an important means of discursively producing identity, agency, and power relations. Draws data from an ethnographic and discourse-based study of an extended school…

  16. Caring autonomy: rethinking the right to autonomy under the European Court of Human Rights jurisprudence 

    E-print Network

    Lõhmus, Katri

    2013-07-03

    This thesis sets out an argument against the present interpretation of the concept of autonomy under the European Court of Human Rights (the ECtHR) Article 8 jurisprudence and proposes a new reading of the concept that ...

  17. Social Studies: Elementary School Guide for Teaching about Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Louise; And Others

    Human rights are those essentials of human existence that are inherent in the species. They are moral claims that satisfy the basic needs of all human beings. Ten major goals and numerous objectives were developed to undergird the Detroit (Michigan) curriculum, and this guide is established around the 10 major goals for teaching students about…

  18. Narratives in Teaching and Research for Justice and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history individual and collective narratives have been used in struggles for justice. We draw on Sen's theory of justice to examine the potential of narratives in teaching and researching for social justice. Human rights are presented as powerful ethical claims that can be critically examined by learners to consider their rights and…

  19. Sex Education and Human Rights--A Lawyer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumper, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Human Rights Act 1998 is the most significant British statute to have been passed in the last decade. It has already been the catalyst for a series of high profile cases, ranging from the privacy rights of celebrities ("Douglas v Hello!" [2001] QB 967) to the Home Secretary's sentencing powers in murder cases ("R (Anderson) v Secretary of…

  20. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  1. Africa and Discovery: Human Rights, Environment, and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, Robert K.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that, in the past 30 years, a dramatic upsurge has taken place in activities designed to promote human rights for indigenous peoples around the world. Asserts that, in the case of Africa, attention generally has been concentrated on socioeconomic rights, such as health care, sufficient water, food, and shelter. (CFR)

  2. A Human Rights Perspective on Immigration, Emigration, and Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ranjit S.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a general discussion of migration from the perspective of human rights. Focuses on refugees; women, children, and the aged; freedom to migrate; internal migration; and refugees in Canada. (KH)

  3. Noncommunicable Diseases and Human Rights: A Promising Synergy

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Beaglehole, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have finally emerged onto the global health and development agenda. Despite the increasingly important role human rights play in other areas of global health, their contribution to NCD prevention and control remains nascent. The recently adopted Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013–2020 is an important step forward, but the lack of concrete attention to human rights is a missed opportunity. With practical implications for policy development, priority setting, and strategic design, human rights offer a logical, robust set of norms and standards; define the legal obligations of governments; and provide accountability mechanisms that can be used to enhance current approaches to NCD prevention and control. Harnessing the power of human rights can strengthen action for NCDs at the local, national, and global levels. PMID:24625165

  4. Human Rights Education through the "Facing History and Ourselves" Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabeck, Mary; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study that examined the effects of the "Facing History and Ourselves" program on moral development and psychological functioning. Asserts that this study adds to the literature suggesting that human rights education positively affects students' moral development. (CFR)

  5. Libraries and Human Rights: Iraq in the Crossfire

    E-print Network

    Cloonan, Michè le V.

    2008-07-14

    Michèle V. Cloonan, Dean and Professor at the Simmons College Graduate School of Library & Information Science, presents "Libraries and Human Rights: Iraq in the Crossfire," April 3, 2008 at the Spooner Commons, University of Kansas. Presentation...

  6. [Discourses on the body, the 'human motor', energy and fatigue: cultural hybridations in fin-de-siècle Argentina].

    PubMed

    Roldán, Diego P

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates some discourses that emerged about the body, the 'human motor', energy and fatigue in Argentina between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Based on this inquiry an attempt is made to show how the hybrid nature of these scientifically purified formulations participated in the construction of biopolitical knowledge (organic economy) that projected the body in relation to production (capitalism) and the nation (state). Similarly, it analyzes the discourses on fatigue and training in an attempt to pinpoint limitations of areas of knowledge based on a Cartesian split. PMID:21461532

  7. The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

    2014-12-01

    The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. PMID:24337891

  8. 3 CFR 8915 - Proclamation 8915 of December 10, 2012. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proclamation 8915 of December 10, 2012. Human Rights... rights of all people as the “foundation of freedom, justice, and peace in the world.” As we mark the... when governments serve their people. These dreams are common to people all around the world, and...

  9. Issue Definition in Rights-Based Policy Focused on the Experiences of Individuals with Disabilities: An Examination of Canadian Parliamentary Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Dana Lee

    2008-01-01

    In issue definition in rights-based policy Canada stereotypically embraces a more positive, human rights-centered approach as compared with the American stereotype associated with the USA's more presumptively negative, civil rights-based tack. Since exclusionary infrastructures violate the core values of democratic governance, a failure to address…

  10. International law, human rights and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, David; London, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the relevance of international human rights law in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic at national and international levels. Public health advocates can use arguments based on this body of law to promote responses to HIV/AIDS that reflect sound public health principles and documented best practice. Development assistance is increasingly linked to rights-based approaches, such as participatory processes, and strategic alliances between health professionals, organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS, and affected communities. Legal and human rights advocacy strategies are increasingly productive and necessary. PMID:12571725

  11. Sexuality and human rights: an Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Erick

    2005-01-01

    In Asia, the lesbian and gay rights movements are clearly dominated by activists, who tend to think in terms of a binary opposition (homo- vs hetero-) and clear-cut categories. Based on "Western patterns," the approach is practical, the arguments based on minority rights. "Coming out" is often perceived as a "white model" bringing more problems than real freedom. On the contrary, "Asian values" put the emphasis on family and social harmony, often in contradiction to what is pictured as "lesbian and gay rights." Homophobia follows very subtle ways in Asian countries. Asian gays have to negotiate their freedom, lifestyle and identities in an atmosphere of heterosexism, and not the endemic violent homophobia prevalent in many western countries. In Asia, one's identity relates to one's position in the group and sexuality plays a relatively insignificant role in its cultural construction. That Asian gays often marry and have children shows the elasticity their sexual identity encompasses. Fluidity of sexuality does not really match the Western approach in terms of essentialist categories that have a right to exist. Most Asian societies can be thought of as "tolerant" as long as homosexuality remains invisible. Procreative sexuality can be seen as a social duty, and heterosexual marriage is often not considered incompatible with a "homosexual life." The development of the Internet has even facilitated the encounters while allowing secrecy. Unfortunately, the traditional figures of transgender and transvestites have often been separated from the gay liberation movement. PMID:15814505

  12. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Salcito, Kendyl; University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel; NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202; NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 ; Utzinger, Jürg; University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel ; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Münch, Anna K.; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Wielga, Mark; NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human rights impact assessment exposed impacts not foreseen in ESIA. • Corporations adopted the majority of findings, but not necessarily immediately. • Methodological advancements are expected for monitoring processes.

  13. Pathologies of power: rethinking health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Farmer, P

    1999-10-01

    The field of health and human rights has grown quickly, but its boundaries have yet to be traced. Fifty-one years after the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, consensus regarding the most promising directions for the future is lacking; however, outcome-oriented assessments lead us to question approaches that rely solely on recourse to formal legal and civil rights. Similarly unpromising are approaches that rely overmuch on appeals to governments: careful study reveals that state power has been responsible for most human rights violations and that most violations are embedded in "structural violence"--social and economic inequities that determine who will be at risk for assaults and who will be shielded. This article advances an agenda for research and action grounded in the struggle for social and economic rights, an agenda suited to public health and medicine, whose central contributions to future progress in human rights will be linked to the equitable distribution of the fruits of scientific advancement. Such an approach is in keeping with the Universal Declaration but runs counter to several of the reigning ideologies of public health, including those favoring efficacy over equity. PMID:10511828

  14. Pathologies of power: rethinking health and human rights.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, P

    1999-01-01

    The field of health and human rights has grown quickly, but its boundaries have yet to be traced. Fifty-one years after the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, consensus regarding the most promising directions for the future is lacking; however, outcome-oriented assessments lead us to question approaches that rely solely on recourse to formal legal and civil rights. Similarly unpromising are approaches that rely overmuch on appeals to governments: careful study reveals that state power has been responsible for most human rights violations and that most violations are embedded in "structural violence"--social and economic inequities that determine who will be at risk for assaults and who will be shielded. This article advances an agenda for research and action grounded in the struggle for social and economic rights, an agenda suited to public health and medicine, whose central contributions to future progress in human rights will be linked to the equitable distribution of the fruits of scientific advancement. Such an approach is in keeping with the Universal Declaration but runs counter to several of the reigning ideologies of public health, including those favoring efficacy over equity. PMID:10511828

  15. Girls' and Boys' Reasoning on Cultural and Religious Practices: A Human Rights Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wet, Annamagriet; Roux, Cornelia; Simmonds, Shan; ter Avest, Ina

    2012-01-01

    Human rights play a vital role in citizens' political, religious and cultural life (Wang 2002, 171). Due to the prominence of human rights in the everyday life of citizens, including those of South Africa, human rights education has been included in many school curricula. Human rights education aims to develop responsible citizens who "inter alia"…

  16. One Million Bones: Measuring the Effect of Human Rights Participation in the Social Work Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Jane; Cheatham, Leah P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the integration of human rights content and a national arts-activism initiative--One Million Bones--into a bachelor's-level macro practice class as a human rights teaching strategy. Two previously validated scales, the Human Rights Exposure (HRX) in Social Work and the Human Rights Engagement (HRE) in Social Work…

  17. Human Rights Engagement and Exposure: New Scales to Challenge Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Jane; Abell, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Advancing human rights is a core competency of U.S. social work education; yet, human rights attitudes and behaviors have never been measured in the social work literature. Thus, this article describes the development and initial validation of two scales, Human Rights Engagement in Social Work (HRESW) and Human Rights Exposure in…

  18. Nepal's War on Human Rights: A summit higher than Everest

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonal; Dahal, Khagendra; Mills, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Nepal has witnessed serious human rights violations including arbitrary arrests, detentions, "disappearances", extra judicial executions, abductions and torture carried out by both the Royal Nepalese Army and the Maoist rebels in the 10 years of the "peoples war". Women and children have borne the brunt of the conflict. Massive displacement has led to adverse social and psychological consequences. While the reasons for the conflict are mainly indigenous and rooted in the social and economic in-equities, remedies for health inequities must come not only from the health sector but also from broad social policies and adopting a participatory and conflict-sensitive approach to development. Meanwhile the international community needs to use its leverage to urge both sides to accept a human rights accord and honor international human rights and humanitarian laws, while investigating allegations of abuse and prosecute those responsible. PMID:15985165

  19. Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights

    PubMed Central

    Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

  20. Sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Ercevik Amado, Liz

    2004-05-01

    A regional workshop on sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa was held in Malta in 2003, attended by 22 NGO representatives from Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Turkey, Pakistan and USA. The meeting aimed to develop strategies for overcoming human rights violations in the region with reference to law and social and political practices. Session topics included sexuality and gender identity; sexuality and sexual health; sexuality and comparative penal law; sexual rights in international documents; advocacy and lobbying. Sexual rights, sexual health and education, sexual violence and adolescent sexuality were explored in depth, including taboos and emerging trends. Specific areas of concern included marital rape, early marriages, temporary marriages, sexual orientation, premarital and extramarital sexuality, honour crimes, female genital mutilation, unmarried mothers, adolescent sexuality, unwanted pregnancies and safe abortion, sexuality in education and health services. An analysis of civil codes, penal codes and personal status codes indicated a clear imperative for legal reform. Participants heard about efforts to promote the right to sexual orientation which have already been initiated in Lebanon, Turkey and Tunisia. Networking within the region and with counterparts in other regions in comparable situations and conditions was deemed essential. PMID:15242219

  1. The Pinochet case: cosmopolitanism and intermestic human rights.

    PubMed

    Nash, Kate

    2007-09-01

    This article explores the Pinochet case, widely heralded as a landmark, as a case of 'intermestic' human rights that raises difficult normative and empirical questions concerning cosmopolitan justice. The article is a contribution to the sociology of human rights from the perspective of methodological cosmopolitanism, developing conceptual tools and methods to study how cosmopolitanizing state institutions and cultural norms are inter-related. The argument is made that in order to understand issues of cosmopolitan justice, sociologists must give more consideration to political culture. PMID:17727501

  2. A discourse on human hair fibers and reflections on the conservation of drug molecules.

    PubMed

    Pötsch, L

    1996-01-01

    A gross discourse on human hair fibers and their formation is presented stressing the various interdisciplinary aspects, such as the morphological, biological, structural and biochemical data considered to be important in the field of hair analysis. An attempt is made to explain the incorporation of drug molecules during hair fiber formation by using the classical concepts of drug absorption based on lipoid theory and the pH-partition hypothesis as well as a modern biological approach on the permeability of cell membranes. In addition to the physiochemical considerations of the transport properties of a particular drug molecule such as a) the lipophilicity, which determines permeability through the membrane, b) the pKa value, c) the plasma protein binding and d) the molecular size and shape of the drug molecule, drug absorption is thought to be limited by the surface area and the residence time in the hair bulb. The thermodynamic approach according to the Kedem-Katchalsky equations seems even more satisfying. When the principles of biological transport across cell membranes are applied to the cell populations present in the hair root, a hypothesis of extracellular and intracellular drug localizations results. It is speculated that the cell membrane complex (CMC) and the melanin granules present the main sources of incorporated drug molecules within the keratinized hair fibers. PMID:8793635

  3. Medical Sciences and Humanities Is Medical Sciences and Humanities right for me?

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Medical Sciences and Humanities Is Medical Sciences and Humanities right for me? If you and Humanities could be for you. The programme covers a range of topics on the history of medicine, biological healthcare roles. The skills you can gain from a degree in Medical Sciences and Humanities are wide

  4. Bringing Human Rights Back Home: Learning from "Superman" and Addressing Political Issues at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Human rights are commonly conceived as more relevant to foreign policy than day-to-day living. Drawing on Eleanor Roosevelt's conception of human rights as beginning close to home, this article illustrates how human rights principles might inform everyday processes of schooling and learning to live together. It considers rights to, in and…

  5. Internationalizing the Right to Know: Conceptualizations of Access to Information in Human Rights Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Cheryl Ann

    2009-01-01

    Currently there exists a global movement promoting institutional transparency and freedom of information legislation. Conceptualizing access to government-held information as a human right is one of the latest developments in this global trend promoting access to information. The purpose of this dissertation is to identify and analyze the various…

  6. The Human Right to Education as a Right to Literacy in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motakef, Mona

    2007-01-01

    There are no official data, but it is estimated that four million adults in Germany have little or no reading, writing and numeracy skills, so that they are known as "functionally illiterate". This is a fact which was long ignored. In this contribution, literacy activities and research in Germany are analysed through a human rights-based approach.…

  7. 3 CFR 8616 - Proclamation 8616 of December 10, 2010. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...this self-evident truth lies at the heart of our Declaration...certain rights belong to all people: freedom to live as they...they live. Countries whose people choose their leaders and rely...Rights Week. I call upon the people of the United States to...

  8. International Human Rights: Politics & Law. A Syllabus. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkin, Louis; And Others

    Designed for first year graduate students in political science, international relations, and law, this course focuses on the contemporary concern with human rights in its international political context. The course is intended to be taught in 14 two-hour sessions; it can also be broken down into single-hour sessions. There are four major parts to…

  9. Physicists for Human Rights in the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyak, Yuri

    2005-03-01

    In his 1940 paper `Freedom and Science' Albert Einstein emphasized that ``intellectual independence is a primary necessity for the scientific inquirer'' and that ``political liberty is also extraordinarily important for his work.'' Raised in the tradition of intellectual independence and dedicated to the scientific truth, physicists were among the first to stand up for freedom in the USSR. It was no coincidence that the founders of the first independent Human Rights Committee (1970) were physicists: Andrei Sakharov, Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov. In 1973 a physicist, Alexander Voronel, founded a Moscow Sunday (refusenik) Seminar -- the first openly independent scientific body in the history of the USSR. In 1976 physicists Andrei Sakharov, Yuri Orlov and a mathematician Natan Sharansky were the leading force in founding the famous Moscow Helsinki Human Rights Watch group. This talk briefly describes the special position of physicists (often viewed as Einstein's colleagues) in Soviet society, as well as their unique role in the struggle for human rights. It describes in some detail the Moscow Sunday Seminar, and extensions thereof such as International Conferences, the Computer School and the Computer Database of Refuseniks. The Soviet government considered such truly independent organizations as a challenge to Soviet authority and tried to destroy them. The Seminar's success and its very existence owed much to the support of Western scientific organizations, who persuaded their members to attend the Seminar and visit scientist-refuseniks. The human rights struggle led by physicists contributed substantially to the demise of the Soviet system.

  10. The Human Rights Approach to Education in International Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufner, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the work of three international governmental organisations (IGOs) dealing with human rights will be discussed, namely the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Council of Europe (CoE). In the first section, the main characteristics of the…

  11. Building Intercultural Citizenship through Education: A Human Rights Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavenhagen, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the challenges posed by traditional ethnic and linguistic minorities in multicultural states and more specifically the problems faced by indigenous peoples and communities. Their educational and cultural needs and demands are increasingly being framed in the language of human rights, based on the expanding international legal…

  12. Human Rights and Peace Education in the Lebanese Civics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuayb, Maha

    2015-01-01

    In 1997 the Lebanese government published its newly developed curriculum and textbooks following a long and fierce civil war, which started in 1975. The new curriculum emphasized nation building, reconciliation and citizenship. This study aims to examine how the civics textbooks in Lebanon addressed human rights and peace education, both of which…

  13. Human Rights Attitude Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Recep; Yaman, Tugba; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable attitude scale having quality psychometric features that can measure secondary school students' attitudes towards human rights. The study group of the research is comprised by 710 6th, 7th and 8th grade students who study at 4 secondary schools in the centre of Sivas. The study group…

  14. Immanuel Kant's Account of Cognitive Experience and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Gregory Lewis

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Gregory Bynum seeks to show that Immanuel Kant's thought, which was conceived in an eighteenth-century context of new, and newly widespread, pressures for nationally institutionalized human rights-based regimes (the American and French revolutions being the most prominent examples), can help us think in new and appreciative ways…

  15. Exploring the Relevance of Holocaust Education for Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckmann, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Can Holocaust education be considered a tool for human rights education? If so, to what extent? These questions elicit discussions among a wide range of educators, and interest among politicians, educational planners, and ministries in charge of memorials. At first glance the obvious answer seems to be yes; both educators and students have strong…

  16. Transforming Global Civics: The Need for Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Goldberg, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    In today's globally interconnected community, it is imperative that students learn how human rights abuses are not a "thing of the past," but an ongoing exploitation that requires modern day crusaders to defend. Who might these crusaders be? None other than each student. However, if one wants to encourage these noble change agents, one needs to…

  17. Using Literature for Young People to Teach about Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Caroline C.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    Using literature in the social studies classroom is a useful pedagogy that is particularly well-suited in human rights education. Literature can give voice to people who cannot speak for themselves and gives students an opportunity to consider perspectives that are often foreign to them. When used with delicacy and care, these literary…

  18. Bearing Witness: Citizen Journalism and Human Rights Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Stuart; Sonwalkar, Prasun; Carter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article assesses the potential of online news reporting to create discursive spaces for emphatic engagement--of bearing witness--at a distance, especially where human rights violations are concerned. Taking as its focus the emergent forms and practices of citizen journalism, it examines the spontaneous actions of ordinary people compelled to…

  19. Children's Spiritual Development in Forced Displacement: A Human Rights Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojalehto, Bethany; Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a human rights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive-cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children's development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the…

  20. Women, Human Rights, and Counseling: Crossing International Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    2005-01-01

    The fast-paced movement of globalization has affected all walks of life including professional counselors. As the world becomes more accessible, increased instances of social injustice on a global scale have become more apparent, with women and children being especially identified as victims of social injustice and human rights violations (World…

  1. Toward a Hermeneutical Theory of International Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Daraweesh, Fuad; Snauwaert, Dale T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to articulate and defend the epistemological foundations of international human rights education from the perspective of a hermeneutical interpretive methodology. Fuad Al-Daraweesh and Dale Snauwaert argue here that this methodology potentially alleviates the challenges that face the cross-cultural implementation of…

  2. Human Rights, Cosmopolitanism and Utopias: Implications for Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Citizenship education, defined as learning to live together, requires agreement on certain common principles. One central purpose of a state education system is the transmission of common normative standards such as the human rights and fundamental freedoms that underpin liberal democratic societies. The paper identifies the conceptual roots of…

  3. Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees Bosnia and Herzegovina

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    PERSONS OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA GUIDE FOR FAMILIES OF MISSING PERSONS Sarajevo, 2006 #12;2 Ministry for Free Access to Information Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees Trg BiH 1, 71000 Sarajevo, BiH, Tel.: (+387) 33 471-630, Fax:(+387) 33 206-140, http://www.mhrr.gov.ba ICMP Alipasina 45a, 71000 Sarajevo, Bi

  4. A Relational Hermeneutical Approach to Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Daraweesh, Fuad

    2010-01-01

    This research is an effort to transcend the debate of universalism and cultural relativism by offering a new conceptualization of human rights. The conceptualization is presented through the development of a theoretical framework in the form of an epistemology. The research articulates and defends the epistemology, which is grounded on…

  5. Department: Philosophy and the Human Rights Institute Course No.: 2170W [170W

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department: Philosophy and the Human Rights Institute Course No.: 2170W [170W] Course title: Bioethics and Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives Number of Credits: 3 Contact Person: Anne Hiskes Content Area: CA 1 Arts and Humanities Catalog Copy: -PHIL/HRTS 2170W [170W] Bioethics and Human Rights

  6. The Role of Education in Freedom from Poverty as a Human Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhillon, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Education lies at the heart of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR): "Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms". However, when education is mentioned in the philosophical literature on human rights, or even within the…

  7. Are Liberal Studies Teachers Ready to Prepare Human Rights Respecting Students? A Portrait of Teachers' Attitudes towards Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Yan Wing; Lo, Yan Lam

    2012-01-01

    As in most countries, human rights education (HRE) in Hong Kong has never been high on the educational agenda. In 2009, a compulsory subject, Liberal Studies (LS), which could be used as a platform for HRE, was introduced. The Hong Kong Institute of Education launched a research and development project which, as one of its objectives, studied LS…

  8. Human Rights and/or Market Logic: Neoliberalism, Difficult Knowledge, and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) has been plagued by controversy since before its construction even began. Outcries regarding perceived oversights in the museum's programming and objections to the cost of construction, curatorial development, and staffing have erupted frequently in local media. Critical analyses of public responses to…

  9. The Value of Mainstreaming Human Rights into Health Impact Assessment

    PubMed Central

    MacNaughton, Gillian; Forman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social impacts of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation [1]. This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international human rights standards be integrated into HIA to provide a universal value system backed up by international and domestic laws and mechanisms of accountability. The idea of mainstreaming human rights into HIA is illustrated with the example of impact assessments that have been carried out to predict the potential effects of intellectual property rights in international trade agreements on the availability and affordability of medicines. The article concludes by recommending international human rights standards as a legal and ethical framework for HIA that will enhance the universal values of nondiscrimination, participation, transparency and accountability and bring legitimacy and coherence to HIA practice as well. PMID:25264683

  10. Human Rights Law for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific: The Need for a Disability Rights Tribunal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlin, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Human rights are arguably the most significant political force shaping the life experience of people with disability. The "United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" sets the standard at an international level, creating both positive and negative rights, and calls upon member states of the United Nations (UN)…

  11. The Women's Studies Program and the Human Rights Institute present a film screening and panel discussion

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    The Women's Studies Program and the Human Rights Institute present a film screening and panel this complex issue. The film screening will be followed by a panel discussion on sexuality and human rights

  12. The Influence of Place Meanings on Conservation and Human Rights in the

    E-print Network

    Langerhans, Brian

    The Influence of Place Meanings on Conservation and Human Rights in the Arizona Sonora Borderlands Rachel Shellabarger, M. Nils Peterson, Erin Sills & Frederick Cubbage Conservation and human rights to place. Keywords: Altar Valley; Conservation; Culturescape; Immigration; Mexico; Migration Rachel

  13. Evolving Human Rights and the Science of Antiretroviral Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Matthew; Cohn, Jennifer; Mabote, Lynette; Meier, Benjamin Mason; Williams, Brian; Russell, Asia; Sikwese, Kenly; Baker, Brook

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen significant advances in the science of using antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) to fight HIV. Where not long ago ARVs were used late in disease to prevent sick people from dying, today people living with HIV can use ARVs to achieve viral suppression early in the course of disease. This article reviews the mounting new scientific evidence of major clinical and prevention ARV benefits. This has changed the logic of the AIDS response, eliminating competition between "treatment" and "prevention" and encouraging early initiation of treatment for individual and public health benefit. These breakthroughs have implications for the health-related human rights duties of States. With medical advance, the "highest attainable standard" of health has taken a leap, and with it the rights obligations of States. We argue that access to early treatment for all is now a core State obligation and restricting access to, or failing to provide accurate information about, it violates both individual and collective rights. In a context of real political and technical challenges, however, in this article we review the policy implications of evolving human rights obligations given the new science. National and international legal standards require action on budget, health and intellectual property policy, which we outline. PMID:26204587

  14. The Human Rights Code, 1988, 8 July 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex and marital status, among other things, with respect to accommodation practices, employment practices, and publications. In its employment practices provisions, it mandates equal pay for equal work and outlaws harassment and unwelcome sexual solicitation. Under the Act, the Newfoundland Human Rights Commission, already established, is given the power to investigate complaints, effect settlements, and refer matters to a board of inquiry for further action. PMID:12289244

  15. Girl child abuse: violation of her human rights.

    PubMed

    Kapur, P

    1995-01-01

    The human rights of female children in India and elsewhere, even when protected on paper, are violated in practice. An equitable and egalitarian world order must be established. A comprehensive campaign is needed that combats gender-based inequalities, discrimination, exploitation, oppression, abuse, violence, inhuman values, and violations of human rights, particularly against female children. People must radically change their attitudes and actions towards female children. Female children are not a commodity or sex-object but "an equally worthy human being to be loved, respected, and cared for." Strategies that accomplish these ends include the promotion of human and spiritual values of love, compassion, and nonviolence, and discouragement of values of consumerism and materialism and worthlessness of human beings. Effective education and mass media should counter corruption, dishonesty, selfishness, and inhuman actions. Family structures need to strengthened and enriched. The abuse of female children occurs due to the following interrelated factors: entrenched patriarchal value systems, the perpetuation of traditions and practices that identify girls as inferior to boys, the gender-biased and discriminatory attitude that identifies girl children as a burden or liability and as a sex-object or commodity, and prevalent illiteracy, poverty, and negative parenting life style patterns. Other factors include the low status of women, the reduction in human and spiritual values, and the rise of consumerism and corruption. Girls are subjected to female infanticide, feticide, lack of social and economic development, burdensome domestic work, early marriage and childbearing, neglect and denial of healthy living conditions, sexual abuse and exploitation, prostitution, rape, and a denial of their right to protection. PMID:12158013

  16. Social movements and human rights rhetoric in tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, P; Banerjee, A

    2005-01-01

    After achieving breathtaking successes in securing state and local restrictions on smoking in public places and restricting youth access to tobacco products, the tobacco movement faces difficult decisions on its future strategic directions. The thesis of this article is that the tobacco control movement is at a point of needing to secure its recent successes and avoiding any public retrenchment. To do so requires rethinking the movement's strategic direction. We use the familiar trans-theoretical model of change to describe where the movement is currently and the threats it faces. The new tobacco control strategy should encompass a focus on voluntary non-smoking strategies, use human rights rhetoric to its advantage, and strengthen the public health voice to be more effective in political battles. In developing a new strategy, tobacco control advocates need to build a social movement based on a more forceful public health voice, along with the strategic use of human rights rhetoric, to focus on the power of voluntary non-smoking efforts. Using human rights rhetoric can help frame the movement in ways that have traditionally appealed to the American public. Perhaps more importantly, doing so can help infuse the tobacco control movement with a broader sense of purpose and mission. PMID:16046702

  17. Love, Justice, and Natural Law: On Martin Luther King, Jr. and Human Rights

    E-print Network

    Doyle, Robert

    1 Love, Justice, and Natural Law: On Martin Luther King, Jr. and Human Rights Vincent W. Lloyd that this is where King contributes to discussions of human rights, through his rhetoric of natural law which, in its human rights "theory") can be renewed. King's rhetoric of natural law is particularly potent, and has

  18. Human Rights and Curricular Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights have become increasingly salient for nations, organizations, and individuals since the end of World War II (Lauren 2003). Discussions of human rights now are common in formal education, including in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). A variety of indicators suggest that countries in Latin America have integrated human rights into…

  19. Report of the Symposium on Population and Human Rights (Amsterdam, January 21-29, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY.

    The Symposium on Population and Human Rights drew together 28 experts in various disciplines to formulate scientific opinion on the interrelationships between population and human rights and, more specifically, to provide inputs for the World Population Plan of Action. The symposium devoted its attention to the human rights standards which have a…

  20. ICTs in Support of Human Rights, Democracy and Good Governance By Audrey N. Selian

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    ICTs in Support of Human Rights, Democracy and Good Governance By Audrey N. Selian August 2002.selian@itu.int>, ITU. ICTs in Support of Human Rights, Democracy and Good Governance is part of the Strategy and Policy...................................................................................................12 III. Human Rights

  1. Revised October 2014 CONFIDENTIAL INTAKE FORM OFFICE OF HUMAN RIGHTS, EQUITY & ACCESSIBILITY ONLINE CONFIDENTIAL INTAKE FORM

    E-print Network

    Revised October 2014 CONFIDENTIAL INTAKE FORM ­ OFFICE OF HUMAN RIGHTS, EQUITY & ACCESSIBILITY: DATE CLOSED: #12;Revised October 2014 CONFIDENTIAL INTAKE FORM ­ OFFICE OF HUMAN RIGHTS, EQUITY SIGNATURE: DATE: INQUIRY/COMPLAINT DETAILS (Attach pages if necessary) Office of Human Rights, Equity

  2. Human Rights: Politics, Culture, Education. Current challenges and debates in Central

    E-print Network

    Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    Human Rights: Politics, Culture, Education. Current challenges and debates in Central America and Germany Diskussionsgespräch José Thompson Inter-American Institute of Human Rights, San José, Costa Rica, die UN-Friedensuniversität sowie das Inter- American Institute of Human Rights, alle mit Sitz in San

  3. 2004 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reservedFor Internal MITRE Use Human Systems Integration

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    © 2004 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reservedFor Internal MITRE Use Human Systems Integration Executive Office #12;© 2004 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved Demands on Human Operators of Technology, Humans and Automation Laboratory. #12;© 2004 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved INCOSE

  4. Supporting Teachers as Transformative Intellectuals: Participatory Action Research in Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersey, Page Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Human rights education (HRE) holds the potential for educators to begin an honest dialogue with students and to connect local issues with international struggles for human rights. However, HRE and other teaching approaches that build understanding of systems of power and oppression that lead to human rights violations are not widely embraced in…

  5. Human Rights Education and Religious Education: From Mutual Suspicion to Elective Affinity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyette, Frederick W.

    2009-01-01

    What are the prospects for joining religious education and human rights education? (1) Human rights educators may cite good historical and philosophical reasons for teaching about human rights without making any reference whatsoever to a religious foundation. (2) For their part, many religious communities have resisted opportunities to form…

  6. Mind the Gap: The Human Rights of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobrial, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have the same human value as other children and are entitled to their basic human rights. And yet, in developing countries they face many barriers to accessing these rights. This study focuses on children with IDs in Egypt. Method: A new measure, the Human Rights of children with…

  7. Rapoport Center Human Rights Working Paper Series Call for Editorial Committee Members 2014-2015

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    Rapoport Center Human Rights Working Paper Series Call for Editorial Committee Members 2014-2015 The Bernard and Audre Rapoport Center for Human Rights and Justice is accepting applications from UT law and graduate students to become members of the editorial committee for its Human Rights Working Paper Series

  8. Cornell Law School's Avon Global Center for Women and Justice and International Human Rights Clinic

    E-print Network

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    International Human Rights Clinic WOMEN IN PRISON IN ARGENTINA: CAUSES, CONDITIONS, AND CONSEQUENCES May 2013's Avon Global Center for Women and Justice and International Human Rights Clinic Defensoría General de la Nación Argentina The University of Chicago Law School International Human Rights Clinic WOMEN IN PRISON

  9. Human Rights Education in Canada: Results from a CTF Teacher Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froese-Germain, Bernie; Riel, Rick; Theoret, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations has placed a high priority on human rights education. Building on the foundation laid by the UN Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004), the UN General Assembly launched the World Programme for Human Rights Education in December 2004 "as a global initiative, structured in consecutive phases, to advance the implementation…

  10. "The Path of Social Justice": A Human Rights History of Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carl A.; Gibson, Melissa Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's human rights initiatives. The efforts of human rights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…

  11. Interrogating an Omission: The Absence of a Rights-Based Approach to Education in World Bank Policy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menashy, Francine

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a discursive analysis of World Bank policy documents in order to reveal the stark omission of a rights-based approach to education, while highlighting instead the support of an economic-instrumentalist approach. Plausible explanations are provided to shed light on this exclusion, including the feasibility critique of education…

  12. Romania: European Court of Human Rights rules degrading treatment for man who contracted TB in prison.

    PubMed

    Cozac, David

    2011-04-01

    In December 2010, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that a Romanian man who contracted tuberculosis (TB) while in prison had his rights violated pursuant to Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which prohibits torture and degrading treatment. PMID:21688718

  13. Social Studies: Appendix for Elementary, Middle, and High School Guides for Teaching about Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detroit Public Schools, MI. Dept. of Curriculum Development Services.

    Seventy documents including primary source materials, simulations, mock trials, short stories, vignettes, and statistical data are provided for the implementation of the elementary, middle, and high school human rights curriculum. Original documents include: (1) the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; (2) the Declaration of the Rights of the…

  14. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Joscelyne, Amy; Knuckey, Sarah; Satterthwaite, Margaret L; Bryant, Richard A; Li, Meng; Qian, Meng; Brown, Adam D

    2015-01-01

    Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work. PMID:26700305

  15. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Joscelyne, Amy; Knuckey, Sarah; Satterthwaite, Margaret L.; Bryant, Richard A.; Li, Meng; Qian, Meng; Brown, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work. PMID:26700305

  16. Comfort Women in Human Rights Discourse: Fetishized Testimonies, Small Museums, and the Politics of Thin Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Hee-Jung Serenity

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, the issue of comfort women--the women and girls who were forced into sex slavery for the Japanese army before and during WWII--has risen to global attention. Tens of thousands of comfort women (the average estimate is anywhere between 80,000 and 200,000) were confined at comfort stations managed by the Japanese Imperial…

  17. Tensions between Discourses of Development, Religion, and Human Capital in Early Childhood Education Policy Texts: The Case of Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formen, Ali; Nuttall, Joce

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider how particular discourses have come to dominate early childhood education (ECE) policy in Indonesia. We briefly explain the governance of Indonesian ECE and then our approach to policy analysis using critical discourse analysis. Three prevalent discourses are identified and discussed: "developmentalism",…

  18. Intellectual property rights and innovation: Evidence from the human genome*

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    Do intellectual property (IP) rights on existing technologies hinder subsequent innovation? Using newly-collected data on the sequencing of the human genome by the public Human Genome Project and the private firm Celera, this paper estimates the impact of Celera’s gene-level IP on subsequent scientific research and product development. Genes initially sequenced by Celera were held with IP for up to two years, but moved into the public domain once re-sequenced by the public effort. Across a range of empirical specifications, I find evidence that Celera’s IP led to reductions in subsequent scientific research and product development on the order of 20 to 30 percent. Taken together, these results suggest that Celera’s short-term IP had persistent negative effects on subsequent innovation relative to a counterfactual of Celera genes having always been in the public domain. PMID:24639594

  19. Human rights and the requirement for international medical aid.

    PubMed

    Tolchin, Benjamin

    2008-08-01

    Every year approximately 18 million people die prematurely from treatable medical conditions including infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies. The deaths occur primarily amongst the poorest citizens of poor developing nations. Various groups and individuals have advanced plans for major international medical aid to avert many of these unnecessary deaths. For example, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health estimated that eight million premature deaths could be prevented annually by interventions costing roughly US$57 bn per year. This essay advances an argument that human rights require high-income nations to provide such aid. The essay briefly examines John Rawls' obligations of justice and the reasons that their applicability to cases of international medical aid remains controversial. Regardless, the essay argues that purely humanitarian obligations bind the governments and citizens of high-income liberal democracies at a minimum to provide major medical aid to avert premature deaths in poor nations. In refusing to undertake such medical relief efforts, developed nations fail to adequately protect a fundamental human right to life. PMID:19143091

  20. The third era of human rights: global accountability.

    PubMed

    Suter, Keith

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that the trend in the current protection of human rights may be seen as a revival of an old idea: governments are accountable for their actions. The protection of human rights has gone through three eras. In the first era, the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages claimed to rule from a divine mandate. This principle of natural law was a unifying factor in western Europe because it created a standard system of morality. The second era, beginning in the seventeenth century with the doctrine of state sovereignty, rejected that natural law. Rulers wanted to run their own territories and not be subject to foreign influence. Laws were created by the 'national sovereign' (king, queen, president, parliament, congress and so on). This legal doctrine survived for about three centuries, but the excesses of leaders such as Hitler in the middle of last century forced a re-think. Although the term 'natural law' is not used, there has been a revival of its essential meaning: that governments have to be answerable to a higher authority for their behaviour. PMID:17822064

  1. Book Review: Human Rights and the WTO: The Case of Patents and Access to Medicines

    E-print Network

    Torrance, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    Human rights and patent rights have become increasingly intertwined in discussions surrounding access to pharmaceutical drugs by citizens of developing countries. This discussion is a particularly contentious one for reasons of socioeconomics...

  2. Health and human rights of women imprisoned in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The healthcare needs and general experience of women in detention in sub-Saharan Africa are rarely studied and poorly understood. Methods A mixed-methods study was conducted including in-depth interviews with 38 adult female prisoners and 21 prison officers in four Zambian prisons to assess the health and human rights concerns of female detainees. Key informant interviews with 46 officials from government and non-governmental organizations and a legal and policy review were also conducted. Results Despite special protection under international and regional law, incarcerated women's health needs–including prenatal care, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and nutritional support during pregnancy and breastfeeding–are not being adequately met in Zambian prisons. Women are underserved by general healthcare programs including those offering tuberculosis and HIV testing, and reported physical and sexual abuse conducted by police and prison officers that could amount to torture under international law. Conclusions There is an urgent need for women's healthcare services to be expanded, and for general prison health campaigns, including HIV and tuberculosis testing and treatment, to ensure the inclusion of female inmates. Abuses against women in Zambian police and prison custody, which violate their rights and compromise their health, must be halted immediately. PMID:21696625

  3. Public health, conflict and human rights: toward a collaborative research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Thoms, Oskar NT; Ron, James

    2007-01-01

    Although epidemiology is increasingly contributing to policy debates on issues of conflict and human rights, its potential is still underutilized. As a result, this article calls for greater collaboration between public health researchers, conflict analysts and human rights monitors, with special emphasis on retrospective, population-based surveys. The article surveys relevant recent public health research, explains why collaboration is useful, and outlines possible future research scenarios, including those pertaining to the indirect and long-term consequences of conflict; human rights and security in conflict prone areas; and the link between human rights, conflict, and International Humanitarian Law. PMID:18005430

  4. Evaluating Human Rights Advocacy on Criminal Justice and Sex Work.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph; Wurth, Margaret; McLemore, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Between October 2011 and September 2013, we conducted research on the use, by police and/or prosecutors, of condom possession as evidence of intent to engage in prostitution-related offenses. We studied the practice in five large, geographically diverse cities in the U.S. To facilitate our advocacy on this issue, conducted concurrent to and following our research, we developed an advocacy framework consisting of six dimensions: (1) raising awareness, (2) building and engaging coalitions, (3) framing debate, (4) securing rhetorical commitments, (5) reforming law and policy, and (6) changing practice. Using a case study approach, we describe how this framework also provided a basis for the evaluation of our work, and discuss additional considerations and values related to the measurement and evaluation of human rights advocacy. PMID:26204588

  5. Do Human Rights Exist for Korean Gay Men and Lesbians?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youn, Gahyun

    All talk of sex was taboo in Korean society until the middle of this century. Only during the last decade has sexuality been a topic of discussion, but still the discourse was dominated by traditional male views regarding sex. Today, the number of homosexuals living openly is growing, and active debate about homosexuality in Korea is now emerging.…

  6. Right ventricular long noncoding RNA expression in human heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan; Su, Yan Ru; Clark, Travis; Brittain, Evan; Absi, Tarek; Maltais, Simon; Hemnes, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human heart failure (HF) has not been widely studied. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), we compared lncRNA expression in 22 explanted human HF hearts with lncRNA expression in 5 unused donor human hearts. We used Cufflinks to identify isoforms and DESeq to identify differentially expressed genes. We identified the noncoding RNAs by cross-reference to Ensembl release 73 (Genome Reference Consortium human genome build 37) and explored possible functional roles using a variety of online tools. In HF hearts, RNA-Seq identified 84,793 total messenger RNA coding and noncoding different transcripts, including 13,019 protein-coding genes, 2,085 total lncRNA genes, and 1,064 pseudogenes. By Ensembl noncoding RNA categories, there were 48 lncRNAs, 27 pseudogenes, and 30 antisense RNAs for a total of 105 differentially expressed lncRNAs in HF hearts. Compared with donor hearts, HF hearts exhibited differential expression of 7.7% of protein-coding genes, 3.7% of lncRNAs (including pseudogenes), and 2.5% of pseudogenes. There were not consistent correlations between antisense lncRNAs and parent genes and between pseudogenes and parent genes, implying differential regulation of expression. Exploratory in silico functional analyses using online tools suggested a variety of possible lncRNA regulatory roles. By providing a comprehensive profile of right ventricular polyadenylated messenger RNA transcriptome in HF, RNA-Seq provides an inventory of differentially expressed lncRNAs, including antisense transcripts and pseudogenes, for future mechanistic study. PMID:25992278

  7. preference in humans for turning the head to the right, rather than to

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Victoria E.

    A preference in humans for turning the head to the right, rather than to the left, during the final preferences by increasing visual orienta- tion to the right side3,4 . Here I show that twice as many adults turn their heads to the right as to the left when kissing, indicating that this head-motor bias

  8. Conceptualizing a Human Right to Prevention in Global HIV/AIDS Policy

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Brugh, Kristen Nichole; Halima, Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    Given current constraints on universal treatment campaigns, recent advances in public health prevention initiatives have revitalized efforts to stem the tide of HIV transmission. Yet, despite a growing imperative for prevention—supported by the promise of behavioral, structural and biomedical approaches to lower the incidence of HIV—human rights frameworks remain limited in addressing collective prevention policy through global health governance. Assessing the evolution of rights-based approaches to global HIV/AIDS policy, this review finds that human rights have shifted from collective public health to individual treatment access. While the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic gave meaning to rights in framing global health policy, the application of rights in treatment access litigation came at the expense of public health prevention efforts. Where the human rights framework remains limited to individual rights enforced against a state duty bearer, such rights have faced constrained application in framing population-level policy to realize the public good of HIV prevention. Concluding that human rights frameworks must be developed to reflect the complementarity of individual treatment and collective prevention, this article conceptualizes collective rights to public health, structuring collective combination prevention to alleviate limitations on individual rights frameworks and frame rights-based global HIV/AIDS policy to assure research expansion, prevention access and health system integration. PMID:23226723

  9. Curricular Choices of Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Communities: Translating International Human Rights Law into Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Hazan, Lotem

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs the provisions of international human rights law in order to analyse whether and how liberal states should regulate Haredi educational practices, which sanctify the exclusive focus on religious studies in schools for boys. It conceptualises the conflict between the right to acceptable education and the right to adaptable…

  10. Damned if you do, damned if you don't? The Lundbeck case of pentobarbital, the guiding principles on business and human rights, and competing human rights responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Buhmann, Karin

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 it emerged that to induce the death penalty, United States authorities had begun giving injections of pentobarbital, a substance provided by Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck. Lundbeck's product pentobarbital is licensed for treatment of refractory forms of epilepsy and for usage as an anaesthetic, thus for a very different purpose. The Lundbeck case offers a difficult, but also interesting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) dilemma between choices facing a pharmaceutical company to stop the distribution of a medical substance in order to avoid complicity in human rights violations, or to retain distribution of the substance in order not to impede access to the medicine for those patients who need it. The dilemma arose at a time when the United Nations (UN) Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, Professor John Ruggie, was finalizing a set of Guiding Principles to operationalize recommendations on business and human rights that he had presented to the UN Human Rights Council in 2008. The article discusses the dilemma in which Lundbeck was placed in from the perspective of the Guiding Principles on business and human rights and the 2008 Protect, Respect, Remedy UN Framework. The analysis seeks to assess what guidance may be gauged from the Guiding Principles in relation to the dilemma at hand and discusses the adequacy the Guiding Principles for dealing with acute human rights dilemmas of conflicting requirements in which a decision to avoid one type of violation risks causing violation of another human right. The article concludes by drawing up perspectives for further development of guidance on implementation of the UN Framework that could be considered by the newly established Working Group on Business and Human Rights and related UN bodies. PMID:22789041

  11. Decolonizing Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Post-Secondary Humanities Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Kimberly C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines nine post-secondary humanities textbooks published between 2001 and 2011 using an approach that includes both qualitative and quantitative methodology to analyze the written and visual content of humanities textbooks. This dissertation engages in current debates that address bias in humanities textbooks and contributes…

  12. Employing human rights frameworks to realize access to an HIV cure

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Gelpi, Adriane; Kavanagh, Matthew M; Forman, Lisa; Amon, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The scale of the HIV pandemic – and the stigma, discrimination and violence that surrounded its sudden emergence – catalyzed a public health response that expanded human rights in principle and practice. In the absence of effective treatment, human rights activists initially sought to protect individuals at high risk of HIV infection. With advances in antiretroviral therapy, activists expanded their efforts under international law, advocating under the human right to health for individual access to treatment. Discussion As a clinical cure comes within reach, human rights obligations will continue to play a key role in political and programmatic decision-making. Building upon the evolving development and implementation of the human right to health in the global response to HIV, we outline a human rights research agenda to prepare for HIV cure access, investigating the role of human rights law in framing 1) resource allocation, 2) international obligations, 3) intellectual property and 4) freedom from coercion. Conclusions The right to health is widely recognized as central to governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental responses to the pandemic and critical both to addressing vulnerability to infection and to ensuring universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. While the advent of an HIV cure will raise new obligations for policymakers in implementing the right to health, the resolution of past debates surrounding HIV prevention and treatment may inform claims for universal access. PMID:26568056

  13. Issues of human rights and HIV. Guest commentary.

    PubMed

    Baker, A C

    1994-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic has not spread in a social and economic vacuum. Indeed, HIV and AIDS have spread in the context of widespread poverty, sexism, racism, homophobia, and heterosexism throughout most nations of the world. Globally, communities have been allowed to reject or ignore that the spread of HIV/AIDS is symptomatic of underlying social injustices. It is, however, extremely difficult to combat AIDS in the context of poverty, gay bashing, low women's status, and overt violence against HIV-seropositive individuals, notably in Russia, Mexico, and the US. It is clear even at the policy level that countries around the world are still ignorant about HIV/AIDS and violate the human rights of infected individuals. US immigration and entry restrictions against HIV-seropositive individuals is but one example of such policy. Discrimination also extends down to the fundamental need for and provision of health care to people with AIDS. These individuals are stigmatized by health care workers, discriminated against when receiving treatment, or simply denied health care services. Shapiro et al's study found that 23% of young American medical residents would not care for AIDS patients if they had a choice. The study also found that 39% of surgeons or other medical specialists have refused care to at least one of the HIV-infected patients in the respondent physicians' care. Governments must act to ensure that such discrimination is eradicated. Each country must reassess its laws which directly affect the lives of people who are most at risk, eschewing anti-gay rights initiatives and the criminalization of prostitution. PMID:12346134

  14. The Transformative Power of Democracy and Human Rights in Nonformal Education: The Case of Tostan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Diane; Melching, Molly

    2010-01-01

    This case study analyzes the introduction of democracy and human rights into the educational program of Tostan, a nongovernmental organization working in Africa. The authors show how Tostan's original educational approach created a meaningful context for integrating democracy and human rights into its curriculum, a process that took place from…

  15. Let's Talk about Human Rights. Students' Books 1-3. Teacher's Guides, Books 1-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Ricki; Sarna, Shirley

    These documents are designed to introduce students to some of the fundamental concepts, principles, and values of human rights and to a basic knowledge of human rights legal instruments as they apply to daily lives. Student handbook 1 is a series of lessons and activities that stimulate reading and discussion around the following ideas: What is a…

  16. Economic and Political Theories of Organization: The Case of Human Rights INGOs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaser, Arthur W.

    This paper reviews research on international nongovernmental organizations dealing with human rights (INGOs), and interprets this research in light of the overlap of the fields of organizational theory (including group theory) and human rights. The purpose is to contribute toward a useful exchange between social scientists who seek to explain…

  17. Human Rights Education and Student Self-Conception in the Dominican Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, a 3-month course in human rights based on critical inquiry was offered to 8th graders in a slum area of Santo Domingo. The students' attitudes, behaviors and knowledge of human rights principles were measured before and after the course. The curriculum focused on international principles and entrenched local problems such as…

  18. "No-One Respects Them Anyway": Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Human Rights Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cayir, Kenan; Bagli, Melike Turkan

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of compulsory courses on human rights into the secondary school curriculum in 1998 has been an important first step in developing respect for human rights and responsibilities among the younger generation in Turkey. Yet, these courses have many shortcomings in terms of materials, pedagogy and teacher attitudes. This paper…

  19. 76 FR 24787 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria By the authority vested in me as..., and in Executive Order 13460 of February 13, 2008, finding that the Government of Syria's human rights abuses, including those related to the repression of the people of Syria, manifested most recently by...

  20. Infusing Human Rights into the Curriculum: The Case of the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrim, Nazir; Keet, Andre

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects on experiences of attempting to infuse human rights in the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS). Using our experiences as members of Human Rights and Inclusivity Group (HRIWG), one of the curriculum development structures set up for the RNCS, and focusing particularly on the Learning Area of Mathematics,…

  1. 76 FR 24787 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ...With Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria By the authority vested in me as President...2008, finding that the Government of Syria's human rights abuses, including those related to the repression of the people of Syria, manifested most recently by the use...

  2. "This Is a Public Record": Teaching Human Rights through the Performing Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Andrea McEvoy

    2012-01-01

    Urban youth in the United States often experience daily human rights violations such as racism and violence. Therefore, Human Rights Education (HRE) can strengthen their understanding of these issues and unleash their power to act toward positive change. This qualitative study attempted to gain a deeper understanding of the use of performance arts…

  3. Teaching Recent History in Countries that Have Experienced Human Rights Violations: Case Studies from Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Maria Isabel; Magendzo, Abraham; Gazmuri, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating recent history into the educational curricula of countries that have experienced human rights violations combines the complexities of teaching history, teaching recent history, and human rights education. Recent history makes a historical analysis of social reality and a historiographical analysis of the immediate. It is located…

  4. The Teaching of Patriotism and Human Rights: An Uneasy Entanglement and the Contribution of Critical Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the moral, political and pedagogical tensions that are created from the entanglement of patriotism and human rights, and sketches a response to these tensions in the context of critical education. The article begins with a brief review of different forms of patriotism, especially as those relate to human rights, and explains…

  5. Toward Cosmopolitan Ethics in Teacher Education: An Ontological Dimension of Learning Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adami, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    There is a globalization trend in teacher education, emphasizing the role of teachers to make judgments based on human rights in their teaching profession. Rather than emphasizing the epistemological dimension of acquiring knowledge "about" human rights through teacher education, an ontological dimension is emphasized in this paper of…

  6. Seeking Asylum: Adolescents Explore the Crossroads of Human Rights Education and Cosmopolitan Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkerly-Bean, Judith; Bean, Thomas; Alnajjar, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school (grade 6-8) students' understanding and interpretation of human rights issues with local and global implications as they engaged in the process of creating a film after reading print and multimedia texts and participating in human rights education activities. As the students explored…

  7. Re-Thinking Relations in Human Rights Education: The Politics of Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adami, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Human Rights Education (HRE) has traditionally been articulated in terms of cultivating better citizens or world citizens. The main preoccupation in this strand of HRE has been that of bridging a gap between universal notions of a human rights subject and the actual locality and particular narratives in which students are enmeshed. This…

  8. Confronting a Human Rights Scourge: Canada and the Global Struggle to End Torture

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    Confronting a Human Rights Scourge: Canada and the Global Struggle to End Torture Remarks delivered Canada No one shall be subjected to torture. No one. Anywhere. Anytime. There are very human rights that are stated in such clear and absolute terms as the global ban on torture. In fact the strict, unconditional

  9. Beyond Study Abroad: A Human Rights Delegation to Teach Policy Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammonley, Denise; Rotabi, Karen Smith; Forte, Janett; Martin, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Advancement of human rights is a core competency in the social work curriculum. Presented is a model to teach policy practice from a human rights perspective based on a violence-against-women delegation visit to Guatemala. Postdelegation policy advocacy responses included White House and State Department briefings on the problems, including…

  10. Hope without Consolation: Prospects for Critical Learning at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failler, Angela

    2015-01-01

    From atop the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR), juts the Tower of Hope, a 23-story illuminated glass architectural feature meant to symbolize "the goal of the human-rights journey," namely, "hope for a changed world." The prominence of hope as an ideal is literally set in stone at the CMHR. Hope for the museum itself is…

  11. Advancing the sexual and reproductive health and human rights of women living with HIV: a review of UN, regional and national human rights norms and standards

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Rajat; Van Belle, Nuna; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is an essential part of the right to health and is dependent upon substantive equality, including freedom from multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination that result in exclusion in both law and practice. Nonetheless, general and specific SRH needs of women living with HIV are often not adequately addressed. For example, services that women living with HIV need may not be available or may have multiple barriers, in particular stigma and discrimination. This study was conducted to review United Nations Human Rights Council, Treaty Monitoring Bodies and Special Rapporteur reports and regional and national mechanisms regarding SRH issues of women living with HIV. The objective is to assess areas of progress, as well as gaps, in relation to health and human rights considerations in the work of these normative bodies on health and human rights. Methods The review was done using keywords of international, regional and national jurisprudence on findings covering the 2000 to 2014 period for documents in English; searches for the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and national judgments were also conducted in Spanish. Jurisprudence of UN Treaty Monitoring Bodies, regional mechanisms and national bodies was considered in this regard. Results and discussion In total, 236 findings were identified using the search strategy, and of these 129 were selected for review based on the inclusion criteria. The results highlight that while jurisprudence from international, regional and national bodies reflects consideration of some health and human rights issues related to women living with HIV and SRH, the approach of these bodies has been largely ad hoc and lacks a systematic integration of human rights concerns of women living with HIV in relation to SRH. Most findings relate to non-discrimination, accessibility, informed decision-making and accountability. There are critical gaps on normative standards regarding the human rights of women living with HIV in relation to SRH. Conclusions A systematic approach to health and human rights considerations related to women living with HIV and SRH by international, regional and national bodies is needed to advance the agenda and ensure that policies and programmes related to SRH systematically take into account the health and human rights of women living with HIV. PMID:26643455

  12. Fighting ambient air pollution and its impact on health: from human rights to the right to a clean environment.

    PubMed

    Guillerm, N; Cesari, G

    2015-08-01

    Clean air is one of the basic requirements of human health and well-being. However, almost nine out of 10 individuals living in urban areas are affected by air pollution. Populations living in Africa, South-East Asia, and in low- and middle-income countries across all regions are the most exposed. Exposure to outdoor air pollution ranks as the ninth leading risk factor for mortality, killing 3.2 million people each year, especially young children, the elderly, persons with lung or cardiovascular disease, those who work or exercise outdoors and low-income populations. In October 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, calling air pollution 'a major environmental health problem'. Human rights and environmental norms are powerful tools to combat air pollution and its impact on health. The dependence of human rights on environmental quality has been recognised in international texts and by human rights treaty bodies. The growing awareness of the environment has already yielded considerable legislative and regulatory output. However, the implementation of standards remains a pervasive problem. In the fight against violations of norms, citizens have a crucial role to play. We discuss the relevance of a yet to be proclaimed standalone right to a healthy environment. PMID:26162353

  13. Discourse Structure

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Steven T.

    1976-08-17

    An essential step in understanding connected discourse is the ability to link the meanings of successive sentences together. Given a growing database to which new sentence meanings must be linked, which out of many possible ...

  14. Discourse comprehension.

    PubMed

    Graesser, A C; Millis, K K; Zwaan, R A

    1997-01-01

    The field of discourse processing has dissected many of the levels of representation that are constructed when individuals read or listen to connected discourse. These levels include the surface code, the propositional textbase, the referential situation model, the communication context, and the discourse genre. Discourse psychologists have developed models that specify how these levels are mentally represented and how they are dynamically built during comprehension. This chapter focuses on the meaning representations that are constructed when adults read written text, such as literary stories, technical expository text, and experimenter-generated "textoids." Recent psychological models have attempted to account for the identification of referents of referring expressions (e.g. which person in the text does she refer to), the connection of explicit text segments, the establishment of local and global coherence, and the encoding of knowledge-based inferences. PMID:15012477

  15. The Discourse on Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Examines technology as a current professional issue and suggests strategies of interpretation from anthropology, history, sociology, and the humanities that will promote understanding. Highlights include a review of education and technology over the last century; interactions between society and technology; and recommended reading on the discourse

  16. Health and human rights in today’s fight against HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Stemple, Lara

    2012-01-01

    The development of the health and human rights framework coincided with the beginning of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS. Since then, the international community has increasingly turned to human rights language and instruments to address the disease. Not only are human rights essential to addressing a disease that impacts marginalized groups most severely, but the spread of HIV/AIDS itself exacerbates inequality and impedes the realization of a range of human rights. Policy developments of the past decade include the United Nations (UN) Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights’ General Comment on the ‘Right to Health’, the UN Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, and the UN’s International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights, among others. Rights-related setbacks include the failure of the Declaration and its 5-year follow-up specifically to address men who have sex with men, sex workers, and intravenous drug users, political restrictions placed on urgently needed US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) funds, and the failure of many countries to decriminalize same-sex sex and outlaw discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS. Male circumcision as an HIV prevention measure is a topic around which important debate, touching on gender, informed consent and children’s rights, serves to illustrate the ongoing vitality of the health and human rights dialogue. Mechanisms to increase state accountability for addressing HIV/AIDS should be explored in greater depth. Such measures might include an increase in the use of treaty-based judicial mechanisms, the linking of human rights compliance with preferential trade agreements, and rights requirements tied to HIV/ AIDS funding. PMID:18641463

  17. Training Trainers in health and human rights: Implementing curriculum change in South African health sciences institutions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of human rights as a professional obligation prompted moves to include human rights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A Train-the-Trainers course in Health and Human Rights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences institutions nationwide with the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge to teach human rights to their students. This study followed up participants to determine the extent of curriculum implementation, support needed as well as barriers encountered in integrating human rights into health sciences teaching and learning. Methods A survey including both quantitative and qualitative components was distributed in 2007 to past course participants from 1998-2006 via telephone, fax and electronic communication. Results Out of 162 past participants, 46 (28%) completed the survey, the majority of whom were still employed in academic settings (67%). Twenty-two respondents (48%) implemented a total of 33 formal human rights courses into the curricula at their institutions. Respondents were nine times more likely (relative risk 9.26; 95% CI 5.14-16.66) to implement human rights education after completing the training. Seventy-two extracurricular activities were offered by 21 respondents, many of whom had successfully implemented formal curricula. Enabling factors for implementation included: prior teaching experience in human rights, general institutional support and the presence of allies - most commonly coworkers as well as deans. Frequently cited barriers to implementation included: budget restrictions, time constraints and perceived apathy of colleagues or students. Overall, respondents noted personal enrichment and optimism in teaching human rights. Conclusion This Train-the-Trainer course provides the historical context, educational tools, and collective motivation to incorporate human rights educational initiatives at health sciences institutions. Increased implementation of human rights instruction, both formally and extracurricularly, has demonstrated the training's significance not only within academic institutions but more broadly across the health sector. Coworkers are vital allies in teaching human rights to health sciences students, helping to alleviate institutional barriers. Training fellow staff members and those in key leadership roles is noted as vital to the sustainability of human rights education. PMID:21787421

  18. 31 CFR 560.545 - Democracy and human rights in Iran and academic and cultural exchange programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...human rights in Iran and academic and cultural exchange programs. 560.545 Section...human rights in Iran and academic and cultural exchange programs. (a) Specific... (2) Certain targeted educational, cultural, and sports exchange programs,...

  19. 31 CFR 560.545 - Democracy and human rights in Iran and academic and cultural exchange programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...human rights in Iran and academic and cultural exchange programs. 560.545 Section...human rights in Iran and academic and cultural exchange programs. (a) Specific... (2) Certain targeted educational, cultural, and sports exchange programs,...

  20. File under: H Web name: Human Rights Review of International Projects, Agreements and Other International Activity, Procedures for [June 3, 1993] Official name: Procedures for the Human Rights Review of International Projects, Agreements, and Other Intern

    E-print Network

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    File under: H Web name: Human Rights Review of International Projects, Agreements and Other International Activity, Procedures for [June 3, 1993] Official name: Procedures for the Human Rights Review://share.utorcsi.utoronto.ca/sites/gc/Governing%20Council/All%20Policies/H/Human%20Rights%20Review%20of%20Internationa l%20Projects,%20Agreements%20

  1. Changing Policy Discourses: Constructing Literacy Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary; Pitt, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which policy discourses have constructed rationales for addressing adult literacy over the last 50 years. In particular, we examine how policy positions the literacy learner as citizen within discourses of rights and equity. Taking the case of the UK, we compare two key documents produced at different historical…

  2. Employing moderate resolution sensors in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andrew J.

    Organizations concerned with human rights are increasingly using remote sensing as a tool to improve their detection of human rights and international humanitarian law violations. However, as these organizations have transitioned to human rights monitoring campaigns conducted over large regions and extended periods of time, current methods of using fine- resolution sensors and manpower-intensive analyses have become cost- prohibitive. To support the continued growth of remote sensing in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring campaigns, this study researches how moderate resolution land observatories can provide complementary data to operational human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates the capacity of moderate resolutions to provide data to monitoring efforts by developing an approach that uses Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) as part of a system for the detection of village destruction in Darfur, Sudan. Village destruction is an indicator of a human rights or international humanitarian law violations in Darfur during the 2004 study period. This analysis approach capitalizes on Landsat's historical archive and systematic observations by constructing a historic spectral baseline for each village in the study area that supports automated detection of a potentially destroyed village with each new overpass of the sensor. Using Landsat's near-infrared band, the approach demonstrates high levels of accuracy when compared with a U.S. government database documenting destroyed villages. This approach is then applied to the Darfur conflict from 2002 to 2008, providing new data on when and where villages were destroyed in this widespread and long-lasting conflict. This application to the duration of a real-world conflict illustrates the abilities and shortcomings of moderate resolution sensors in human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates that moderate resolution satellites have the capacity to contribute complementary data to operational human rights monitoring efforts. While this study validates this capacity for the burning of villages in arid environments, this approach can be generalized to detect other human rights violations if an observable signal that represents the violation is identified.

  3. The First Amendment Right to Speak About the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether laws that restrict the communication of genetic test results may, under certain circumstances, violate the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The focus is whether investigators have a right to return results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories in situations where a research participant requests the results and the investigator is willing to share them but is concerned that doing so may violate regulations under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (“CLIA”). This article takes no position on whether investigators can be compelled to return results when they do not wish to do so. It examines only whether investigators may, not whether they must, return results to a willing research participant. The article: (1) surveys state and federal laws that block communication of genetic test results to research participants; (2) examines the historical use of speech restrictions as a tool for protecting human research subjects; (3) traces how First Amendment doctrine has evolved since the 1970s when foundations of modern research bioethics were laid; (4) inquires whether recent bioethical and policy debate has accorded due weight to the First Amendment. The article applies two common methods of legal analysis, textual and constitutional analysis. It concludes that the CLIA regulations, when properly construed, do not treat the return of results as an event that triggers CLIA’s certification requirements. Moreover, there is a potential First Amendment problem in construing CLIA’s research exception in a way that bans the return of results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories. PMID:25473380

  4. The Career Perceptions of Academic Staff and Human Resource Discourses in English Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Tony; Taylor, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets out findings from research that considered the interplay between English national policy developments in human resources management in higher education and the personal stories of academic staff as career participants. Academic careers are pursued in an institutional and national policy context but it was not clear that the formal…

  5. Human Rights Education in Japan: An Historical Account, Characteristics and Suggestions for a Better-Balanced Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Sachiko

    2012-01-01

    Although human rights are often expressed as universal tenets, the concept was conceived in a particular socio-political and historical context. Conceptualisations and practice of human rights vary across societies, and face numerous challenges. After providing an historical account of the conceptualisation of human rights in Japanese society,…

  6. Distinguished Lecture in International Justice and Human Rights Prince Zeid Ra'ad Zeid Al-Hussein

    E-print Network

    Snider, Barry B.

    Distinguished Lecture in International Justice and Human Rights Prince Zeid Ra'ad Zeid Al and Human Rights at Brandeis University are generously funded by the Planethood Foundation. #12;Preface in International Justice and Human Rights, sponsored by the International Center for Ethics, Justice and Public

  7. Social Injustice, Human Rights-Based Education and Citizens' Direct Action to Promote Social Transformation in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ty, Reynaldo

    2011-01-01

    This article opens with a proposed framework for human rights education (HRE), which synthesizes ideas drawn from Zinn's people's history, Sen's theory of justice and Freire's critical pedagogy. A review of the literature on HRE and human rights-based learning suggests three existent interrelated models of HRE. Drawing on human rights-based…

  8. Human Rights Education as a Tool of Grassroots Organizing and Social Transformation: A Case Study from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilkkaracan, Pinar; Amado, Liz Ercevik

    2005-01-01

    Women for Women's Human Rights (WWHR) -- New Ways has been carrying out a "Human Rights Education Program for Women" throughout Turkey for over a decade, in cooperation with community centers. The training has a holistic, comprehensive nature, linking several areas of human rights through a critical gender perspective lens. One of the overarching…

  9. Deixis: "This" and "That" in Written Narrative Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çokal, Derya; Sturt, Patrick; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature presents conflicting models of how "this" and "that" access different segments of a written discourse, frequently relying on implicit analogies with spoken discourse. On the basis of this literature, we hypothesized that in written discourse, "this" more readily accesses the adjacent/right

  10. State obligations to implement African abortion laws: employing human rights in a changing legal landscape.

    PubMed

    Ngwena, Charles G

    2012-11-01

    Women in the African region are overburdened with unsafe abortion. Abortion regimes that fail to translate any given abortion rights into tangible access are partly to blame. Historically, African abortion laws have been highly restrictive. However, the post-independence era has witnessed a change toward liberalizing abortion law, even if incremental for many jurisdictions. Furthermore, Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa has significantly augmented the regional trend toward liberalization by recognizing abortion as a human right in given circumstances. However, states are failing to implement abortion laws. The jurisprudence that is emerging from the European Court of Human Rights and United Nations treaty bodies is a tool that can be used to render African governments accountable for failure to implement domestic abortion laws. PMID:22944215

  11. Embodied Humanism: Performative Argument for Natural Rights in "The Solitude of Self."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormer, Nathan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how Elizabeth Cady Stanton's "The Solitude of Self" grounds rights in the material paradox of chance life events and the corporeal permanence of human isolation by enacting human solitude through what J. Campbell calls lyric tragedy. Reverses the ground for humanism from the disembodied rationalism of the Enlightenment to an embodied…

  12. Being Human or Being a Citizen? Rethinking Human Rights and Citizenship Education in the Light of Agamben and Merleau-Ponty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ruyu

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues against a trend of human rights education, where human rights are taught in the form of citizenship education. In my view, citizenship education and human rights education cannot be taken as replaceable for each other. Underpinning the idea of citizenship is a distinction between "politically qualified" and "politically…

  13. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Civil Rights

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about civil rights>> By enforcing the Privacy and Security Rules, OCR helps to protect the privacy of ... Developers to Ask Questions about HIPAA Privacy and Security OCR Issues Proposed Rule on Nondiscrimination under Section ...

  14. International Forensic Investigations and the Human Rights of Adam Rosenblatt

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    of Argentina's right-wing military junta. Snow assembled a group of young students into the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team, the first organization devoted exclusively to applying forensic expertise

  15. Human Rights and Rule of Law: What's The Relationship

    E-print Network

    Peerenboom, Randall P

    2005-01-01

    rule of law and protection of rights, particularly but not only in states that degenerate into socialrule of law in favor of a social welfare or progressive liberal conception); Michel Rosenfeld, Constitutional Adjudication in Europe and the United States:

  16. Hidden Contradictions and Conditionality: Conceptualisations of Inclusive Education in International Human Rights Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Bronagh

    2013-01-01

    The nature of education that children with disabilities should receive has been subject to much debate. This article critically assesses the ways in which the international human rights framework has conceptualised "inclusive education". It argues that the right to education for children with disabilities in international law is…

  17. Human Rights and Decision-Making in Child Protection through Explicit Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joe; Taylor, Brian; Mc Call, Susannah

    2006-01-01

    A recent judgement in February 2005 by the Lord Chief Justice in Northern Ireland that a Health and Social Services Trust had breached a parent's Article 8 Right to Family Life in the process used to take a young child into care has stimulated major debate about the interface between the Human Rights Act (1998) and professional decision-making in…

  18. Russia: European Court of Human Rights rules HIV-positive foreign national suffered discrimination.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Rémi

    2011-10-01

    On 10 March 2011, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) held that refusing a residence permit to a foreign national solely on the basis of his HIV-positive status amounted to unlawful discrimination. This case is a significant boost to the rights of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in Europe and beyond. PMID:22165275

  19. Citizenship, Nationalism, Human Rights and Democracy: A Tangling of Terms in the Kuwaiti Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Nakib, Rania

    2011-01-01

    Background: Citizenship, nationalism, human rights and democracy are four terms and concepts that are inextricably linked. In Kuwait, the status of citizen is based on nationality, gender and age, with women, children, naturalised citizens, expatriates and "bidoon" (stateless people) denied many freedoms, rights and services. Citizenship is…

  20. School Attendance as a Civic Duty v. Home Education as a Human Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Franz

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the legal situation of home education in Germany as a multi-level problem touching upon German constitutional law, State (Länder) constitutional law as well as administrative law, and the liberties of the European Convention of Human Rights. Whereas the parents' right to care for their children is explicitly granted by…

  1. [Dialectics for humanized care in ICU's: contradictions between professional nursing discourse and practice].

    PubMed

    de Pinho, Leandro Barbosa; dos Santos, Silvia Maria Azevedo

    2008-03-01

    This study attempts to unveil contradictions in humanized nursing care in ICUs. It is a qualitative, dialectic-based study involving 7 nurses, 4 family members and one patient of the Adult ICU of the Hospital of the Federal Universityof Santa Catarina. Participatory observation and semi-structured interviews were applied to collect the data. Marxist and Gramscian ideas of contradiction were used as the theoretical-philosophical reference. This study demonstrates that humanized care is part of a complex network, in which care knowledge seems to give way to closer network ties, while care practicefollows an impersonalized strategy within the logic of partitioned and routine health care production. The dissociation between knowledge and practice also contemplates the difficulties in dealing with the burdens of suffering and institutional-professional limitations. The conclusion is that knowledge of this reality should be a renewed, yet age-old challenge for the nurse in the search for the constant construction/ reconstruction of Nursing in terms of practice, knowledge and work relations. PMID:18450149

  2. 11.164 / 11.497 Human Rights in Theory and Practice, Spring 2005

    E-print Network

    Rajagopal, Balakrishnan

    This course provides a rigorous and critical introduction to the foundation, structure and operation of the international human rights movement. It includes leading theoretical and institutional issues and the functioning ...

  3. Rewards for Ratification: Payoffs for Participating in the International Human Rights Regime?

    E-print Network

    Simmons, Beth A.

    Among the explanations for state ratification of human rights treaties, few are more common and widely accepted than the conjecture that states are rewarded for ratification by other states. These rewards are expected to ...

  4. Intellectual Property, Competition and Human Rights: the past, the present and the future 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Abbe; Waelde, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    Introduction to a special edition of the SCRIPTed journal, focussing on interplay between intellectual property, competition and human rights. The article discusses the significance of contributions to the journal by ...

  5. Advancing sexual health through human rights: The role of the law

    PubMed Central

    Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia; Miller, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the International Conference on Population and Development, definitions of sexuality and sexual health have been greatly elaborated alongside widely accepted recognition that sexual health requires respect, protection and fulfilment of human rights. Considerable progress has also been made in enacting or changing laws that affect sexuality and sexual health, in line with human rights standards. These measures include legal guarantees against non-discrimination and violence, decriminalisation of consensual sexual conduct and guaranteeing availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of sexual health information and services to all. Such legal actions have had positive effects on health and specifically on sexual health, particularly for marginalised populations. Yet in all regions of the world, laws still exist which jeopardise health, including sexual health, and violate human rights. In order to ensure accountability for the rights and health of their populations, states have an obligation to bring their laws into line with international, regional and national human rights standards. These rights-based legal guarantees, while insufficient alone, are essential for effective systems of accountability, achieving positive sexual health outcomes and the respect and protection of human rights. PMID:25539286

  6. Is Human Ecology right for you? Determining if a college or university is the right fit is critical to your search.

    E-print Network

    Lim, Seonhee

    Is Human Ecology right for you? Determining if a college or university is the right fit is critical to your search. As you consider the College of Human Ecology, we hope the following will help you reflect Ecology students are active learners who connect their interests, education, experiences, and aspirations

  7. Do the Rights Thing?: The Canadian Museum for Human Rights and the MA in Cultural Studies at the University of Winnipeg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Kathryn; Keshavjee, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Education is the self-declared "heart" of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR), already generating partnership projects and programs with such organizations as the Canadian Teachers' Federation, the Assembly of First Nations, the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, and the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights. The CMHR has…

  8. The Growth of Individual Rights: Ideas and Politics. International Human Rights Syllabi No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Dennis

    Designed for teachers of undergraduate students with some familiarity with political theory, moral philosophy, and social history, this course outline focuses on individual rights and their realization in the United States and the world at large. The syllabus, arranged in 3 major parts, is subdivided into 16 sections that outline major course…

  9. Rise of the New Right: Human and Civil Rights in Jeopardy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, J. Charles

    1980-01-01

    The author warns that ultra-conservatism is growing in strength and sophistication as a political force. He cites literature from various right-wing groups attacking the public schools and suggests that educators must learn to cope with social stress and the political extremism it generates. (SJL)

  10. Using the human rights paradigm in health ethics: the problems and the possibilities.

    PubMed

    Austin, W

    2001-05-01

    Human rights may be the most globalized political value of our times. The rights paradigm has been criticized, however, for being theoretically unsound, legalistic, individualistic and based on the assumption that there is a given and universal humanness. Its use in the area of health is relatively new. Proponents point to its power to frame health as an entitlement rather than a commodity. The problems and the possibilities of a rights approach in addressing health ethics issues are explored in this article. PMID:16010913

  11. Stigma, sexual health, and human rights among women who have sex with women in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Poteat, Tonia C; Logie, Carmen H; Adams, Darrin; Mothopeng, Tampose; Lebona, Judith; Letsie, Puleng; Baral, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, gender and sexual minorities have become increasingly visible across sub-Saharan Africa, marking both the progression and violation of their human rights. Using data from a study with sexual minorities in Lesotho, this analysis leveraged the social ecological model to examine relationships between stigma, human rights, and sexual health among women who have sex with women in Lesotho. A community-based participatory approach was used for the mixed-method, cross-sectional study. A total of 250 women who have sex with women completed a structured questionnaire, of which 21 participated in a total of three focus group discussions. Stigma was common within and outside the health sector. Stigma and human rights abuses were associated with increased risk for HIV and STIs. Interventions to address stigma at the structural, community, and interpersonal levels are essential to ensuring sexual health and rights for women who have sex with women in Lesotho. PMID:26719002

  12. Amnesty International: Evaluating Effectiveness in the Human Rights Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoble, Harry M.; Wiseberg, Laurie S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes Amnesty International, an organization formed in order to change the sociopolitical environment so that elites will have to act in a predetermined prohuman rights manner in all situations. The issues of torture and political repression were addressed in different nations, which practice the detention of political prisoners. (Author/RK)

  13. Learning To Live in Harmony and Diversity: Focus on Human Rights Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special issue centers around the theme of education for peace and human rights. It contains materials concerning the practice of adult education in the Asian-South Pacific region. The journal contains 15 papers. The following papers provide regional perspectives: "Learning to Live in Harmony and Diversity" (editorial) (Rajesh Tandon); "Human

  14. Teaching about the Holocaust and Genocide: Introduction. The Human Rights Series, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Clayton; And Others

    Designed to assist secondary school social studies, English, and humanities teachers as they teach about the Nazi Holocaust, the first of two volumes serves as an introduction to the concept of human rights. Divided into a rationale and two units, each unit includes a statement of purpose, a list of objectives, and a group of learning activities…

  15. First International Conference on Religion at ECU Religion, Immigration, Health, & Human Rights

    E-print Network

    Gopalakrishnan, K.

    1 First International Conference on Religion at ECU Religion, Immigration, Health, & Human Rights, Social Work, East Carolina University The idea of holding a conference on religion and social issues came up in our discussions about the role of humanities in education: particularly the role religion

  16. Push comes to shove. Women press for human rights treaty.

    PubMed

    Farmer, A

    1999-12-01

    The UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), a global pact for advancing women's rights, was brought to Senate by nine female House members after 20 years of waiting to be ratified. Ratifying countries agree to fight all types of discrimination, including reproductive rights violations as well as the exploitation of prostitution, inequalities in marriage laws and unequal access to health care. Senator Jesse Helms, the head of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, is against the ratification of the CEDAW because he believes that it will do little to improve the lives of women. Meanwhile, other organizations in other states such as the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy, are showing their support to the CEDAW by submitting a number of Shadow Reports to the committee which highlights discriminatory laws and policies against women in other countries. PMID:12349420

  17. 3 CFR 8915 - Proclamation 8915 of December 10, 2012. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...group of nations emerging from the shadow of war joined together to light a path toward...forging a democracy that empowers each of us equally and affords every citizen...we rededicate ourselves to fortifying civil rights in America, while...

  18. Education and language: A human right for sustainable development in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaci-Wilhite, Zehlia; Geo-JaJa, Macleans A.; Lou, Shizhou

    2012-10-01

    Pre-colonial Africa was neither an educationally nor a technologically unsophisticated continent. While education was an integral part of the culture, issues of language identification and standardisation which are subject to contentious debate today were insignificant. Children learned community knowledge and history by asking questions instead of being taught in a hegemonic alien language. This article argues that education and development should take place in a broader context of human rights, and explores the links between three areas often dealt with separately, namely: language, education and development. The authors of this paper demonstrate that changing the face of the multi-dimensionalities of poverty within societies is possible only when education is constructed in a rights perspective over the favoured colonial languages, which are not an integral part of the culture and resources of a community. The authors make a distinction between the right to education and rights in education, the latter of which are found to be more significant for the challenges Africa faces. It is argued here that the elements of Amartya Sen's "threshold" conditions for inclusion in human rights and self-development in education are essential, and that a more promising architecture of education would include what the authors term meta-narrative frameworks, i.e. interrelated policies. The authors contend that the neoliberal commodification of the knowledge sector has only exacerbated human rights and capabilities deprivation - which encompasses both human and income poverty.

  19. Implementing the right to community integration for children with disabilities in Russia: a human rights framework for international action.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, E; Bauer, E; Hayden, M F; Holley, A

    1999-01-01

    Human rights organizations have documented a widespread pattern of abuse in Russia's orphanages and institutions for children with disabilities. Community integration is critical to attack the underlying causes of discrimination and abuse of children in institutions. While there is an immediate need to protect children in institutions, investment in improving orphanages may inadvertently strengthen an outmoded system of segregated services, delaying long-term reform. This article describes a response to abuses in institutions based on the internationally recognized right to community integration for all children, including children with mental and physical disabilities. While tailored to Russia, the framework for action described here applies to many countries in which children and adults with disabilities are similarly segregated from society in closed institutions. PMID:10438556

  20. Human Genome Diversity Project. Summary of planning workshop 3(B): Ethical and human-rights implications

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The third planning workshop of the Human Genome Diversity Project was held on the campus of the US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from February 16 through February 18, 1993. The second day of the workshop was devoted to an exploration of the ethical and human-rights implications of the Project. This open meeting centered on three roundtables, involving 12 invited participants, and the resulting discussions among all those present. Attendees and their affiliations are listed in the attached Appendix A. The discussion was guided by a schedule and list of possible issues, distributed to all present and attached as Appendix B. This is a relatively complete, and thus lengthy, summary of the comments at the meeting. The beginning of the summary sets out as conclusions some issues on which there appeared to be widespread agreement, but those conclusions are not intended to serve as a set of detailed recommendations. The meeting organizer is distributing his recommendations in a separate memorandum; recommendations from others who attended the meeting are welcome and will be distributed by the meeting organizer to the participants and to the Project committee.

  1. HIV, disability and discrimination: making the links in international and domestic human rights law

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination constitute one of the greatest barriers to dealing effectively with the HIV epidemic, underlying a range of human rights violations and hindering access to prevention, care, treatment and support. There is some existing protection against HIV-based discrimination under international law, but the extent of states' obligations to address such discrimination has not been comprehensively addressed in an international instrument. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities entered into force in May 2008. As countries ratify the convention, they are required to amend national laws and policies to give greater protection to the human rights of people with disabilities, including abolishing disability-based discrimination by the state and protecting persons against such discrimination by others. The Disability Convention addresses many of the issues faced by people living with HIV (PLHIV) but does not explicitly include HIV or AIDS within its open-ended definition of "disability". Therefore, the advent of the Disability Convention prompts us to consider the links between HIV and disability and, specifically, to consider the opportunities it and other legal mechanisms, international or domestic, may afford for advancing the human rights of PLHIV facing human rights infringements. We do so in the belief that the movement for human rights is stronger when constituencies with so many common and overlapping interests are united, and that respectful and strategic collaboration ultimately strengthens both the disability rights and the AIDS movements. In this article, we first examine the links between HIV and disability. We then provide a brief overview of how international human rights law has treated both disability and HIV/AIDS. We note some of the different ways in which national anti-discrimination laws have reflected the links between HIV and disability, illustrated with representative examples from a number of countries. Finally, we offer some conclusions and recommendations about ways forward for collaboration between HIV and disability rights advocates in advancing human rights at the international level, including the use of the new tool that is the Disability Convention. We hope these reflections will promote further discussion across movements, ultimately to the benefit of all persons with disabilities and/or HIV. PMID:19900283

  2. [Gender discourses and bioethics].

    PubMed

    Aparisi Miralles, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some of the contributions of the gender discourse to the bioethical debate, specifically in the field of nursing. At the same time, it will explain the contribution of the different feminist theories to the recognition and respect of human dignity. Basically, it will describe the three fundamental models in the gender discourse: the egalitarian model, the difference model, and the model of reciprocity or complementarity. The starting point is that even though the first two models have made significant contributions in the field of bioethics, they have nonetheless brought with them some deficiencies and reductionisms inherent in their thinking. The complementarity model, on the contrary, when properly understood, allows for the combination of the principles of equality and difference between man and woman, which places it at a much more enriching standpoint within the bioethical debate. PMID:25329418

  3. Assessing corporate project impacts in changeable contexts: A human rights perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    Project-level impact assessment was originally conceived as a snapshot taken in advance of project implementation, contrasting current conditions with a likely future scenario involving a variety of predicted impacts. Current best practice guidance has encouraged a shift towards longitudinal assessments from the pre-project stage through the implementation and operating phases. Experience and study show, however, that assessment of infrastructure-intensive projects rarely endures past the project's construction phase. Negative consequences for environmental, social and health outcomes have been documented. Such consequences clarify the pressing need for longitudinal assessment in each of these domains, with human rights impact assessment (HRIA) as an umbrella over, and critical augmentation of, environmental, social and health assessments. Project impacts on human rights are more closely linked to political, economic and other factors beyond immediate effects of a company's policy and action throughout the project lifecycle. Delineating these processes requires an adequate framework, with strategies for collecting longitudinal data, protocols that provide core information for impact assessment and guidance for adaptive mitigation strategies as project-related effects change over time. This article presents general principles for the design and implementation of sustained, longitudinal HRIA, based on experience assessing and responding to human rights impact in a uranium mining project in Malawi. The case study demonstrates the value of longitudinal assessment both for limiting corporate risk and improving human welfare. - Graphical abstract: Assessing changes in human rights condition as affected by both project and context, over time. - Highlights: • Corporate capital projects affect human rights in myriad ways. • Ongoing, longitudinal impact assessment techniques are needed. • We present an approach for conducting longitudinal human rights impact assessment. • Our methodology allows distinguishing corporate impacts from contextual changes. • Promptly observing context changes and impacts enables companies to react nimbly.

  4. Human Infants' Preference for Left-to-Right Oriented Increasing Numerical Sequences

    PubMed Central

    de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Girelli, Luisa; Addabbo, Margaret; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2014-01-01

    While associations between number and space, in the form of a spatially oriented numerical representation, have been extensively reported in human adults, the origins of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. The commonly accepted view is that this number-space association is a product of human invention, with accounts proposing that culture, symbolic knowledge, and mathematics education are at the roots of this phenomenon. Here we show that preverbal infants aged 7 months, who lack symbolic knowledge and mathematics education, show a preference for increasing magnitude displayed in a left-to-right spatial orientation. Infants habituated to left-to-right oriented increasing or decreasing numerical sequences showed an overall higher looking time to new left-to-right oriented increasing numerical sequences at test (Experiment 1). This pattern did not hold when infants were presented with the same ordinal numerical information displayed from right to left (Experiment 2). The different pattern of results was congruent with the presence of a malleable, context-dependent baseline preference for increasing, left-to-right oriented, numerosities (Experiment 3). These findings are suggestive of an early predisposition in humans to link numerical order with a left-to-right spatial orientation, which precedes the acquisition of symbolic abilities, mathematics education, and the acquisition of reading and writing skills. PMID:24802083

  5. Gross human rights violations and reparation under international law: approaching rehabilitation as a form of reparation

    PubMed Central

    Sveaass, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states’ obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals. PMID:23671765

  6. Patient rights in EU Member States after the ratification of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Nys, Herman; Stultiëns, Loes; Borry, Pascal; Goffin, Tom; Dierickx, Kris

    2007-10-01

    The European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine was adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 19 November 1996 and opened for signature in Oviedo, Spain, on 4 April 1997. As of the moment of writing 11 Member States of the EU have ratified the Convention: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain. The overall purpose of this article is to analyze whether these ratifying EU Member States have fulfilled their obligation provided for in article 1 of Section 2 of the Convention ("each Party shall take in its internal law the necessary measures to give effect to the provisions of this Convention"). We further explored the legal consequences of ratification of the Convention. We analysed for each ratifying Member State whether and how the ratification of the Convention has influenced patient rights legislation and policies. Finally, we concluded by dividing the 11 Member States into 4 categories depending upon the already existing patient rights legislation at the moment of ratification and the constitutional provisions related to the ratification of an international treaty in general in a given Member State. PMID:17379350

  7. DEVELOPING A HUMAN RIGHTS-BASED PROGRAM FOR TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL IN GEORGIAN PRISONS

    PubMed Central

    Gegia, Medea; Kalandadze, Iagor; Madzgharashvili, Mikheil; Furin, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading infectious killers of adults globally. Incarcerated individuals represent a vulnerable population when it comes to TB exposure, development of disease, and poor treatment outcomes. The TB pandemic in prisons is a serious human rights issue, and multiple global organizations have called for human rights-based strategies to address it. There are, however, few countries implementing such programs on the ground. Georgia, a former Soviet republic located in the Caucasus Mountains, has high rates of TB and a large prison population. This paper describes a needs assessment carried out in one prison in Georgia and the human rights-based strategy being implemented by the Georgian National TB Program to address TB control in the prison setting. It is hoped that the proposed program can serve as a model for other countries with high rates of TB among incarcerated individuals. PMID:22773034

  8. Developing a human rights-based program for tuberculosis control in Georgian prisons.

    PubMed

    Gegia, Medea; Kalandadze, Iagor; Madzgharashvili, Mikheil; Furin, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading infectious killers of adults globally. Incarcerated individuals represent a vulnerable population when it comes to TB exposure, development of disease, and poor treatment outcomes. The TB pandemic in prisons is a serious human rights issue, and multiple global organizations have called for human rights-based strategies to address it. There are, however, few countries implementing such programs on the ground. Georgia, a former Soviet republic located in the Caucasus Mountains, has high rates of TB and a large prison population. This paper describes a needs assessment carried out in one prison in Georgia and the human rights-based strategy being implemented by the Georgian National TB Program to address TB control in the prison setting. It is hoped that the proposed program can serve as a model for other countries with high rates of TB among incarcerated individuals. PMID:22773034

  9. Peace and Human Rights Education in the Middle East: Comparing Jewish and Palestinian Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velloso, Agustín

    1998-07-01

    The Washington agreement of 1993 gave a new impetus to attempts by Palestinian and Israeli leaders to find a peaceful solution to their differences. The author asks to what extent this process has been accompanied by peace/human rights education programmes for Israeli and Palestinian children. While such programmes exist, they are very limited and have so far made little impact in reversing the long educational legacy of mutual distrust and hostility, which the article examines in detail. Furthermore, the continuing conflicts between the two communities make peace/human rights education difficult. However, despite the enormous obstacles, the author concludes that the efforts of peace/human rights educators are not wasted.

  10. Images of war: using satellite images for human rights monitoring in Turkish Kurdistan.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Hugo; Jongerden, Joost; van Etten, Jacob

    2008-09-01

    In areas of war and armed conflict it is difficult to get trustworthy and coherent information. Civil society and human rights groups often face problems of dealing with fragmented witness reports, disinformation of war propaganda, and difficult direct access to these areas. Turkish Kurdistan was used as a case study of armed conflict to evaluate the potential use of satellite images for verification of witness reports collected by human rights groups. The Turkish army was reported to be burning forests, fields and villages as a strategy in the conflict against guerrilla uprising. This paper concludes that satellite images are useful to validate witness reports of forest fires. Even though the use of this technology for human rights groups will depend on some feasibility factors such as prices, access and expertise, the images proved to be key for analysis of spatial aspects of conflict and valuable for reconstructing a more trustworthy picture. PMID:18958914

  11. Considerations for a Human Rights Impact Assessment of a Population Wide Treatment for HIV Prevention Intervention.

    PubMed

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Bond, Virginia; Seeley, Janet; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the potential of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for HIV prevention. The possibility of eliminating HIV from a population through a universal test and treat intervention, where all people within a population are tested for HIV and all positive people immediately initiated on ART, as part of a wider prevention intervention, was first proposed in 2009. Several clinical trials testing this idea are now in inception phase. An intervention which relies on universally testing the entire population for HIV will pose challenges to human rights, including obtaining genuine consent to testing and treatment. It also requires a context in which people can live free from fear of stigma, discrimination and violence, and can access services they require. These challenges are distinct from the field of medical ethics which has traditionally governed clinical trials and focuses primarily on patient researcher relationship. This paper sets out the potential impact of a population wide treatment as prevention intervention on human rights. It identifies five human right principles of particular relevance: participation, accountability, the right to health, non-discrimination and equality, and consent and confidentiality. The paper proposes that explicit attention to human rights can strengthen a treatment as prevention intervention, contribute to mediating likely health systems challenges and offer insights on how to reach all sections of the population. PMID:26524615

  12. Respecting the right to access to medicines: Implications of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights for the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Moon, Suerie

    2013-01-01

    What are the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies with regard to access to medicines? The state-based international human rights framework has long struggled with the issue of the human rights obligations of non-state actors, a question sharpened by economic globalization and the concomitant growing power of private for-profit actors ("business"). In 2011, after a six-year development process, the UN Human Rights Council unanimously endorsed the Guiding Principles advanced by the UN Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, John Ruggie. The Ruggie Principles sought to clarify and differentiate the responsibilities of states and non-state actors-in this case, "business" -with respect to human rights. The framework centered on "three core principles: the state duty to protect against human rights abuses by third parties, including business; the corporate responsibility to respect human rights; and the need for more effective access to remedies." The "Protect, Respect, and Remedy" Framework emerged from a review of many industrial sectors operating from local to global scales, in many regions of the world, and involving multiple stakeholder consultations. However, their implications for the pharmaceutical industry regarding access to medicines remain unclear. This article analyzes the 2008 Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines advanced by then-UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health, Paul Hunt, in light of the Ruggie Principles. It concludes that some guidelines relate directly to the industry's responsibility to respect the right to access to medicines, and form a normative baseline to which firms should be held accountable. It also finds that responsibility for other guidelines may better be ascribed to states than to private actors, based on conceptual and practical considerations. While not discouraging the pharmaceutical industry from making additional contributions to fulfilling the right to health, this analysis concludes that greater attention is merited to ensure that, first and foremost, the industry demonstrates baseline respect for the right to access to medicines. PMID:25006088

  13. Human rights and the sexual and reproductive health of women living with HIV – a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shubha; Gruskin, Sofia; Khosla, Rajat; Narasimhan, Manjulaa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Even as the number of women living with HIV around the globe continues to grow, realization of their sexual and reproductive health and human rights remains compromised. The objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge on the sexual and reproductive health and human rights of women living with HIV to assess evidence and gaps. Methods Relevant databases were searched for peer-reviewed and grey literature. Search terms included a combination of MeSH terms and keywords representing women, HIV/AIDS, ART, human rights, sexual and reproductive health. We included both qualitative and quantitative literature published in English, French, or Spanish between July 2011 and December 2014. Results and discussion The search yielded 2228 peer-reviewed articles, of which 40 met the inclusion criteria in the final review. The grey literature search yielded 2186 documents of which seven met the inclusion criteria in the final review. Of the articles and documents reviewed, not a single peer-reviewed article described the explicit implementation of rights in programming, and only two documents from the grey literature did so. With one possible exception, no articles or documents were found which addressed rights comprehensively, or addressed the majority of relevant rights (i.e. equality; non-discrimination; participation; privacy and confidentiality; informed decision making; availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (3AQ) of services individually or in their totality; and accountability). Additional findings indicate that the language of rights is used most often to describe the apparent neglect or violation of human rights and what does exist only addresses a few rights in the context of a few areas within sexual and reproductive health. Conclusions Findings from this review suggest the need to better integrate rights into interventions, particularly with attention to provider training, service delivery, raising awareness and capacity building among the community of women living with HIV. Further research is urgently needed to support the sexual and reproductive health and rights of women living with HIV, to identify what works and to inform future programming and policies to improve care, treatment and support for women living with HIV. PMID:26643461

  14. Visualization of Fiber Structurein the Left and Right Ventricleof a Human Heart

    SciTech Connect

    Rohmer, Damien; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2006-07-12

    The human heart is composed of a helical network of musclefibers. Anisotropic least squares filtering followed by fiber trackingtechniques were applied to Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging(DTMRI) data of the excised human heart. The fiber configuration wasvisualized by using thin tubes to increase 3-dimensional visualperception of the complex structure. All visualizations were performedusing the high-quality ray-tracing software POV-Ray. The fibers are shownwithin the left and right ventricles. Both ventricles exhibit similarfiber architecture and some bundles of fibers are shown linking right andleft ventricles on the posterior region of the heart.

  15. Preparing Global Citizens through the Study of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood-Tucker, Toni Fuss

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of students for global citizenship represents a central challenge to social studies educators in the twenty-first century. Two-thirds of the world's poor are steeped in abject poverty and its grim consequences. The world refugee problem has reached staggering proportions. There is an international epidemic of human trafficking, and…

  16. Reading "Rights of Desire" and "Rights of Opacity" in J. M. Coetzee's Disgrace.

    PubMed

    Canelli, Alyssa Stalsberg

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the novel Disgrace points toward a politics of illegiblity and opacity that aligns more readily with anti-identitarian queer theory instead of rights- and recognition-based human rights discourses. Through an extended consideration of the relation between national allegory, history, and legibility, I argue that the novel sustains two interpretations of the category of lesbian-first, the national allegorical reading that erases her rights of lesbian desire in the transmission of racialized and sexual historical debts and second, Lucy's refusal of legibility as a lesbian in the national narrative and legal structures. PMID:23316842

  17. Women on the frontlines: breastfeeding and human rights.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, a mother was asked to stop breast feeding her 9-month-old son during a special lunch at her daughter's primary school. The mother refused and requested that a policy be created on breast feeding in elementary schools. In 5 months a policy was drafted, and the local newspaper became a battleground over breast-feeding rights. In another case, a woman who was asked to cease breast feeding at work has carried a 6-year dispute to the Supreme Court of British Columbia, which has agreed that the time and location of breast feeding in the workplace should be free from discrimination. These examples point to the fact that communities must promote and protect breast feeding as a natural activity. As one breast-feeding supporter wrote to a newspaper, "My suggestion for people who can't handle the sight of an innocent baby having its lunch is: go eat in the bathroom." The breast-feeding mothers with the courage to come out of the "watercloset" are to be commended. PMID:12320464

  18. International Human Rights to Early Intervention for Infants and Young Children with Disabilities: Tools for Global Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sharan E.; Guralnick, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    With almost universal ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the growing number of States Parties that have signed or ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the majority of countries in the world have now committed to implementing the human rights articulated in these treaties. In this article,…

  19. Religious communities and HIV prevention: an intervention-study using a human rights-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, V.; Garcia, J.; Rios, L.F.; Santos, A.O.; Terto, V.; Munõz-Laboy, M.

    2011-01-01

    Religious communities have been a challenge to HIV prevention globally. Focusing on the acceptability component of the right to health, this intervention study examined how local Catholic, Evangelical and Afro-Brazilian religious communities can collaborate to foster young people’s sexual health and ensure their access to comprehensive HIV prevention in their communities in Brazil. This article describes the process of a three-stage sexual health promotion and HIV prevention initiative that used a multicultural human rights approach to intervention. Methods included 27 in-depth interviews with religious authorities on sexuality, AIDS prevention and human rights, and training 18 young people as research-agents, who surveyed 177 youth on the same issues using self-administered questionnaires. The results, analysed using a rights-based perspective on health and the vulnerability framework, were discussed in daylong interfaith workshops. Emblematic of the collaborative process, workshops are the focus of the analysis. Our findings suggest that this human rights framework is effective in increasing inter-religious tolerance and in providing a collective understanding of the sexuality and prevention needs of youth from different religious communities, and also serves as a platform for the expansion of state AIDS programmes based on laical principles. PMID:20373192

  20. Facing negative reactions to sexuality education through a Multicultural Human Rights framework.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Vera; Silva, Valeria N

    2015-11-01

    Sexuality education, its protocols and planning are contingent on an ever-changing political environment that characterizes the field of sexuality in most countries. In Brazil, human rights perspectives shaped the country's response to the AIDS epidemic, and indirectly influenced the public acceptability of sexuality education in schools. Since 2011, however, as multiple fundamentalist movements emerged in the region, leading to recurrent waves of backlashes in all matters related to sexuality, both health and educational policies have begun to crawl backwards. This article explores human rights-based approaches to health, focusing on a multicultural rights-based framework and on productive approaches to broadening the dialogue about sustained consent to sexuality education. Multicultural human rights (MHR) approaches are dialogical in two domains: the communication process that guarantees consent and community agreements and the constructionist psychosocial-educational methodologies. In its continuous process of consent, the MHR approach allowed for distinct values translation and diffused the resistance to sexuality education in the participant schools/cities, successfully sustaining notions of equality and protection of the right to a comprehensive sexuality education that does not break group solidarity and guarantees acceptability of differences. PMID:26719001

  1. Access to justice: evaluating law, health and human rights programmes in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gruskin, Sofia; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Ezer, Tamar; Gathumbi, Anne; Cohen, Jonathan; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In Kenya, human rights violations have a marked impact on the health of people living with HIV. Integrating legal literacy and legal services into healthcare appears to be an effective strategy to empower vulnerable groups and address underlying determinants of health. Methods We carried out an evaluation to collect evidence about the impact of legal empowerment programmes on health and human rights. The evaluation focused on Open Society Foundation-supported legal integration activities at four sites: the Academic Model of Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) facility, where the Legal Aid Centre of Eldoret (LACE) operates, in Eldoret; Kenyatta National Hospital's Gender-based Violence Recovery Centre, which hosts the COVAW legal integration program; and Christian Health Association of Kenya (CHAK) facilities in Mombasa and Naivasha. In consultation with the organizations implementing the programs, we designed a conceptual logic model grounded in human rights principles, identified relevant indicators and then coded structure, process and outcome indicators for the rights-related principles they reflect. The evaluation included a resource assessment questionnaire, a review of program records and routine data, and semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with clients and service providers. Data were collected in May–August 2010 and April–June 2011. Results Clients showed a notable increase in practical knowledge and awareness about how to access legal aid and claim their rights, as well as an enhanced ability to communicate with healthcare providers and to improve their access to healthcare and justice. In turn, providers became more adept at identifying human rights violations and other legal difficulties, which enabled them to give clients basic information about their rights, refer them to legal aid and assist them in accessing needed support. Methodological challenges in evaluating such activities point to the need to strengthen rights-oriented evaluation methods. Conclusions Legal empowerment programmes have the potential to promote accountability, reduce stigma and discrimination and contribute to altering unjust structures and systems. Given their apparent value as a health and human rights intervention, particularly for marginalized populations, further rigorous evaluations are called for to support the scale-up of such programmes. PMID:24242267

  2. Biomedicine and international human rights law: in search of a global consensus.

    PubMed Central

    Andorno, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Global challenges raised by biomedical advances require global responses. Some international organizations have made significant efforts over the last few years to establish common standards that can be regarded as the beginning of an international biomedical law. One of the main features of this new legal discipline is the integration of its principles into a human rights framework. This strategy seems the most appropriate, given the role of "universal ethics" that human rights play in our world of philosophical pluralism. In addition to the general standards that are gradually being established, a widespread consensus exists on the urgency of preventing two specific procedures: human germ-line interventions and human reproductive cloning. PMID:12571724

  3. The Role and Purposes of Public Schools and Religious Fundamentalism: An International Human Rights Law Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Douglas Charles

    2012-01-01

    The question of what are today the legitimate and proper role and purposes of public schools can only be answered by a close examination and analysis of the human right to education which has been developed by such international organizations as the United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and by…

  4. A Collaborative Media Production Project on Human Rights: Bridging Everyday and Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydari, Nazan; Kara, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of media institutions and universities as spaces of knowledge productions, development of "critical media pedagogy" becomes crucial for the establishment of a responsible and ethical media environment. Drawing from the collaborative project of The First Step into Human Rights: I do not do it!--A Short Film Project on…

  5. South African Educators' Mutually Inclusive Mandates to Promote Human Rights and Positive Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzee, Susan; Mienie, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    South African educators are mandated by international and national law to observe and promote human rights. However, given the realities of the limited teaching time available, educators cannot fulfill this obligation solely by teaching the curriculum. Another avenue needs to be found for educators to fulfill this obligation. Educators are also…

  6. HIV/AIDS in Asia: Human Rights and the Education Sector. Discussion Paper No. II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijngaarden, Jan; Shaeffer, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    An evaluation is presented on the impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector in the Asia Pacific region. Its focus is how human rights in relation to education have been upset by the epidemic. The education sector is urged to develop more initiatives to educate about the epidemic, and to build measures that deal with both immediate and long-term…

  7. Department of State Advancing Democracy, Human Rights and Rule of Law in Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    Department of State Advancing Democracy, Human Rights and Rule of Law in Pakistan URL: http://www Training and Technical Assistance Program for Law Enforcement Task Forces FY 2015 Competitive Grant and Services Administration Strengthening and Improving the HIV Care Continuum within Ryan White HIV

  8. Deaths in the Desert: The Human Rights Crisis on the U.S.--Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Androff, David K.; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y.

    2012-01-01

    Many would acknowledge that immigration is a major issue in the United States and that immigration reform should be a priority. However, there is little attention to the human rights crisis on the U.S.-Mexican border. As a result of tightened border security since 1994, it is estimated that over 5,000 migrants have died in the Sonoran desert. The…

  9. Insider/Outsider Ambiguities and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Author Julie Pelletier recently became part of a new committee at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR): the Indigenous Education Working Group (IEWG). The IEWG is a working group made up of Indigenous individuals with a background in indigenous education. The first project the IEWG undertook was assisting with the development of Indigenous…

  10. r Human Brain Mapping 00:000000 (2012) r The Right Inhibition? Callosal Correlates of Hand

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    r Human Brain Mapping 00:000­000 (2012) r The Right Inhibition? Callosal Correlates of Hand Performance in Healthy Children and Adolescents Callosal Correlates of Hand Performance Florian Kurth,1 that interhemispheric inhibition--relayed via the corpus cal- losum--plays an important role in unilateral hand motions

  11. The Political Economy of Education in Guyana: Implications for Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaroo, Noel K.

    1991-01-01

    Examines human rights violations in education in Guyana, and identifies the socioeconomic factors that produced the current condition. Findings indicate that, although education is highly valued in the culture, the state has abandoned the educational needs of the nation to ensure the survival of the elite political regime. (JB)

  12. Human Rights in a Pluralist, Unequal Globe: Contributions of Jesuit Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbach, David

    2011-01-01

    Globalization has made human rights both increasingly important as the normative standards that seek to shape the diverse religious, cultural, political, and economic interactions of the world, and also increasingly controversial in the face of the realities of cultural diversity and economic inequality. Over the past half century, hopes that…

  13. Intra-Language Discrimination and Linguistic Human Rights: The Case of Singlish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Lionel

    2005-01-01

    Although studies involving linguistic human rights (LHRs) have focused at length on cases of inter-language discrimination, much less attention has been given to intra-language discrimination (Blommaert 2001a; Skutnabb-Kangas et al. 2001). This paper highlights a number of theoretical issues that the LHRs framework needs to deal with once…

  14. Human Rights, Education for Democratic Citizenship and International Organisations: Findings from a Kuwaiti UNESCO ASPnet School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Nakib, Rania

    2012-01-01

    While universal human rights frameworks and democratic models of government have gained global support and even adherence, they often exist in tension with local cultural and religious practices. In Kuwait, tensions arise between its constitution, legal system and Islam, with several groups consequently marginalised. These tensions extend into the…

  15. Activist Literacies: An Analysis of the Literacy Practices of a School-Based Human Rights Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine the literacy practices of a high school-based human rights club. I investigate how the group engages in certain kinds of textual production to sponsor and arrange advisory sessions (school-wide meetings between teachers and small groups of students). More specifically, I consider how the club adapts school genres to…

  16. The UN Declaration of Human Rights: A Handbook for Teachers. Bulletin, 1951, No. 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Howard R.; Cummings, Howard H.

    1951-01-01

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations in Paris, December 10, 1948. The vote was 48 to 0, but 8 countries abstained from voting. The Declaration is a statement of principles approved a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations. It is not a treaty and therefore…

  17. From "Time Pass" to Transformative Force: School-Based Human Rights Education in Tamil Nadu, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2012-01-01

    This article presents data collected at the level of practice to highlight one non-governmental organization's approach to human rights education and how household-, school-, and community-level factors mediated student impact. Findings suggest that a variety of factors at the three levels contribute to the program's successful implementation in…

  18. Women in History--Sarah Winnemucca: Native Educator and Human Rights Advocate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumm, Bernita L.

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Sarah Winnemucca, a Native educator and dedicated human rights advocate who devoted her life to building communication and creating understanding between the Native and white cultures. On March 1, 2005, Congressman Jon Porter of Nevada addressed Congress on a bill to allow for the placement of a statue of Sarah Winnemucca…

  19. Challenges to Popular and Human Rights Education: The Formation of Producer, Citizen, and Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sime, Luis

    1994-01-01

    Contends that popular, or a form of alternative, education stands in the background of most efforts in human rights education in Latin America. Maintains that education must educate people as producers, citizens, and individuals. Discusses challenges to this task in light of liberation theology and the Peruvian experience. (CFR)

  20. Using "Competing Visions of Human Rights" in an International IB World School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, William J.

    2013-01-01

    William Tolley, a teaching fellow with the Choices Program, is the Learning and Innovation Coach and head of history at the International School of Curitiba, Brazil (IB). He writes in this article that he has found that the "Competing Visions of Human Rights" teaching unit, developed by Brown University's Choices Program, provides a…

  1. Towards a Pedagogy of Listening: Teaching and Learning from Life Stories of Human Rights Violations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Bronwen E.; Sonntag, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    In response to the task of designing curriculum that helps youth engage thoughtfully with digital stories of human rights violations, the authors articulate the central tenets of a pedagogy of listening that draws upon elements of oral history, concepts of witnessing and testimony, the work on listening of Dewey, Freire and Rinaldi and the…

  2. Reasonable Limits and Exemptions: Victoria's Human Rights Charter and its Implications for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessant, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Many people had great expectations of the Victorian Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities when it came into effect in January 2008. However, Judith Bessant asks whether the provision for seeking exemptions from the charter has undermined its capacity to effectively counter age-based discrimination and, paradoxically, permitted practices…

  3. The Effect of Constructivist Instruction on Prospective Teachers' Attitudes toward Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundogdu, Kerim

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigates the effect of employing constructivist methods and materials on the attitudes of prospective teachers' (psychological counseling students) toward human rights education. Method: The research employed a quasi-experimental pre test-post test control group design. The experimental group, consisted of 23 male and…

  4. The Human Rights Context for Ethical Requirements for Involving People with Intellectual Disability in Medical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacono, T.; Carling-Jenkins, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The history of ethical guidelines addresses protection of human rights in the face of violations. Examples of such violations in research involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) abound. We explore this history in an effort to understand the apparently stringent criteria for the inclusion of people with ID in research, and…

  5. Patterns of Human Development Indicators across Constitutional Analysis of Children's Rights to Protection, Provision, and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habashi, Janette; Wright, Lynne; Hathcoat, John D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines children's images in constitutions and/or amendments as articulated in the Convention on the Rights of the Child while they intersect with the three dimensions of the Human Development Index (HDI) of 2008: life expectancy, educational index, and GDP. The connection between the images of the child and the fulfillment of the…

  6. Far Away and Nearby: Holocaust Remembrance and Human Rights Education in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlag, Thomas; Wackerlig, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The article considers how young people in Swiss schools are taught about the history and background of the Holocaust within the wider perspective of human rights education, as an important basis for education concerning democratic citizenship. Given the country's specific history, for decades the Holocaust was not a matter of great interest in…

  7. Exploring School Ethos: An Investigation of Children's Human Rights in Two Secondary Institutions in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Yan Lam; Leung, Yan Wing; Yuen, Wai Wa

    2015-01-01

    From 2009 to 2011, the authors launched the Basic Law Education Project: Education for Human Rights and the Rule of Law in Hong Kong. This article focuses on a subset of the overarching data-set and discusses the findings that resulted from a comparative analysis of two participating schools. A survey was deployed to assess the extent to which a…

  8. Peace and Human Rights Education: Dilemmas of Compatibility and Prospects for Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the dilemmas emerging from efforts to integrate human rights values within a peace education programme being carried out in a conflict situation. Although the article is largely theoretical, it is grounded in the author's reflections on a series of teacher workshops and his overall experiences conducting ethnographic…

  9. UNESCO and the Associated Schools Project: Symbolic Affirmation of World Community, International Understanding, and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.; Ramirez, Francisco O.; Koo, Jeong-Woo

    2009-01-01

    The UNESCO Associated Schools Project emphasizes world community, human rights, and international understanding. This article investigates the emergence and global diffusion of the project from 1953 to 2001, estimating the influence of national, regional, and world characteristics on the likelihood of a country adopting a UNESCO school. It also…

  10. Moral Dilemmas in Teaching Recent History Related to the Violation of Human Rights in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magendzo, Abraham; Toledo, Maria Isabel

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the moral dilemmas that a teacher faces in the classroom when teaching recent history which deals with military regimes, violation of human rights (1973-1990) and the transition to democracy in Chile (1990-2008). Furthermore, it explores the neutrality of the content taught; the ideological standpoints of the teachers and the…

  11. Teachers, Sexual Orientation, and the Law in Canada: A Human Rights Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Teacher expression on the subject of sexual orientation is a hotly contested topic that has led to many recent legal challenges in the United States and Canada. The purpose of this article is to offer readers an introduction to Canadian cases regarding teacher expression and sexual orientation and demonstrate how the application of a human rights

  12. Human Rights as Safeguarding: The Schooling Experiences of HIV+ Children in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul; Kelly, Kemesha; Spawls, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The interface between HIV/AIDS, education and human rights is an important issue in Jamaican society. The spread of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean is second only to that in Africa, and Jamaica itself has the second highest numbers of HIV+ individuals within the Caribbean region. Using a qualitative methodology, this exploratory study aimed to discern…

  13. Human Rights and Democracy in Palestine: Their Value for the New Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abukishek, Imad Fayeq

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct an exploratory baseline survey of West Bank students to assess student attitudes and practices towards Human Rights and Democracy (HDR). To achieve the goal of this research, a survey of 3450 youth was conducted that included students from the 8th, 10th and 12th grades throughout the West Bank. The specific…

  14. The Canadian Human Rights Commission and Issues of Concern for Aboriginal Women. Notes for Remarks, by the Deputy Chief Commissioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falardeau-Ramsay, Michelle

    This speech by the deputy chief commissioner of the Canadian Human Rights Commission discusses human rights, employment security, and pay-equity issues for Native Canadian women. The speech, offered in both English and French, calls the inequality of opportunity for Native Canadians a "national tragedy." It describes efforts to bring improvement…

  15. "The World as It Could Be" Human Rights Education Program: Curriculum and Resource Guide for Teachers & Organization Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohcot, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    We are pleased to provide the July 2012 edition of the Curriculum and Resource Guide for "The World As It Could Be" Human Rights Education Program. This program, is an outgrowth of a series of successful initiatives carried out since 2006 to educate and inspire youth and adults to further human rights for all people and have greater understanding…

  16. Teaching to Transform, Transforming to Teach: Exploring the Role of Teachers in Human Rights Education in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human rights education initiatives have proliferated in the past three decades and can be found in policy discussions, textbook reforms and grassroots initiatives across the globe. This article specifically explores the role of teachers in human rights education (HRE) by focusing on a case study of one non-governmental organisation's…

  17. Why Are We Involved in Human Rights and Moral Education? Educators as Constructors of Our Own History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolstrein, Abraham Magendzo

    2011-01-01

    My professional interest originally focused on curriculum planning and development, but for the last 30 years I have been researching, publishing and teaching in the field of human rights education. Suddenly, I became a human rights educator. Suddenly? No, nothing in our personal and professional life is the result of an abrupt occurrence. We are…

  18. "Clutching a knifeblade": human rights and development from Asian women's perspective.

    PubMed

    Sancho-liao, N

    1993-06-01

    A brief, vivid portrait of the human rights conditions for women in Asia was presented: "kapit sa patalim" or utter despair, urban migration, export processing zones, tourism and prostitution, political repression, and military sexual slavery. Advocates of women's human rights for Asian women must contend with patriarchal and male-dominated systems that oppress and exploit women to a much greater extent than men. Liberation from these systems and the domination and exploitation by wealthier nations must be a goal of a new economic world order. Unjust and repressive structures must be destroyed, and equitable distribution of wealth and democracy and popular initiatives promoted. The status of women must be raised to coequal status with men. The most important objective of human rights advocates should be the empowerment of women at the individual, community, national, regional, and international level. The Asian Women's Human Rights Council was established as an addition to 3 already operating regional commissions of women's organizations. The aim was not just to describe women as victims, but to pressure development activity to account for women's human rights. Sex tribunals have been scheduled between 1993 and 1994 to address the following issues: 1) sex trafficking (Japan, May 1993); 2) violence against women (Pakistan, December 1993); 3) militarism, environment, and violence against women (Korea, March 1994); 4) crimes of development against women in Asia (India); 5) religion and violence against women (Malaysia, 1994); and 6) indigenous women (December 1994). Women were victims when Filipino domestic workers were stranded and raped in Iraq during the chaos of war, when girls from landless peasant families migrated near Clark Air Force Base to earn a living as prostitutes for US servicemen, when women were forced to work 36-hour shifts in foreign-owned garment factories in Bataan, when women migrated for work, and when women were abused and battered in Bangladesh and India. Many other examples of abuse were indicated in the discussion. PMID:12345217

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE DISCOURSES IN INTERNATIONAL

    E-print Network

    Delaware, University of

    261 ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE DISCOURSES IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY Edited by JOHN BYRNE LEIGH' nature and apply that knowledge to shape a better future. Human progress, in this view, is identical, 1996a, and 2000). But even in this instance, discussion of the social and political organization

  20. Unpacking rights in indigenous African societies: indigenous culture and the question of sexual and reproductive rights in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Modern declarations on human rights have often proceeded without reference to the cultural content of rights, the existence of rights in African indigenous backgrounds, and the embodiment of certain key rights in the community itself. This paper is an attempt at developing an ‘inventory’ of rights in African cultures as a prelude to the generation both of a holistic theory of rights as well as a research agenda that can recognize the multifaceted nature of rights. Methods We use an interpretive ethnographic approach built on three sources of data: 1) our continuing ethnographic work among two distinct ethnic groups in southeastern Nigeria – the Ubang and the Igbo; 2) informal conversational interviews with individuals from a range of African countries; and 3) a review of relevant literature based on African cultures which provides a context for some of the issues we raise. Results An examination of selected indigenous rights, entitlements, or privileges among the Ubang and Igbo illustrates indigenous culture as a key, but often neglected, axis of rights, as a critical framework for understanding human relationships with rights, and as a resource for, and challenge to, contemporary programmatic efforts focusing on universalized notions of rights. Understanding or interpreting rights in African settings within the framework defined by contemporary human rights discourse poses steep challenges to making progress in the realization of sexual and reproductive rights. Conclusions Despite the potential dangers of privileging group rights over individual rights, when important rights are vested in the community; rights, entitlements, and privileges can also be recognized through community experiences, and realized through engagement with communities. Building on communal conceptualizations of rights in order to realize an even wider range of rights remains a largely unexplored strategy which holds promise for the achievement of sexual and reproductive health rights. PMID:22375959

  1. Within but without: human rights and access to HIV prevention and treatment for internal migrants

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, far more people migrate within than across borders, and although internal migrants do not risk a loss of citizenship, they frequently confront significant social, financial and health consequences, as well as a loss of rights. The recent global financial crisis has exacerbated the vulnerability internal migrants face in realizing their rights to health care generally and to antiretroviral therapy in particular. For example, in countries such as China and Russia, internal migrants who lack official residence status are often ineligible to receive public health services and may be increasingly unable to afford private care. In India, internal migrants face substantial logistical, cultural and linguistic barriers to HIV prevention and care, and have difficulty accessing treatment when returning to poorly served rural areas. Resulting interruptions in HIV services may lead to a wide range of negative consequences, including: individual vulnerability to infection and risk of death; an undermining of state efforts to curb the HIV epidemic and provide universal access to treatment; and the emergence of drug-resistant disease strains. International human rights law guarantees individuals lawfully within a territory the right to free movement within the borders of that state. This guarantee, combined with the right to the highest attainable standard of health set out in international human rights treaties, and the fundamental principle of non-discrimination, creates a duty on states to provide a core minimum of health care services to internal migrants on a non-discriminatory basis. Targeted HIV prevention programs and the elimination of restrictive residence-based eligibility criteria for access to health services are necessary to ensure that internal migrants are able to realize their equal rights to HIV prevention and treatment. PMID:19925647

  2. Under the (legal) radar screen: global health initiatives and international human rights obligations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Given that many low income countries are heavily reliant on external assistance to fund their health sectors the acceptance of obligations of international assistance and cooperation with regard to the right to health (global health obligations) is insufficiently understood and studied by international health and human rights scholars. Over the past decade Global Health Initiatives, like the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) have adopted novel approaches to engaging with stakeholders in high and low income countries. This article explores how this experience impacted on acceptance of the international obligation to (help) fulfil the right to health beyond borders. Methods The authors conducted an extensive review of international human rights law literature, transnational legal process literature, global public health literature and grey literature pertaining to Global Health Initiatives. To complement this desk work and deepen their understanding of how and why different legal norms evolve the authors conducted 19 in-depth key informant interviews with actors engaged with three stakeholders; the European Union, the United States and Belgium. The authors then analysed the interviews through a transnational legal process lens. Results Through according value to the process of examining how and why different legal norms evolve transnational legal process offers us a tool for engaging with the dynamism of developments in global health suggesting that operationalising global health obligations could advance the right to health for all. Conclusions In many low-income countries the health sector is heavily dependent on external assistance to fulfil the right to health of people thus it is vital that policies and tools for delivering reliable, long-term assistance are developed so that the right to health for all becomes more than a dream. Our research suggests that the Global Fund experience offers lessons to build on. PMID:23153090

  3. Archimedean Witness: The Application of Remote Sensing as an Aid to Human Rights Prosecutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, James Robin

    The 21st century has seen a significant increase in the use of remote sensing technology in the international human rights arena for the purposes of documenting crimes against humanity. The nexus between remote sensing, human rights activism, and international criminal prosecutions sits at a significant crossroads within geographic thought, calling attention to the epistemological and geopolitical implications that stem from the "view from nowhere" afforded by satellite imagery. Therefore, this thesis is divided into three sections. The first looks at the geographical questions raised by the expansion of remote sensing use in the context of international activism. The second explores the complications inherent in the presentation of remote sensing data as evidence of war crimes. Building upon the first two, the third section is a case study in alternate forms of analysis, aimed at expanding the utility of remote sensing data in international criminal prosecutions.

  4. Advancing the sexual and reproductive health and human rights of women living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona; Khosla, Rajat; Narasimhan, Manjulaa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many women living with HIV can have safe, healthy and satisfying sexual and reproductive health, but there is still a long way to go for this to be a reality, especially for the most vulnerable amongst them who face repeated violations of their rights. Discussion The contributions in this Supplement from researchers, clinicians, programme managers, policy makers, and women living with HIV demands an important appreciation that the field of sexual and reproductive health and human rights for women living with HIV is complex on many levels, and women living with HIV form a very diverse community. Conclusions The manuscripts emphasize that attention must be paid to the following critical dimensions: 1) Placing human rights and gender equality at the centre of a comprehensive approach to health programming, in particular in relation to sexuality and sexual health; 2) Ensuring health systems responsiveness to minimizing inequalities in access to health care and quality of care that often do not meet the needs of women living with HIV; 3) Engaging and empowering women living with HIV in the development of policies and programmes that affect them; and 4) Strengthening monitoring, evaluation and accountability procedures to provide good quality data and ensuring remedies for violations of health and human rights of women living with HIV. PMID:26643465

  5. The discursive production of professionals about humanizing health: singularity, rights and ethics1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; Pereira, Eliane Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to describe the discursive production of professionals about the humanization of health. Method: qualitative study of descriptive approach, inspired by the social representation theory, with 24 professionals in the healthcare field, working in a university hospital with the established humanization policy. The selection of participants was conducted according to criteria of adequacy and diversity for an intentional sample. Data collection was conducted by semi-structured interviews. Results: through content analysis, three categories emerged, around which the analyses were conducted: "humanizing health as an act of accepting the other as unique", "humanizing health as a matter of right" and "humanizing health as an ethical issue". The discursive production of professionals is based on a perspective which is based on the humanist prospect with socio-historical bias. Conclusion: healthcare professionals must know the National Humanization Policy in order to provide quality care, promoting the meeting, welcoming and recognition of oneself, others and their profession in the political and socio-historical scenario of their country as a citizen, not only of rights, but also of obligations. PMID:26487145

  6. Human intestinal spirochetosis: right-side preference in the large intestine.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Sho; Shimizu, Ken; Nakanishi, Kuniaki

    2015-12-01

    Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is a colorectal bacterial infection, and its clinicopathologic features remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine its characteristics. We histologically reviewed paraffin-embedded section slides made in 2001, 2006, and 2011 at a single institution in Japan. Cases histologically exhibiting a distinct fringe formation were considered to have HIS. Information was obtained from pathology request forms. We identified 85 HIS cases among 4930 patients (7 cases [0.5%) in 2001, 29 [1.7%] in 2006, and 49 [2.8%] in 2011]. Gastrointestinal symptoms were observed in 7.1% of HIS cases. Human intestinal spirochetosis was more frequent in the right-side large intestine than in the left side. Among 224 samples from HIS cases, conventional (tubular, tubulovillous, and villous) adenomas were found in 148 samples. These adenomas were more frequent in the right side than in the left side, although neither their size nor morphology differed between the sides. Histopathologic evaluation suggested a year-upon-year increasing prevalence of HIS in Japan. A small number exhibited gastrointestinal symptoms. Both histologic sign of HIS and conventional adenomas were more frequent in the right-side large intestine. Therefore, a right-side preference may be a characteristic of HIS. PMID:26597024

  7. Increasing access to HIV testing and counselling while respecting human rights.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Ralf; Cohen, Jonathan; Girard, Françoise; Beyrer, Chris

    2007-12-01

    Two days after the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNAIDS released the final version of their Guidance on Provider-initiated Testing and Counselling in Health Facilities ("he Guidelines"), OSI's Public Health Program issued an updated version of its paper on Increasing Access to HIV Testing and Counseling While Respecting Human Rights. Since then, as Ralf Jürgens reports, the paper has served as the basis for a statement and recommendations on scaling up HIV testing and counselling issued by the UNAIDS Reference Group on HIV and Human Rights.3 In addition, it has helped inform guidance currently being developed by WHO and the U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) on HIV testing for prisoners and for people who use drugs. PMID:18459223

  8. Global bioethics at UNESCO: in defence of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Andorno, R

    2007-03-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) on 19 October 2005 is an important step in the search for global minimum standards in biomedical research and clinical practice. As a member of UNESCO International Bioethics Committee, I participated in the drafting of this document. Drawing on this experience, the principal features of the Declaration are outlined, before responding to two general charges that have been levelled at UNESCO's bioethical activities and at this particular document, are outlined. One criticism is to the effect that UNESCO is exceeding its mandate by drafting such bioethical instruments--in particular, the charge is that it is trespassing on a topic that lies in the responsibility of the World Health Organization. The second criticism is that UNESCO's reliance on international human rights norms is inappropriate. PMID:17329385

  9. Human rights abuses and collective resilience among sex workers in four African countries: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. Methods We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. Results In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. Conclusions While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers’ human rights and improving health outcomes in these communities. If developed at sufficient scale and intensity, sex work organisations could play a critical role in reducing the present harms caused by criminalisation and stigma. PMID:23889941

  10. Human rights violations among economically disadvantaged women with mental illness: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally women confront manifold violations of human rights and women with poverty and mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: The aim was to examine the influence of poverty in meeting human rights needs among recovered women with mental illness at family and community level. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study carried out among randomly selected (n = 100) recovered women with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using structured needs assessment questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that below poverty line (BPL) participants were not satisfied in meeting their physical needs such as “access to safe drinking water” (?2 = 8.994, P < 0.02), “served in the same utensils” (?2 = 13.648, P < 0.00), had adequate food (?2 = 11.025, P < 0.02), and allowed to use toilet facilities (?2 = 13.565, P < 0.00). The human rights needs in emotional dimension, that is, afraid of family members (?2 = 8.233, P < 0.04) and hurt by bad words (?2 = 9.014, P < 0.02) were rated higher in above poverty line (APL) participants. Similarly, 88.9% of women from APL group expressed that they were discriminated and exploited by the community members (?2 = 17.490, P < 0.00). More than three-fourths of BPL participants (76.1%) believed that there were wondering homeless mentally ill in their community (?2 = 11.848, P < 0.01). Conclusion: There is an urgent need to implement social welfare programs to provide employment opportunities, disability allowance, housing and other social security for women with mental illness. Further, mental health professionals play an essential role in educating the family and public regarding human rights of people with mental illness. PMID:26124524

  11. Human Rights

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Daniel Meyer, Président de la ligue française de défense de droits de l'homme et du citoyen fait un exposé sur son engagement (politique). Dans la deuxième partie, une avocate brésilienne (en exil)donne un témoignage de la violation des droits de l'homme sous la dictature militaire de son pays; elle a défendu pendant 6 ans des prisonniers politiques.

  12. The Protection of the Right to Education by International Law: Including a Systematic Analysis of Article 13 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. International Studies in Human Rights, 82

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiter, Klaus Dieter

    2006-01-01

    A trend has emerged of not defining education as a "human right" anymore, but of rather calling it a "human need". This has paved the way for an ever increasing commercialisation of education, excluding the poor from access to education. A problem at a different level is that states often do not know what is expected of them when realising the…

  13. On Their Own and in Their Own Words: Bolivian Adolescent Girls' Empowerment through Non-Governmental Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In recognition of the profound benefits of children's engagement with their rights, this article presents an experiential account of how Bolivian adolescent indigenous girls discover, articulate, experience, and advocate human rights. This study explores adolescent girls' demonstrations of empowerment, agency, resistance, and solidarity as part of…

  14. Global Citizenship and Human Rights: A Longitudinal Analysis of Social Studies and Ethics Textbooks in the Republic of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Rennie J.; Koo, Jeong-Woo

    2011-01-01

    What happens to traditional civic notions of nation, national identity, and constitutional rights when national curricula incorporate ideas of global citizenship, other national identities, diversity, and human rights? Using a longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we address this issue by analyzing the nature of changes in South Korean civic…

  15. Biobanking and public health: is a human rights approach the tie that binds?

    PubMed

    Meslin, Eric M; Garba, Ibrahim

    2011-09-01

    Ethical principles guiding public health and genomic medicine are often at odds: whereas public health practice adopts collectivist principles that emphasize population-based benefits, recent advances in genomic and personalized medicine are grounded in an individualist ethic that privileges informed consent, and the balancing of individual risk and benefit. Indeed, the attraction of personalized medicine is the promise it holds out to help individuals get the "right medicine for the right problem at the right time." Research biobanks are an effective tool in the genomic medicine toolbox. Biobanking in public health presents a unique case study to unpack some of these issues in more detail. For example, there is a long history of using banked tissue obtained under clinical diagnostic conditions for later public health uses. But despite the collectivist approach of public health, the principles applied to the ethical challenges of biobanking (e.g. informed consent, autonomy, privacy) remain individualist. We demonstrate the value of using human rights as a public health ethics framework to address this tension in biobanking by applying it to two illustrative cases. PMID:21761137

  16. Right hemispheric dominance of visual phenomena evoked by intracerebral stimulation of the human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Jacques; Frismand, Solène; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Koessler, Laurent; Vespignani, Hervé; Rossion, Bruno; Maillard, Louis

    2014-07-01

    Electrical brain stimulation can provide important information about the functional organization of the human visual cortex. Here, we report the visual phenomena evoked by a large number (562) of intracerebral electrical stimulations performed at low-intensity with depth electrodes implanted in the occipito-parieto-temporal cortex of 22 epileptic patients. Focal electrical stimulation evoked primarily visual hallucinations with various complexities: simple (spot or blob), intermediary (geometric forms), or complex meaningful shapes (faces); visual illusions and impairments of visual recognition were more rarely observed. With the exception of the most posterior cortical sites, the probability of evoking a visual phenomenon was significantly higher in the right than the left hemisphere. Intermediary and complex hallucinations, illusions, and visual recognition impairments were almost exclusively evoked by stimulation in the right hemisphere. The probability of evoking a visual phenomenon decreased substantially from the occipital pole to the most anterior sites of the temporal lobe, and this decrease was more pronounced in the left hemisphere. The greater sensitivity of the right occipito-parieto-temporal regions to intracerebral electrical stimulation to evoke visual phenomena supports a predominant role of right hemispheric visual areas from perception to recognition of visual forms, regardless of visuospatial and attentional factors. PMID:24733699

  17. 21A.225J / SP.621J / WGS.621J Violence, Human Rights, and Justice, Fall 2004

    E-print Network

    James, Erica

    This course examines the contemporary problem of political violence and the way that human rights have been conceived as a means to protect and promote freedom, peace and justice for citizens against the abuses of the state.

  18. Interpreting global justice : variations in perspectives of U.S. environmental organizations on environment, human rights, and social equity

    E-print Network

    Bast, Elizabeth S., 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Environmental movement organizations in the United States have engaged with the global justice movement differently depending on the extent to which they view human rights and social equity issues as part of their environmental ...

  19. The health and human rights of survivors of gun violence: charting a research and policy agenda.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Cate

    2011-01-01

    The health and human rights implications of violently acquired impairments (VAI), specifically gun-related injuries and trauma resulting in disability, represent an overlooked public policy concern. For several decades, detailed attention has been committed to better understanding of the international arms trade and its consequences. A discursive shift in the last decade from "small arms control" as the core objective (a "hardware" focus on the weapons themselves) to "armed violence prevention" (a focus on impacts, wider drivers, and solutions) still requires a rigorous set of objectives that respond to the rights and needs of survivors of such violence. This article seeks to chart some of the challenges of responding to gun violence survivors and identify entry points for contributions from health, social science and human rights researchers and practitioners. Efforts to address armed violence typically pivot around two goals: reduction and prevention. But what of those already injured? This article argues that a third goal is overdue for attention: response to those injured, impaired, and disabled from gun violence. This would allow a clear pathway for progress (conceptual, political, policy, and practice) to be defined related to gun violence under the ambit of three overarching goals: reducing existing gun violence; responding to those already injured, traumatized, and impaired by such violence; and preventing future violence from occurring. PMID:22773032

  20. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hexavalent chromium in human and North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) lung cells.

    PubMed

    Li Chen, Tânia; Wise, Sandra S; Holmes, Amie; Shaffiey, Fariba; Wise, John Pierce; Thompson, W Douglas; Kraus, Scott; Wise, John Pierce

    2009-11-01

    Humans and cetaceans are exposed to a wide range of contaminants. In this study, we compared the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of a metal pollutant, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which has been shown to cause damage in lung cells from both humans and North Atlantic right whales. Our results show that Cr induces increased cell death and chromosome damage in lung cells from both species with increasing intracellular Cr ion levels. Soluble Cr(VI) induced less of a cytotoxic and genotoxic effect based on administered dose in right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) cells than in human (Homo sapiens) cells. Whereas, particulate Cr(VI) induced a similar cytotoxic effect but less of a genotoxic effect based on administered dose in right whale cells than in human cells. Differences in chromium ion uptake explained soluble chromate-induced cell death but not all of the soluble chromate-induced chromosome damage. Uptake differences of lead ions could explain the differences in particulate chromate-induced toxicity. The data show that both forms of Cr(VI) are less genotoxic to right whale than human lung cells, and that soluble Cr(VI) induces a similar cytotoxic effect in both right whale and human cells, while particulate Cr(VI) is more cytotoxic to right whale lung cells. PMID:19632355

  1. Kill Bill! Ugandan human rights organizations' attempts to influence the media's coverage of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill.

    PubMed

    Strand, Cecilia

    2011-09-01

    The Ugandan Anti-Homosexuality Bill of October 2009 caused an international outcry and sparked intense debate in the local and international media. Particularly contentious was its proposal to impose the death penalty for acts of 'aggravated homosexuality'. Through a quantitative content analysis of 176 items from two main daily newspapers, the government-owned New Vision and the privately-owned Daily Monitor, over the period October 2009-June 2010, combined with qualitative interviews with human rights defenders in Uganda, this study explores attempts made by local human rights advocates to influence the media's coverage of the Bill and the extent to which these attempts were successful. The study finds that while there are significant differences between the frequency of reporting on the Bill in the two newspapers, both papers devoted little editorial space to the public health and human rights concerns put forward by local human rights organizations. Despite Uganda's recent and often lauded history of openly addressing HIV/AIDS, human right organizations' attempts to highlight the Bill's potentially adverse effects on the country's ability to tackle the epidemic effectively were only partially successful and, interestingly, awarded much less attention than the potential human rights implications of the proposed change in legislation. PMID:21714747

  2. Physical restraint and the protection of the human rights of immigration detainees in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pickles, Hilary; Norton, Emma; Ginn, Emma; Schleicher, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    Immigration detainees, like prisoners, are entitled to the same standard of healthcare as non-detained patients. When hospital attendance or admission is required, the priority for custodial staff (who for purposes of this article we refer to as 'escorts') is to prevent absconding. For that reason, they may wish to use physical restraints, such as handcuffs, and remain with the detainee at all times. This can be degrading for the patient and breach their human rights. Clinicians have professional obligations to all their patients and must object to any restraint methods that risk damaging the patient's right to confidentiality, treatment, health or the therapeutic relationship itself. The starting presumption is that restraints ought not to be used during treatment and only in the most exceptional cases ought escorts to be present during clinical examination or treatment. PMID:26407381

  3. Claiming Rosa Parks: conservative Catholic bids for 'rights' in contemporary Latin America.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    When the Rosa Parks Prize was awarded to a conservative Argentine senator in 2009 for her outspoken opposition to contraception, sterilisation and abortion, it was clear that something odd was happening. This paper documents the appropriation of 'human rights' discourses by conservative Catholics in Latin America, where the recent success of reproductive and sexual rights social movements has generated a significant backlash. It specifically traces an effort by Catholic legal scholars to justify what they term 'a distinctively Latin American approach to human rights' while ignoring decades of human rights activism by others. Opponents of reproductive and sexual rights are deploying rights-talk selectively and strategically, it is argued, using this as secular cover to advance pro-life and pro-family policies. PMID:24592819

  4. Deaths in the desert: the human rights crisis on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Androff, David K; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y

    2012-04-01

    Many would acknowledge that immigration is a major issue in the United States and that immigration reform should be a priority. However, there is little attention to the human rights crisis on the U.S.-Mexican border. As a result of tightened border security since 1994, it is estimated that over 5,000 migrants have died in the Sonoran desert. The criminalization of immigration has resulted in a human rights crisis in three areas: (1) the rise of deaths and injuries of migrants crossing the border in harsh and remote locations, (2) the use of mass hearings to prosecute apprehended migrants, and (3) abuses of migrants in immigration detention. These policies and practices have serious repercussions for the affected vulnerable population. Despite recent legislation designed to discourage undocumented immigration, such as Arizona's Senate Bill 1070, the deterrence strategy has not diminished migration--it has only increased the suffering and deaths of migrants. Humanitarian groups are working to prevent more deaths but also have been targeted for criminalization. The profession's ethics compel social workers to work with humanitarian organizations to prevent more deaths and to advocate for humane immigration reform. PMID:23038878

  5. Human rights and ethical considerations for a tobacco-free generation

    PubMed Central

    van der Eijk, Yvette; Porter, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a new tobacco ‘endgame’ has been proposed: the denial of tobacco sale to any citizen born after a certain year, thus creating new tobacco-free generations. The proposal would not directly affect current smokers, but would impose a restriction on potential future generations of smokers. This paper examines some key legal and ethical issues raised by this proposal, critically assessing how an obligation to protect human rights might limit or support a state's ability to phase out tobacco. PMID:24114564

  6. Human-Nature Relationships in School Science: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Middle-Grade Science Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ajay; Buxton, Cory A.

    2015-01-01

    Science education has a central role to play in preparing a scientifically literate citizenry that is capable of understanding complex environmental challenges facing human societies and making well-informed and evidence-based decisions that help resolve these challenges. However, evidence suggests that most Americans are poorly equipped with the…

  7. Information Structure in Discourse 

    E-print Network

    Traat, Maarika

    The present dissertation proposes integrating Discourse Representation Theory (DRT), information structure (IS) and Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) into a single framework. It achieves this by making two new ...

  8. Human rights and health disparities for migrant workers in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Sevil; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Tran, Diane; Rentrope, Shantyana

    2011-01-01

    Systematic violations of migrant workers' human rights and striking health disparities among these populations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are the norm in member countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Migrant laborers comprise about 90 percent of the UAE workforce and include approximately 500,000 construction workers and 450,000 domestic workers. Like many other GCC members countries, the UAE witnessed an unprecedented construction boom during the early 2000s, attracting large numbers of Western expatriates and increasing demand for cheap migrant labor. Elite Emiratis' and Western expatriates' dependence on household staff further promoted labor migration. This paper offers a summary of existing literature on migrant workers and human rights in the UAE, focusing on their impact on related health ramifications and disparities, with specific attention to construction workers, domestic workers, and trafficked women and children. Construction workers and domestic laborers are victims of debt bondage and face severe wage exploitation, and experience serious health and safety problems resulting from inhumane work and living conditions. High rates of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse impact the health of domestic workers. Through a review of available literature, including official reports, scientific papers, and media reports, the paper discusses the responsibility of employers, governments, and the global community in mitigating these problems and reveals the paucity of systematic data on the health of migrant workers in the Gulf. PMID:22773029

  9. Construction of a questionnaire for readiness to reconcile in victims of human rights violations

    PubMed Central

    Stammel, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Böttche, Maria; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background Post-conflict reconciliation is supposed to have a positive impact on survivors of war and conflict. However, knowledge is limited as validated questionnaires to assess individual readiness to reconcile in the context of human rights violations are still missing. Objectives This study aimed to develop and pilot-test a questionnaire to assess individual readiness to reconcile in victims of human rights violations. Methods The questionnaire was developed and pilot-tested in a sample of 60 adult Kurdish refugees from Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire, trauma exposure, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, perceived emotional closeness to the Kurdish people as well as the participants’ ability to differentiate between perpetrators and the people in general were assessed in structured interviews, and their associations with readiness to reconcile were analyzed. Results Factor and item analysis resulted in an 18-item questionnaire with three subscales (openness to interactions; absence of feelings of revenge; openness to conflict resolution). Cronbach's ? for the subscales ranged from 0.74 to 0.90, explaining 61% of the total variance. The ability to differentiate between perpetrators and people in general and perceived emotional closeness were the best predictors for readiness to reconcile. The level of trauma exposure was not linked to readiness to reconcile. Although readiness to reconcile was negatively related to PTSD, depression and anxiety, none of these associations reached statistical significance. Conclusions The questionnaire appears to be a reliable measure with good psychometric properties. Further validations in different samples are needed. PMID:22893837

  10. Prioritizing health: a human rights analysis of disaster, vulnerability, and urbanization in New Orleans and Port-au-Prince.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Climate change prompts increased urbanization and vulnerability to natural hazards. Urbanization processes are relevant to a right to health analysis of natural hazards because they can exacerbate pre-disaster inequalities that create vulnerability. The 2010 earthquake in Port-au-Prince and the 2005 hurricane in New Orleans provide vivid illustrations of the relationship between spatial inequality and the threats associated with natural hazards. The link between urbanization processes, spatial inequality, and vulnerability to natural hazards is important in terms of an analysis of the right to health; in particular, it provides a basis for arguing that states should prioritize equitable land use and development as a matter of human rights. This article draws on work by geographers, disaster specialists, and international legal scholars to argue that inequitable urbanization processes violate the obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill the human right to health in disaster-prone regions. PMID:25474610

  11. Filling the gap: a learning network for health an human rights in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    London, Leslie; Fick, Nicole; Tram, Khai Hoan; Stuttaford, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We draw on the experience of a Learning Network for Health and Human Rights (LN) involving collaboration between academic institutions and civil society organizations in the Western Cape, South Africa, aimed at identifying and disseminating best practice related to the right to health. The LN's work in materials development, participatory research, training and capacity-building for action, and advocacy for intervention illustrates important lessons for human rights practice. These include (i) the importance of active translation of knowledge and awareness into action for rights to be made real; (ii) the potential tension arising from civil society action, which might relieve the state of its obligations by delivering services that should be the state's responsibility-and hence the importance of emphasizing civil society's role in holding services accountable in terms of the right to health; (iii) the role of civil society organizations in filling a gap related to obligations to promote rights; (iv) the critical importance of networking and solidarity for building civil society capacity to act for health rights. Evidence from evaluation of the LN is presented to support the argument that civil society can play a key role in bridging a gap between formal state commitment to creating a human rights culture and realizing services and policies that enable the most vulnerable members of society to advance their health. Through access to information and the creation of spaces, both for participation and as a safe environment in which learning can be turned into practice, the agency of those most affected by rights violations can be redressed. We argue that civil society agency is critical to such action. PMID:22773101

  12. An Acoustic Profile of Right-Dislocations in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an acoustic profile of the prosody of right-dislocations in French, using the CECIL computer hardware and software package to analyze 28 right-dislocations occurring in a corpus of natural French discourse. It was found that, although right-dislocations appear to fulfill various functional roles in discourse, no correlation appears…

  13. Profiles of Discourse Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray

    2013-01-01

    A discourse recognition theory derived from more general memory formulations would be broad in its psychological implications. This study compared discourse recognition with some established profiles of item recognition. Participants read 10 stories either once or twice each. They then rated their confidence in recognizing explicit, paraphrased,…

  14. Learning, thinking, and emoting with discourse technologies.

    PubMed

    Graesser, Arthur C

    2011-11-01

    This is an unusual moment in the history of psychology because of landmark advances in digital information technologies, computational linguistics, and other fields that use the computer to analyze language, discourse, and behavior. The technologies developed from this interdisciplinary fusion are helping students learn and think in ways that are sensitive to their cognitive and emotional states. Recent projects have developed computer technologies that help us understand the nature of conversational discourse and text comprehension in addition to improving learning. AutoTutor and other systems with conversational agents (i.e., talking heads) help students learn by holding conversations in natural language. One version of AutoTutor is sensitive to the emotions of students in addition to their cognitive states. Coh-Metrix analyzes texts on multiple levels of language and discourse, such as text genre, cohesion, syntax, and word characteristics. Coh-Metrix can assist students, teachers, principals, and policymakers when they make decisions on the right text to assign to the right student at the right time. Computers are not perfect conversation partners and comprehenders of text, but the current systems are undeniably useful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22082403

  15. Resuscitating the critical in the biological grotesque: blood, guts, biomachismo in science/education and human guinea pig discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Matthew; Broda, Matthew

    2009-12-01

    This article draws on Bakhtin and other cultural studies theorists to understand the role of the grotesque as a libratory moment in biology education. Four examples of texts and moments are analyzed: Sylvia Branzei's Grossology series of children's books about the grotesque, observations of a pig heart dissection, a standard high school textbook, and zines by and for human subjects. Findings confirm a powerful social leveling effect within the biological grotesque, but limits are also identified. Specifically, the grotesque itself can become a form of social capital in itself, and thus the material for establishing new hierarchies. The paper also examines the ways that teachers and texts try to limit the leveling effects of the grotesque.

  16. Models of processing: discourse.

    PubMed

    Garnham, Alan

    2010-11-01

    This article discusses models of discourse processing, primarily from a psycholinguistic perspective, though considerations from the other cognitive sciences are mentioned where appropriate. It also touches on issues of discourse representation, because questions about representation and questions about process are closely intertwined. The origins of an interest in questions about discourse are identified in Bransford's ideas from the early 1970s. Their development into more detailed models of discourse processing is discussed, and detailed descriptions are given of, in particular, anaphor processing and, to a lesser extent the establishment of coherence. Some issues that arise in connection with the production of discourse are briefly discussed, as are their relation to dialog rather than to monolog. WIREs Cogn Sci 2010 1 845-853 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271782

  17. Power discourses of fish death: case of linnunsuo peat production.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Tero

    2014-03-01

    This article explores the peat production impacts on Jukajoki river in Finland by implementing discourse analysis. Four discourses are explored: state truth statements; company statements that are in close proximity of state power; discourses provided by the local community Selkie, who provided counter-narratives to the official views; and finally media and related discourses. In conclusion, the discourses by the state and closely related actors (A-B) comprised implementation of their power and justifying it at the expense of those who are excluded from such power, in this case the village. The village narrative (C) contains elements that strongly contradict the statements provided by those with power. The results indicate local communities should be taken more seriously. The systematic denial of local peoples' rights should be reviewed, and local participation in environmental permit assessments implemented. PMID:23852881

  18. Raising Children with Roots, Rights & Responsibilities: Celebrating the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Lori; Foley, Joanne; Gagliardi, Annette

    This curriculum resource grew out of a grass roots effort to promote the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child through education and political action. Designed primarily for young children and their parents, the curriculum builds on the power of the parent-child relationship to help build a positive self-image for both parent and…

  19. Cingulate neglect in humans: disruption of contralesional reward learning in right brain damage.

    PubMed

    Lecce, Francesca; Rotondaro, Francesca; Bonnì, Sonia; Carlesimo, Augusto; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Doricchi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Motivational valence plays a key role in orienting spatial attention. Nonetheless, clinical documentation and understanding of motivationally based deficits of spatial orienting in the human is limited. Here in a series of one group-study and two single-case studies, we have examined right brain damaged patients (RBD) with and without left spatial neglect in a spatial reward-learning task, in which the motivational valence of the left contralesional and the right ipsilesional space was contrasted. In each trial two visual boxes were presented, one to the left and one to the right of central fixation. In one session monetary rewards were released more frequently in the box on the left side (75% of trials) whereas in another session they were released more frequently on the right side. In each trial patients were required to: 1) point to each one of the two boxes; 2) choose one of the boxes for obtaining monetary reward; 3) report explicitly the position of reward and whether this position matched or not the original choice. Despite defective spontaneous allocation of attention toward the contralesional space, RBD patients with left spatial neglect showed preserved contralesional reward learning, i.e., comparable to ipsilesional learning and to reward learning displayed by patients without neglect. A notable exception in the group of neglect patients was L.R., who showed no sign of contralesional reward learning in a series of 120 consecutive trials despite being able of reaching learning criterion in only 20 trials in the ipsilesional space. L.R. suffered a cortical-subcortical brain damage affecting the anterior components of the parietal-frontal attentional network and, compared with all other neglect and non-neglect patients, had additional lesion involvement of the medial anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and of the adjacent sectors of the corpus callosum. In contrast to his lateralized motivational learning deficit, L.R. had no lateral bias in the early phases of attentional processing as he suffered no contralesional visual or auditory extinction on double simultaneous tachistoscopic and dichotic stimulation and detected, with no exception, single contralesional visual and auditory stimuli. In a separate study, we were able to compare L.R. with another RBD patient, G.P., who had a selective lesion in the right ACC, in the adjacent callosal connections and the medial-basal prefrontal cortex. G.P. had no contralesional neglect and displayed normal reward learning both in the left and right side of space. These findings show that contralesional reward learning is generally preserved in RBD patients with left spatial neglect and that this can be exploited in rehabilitation protocols. Contralesional reward learning is severely disrupted in neglect patients when an additional lesion of the ACC is present: however, as demonstrated by the comparison between L.R. and G.P. cases, selective unilateral lesion of the right ACC does not produce motivational neglect for the contralesional space. PMID:25239855

  20. Integrating interventions on maternal mortality and morbidity and HIV: a human rights-based framework and approach.

    PubMed

    Fried, Susanna; Harrison, Brianna; Starcevich, Kelly; Whitaker, Corinne; O'Konek, Tiana

    2012-01-01

    Maternal mortality and morbidity (MMM) and HIV represent interlinked challenges arising from common causes, magnifying their respective impacts and producing related consequences. Accordingly, an integrated response will lead to the most effective approach for both. Shared structural drivers include gender inequality; gender-based violence (including sexual violence); economic disempowerment; and stigma and discrimination in access to services or opportunities based on gender and HIV. Further, shared system-related drivers also contribute to a lack of effective access to acceptable, high-quality health services and other development resources from birth forward. HIV and MMM are connected in both outcomes and solutions: in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV is the leading cause of maternal death, while the most recent global report on HIV identifies prevention of unintended pregnancy and access to contraception as two of the most important HIV-related prevention efforts.1 Both are central to reducing unsafe abortion--another leading cause of maternal death globally, and particularly in Africa. A human rights-based framework helps to identify these shared determinants. A human rights-based approach works to establish the health-related human rights standards to which all women are entitled, as well to outline the indivisible and intersecting human rights principles which inform and guide efforts to prevent, protect from, respond to, and provide remedy for human rights violations-in this case related to HIV and maternal mortality and morbidity.The Millennium Declaration and Development Goals (MDGs) help to both set quantifiable goals for achieving the components identified within the human rights-based framework and document the international consensus that no single goal--such as those addressing HIV and MMM--can be achieved without progress on all development goals. PMID:23568945

  1. Teaching about Global Human Rights for Global Citizenship: Action Research in the Social Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudelli, William; Fernekes, William R.

    2004-01-01

    What are my rights? What can I do if my rights are violated? Who has the right to do that?Questions like these are easily articulated by most students in the United States because from an early age they frequently receive socially diffused rights messages in virtually every aspect of their lives. The United States has been described as a highly…

  2. Scientific research and human rights: a response to Kitcher on the limitations of inquiry.

    PubMed

    Victor, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    In his recent work exploring the role of science in democratic societies Kitcher (Science in a democratic society. Prometheus Books, New York, 2011) claims that scientists ought to have a prominent role in setting the agenda for and limits to research. Against the backdrop of the claim that the proper limits of scientific inquiry is John Stuart Mill’s Harm Principle (Kitcher in Science, truth, and democracy. Oxford University Press, New York, 2001), he identifies the limits of inquiry as the point where the outcomes of research could cause harm to already vulnerable populations. Nonetheless, Kitcher argues against explicit limitations on unscrupulous research on the grounds that restrictions would exacerbate underlying social problems. I show that Kitcher’s argument in favor of dissuading inquiry through conventional standards is problematic and falls prey to the same critique he offers in opposition to official bans. I expand the conversation of limiting scientific research by recognizing that the actions that count as ‘science’ are located in the space between ‘thinking’ and ‘doing’. In this space, we often attempt to balance freedom of research, as scientific speech, against the disparate impact citizens might experience in light of such research. I end by exploring if such disparate impact justifies limiting research, within the context of the United States, under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 or under international human rights standards more generally. PMID:24235027

  3. Sakharov Prize Talk: Creativity of Physicists in the Struggle for Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Boris

    2014-03-01

    USSR was a totalitarian State with an almighty secret service - KGB. To save the repressed victim of regime, let it be dissident or scientists - Jewish refuzenik, was seemingly an absolutely impossible task. ``For success of our hopeless adventure!'', - as Andrei Sakharov used to say. There were no natural checks and balances in the Former USSR and there none in modern Russia - that is why the task to save the child in Russia is not less `hopeless' today. But the key word in Sakharov's motto is `success' - and we managed to reach it earlier in cooperation with the world scientific community, and we manage to reach it now in our work of protecting of rights of children. The Know How is creativity. To achieve something absolutely impossible needs unexpected `crazy' ideas (`it's not crazy enough to be true', - Niels Bohr). The same in science, in physics in particular, the Step to Unknown always demands `crazy' creative ideas. The Talk traces the parallels between creativity in physics and in human rights struggle. I acknowledge the support from the Committee of Concerned Scientists.

  4. Organizing, Educating, and Advocating for Health and Human Rights in Vieques, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Maria Idalí

    2005-01-01

    I briefly review the process of community organization, education, and advocacy activities that ended the harmful military practices in the island-municipality of Vieques, Puerto Rico, while drawing attention to the intersection of human rights and social justice in the context of local and global implications. The Viequense experience was one of building an organization based on people’s experiences and strengths, educating people to increase individual and collective efficacy and power, and advocating for policy change with an assertive cohesive action. Public health practitioners must continue supporting community-led interventions in the restoration of the island’s environment and other resources vital for people’s health and well-being. PMID:15623851

  5. Health as a human right: an epidemiologist's perspective on the public health.

    PubMed Central

    Susser, M

    1993-01-01

    The modern idea of health as a human right is examined, as it evolved from the 18th century, in terms of its origins, its essential content, and 20th-century attempts at implementation. Equity for social groups is seen as a guiding principle. Two attempts at implementation, in Britain and in Cuba, are examined for their effects on equity in health service and in health states. The British National Health Service achieved equity between social classes in services but failed to achieve it in health states (as measured by mortality). Deficiencies in commitment to public health services, it is argued, contributed largely to this failure. The Cuban experiment appears to have moved beyond equity solely in services and toward equity in health states. This success reflects an overall Cuban commitment to the public health. Two important elements of that commitment are, first, continuous evaluation with flexible response and, second, community involvement. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8438984

  6. Application of satellite imagery to monitoring human rights abuse of vulnerable communities, with minimal risk to relief staff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavers, C.; Bishop, C.; Hawkins, O.; Grealey, E.; Cox, C.; Thomas, D.; Trimel, S.

    2009-07-01

    Space imagery offers remote surveillance of ethnic people groups at risk of human rights abuse. We highlight work in alleged violations in Burma and Sudan, using satellite imagery for verification with Amnesty International. We consider how imaging may effectively support small to medium-sized Non Governmental Organisations and charities, e.g. HART, working in dangerous zones on the ground. Satellite based sensing applications are now at a sufficiently mature stage for moderate Governmental funding levels to help prevent human rights abuse, rather than the greater cost of rebuilding communities and healing sectarian divisions after abuse has taken place.

  7. Human rights, dual loyalties, and clinical independence : challenges facing mental health professionals working in Australia's immigration detention network.

    PubMed

    Essex, Ryan

    2014-03-01

    Although Australia has comparatively few individuals seeking asylum, it has had a mandatory detention policy in place since 1992. This policy has been maintained by successive governments despite the overwhelmingly negative impact mandatory detention has on mental health. For mental health professionals working in this environment, a number of moral, ethical, and human rights issues are raised. These issues are discussed here, with a focus on dual loyalty conflicts and drawing on personal experience, the bioethics and human rights literature, and recent parliamentary inquiries. For those who continue to work in this environment, future directions are also discussed. PMID:24363197

  8. Perpetration of gross human rights violations in South Africa: Association with psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Dan J; Williams, Stacey L; Jackson, Pamela B; Seedat, Soraya; Myer, Landon; Herman, Allen; Williams, David R

    2011-01-01

    Background A nationally representative study of psychiatric disorders in South Africa provided an opportunity to study the association between perpetration of human rights violations (HRVs) during apartheid and psychiatric disorder. Prior work has suggested an association between perpetration and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but this remains controversial. Methods Subjects reported on their perpetration of human rights violations, purposeful injury, accidental injury and domestic violence. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition) disorders were assessed with Version 3.0 of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Socio-demographic characteristics of these groups were calculated. Odds ratios for the association between the major categories of psychiatric disorders and perpetration were assessed. Results HRV perpetrators were more likely to be male, black and more educated, while perpetrators of domestic violence (DV) were more likely to be female, older, married, less educated and with lower income. HRV perpetration was associated with lifetime and 12-month anxiety and substance use disorders, particularly PTSD. Purposeful and DV perpetration were associated with lifetime and 12-month history of all categories of disorders, whereas accidental perpetration was associated most strongly with mood disorders. Conclusion Socio-demographic profiles of perpetrators of HRV and DV in South Africa differ. While the causal relationship between perpetration and psychiatric disorders deserves further study, it is possible that some HRV and DV perpetrators were themselves once victims. The association between accidental perpetration and mood disorder also deserves further attention. PMID:19588803

  9. Conflicting Rights: How the Prohibition of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation Infringes the Right to Health of Female Sex Workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Maher, Lisa; Dixon, Thomas; Phlong, Pisith; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Stein, Ellen; Page, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    While repressive laws and policies in relation to sex work have the potential to undermine HIV prevention efforts, empirical research on their interface has been lacking. In 2008, Cambodia introduced antitrafficking legislation ostensibly designed to suppress human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Based on empirical research with female sex workers, this article examines the impact of the new law on vulnerability to HIV and other adverse health outcomes. Following the introduction of the law, sex workers reported being displaced to streets and guesthouses, impacting their ability to negotiate safe sex and increasing exposure to violence. Disruption of peer networks and associated mobility also reduced access to outreach, condoms, and health care. Our results are consistent with a growing body of research which associates the violation of sex workers' human rights with adverse public health outcomes. Despite the successes of the last decade, Cambodia's AIDS epidemic remains volatile and the current legal environment has the potential to undermine prevention efforts by promoting stigma and discrimination, impeding prevention uptake and coverage, and increasing infections. Legal and policy responses which seek to protect the rights of the sexually exploited should not infringe the right to health of sex workers. PMID:26204575

  10. Leveraging HIV-related human rights achievements through a Framework Convention on Global Health.

    PubMed

    Buse, Kent; Eba, Patrick; Sigurdson, Jason; Thomson, Kate; Timberlake, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Although AIDS remains a leading cause of death, especially in low- and middle-income countries, the movement to address it has greatly contributed to changing the world's response to health challenges. By fusing activism, political leadership, domestic and international investment, and accountability for results, the course of the epidemic has been radically shifted. People living with HIV and others directly affected by the epidemic have exerted immense leadership since the first days of the response: they have fought to end discrimination on the basis of sero-status, gender, sexual orientation, disability, migration status, drug use, or participation in sex work. Some of this mobilization has taken the form of strategic litigation, drawing human rights down into concrete demands and defining social, health, legal, and economic policy. The global AIDS response has shown that at the core of health lie considerations of social justice, human rights, and accountability. As momentum builds for a Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), we believe there is an opportunity to take stock of lessons learned from the response to HIV and ensure that they are replicated and institutionalized in an eventual Convention. We argue that the most critical aspect to the success of the HIV response has been the leadership and activism of civil society. Conventions do not lead to results on their own, and there should be every expectation that the FCGH will be no different. Success requires active monitoring of progress and shortcomings, combined with political and social mobilization to expand investment and access to the services and underlying conditions that protect and advance health. While the FCGH must make civil society support and engagement an indispensable principle, the AIDS movement can contribute substantive content and mobilization for its adoption. A broad international legal framework for health can help address some of the key legal, policy, regulatory, and programmatic challenges that continue to hinder effective responses to HIV. Thus, the AIDS response potentially has much to gain from the normative and institutional framework, and the expanded commitment to realizing the right to health that can be generated under such a Convention. PMID:25006095

  11. Does education plays a role in meeting the human rights needs of Indian women with mental illness?

    PubMed Central

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally women are one of the vulnerable populations and women without education and with mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: To find out the role of education in meeting the human rights needs of women with mental illness at family and community levels. Materials and Methods: A descriptive design was carried out among randomly selected recovered women (N = 100) with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that human rights needs in physical needs dimension, i.e. access to safe drinking water (?2 = 7.447, P < 0.059) and serving in the same utensils (?2 = 10.866, P < 0.012), were rated higher in women with illiteracy. The human rights needs in emotional dimension, i.e. afraid of family members (?2 = 13.266, P < 0.004), not involved in making decisions regarding family matters (?2 = 21.133, P < 0.00) and called with filthy nicknames (?2 = 8.334, P < 0.040), were rated higher in literate women. The human rights needs in religious needs dimension, i.e. allowed to go to temple, church, mosque etc. (?2 = 9.459, P < 0.024), were not satisfied by the illiterate women. Similarly, literate women felt that they were discriminated by community members due to their illness (?2 = 9.823, P < 0.044). Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggested that women without education were more deprived of human rights needs than literate women. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve literacy of women and to strengthen the legal framework to protect the rights of the women with mental illness. PMID:26167021

  12. Complementing or Conflicting Human Rights Conventions? Realising an Inclusive Approach to Families with a Young Person with a Disability and Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Kristy; Goldblatt, Beth

    2011-01-01

    United Nation's conventions exist to help facilitate and protect vulnerable people's human rights: including people with disabilities (Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2006) and children (Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989). However, for some families where a family member has a disability, there may be inherent…

  13. A Social Movements' Perspective on Human Rights Impact of Mining Liberalization in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Aytin, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    When it comes to minerals like gold, copper, or nickel, the Philippines ranks among the world's richest countries, but it has continued to perform poorly in terms of human and economic development. In the belief that foreign investments will bring development, the government in 1995 liberalized its mining industry allowing full foreign ownership and control of the mining activities. After almost two decades of mining liberalization, the country has never achieved its goal of development but is now reeling from the adverse impacts of large-scale corporate mining on the environment and lives of mining-affected communities. Moreover, human rights violations against anti-mining activists and environmental advocates have escalated at an alarming rate making the country one of the most dangerous places for land and environmental defenders. But social movements are now taking big steps to empower the people, especially the mining-affected communities, to confront the adverse impacts of corporate mining and to reverse the current path of the mining industry to one that aims to achieve national industrialization where national development is prioritized over transnational corporations' interests. PMID:26450276

  14. An Explanatory Model of Poverty from the Perspective of Social Psychology and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Muñoz, Alfonso; Chacón, Fernando; Martínez Arias, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Poverty is a social problem, entailing not only an economical perspective but above all a human and social issue. Poverty is promoted, justified and maintained by unique individuals and groups by means of our own attitudes, interests and behavior, as well as with our social structures and social relationships. From this interactive, psychosocial and sociostructural perspective, and also considering poverty as a denial of basic human rights (UNDP, 1998), we carried out a study with the primary objective to design and verify an Explanatory Model of Poverty. This research may helps to increase the validity of diagnostics and the effectiveness of interventions. Most of the hypotheses were accepted during the analysis and verification of the Model (p < .001), with data fitting the Model (CFI: 1 RMSEA: .025: LO90: 0 - HI90: .061. RMR: .008). These results, if replicated in new investigations, could have the following implications: (a) the need for a broad and comprehensive definition of poverty including its effects, processes and causes; (b) the need for everybody to accept the social responsibility in the prevention and solution to poverty; and PMID:26646620

  15. Electrophysiologic effects of unilateral right and left stellate ganglion block on the human heart.

    PubMed

    Cinca, J; Evangelista, A; Montoyo, J; Barutell, C; Figueras, J; Valle, V; Rius, J; Soler-Soler, J

    1985-01-01

    To determine the electrophysiologic effects of stellate ganglion (SG) block on the human heart, the two SGs were anesthetized separately, with a 24-hour interval between the two procedures, in 13 patients with episodes of supraventricular tachycardia (six had Kent bundles). Left SG block caused: (1) a lengthening of the AH interval, measured at fixed atrial rates of 10 +/- 12 msec (p less than 0.01); (2) a marked depression of the VA conduction in six of the seven patients with measurable VA interval (in two patients it produced complete VA block); (3) a slowing of 20 to 40 msec of the cycle of an electrically induced reciprocating tachycardia; and (4) failure to modify the QT interval duration. In contrast, right SG block produced asymmetric or opposite changes and prolonged the QT interval (7.6 +/- 8.8 msec, p less than 0.05). Atrial and ventricular refractoriness was not significantly altered by SG block. Retrograde effective refractory period of the Kent bundle changed 20 to 60 msec after unilateral SG blockade. Thus, this study suggests that the human conduction system and the Kent bundles receive an appreciable sympathetic influence from the SG. Like experimental studies, we also found an asymmetric response to unilateral SG block and a dominance, in most of our patients, of the left SG. The influence on myocardial refractoriness was less apparent. PMID:3966332

  16. Cleft constructions in discourse 

    E-print Network

    Delin, Judith Lesley

    1990-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the structure and function of cleft constructions in discourse. Drawing on a corpus of naturally-occurring spoken and written data, we present a multi-layered explanation of how ...

  17. Service-Learning in Communication Education: A Case Study Investigation in Support of a Prisoners' Human Rights Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novek, Eleanor

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a case study of a graduate class in communication research methods with a service-learning approach. Students were engaged in evaluating the public information campaign of a nonprofit organization exposing human rights abuses in US prisons. They gained hands-on experience in the use of a variety of basic research methods and…

  18. Voices of Home and School on Democracy and Human Rights Education at the Primary Level: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gondogdu, Kerim; Yildirim, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the perceptions of home and school concerning ideally implemented primary democracy and human rights education. In this qualitative study, data were collected from six voluntary classroom teachers and 16 parents in a selected school through interviews. The results of the interview yielded five major…

  19. 75 FR 60567 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Serious Human Rights Abuses by the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ..., September 28, 2010. Billing code 3195-W1-P ] TD01OC10.024 [FR Doc. 2010-24839 Filed 9-30-10; 8:45 am... Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Serious Human Rights Abuses by the Government of Iran and.... 1701et seq.) (IEEPA), the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601et seq.), the Comprehensive...

  20. Gendered-Caste Discrimination, Human Rights Education, and the Enforcement of the Prevention of Atrocities Act in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Dip

    2007-01-01

    Despite the constitutional ban on the practice of untouchability and caste-based discrimination, this article elaborates on a gendered-caste-based discriminatory reality in rural India, the difficulties of enforcing legal remedies, and on related human rights praxis to address gendered-caste atrocities by drawing on the experiences of a Canadian…

  1. The Status of Thailand's Implementation of International Treaty Obligations Regarding Linguistic Human Rights in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, John

    2013-01-01

    Given the recent consideration by the Thai government of a national language policy, this article considers the status of Thailand's treaty obligations regarding linguistic human rights in education. It presents a general background, a brief linguistic profile of Thailand, a concise summary of the concept and importance of linguicide, and a…

  2. Executive Summary: In 2014 2015, the Global Institute for Health and Human Rights expanded its programming, grant funding, and

    E-print Network

    Alexandrova, Ivana

    addressing HIV/AIDS, drug use, and stigma for 20 countries in the Middle East and Central Asia. GIHHR members support for three four-day Training of Trainers workshops on HIV/AIDS and associated comorbidities and Policy, and the founding Director of Global Institute for Health and Human Rights. He is an expert on HIV

  3. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  4. Determinants of Linguistic Human Rights Movements: An Analysis of Multiple Causation of LHRs Movements Using a Boolean Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishida, Atsushi; Yonetani, Miya; Kosaka, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    This paper applies a Boolean approach to examine the social background of movements for linguistic human rights. Predictive determinants to explain the occurrence of LHRs movements in this study included linguistic diversity within a country, literacy rate, population size, national income as an index of affluence, and the existence of a…

  5. 75 FR 60567 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Serious Human Rights Abuses by the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...Human Rights Abuses by the Government of Iran and Taking Certain Other Actions By the...C. 1601et seq.), the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment...to be an official of the Government of Iran or a person acting on behalf of the...

  6. Promoting Service User Inclusion in Risk Assessment and Management: A Pilot Project Developing a Human Rights-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Beth; Whitehead, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports highlight the extent to which many people with learning disabilities are not afforded access to their basic human rights. In addition, traditional approaches to risk management often focus on professional assessments of risks and challenging behaviour and exclude service user perspectives. In this paper, we outline what we believe…

  7. The Canadian Human Rights Act. Physical Handicap and Employment = Loi canadienne sur les droits de la personne. Le handicap physique et l'emploi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Human Rights Commission, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet presents administrative criteria for implementation of the Canadian Human Rights Act to be used by the Canadian Human Rights Commission to evaluate employment decisions affecting physically handicapped individuals. They are of value to employers who need to know how the Commission will analyze employer arguments that they have not…

  8. Costing Human Rights and Community Support Interventions as a Part of Universal Access to HIV Treatment and Care in a Southern African Setting

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Louisa; Akugizibwe, Paula; Clayton, Michaela; Amon, Joseph J; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Bennett, Rod; Stegling, Christine; Baggaley, Rachel; Kahn, James G; Holmes, Charles B; Garg, Navneet; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Mack, Christina DeFilippo; Williams, Phoebe; Smyth, Caoimhe; Vitoria, Marco; Crowley, Siobhan; Williams, Brian; McClure, Craig; Granich, Reuben; Hirnschall, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has both individual health benefits and potential to decrease HIV incidence. Ensuring access to HIV services is a significant human rights issue and successful programmes require adequate human rights protections and community support. However, the cost of specific human rights and community support interventions for equitable, sustainable and non-discriminatory access to ART are not well described. Human rights and community support interventions were identified using the literature and through consultations with experts. Specific costs were then determined for these health sector interventions. Population and epidemic data were provided through the Statistics South Africa 2009 national mid-year estimates. Costs of scale up of HIV prevention and treatment were taken from recently published estimates. Interventions addressed access to services, minimising stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV, confidentiality, informed consent and counselling quality. Integrated HIV programme interventions included training for counsellors, ‘Know Your Rights’ information desks, outreach campaigns for most at risk populations, and adherence support. Complementary measures included post-service interviews, human rights abuse monitoring, transportation costs, legal assistance, and funding for human rights and community support organisations. Other essential non-health sector interventions were identified but not included in the costing framework. The annual costs for the human rights and community support interventions are United States (US) $63.8 million (US $1.22 per capita), representing 1.5% of total health sector HIV programme costs. Respect for human rights and community engagement can be understood both as an obligation of expanded ART programmes and as a critically important factor in their success. Basic rights-based and community support interventions constitute only a small percentage of overall programmes costs. ART programs should consider measuring the cost and impact of human rights and community support interventions as key aspects of successful programme expansion. PMID:21999777

  9. Discourse representation in the two cerebral hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Long, Debra L; Baynes, Kathleen

    2002-02-15

    Readers construct at least two interrelated representations when they comprehend a text: (a) a propositional representation containing the individual ideas that are derived from each sentence and the relations among them and (b) a discourse model, a representation of the context or situation to which the text refers. We used a paradigm called "item priming in recognition" to examine how these representations are stored in the cerebral hemispheres. In Experiment 1, the priming paradigm was used in combination with a lateralized visual field (VF) procedure. We found evidence that readers' representations were structured according to propositional relations, but only in the left hemisphere. Item recognition was facilitated when a concept was preceded by another concept from the same proposition when targets were presented to the left, but not to the right, hemisphere. We found priming in both hemispheres, however, when targets were context-appropriate senses of ambiguous words or topics of passages. In Experiment 2, we replicated the priming effects in three callosotomy patients. We argue that the distinction between a propositional representation and a discourse model is important with respect to how discourse is represented in the brain. The propositional representation appears to reside in the left hemisphere, whereas aspects of the discourse model appear to be represented in both hemispheres. PMID:11970788

  10. US "Partnership" with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and its Effect on Civil Society and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Anne R

    2014-01-01

    Looking at Egypt before, during and after the Arab Spring, this paper examines the intersection of Christian Copts, the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian army, moderate Muslims and secular groups. In turn, it examines the Obama administration's policies toward Egypt. It discloses the surprising finding that the only consistent aspect of the administration's policy toward Egypt has been outreach to and engagement with the Muslim Brotherhood. At no time before or after the Brotherhood's ascent to prominence in Egyptian politics and society did the administration make support of the Brotherhood conditional. At no time did it use US leverage - given the massive amount of financial and military aid Egypt was depending on, and given the new Egyptian government's desire for prestige in the world community-to pressure the Morsi government to respect human rights, religious liberty and the impartial rule of law. Arguing that American foreign policy at its best is rooted in democratic ideals, this paper asks whether the United States, while respecting that Egyptians must choose their leaders and their political system, could have done more to encourage a positive strategic, moral and political outcome. PMID:24415811

  11. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom (N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of “equality for all” similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents’ judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for “paternalized” groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed. PMID:25914516

  12. HIV Testing, Human Rights, and Global AIDS Policy: Exceptionalism and Its Discontents

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Ronald; Edington, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Two years ago, in May 2007, UNAIDS and WHO issued new guidelines on HIV testing. Prepared to meet the demands of the AIDS pandemic and the prospects of extending the benefits of antiretroviral therapy to regions where such treatment had been all but out of reach, the new guidance was the product of an extended period of sometimes acrimonious controversy both within the two UN agencies and globally. Those pressing for change had argued that a paradigm of testing that had emerged at a time when little could be done for those infected with HIV was inappropriate to the current moment. Those who viewed with skepticism, if not hostility, the claims that current practice and stringent ethical standards had become an impediment to effectively confronting the challenge of AIDS saw in the proposed changes a threat to the bedrock ethical principles of informed consent. In the end, of course, decisions about HIV testing will be taken by nation – states, with the recommendations of international organizations constituting but one element, however important, that will shape policy. Nevertheless, an examination of the history and the dynamics of the recent controversy and its outcome will provide a unique resource to those faced with policy choices; it will also provide a unique opportunity to lay bare the complex and politically charged relationships evolving between public health and human rights. PMID:19451406

  13. The Representation of Discourse in the Two Hemispheres: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prat, Chantel S.; Long, Debra L.; Baynes, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate discourse representation in the two cerebral hemispheres as a function of reading skill. We used a lateralized visual-field procedure to compare left hemisphere (LH) and right hemisphere (RH) sensitivity to different discourse relations in readers with varying skill levels. In Experiment 1, we…

  14. Legality, Quality Assurance and Learning: Competing Discourses of Plagiarism Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In universities around the world, plagiarism management is an ongoing issue of quality assurance and risk management. Plagiarism management discourses are often framed by legal concepts of authorial rights, and plagiarism policies outline penalties for infringement. Learning and teaching discourses argue that plagiarism management is, and should…

  15. The right to fashion in the age of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Pham, Minh-Ha T

    2011-01-01

    As part of a feminist commitment to collaboration, this article appears as a companion essay to Mimi Thi Nguyen's "The Biopower of Beauty: Humanitarian Imperialisms and Global Feminisms" and offers a point of departure for thinking about fashion and beauty as processes that produce subjects recruited to, and aligned with, the national interests of the United States in the war on terror. The Muslim woman in the veil and her imagined opposite in the fashionably modern - and implicitly Western - woman become convenient metaphors for articulating geopolitical contests of power as a human rights concern, as a rescue mission, as a beautifying mandate. This article examines newer iterations of this opposition, in the wake of September 11, 2001, in order to demonstrate the critical resonance of a biopolitics on fashion and beauty. In "The Right to Fashion in the Age of Terrorism," the author examines the relationship between the U.S. war on terror, targeting persons whose sartorial choices are described as terrorist-looking and oppressive, and the right-to-fashion discourse, which promotes fashion's mass-market diffusion as a civil liberty. Looking at these multiple invocations of the democratization of fashion, this article argues that the right-to-fashion discourse colludes with the war on terror by fabricating a neoliberal consumer-citizen who is also a couture-citizen and whose right to fashion reasserts U.S.exceptionalism, which is secured by private property, social mobility, and individualism. PMID:21114081

  16. Aaron O. Wells, MD and the Medical Committee for Human Rights: reflections on a life of conscience.

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Aaron O.

    2004-01-01

    The southern civil rights movement compelled Dr. Aaron Wells and other doctors to find ways to use their skills in support of that movement. Through the Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR), healthcare workers provided a medical presence for civil rights protesters in the south during the 1960s. Formed at a time when racial segregation in professional medical associations, hospitals, and medical education was common, the MCHR also highlighted race-based inequities in American medicine. Dr. Wells, a man who lives a life of activism, was the first national president of the MCHR. During the summer of 2002, nearly 40 years after the founding of MCHR, Wells was interviewed about his experiences. Those reminiscences are the basis of this article. Images p1520-a PMID:15586659

  17. Applicative Structures and Immediate Discourse in the Turkish Discourse Bank

    E-print Network

    Bozsahin, Cem

    Applicative Structures and Immediate Discourse in the Turkish Discourse Bank Iin Demirahin, Adnan annotated in the multiple- genre Turkish Discourse Bank (TDB). The de- pendencies that violate tree function compositions and graph reductions, which are known to require more computational power. 2 Turkish

  18. Discourse Relations versus Discourse Marker Relations Jacques Jayez

    E-print Network

    Discourse Relations versus Discourse Marker Relations Jacques Jayez EHESS 54, Bid Raspail 75006 Paris FRANCE jjayez~dial, oleane, corn Corinne Rossari Universit~ de Gen~ve D4partement de Linguistique obvious that many dis- course markers (DMs) are able to express discourse relations (DRs) which exist

  19. Psychotherapeutic discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, B

    1995-01-01

    Psychotherapeutic discourse analysis is a significant, largely unexplored, tool for psychotherapist and an ideal data sight for linguists. Increased multidisciplinary research in this area would be particularly fruitful. Conversations, including therapeutic conversations, are far from transparent conduits of information from one person to another. Complicating surface communication is "metacommunication," which takes the form of unconscious conversational styles--culturally influenced rules, norms, and expectations of how a conversation should proceed. If the therapist and the patient are working with different conversational styles, then blocks in communication and understanding are inevitable. Through discourse analysis conversational styles can become more available to awareness for use in the service of therapeutic goals. This paper is an example of a discourse analysis of an individual therapy session. I attempt to bridge the gap between broad psychodynamic treatment strategies and minute micro-conversational strategies that can be used to enhance the therapeutic process. PMID:8546235

  20. [Communication, discourse and dementia].

    PubMed

    Ska, Bernadette; Duong, Anh

    2005-06-01

    The construction-integration model (Kintsch, 1988) offers a frame for discourse analysis. This model defines four representation levels: the surface level or linguistic form, the base text or semantic level, the situation model built by combining information from the text and personal world knowledge, and the organization level. This study describes discourse produced by 46 Alzheimer patients and 53 normal elderly subjects in two picture-elicited production tasks: a single picture and a sequence of pictures. Globally, the single picture task is a more difficult situation for Alzheimer patients. The impaired levels in dementia are surface level, situation model and organization. Therefore, Kintsch model allows a distinction among discourse productions by normal elderly and mild to moderate Alzheimer patients. PMID:15929926

  1. Balancing the principles: why the universality of human rights is not the Trojan horse of moral imperialism.

    PubMed

    Semplici, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    The new dilemmas and responsibilities which arise in bioethics both because of the unprecedented pace of scientific development and of growing moral pluralism are more and more difficult to grapple with. At the 'global' level, the call for the universal nature at least of some fundamental moral values and principles is often being contended as a testament of arrogance, if not directly as a new kind of subtler imperialism. The human rights framework itself, which provided the basis for the most relevant international declarations and documents, is not exempt from the charge. However, the refusal of a top-down conception of the universal as a sort of product for exportation should not be confused with a relativistic landscape, where all the cows can be indifferently black or white. This contribution aims at outlining an approach, which reconciles universalism as enshrined in founding human rights declarations with respect for cultural diversity. In order to do so, two conceptual frameworks are discussed: the 'tool-kit' model and the morals/ethics difference. The example of the right to quality health care confirms the argument that striking a balance between cherishing pluralism and defending some fundamental rights and obligations does not amount to an assertion of moral imperialism. PMID:23760921

  2. A legal solution to a real problem: the interface between intellectual property, competition and human rights 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Abbe

    2009-01-01

    and the One Lap Top Per Child project. Yet the owner of a national IP right can still object to a valuable project if it comes within the scope of that IP right, say the supply of providers of emergency services with the only communications technology which...

  3. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  4. Andrei Sakharov Prize Talk: Human Rights and International Science -- a Symbiotic Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2010-02-01

    International collaborations, with which scientists have long been involved, have made them staunch defenders of human rights around the world. Collaborations involving a pair, or a small group, of scientists from different countries have been common for more than 100 years. Starting more than 50 years ago, CERN has become the quintessential example of the benefits of large scale international cooperation. Now many national laboratories and projects have major participation by foreign scientists. As a result, scientists around the world quickly become aware when their colleagues are persecuted for opinions and activities that are commonly accepted in most countries. Their prompt and sustained protests to the offending governments have often resulted in the release of imprisoned colleagues. They have helped dissidents leave the danger in their home countries and provided employment opportunities to sustain them in other countries, and allow them to continue to function as scientists. In 2001 I became aware that an Iranian colleague, with whom I had worked on the SESAME Project (www.sesame.org.jo), was imprisoned for opinions critical of his government. I had long been involved with efforts to help scientists and other dissidents being persecuted in countries such as China and the Soviet Union. However this was the first time that someone with whom I had a working relationship, and who I respected and admired, was severely persecuted (solitary confinement, torture) for opinions which I shared. In this talk I will review what I have learned from this case and other experience about coming to the aid of dissidents. In particular I will describe the activities of Scholars at Risk (http://scholarsatrisk.nyu.edu/) and the Scholars Rescue Fund (http://www.scholarrescuefund.org/pages/intro.php). Their offer of 20K to any institution which will provide matching funds to support an endangered dissident has saved careers and lives. )

  5. The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights: protecting future generations and the quest for a global consensus.

    PubMed

    Salako, Solomon E

    2008-12-01

    Since the coining of the term 'ectogenesis' by Haldane in 1924, we have witnessed sensational biotechnological triumphs such as in vitro fertilisation, the cloning of "Dolly" the sheep, and the publication of the human genetic code. These triumphs mix benefits with portents in one seamless package. The object of this article is to assess critically the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. It is argued that the Declaration is not a suitable international instrument for regulating biotechnology and protecting future generations. Finally, the feasibility of a legally binding international instrument based on a global consensus is evaluated. PMID:19202858

  6. [The role of law in human rights: illustrations in the field of healthcare].

    PubMed

    Liendle, Marie

    2012-09-01

    This work gives the opportunity to search where the law stands in the question of right in the philosophical modern and contemporain reflection. This step is not neutral because to accept a confrontation betwenn law and right, is also to choose putting down the following hypothesis, law is not right, although the proposal of the juridical positivism maintains that right exists only by law, even though right, it is what complies with law. When we assume that the right equals the law, we allow to maintain that law puts down a guarantee. This assumption is totally different from the law is the right. The boarder betwen the two ideas is very thin, changing according to ideological meanings and the relationships, thus there are questions on the maining and the shape. Reflection suggestions in the health field and more particularly the ones related to the decision-making process could be drawn from the essay dealing with the understanding of the norms on the individual or on groups of individuals. PMID:23091914

  7. Experts, Dialects, and Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Rakesh Mohan

    2002-01-01

    Examines "expert" discourse--complexes of signs and practices that organize and legitimize social existence and social reproduction--to demonstrate the ideological process involved in the manufacture of Standard English ideology and its continual duplication as necessitated by the three axiomatic conceptions of the English-sacred imagined…

  8. Discourse Devices in Telugu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rani, A. Usha

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss some of the productive discourse devices and markers noted in 50 spoken narratives elicited from Telugu native speakers. Since most of them are college students and residents of Hyderabad, they are also exposed to English as well as Hindi-Urdu (Dakkhini). After presenting certain salient features of Telugu…

  9. Discourse Production Following Injury to the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Carl; Le, Karen; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with damage to the prefrontal cortex, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in particular, often demonstrate difficulties with the formulation of complex language not attributable to aphasia. The present study employed a discourse analysis procedure to characterize the language of individuals with left (L) or right (R) DLPFC…

  10. A Reappraisal of Lexical Cohesion in Conversational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez Gonzalez, Maria De Los Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Cohesion, or the connectedness of discourse, has been recognized as playing a crucial role in both language production and comprehension processes. Researchers have debated about the "right" number and classification of cohesive devices, as well as about their interaction with coherence and/or genre. The present study proposes an integrative model…

  11. Imprisoned and imperiled: access to HIV and TB prevention and treatment, and denial of human rights, in Zambian prisons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although HIV and tuberculosis (TB) prevalence are high in prisons throughout sub-Saharan Africa, little research has been conducted on factors related to prevention, testing and treatment services. Methods To better understand the relationship between prison conditions, the criminal justice system, and HIV and TB in Zambian prisons, we conducted a mixed-method study, including: facility assessments and in-depth interviews with 246 prisoners and 30 prison officers at six Zambian prisons; a review of Zambian legislation and policy governing prisons and the criminal justice system; and 46 key informant interviews with government and non-governmental organization officials and representatives of international agencies and donors. Results The facility assessments, in-depth interviews and key informant interviews found serious barriers to HIV and TB prevention and treatment, and extended pre-trial detention that contributed to overcrowded conditions. Disparities both between prisons and among different categories of prisoners within prisons were noted, with juveniles, women, pre-trial detainees and immigration detainees significantly less likely to access health services. Conclusions Current conditions and the lack of available medical care in Zambia's prisons violate human rights protections and threaten prisoners' health. In order to protect the health of prisoners, prison-based health services, linkages to community-based health care, general prison conditions and failures of the criminal justice system that exacerbate overcrowding must be immediately improved. International donors should work with the Zambian government to support prison and justice system reform and ensure that their provision of funding in such areas as health services respect human rights standards, including non-discrimination. Human rights protections against torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and criminal justice system rights, are essential to curbing the spread of HIV and TB in Zambian prisons, and to achieving broader goals to reduce HIV and TB in Zambia. PMID:21314929

  12. Advancing human rights through constitutional protection for gays and lesbians in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Louw, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    As a consequence of the 1994 adoption of a justiciable Bill of Rights in South Africa, with an equality provision prohibiting discrimination on the ground of sexual orientation, a coalition of gay and lesbian organisations set about implementing a progressive agenda of gay and lesbian rights litigation. In striking down the offence of sodomy, the Constitutional Court established a jurisprudence of gay and lesbian rights to equality, dignity and privacy that proved to be the foundation for significant litigation around family law issues. Subsequent to the sodomy judgement, the Court has ruled that same-sex couples who are in permanent life partnerships should be entitled to the same rights as married couples to immigration, employment benefits, custody and adoption of children. Despite the extensive equality jurisprudence of the Court, it is still uncertain whether it will rule in the future in favour of same-sex marriage or in favour of a civil union/domestic partnership model. PMID:15814504

  13. Exploring the prohibition of degrading treatment within article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights 

    E-print Network

    Webster, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This thesis addresses the meaning and scope of application of the right not to be subjected to degrading treatment, a distinct form of harm within the absolute prohibition of torture, inhuman or degrading treatment or ...

  14. Promotional (Meta)Discourse in Research Articles in Language and Literary Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afros, Elena; Schryer, Catherine F.

    2009-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that self-promotion in academic discourse varies across disciplines. Whereas most analysts focus on publicization techniques in natural and social sciences, the humanities have received much less attention. This article investigates the strategies associated with promotional (meta)discourse in the humanities. In…

  15. The ownership that wasn't meant to be: Yearworth and property rights in human tissue.

    PubMed

    Rostill, Luke David

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the English Court of Appeal's decision in Yearworth v North Bristol NHS Trust that six men had, for the purposes of their claims against the trust, ownership of the sperm they had produced. The case has been discussed by many commentators and most, if not all, of those who have discussed the case have claimed or assumed that the court held that the claimants had property rights in the sperm they had produced. In this paper, I advance an interpretation of the case that does not regard the court as deciding that the men had property rights (in the narrow sense of that term) in the sperm they had produced. On this view, the 'ownership' that the Court of Appeal purported to vest in each of the men was not a right in rem, a right 'binding the world'. If this is so, it is perhaps unsurprising that some scholars, evaluating the success of the court's reasoning as a justification for vesting the claimants with property rights, have found it to be unsatisfactory. PMID:23576533

  16. Expanding discourse repertoires with hybridity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-09-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally dynamic." The hybrid discourse practices are described as involving the dynamic interplay of at least three key elements: "the lamination of multiple cultural frames, the shifting relations between people and their discourse, and the shifting power relations between and among people." Each of these elements requires a respective unit of analysis and are often mutually reinforcing. The authors present a theoretically cogent argument for the study of hybrid discourse practices and identify the potential such discourses may have for science education. This theoretical development leads to an analysis of spoken and written discourse around a set of educational events concerning the investigation of owl pellets by two fifth grade students, their classmates, and teacher. Two discourse segments are presented and analyzed by the authors in detail. The first is a discourse analysis of the dissection of the owl pellet by two students, Kyle and Max. The second analysis examines the science report of these same two students. In this article, I pose a number of questions about the study with the hope that by doing so I expand the conversation around the insightful analysis presented.

  17. Dilemma of concepts and strategies for the prevention of spread of HIV in relation to human behavior, law and human rights

    PubMed Central

    Dennin, Reinhard H.; Lafrenz, Michael; Sinn, Arndt; Li, Lan-juan

    2011-01-01

    The new prevalence data regarding the estimated global number of human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) cases, i.e., including people who are either aware or unaware of their HIV infection in 2010, lead many to wonder why the increase in incidence has reached today’s unprecedented level and escalated within such a short time. This, in spite of prevention campaigns in countries affected by HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with their urgent messages aimed at preventing HIV transmission by promoting changes in individual’s behavior. This article analyzes the background of the prevention strategies, in particular their political, social and legal concepts in terms of human rights, and reveals traits of human behavior not considered thus far. A radical reappraisal is necessary, at social and legislative levels, as well as options additional to current concepts. When ethical issues come up, they become blamed for outmoded moralistic positions. However, ignoring the reality has led to dire consequences from prioritizing individual human rights over society’s collective need to prevent the spread of HIV. PMID:21726067

  18. Ellipsis and discourse coherence

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

    2006-01-01

    VP-ellipsis generally requires a syntactically matching antecedent. However, many documented examples exist where the antecedent is not appropriate. Kehler (2000, 2002) proposed an elegant theory which predicts a syntactic antecedent for an elided VP is required only for a certain discourse coherence relation (resemblance) not for cause-effect relations. Most of the data Kehler used to motivate his theory come from corpus studies and thus do not consist of true minimal pairs. We report five experiments testing predictions of the coherence theory, using standard minimal pair materials. The results raise questions about the empirical basis for coherence theory because parallelism is preferred for all coherence relations, not just resemblance relations. Further, strict identity readings, which should not be available when a syntactic antecedent is required, are influenced by parallelism per se, holding the discourse coherence relation constant. This draws into question the causal role of coherence relations in processing VP ellipsis. PMID:16896367

  19. Electrophysiological evidence for separation between human face and non-face object processing only in the right hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Niina, Megumi; Okamura, Jun-ya; Wang, Gang

    2015-10-01

    Scalp event-related potential (ERP) studies have demonstrated larger N170 amplitudes when subjects view faces compared to items from object categories. Extensive attempts have been made to clarify face selectivity and hemispheric dominance for face processing. The purpose of this study was to investigate hemispheric differences in N170s activated by human faces and non-face objects, as well as the extent of overlap of their sources. ERP was recorded from 20 subjects while they viewed human face and non-face images. N170s obtained during the presentation of human faces appeared earlier and with larger amplitude than for other category images. Further source analysis with a two-dipole model revealed that the locations of face and object processing largely overlapped in the left hemisphere. Conversely, the source for face processing in the right hemisphere located more anterior than the source for object processing. The results suggest that the neuronal circuits for face and object processing are largely shared in the left hemisphere, with more distinct circuits in the right hemisphere. PMID:26189456

  20. A Child's Right to Human Dignity: Reforming Anti-Bullying Laws in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, John; Dupre, Anne Proffitt

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the findings of research into the bullying laws in the United States. Against the backdrop of international law, it addresses children's rights to protection from bullying in US schools. It includes recommendations for improving anti-bullying legislation based on state anti-bullying legislation in the United States, and…

  1. From Poverty to Exclusion: A Wage-Earning Society or a Society of Human Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strobel, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that spreading poverty in Europe has weakened social cohesion and now threatens the construction of the European Community. Initially centered on issues concerning the distribution of resources and goods, the discussion increasingly has focused on the breakdown of social relationships and the question of citizen's rights. (MJP)

  2. Sterilization and Training for Normal Sexual Development: Human Rights and Obligations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashman, Adrian F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper notes the lack of attention given to the sexuality of people with intellectual disabilities in both the literature and service delivery (in Australia). It discusses sterilization issues (such as authority to give consent and the "best interest" concept) and recommends approaches less intrusive on individual rights than sterilization.…

  3. Is the Elimination of Recess in School a Violation of a Child's Basic Human Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubroc, Alicia M.

    2007-01-01

    The elimination of recess in schools across the country is becoming a normal occurrence in many communities, large and small. In each study presented in this content analysis, we find that free time and unstructured play is indeed essential to a child's healthy cognitive development. Article 31 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of…

  4. Health Advocacy: A Vital Step in Attaining Human Rights for Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brolan, C. E.; Boyle, F. M.; Dean, J. H.; Gomez, M. Taylor; Ware, R. S.; Lennox, N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability (ID) experience health inequity compared with the general population, a key contributing factor being disparities in social determinants of health. The enactment of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) provides a platform for the progression and promotion of…

  5. Core concepts of human rights and inclusion of vulnerable groups in the mental health policies of Malawi, Namibia, and Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the most crucial steps towards delivering judicious and comprehensive mental health care is the formulation of a policy and plan that will navigate mental health systems. For policy-makers, the challenges of a high-quality mental health system are considerable: the provision of mental health services to all who need them, in an equitable way, in a mode that promotes human rights and health outcomes. Method EquiFrame, a novel policy analysis framework, was used to evaluate the mental health policies of Malawi, Namibia, and Sudan. The health policies were assessed in terms of their coverage of 21 predefined Core Concepts of human rights (Core Concept Coverage), their stated quality of commitment to said Core Concepts (Core Concept Quality), and their inclusion of 12 Vulnerable Groups (Vulnerable Group Coverage). In relation to these summary indices, each policy was also assigned an Overall Summary Ranking, in terms of it being of High, Moderate, or Low quality. Results Substantial variability was identified across EquiFrame’s summary indices for the mental health policies of Malawi, Namibia, and Sudan. However, all three mental health policies scored high on Core Concept Coverage. Particularly noteworthy was the Sudanese policy, which scored 86% on Core Concept Coverage, and 92% on Vulnerable Group Coverage. Particular deficits were evident in the Malawian mental health policy, which scored 33% on Vulnerable Group Coverage and 47% on Core Concept Quality, and was assigned an Overall Summary Ranking of Low accordingly. The Overall Summary Ranking for the Namibian Mental Health Policy was High; for the Sudanese Mental Health Policy was Moderate; and for the Malawian Mental Health Policy was Low. Conclusions If human rights and equity underpin policy formation, it is more likely that they will be inculcated in health service delivery. EquiFrame may provide a novel and valuable tool for mental health policy analysis in relation to core concepts of human rights and inclusion of vulnerable groups, a key practical step in the successful realization of the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:23406583

  6. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (I): prevalence, risk factors and consequences

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The ruling parties in Bangladesh have systematically used violence against political opponents and criminals. It is essential to 1) determine the magnitude and burden of organised crime and political violence (OPV) and human rights violations in the affected community, and to 2) identify the risk factors and key indicators for developing effective health intervention and prevention measures. Methods The population-based study consisted of two parts: a household survey and OPV screening at mobile clinics (presented in Part II). A cross-sectional, multistage cluster household survey was conducted in the Meherpur district in February-March 2008; 22 clusters with a sample size of 1,101 households (population of 4,870) were selected. Results Around 83% of households reported being exposed to at least two categories of OPV or human rights violations: 29% reported that the family members had been arrested or detained; 31% reported torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Crude mortality rate was 17.9/1,000 and under 5 mortality rate was 75/1,000. The annual injury rate was 36%, lifetime experience of violence-related injury was 50%, and pain experience within 2 weeks was reported by 57%. Over 80% of the population over 35 years old complained of pain. High prevalence of injury, lifetime experience of OPV-related injury and pain complaints are related to the level of exposure to OPV and human rights violations. A financial burden was imposed on families with an injured person. A geographical variation was revealed regarding reports of torture and lifetime experience of violence-related injury. A combination of individual, relational, community and societal factors, including variables such as political party affiliation, conflict with other families, household income and residential area, affected the risk of victimisation in the household. The odds ratio for reporting extrajudicial execution of a family member was 9.22 for Awami League supporters, 9.15 for Bangladesh Nationalist Party supporters; and 3.97 for Jamaat-e-Islami Party supporters compared with families with no political involvement. Conclusion The level of violence and human rights violations is high. The affected population suffers from violence-related injuries and traumas, which could be a factor contributing to poverty. Victimisation is not random. PMID:19930589

  7. Loose women or lost women? The re-emergence of the myth of white slavery in contemporary discourses of trafficking in women.

    PubMed

    Doezema, J

    2000-01-01

    This article compares current concerns about "trafficking in women" with turn of the century discourses about "white slavery". It traces the emergence of narratives on "white slavery" and their reemergence in the moral panics and boundary crises of contemporary discourses on "trafficking in women". Drawing on historical analysis and contemporary representations of sex worker migration, the paper argues that the narratives of innocent, virginal victims purveyed in the "trafficking in women" discourse are a modern version of the myth of "white slavery". These narratives, the article argues, reflect persisting anxieties about female sexuality and women's autonomy. Racialized representations of the migrant "Other" as helpless, child-like, victims strips sex workers of their agency. This article argues that while the myth of "trafficking in women"/"white slavery" is ostensibly about protecting women, the underlying moral concern is with the control of "loose women". Through the denial of migrant sex workers' agency, these discourses serve to reinforce notions of female dependence and purity that serve to further marginalize sex workers and undermine their human rights. PMID:12296110

  8. Discourses of Linguistic dominance: A Historical Consideration of French Language Ideology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Keisuke

    2001-07-01

    The paper offers a historical perspective on the linguistic and cultural imperialism embedded in the struggle to maintain French as a leading international language. France was the nation-state where the ideology of national language was first clearly formulated and directly extended to overseas colonies. This shows the close relationship between linguistic nationalism and imperialism. It was believed that French was the language of universal human reason and had the power to civilize people who spoke it. This myth of the "clarté française" and the "mission civilisatrice" had a strong influence on various kinds of metalinguistic discourses that created the taken-for-granted representation of French as dominant language. It is the essential strategy of language dominance to establish the hierarchy of languages as if it were natural order of things. When French was obliged to yield the status of international language to English, there emerged the ideology of "Francophonie" which tried to defend its privilege against the monopoly of English, but the same ideology is also directed against minorities' claims for their own linguistic human right. It could be said that these discourses form a recursive prototype of language dominance whose variations are to be found in other shapes almost all over the world.

  9. Genetics and human rights. Two histories: Restoring genetic identity after forced disappearance and identity suppression in Argentina and after compulsory isolation for leprosy in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Penchaszadeh, Victor B.; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

    2014-01-01

    Over the past three decades, there has been an accelerated development of genetic technology, leading to its use in human genetic identification for many purposes. Additionally, it has been made explicit that identity is a fundamental human right. A number of historical circumstances have connected these developments. Personal identity is increasingly associated with the preservation and defense of human rights and is a tool to repair the violation of these rights, particularly the right to identity. In this article, we report the use of genetics to support the right to identity in two historical circumstances. First, we report the search, localization, DNA testing and genetic identification of 110 individuals who were appropriated as babies by the Argentine military dictatorship of 1976–1983 in the context of savage repression and egregious violations of human rights, including forced disappearance and suppression of identity. Second, we report on the repair of right-to-identity violations of hundreds of individuals that occurred during the process of compulsory isolation of patients with leprosy in Brazil through the Program “Reencontro”, which has led to the genetic identification of 158 pairs of individuals who previously did not have proof that they were siblings. The high value placed on genetic identification by victims of identity suppression did not counter the prevailing view that genetic factors were not more important than other factors (social, emotional, educational, cultural, spiritual) in determining the complex phenomenon of personal identity. The use of genetic identification as a tool to redress and repair human rights violations is a novel application of human genetics for the benefit of mankind. PMID:24764764

  10. Recognizing Gaze Aversion Gestures in Embodied Conversational Discourse

    E-print Network

    Darrell, Trevor

    Recognizing Gaze Aversion Gestures in Embodied Conversational Discourse Louis-Philippe Morency MIT cmch@csail.mit.edu Trevor Darrell MIT CSAIL Cambridge, MA 02141 trevor@csail.mit.edu ABSTRACT Eye gaze. While a large body of research results exist to document the use of gaze in human- to-human interaction

  11. On the absence of a 'Socio-emotional Enablement' discourse component in international socio-economic development thought.

    PubMed

    Affolter, Friedrich W

    2004-12-01

    Socio-emotional well-being, established through nurturing relationships and community experiences, enables children and adults to evolve into caring, nonviolent, emotionally healthy citizens. This paper analyses purposefully selected development texts, authored by three prominent contributors of socio-economic development discourse: the United Nations, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. On the basis of a socio-emotional capacity development framework that draws from research produced in the areas of developmental psychology, biopsychology, brain research and peace psychology, the study evaluates texts' tendencies to make socio-emotionally conducive -- or neglectful -- programme recommendations. The study finds that United Nations conference reports indirectly acknowledge the relevance for socio-emotional enablement and protection, in the context of discussions related to human and children's rights, education or women's empowerment. However, they only marginally discuss the need to foster socio-emotional well-being as a human capacity development rationale per se. The International Monetary Fund, while acknowledging responsibility for the social conduciveness of macro-economic development interventions, does not address socio-emotional capacity development issues. The World Bank's strategic plan and other strategy papers touch on issues of socio-emotional capacity development only tangentially. The study concludes that the discourse communities authoring the selected development texts largely ignore the question of socio-emotional capacity development. Their discourses 'background' discussions about the kind and nature of social structures necessary for nurturing socio-emotional enablement. Developmental psychologists are challenged to 'infect' socio-economic development discourse by calling for the effective integration of the theme of socio-emotional well-being into socio-economic development publications. PMID:15598251

  12. Machine Comprehension with Discourse Relations Karthik Narasimhan

    E-print Network

    Machine Comprehension with Discourse Relations Karthik Narasimhan CSAIL, MIT karthikn for incorporating discourse information into machine comprehension applications. Traditionally, such information demonstrate that the discourse aware model outperforms state-of-the-art machine comprehension systems.1 1

  13. Mixed-Initiative Cyber Security: Putting humans in the right loop

    SciTech Connect

    Haack, Jereme N.; Fink, Glenn A.; Maiden, Wendy M.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2009-05-11

    In recent years, organizations and their computer infrastructures have grown intertwined in complex relationships through mergers, acquisitions, reorganizations, and cooperative service delivery. Defensive actions and policy changes by one organization may have far-reaching negative consequences on its partner organizations. Human-only or machine-only approaches are insufficient. The former are slow but highly adaptable, while the latter are fast but highly specialized. In either case, humans retain the ultimate responsibility for the actions of their automated systems. Deploying automated defenses does not absolve humans of their inherent responsibility. We believe the solution lies in mixed-initiative defense unifying the complementary qualities of both human- and machine-based approaches. We describe the Cooperative Infrastructure Defense (CID), a new cyber-defense paradigm employing complex-adaptive swarm intelligence, logical rational agents, and human insight to enable collaborative cyber defense among cooperating organizations in an infrastructure setting. CID takes a mixed-initiative approach to infrastructure defense where teams of humans and software agents defend cooperating organizations in tandem, sharing insights and solutions without violating proprietary boundaries. CID will help create security policy via dialogue between humans and agents, foster a collaborative problem-solving environment, and increase human situational awareness and influence through visualization and shared control. CID will provide a foundation for building trust between humans and agents within and between organizations.

  14. Reaching with the sixth sense: Vestibular contributions to voluntary motor control in the human right parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Thielscher, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The vestibular system constitutes the silent sixth sense: It automatically triggers a variety of vital reflexes to maintain postural and visual stability. Beyond their role in reflexive behavior, vestibular afferents contribute to several perceptual and cognitive functions and also support voluntary control of movements by complementing the other senses to accomplish the movement goal. Investigations into the neural correlates of vestibular contribution to voluntary action in humans are challenging and have progressed far less than research on corresponding visual and proprioceptive involvement. Here, we demonstrate for the first time with event-related TMS that the posterior part of the right medial intraparietal sulcus processes vestibular signals during a goal-directed reaching task with the dominant right hand. This finding suggests a qualitative difference between the processing of vestibular vs. visual and proprioceptive signals for controlling voluntary movements, which are pre-dominantly processed in the left posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, this study reveals a neural pathway for vestibular input that might be distinct from the processing for reflexive or cognitive functions, and opens a window into their investigation in humans. PMID:26424179

  15. The health effects of economic sanctions and embargoes: the role of health professionals. Ethics and Human Rights Committee.

    PubMed

    Morin, K; Miles, S H

    2000-01-18

    As a widely used tool of foreign policy, economic sanctions take many forms. They include mandating trade restrictions (for example, limiting imports from or exports to a sanctioned nation), freezing bank accounts, limiting international travel to and from an area, imposing additional tariffs, and exerting other pressures that are intended to slow key economic activities. Since the end of the Cold War, as the global market has expanded, many countries and the United Nations have increasingly used economic sanctions instead of military intervention to compel nations to end civil or extraterritorial war or to reduce abuse of human rights. Similarly, the United States has attempted to influence international governments' domestic policies by using other economic means, such as relating "most favored nation" trading status to a country's human rights record or prohibiting the import of goods from countries in which illegal child labor is widespread. Repercussions from these measures influence a country's economic development and, therefore, can also affect the overall welfare of a nation's population. In contrast to war's easily observable casualties, the apparently nonviolent consequences of economic intervention seem like an acceptable alternative. However, recent reports suggest that economic sanctions can seriously harm the health of persons who live in targeted nations. For this reason, the American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine has undertaken this examination of physicians' roles in addressing the health effects of economic sanctions. PMID:10644279

  16. Andrei Sakharov Prize Talk: Guerrilla Tactics for Human Rights: the Paradigm of Scientists for Sakharov, Orlov and Sharansky (SOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pripstein, Morris

    2010-02-01

    In response to the seriously deteriorating plight of dissident scientist colleagues in the former Soviet Union in the late 1970s, a small group of physicists at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) came together to plot out a new course of action on behalf of their beleaguered colleagues. A guiding principle was to engage individual scientists to act collectively in unorthodox efforts to publicly ``encourage'' the Soviet authorities to cease their human rights violations. While the focus was to be on the three scientists in the eventual name of the group, ``Scientists for Sakharov, Orlov and Sharansky (SOS),'' it was also meant to be a lightning rod for the more general concern of the plight of all dissident scientists. Examples of such actions included an unprecedented moratorium on scientific cooperation with the Soviet Union, a ``Hostages for Elena Bonner'' initiative where Western scientists volunteered to serve as good-faith witnesses in the Soviet Union for the temporary release of Sakharov's wife for medical treatment in the West, and picketing of embassies and of selected scientists at scientific conferences. Within two years from this small beginning in Berkeley and with no staff whatsoever, the effort grew into an international movement to promote the human rights of scientists, comprising more than 8,000 scientists from 44 countries. As co-founder and chairperson of SOS, I will discuss the evolution of the group's operational principles and actions as well as various reactions to its initiatives, and some possible lessons learned. )

  17. Promoting Civil Discourse on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Rita

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, off campus and on, much of the discourse on controversial issues has been personal, vicious, and divisive. On the national scene, politics has become permeated with incivility. It now appears that Americans have been naive about their ability and willingness to engage in civil discourse and compromise. How can…

  18. Mapping Mathematics in Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Otten, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a particular analytic method from systemic functional linguistics, "thematic analysis," which reveals the mathematical meaning potentials construed in discourse. Addressing concerns that discourse analysis is too often content-free, thematic analysis provides a way to represent semantic structures of mathematical content,…

  19. Discourse Analysis and the Translator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Margaret

    Discourse analysis, as an approach to text, provides the teacher, student, and professional translator with resources for achieving objectivity and for making and justifying translation decisions. It offers a strategy for relating the problems and processes and discourse and the specific concerns to the objectives of the translator. It can be…

  20. The Anatomy of Critical Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfield, Lawrence W.

    1968-01-01

    Critical discourse is best understood when its logical features are identified. An examination of the basic elements and modes of rhetorical criticism (a form of critical discourse) produces a finite set of options for the critic, thus enabling him to develop a system of alternatives in his critical efforts. For example, by selecting from among…