Science.gov

Sample records for human rights issue

  1. Human Issues in Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the report of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee in Human Rights which seeks to ease the plight of individual scientists, engineers, and medical personnel suffering severe repression. Case studies of instances of negligence of human rights are provided. (CP)

  2. Special Issue: Labour Rights, Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Review, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction"; "International Labour Standards and Human Rights" (Valticos); "The Origins of Convention No. 87 on Freedom of Association and the Right to Organize" (Dunning); "Human Rights Law and Freedom of Association" (Swepston); "Freedom of Association" (von Potobsky); "The ILO [International Labour Organization] Declaration of 1998…

  3. Human Rights as a Moral Issue: Lessons for Moral Educators from Human Rights Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabeck, Mary M.; Rogers, Lauren

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a cross over between moral education and human rights work, suggesting that human rights documents allow moral educators to learn from human rights activists and educators. Argues that Latin Americans and other marginalized groups can inform moral education work. Includes five suggestions for incorporating human rights into moral…

  4. Gender Violence: A Development and Human Rights Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Charlotte; Carrillo, Roxanna

    This document includes two articles describing the failure of the international human rights movement to consider or remedy the situation of women outside of the basic demand for political rights of people in general. The first article, "Women's Rights as Human Rights: Toward a Re-Vision of Human Rights" (Charlotte Bunch), emphasizes the…

  5. Noma: neglected, forgotten and a human rights issue.

    PubMed

    Leila Srour, M; Marck, Klaas W; Baratti-Mayer, Denise

    2015-05-01

    Noma, an orofacial gangrene and opportunistic infection, affects primarily malnourished children living in extreme poverty. Neglected, forgotten, unknown by most health workers, noma results in death, disfigurement and disability of some of the world's most vulnerable children. Noma is a biological indicator of multiple human rights violations, including the right to food. International support and national attention in countries with noma are lacking. The end of neglect of noma can lead to the elimination of this horrific childhood disease. PMID:25609756

  6. Violence against women: an issue of human rights.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The most pervasive form of human rights abuse is violence against women. This violence includes domestic violence, sexual abuse, rape, forced prostitution, female genital mutilation, and murder. It cuts across socioeconomic lines and is so deeply embedded in tradition that millions of women consider violence their lot in life, yet international efforts to combat violence against women are currently in a fledgling state. Most women experience violence in their homes, and as many as 20% of women worldwide have been raped (most know their attacker). More than half of all sexual assaults target girls aged 15 years and younger, and armies continue to use rape as a weapon of war. The female infanticide and sex selective abortions that are caused by son preference have led to imbalances in sex ratios characterized by millions of females "missing" from populations in Asia, China, and north Africa. India is the site of an estimated 5000 dowry-related deaths each year, and an estimated 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital mutilation with two million more at risk each year. In response to this problem, more than 160 countries have ratified the UN's Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Violence Against Women, and many countries have included provisions to protect women against violence in their constitutions and criminal codes. Only 44 countries specifically protect women against domestic violence, however, and only 17 countries consider marital rape a crime (12 countries in Latin America excuse a rapist from prosecution if he marries his victim). The US has worked to place women's rights on the human rights agenda by increasing monitoring of women's human rights abuses, supporting national efforts to revise legislation, supporting campaigns to help women reduce their dependency on men and understand their rights, and equating women's rights with human rights. PMID:12321050

  7. Bearing Witness: Citizen Journalism and Human Rights Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Stuart; Sonwalkar, Prasun; Carter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article assesses the potential of online news reporting to create discursive spaces for emphatic engagement--of bearing witness--at a distance, especially where human rights violations are concerned. Taking as its focus the emergent forms and practices of citizen journalism, it examines the spontaneous actions of ordinary people compelled to…

  8. Sexual Minority Issues and Human Rights Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofuji, Keiko

    2007-01-01

    The "Dowa" (Human Rights) education program has become an effective method of changing concept and situations of "Burakumin," a group of people that has been discriminated against in Japan. One educational strategy was to speak out their personal stories, which has become a trigger to some sexual minority teachers to come out, as well as others to…

  9. Forced migration: health and human rights issues among refugee populations.

    PubMed

    Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2015-01-01

    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that is manifest in diverse contexts. In this article, we examine the situations that precipitate the movement of large numbers of people across several African countries, producing a unique type of undocumented migrant--the refugee. These refugee movements impact already fragile African health care systems and often involve human rights violations that are of particular concern, such as gender-based violence and child soldiers. We use examples from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current research, and our personal international experiences, we provide an overview of forced migration and discuss implications and opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice, and policy related to refugee health. PMID:25645484

  10. Child Marriage: A Silent Health and Human Rights Issue

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Nawal M

    2009-01-01

    Marriages in which a child under the age of 18 years is involved occur worldwide, but are mainly seen in South Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A human rights violation, child marriage directly impacts girls’ education, health, psychologic well-being, and the health of their offspring. It increases the risk for depression, sexually transmitted infection, cervical cancer, malaria, obstetric fistulas, and maternal mortality. Their offspring are at an increased risk for premature birth and, subsequently, neonatal or infant death. The tradition, driven by poverty, is perpetuated to ensure girls’ financial futures and to reinforce social ties. One of the most effective methods of reducing child marriage and its health consequences is mandating that girls stay in school. PMID:19399295

  11. Whose Human Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendel, Margherita

    During the last 50 years, principles, institutions, and policies of human rights have been developed worldwide. This book brings together European and international conventions on human rights, the rights of women, and the users and uses of education, and places them in their wider context. It examines issues in how human rights work, the ways in…

  12. Barcelona 2002: law, ethics, and human rights. HIV testing for peacekeeping forces: legal and human rights issues.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Ralf

    2002-12-01

    In 2001, the United Nations Security Council established an Expert Panel to study the issue of whether the UN should institute HIV testing of peacekeeping personnel. This article, based on a 9 July 2002 presentation to the XIV International AIDS Conference (abstract TuOrG1173), reports on the findings of a paper prepared for the Expert Panel by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network. The paper examined whether it is permissible for the UN to implement mandatory HIV testing of its peacekeeping personnel, and whether HIV-positive UN peacekeeping personnel should be excluded or restricted from service on the basis of their HIV status or HIV disease progression. The article describes some of the court cases in which these issues have been considered; discusses the importance of analyzing such issues in the context of a human rights-based approach to the pandemic; and formulates a series of key principles for guiding UN decision-making. The article concludes that a policy of mandatory HIV testing for all UN peacekeeping personnel cannot be justified on the basis that it is required in order to assess their physical and mental capacity for service; that HIV-positive peacekeeping personnel cannot be excluded from service based on their HIV status alone, but only on their ability to perform their duties; and that the UN cannot resort to mandatory HIV testing for all UN peacekeeping personnel to protect the health and safety of HIV-negative personnel unless it can demonstrate that alternatives to such a policy would not reduce the risk sufficiently. In the end, the Expert Panel unanimously rejected mandatory testing and instead endorsed voluntary HIV counselling and testing for UN peacekeeping personnel. PMID:14743823

  13. Bringing Human Rights Back Home: Learning from "Superman" and Addressing Political Issues at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Human rights are commonly conceived as more relevant to foreign policy than day-to-day living. Drawing on Eleanor Roosevelt's conception of human rights as beginning close to home, this article illustrates how human rights principles might inform everyday processes of schooling and learning to live together. It considers rights to, in and…

  14. Response to the Council of Europe Human Rights Commissioner's Issue Paper on Human Rights and Intersex People.

    PubMed

    Cools, Martine; Simmonds, Margaret; Elford, Sue; Gorter, Joke; Ahmed, S Faisal; D'Alberton, Franco; Springer, Alex; Hiort, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    Intersex/disorders of sex development advocacy groups and associated health care professionals question the legitimacy of the Council of Europe issue paper, express their worries about its potentially harmful consequences, and urge the Council of Europe to consult more widely with relevant stakeholders. PMID:27210458

  15. Domestic Violence as a Human Rights Issue: The Case of Immigrant Latinos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilla, Julia L.

    1999-01-01

    Examines domestic violence from a human rights perspective. Explores the antecedents, dynamics, and effects of domestic abuse in light of the historical, philosophical, cultural, social, spiritual, and political realities of Latino immigrants in the United States. Discusses levels of awareness and responsibility necessary to break the…

  16. Tackling Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, four high school students from the Tashkent International School in the capital city confronted the issue of their nation's human rights problems head on by researching the topic and publishing their findings on the Web. The site, "Uzbekistan: Opaque Reality," was created as an entry for the non-profit Global SchoolNet's Doors to…

  17. Children's Rights: Monitoring Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhellen, Eugeen, Ed.; Spiesschaert, Frans, Ed.

    A number of research seminars were organized to clarify the fundamental principles underlying local, regional, and international efforts to establish a structure for monitoring and promoting children's rights. This book contains papers presented at these seminars by experts on child advocacy, promotion of children's interests by children, and…

  18. Human Rights Resource Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrano, Elias, Comp.

    This document provides information about 25 programs/brochures which focus on human rights topics. Specific topics include: (1) counselor preparation; (2) multicultural awareness; (3) abuse and neglect; (4) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; (5) self-awareness; (6) human rights awareness and human rights of students; (7) cultural diversity; (8)…

  19. Human Rights Educational Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Gives a variety of educational resources on human rights that include videos, resource notebooks, books, publications, and websites along with short descriptions of the materials. Provides the contact information for a list of human-rights organizations, such as the Center for Human Rights Education and the Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt…

  20. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  1. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights: A Human Rights Perspective. Human Rights Education Series, Topic Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, David M.

    This curriculum is intended to further thoughtful examination and responsible action among high school students about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues. Unlike other curricula this discussion is not in the context of civil or political rights but in the broader context of human rights. These rights, as defined in the Universal…

  2. Educating about and for International Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    1986-01-01

    Since the United Nations adopted the International Bill of Human Rights in 1948, the deprivation of human rights has been rampant and brutal. To help students understand human rights devaluation and protection issues, teachers in all curricular areas can use three primary elements: knowledge, values, and social participation. (11 references) (MLH)

  3. Human Rights and Teaching for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    According to the author, teaching for social justice entails the acquisition of the following learning outcomes: (1) knowledge of the meaning, historical development, and application of human rights; (2) ability to analyze human rights from multiple perspectives; and (3) willingness to address human rights issues in local, global, intercultural,…

  4. Human Rights in These United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neylon, Lyn Beth

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the results from a survey commissioned by Human Rights USA that investigated what individuals know and think about human rights issues in the United States. Asserts that the survey gives community activists, educators, and decision makers the means to analyze local and national human-rights problems and move toward solutions. (CMK)

  5. Scientific Freedom and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Elisa

    2000-03-01

    As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.

  6. Abortion and human rights.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. PMID:20303830

  7. Fighting for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Bao

    2011-01-01

    Speak Truth To Power consists of 17 teacher-developed lessons based on the stories of rights advocates from all over the world. The lessons were created for sixth-through 12th-grade students, and have come to New York schools thanks to the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights and the New York State United Teachers union. Speak…

  8. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  9. Incorporating Human Rights into the College Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Pat

    This paper recounts development of a community college humanities course titled Human Rights/Human Wrongs: The History, Philosophy, Law, Art, and Literature of the Human Rights Movement. The author argues that a special focus, interdisciplinary course provides a broader base for exploring and understanding most of the pressing issues of our time.…

  10. Scientists and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  11. Voting Rights Issues in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication examines ways to teach about law in the liberal arts. This issue focuses on future voting rights issues by exploring the 2000 presidential election. Articles included are: "Voting Rights in the New Millennium" (Jason F. Kirksey); "Legal and Political Lessons from 'Bush v. Gore'" (David Schultz); "The Ford-Carter Commission and…

  12. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development. PMID:12290435

  13. Human Rights in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  14. Are pharmaceutical patents protected by human rights?

    PubMed

    Millum, J

    2008-11-01

    The International Bill of Rights enshrines a right to health, which includes a right to access essential medicines. This right frequently appears to conflict with the intellectual property regime that governs pharmaceutical patents. However, there is also a human right that protects creative works, including scientific productions. Does this right support intellectual property protections, even when they may negatively affect health? This article examines the recent attempt by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to resolve this issue and argues that it fails. This is problematic because it means defenders of the present patent regime can continue using human rights documents to support their position. I offer a new framework for resolving the problem by examining the values that underlie human rights. PMID:18974405

  15. Are Pharmaceutical Patents Protected By Human Rights?

    PubMed Central

    Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The International Bill of Rights enshrines a right to health, which includes a right to access essential medicines. This right frequently appears to conflict with the intellectual property regime that governs pharmaceutical patents. However, there is also a human right that protects creative works, including scientific productions. Does this right support intellectual property protections, even when they may negatively affect health? This article examines the recent attempt by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to resolve this issue and argues that it fails. This is problematic because it means defenders of the present patent regime can continue using human rights documents to support their position. I offer a new framework for resolving the problem by examining the values that underlie human rights. PMID:18974405

  16. 75 FR 78147 - Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Proclamation 8616--Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In 1948,...

  17. Teachers and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey; Starkey, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Why do teachers need to be familiar with human rights? In multicultural societies, whose values take precedence? How do schools resolve tensions between children's rights and teachers' rights? Campaigners, politicians and the media cite human rights to justify or challenge anything from peaceful protest to military action. The phrase "human…

  18. Human Rights and Foreign Policy. Headline Series 241.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Charles

    A discussion is presented of the meaning of human rights, implications of human rights for foreign policy, and obstacles to its realization on a global scale. Chapter I identifies human rights as a critical issue, commends President Carter's initiative in this area, and points out difficulties of implementing a human rights policy. Chapter II…

  19. The Foundations of a Human Right to Health: Human Rights and Bioethics in Dialogue.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Human rights, including the right to health, are grounded in protecting and promoting human dignity. Although commitment to human dignity is a widely shared value, the precise meaning and requirements behind the term are elusive. It is also unclear as to how a commitment to human dignity translates into specific human rights, such as the right to the highest attainable standard of health, and delineates their scope and obligations. The resulting lack of clarity about the foundations of and justification for the right to health has been problematic in a number of ways. This article identifies the strengths of and some of the issues with the grounding of the right to health in human dignity. It then examines ethical and philosophical expositions of human dignity and several alternative foundations proposed for the right to health, including capability theory and the work of Norman Daniels, to assess whether any offer a richer and more adequate conceptual grounding for the right to health. PMID:26204585

  20. Human Rights and Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  1. Human Rights for Children: A Curriculum for Teaching Human Rights to Children Ages 3-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Virginia; And Others

    Created to heighten teachers' awareness of human rights issues, particularly those related to children's rights, this guide offers children knowledge and skills in developing both self-worth and empathy for others. These feelings, the curriculum argues, are the foundation children need if they are to understand their rights as children and the…

  2. Civic Education and Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, R. Freeman

    In order to understand the context of the role that human rights should play in civic education in the United States, the era in which those rights were first debated (1789-1790's) must be examined, as well as contemporary political and education trends in the United States and the world. Human rights were at the heart of the democratic…

  3. Bioethics, Human Rights, and Childbirth.

    PubMed

    Erdman, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The global reproductive justice community has turned its attention to the abuse and disrespect that many women suffer during facility-based childbirth. In 2014, the World Health Organization released a statement on the issue, endorsed by more than 80 civil society and health professional organizations worldwide.The statement acknowledges a growing body of research that shows widespread patterns of women's mistreatment during labor and delivery-physical and verbal abuse, neglect and abandonment, humiliation and punishment, coerced and forced care-in a range of health facilities from basic rural health centers to tertiary care hospitals. Moreover, the statement characterizes this mistreatment as a human rights violation. It affirms: "Every woman has the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which includes the right to dignified, respectful health care throughout pregnancy and childbirth."The WHO statement and the strong endorsement of it mark a critical turn in global maternal rights advocacy. It is a turn from the public health world of systems and resources in preventing mortality to the intimate clinical setting of patient and provider in ensuring respectful care. PMID:26204582

  4. A Hierarchy of Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Charles

    To establish an objective conception of human rights, one must first identify basic needs intrinsic to all people and then determine whether these needs are or can be hierarchically ordered. Many scholars have conducted research on the concept of human needs, particularly in the area of human rights. Among these scholars are Abraham H. Maslow…

  5. International Human Rights on the Internet. Internet Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of websites that focus on international human rights. Explains that human rights can be incorporated into curricula whether the focus is on human geography or contemporary global issues. Indicates that the Northern Light search engine produced over 700,000 hits for human rights websites. (CMK)

  6. Child feeding and human rights

    PubMed Central

    Kent, George

    2006-01-01

    Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together. PMID:17176464

  7. Evolution of Human Rights in the Age of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hron, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    Considers how biotechnology affects human-rights issues; in particular, the need for reexamining concerns about reproductive technology, the rights of indigenous peoples, and the rights of future generations. Maintains that the new areas for human-rights discussions, such as germ-line manipulation and genetic screening, are unprecedented concerns…

  8. Speaking Truth to Power: Women's Rights as Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocco, Margaret Smith

    2007-01-01

    The author considers the treatment of women's rights as human rights in the social studies curriculum. She discusses the role of the United Nations in promoting women's rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. She also reviews the treatment of women's rights within social studies curriculum today through a…

  9. Rights-Based Reasoning in Discussions about Lesbian and Gay Issues: Implications for Moral Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Sonja J.

    2004-01-01

    Despite a paucity of psychological research exploring the interface between lesbian and gay issues and human rights, a human rights framework has been widely adopted in debates to gain equality for lesbians and gay men. Given this prominence within political discourse of human rights as a framework for the promotion of positive social change for…

  10. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2014-03-01

    The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws. PMID:24714897

  11. Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical framework.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan; Ezer, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "human rights in patient care" refers to the application of human rights principles to the context of patient care. It provides a principled alternative to the growing discourse of "patients' rights" that has evolved in response to widespread and severe human rights violations in health settings. Unlike "patients' rights," which is rooted in a consumer framework, this concept derives from inherent human dignity and neutrally applies universal, legally recognized human rights principles, protecting both patients and providers and admitting of limitations that can be justified by human rights norms. It recognizes the interrelation between patient and provider rights, particularly in contexts where providers face simultaneous obligations to patients and the state ("dual loyalty") and may be pressured to abet human rights violations. The human rights lens provides a means to examine systemic issues and state responsibility. Human rights principles that apply to patient care include both the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which covers both positive and negative guarantees in respect of health, as well as civil and political rights ranging from the patient's right to be free from torture and inhumane treatment to liberty and security of person. They also focus attention on the right of socially excluded groups to be free from discrimination in the delivery of health care. Critical rights relevant to providers include freedom of association and the enjoyment of decent work conditions. Some, but not all, of these human rights correspond to rights that have been articulated in "patients' rights" charters. Complementary to—but distinct from—bioethics, human rights in patient care carry legal force and can be applied through judicial action. They also provide a powerful language to articulate and mobilize around justice concerns, and to engage in advocacy through the media and political negotiation. As "patients' rights" movements and

  12. Human Rights and People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdekin, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This lecture transcript discusses human rights issues related to people with disabilities in Australia, focusing on concepts of discrimination, legislation, and social justice. Findings from recent federal inquiries into homeless children and mental illness highlight major deficits in services for people with disabilities. (Author/DB)

  13. Human rights monitoring in virtual community.

    PubMed

    El Morr, Christo

    2012-01-01

    Holistic disability rights monitoring is essential in order to translate rights on paper into rights in reality for people with disabilities. At the same time, evidence-based knowledge produced through holistic monitoring has to be made accessible to a broad range of groups - researchers, representatives of disability community, people with disabilities, the media, policy makers, general public - and also has to contribute to building capacity within disability community around human rights issues. This article focuses on the design process of a complex Virtual Knowledge Network (VKN) as an operational tool to support mobilization and dissemination of evidence-based knowledge produced by the Disability Rights Promotion International Canada (DRPI-Canada) project. This tool is embedded in the more general framework of the project grounded in a human rights approach to disability and that acknowledges the importance of creating knowledgeable communities in order to make the disability rights monitoring efforts sustainable, advancing thus the decision making process in Canada in order to enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities. PMID:22874302

  14. The human rights responsibilities of multinational tobacco companies

    PubMed Central

    Crow, M

    2005-01-01

    This article explores various strategies which could be used to hold the tobacco industry accountable for human rights violations precipitated by its conduct. First, a brief overview of the international human rights regime and the tobacco related jurisprudence issued by human rights treaty bodies is provided. The article then explains how tobacco control advocates could promote more systematic consideration of governments' tobacco related human rights violations by reconceptualising the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the language of rights. The feasibility of using the existing human rights framework to target the tobacco industry directly is analysed with the conclusion that this approach has serious limitations. Emerging human rights norms, which have greater potential to affect the industry's conduct, are presented. Finally, given the questionable authoritativeness of these norms, alternative ways that they could be employed to hold tobacco companies accountable for the rights related consequences of their activities are proposed. PMID:16046696

  15. Teaching and Learning about Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lister, Ian

    What a human rights course should consist of, i.e., the objectives, course content, teaching methods, and evaluation techniques, are discussed. Human rights education must foster attitudes of tolerance and respect, provide knowledge about human rights, and develop students' awareness of how to translate human rights into social and political…

  16. Human Rights Education Ways and Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajan, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of human rights education as proclaimed by UN (1994) and also the strategies for developing human rights education by UN General assembly 2005. In proclaiming the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004), in December 1994, the General Assembly defined human rights education as "a life-long…

  17. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…

  18. 3 CFR 8616 - Proclamation 8616 of December 10, 2010. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8616 of December 10, 2010. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010 8616 Proclamation 8616 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8616 of December 10, 2010 Proc. 8616 Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010By the President...

  19. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    PubMed

    Donders, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it "implies a commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms." The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, adopted in 2005, states that "cultural diversity can be protected and promoted only if human rights and fundamental freedoms … are guaranteed" (Article 2[1]). The precise relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, however, is not clarified and thus leaves room for further exploration. This contribution analyses the issues surrounding the relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, in particular cultural rights. Firstly, it addresses general human rights issues such as universality and cultural relativism and the principles of equality and non-discrimination. Secondly, it explores the scope of cultural rights, as well as the cultural dimension of human rights. Thirdly, several cases are discussed in which human rights were invoked to protect cultural interests, confirming the value of cultural diversity. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented, indicating which areas require attention in order to further improve the promotion and protection of human rights in relation to cultural diversity. PMID:21132940

  20. Linguistic Human Rights and Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    The Linguistic Human Rights (LHRs) paradigm is motivated by the desire to combat linguistic discrimination, where speakers of discriminated languages find themselves unable to use their preferred language in society at large. However, in an increasingly globalised world where speakers may feel the need or the desire to travel across state…

  1. Web Resources for Teaching about Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M.; Badang, Germain; Bragg, Christina; Kvasov, Aleksandr; Taylor, Nathan; Waliaula, Anne; Yamaguchi, Misato

    2012-01-01

    The study of human rights is inseparable from social studies. Beyond the basic political, economic, and social freedoms and rights spelled out in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, hundreds of specialized topics have developed that demonstrate the complex nature of human rights in the twenty-first-century world--environmental exploitation…

  2. Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove, Ed.; Phillipson, Robert, Ed.

    A collection of essays on linguistic human rights includes: "Combining Immigrant and Autochthonous Language Rights: A Territorial Approach to Multilingualism" (Francois Grin); "On the Limits of Ethnolinguistic Democracy" (Joshua A. Fishman); "Linguistic Human Rights and Educational Policy in Russia" (Alexei A. Leontiev); "Linguistic Human Rights,…

  3. Bringing Human Rights Home: Human Rights Education for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Loretta J.; Gupta, Meghna

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the purpose and focus of human-rights education. Traces the definition of human rights, emphasizing the role of the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Compares the U.S. record on human rights against the UDHR. Suggests that human-rights education is limited, and offers ideas for improvement (DSK)

  4. From Civil Rights to Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the development of the "Deaf President Now" (DPN) movement and its similarities to the black civil rights movement. Movements typically begin with a concrete, precipitating event but are usually the result of known or shared incidents on the part of the participants, and the "Deaf President Now" movement…

  5. A Guide for Improving Public School Practices in Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Univ., Norman. Southwest Center for Human Relations Studies.

    The guide contains ideas, materials, and suggested practices for teachers and administrators in dealing with human rights issues. It is organized into six parts. Part I discusses the human rights concept, its importance in Western democratic society, its legal bases, racism, and school responsibility. Part II outlines the responsibilities of…

  6. Images of Struggle: Teaching Human Rights with Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carano, Kenneth T.; Clabough, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    The authors explore how graphic novels can be used in the middle and high school social studies classroom to teach human rights. The article begins with a rationale on the benefits of using graphic novels. It next focuses on four graphic novels related to human rights issues: "Maus I: A Survivor's Tale: My Father Bleeds" (Speigelman…

  7. Children's Rights Are Human Rights. Spotlight: Cosmic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlhaver, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the state of children's rights in the United States in the wake of U.S. Senate refusal to ratify the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child. Examines the discrepancy between the U.S. leadership role in human rights and child advocacy and the legal system's treatment of children strictly according to law. (JPB)

  8. HUMAN RIGHTS AND NIGERIAN PRISONERS--ARE PRISONERS NOT HUMANS?

    PubMed

    Joshua, I A; Dangata, Y Y; Audu, O; Nmadu, A G; Omole, N V

    2014-12-01

    In Nigeria, just like in many other parts of the world, one of the most extensively discussed issues on the public agenda today is the increase in prison population. The aims of imprisonment are protection, retribution, deterrence, reformation and vindication. Investigations revealed that the prison services have been,neglected more than any other criminal justice agency in Nigeria. For example, most of the prisons were built during the colonial era for the purpose of accommodating a small number of inmates. Human Rights are the basic guarantees for human beings to be able to achieve happiness and self-respect; consequently, in most jurisdictions, the Human Rights Act confirms that these Rights do not stop at the prison gates. However, most States fail to meet the Human Rights obligations of their prisoners. As regards to health, for example, every prison should have proper health facilities and medical staff to provide dental and psychiatric care among others. This article discusses the Nigerian Prison System and challenges, trends and the related Human Rights and Ethical issues in Nigerian prisons. Some of the unmet needs of Nigerian prisoners which include, inter alia, living in unwholesome cells, delayed trial of inmates, lack of voting rights, access to information, lack of conjugal facilities for married prisoners, poor and inadequate nutrition, poor medical care, torture, inhumane treatment and the need to protect prisoners in a changing world. The present report has policy implications for reforming prison services in Nigeria, and countries that sing from the same song sheet with Nigeria on prison services, to conform to the Fundamental Human Rights of prisoners in the 21St century. PMID:27351045

  9. Civil Rights Issues Facing Asian Americans in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Ki-Taek; Zalokar, Nadja

    In 1989, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights held a series of roundtable conferences to learn about the civil rights concerns of Asian Americans within their communities. Using information gathered at these conferences as a point of departure, the Commission undertook this study of the wide-ranging civil rights issues facing Asian Americans in the…

  10. Child rights, right to water and sanitation, and human security.

    PubMed

    Pink, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The article explores the intersection between child rights, water scarcity, sanitation, and the human security paradigm. The recognition of child rights has been advanced through the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international legal instruments, while water rights are increasingly affirmed in international law and through the historic July 2010 United Nations General Assembly resolution that strengthened the legal foundation for water security and human rights. Yet there remains a development gap in terms of child access to clean and secure water sources for basic human development needs. The human security paradigm provides a legal and humanitarian foundation for the extension of child rights related to water and sanitation. PMID:22773100

  11. 3 CFR 8464 - Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human Rights...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human Rights Week, 2009 8464 Proclamation 8464 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009 Proc. 8464 Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And...

  12. Physical punishment, culture, and rights: current issues for professionals.

    PubMed

    Durrant, Joan E

    2008-02-01

    Once considered a legitimate parenting tool, physical punishment is increasingly being redefined as a developmental risk factor by health professionals. Three forces that have contributed to this significant social change are the evolution of pediatric psychology, increasing understanding of the dynamics of parental violence, and growing recognition of children as rights bearers. However, despite the consistency of research findings demonstrating the risks of physical punishment, some practitioners still struggle with the question of whether physical punishment is an appropriate practice among some cultural or ethnic groups. This issue is explored through an analysis of studies examining cultural differences and similarities in physical punishment's effects, as well as legal decisions made throughout the world. Despite practitioners' awareness of the prevalence and impact of parental violence, some still struggle with deciding where to "draw the line" in advising parents about spanking. This issue is addressed through an examination of the role that physical punishment plays in child maltreatment. Finally, the human rights perspective on physical punishment is offered as a new lens through which practitioners may view physical punishment to clarify the fuzzy issues of cultural relativity and the punishment-abuse dichotomy. PMID:18300726

  13. Population and Human Rights, Education and Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A background paper for the Symposium on Population and Human Rights reviews the proceedings and resolutions of the United Nations Internal Conference on Human Rights of 1968, General Assembly resolutions, and relevant supporting statistics concerned with the relations of population and human rights. This information is organized into the following…

  14. Building a Human Rights Youth Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyles, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)

  15. Examining Human Rights in a Global Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Greg; Inoue, Keiko; Orrick, Stefanie

    The United Nations' founding in 1945 and the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights reflected the international community's growing commitment to the protection and recognition of what is now referred to as human rights. Despite increased international attention, human rights violations continue to occur at the local, regional,…

  16. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  17. Human Rights within Education: Assessing the Justifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    While respect for human rights has long been endorsed as a goal of education, only recently has significant attention been paid to the need to incorporate rights within educational processes. Current support for human rights within education, however, has a variety of motivations. This paper provides a theoretical exploration of these diverse…

  18. Grassroots responsiveness to human rights abuse: history of the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community education on immigration issues, and political action toward a more humane immigration reform. Detailed examples of human rights abuses and the WICIR activities described in response to the abuses serve as illustrations of social work advocacy, education, and policy formulation that affect the general public, policymakers, and law enforcement officials. PMID:23724575

  19. Education of Gifted Students: A Civil Rights Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, James J. Gallagher explains, in the context of education, that "civil rights" means the guarantee of equal opportunity and justice for all and the actions taken against those barriers that stand in the way of such equality. How does the issue of civil rights bear on an area of special education such as the education of…

  20. Missing people, migrants, identification and human rights.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, E

    2012-11-01

    The increasing volume and complexities of migratory flow has led to a range of problems such as human rights issues, public health, disease and border control, and also the regulatory processes. As result of war or internal conflicts missing person cases and management have to be regarded as a worldwide issue. On the other hand, even in peace, the issue of a missing person is still relevant. In 2007 the Italian Ministry of Interior nominated an extraordinary commissar in order to analyse and assess the total number of unidentified recovered bodies and verify the extent of the phenomena of missing persons, reported as 24,912 people in Italy (updated 31 December 2011). Of these 15,632 persons are of foreigner nationalities and are still missing. The census of the unidentified bodies revealed a total of 832 cases recovered in Italy since the year 1974. These bodies/human remains received a regular autopsy and were buried as 'corpse without name". In Italy judicial autopsy is performed to establish cause of death and identity, but odontology and dental radiology is rarely employed in identification cases. Nevertheless, odontologists can substantiate the identification through the 'biological profile' providing further information that can narrow the search to a smaller number of missing individuals even when no ante mortem dental data are available. The forensic dental community should put greater emphasis on the role of the forensic odontology as a tool for humanitarian action of unidentified individuals and best practise in human identification. PMID:23221266

  1. The right to health of prisoners in international human rights law.

    PubMed

    Lines, Rick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional human rights treaties, non-binding or so-called soft law instruments from international organisations and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies. It explores the use of economic, social and cultural rights mechanisms, and those within civil and political rights, as they engage the right to health of prisoners, and identifies the minimum legal obligations of governments in order to remain compliant with human rights norms as defined within the international case law. In addressing these issues, this article adopts a holistic approach to the definition of the highest attainable standard of health. This includes a consideration of adequate standards of general medical care, including preventative health and mental health services. It also examines the question of environmental health, and those poor conditions of detention that may exacerbate health decline, disease transmission, mental illness or death. The paper examines the approach to prison health of the United Nations human rights system and its various monitoring bodies, as well as the regional human rights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Based upon this analysis, the paper draws conclusions on the current fulfilment of the right to health of prisoners on an international scale, and proposes expanded mechanisms under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment to monitor and promote the health rights of prisoners at the international and domestic levels. PMID:18382849

  2. Pain relief is a human right.

    PubMed

    Daher, Michel

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, medical and surgical treatment has emphasized saving the life of the patient rather than ameliorating the patient's pain, particularly when there were few options for the latter. Today at the dawn of the 21st century, the best available evidence indicates a major gap between an increasingly understanding of the pathophysiology of pain and widespread inadequacy of its treatment. Epidemiologic evidence has proven that chronic pain is a widespread public health issue. Studies of cancer patients' pain control consistently reveal that up to half of patients receive inadequate analgesia and 30% do not receive appropriate drugs for their pain. Equally, for patients suffering HIV/AIDS, 60%-100% will experience pain at some stage in their illness. In the developed world, this gap has prompted a series of declarations and actions by national and international bodies advocating better pain control. One response to the worldwide undertreatment of pain has been to promote the concept that pain relief is a public health issue of such critical importance as to constitute an international imperative and fundamental human right. The importance of pain relief as the core of the medical ethic is clear. Pain clinicians promote the status of pain management beyond that of appropriate clinical practice or even an ethic of good medicine. They advocate a paradigm shift in the medical professions' perspective on pain management, from simply good practice to an imperative founded on patient rights. There is a need to promote policies which create conditions where human beings can bear even incurable illnesses and death in a dignified manner. This must help health professionals or lay groups to initiate a powerful agenda to reform local statutes. The essential components of such legislation are: 1. Reasonable pain management is a right. 2. Doctors have a duty to listen to and reasonably respond to a patient's report of pain. 3. Provision of necessary pain relief is immune from

  3. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. PMID:23586767

  4. Ritual male infant circumcision and human rights.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Allan J; Arora, Kavita Shah

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of male circumcision have increasingly used human rights positions to articulate their viewpoint. We characterize the meaning of the term "human rights." We discuss these human rights arguments with special attention to the claims of rights to an open future and to bodily integrity. We offer a three-part test under which a parental decision might be considered an unacceptable violation of a child's right. The test considers the impact of the practice on society, the impact of the practice on the individual, and the likelihood of adverse impact. Infant circumcision is permissible under this test. We conclude that infant circumcision may be proscribed as violating local norms, even though it does not violate human rights. PMID:25674955

  5. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647

  6. The European Convention on Human Rights. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castberg, Frede

    This book outlines the contents of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and its Protocols 1 and 4. The major goal of the Convention, which constitutes an innovation in international law, is to guarantee the protection of "human rights" by allowing both member states and individuals to institute proceedings…

  7. Toward a Postmodern Notion of Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhihe

    2002-01-01

    The idea of human rights has increasingly been playing a very important part in people's contemporary life, the political in particular, the cultural in general. This explains why Dr. Griffin in "Beyond Anarchy and Plutocracy: the need for global democracy" includes a chapter on human rights. "My contention," Dr. Griffin writes, "is that now, in…

  8. Human Rights, Diversity, and Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a propitious time for educators to examine its implications for educating citizens in multicultural nation states. The author argues that students must experience democratic classrooms and schools that reflect their cultures and identities to internalize human rights values,…

  9. Race and Human Rights Violations in the United States: Considerations for Human Rights and Moral Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Garrett Albert

    2000-01-01

    States that moral educators can learn from North Americans who have challenged U.S. human rights violations, especially violations within the United States. Uses race as an analytical tool to illustrate human rights abuses. Concludes by discussing the implications for crossing boundaries between human rights work and moral education. (CMK)

  10. Supporting Teachers as Transformative Intellectuals: Participatory Action Research in Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersey, Page Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Human rights education (HRE) holds the potential for educators to begin an honest dialogue with students and to connect local issues with international struggles for human rights. However, HRE and other teaching approaches that build understanding of systems of power and oppression that lead to human rights violations are not widely embraced in…

  11. Democracy and human rights: a paradox for migration policy.

    PubMed

    Hill, L B

    1997-01-01

    This article seeks to 1) stimulate debate on the tension between democracy and human rights that arises from the fact that the organizational unit of modern democracy remains the state, which is incompatible with the quest for transnational human rights based on a transcendent human identity, and 2) explore this tension as it is revealed in migration policy in South Africa. The introduction of the article critiques the criticisms offered by contemporary writers as grounds for an overhaul of current migration policy. Next, the article presents an analysis of modern, state-based democracy and of the rise of international human rights, with a focus on the following trends: 1) development of the notion of citizenship resulting from a view of the state as the guarantor but not the progenitor of rights, 2) the growth of human rights traditions in industrialized democracies as judicial activism countered populist and nationalist inclinations of national legislatures, and 3) the growth of an international human rights juridical tradition. The article then highlights the issues raised within the migration policy debate in South Africa since 1994 and examines the 1997 Draft Green Paper on International Migration. It is concluded that, because South Africa fits the general pattern of a receiving state, an overly ambitious human rights approach to immigration will conflict with the exigencies of the new democracy as it builds institutional capacity. PMID:12294201

  12. Reproductive rights of Egyptian women: issues for debate.

    PubMed

    el Dawla, A S

    2000-11-01

    Because the definitions of reproductive health and reproductive rights are so broad, it has been possible in Egypt and elsewhere for one or other issue on the reproductive health agenda to be prioritised to the detriment or exclusion of others, and a comprehensive approach avoided. Reproductive health and rights language was introduced in Egypt around the time of the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. From the moment these concepts were translated into Arabic, activists, scholars and women themselves discussed and debated their meanings and questioned whether Egyptian culture permitted a rights approach of this kind and whether reproductive rights were actually perceived as such by Egyptian women. This paper discusses the language of reproductive rights in relation to cultural specificity in the Egyptian context, Egyptian women's perceptions of reproductive rights, the role of tradition and religion, and the ways in which reproductive rights are taken up under Egyptian law. It analyses some of the arguments used against reproductive rights on these grounds. PMID:11424249

  13. Love versus abuse: crossgenerational sexual relations of minors: a gay rights issue?

    PubMed

    Graupner, H

    1999-01-01

    The question discussed is how far crossgenerational sexual relations with or by minors could be considered to be a gay rights issue. The author discusses the issue from the perspective of general principles found in the case-law of the European Court on Human Rights. These principles suggest that the basic right to privacy should be interpreted as providing comprehensive protection of the right of children and adolescents to sexual self-determination, namely both the right to effective protection from (unwanted) sex and abuse on the one hand and the right to (wanted) sex on the other. The analysis is based upon the findings of natural and social science as well as an extensive international survey of national legal provisions and it leads to the conclusion that consensual sexual relations of and with adolescents over 14 (out of relations of authority) should be qualified a gay rights issue; likewise (as the exception to the rule) the possibility of filtering out cases from prosecution where a contact/relation is proven (beyond reasonable doubt) as consensual and harmless even though the minor involved is under 14. The legalization of (objectively consensual) sexual relations with persons under 14 as such, however, should not be considered to be a gay rights issue. PMID:10482330

  14. Education of Youth, Human Rights and Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses youth and adult education in a twofold perspective: that of a human right and that of human development. The first perspective is related to the concept of rights and the second perspective is related to the guarantee or negation of the right to development. In this article, the author discusses the universality of rights…

  15. Doing All the Right Things: Teacher Retention Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen M.; Schainker, Stanley A.

    2008-01-01

    Teacher retention has become a national crisis. This case study describes one principal's efforts to support new teachers and reduce the turnover rate at her school. Recognizing the problem a few years ago, the principal took what she thought were a number of proactive, decisive steps to resolve the issue--she is doing all the right things.…

  16. Civil Rights Issues Facing Arab Americans in Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    This report is a summary statement of the Michigan Advisory Committee's study on civil rights issues facing Arab American communities in Michigan. It is based on information received by the Committee at a community forum held in Dearborn, Michigan, in 1999. Six sections focus on: (1) "Introduction," including Arab American demographics in Wayne…

  17. Violations of human rights: health practitioners as witnesses.

    PubMed

    Orbinski, James; Beyrer, Chris; Singh, Sonal

    2007-08-25

    For humanitarian health-care practitioners bearing witness to violations of human dignity has become synonymous with denunciations, human rights advocacy, or lobbying for political change. A strict reliance on legal interpretations of humanitarianism and human rights is inadequate for fully understanding the problems inherent in political change. With examples from the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the USA, the Rwandan genocide, and physician-led political activism in Nepal, we describe three cases in which health practitioners bearing witness to humanitarian and human-rights issues have had imperfect outcomes. However these acts of bearing witness have been central to the promotion of humanitarianism and human rights, to the pursuit of justice that they have inevitably and implicitly endorsed, and thus to the politics that have or might yet address these issues. Despite the imperfections, bearing witness, having first-hand knowledge of humanitarian and human-rights principles and their limitations, and systematically collecting evidence of abuse, can be instrumental in tackling the forces that constrain the realisation of human health and dignity. PMID:17720021

  18. 'Issues of equity are also issues of rights': Lessons from experiences in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    London, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    Background Human rights approaches to health have been criticized as antithetical to equity, principally because they are seen to prioritise rights of individuals at the expense of the interests of groups, a core tenet of public health. The objective of this study was to identify how human rights approaches can promote health equity. Methods The Network on Equity in Health in Southern Africa undertook an exploration of three regional case studies – antiretroviral access, patient rights charters and civic organization for health. A combination of archival reviews and stakeholder interviews were complemented with a literature review to provide a theoretical framework for the empirical evidence. Results Critical success factors for equity are the importance of rights approaches addressing the full spectrum from civil and political, through to socio-economic rights, as well as the need to locate rights in a group context. Human rights approaches succeed in achieving health equity when coupled with community engagement in ways that reinforce community capacity, particularly when strengthening the collective agency of its most vulnerable groups. Additionally, human rights approaches provide opportunities for mobilising resources outside the health sector, and must aim to address the public-private divide at local, national and international levels. Conclusion Where it is clear that rights approaches are predicated upon understanding the need to prioritize vulnerable groups and where the way rights are operationalised recognizes the role of agency on the part of those most affected in realising their socio-economic rights, human rights approaches appear to offer powerful tools to support social justice and health equity. PMID:17257421

  19. Human Rights and Education. Comparative & International Education Series, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrow, Norma Bernstein, Ed.

    This book discusses the relationship between human rights and education. Education is discussed both within the context of human rights, and as the ultimate sanction and guarantee of all human rights. Part 1, "Education as a Human Right," is comprised of the following chapters: (1) "Human Rights and Education: An Overview" (D. R. Ray; N. B.…

  20. Human Language Rights: An Islamic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdussalam, Ahmad Shehu

    1998-01-01

    Argues that Islam considers language a human right that must be guaranteed for all people due to language's advantageous effect on sociocultural relations. Denotes "right" as any action whose fulfillment might cause advantage or prevent damage to individuals or societies; and emphasizes that it is natural for individuals to use the language of…

  1. Human Rights in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Information Service, New York, NY. Reference Div.

    This pamphlet uses the Articles of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a framework within which to describe legal safeguards of individual rights in the United Kingdom. Under each article of the Declaration, a historical perspective of the tradition of civil liberties is provided, as are descriptions of recent trends and…

  2. Human Rights Act, 12 February 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document reprints major provisions of the Yukon's (Canada) 1987 Human Rights Act. The Act furthers the public policy that every individual is free and equal in dignity and rights, seeks to discourage and eliminate discrimination, and promotes the underlying principles of Canadian and international human rights instruments. Part 1 contains a Bill of Rights that protects the right to freedom of: 1) religion and conscience, 2) expression, 3) assembly and association, and 4) to enjoyment and disposition of property. Part 2 prohibits discrimination based on ancestry (including color and race), national origin, ethnic or linguistic background or origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), and marital or family status. Discrimination is also prohibited when offering services, goods, or facilities to the public; in connection with employment; in connection with membership in trade unions or trade, occupational, or professional associations; and in negotiation or performance of public contracts. The Bill of Rights lists reasonable causes for discrimination as well as exemptions, including preferential treatment for organization or family members or employment in a private home. Special programs and affirmative action programs are specifically not considered discrimination under this Act. The Act sets forth rules for providing equal pay for work of equal value and creates a Yukon Human Rights Commission to promote human rights and assist adjudication of complaints. PMID:12346749

  3. Design principles and issues of rights expression languages for digital rights management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin

    2005-07-01

    Digital rights management (DRM) provides a unified approach to specifying, interpreting, enforcing and managing digital rights throughout the entire life cycle of digital assets. Using a declarative rights expression language (REL) for specifying rights and conditions in the form of licenses, as opposite to some other approaches (such as data structures and imperative languages), has been considered and adopted as a superior technology for implementing effective, interoperable and scalable DRM systems. This paper discusses some principles and issues for designing RELs, based on the experiences of developing a family of REL"s (DPRL, XrML 1.x, XrML 2.0 and MPEG REL). It starts with an overview of a family tree of the past and current REL"s, and their development history, followed by an analysis of their data models and a comparison with access-control oriented models. It then presents a number of primary design principles such as syntactic and semantic un-ambiguity, system interoperability, expressiveness in supporting business models and future extensibility, and discusses a number of key design issues such as maintaining stateful information, multi-tier issuance of rights, meta rights, identification of individual and aggregate objects, late-binding of to-beidentified entities, as well as some advanced ones on revocation and delegation of rights. The paper concludes with some remarks on REL profiling and extension for specific application domains.

  4. International Human Rights Defense Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Tierney, John F. [D-MA-6

    2014-07-16

    09/08/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Advocating for the rights of the mentally ill: a global issue.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Jeanette; Fox, Patricia G; Burns, Kenneth

    2005-09-01

    The media has shared with the American public horrors of abuse towards prisoners of war in recent newscasts. Prisoners, and others in vulnerable positions, can fall victim to neglect and abuse at the hands of their captors. Often, human rights can be violated. Therefore, people in vulnerable positions need advocates who will defend and protect their rights. The role of advocate is familiar to nursing professionals. In the mid-1980's advocacy grew attention due to disclosure of human rights abuses in mental health facilities. Today, worldwide, nursing leaders continue to confront abuses in multiple settings. In the United States, the Human Rights Authority was specifically developed to address issues of abuse of persons with physical disabilities and or mental illness. Globally, nurses will want to support the development and enforcement of policies that protect persons in vulnerable positions. PMID:16268230

  6. Human Rights and the Law-Terms to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Identifies 10 terms on human rights and the law that have been introduced and discussed throughout this issue of "Update on Law-Related Education." Offers students a chance to match each item to its definition by writing the letter of the terms on the line next to the number of the definition. (CMK)

  7. Three Models of Education: Rights, Capabilities and Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robeyns, Ingrid

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses three normative accounts that can underlie educational policies, with special attention to gender issues. These three models of education are human capital theory, rights discourses and the capability approach. I first outline five different roles that education can play. Then I analyse these three models of educational…

  8. Human Rights Texts: Converting Human Rights Primary Source Documents into Data

    PubMed Central

    Fariss, Christopher J.; Linder, Fridolin J.; Jones, Zachary M.; Crabtree, Charles D.; Biek, Megan A.; Ross, Ana-Sophia M.; Kaur, Taranamol; Tsai, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and make publicly available a large corpus of digitized primary source human rights documents which are published annually by monitoring agencies that include Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, and the United States Department of State. In addition to the digitized text, we also make available and describe document-term matrices, which are datasets that systematically organize the word counts from each unique document by each unique term within the corpus of human rights documents. To contextualize the importance of this corpus, we describe the development of coding procedures in the human rights community and several existing categorical indicators that have been created by human coding of the human rights documents contained in the corpus. We then discuss how the new human rights corpus and the existing human rights datasets can be used with a variety of statistical analyses and machine learning algorithms to help scholars understand how human rights practices and reporting have evolved over time. We close with a discussion of our plans for dataset maintenance, updating, and availability. PMID:26418817

  9. Human rights in the biotechnology era 1

    PubMed Central

    Benatar, Solomon R

    2002-01-01

    Backgound The concept of Human Rights has become the modern civilising standard to which all should aspire and indeed attain. Discussion In an era characterised by widening disparities in health and human rights across the world and spectacular advances in biotechnology it is necessary to reflect on the extent to which human rights considerations are selectively applied for the benefit of the most privileged people. Attention is drawn particularly to sub-Saharan Africa as a marginalised region at risk of further marginalisation if the power associated with the new biotechnology is not used more wisely than power has been used in the past. To rectify such deficiencies it is proposed that the moral agenda should be broadened and at the very least the concept of rights should be more closely integrated with duties Summary New forms of power being unleashed by biotechnology will have to be harnessed and used with greater wisdom than power has been used in the past. Widening disparities in the world are unlikely to be diminished merely by appealing to human rights. We recommend that a deeper understanding is required of the underlying causes of such disparities and that the moral discourse should be extended beyond human rights language. PMID:11960562

  10. Investigating differences in public support for gay rights issues.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Public opinion surrounding two of the most well-known gay rights issues-same-sex marriage and adoption by gays and lesbians-varies widely: About 30% of the public favors same-sex marriage, while about 50% favors adoption. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the demographic variables that predict attitudes toward same-sex marriage and adoption by gays and lesbians. Political ideology and attendance at religious services emerged as the strongest predictors. However, a close examination of the two issues shows that there were important differences between them. These differences may aid gay rights advocates in crafting media campaigns designed to increase support for same-sex marriage. PMID:20582800

  11. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    PubMed Central

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading—whether scientifically aided or not—have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non‐human animals should be accorded. PMID:16446412

  12. The treatment of sex offenders: evidence, ethics, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Birgden, Astrid; Cucolo, Heather

    2011-09-01

    Public policy is necessarily a political process with the law and order issue high on the political agenda. Consequently, working with sex offenders is fraught with legal and ethical minefields, including the mandate that community protection automatically outweighs offender rights. In addressing community protection, contemporary sex offender treatment is based on management rather than rehabilitation. We argue that treatment-as-management violates offender rights because it is ineffective and unethical. The suggested alternative is to deliver treatment-as-rehabilitation underpinned by international human rights law and universal professional ethics. An effective and ethical community-offender balance is more likely when sex offenders are treated with respect and dignity that, as human beings, they have a right to claim. PMID:20937793

  13. Human Rights Education and Training for Professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreopoulos, George

    2002-07-01

    Although human rights education (HRE) has a long history, it has only recently begun to realize its transformative potential. A critical catalyst in this process is the emerging global ethos of accountability. Within this context, HRE can play a crucial role in the construction of a universal culture of human rights, inspired by a shared commitment to a humane order and a belief that human beings have both the capacity and the responsibility to make a difference. In such an effort, the training of professionals is vital, especially of those professionals who can influence public debate on accountability and governance. Innovative HRE initiatives, characterized by a commitment to experiential learning and to international and regional cooperation among state and non-state actors, constitute a step in the right direction.

  14. The Human Right to Access Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, Stephen

    2006-04-15

    Electricity access is already well established within the framework of human rights, either as an implicit attribute of a pre-existing right (such as non-discrimination or sustainable development) or explicitly in the context of eliminating discrimination against women. There is also broad acknowledgement by states of the desirability of eliminating energy poverty - for all, but particularly for the rural poor, and women. (author)

  15. Education on human rights and healthcare: evidence from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vranes, Aleksandra Jovic; Mikanovic, Vesna Bjegovic; Vukovic, Dejana; Djikanovic, Bosiljka; Babic, Momcilo

    2015-03-01

    Ensuring and enforcing human rights in patient care are important to promote health and to provide quality and appropriate healthcare services. Therefore, continued medical education (CME) is essential for healthcare professionals to utilize their sphere of influence to affect change in healthcare practice. A total of 123 participants attended three CME courses. Course topics covered: (i) the areas of human rights and healthcare, (ii) rights, obligations and responsibilities of healthcare professionals in relation to human rights and the rights of patients, (iii) healthcare of vulnerable groups and (iv) access to essential medical services. Evaluation of the CME courses involved two components: evaluation of participants' performance and the participants' evaluation of the teaching process. The participants were assessed at the beginning and end of each course. Each of the courses was evaluated by the participants through a questionnaire distributed at the end of each course. Descriptive statistics was used for data interpretation. Knowledge of the healthcare professionals improved at the end of all the three courses. The participants assessed several aspects of the courses, including the course topics, educational methods, the course methods, organization, duration and dynamics as well as the physical environment and the technical facilities of the course, and rated each very highly. Our results corroborate the importance and necessity of courses to heighten awareness of the state of current healthcare and human rights issues to increase the involvement of healthcare professionals both locally and globally. PMID:25344878

  16. 77 FR 74345 - Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 241 / Friday, December 14, 2012 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8915 of December 10, 2012 Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A...

  17. 78 FR 76029 - Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 241 / Monday, December 16, 2013 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 9069 of December 9, 2013 Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013 By the President of the United...

  18. Human Rights: Respecting Our Differences, Teachers' Manual [And] Human Rights: Respecting Our Differences, Students' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCardle, Elizabeth, Ed.

    This unit on human rights designed for secondary students in Alberta, Canada includes both student and teacher manuals. Eleven chapters in the student manual examine what human rights are, the causes and effects of prejudice and discrimination, relevant laws, and social action. Each chapter includes readings followed by discussion questions and…

  19. Human Rights and Religion in the English Secondary RE Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowie, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between religion and human rights is an ambiguous and complex one, but there are academic, moral and political arguments for the inclusion of human rights in religious education (RE). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights advocates education in human rights and the English school curriculum aims to encourage a commitment to…

  20. Human Mars Mission Contamination Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    A potential challenge for a human Mars mission is that while humans are by most measures the obvious best way to search for life on Mars, we may also be the most problematic in that we could unduly compromise the search for life by contaminating relevant environments and/or possibly adversely and irreversibly affecting indigenous life. Perhaps more problematic is the fundamental epistemic challenge of the "one data point" limitation which could decrease confidence in applying terrestrially based research to extraterrestrial life issues in general. An informal decision tree is presented as one way to begin thinking about contamination issues. There are many sub-questions and distinctions not shown such as biological vs. nonbiological (but biologically relevant) contamination, viable vs. dead organisms, masking indigenous organisms vs. merely making the search more difficult, and independent origin vs. panspermia distinctions. While it may be unlikely that terrestrial microbes could survive on Mars, let alone reproduce and unduly compromise the search for life, the unpredictable potential for microbial life to survive, grow exponentially, evolve and modify (and sometimes destroy) environments, warrants focusing carefully on biologically relevant contamination as we prepare to send humans to the first planet that may have indigenous life-forms.

  1. Pharmaceutical knowledge governance: a human rights perspective.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Trudo

    2013-01-01

    Industry control over the production and distribution of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy data has become a serious public health and health care funding concern. Various recent scandals, several involving the use of flawed representations of scientific data in the most influential medical journals, highlight the urgency of enhancing pharmaceutical knowledge governance. This paper analyzes why this is a human rights concern and what difference a human rights analysis can make. The paper first identifies the challenges associated with the current knowledge deficit. It then discusses, based on an analysis of case law, how various human rights associated interests can be invoked to support the claim that states have an obligation to actively contribute to independent knowledge governance, for example through ensuring clinical trials transparency. The paper further discusses a conceptual use of human rights, as a methodology which requires a comprehensive analysis of the different interwoven historical, economic, cultural, and social factors that contribute to the problem. Such an analysis reveals that historically grown drug regulations have, in fact, contributed directly to industry control over pharmaceutical knowledge production. This type of finding should inform needed reforms of drug regulation. The paper ends with a recommendation for a comprehensive global response to the problem of pharmaceutical knowledge governance. PMID:23581664

  2. Academic Freedom 3: Education and Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of reports gives a picture of educational systems from a human rights perspective, monitoring academic freedom in the context of freedom of thought and freedom of opinion and expression. The World University Service's Lima Declaration on Academic Freedom and Autonomy of Institutions of Higher Education of 1988 is used as the…

  3. Problems in Teaching Human Rights to Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rone, Jemera

    1994-01-01

    Teaching the rules of war to human rights practitioners calls for emphasis on not taking sides; applying existing law rather than inventing standards for the occasion; applying the Geneva Conventions; recognizing that ends do not justify means; determining legitimate military targets; and realizing that "good guys" should be held to the same…

  4. A Human Rights Crisis in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a human rights crisis in Indian Country. This crisis--one of many--is the result of an almost universal lack of legal representation of Native people when they appear as defendants in tribal courts. The lack of lay advocates and attorneys representing Native defendants creates tremendous problems for tribal members who find themselves in…

  5. Human Rights and Cosmopolitan Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snauwaert, Dale T.

    2009-01-01

    The foundation upon which this discussion is based is the basic nature of democracy as both a political and moral ideal. Democracy can be understood as a system of rights premised upon the logic of equality. At its core is a fundamental belief in moral equality, a belief that all human beings possess an equal inherent dignity or worth. The ideal…

  6. The Struggle for Human Rights in Myanmar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The non-violent participation of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhist monks in resistance efforts to advocate for the welfare of Myanmar's people has played an important role in educating the world about human rights violations in the country. Faced with international condemnation, Myanmar's junta released Aung San Suu Kyi from…

  7. 3 CFR 8915 - Proclamation 8915 of December 10, 2012. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proclamation 8915 of December 10, 2012. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2012 8915 Proclamation 8915 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8915 of December 10, 2012 Proc. 8915 Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2012By the...

  8. 3 CFR 9069 - Proclamation 9069 of December 9, 2013. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 9069 of December 9, 2013. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013 9069 Proclamation 9069 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 9069 of December 9, 2013 Proc. 9069 Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013By the...

  9. Using Transformative Learning as a Model for Human Rights Education: A Case Study of the Canadian Human Rights Foundation's International Human Rights Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazzari, Vincenza; McAdams, Paul; Roy, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the essential practices and conditions for fostering transformative learning using the Canadian Human Rights Foundation's "International Human Rights Training Program" as a case study. It suggests that the program's participants challenge their own values and assumptions about human rights, their work and their society through…

  10. Human rights at work: Physical standards for employment and human rights law.

    PubMed

    Adams, Eric M

    2016-06-01

    This review focuses on the human rights dimensions of creating and implementing physical standards for employment for prospective and incumbent employees. The review argues that physical standards for employment engage two fundamental legal concepts of employment law: freedom of contract and workplace human rights. While the former promotes an employer's right to set workplace standards and make decisions of whom to hire and terminate, the latter prevents employers from discriminating against individuals contrary to human rights legislation. With reference to applicable human rights legislative regimes and their judicial interpretation in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, this review demonstrates the judicial preference for criterion validation in testing mechanisms in the finding of bona fide occupational requirements. With particular attention to the Supreme Court of Canada decision in Meiorin, this review argues that an effective balance between workplace safety and human rights concerns can be found, not in applying different standards to different groups of individuals, but in an approach that holds employers to demonstrating a sufficient connection between a uniform physical standard of employment and the actual minimum requirements to perform the job safety and efficiently. Combined with an employer's duty to accommodate, such an approach to lawful physical standards for employment conceives of worker and public safety and workplace diversity as emanating from a shared concern for human rights. PMID:27277568

  11. Environmental and occupational health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Slatin, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Modern environmental- and occupational-related morbidities and mortality are determined by the power relations inherent in our existing capitalist systems of production and consumption. These systems thwart human public health rights because of the priority to maximize profit for the systems' owners rather than to establish ecologically sound and socially just development for all. The international public health community must return to its primary prevention roots and take action to eliminate the potential for population morbidities that result from hazardous substance exposures in work and community environments. The 1988 Adelaide Recommendations on Healthy Public Policy provide us with guidelines that incorporate a human rights approach and build on several decades of international public health declarations and charters. To succeed, public health must work with the labor movement. A human rights approach to environmental public health can help us make a transition to sustainable modes of production and consumption. The environmental justice movement's strategy for an economic greening that sets as a priority "pathways out of poverty" can help to advance environmental public health rights. PMID:21733799

  12. Human rights dynamics of abortion law reform.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2003-02-01

    The legal approach to abortion is evolving from criminal prohibition towards accommodation as a life-preserving and health-preserving option, particularly in light of data on maternal mortality and morbidity. Modern momentum for liberalization comes from international adoption of the concept of reproductive health, and wider recognition that the resort to safe and dignified healthcare is a major human right. Respect for women's reproductive self-determination legitimizes abortion as a choice when family planning services have failed, been inaccessible, or been denied by rape. Recognition of women's rights of equal citizenship with men requires that their choices for self-determination be legally respected, not criminalized. PMID:15719517

  13. Education Is a Human Right. EI Barometer on Human and Trade Union Rights in the Education Sector, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Michael A.

    This 2001 edition of Educational International's (EI) "Barometer on Trade Union and Human Rights in the Education Sector" focuses on four fundamental human rights: (1) the right to education; (2) academic freedom; (3) children's right to be protected from exploitation; and (4) workers' rights to form and join trade unions and to organize and…

  14. HIV / AIDS, human rights and development.

    PubMed

    Patterson, D

    2000-06-01

    AIDS is killing more people worldwide than any other infectious disease. Given the expensive treatments for AIDS, preventing new infections is the only way to stem the growing tide of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing world. Yet in almost every developing country, prevention programs have no effect in preventing new infections, and are often narrow in scope and applicability. In many cases, interventions focus on the individual and on individual behavioral change. Socioeconomic and political factors such as gender-based inequalities, poverty, corruption and government inaction are not addressed. The paper discusses the link between HIV/AIDS, development and human rights. It presents case studies and other examples of rights-based projects and activities that provide models for rights-based programming that can be adapted to different national contexts. PMID:12179439

  15. 3 CFR 8765 - Proclamation 8765 of December 8, 2011. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... all people have the right to liberty, equality, and justice under the law. On Human Rights Day and... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proclamation 8765 of December 8, 2011. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2011 8765 Proclamation 8765 Presidential Documents...

  16. Climate Change, Human Rights, and Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect

  17. Andrei Sakharov Prize: Human Rights and Peace - A Personal Odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerman, Zafra

    2016-03-01

    For more than 30 years, I have devoted my life to promoting scientific freedom and human rights around the world. This devotion led me to put pressure on the American Chemical Society (ACS) to become active in the fight for human rights. Due to this pressure, in 1986, ACS established the Subcommittee on Scientific Freedom and Human Rights, which I chaired since its' inception for over 25 years. In 1988, I met with Andrei Sakharov who advised me to never stop pressuring governments or organizations that abuse human rights. Based on his council, I took a crash course in Russian before traveling to the Soviet Union several times to meet with dissidents, despite the risk to my own safety. After the Tiananmen Square incident in 1989, I worked diligently on the issue of human rights in China. Traveling often to work on the release of pro-democracy prisoners, I met with several dissidents of China, including physicist Xu Liangying who was under house arrest. In my lecture, I will discuss additional cases of my fight for human rights. After 9/11/2001, I expanded my work on scientific freedom and human rights to the Middle East by organizing the Malta Conferences, which use science for diplomacy and as a bridge to peace. These conferences bring together scientists from 15 Middle East countries including Iran, Iraq, Syria, Israel, Palestine, Jordan, etc. with 6 Nobel Laureates to work for 5 days on solving regional problems. Although acts of war and terrorism have destabilized the political and economic climate in the Middle East, the Malta Conferences have made it possible for scientists from countries that are on the opposing sides of political and cultural conflicts to meet in a politically neutral environment. There they can work to forge relationships that bridge the deep chasms of mistrust and intolerance. Scientists who normally don't have the opportunity to speak with one another are able to discuss their research and issues of mutual concern. In a time when the

  18. Human Rights on the Internet: A Select Bibliography of Web Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Christina E.; Davidson, Russ

    1997-01-01

    Presents a cross-section of categories of Internet sites that deal with human rights issues: (1) gateway sites; (2) sites that focus on particular broad groups; (3) international organizations; (4) human rights documents; (5) regional and country sites; and (6) news services and periodicals. For each site, information on the sponsor(s), contents,…

  19. Seeking Asylum: Adolescents Explore the Crossroads of Human Rights Education and Cosmopolitan Critical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkerly-Bean, Judith; Bean, Thomas; Alnajjar, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school (grade 6-8) students' understanding and interpretation of human rights issues with local and global implications as they engaged in the process of creating a film after reading print and multimedia texts and participating in human rights education activities. As the students explored…

  20. "This Is a Public Record": Teaching Human Rights through the Performing Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Andrea McEvoy

    2012-01-01

    Urban youth in the United States often experience daily human rights violations such as racism and violence. Therefore, Human Rights Education (HRE) can strengthen their understanding of these issues and unleash their power to act toward positive change. This qualitative study attempted to gain a deeper understanding of the use of performance arts…

  1. International Approaches in Human Rights Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohrenscheit, Claudia

    2002-07-01

    This paper was presented at a working group on Human Rights Education (HRE), organised by Volker Lenhart and Christel Adick, as part of the biennial conference of the German Society for Educational Research (DGfE), held in 2000 in Göttingen. In the spirit of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) it contributes to the global discourse about HRE by summarising its foundations in international declarations and conventions, by discussing some examples for diverse approaches and conceptions of HRE and, finally by introducing some major obstacles or problems. The paper is part of the author's PhD project in the field of HRE and presents only an interim résumé of her recent work.

  2. Ebola Virus: Sensationalism, Science, and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Bausch, Daniel G; Clougherty, Marguerite M

    2015-10-01

    Outbreaks of the filoviruses, Ebola and Marburg, usually garner immense public attention, often with a sensationalist bent in the lay press, focused on the apparently mysterious origins of the outbreak and the high mortality rates. The scientific community may present a more objective viewpoint, but usually with a rather technical focus on identifying epidemiological risk factors and experimental therapies and vaccines. Often lost in the discussion are the human rights elements that consistently underlie large outbreaks of these dangerous viruses. PMID:26203057

  3. Human rights, ideology and population policies.

    PubMed

    Colombo, B

    1977-01-01

    Only too often ideology means fanaticism, intolerance, even violence, but the term can be used also to denote sets of preconceptions and presuppositions which act as a stimulus and a guide to scientific innovation, particularly in the field of social science. This sort of insight into the realities of life and the world is a contribution to knowledge and the search for truth, also in the field of human rights. These are taken in the paper as those rights whose infringement constitutes a "vulnus" of the essential characteristics of human beings and those which assume the role of a basic safeguard of them. The meaning of the insistence on the human rights theme in the United Nations system is briefly touched upon, but the main effort is spent in trying to find a firm base for both fundamental rights and duties, shown as strictly and simmetrically linked. Various examples of population policies - broadly defined as governmental interventions influencing demographic variables - are then examined in the light of the basic principles laid down in the said effort. The fields taken up in succession for consideration are international and internal migration, mortality, marriage, fertility in countries at different stages of demographic transition, and growth. Rather than trying an extensive coverage of the whole horizon, a line of critical and deep thought about typical problematic themes is preferred. One of the main conclusions which may be quoted is a statement according to which the problem remains wide open of discovering acceptable ways aiming at a modification of fertility patterns which combine a reduction of the average family size with the maintenance of its variability in order to respect free and responsible individual choices. How important and urgent this task is, is underscored by the observations advanced in the final section of the paper including a meditation on the limits that human sexuality appears to have imposed on itself. PMID:12309393

  4. Human rights of persons with mental illness in Indonesia: more than legislation is needed

    PubMed Central

    Irmansyah, I; Prasetyo, YA; Minas, H

    2009-01-01

    Background Although attention to human rights in Indonesia has been improving over the past decade, the human rights situation of persons with mental disorders is still far from satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to examine the legal framework for protection of human rights of persons with mental disorder and the extent to which Indonesia's international obligations concerning the right to health are being met. Methods We examined the Indonesian constitution, Indonesian laws relevant to the right to health, the structure and operation of the National Human Rights Commission, and what is known about violations of the human rights of persons with mental illness from research and the media. Results The focus of the Indonesian Constitution on rights pre-dated the Universal Declaration, Indonesia has ratified relevant international covenants and domestic law provides an adequate legal framework for human rights protections. However, human rights abuses persist, are widespread, and go essentially unremarked and unchallenged. The National Human Rights Commission has only recently become engaged in the issue of protection of the rights of persons with mental illness. Conclusion More than legislation is needed to protect the human rights of persons with mental illness. Improving the human rights situation for persons with mental illness in Indonesia will require action by governments at national, provincial and district levels, substantial increases in the level of investment in mental health services, coordinated action by mental health professionals and consumer and carer organisations, and a central role for the National Human Rights Commission in protecting the rights of persons with mental illness. PMID:19545362

  5. A human rights approach to human trafficking for organ removal.

    PubMed

    Budiani-Saberi, Debra; Columb, Seán

    2013-11-01

    Human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) should not be reduced to a problem of supply and demand of organs for transplantation, a problem of organized crime and criminal justice, or a problem of voiceless, abandoned victims. Rather, HTOR is at once an egregious human rights abuse and a form of human trafficking. As such, it demands a human-rights based approach in analysis and response to this problem, placing the victim at the center of initiatives to combat this phenomenon. Such an approach requires us to consider how various measures impact or disregard victims/potential victims of HTOR and gives us tools to better advocate their interests, rights and freedoms. PMID:23743564

  6. Public health, conflict and human rights: toward a collaborative research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Thoms, Oskar NT; Ron, James

    2007-01-01

    Although epidemiology is increasingly contributing to policy debates on issues of conflict and human rights, its potential is still underutilized. As a result, this article calls for greater collaboration between public health researchers, conflict analysts and human rights monitors, with special emphasis on retrospective, population-based surveys. The article surveys relevant recent public health research, explains why collaboration is useful, and outlines possible future research scenarios, including those pertaining to the indirect and long-term consequences of conflict; human rights and security in conflict prone areas; and the link between human rights, conflict, and International Humanitarian Law. PMID:18005430

  7. The Human Right to Education: Freedom and Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimentel, Caetano

    2006-01-01

    Education, as a human right, is the acknowledgement of the individual's rights rather than his or her role in the capitalist goals of the economic growth; the human right to education is the way through which one can conquer freedom and become a genuine individuated being, self-aware and yet deeply and truly connected to others. A rights-based…

  8. Human Rights Education Standards for Teachers and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Todd

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a set of human rights education standards for classroom teachers and, by implication, outcomes for teacher preparation programs. The discussion includes a brief description of human rights education and concludes with recommendations for teacher preparation programs.

  9. Human Rights Education: Is Social Work behind the Curve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Julie A.; Mathiesen, Sally

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a descriptive assessment of human rights education within schools of social work and law. A review of course titles and descriptions within MSW programs and law programs was conducted for identification of human rights content. The results suggest a dearth of human rights content in social work curricula and a great disparity…

  10. Human Rights: Unfolding of the American Tradition. Report No. 8403.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Public Affairs (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    Excerpts from 100 speeches, essays, and legal documents dating from classical times to the present illustrate the record of human rights discussion over the centuries. The compilation was made in 1968 to mark the 20th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The readings indicate that human rights initially meant freedom from a…

  11. Health and human rights a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2014-01-01

    General statements of basic entitlements are established as a guide for potential laws and regulations protecting human rights. Human rights are those claimed to belong to every individual regardless of nationality or position within society. The historical evolution of human rights relative to health in the Republic of South Africa is discussed. PMID:25080665

  12. Perspective: Economic Human Rights: The Time Has Come!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittal, Anuradha

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that the high poverty levels in the United States implies that the goals of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) have not yet transformed the reality of U.S. citizens. Describes the national campaign called "Economic Human Rights: The Time Has Come!" that combats the violations of basic human rights like poverty. (CMK)

  13. Human Rights: 1948-1978--Changing Perceptions. A Wingspread Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Louis B.; Roosevelt, Curtis

    Conference participants examined the attitudes toward human rights which led to the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, as compared to today's perceptions of the meaning of human rights. Using Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms" as a point of departure--freedom of speech and expression, freedom of every person to…

  14. Teaching Human Rights? "All Hell Will Break Loose!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Claire; Brunner, Richard; Webster, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Human rights education is a prominent concern of a number of international organisations and has been dominant on the United Nations' agenda for the past 20 years. The UN Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) has been followed by the World Programme for Human Rights Education (2005-ongoing) and the recently adopted UN Declaration on…

  15. The Rhetorical Question of Human Rights--A Preface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doxtader, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Does rhetoric have a place in the discourse of human rights? Without certain reply, as the dilemmas of defining, claiming, and promoting human rights appear both to include and exclude the rhetorical gesture, this question invites inquiry into the preface of the contemporary human rights regime, the moment of the aftermath that provokes a struggle…

  16. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  17. Human Rights Education Can Be Integrated throughout the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childhood Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that few state departments of education have actually mandated human rights education in their schools. Clearly, individual teachers will need to take responsibility for the integration of peace education and human rights education. By integrating human rights education and peace education into the daily fabric of the school…

  18. Current Issues in the Quantification of Federal Reserved Water Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookshire, David S.; Watts, Gary L.; Merrill, James L.

    1985-11-01

    This paper examines the quantification of federal reserved water rights from legal, institutional, and economic perspectives. Special attention is directed toward Indian reserved water rights and the concept of practicably irrigable acreage. We conclude by examining current trends and exploring alternative approaches to the dilemma of quantifying Indian reserved water rights.

  19. Men, HIV/AIDS, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J

    2009-07-01

    Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as "the problem", and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally. PMID:19553779

  20. Men, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as “the problem”, and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally. PMID:19553779

  1. Issue Definition in Rights-Based Policy Focused on the Experiences of Individuals with Disabilities: An Examination of Canadian Parliamentary Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Dana Lee

    2008-01-01

    In issue definition in rights-based policy Canada stereotypically embraces a more positive, human rights-centered approach as compared with the American stereotype associated with the USA's more presumptively negative, civil rights-based tack. Since exclusionary infrastructures violate the core values of democratic governance, a failure to address…

  2. Human and peoples' rights: social representations among Cameroonian students.

    PubMed

    Pirttilä-Backman, Anna-Maija; Kassea, Raul; Sakki, Inari

    2009-12-01

    Social representations of human and peoples' rights were studied among Cameroonian university students (N = 666) with a questionnaire based on the UN Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and Duties. The respondents were asked how important and how well realized they regarded the 39 human and peoples' rights to be. A 13-factor model provided the best fit with Cameroonian students' perceptions of human and peoples' rights. Taken as a whole, our results are in line with previous quantitative studies on human rights, confirming structural similarity but also country-specific variation in the aggregation of specific rights. Moreover, our data showed that Cameroonian students value human and peoples' rights highly (M = 6.18), whereas their fulfillment is not regarded as highly (M = 5.09). Same law for all, equality and freedom, and right to work and living were highly appreciated but lowly realized rights. Higher than average in importance and realization were right to education and self-fulfillment, right to marriage and property, peoples' social and political basic rights and right to life and safety. Low in importance and realization were peoples' right to their country's natural resources and independence, right to meetings, and right to express opinion. Women appreciated the rights more than men and thought of their rights as better realized compared to men. We suggest that when women say that their rights are better fulfilled than men do, it is in comparison with the older generation, who are still very dependent on men. Nowadays, thanks to education and urbanization, young women have wider choices or opportunities for marriage and jobs. Men may feel frustrated in the context of political liberalization because the freedoms are more theoretical than fulfilled; the economic crises and cultural changes have hindered their economic domination and their prerogatives. PMID:22029663

  3. The needs of refugee women: a human-rights perspective.

    PubMed

    Beyani, C

    1995-06-01

    While the issue of giving women their human rights has been firmly placed on the agendas of international conferences, the plight of refugee women has gone largely unrecognized. Refugee women face rape, sexual abuse, sexual extortion, and physical insecurity. Such violations precipitate their flight, characterize their attempts to gain refugee status, and continue during their tenure in refugee camps, where they are excluded from positions of authority. Because the definition of refugees in the 1951 UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees omits sex as a grounds for determining refugee status or as a grounds on which it prohibits discrimination based on sex, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees decided in 1985 that such claims must fall under the classification of membership of a particular group. Unfortunately, agreement with this is discretionary for states. It has been argued that states which protect aliens from discrimination based on sex must afford the same privilege to refugees, but, again, such behavior is subject to debate. Concerns about the human rights of refugee women should be strengthened by being addressed in the existing framework of human rights conventions in international law, such as the Commission on the Status of Women and the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). One recent advance in this area was the establishment of the Yugoslav and Rwanda War Crimes Tribunals which will investigate the sexual abuse of women during the armed conflicts. The issue of violence against women in every situation must remain on CEDAW's agenda. In addition, the Fourth World Conference on Women provides a welcome opportunity to place these issues in the forefront of global efforts to protect women. PMID:12290124

  4. National Incorporation of Global Human Rights: Worldwide Expansion of National Human Rights Institutions, 1966-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Jeong-Woo; Ramirez, Francisco O.

    2009-01-01

    Using an event history framework we analyze the adoption rate of national human rights institutions. Neo-realist perspective predicts adoption rates to be positively influenced by favorable national profiles that lower the costs and make it more reasonable to establish these institutions. From a world polity perspective adoption rates will be…

  5. The Developmentally Disabled: Civil Rights Issues. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Commission on the Legal and Civil Rights of the Developmentally Disabled, Boston.

    Presented is the final report of the Massachusetts Commission on Legal and Civil Rights of the Developmentally Disabled formed to investigate the civil rights problems of developmentally disabled citizens and to recommend and take action to correct the problems. It is noted that the report deals with the following areas: self-determination and…

  6. Faith Schools: Democracy, Human Rights and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that faith-based schools are a necessary feature of democratic and pluralistic societies and a legitimate expression of human rights as constituted in the European Convention in Human Rights (2000). It further argues that if the rights of parents to have a real choice for faith-based schools (regardless of ability to pay) are…

  7. Language revitalization in Native North America--issues of intellectual property rights and intellectual sovereignty.

    PubMed

    Tatsch, Sheri

    2004-01-01

    Language revitalization, oral tradition and epistemology are expressions of Native peoples intellectual sovereignty, and thus the foundation for indigenous intellectual property rights. As the people of California move towards language and cultural revitalization the question arises: What constitutes or constructs the definitions of intellectual property and how can appropriation of indigenous knowledge be protected? Looking at the issues faced by the California's indigenous populace and by implication, other indigenous peoples in the United States, this essay examines how protection may be afforded under the United Nations definition of 'heritage'. Given that the holding safe of a 'culture' or 'heritage' is inclusive of language, and thus has been determined to be a human right. PMID:15156749

  8. Chikungunya, climate change, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Meason, Braden; Paterson, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya is a re-emerging arbovirus that causes significant morbidity and some mortality. Global climate change leading to warmer temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns allow mosquito vectors to thrive at altitudes and at locations where they previously have not, ultimately leading to a spread of mosquito-borne diseases. While mutations to the chikungunya virus are responsible for some portion of the re-emergence, chikungunya epidemiology is closely tied with weather patterns in Southeast Asia. Extrapolation of this regional pattern, combined with known climate factors impacting the spread of malaria and dengue, summate to a dark picture of climate change and the spread of this disease from south Asia and Africa into Europe and North America. This review describes chikungunya and collates current data regarding its spread in which climate change plays an important part. We also examine human rights obligations of States and others to protect against this disease. PMID:25474599

  9. Women, Reproductive Rights, and HIV/AIDS: Issues on Which Research and Interventions are Still Needed

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    From 2002 to 2005, two literature reviews identified a number of reproductive-health issues that appeared to be relatively neglected in relation to HIV/AIDS: contraceptive information tailored to the needs of HIV-positive people; voluntary HIV counselling and testing during antenatal care, labour, and delivery; parenting options for HIV-positive people besides pregnancy through unprotected intercourse (i.e. assisted conception and legal adoption or foster care); unwanted pregnancy; and abortion-related care. An additional finding was that stigma and discrimination were frequently cited as barriers to enjoyment of reproductive rights by HIV-positive women. Subsequently, a pilot project was initiated in which non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in developing countries used benchmarks to ascertain whether these neglected issues were addressed in local programmes and interventions serving women affected by HIV and AIDS. The benchmarks also assessed whether policies and programmes paid attention to the human and reproductive rights of HIV-positive women. This paper describes the main findings from the two exercises in relation to contraception for women living with HIV or AIDS, abortion-related care, legal adoption by HIV-positive parents, and reproductive rights. It concludes with a number of recommendations on topics to be incorporated into the international research agenda, policies, and programmes in the field of HIV/AIDS. PMID:17591338

  10. Gender, health, and human rights in sites of political exclusion.

    PubMed

    Laurie, M; Petchesky, R P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the intersections of gender, health and human rights in sites of political exclusion. We apply the political theory of Giorgio Agamben on 'states of exception', seeking to better understand how the recent 'war on terror', that seemingly knows no limits of time or space, is driving health outcomes in refugee and Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps. Reproductive health, militarization, and gender-based violence in camps are explored in depth. The evidence presented reveals a number of contradictions of refugee and IDP camps, further highlighting the need for a more rights based humanitarianism. We conclude that foregrounding states of exception, as a way of understanding current gender dynamics in the social determinants of health, is both epidemiologically necessary and conceptually useful. We find that, in these sites of exclusion, the indispensability of a human rights approach to gender and health equity issues is revealed most directly. Furthermore, we are able to make new connections between the 'crisis of humanitarianism', gender, and health. PMID:19288341

  11. The Right to Live and Die. Canadian Critical Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, John; Bourne, Paula

    One of a series adapted from the Canadian Public Issues Project, this book is designed to stimulate discussion and reflection about controversial issues through case studies. The book is based on high school units originally drawn from cases in newspapers, journals, books, legal documents, and government reports. Conflicts from issues arising over…

  12. Human reproductive issues in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    A review of reproductive functioning in animal species studied during space flight demonstrated that most species were affected significantly by the absence of gravity and/or the presence of radiation. These two factors induced alterations in normal reproductive functioning independently of, as well as in combination with, each other. Based on animal models, several potential problem areas regarding human reproductive physiology and functioning in the space environment were identified. While there are no current space flight investigations, the animal studies suggest priorities for future research in human reproduction. Such studies will be critical for the successful colonization of the space frontier.

  13. Another issue comes out: gay rights policy voting in recent U.S. presidential elections.

    PubMed

    Rhodebeck, Laurie A

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from the theory of policy voting, this study examines the impact of opinions about gay rights on voting for presidential candidates. Qualitative analysis of the major party platforms and candidate campaign rhetoric from the six presidential elections held between 1988 and 2008 indicates that Democratic and Republican presidential candidates began openly expressing opposing positions on gay rights issues in 1992. Quantitative analysis of public opinion shows that, starting in 1992 and continuing through 2008, gay rights issues became more salient to the public, and opinions about gay rights began to exert a significant effect on vote choice. The study concludes with a discussion of the partisan forces that shaped the electoral significance of gay rights issues during the period from 1988 to 2008 and speculation about the role of gay rights issues in shaping future partisan electoral strategy. PMID:25530286

  14. Civil Rights Issues Facing the Blind and Visually Impaired in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Springfield.

    This report is the result of a conference that examined major civil rights issues facing people who are blind and visually impaired in Illinois and is intended to inform the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights concerning issues of equal protection. The introductory chapter reviews leading types and causes of blindness and visual impairment, incidence…

  15. A Sensitive Period: Bioethics, Human Rights, and Child Development.

    PubMed

    Denburg, Avram

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores complementarities between bioethics and human rights in the ethical analysis of early childhood development (ECD) policies. It is argued that conceptual synergies arising from the integration of these fields are considerable, if underexplored, and best illumined through application to specific domains of health policy. ECD represents an especially germane case study: it is characterized by rapidly evolving science whose normative implications are complex, emergent, and understudied, yet whose societal impacts are wide-ranging. The paper first charts the disciplinary evolution of bioethics, demonstrating its gradual social turn: from the individual to collective, from the medical to the societal. It then reviews points of theoretical confluence between bioethics and human rights, to assess the value and feasibility of their joint application to health policy analysis. Finally, it maps these complementarities onto issues provoked by the epigenetics of ECD, in the hopes that both the policy domain and the analysis of theoretical synergies are enriched. It finds that the distinctly relational and emergent nature of ECD science and policy demands novel forms of normative inquiry. Only an ethical approach supple enough to adapt to emergent questions, examine issues from varied theoretical perspectives, and assimilate insights across traditional disciplinary bounds will prove sufficient to the task. PMID:26204580

  16. Earnings Management before Rights Issues and the Subsequent Cash Transfer in Chinese Firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Bi-Huei

    2009-08-01

    Unlike private enterprises in developed markets, political influence is profound upon Chinese state-dominated firms. Under this consideration, this paper demonstrates how political impact interferes in Chinese managers' decisions. State-assigned managers were found to deliberately transfer cash raised via rights issues from the public shareholders to the state by cash dividends in order to please Chinese politicians. Especially, to meet the regulatory requirement of rights issues, managers from firms which distributed more cash dividends in the same year of rights issues were more likely to inflate earnings before rights issues. The earnings inflation which managers use to boost firm's incomes is defined as "earnings management." Furthermore, the empirical results also exhibit that firm's close relationship with the state enables managers to obtain approvals of rights issues easily, which reduces the firm's earnings management tendency. The manager's incentives of earnings management is closely attributed to the political intervention.

  17. Implementing Children's Human Rights Education in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…

  18. The evolution of human rights in World Health Organization policy and the future of human rights through global health governance.

    PubMed

    Meier, B M; Onzivu, W

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political constraints in international relations, organizational resistance to legal discourses, and medical ambivalence toward human rights. Through legal research on international treaty obligations, historical research in the WHO organizational archives, and interview research with global health stakeholders, this research examines WHO's contributions to (and, in many cases, negligence of) the rights-based approach to health. Based upon such research, this article analyzes the evolving role of WHO in the development and implementation of human rights for global health, reviews the current state of human rights leadership in the WHO Secretariat, and looks to future institutions to reclaim the mantle of human rights as a normative framework for global health governance. PMID:24439475

  19. The influence of human rights on district nurse practice.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2009-10-01

    In the decade since its introduction, the Human Rights Act 1998 has had a profound effect on the way district nurses practice. New laws underpinning the principles and obligations of human rights law have seen a gradual legalisation of health care and a reigning in of the discretionary powers of health professionals such as district nurses.This article reflects on the Human Rights Act 1998's influence on district nurse practice. PMID:19966686

  20. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Davis, William W.; Mullany, Luke C.; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K.; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. Methods and Findings We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Conclusion Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations. PMID:26308850

  1. The Society's Involvement in the Defense of Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerjuoy, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The history of the Society's involvement in the defense of human rights, a history of which the Society can be proud, will be summarized; the summary will include illustrative specific APS human rights defense actions in illustrative specific cases. As will be emphasized, the aforesaid involvement has been primarily through the activities of the APS Committee on International Freedom of Scientists (CIFS). It is noteworthy-and one of the reasons the Society can be proud-that CIFS is charged with ``monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists,'' not solely for physicists, and that CIFS indeed has sought to protect the human rights of nonphysicists.

  2. Human rights, health and the state in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Redwanur M

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper broadly discusses the role of the State of Bangladesh in the context of the health system and human rights. The interrelation between human rights, health and development are well documented. The recognition of health as a fundamental right by WHO and subsequent approval of health as an instrument of welfare by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights (ICSECR) further enhances the idea. Moreover, human rights are also recognized as an expedient of human development. The state is entrusted to realize the rights enunciated in the ICSECR. Discussion In exploring the relationship of the human rights and health situation in Bangladesh, it is argued, in this paper, that the constitution and major policy documents of the Bangladesh government have recognized the health rights and development. Bangladesh has ratified most of the international treaties and covenants including ICCPR, ICESCR; and a signatory of international declarations including Alma-Ata, ICPD, Beijing declarations, and Millennium Development Goals. However the implementation of government policies and plans in the development of health institutions, human resources, accessibility and availability, resource distribution, rural-urban disparity, the male-female gap has put the health system in a dismal state. Neither the right to health nor the right to development has been established in the development of health system or in providing health care. Summary The development and service pattern of the health system have negative correlation with human rights and contributed to the underdevelopment of Bangladesh. The government should take comprehensive approach in prioritizing the health rights of the citizens and progressive realization of these rights. PMID:16611360

  3. Children's First Amendment Rights: Legal and Empirical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moshman, David

    Children should have the same First Amendment rights as adults except when it can be empirically shown that the children in question differ from minimally normal adults in relevant intellectual competencies and would, as a result, be likely to suffer harm if accorded full First Amendment liberties. In this paper, specific principles derived from…

  4. Reproductive Rights: A Political, Professional, and Personal Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business and Professional Women's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Reproductive rights are essential to a woman's full participation in the workplace. Procreative decisions are private ones, and once the door is open to government restrictions it will be hard to close. Prior to 1850, abortion was legal in most states. Not until the professionalization of the medical field did physicians and others seek to…

  5. Regulating surrogacy--a contravention of human rights?

    PubMed

    Ramsey, J

    2000-01-01

    On the 2nd of October 2000, The Human Rights Act 1998 came into full force, signalling the incorporation of The European Convention on Human Rights into U.K. law. Areas of law believed to be inconsistent with the Convention may now be challenged in both The European Court of Human Rights and domestic courts. This article considers whether existing laws on the regulation of access to infertility services, in particular surrogacy, will be deemed incompatible with the ECHR. Human rights as enshrined within Articles 8 and 12 will be examined in light of recent suggestions that there may arise legal challenges by those who have had access to reproductive services restricted or denied. It will be shown that, although existing and potential future controls may arguably infringe these rights, it is nevertheless unlikely that they will be held to be in contravention of The Human Rights Act 1998. PMID:15040377

  6. Human rights-based approach to tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Carolyn; Lando, Harry; Schneider, Nick; Sehgal, Hitakshi

    2012-03-01

    The Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) is currently the most potent tool for implementation of tobacco control laws across the globe. The FCTC is derivative from previously constructed international human rights conventions. These previous conventions have enforcement mechanisms, unlike the FCTC. However, the FCTC relies on state parties to report periodically on its implementation rather than on a continuous monitoring system. The Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network proposes that abiding by the principles of human rights delineated by international treaties, citizens across the globe can demand effective action for tobacco control. This paper explains the link between fundamental human rights and the right to tobacco control. Mechanisms are described to link the FCTC and its principles with human rights-based monitoring reports, which are provided to oversight committees for the other human rights conventions. The initial work of the Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network is summarised and considers the future directions for the human rights-based approach to tobacco control. PMID:22345248

  7. Health care and human rights: against the split duty gambit.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Gopal

    2016-08-01

    There are various grounds on which one may wish to distinguish a right to health care from a right to health. In this article, I review some old grounds before introducing some new grounds. But my central task is to argue that separating a right to health care from a right to health has objectionable consequences. I offer two main objections. The domestic objection is that separating the two rights prevents the state from fulfilling its duty to maximise the health it provides each citizen from its fixed health budget. The international objection is that separating a human right to health care fails the moral requirement that, for any given moral human right, the substance to which any two right-holders are entitled be of an equal standard. PMID:27491747

  8. Gender equality is a human right. Empowerment, women and human rights, past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, R L

    1998-01-01

    This analysis opens by noting that the fact that women's equality is a human right is gaining universal acceptance and by outlining some of the major events that have marked recognition of the concept of human rights and women's rights. The analysis then considers the history of how humans have subsisted on earth in hunter-gatherer societies, horticultural (hoe-based, shifting cultivation) societies, agrarian (plow, permanent cultivation) societies, industrial societies, and information and technological societies. Next, a theory of gender stratification is applied to each situation to show how gender stratification depends upon who has control of economic resources (not who does the most work or even who legally owns the resources). Thus, women and men enjoy equality and cooperation to survive in foraging societies, men dominate in horticultural and agrarian societies, and women begin to regain ground in industrial societies. The analysis also takes into account macro- and micro-level "discount" factors that affect the amount of leverage a woman can get from money earned. The next section of the analysis deals with present conditions and notes that women can achieve equal rights via economic empowerment in combination with macro-level changes. This section also explains how "sexism kills" and considers the economic factors affecting violence against women. The article goes on to quantify progress to date, with a focus on women's gains in education, health, work and income, and political equality as well as slower gains in ratification of pertinent international treaties. The article concludes with an optimistic view of the future as the information age allows women to gain more power. PMID:12157792

  9. RIFs: Procedural Issues and Post-Termination Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phay, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the major procedural issues that have been litigated when an employee has challenged a layoff. These areas include timely notice, notice of reason, burden of proof, standard of proof, prior hearing, and impartial hearer. (Author/IRT)

  10. Commercial surrogacy and the human right to autonomy.

    PubMed

    Sifris, Ronli

    2015-12-01

    Arguments against commercial surrogacy frequently focus on the rights of the surrogate. For-example, those opposed to commercial surrogacy often argue that surrogacy arrangements amount to the exploitation of women and the commodification of their wombs. Phrased in the language of rights, such arguments draw on the right to be free from degrading treatment and the right to be free from discrimination. In contrast, those who support commercial surrogacy refute the arguments relating to exploitation and commodification and cite the right to work and more commonly the right to privacy/autonomy as the key rights in question. This article focuses on the human right to autonomy and interrogates whether prohibitions on commercial surrogacy violate the right of a woman to choose to be a surrogate. PMID:26939504

  11. Advancing the sexual and reproductive health and human rights of women living with HIV: a review of UN, regional and national human rights norms and standards

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Rajat; Van Belle, Nuna; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is an essential part of the right to health and is dependent upon substantive equality, including freedom from multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination that result in exclusion in both law and practice. Nonetheless, general and specific SRH needs of women living with HIV are often not adequately addressed. For example, services that women living with HIV need may not be available or may have multiple barriers, in particular stigma and discrimination. This study was conducted to review United Nations Human Rights Council, Treaty Monitoring Bodies and Special Rapporteur reports and regional and national mechanisms regarding SRH issues of women living with HIV. The objective is to assess areas of progress, as well as gaps, in relation to health and human rights considerations in the work of these normative bodies on health and human rights. Methods The review was done using keywords of international, regional and national jurisprudence on findings covering the 2000 to 2014 period for documents in English; searches for the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and national judgments were also conducted in Spanish. Jurisprudence of UN Treaty Monitoring Bodies, regional mechanisms and national bodies was considered in this regard. Results and discussion In total, 236 findings were identified using the search strategy, and of these 129 were selected for review based on the inclusion criteria. The results highlight that while jurisprudence from international, regional and national bodies reflects consideration of some health and human rights issues related to women living with HIV and SRH, the approach of these bodies has been largely ad hoc and lacks a systematic integration of human rights concerns of women living with HIV in relation to SRH. Most findings relate to non-discrimination, accessibility, informed decision-making and accountability. There are critical gaps on normative standards

  12. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Civil Rights

    MedlinePlus

    ... Civil Rights Search U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Search Close HHS A-Z Index About Us ... to participate in certain health care and human services programs without unlawful discrimination. HIPAA - Health Information Privacy ...

  13. Human rights abuses, transparency, impunity and the Web.

    PubMed

    Miles, Steven H

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews how human rights advocates during the "war-on-terror" have found new ways to use the World Wide Web (Web) to combat human rights abuses. These include posting of human rights reports; creating large, open-access and updated archives of government documents and other data, tracking CIA rendition flights and maintaining blogs, e-zines, list-serves and news services that rapidly distribute information between journalists, scholars and human rights advocates. The Web is a powerful communication tool for human rights advocates. It is international, instantaneous, and accessible for uploading, archiving, locating and downloading information. For its human rights potential to be fully realized, international law must be strengthened to promote the declassification of government documents, as is done by various freedom of information acts. It is too early to assess the final impact of the Web on human rights abuses in the "war-on-terror". Wide dissemination of government documents and human rights advocates' reports has put the United States government on the defensive and some of its policies have changed in response to public pressure. Even so, the essential elements of secret prisons, detention without charges or trials, and illegal rendition remain intact. PMID:19289894

  14. [Ethics, inequality, poverty and human rights in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Pérez De Nucci, Armando M

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to show the existence of important failures in the field of Human Rights and equal possibilities in health. Human rights are analyzed an developed in the field of public and social health in our country. Ethics is the main field proposed to reach solutions in the context on EPEP (Etica para la erradicación de la pobreza). PMID:17643140

  15. Human Rights: Are We Turning Back the Clock?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Fred

    1987-01-01

    Deep divisions in public opinion on human rights goals are transforming the American population into two societies that are separate and unequal. Halting the transformation requires long-term programs that educate the public about racism, communicate to increase dialogue about human rights goals, advocate changes in legislation, and celebrate…

  16. Towards a Human Rights Culture in Social Work Education

    PubMed Central

    Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa; Garran, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    A human rights perspective must be embedded in the institutions, organisations or agencies where social work students find themselves. This paper will focus on one particular strategy that could be helpful to the process of solidifying a commitment to human rights for our students. Using a pedagogical tool from a school of social work in the USA originally developed to combat the social injustice of racism, the example transcends the academic institution and offers a solid link in connecting human rights, social justice and social work. Using the construct of critical realism, we argue that, for social work programmes to take steps towards an explicit commitment to human rights, not only must human rights be infused throughout the curriculum, but educators must provide opportunities for making more overt the links between human rights principles, social justice and social work. By addressing behaviours, tendencies and attitudes, students then acquire not only the skills and deeper understanding, but they internalise the motivation and commitment to broaden their human rights frame. In the process of developing a more firm commitment to human rights, we must not be limited to the walls of the academy, but rather extend beyond to our field agencies, organisations and communities. PMID:27559204

  17. Human Rights Education, Postcolonial Scholarship, and Action for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    In our global age, educational researchers and practitioners need tools that can be applied in a range of contexts and scales: local, national, and international. This article argues that human rights education (HRE) is a site of struggle in which human rights and democracy need to be constantly renewed. It contextualizes HRE within a critical,…

  18. Teacher Perspectives on Civic and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuran, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to obtain teacher perspectives on the civic and human rights education course included in the eighth grade curriculum in Turkish schools. The study group was selected with criterion sampling from among teachers who were teaching the eighth grade civic and human rights education at elementary schools in central Hatay. Using the…

  19. Human Rights Education and the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Nica

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP)--a program implemented in thousands of schools globally--introduced a human rights course (Makivirta, 2003). This curriculum is the first of its kind to hold potential widespread influence on human rights education in the formal education sector. In this study, I analyze the…

  20. Education Professionals and the Construction of Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on previous comparative education research by analyzing the current discourse surrounding this emerging education model--human rights education. The first section provides a brief history of human rights education in formal education. The second section reviews research on international reforms, emphasizing analyses of…

  1. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  2. Human Rights Education: Imaginative Possibilities for Creating Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Human rights education has proliferated in the past four decades and can be found in policy discussions, textbook reforms, and grassroots initiatives across the globe. This article specifically explores the role of creativity and imagination in human rights education (HRE) by focusing on a case study of one non-governmental…

  3. Teaching "Islam and Human Rights" in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muedini, Fait A.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses my approach to teaching a course on Islam and human rights. I begin by examining the attention Islam has received in the media and classroom. Then, I discuss how I structure lectures on Islam and human rights, the various readings associated with the lectures, as well as common themes discussed in class that include but are…

  4. Professionalizing a Global Social Movement: Universities and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David; Bromley, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Research on the human rights movement emphasizes direct changes in nation-states, focusing on the efficacy of treaties and the role of advocacy in mitigating immediate violations. However, more than 140 universities in 59 countries established academic chairs, research centers, and programs for human rights from 1968-2000, a development that…

  5. Education as a Human Right in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sharon E.

    2013-01-01

    According to the United Nations, education is a right to which all human beings are entitled. Since 2000, the UN has been promoting the Millennium Development Goal to achieve free universal primary education for all, regardless of gender, by 2015. If the UN is correct to suggest that education is both a human right in itself and an indispensable…

  6. Resources for Teaching about Human Rights: An Annotated List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    The following resources are cited in this annotated bibliography dealing with human rights: general references (background readings for teachers and students); classroom materials; fiction; audiovisuals; periodicals; and organizations and associations dedicated to the investigation of human rights infractions or education and communication on…

  7. Human Rights and History Education: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burridge Nina; Buchanan, John; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The place of education for and about human rights within the school curriculum remains contested and this paper reports on the first national cross-sectoral investigation of its place in Australian curricula and more specifically in national and state History curriculum documents. Opportunities for the inclusion of human rights based studies were…

  8. Burma and Cambodia: Human Rights, Social Disruption, and the Spread of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Beyrer

    1998-01-01

    The debate around the issues raised by HIV/AIDS and human rights has largely focused on the protection from rights violations of individuals or groups affected by the disease. The relationship between political and social conditions where human rights abuses are frequent and the spread of HIV infection has been less studied. Two countries in Southeast Asia, Burma and Cambodia, are currently undergoing serious and uncontrolled epidemics of HIV; both are marked by political cultures of state violence and corruption, chronic civil war and insurgency, and widespread human rights violations. This article attempts to investigate associations between rapid HIV spread and political and social crises, using Burma and Cambodia as case studies. The climate and context of rights abuses are seen as significant factors of national vulnerability to the epidemic spread of HIV/AIDS. PMID:10347369

  9. Human rights, public health and medicinal cannabis use

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Melissa; Seddon, Toby

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the human rights and drug control frameworks and critiques case law on medicinal cannabis use to demonstrate that a bona fide human rights perspective allows for a broader conception of ‘health’. This broad conception, encompassing both medicalised and social constructionist definitions, can inform public health policies relating to medicinal cannabis use. The paper also demonstrates how a human rights lens can alleviate a core tension between the State and the individual within the drug policy field. The leading medicinal cannabis case in the UK highlights the judiciary’s failure to engage with an individual’s human right to health as they adopt an arbitrary, externalist view, focussing on the legality of cannabis to the exclusion of other concerns. Drawing on some international comparisons, the paper considers how a human rights perspective can lead to an approach to medicinal cannabis use which facilitates a holistic understanding of public health. PMID:26692654

  10. Through the Maze: Legal Issues and Disability Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecky, Joshua; Wolinsky, Sid

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews basic legal requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act relative to individuals with learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Within this framework, legal issues surrounding reasonable accommodations on professional licensing and screening exams are…

  11. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  12. Evaluating Human Rights Advocacy on Criminal Justice and Sex Work.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph; Wurth, Margaret; McLemore, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Between October 2011 and September 2013, we conducted research on the use, by police and/or prosecutors, of condom possession as evidence of intent to engage in prostitution-related offenses. We studied the practice in five large, geographically diverse cities in the U.S. To facilitate our advocacy on this issue, conducted concurrent to and following our research, we developed an advocacy framework consisting of six dimensions: (1) raising awareness, (2) building and engaging coalitions, (3) framing debate, (4) securing rhetorical commitments, (5) reforming law and policy, and (6) changing practice. Using a case study approach, we describe how this framework also provided a basis for the evaluation of our work, and discuss additional considerations and values related to the measurement and evaluation of human rights advocacy. PMID:26204588

  13. Grassroots Responsiveness to Human Rights Abuse: History of the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community…

  14. A South African perspective on children's rights: pertinent issues in remedial and protection interventions.

    PubMed

    Klinck, M E; Iuris, B; Louw, D A; Peens, B J

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on specific issues that pose a threat to the application of children's rights in South Africa. Under remedial interventions survival, development and the standard of living and health will be discussed; while issues pertaining to children's right to education and parental care are also addressed. As far as protection interventions are concerned attention will be paid to abuse and neglect, child labour and children in difficult situations such as violence, disabilities, juvenile justice and street children. PMID:10994213

  15. [Family planning and diverse declarations of human rights].

    PubMed

    Gakwaya, D

    1990-08-01

    Human beings have always desired to claim their rights, even in times when only a small proportion of the population was considered fully human and the rest were slaves, servants, uncivilized, colonized, underdeveloped, or, in the recent euphemism, "developing". The French Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 marked the 1st time in history that rights for all people were publicly affirmed. The rights in question were essentially constitutional and political, but the idea of claiming rights had been born. In 1948, the international community approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which encompassed all types of rights. Other international acts on civil and political rights and the rights of women and children have complemented and interpreted the 1948 document. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirmed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that all persons have a right to satisfaction of economic, social, and cultural needs. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women referred in its preamble to the particular disadvantages of women living in poverty and affirmed the right of all women to education in health and family welfare, including family planning, as well as to medical and family planning services. Women were affirmed to have the same rights as men to decide freely and in an informed manner on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education, and means to exercise these rights. The United Nations has demonstrated its interest in Population Commission in 1946 and of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, and through decennial worldwide population conferences in 1954, 1965, 1974, and 1984. UN demographic goals include reduced fertility on a worldwide basis, a reduced proportion of women not using reliable contraception, a substantial reduction of early marriage and adolescent pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal

  16. The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

    2014-12-01

    The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. PMID:24337891

  17. Human Rights Education as an Integral Part of General Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornberg, Sabine

    2002-07-01

    This article argues that human rights education should become an integral part of general education. The author discusses efforts to realise this aim within the German general educational system. She pays special attention to three areas. First, at the theoretical level, she examines how human rights education can be conceptualised within the context of general education and against the background of globalisation and multiculturalism. Second, she examines the political and administrative level, including questions of curriculum. Thirdly, she looks at the didactical aspect of human rights education. In conclusion she points out some of the implications for teacher training.

  18. Einstein, social responsibility of physicists and human rights in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Li-Zhi

    2005-03-01

    Since Einstein first visited Shanghai on 1922, he was deeply and constantly concerned about the cases of injustice, suppression, and human rights abuses in China. The strong sense of social responsibility shown by Einstein is an illustrious role model for Chinese intellectual, especially physicists, who advocate the universal principle of human rights. I will briefly review this history. I will also briefly report what have been done and is doing by Chinese physicists in the long and difficult journey toward democracy and human rights of China.

  19. Human Rights and Private Ordering in Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterbaan, Olivier

    This paper explores the application of human rights in (persistent) virtual world environments. The paper begins with describing a number of elements that most virtual environments share and that are relevant for the application of human rights in such a setting; and by describing in a general nature the application of human rights between private individuals. The paper then continues by discussing the application in virtual environments of two universally recognized human rights, namely freedom of expression, and freedom from discrimination. As these specific rights are discussed, a number of more general conclusions on the application of human rights in virtual environments are drawn. The first general conclusion being that, because virtual worlds are private environments, participants are subject to private ordering. The second general conclusion being that participants and non-participants alike have to accept at times that in-world expressions are to an extent private speech. The third general conclusion is that, where participants represent themselves in-world, other participants cannot assume that such in-world representation share the characteristics of the human player; and that where virtual environments contain game elements, participants and non-participants alike should not take everything that happens in the virtual environment at face value or literally, which does however not amount to having to accept a higher level of infringement on their rights for things that happen in such an environment.

  20. Citizenship and Human Rights in Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Mike; Trevathan, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    The nature of English citizenship, the need for cohesion in society, and the place of faith community schools, particularly Muslim schools, are issues of import in contemporary English society. When these three issues come together, in an examination of the nature of an English Islam, they raise questions that have implications for the nature of…

  1. Religious Freedom: A Human Rights Concern for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Nina Ribak

    As minority groups, civil rights activists, and legislators push for cultural pluralism to replace the melting pot concept, the school counselor's role expands to include advocating and defending human rights. This study investigated religious practices in public schools, the perceptions of teachers regarding such practices, and the existence and…

  2. Africa and Discovery: Human Rights, Environment, and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, Robert K.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that, in the past 30 years, a dramatic upsurge has taken place in activities designed to promote human rights for indigenous peoples around the world. Asserts that, in the case of Africa, attention generally has been concentrated on socioeconomic rights, such as health care, sufficient water, food, and shelter. (CFR)

  3. How Children Learn about Human Rights. Bulletin, 1951, No. 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Wilhelmina; Mackintosh, Helen K.

    1951-01-01

    This particular bulletin is concerned with the concept of human rights, and the interpretation of some of these rights in the classroom, in the school, at home, and in the community. Although the discussion is directed toward the classroom teacher primarily, principals, supervisors, administrators, and parents who want children to succeed in all…

  4. Narratives in Teaching and Research for Justice and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history individual and collective narratives have been used in struggles for justice. We draw on Sen's theory of justice to examine the potential of narratives in teaching and researching for social justice. Human rights are presented as powerful ethical claims that can be critically examined by learners to consider their rights and…

  5. Sex Education and Human Rights--A Lawyer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumper, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Human Rights Act 1998 is the most significant British statute to have been passed in the last decade. It has already been the catalyst for a series of high profile cases, ranging from the privacy rights of celebrities ("Douglas v Hello!" [2001] QB 967) to the Home Secretary's sentencing powers in murder cases ("R (Anderson) v Secretary of…

  6. The Emerging Partnership in Human Service Civil Rights Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotson, Betty Lou

    1983-01-01

    Describes the objectives and activities of the Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Civil Rights (OCR) within the purview of the Reagan administration's civil rights policy. Describes OCR methodologies designed to ensure enforcement of nondiscrimination requirements in state implementation of programs under federal block grants. (MJL)

  7. A Guide to Human Rights Education. Bulletin 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Paul D.; Wood, Leslie

    Background information and teaching suggestions are offered in this guide for implementing human rights ideas in existing social studies curriculum at the elementary and secondary grade levels in the United States. Emphasis is upon equal universal rights for every person as a concern of education and action. The introduction presents an address by…

  8. Social Studies: Elementary School Guide for Teaching about Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Louise; And Others

    Human rights are those essentials of human existence that are inherent in the species. They are moral claims that satisfy the basic needs of all human beings. Ten major goals and numerous objectives were developed to undergird the Detroit (Michigan) curriculum, and this guide is established around the 10 major goals for teaching students about…

  9. Academic Freedom as a Human Right: An Internationalist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopal, Balakrishnan

    2003-01-01

    Asserting that the university as a transnational community of professors and students poses challenges to traditional conceptions of academic freedom, explores the rethinking of academic freedom as part of a human right to education. (EV)

  10. Apartheid medicine. Health and human rights in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, E O; Hannibal, K; Geiger, H J; Hartmann, L; Lawrence, R; Spurlock, J

    Human rights and health care under apartheid in South Africa were studied. Human rights violations, such as detention without charge or trial, assault and torture in police custody, and restriction orders, have had devastating effects on the health of persons experiencing them. These violations have occurred in the context of a deliberate policy of discriminatory health care favoring the white minority over the black majority. South Africa's medical societies have had mixed responses to the health problems raised by human rights violations and inequities in the health care system. The amelioration of health care for all and prevention of human rights violations depend on ending apartheid and discrimination and greater government attention to these problems. PMID:2214078

  11. Noncommunicable Diseases and Human Rights: A Promising Synergy

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Beaglehole, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have finally emerged onto the global health and development agenda. Despite the increasingly important role human rights play in other areas of global health, their contribution to NCD prevention and control remains nascent. The recently adopted Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013–2020 is an important step forward, but the lack of concrete attention to human rights is a missed opportunity. With practical implications for policy development, priority setting, and strategic design, human rights offer a logical, robust set of norms and standards; define the legal obligations of governments; and provide accountability mechanisms that can be used to enhance current approaches to NCD prevention and control. Harnessing the power of human rights can strengthen action for NCDs at the local, national, and global levels. PMID:24625165

  12. A Three-Tier Citizenship: Can the State in Tanzania Guarantee Linguistic Human Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubagumya, Casmir M.; Afitska, Oksana; Clegg, John; Kiliku, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how the concept of linguistic citizenship can be applied to the Tanzanian situation in terms of the delivery of bilingual education as well as addressing issues of equity and quality in education. It starts by a brief overview of how the concepts "linguistic human rights" and "linguistic citizenship" are theorized. It then goes…

  13. Human Rights as Safeguarding: The Schooling Experiences of HIV+ Children in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul; Kelly, Kemesha; Spawls, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The interface between HIV/AIDS, education and human rights is an important issue in Jamaican society. The spread of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean is second only to that in Africa, and Jamaica itself has the second highest numbers of HIV+ individuals within the Caribbean region. Using a qualitative methodology, this exploratory study aimed to discern…

  14. Learning To Live in Harmony and Diversity: Focus on Human Rights Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special issue centers around the theme of education for peace and human rights. It contains materials concerning the practice of adult education in the Asian-South Pacific region. The journal contains 15 papers. The following papers provide regional perspectives: "Learning to Live in Harmony and Diversity" (editorial) (Rajesh Tandon); "Human…

  15. Deaths in the Desert: The Human Rights Crisis on the U.S.--Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Androff, David K.; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y.

    2012-01-01

    Many would acknowledge that immigration is a major issue in the United States and that immigration reform should be a priority. However, there is little attention to the human rights crisis on the U.S.-Mexican border. As a result of tightened border security since 1994, it is estimated that over 5,000 migrants have died in the Sonoran desert. The…

  16. Intra-Language Discrimination and Linguistic Human Rights: The Case of Singlish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Lionel

    2005-01-01

    Although studies involving linguistic human rights (LHRs) have focused at length on cases of inter-language discrimination, much less attention has been given to intra-language discrimination (Blommaert 2001a; Skutnabb-Kangas et al. 2001). This paper highlights a number of theoretical issues that the LHRs framework needs to deal with once…

  17. Intellectual property rights and detached human body parts.

    PubMed

    Pila, Justine

    2014-01-01

    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same. PMID:22844029

  18. International law, human rights and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, David; London, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the relevance of international human rights law in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic at national and international levels. Public health advocates can use arguments based on this body of law to promote responses to HIV/AIDS that reflect sound public health principles and documented best practice. Development assistance is increasingly linked to rights-based approaches, such as participatory processes, and strategic alliances between health professionals, organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS, and affected communities. Legal and human rights advocacy strategies are increasingly productive and necessary. PMID:12571725

  19. The Ebola Virus and Human Rights Concerns in Africa.

    PubMed

    Durojaye, Ebenezer T; Mirugi-Mukundi, Gladys

    2015-09-01

    In the wake of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) that is ravaging parts of Africa certain measures are being taken by governments to prevent the spread of the epidemic within their borders. Some of these measures are drastic and may likely have implications for the fundamental rights of individuals. The EVD outbreaks have brought to the fore again the tension between public health and human rights. This article discusses the origin and mode of transmission of the EVD and then considers the human rights challenges that may arise as a result of states' responses to the disease in Africa. PMID:26897909

  20. Ethical and human rights perspectives on providers' obligation to ensure adolescents' rights to privacy.

    PubMed

    Ringheim, Karin

    2007-12-01

    The rights of adolescents to privacy and confidentiality as stipulated in international human rights conventions are poorly protected in reproductive health-care settings. Fear that their private information will become known, particularly to a parent, has been shown to be a major factor in adolescents' failure to seek the services they need. The tension between parental interests in guiding the development of children and public interest in maintaining a healthy population is considered in light of the ethical principles that bear upon these decisions. In practice, health-care workers are the intermediaries who must ensure that the privacy rights of adolescent clients are protected. They are bound through obligations engendered in human rights conventions as well as by ethical principles, especially that of nonmaleficence, to provide the young with information and confidential services, skills that must be acquired through training. Enhancing the survival of adolescents promotes the greater social good. PMID:18284039

  1. Data Rights and Responsibilities: A Human Rights Perspective on Data Sharing.

    PubMed

    Harris, Theresa L; Wyndham, Jessica M

    2015-07-01

    A human-rights-based analysis can be a useful tool for the scientific community and policy makers as they develop codes of conduct, harmonized standards, and national policies for data sharing. The human rights framework provides a shared set of values and norms across borders, defines rights and responsibilities of various actors involved in data sharing, addresses the potential harms as well as the benefits of data sharing, and offers a framework for balancing competing values. The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications offers a particularly helpful lens through which to view data as both a tool of scientific inquiry to which access is vital and as a product of science from which everyone should benefit. PMID:26297755

  2. Recognizing the 65th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the celebration of "Human Rights Day".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Lowenthal, Alan S. [D-CA-47

    2013-12-10

    01/10/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Health, human rights and mobilization of resources for health

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Reidar K

    2004-01-01

    Background There has been an increased interest in the role of a human rights framework to mobilize resources for health. Discussion This paper argues that the human rights framework does provide us with an appropriate understanding of what values should guide a nation's health policy, and a potentially powerful means of moving the health agenda forward. It also, however, argues that appeals to human rights may not necessarily be effective at mobilizing resources for specific health problems one might want to do something about. Specifically, it is not possible to argue that a particular allocation of scarce health care resources should be changed to a different allocation, benefiting other groups. Lack of access to health care services by some people only shows that something has to be done, but not what should be done. Summary The somewhat weak claim identified above together with the obligation to realize progressively a right to health can be used to mobilize resources for health. PMID:15473899

  4. Academic Freedom 2--A Human Rights Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John, Ed.; And Others

    The ten essays in this book examine issues related to academic freedom and university autonomy. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, providing an overview of the situation in universities worldwide, including national and international initiatives to promote academic freedom. It also discusses the role of the World University Service in this…

  5. International migration: security concerns and human rights standards.

    PubMed

    Crépeau, François; Nakache, Delphine; Atak, Idil

    2007-09-01

    Over the last two decades, the reinforcement of security-related migration policies has resulted in the perception of the foreigner, and especially the irregular migrant, as a category outside the circle of legality. The rights of foreigners in host countries have deteriorated due to the connection made between immigration and criminality. Restrictions imposed upon irregular migrants' basic political and civil rights have been accompanied by major obstacles to their access to economic and social rights, including the right to health. The events of 9/11 further contributed to this trend, which contradicts the basic premises of the human rights paradigm. Recent policy developments and ongoing international cooperation implementing systematic interception and interdiction mechanisms have led to the securitization of migration. The preventive and deterrent measures reinforce the security paradigm. By contrast, various national and international actors have been successful in defending irregular migrants' rights. At the domestic level, the involvement of the judiciary and civil society enhances the rights-based approach to foreigners. The role of judges is vital in holding policy-makers accountable for respecting the high national standards of human rights protection. This article elaborates on the dichotomy between the state's legitimate interest to ensure national security, and its domestic and international obligations to protect human rights for all, including irregular migrants. It focuses on the changing relationship between migration and security, on the one hand, and between state and individual, on the other hand. It affirms the necessity to recognize the pre-eminence of fundamental rights upon security concerns. PMID:17938150

  6. Exploring synergies between human rights and public health ethics: A whole greater than the sum of its parts

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Stephanie; Forman, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Background The fields of human rights and public health ethics are each concerned with promoting health and elucidating norms for action. To date, however, little has been written about the contribution that these two justificatory frameworks can make together. This article explores how a combined approach may make a more comprehensive contribution to resolving normative health issues and to advancing a normative framework for global health action than either approach made alone. We explore this synergy by first providing overviews of public health ethics and of international human rights law relevant to health and, second, by articulating complementarities between human rights and public health ethics. Discussion We argue that public health ethics can contribute to human rights by: (a) reinforcing the normative claims of international human rights law, (b) strengthening advocacy for human rights, and (c) bridging the divide between public health practitioners and human rights advocates in certain contemporary health domains. We then discuss how human rights can contribute to public health ethics by contributing to discourses on the determinants of health through: (a) definitions of the right to health and the notion of the indivisibility of rights, (b) emphasis on the duties of states to progressively realize the health of citizens, and (c) recognition of the protection of human rights as itself a determinant of health. We also discuss the role that human rights can play for the emergent field of public health ethics by refocusing attention on the health and illness on marginalized individuals and populations. Summary Actors within the fields of public health, ethics and human rights can gain analytic tools by embracing the untapped potential for collaboration inherent in such a combined approach. PMID:18237409

  7. Global Citizenship and Human Rights: A Longitudinal Analysis of Social Studies and Ethics Textbooks in the Republic of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Rennie J.; Koo, Jeong-Woo

    2011-01-01

    What happens to traditional civic notions of nation, national identity, and constitutional rights when national curricula incorporate ideas of global citizenship, other national identities, diversity, and human rights? Using a longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we address this issue by analyzing the nature of changes in South Korean civic…

  8. Legal and ethical issues in human organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Parturkar, D

    2006-06-01

    The Indian Law on Human Organ and Tissue transplantation protects the interests and preserves the lives of both the donor as well as the recipient patient. An issue arises as to the relationship of others with one's body or parts thereof especially one's cadaver. The posessory rights of the cadaver, property rights in the human corpse will be discussed in this paper. The ethical issues involved in altruism give rise to number of contradictions on which this paper focuses. The removal of organs would constitute an "injury" in ethical and legal terms if the intended use of an organ or tissue is not legally and ethically acceptable. How one determines the existence of the 'injury' in this context, where application of the concept of non-malfeasance is itself a good defense, is discussed in the paper. Consent in case of a cadaver has always been a matter of debate. The application of the doctrine of consent will be referred to in the course of this article. PMID:16929814

  9. Protection from psychosocial risks at work under the European Convention on Human Rights: is it possible?

    PubMed

    Sychenko, Elena

    2016-09-01

    This paper argues the possibility of establishing common principles of protection from psychosocial risks (PSR) on the basis of the legal positions of the European Court of Human Rights (the Court) expressed in recent cases on degrading treatment and occupational health. The author focuses on the positive obligations of the States to ensure the protection of the right for life and of the right to respect for private life. The prohibition of degrading treatment in relations between private persons is also considered as relevant to the issue of the protection from PSR. Analyzing the Court's case law (judgments of the Court) we substantiate the possibility of claiming protection from PSR under the European Convention on Human Rights, namely, articles 2, 3 and 6, 8. PMID:27064417

  10. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Münch, Anna K.; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Wielga, Mark

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human

  11. Pathologies of power: rethinking health and human rights.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, P

    1999-01-01

    The field of health and human rights has grown quickly, but its boundaries have yet to be traced. Fifty-one years after the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, consensus regarding the most promising directions for the future is lacking; however, outcome-oriented assessments lead us to question approaches that rely solely on recourse to formal legal and civil rights. Similarly unpromising are approaches that rely overmuch on appeals to governments: careful study reveals that state power has been responsible for most human rights violations and that most violations are embedded in "structural violence"--social and economic inequities that determine who will be at risk for assaults and who will be shielded. This article advances an agenda for research and action grounded in the struggle for social and economic rights, an agenda suited to public health and medicine, whose central contributions to future progress in human rights will be linked to the equitable distribution of the fruits of scientific advancement. Such an approach is in keeping with the Universal Declaration but runs counter to several of the reigning ideologies of public health, including those favoring efficacy over equity. PMID:10511828

  12. Pathologies of power: rethinking health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Farmer, P

    1999-10-01

    The field of health and human rights has grown quickly, but its boundaries have yet to be traced. Fifty-one years after the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, consensus regarding the most promising directions for the future is lacking; however, outcome-oriented assessments lead us to question approaches that rely solely on recourse to formal legal and civil rights. Similarly unpromising are approaches that rely overmuch on appeals to governments: careful study reveals that state power has been responsible for most human rights violations and that most violations are embedded in "structural violence"--social and economic inequities that determine who will be at risk for assaults and who will be shielded. This article advances an agenda for research and action grounded in the struggle for social and economic rights, an agenda suited to public health and medicine, whose central contributions to future progress in human rights will be linked to the equitable distribution of the fruits of scientific advancement. Such an approach is in keeping with the Universal Declaration but runs counter to several of the reigning ideologies of public health, including those favoring efficacy over equity. PMID:10511828

  13. A Revised Guide for Improving Teacher Education in Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappa, Bloomington, IN. Commission of Education, Human Rights, and Responsibilities.

    This document serves as a guide for teacher education institutions and programs designed to prepare educators for meeting their responsibilities in the area of human rights and human relations. This second edition of the guide represents a substantial modification of the original guide, and includes many activities, experiences, and suggestions…

  14. Human Rights: Lesson Plan for SDAIE (Sheltered) Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husser, Michael D.

    This lesson plan on human rights uses the Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) methodology used in California to teach academic content to intermediate, threshold level limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. It sets forth three educational goals for students to reach; asks students to examine definitions of human rights…

  15. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

  16. Sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Ercevik Amado, Liz

    2004-05-01

    A regional workshop on sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa was held in Malta in 2003, attended by 22 NGO representatives from Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Turkey, Pakistan and USA. The meeting aimed to develop strategies for overcoming human rights violations in the region with reference to law and social and political practices. Session topics included sexuality and gender identity; sexuality and sexual health; sexuality and comparative penal law; sexual rights in international documents; advocacy and lobbying. Sexual rights, sexual health and education, sexual violence and adolescent sexuality were explored in depth, including taboos and emerging trends. Specific areas of concern included marital rape, early marriages, temporary marriages, sexual orientation, premarital and extramarital sexuality, honour crimes, female genital mutilation, unmarried mothers, adolescent sexuality, unwanted pregnancies and safe abortion, sexuality in education and health services. An analysis of civil codes, penal codes and personal status codes indicated a clear imperative for legal reform. Participants heard about efforts to promote the right to sexual orientation which have already been initiated in Lebanon, Turkey and Tunisia. Networking within the region and with counterparts in other regions in comparable situations and conditions was deemed essential. PMID:15242219

  17. Gender, human rights and cultural diversity: reflections on a career in transcultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kastrup, Marianne C

    2011-04-01

    The three issues of gender equality, human rights and cultural diversity have dominated my organizational commitments, research, and clinical practice in transcultural psychiatry. These issues are intertwined in many ways and have broad implications for transcultural psychiatry. With increasing globalization, psychiatrists in many countries are likely to be treating patients who have migrated from different cultures and who may have been exposed to a variety of traumatic experiences that have a profound impact on their mental health. Of particular concern is the group of torture survivors and the elucidation of their symptom manifestations, as well as effective therapeutic interventions, which clearly show how human rights issues are linked to research and clinical psychiatry. The analyses of how different ethnic groups use psychiatric services, epitomize how important it is to pay attention to gender aspects in the interpretation of the findings and their therapeutic, as well as policy, implications. PMID:21511847

  18. The human rights of intersex people: addressing harmful practices and rhetoric of change.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Morgan

    2016-05-01

    Intersex people and bodies have been considered incapable of integration into society. Medical interventions on often healthy bodies remain the norm, addressing perceived familial and cultural demands, despite concerns about necessity, outcomes, conduct and consent. A global and decentralised intersex movement pursues simple core goals: the rights to bodily autonomy and self-determination, and an end to stigmatisation. The international human rights system is responding with an array of new policy statements from human rights institutions and a handful of national governments recognising the rights of intersex people. However, major challenges remain to implement those statements. Human rights violations of intersex individuals persist, deeply embedded in a deliberate history of silencing. Rhetoric of change to clinical practices remain unsubstantiated. Policy disjunctions arise in a framing of intersex issues as matters of sexual orientation and gender identity, rather than innate sex characteristics; this has led to a rhetoric of inclusion that is not matched by the reality. This paper provides an overview of harmful practices on intersex bodies, human rights developments, and rhetorics of change and inclusion. PMID:27578341

  19. Education and language: A human right for sustainable development in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaci-Wilhite, Zehlia; Geo-JaJa, Macleans A.; Lou, Shizhou

    2012-10-01

    Pre-colonial Africa was neither an educationally nor a technologically unsophisticated continent. While education was an integral part of the culture, issues of language identification and standardisation which are subject to contentious debate today were insignificant. Children learned community knowledge and history by asking questions instead of being taught in a hegemonic alien language. This article argues that education and development should take place in a broader context of human rights, and explores the links between three areas often dealt with separately, namely: language, education and development. The authors of this paper demonstrate that changing the face of the multi-dimensionalities of poverty within societies is possible only when education is constructed in a rights perspective over the favoured colonial languages, which are not an integral part of the culture and resources of a community. The authors make a distinction between the right to education and rights in education, the latter of which are found to be more significant for the challenges Africa faces. It is argued here that the elements of Amartya Sen's "threshold" conditions for inclusion in human rights and self-development in education are essential, and that a more promising architecture of education would include what the authors term meta-narrative frameworks, i.e. interrelated policies. The authors contend that the neoliberal commodification of the knowledge sector has only exacerbated human rights and capabilities deprivation - which encompasses both human and income poverty.

  20. Procedural abortion rights: Ireland and the European Court of Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Erdman, Joanna N

    2014-11-01

    The Irish Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act seeks to clarify the legal ground for abortion in cases of risk to life, and to create procedures to regulate women's access to services under it. This article explores the new law as the outcome of an international human rights litigation strategy premised on state duties to implement abortion laws through clear standards and procedural safeguards. It focuses specifically on the Irish law reform and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, including A. B. and C. v. Ireland (2010). The article examines how procedural rights at the international level can engender domestic law reform that limits or expands women's access to lawful abortion services, serving conservative or progressive ends. PMID:25555760

  1. Issues on combining human and non-human intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Connors, Mary M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to call attention to some of the issues confronting the designer of a system that combines human and non-human intelligence. We do not know how to design a non-human intelligence in such a way that it will fit naturally into a human organization. The author's concern is that, without adequate understanding and consideration of the behavioral and psychological limitations and requirements of the human member(s) of the system, the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) subsystems can exacerbate operational problems. We have seen that, when these technologies are not properly applied, an overall degradation of performance at the system level can occur. Only by understanding how human and automated systems work together can we be sure that the problems introduced by automation are not more serious than the problems solved.

  2. Human Rights and Religious Education in the Contentious Context of Conflict-Troubled Societies: Perspectives from Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some of the tensions that are created from the entanglement of religion and human rights and offers a possible response to these tensions in the context of religious education in conflict-troubled societies. It is suggested that a historicised and politicised approach in religious education in conjunction with human rights…

  3. Assessing Human Rights Committees: A Mechanism for Protecting the Rights of Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Donna R.

    1983-01-01

    Information on the establishment, makeup, functions, and performance of Human Rights Committees (HRCs) was obtained through a 1981 survey of officials in 74 state residential facilities (for the mentally retarded) in 36 states. The most commonly reported HRC activity involved behavior modification programs and psychotropic medication. (Author/SEW)

  4. Internationalizing the Right to Know: Conceptualizations of Access to Information in Human Rights Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Cheryl Ann

    2009-01-01

    Currently there exists a global movement promoting institutional transparency and freedom of information legislation. Conceptualizing access to government-held information as a human right is one of the latest developments in this global trend promoting access to information. The purpose of this dissertation is to identify and analyze the various…

  5. The Human Right to Education as a Right to Literacy in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motakef, Mona

    2007-01-01

    There are no official data, but it is estimated that four million adults in Germany have little or no reading, writing and numeracy skills, so that they are known as "functionally illiterate". This is a fact which was long ignored. In this contribution, literacy activities and research in Germany are analysed through a human rights-based approach.…

  6. 30 CFR 585.200 - What rights are granted with a lease issued under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable Energy Leases General Lease Information § 585.200 What rights are... the production of energy from a renewable energy source. (b) A lease issued under this part confers...

  7. 30 CFR 585.200 - What rights are granted with a lease issued under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What rights are granted with a lease issued under this part? 585.200 Section 585.200 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable...

  8. 30 CFR 285.200 - What rights are granted with a lease issued under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable Energy Leases General Lease Information § 285.200 What rights are... the production of energy from a renewable energy source. (b) A lease issued under this part confers...

  9. 30 CFR 585.200 - What rights are granted with a lease issued under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable Energy Leases General Lease Information § 585.200 What rights are... the production of energy from a renewable energy source. (b) A lease issued under this part confers...

  10. Contemporary Civil Rights Challenges of "Brown vs. Board of Education": School Leaders Identify Current Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    School leaders from five states gathered recently to examine civil rights issues facing students today. The session was held by the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA) South Central Collaborative for Equity, which is the federally-funded equity assistance center for Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas. The…

  11. Child labor and environmental health: government obligations and human rights.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

  12. Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights

    PubMed Central

    Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

  13. Defining dignity and its place in human rights.

    PubMed

    Michael, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The concept of dignity is widely used in society, particularly in reference to human rights law and bioethics. Several conceptions of dignity are identified, falling broadly within two categories: full inherent dignity (FID) and non-inherent dignity (NID). FID is a quality belonging equally to every being with full moral status, including all members of the human natural kind; it is permanent, unconditional, indivisible and inviolable. Those beings with FID ought to be treated deferentially by others by virtue of their belonging to a noble caste. FID grounds fundamental human rights, such as the rights to freedom and equality. The concept of dignity forms a network of interconnected ideas related to worth and value particularly within legal and ethical discourse; it is a rich and meaningful concept, irreducible to one or two quasi-legal principles. Fundamentally, dignity matters because it forms the foundation of civilized society; without it, serious abuse of people is more likely to occur. PMID:24979874

  14. Nepal's War on Human Rights: A summit higher than Everest

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonal; Dahal, Khagendra; Mills, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Nepal has witnessed serious human rights violations including arbitrary arrests, detentions, "disappearances", extra judicial executions, abductions and torture carried out by both the Royal Nepalese Army and the Maoist rebels in the 10 years of the "peoples war". Women and children have borne the brunt of the conflict. Massive displacement has led to adverse social and psychological consequences. While the reasons for the conflict are mainly indigenous and rooted in the social and economic in-equities, remedies for health inequities must come not only from the health sector but also from broad social policies and adopting a participatory and conflict-sensitive approach to development. Meanwhile the international community needs to use its leverage to urge both sides to accept a human rights accord and honor international human rights and humanitarian laws, while investigating allegations of abuse and prosecute those responsible. PMID:15985165

  15. Global disparities in health and human rights: a critical commentary.

    PubMed Central

    Benatar, S R

    1998-01-01

    Widening disparities in health and human rights at a global level represent the dark side of progress associated with escalation of economic and military exploitation and exponential population growth in the 20th century. Even the most basic universal human rights cannot be achieved for all under these circumstances. The goal of improved population health will be similarly elusive while medical care is commodified and exploited for commercial gain in the marketplace. Recognition of the powerful forces that polarize our world and commitment to reversing them are essential for the achievement of human rights for all, for the improvement of public health, and for the peaceful progress required to protect the "rational self-interest" of the most privileged people on earth against the escalation of war, disease, and other destructive forces arising from widespread poverty and ecological degradation. PMID:9491027

  16. Human rights and mass disaster: lessons from the 2004 tsunami.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, H M; Fletcher, L E; Stover, E

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation into how the December, 2004 tsunami and its aftermath affected the human rights of the survivors. Teams of researchers interviewed survivors, government officials, representatives of international and local nongovernmental organisations, UN officials, the military, police, and other key informants in India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Indonesia, and Thailand. We also analysed newspaper articles, reports released by governments, UN agencies, NGOs, and private humanitarian aid groups, and we examined the laws and policies related to survivors' welfare in the affected countries. We found worsening of prior human rights violations, inequities in aid distribution, lack of accountability and impunity, poor coordination of aid, lack of community participation in reconstruction, including coastal redevelopment. Corruption and preexisting conflict negatively impact humanitarian interventions. We make recommendations to international agencies, states, and local health service providers. A human rights framework offers significant protection to survivors and should play a critical role in disaster response. PMID:18277529

  17. Surrogacy and women's right to health in India: issues and perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Inder, Deep; Sharma, Nandini

    2013-01-01

    The human body is a wonderful machine. The future of child birth in the form of test tube babies, surrogate motherhood through new reproductive and cloning technology will introduce undreamt of possibilities in the sexual arena. Surrogacy is a method of assisted reproduction whereby a woman agrees to become pregnant for the purpose of gestating and giving birth to a child for others to raise. In some jurisdictions the possibility of surrogacy has been allowed and the intended parents may be recognized as the legal parents from birth. Commercial surrogacy, or "Womb for rent", is a growing business in India. In our rapidly globalizing world, the growth of reproductive tourism is a fairly recent phenomenon. Surrogacy business is exploiting poor women in country like India already having with an alarmingly high maternal death rate. This paper talks about paternity issues and women's right to health in context of surrogacy. Government must seriously consider enacting a law to regulate surrogacy in India in order to protect and guide couples going in for such an option. Without a foolproof legal framework, patients will invariably be misled and the surrogates exploited. PMID:23873191

  18. Understanding What We Do: Emerging Models for Human Rights Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbitts, Felisa

    2002-07-01

    The author presents three approaches to contemporary human rights education practice: the Values and Awareness Model, the Accountability Model and the Transformational Model. Each model is associated with particular target groups, contents and strategies. The author suggests that these models can lend themselves to theory development and research in what might be considered an emerging educational field. Human rights education can be further strengthened through the appropriate use oflearning theory, as well as through the setting of standards for trainer preparation and program content, and through evaluating the impact of programs in terms of reaching learner goals (knowledge, values and skills) and contributing to social change.

  19. Girls' and Boys' Reasoning on Cultural and Religious Practices: A Human Rights Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wet, Annamagriet; Roux, Cornelia; Simmonds, Shan; ter Avest, Ina

    2012-01-01

    Human rights play a vital role in citizens' political, religious and cultural life (Wang 2002, 171). Due to the prominence of human rights in the everyday life of citizens, including those of South Africa, human rights education has been included in many school curricula. Human rights education aims to develop responsible citizens who "inter alia"…

  20. One Million Bones: Measuring the Effect of Human Rights Participation in the Social Work Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Jane; Cheatham, Leah P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the integration of human rights content and a national arts-activism initiative--One Million Bones--into a bachelor's-level macro practice class as a human rights teaching strategy. Two previously validated scales, the Human Rights Exposure (HRX) in Social Work and the Human Rights Engagement (HRE) in Social Work…

  1. Human Rights Engagement and Exposure: New Scales to Challenge Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Jane; Abell, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Advancing human rights is a core competency of U.S. social work education; yet, human rights attitudes and behaviors have never been measured in the social work literature. Thus, this article describes the development and initial validation of two scales, Human Rights Engagement in Social Work (HRESW) and Human Rights Exposure in…

  2. Honing Human Rights in the L[subscript 2] Classroom: Pedagogical Possibilities Using Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praveen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Developing an understanding about human rights documents, and an awareness of human rights institutions and mechanisms of protection have become especially significant in the 21st century. Several classroom strategies have hitherto been employed to practice and experience human rights behaviour. Usually topics on human rights is introduced through…

  3. Respecting the right to access to medicines: Implications of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights for the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Moon, Suerie

    2013-01-01

    What are the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies with regard to access to medicines? The state-based international human rights framework has long struggled with the issue of the human rights obligations of non-state actors, a question sharpened by economic globalization and the concomitant growing power of private for-profit actors ("business"). In 2011, after a six-year development process, the UN Human Rights Council unanimously endorsed the Guiding Principles advanced by the UN Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, John Ruggie. The Ruggie Principles sought to clarify and differentiate the responsibilities of states and non-state actors-in this case, "business" -with respect to human rights. The framework centered on "three core principles: the state duty to protect against human rights abuses by third parties, including business; the corporate responsibility to respect human rights; and the need for more effective access to remedies." The "Protect, Respect, and Remedy" Framework emerged from a review of many industrial sectors operating from local to global scales, in many regions of the world, and involving multiple stakeholder consultations. However, their implications for the pharmaceutical industry regarding access to medicines remain unclear. This article analyzes the 2008 Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines advanced by then-UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health, Paul Hunt, in light of the Ruggie Principles. It concludes that some guidelines relate directly to the industry's responsibility to respect the right to access to medicines, and form a normative baseline to which firms should be held accountable. It also finds that responsibility for other guidelines may better be ascribed to states than to private actors, based on conceptual and practical considerations. While not discouraging the pharmaceutical industry from making additional

  4. Gross human rights violations and reparation under international law: approaching rehabilitation as a form of reparation

    PubMed Central

    Sveaass, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states’ obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals. PMID:23671765

  5. Gross human rights violations and reparation under international law: approaching rehabilitation as a form of reparation.

    PubMed

    Sveaass, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states' obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals. PMID:23671765

  6. Health and human rights: challenges of implementation and cultural change.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2008-05-01

    The author identifies the evolution of discourse about human rights to health in medical law, health law and public health law, as well as in major international instruments. He emphasises the importance of General Comment No 14 on Art 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. He argues that its breadth but also its specificity in terms of accountable benchmarks and measures of health service provision are likely to frame discourse on "rights to health" in the succeeding years. He identifies the need for translation of the rhetoric in such instruments into meaningful and patient-informed data so that it becomes possible to compare and contrast advances (or otherwise) in rights to health within and among different countries. PMID:18575179

  7. RISKS, REASONS AND RIGHTS: THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND ENGLISH ABORTION LAW

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Rosamund

    2016-01-01

    Although there is no right to abort in English law but rather abortion is a crime, the lawful grounds for which are instantiated in the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), the regulation of abortion is sometimes perceived as being fairly ‘liberal’. Accordingly, the idea that aspects of English law could be criticised under the European Convention on Human Rights, with which the UK must comply following the Human Rights Act 1998, may seem unlikely. Indeed, English law is compatible with the consensus amongst contracting states that abortion should be available on maternal health grounds. However, analysis of the UK's negative obligations under Article 8 shows that section 1(1)(a) of the Act is problematic as it operates in the first trimester. Further, given the European Court of Human Rights' emphasis on the reduced margin of appreciation once a state has legalised abortion to some degree and its jurisprudence relating to a state's positive obligations, the analysis shows that, while English law may not be problematic in relation to the lack of guidelines relating to the lawful grounds for abortion, it may well be in relation to the lack of a formal system for the review of any two doctors' decision not to grant a termination. Notwithstanding the morally serious nature of the decision to abort, the analysis overall raises questions about the need for at least some degree of abortion law reform, particularly in relation to the first trimester, towards a more autonomy-focused, though time-limited, rights-based approach. PMID:26546800

  8. RISKS, REASONS AND RIGHTS: THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND ENGLISH ABORTION LAW.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rosamund

    2016-01-01

    Although there is no right to abort in English law but rather abortion is a crime, the lawful grounds for which are instantiated in the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), the regulation of abortion is sometimes perceived as being fairly 'liberal'. Accordingly, the idea that aspects of English law could be criticised under the European Convention on Human Rights, with which the UK must comply following the Human Rights Act 1998, may seem unlikely. Indeed, English law is compatible with the consensus amongst contracting states that abortion should be available on maternal health grounds. However, analysis of the UK's negative obligations under Article 8 shows that section 1(1)(a) of the Act is problematic as it operates in the first trimester. Further, given the European Court of Human Rights' emphasis on the reduced margin of appreciation once a state has legalised abortion to some degree and its jurisprudence relating to a state's positive obligations, the analysis shows that, while English law may not be problematic in relation to the lack of guidelines relating to the lawful grounds for abortion, it may well be in relation to the lack of a formal system for the review of any two doctors' decision not to grant a termination. Notwithstanding the morally serious nature of the decision to abort, the analysis overall raises questions about the need for at least some degree of abortion law reform, particularly in relation to the first trimester, towards a more autonomy-focused, though time-limited, rights-based approach. PMID:26546800

  9. The intersection between bioethics and human rights in the light of the universal declaration on bioethics and human rights.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Aline Albuquerque S

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to explore the increasing interconnection between bioethics and human rights that can be observed in recent international norms relating to biomedicine. To this end, the analysis has been focused on the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) adopted by UNESCO in 2005. Investigating the meanings of the intersection perceived in the UDBHR has led to the understanding of how bioethics and human rights are in accordance, under the normative perspective. Hence, in normative terms, the intersection between bioethics and human rights is clearly undisputable. However, there is no way to affirm that it is consolidated, as UDBHR's adoption is recent and its consolidation, together with its precepts, depends on state and non-state agents. The efficacy of a norm and its content depends on social, cultural and economic conditions, that is, it depends on a series of factors that influence the normative system. In the case of the UDBHR, its effective application and assimilation of its principles are directly linked to the use that bioethical institutions make of them and to how the community of bioethicists will project them in their thoughts and theory production. If, on the one hand UDBHR symbolizes the intersection confirmation--which is of extreme importance for its consolidation--on the other hand its range and consequent stabilization are submitted to the actions from governments, social institutions and bioethicists. Hence, there is still a lot to do in terms of introducing the human rights precepts into bioethics. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this goal. Thus based on the meanings of the intersection between bioethics and human rights identified in the UDBHR, this article presents five ways to understand the connection between these two fields. PMID:22977955

  10. Market for water rights in Chile: Major issues. World bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Brehm, M.R.; Quiroz, J.

    1995-09-01

    Many economists advocate the use of tradable water rights as the most efficient system for allocating scarce water resources among alternative economic uses. The paper reviews the major issues and controversies that have surrounded the practical implementation of this system in Chile. The paper contends that the system in Chile has worked reasonably well although some ammendments may be needed. Among other things, a more precise definition of non-consumptive rights is called for and transaction costs arising from incomplete legalization of water titles, lack of infrastructure, and free rider problems need to be reduced. However, fine tuning of the system, rather than drastic reform, seems the most advisable policy recommendation.

  11. Physicists for Human Rights in the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyak, Yuri

    2005-03-01

    In his 1940 paper `Freedom and Science' Albert Einstein emphasized that ``intellectual independence is a primary necessity for the scientific inquirer'' and that ``political liberty is also extraordinarily important for his work.'' Raised in the tradition of intellectual independence and dedicated to the scientific truth, physicists were among the first to stand up for freedom in the USSR. It was no coincidence that the founders of the first independent Human Rights Committee (1970) were physicists: Andrei Sakharov, Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov. In 1973 a physicist, Alexander Voronel, founded a Moscow Sunday (refusenik) Seminar -- the first openly independent scientific body in the history of the USSR. In 1976 physicists Andrei Sakharov, Yuri Orlov and a mathematician Natan Sharansky were the leading force in founding the famous Moscow Helsinki Human Rights Watch group. This talk briefly describes the special position of physicists (often viewed as Einstein's colleagues) in Soviet society, as well as their unique role in the struggle for human rights. It describes in some detail the Moscow Sunday Seminar, and extensions thereof such as International Conferences, the Computer School and the Computer Database of Refuseniks. The Soviet government considered such truly independent organizations as a challenge to Soviet authority and tried to destroy them. The Seminar's success and its very existence owed much to the support of Western scientific organizations, who persuaded their members to attend the Seminar and visit scientist-refuseniks. The human rights struggle led by physicists contributed substantially to the demise of the Soviet system.

  12. Human Rights Education and the Post Secular Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowie, Bob

    2012-01-01

    This article questions whether human rights education (HRE) scholarship is responding adequately to the post secular turn in thinking about the place and nature of religion in society. Here the post secular turn is used to describe the discrediting of secularisation theory, the recognition of religion as an enduring and pervasive global cultural…

  13. The application of the forensic sciences to human rights investigations.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, R H; Hannibal, K E

    1994-01-01

    Prior to the mid-1980's, human rights abuses were documented almost entirely through witness and victim testimony. In 1984-85, forensic scientists from the United States, working under the auspices of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, exhumed skeletal remains of disappeared persons in Argentina. They provided physical evidence for the trial of members of the deposed military junta and trained an Argentine forensic anthropology team. It became apparent that medical and forensic verification of torture and extrajudicial executions could provide irrefutable evidence that such activities had, in fact, taken place. Requests for assistance came from human rights groups throughout the world, and led to the development of an international protocol for the investigation of government sponsored murders. The United States based Physicians for Human Rights has now conducted missions to nearly 30 countries. The recent documentation of mass graves in El Salvador, Guatemala, Iraqi Kurdistan and the former Yugoslavia demonstrates how forensic scientists expose such crimes to international scrutiny, and the necessity of scientific evidence when confronting human rights violations. PMID:7845175

  14. Women, Human Rights, and Counseling: Crossing International Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    2005-01-01

    The fast-paced movement of globalization has affected all walks of life including professional counselors. As the world becomes more accessible, increased instances of social injustice on a global scale have become more apparent, with women and children being especially identified as victims of social injustice and human rights violations (World…

  15. Social Studies: Middle School Guide for Teaching about Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorov, Karen; And Others

    Implementation of the 10 major goals and various objectives of the Detroit (Michigan) curriculum for teaching middle school students about human rights is done through a number of activities and resources. Each of the lessons is structured around one of the major goals and provides objectives, learner outcomes, activities, and resources. An…

  16. Fifty Years of the European Convention on Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This booklet is intended as the nongovernmental organization's (NGO's) contribution to the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Its aim is to bear witness to the commitment of the NGOs having consultative status with the Council of Europe, and to all that they have done to make known, put into…

  17. Using Literature for Young People to Teach about Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Caroline C.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    Using literature in the social studies classroom is a useful pedagogy that is particularly well-suited in human rights education. Literature can give voice to people who cannot speak for themselves and gives students an opportunity to consider perspectives that are often foreign to them. When used with delicacy and care, these literary…

  18. Human Rights, Cosmopolitanism and Utopias: Implications for Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Citizenship education, defined as learning to live together, requires agreement on certain common principles. One central purpose of a state education system is the transmission of common normative standards such as the human rights and fundamental freedoms that underpin liberal democratic societies. The paper identifies the conceptual roots of…

  19. Intersectionality and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhamoon, Rita Kaur; Hankivsky, Olena

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the authors propose than an intersectionality perspective can transform understandings of the contentious content of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR). The use of an intersectionality perspective starts from the position that such discourses as racialization, gendering, capitalism, and ableism are mutually…

  20. Linguistic Human Rights Discourse in Deaf Community Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    The past three decades of activism for linguistic human rights (Skutnabb-Kangas 2000) have witnessed examples of language planning by various national and supranational actors in national and international spaces, with an exchange of ideas and strategies employed by national, regional, and worldwide organizations. In many countries a key goal of…

  1. Exploring the Relevance of Holocaust Education for Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckmann, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Can Holocaust education be considered a tool for human rights education? If so, to what extent? These questions elicit discussions among a wide range of educators, and interest among politicians, educational planners, and ministries in charge of memorials. At first glance the obvious answer seems to be yes; both educators and students have strong…

  2. Building Intercultural Citizenship through Education: A Human Rights Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavenhagen, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the challenges posed by traditional ethnic and linguistic minorities in multicultural states and more specifically the problems faced by indigenous peoples and communities. Their educational and cultural needs and demands are increasingly being framed in the language of human rights, based on the expanding international legal…

  3. The Human Rights Approach to Education in International Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufner, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the work of three international governmental organisations (IGOs) dealing with human rights will be discussed, namely the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Council of Europe (CoE). In the first section, the main characteristics of the…

  4. A Relational Hermeneutical Approach to Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Daraweesh, Fuad

    2010-01-01

    This research is an effort to transcend the debate of universalism and cultural relativism by offering a new conceptualization of human rights. The conceptualization is presented through the development of a theoretical framework in the form of an epistemology. The research articulates and defends the epistemology, which is grounded on…

  5. Toward a Hermeneutical Theory of International Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Daraweesh, Fuad; Snauwaert, Dale T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to articulate and defend the epistemological foundations of international human rights education from the perspective of a hermeneutical interpretive methodology. Fuad Al-Daraweesh and Dale Snauwaert argue here that this methodology potentially alleviates the challenges that face the cross-cultural implementation of…

  6. 75 FR 75615 - Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 232 / Friday, December 3, 2010 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8608 of November 30, 2010 Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation This year...

  7. Transforming Global Civics: The Need for Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Goldberg, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    In today's globally interconnected community, it is imperative that students learn how human rights abuses are not a "thing of the past," but an ongoing exploitation that requires modern day crusaders to defend. Who might these crusaders be? None other than each student. However, if one wants to encourage these noble change agents, one needs to…

  8. Human Rights and Peace Education in the Lebanese Civics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuayb, Maha

    2015-01-01

    In 1997 the Lebanese government published its newly developed curriculum and textbooks following a long and fierce civil war, which started in 1975. The new curriculum emphasized nation building, reconciliation and citizenship. This study aims to examine how the civics textbooks in Lebanon addressed human rights and peace education, both of which…

  9. Human Rights Attitude Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Recep; Yaman, Tugba; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable attitude scale having quality psychometric features that can measure secondary school students' attitudes towards human rights. The study group of the research is comprised by 710 6th, 7th and 8th grade students who study at 4 secondary schools in the centre of Sivas. The study group…

  10. Immanuel Kant's Account of Cognitive Experience and Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Gregory Lewis

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Gregory Bynum seeks to show that Immanuel Kant's thought, which was conceived in an eighteenth-century context of new, and newly widespread, pressures for nationally institutionalized human rights-based regimes (the American and French revolutions being the most prominent examples), can help us think in new and appreciative ways…

  11. Children's Spiritual Development in Forced Displacement: A Human Rights Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojalehto, Bethany; Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a human rights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive-cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children's development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the…

  12. Toward an Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ruyu

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education (APHRE) on a theoretical level and suggests a concept of curricular framework. APHRE highlights the significance of affectivity and body in the process of learning, factors usually neglected in the mainstream intellectualistic approach to learning, especially in areas…

  13. Democracy, Human Rights and the Role of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Soon-Won

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historical review of neo-liberalism in Korean education with relevance to human rights education and teachers movement. In transition to post-colonial society, Korea confronts polarization of education. From the first stage just after the independence from Japanese Colonization in 1945 to the fifth present stage, Korean…

  14. The Philippines: HIV/AIDS, condoms, and human rights.

    PubMed

    2004-08-01

    Influential leaders are increasingly attacking condoms through HIV-prevention programs that focus on sexual abstinence and marital fidelity. In May 2004 Human Rights Watch (HRW) released a report that examines the impact of these policies in the Philippines, the largest Roman Catholic country in Asia and a major recipient of US HIV/AIDS funding. PMID:15540338

  15. Writing Wrong: Conundrums of Literacy and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    The EFA Global Monitoring Report of 2002 contains two interesting paragraphs. In this article the author aims to explore what lies between those two paragraphs, in order to put forward some ideas about the role and future of literacy and its relation to human rights. The author hopes to show the continuing importance of adult literacy work and the…

  16. Why Do Countries Commit to Human Rights Treaties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Oona A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines states' decisions to commit to human rights treaties. It argues that the effect of a treaty on a state--and hence the state's willingness to commit to it--is largely determined by the domestic enforcement of the treaty and the treaty's collateral consequences. These broad claims give rise to several specific predictions. For…

  17. Iranian PhD student wins human-rights prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2013-11-01

    A physicist imprisoned in Iran while on a break from his PhD studies in the US has been awarded a human-rights prize. Omid Kokabee, who had been based at the University of Texas in Austin, has been given the Andrei Sakharov Prize from the American Physical Society (APS) for "his courage in refusing to use his physics knowledge to work on projects that he deemed harmful to humanity, in the face of extreme physical and psychological pressure".

  18. Circumcision of male infants as a human rights violation.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, J Steven

    2013-07-01

    Every infant has a right to bodily integrity. Removing healthy tissue from an infant is only permissible if there is an immediate medical indication. In the case of infant male circumcision there is no evidence of an immediate need to perform the procedure. As a German court recently held, any benefit to circumcision can be obtained by delaying the procedure until the male is old enough to give his own fully informed consent. With the option of delaying circumcision providing all of the purported benefits, circumcising an infant is an unnecessary violation of his bodily integrity as well as an ethically invalid form of medical violence. Parental proxy 'consent' for newborn circumcision is invalid. Male circumcision also violates four core human rights documents-the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Convention Against Torture. Social norm theory predicts that once the circumcision rate falls below a critical value, the social norms that currently distort our perception of the practice will dissolve and rates will quickly fall. PMID:23698885

  19. Rawlsian justice and a human right to health care.

    PubMed

    Moskop, J C

    1983-11-01

    This paper considers whether Rawls' theory of justice as fairness may be used to justify a human right to health care. Though Rawls himself does not discuss health care, other writers have applied Rawls' theory to the provision of health care. Ronald Green argues that contractors in the original position would establish a basic right to health care. Green's proposal, however, requires considerable relaxation of the constraints Rawls places on the original position and thus jeopardizes Rawls' arguments for the two principles of justice. Norman Daniels claims that health care is best understood as a means for helping to achieve Rawls' goal of equality of fair opportunity. Daniels acknowledges, however, that his interpretation cannot justify a basic right to health care; rather, it would at best require that certain kinds of care be made available to certain kinds of individuals. Finally, in place of the notion of health care as a human right, it is suggested that the provision of health care is a social ideal which may inspire the creation of specific legal rights. On this view, social provision of health care may properly vary significantly from culture to culture. Despite this variability, social systems may still be criticized on moral grounds. PMID:6655382

  20. Human Rights Law for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific: The Need for a Disability Rights Tribunal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlin, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Human rights are arguably the most significant political force shaping the life experience of people with disability. The "United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" sets the standard at an international level, creating both positive and negative rights, and calls upon member states of the United Nations (UN)…

  1. The Value of Mainstreaming Human Rights into Health Impact Assessment

    PubMed Central

    MacNaughton, Gillian; Forman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social impacts of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation [1]. This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international human rights standards be integrated into HIA to provide a universal value system backed up by international and domestic laws and mechanisms of accountability. The idea of mainstreaming human rights into HIA is illustrated with the example of impact assessments that have been carried out to predict the potential effects of intellectual property rights in international trade agreements on the availability and affordability of medicines. The article concludes by recommending international human rights standards as a legal and ethical framework for HIA that will enhance the universal values of nondiscrimination, participation, transparency and accountability and bring legitimacy and coherence to HIA practice as well. PMID:25264683

  2. 42 CFR 405.1835 - Right to Board hearing; contents of, and adding issues to, hearing request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Right to Board hearing; contents of, and adding...; contents of, and adding issues to, hearing request. (a) Right to hearing on final contractor determination... requirements of paragraphs (b)(4)(i) and (b)(4)(ii) of this section. (e) Adding issues to the hearing...

  3. Are Liberal Studies Teachers Ready to Prepare Human Rights Respecting Students? A Portrait of Teachers' Attitudes towards Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Yan Wing; Lo, Yan Lam

    2012-01-01

    As in most countries, human rights education (HRE) in Hong Kong has never been high on the educational agenda. In 2009, a compulsory subject, Liberal Studies (LS), which could be used as a platform for HRE, was introduced. The Hong Kong Institute of Education launched a research and development project which, as one of its objectives, studied LS…

  4. Human Rights and/or Market Logic: Neoliberalism, Difficult Knowledge, and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) has been plagued by controversy since before its construction even began. Outcries regarding perceived oversights in the museum's programming and objections to the cost of construction, curatorial development, and staffing have erupted frequently in local media. Critical analyses of public responses to…

  5. Religious communities and HIV prevention: an intervention-study using a human rights-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, V.; Garcia, J.; Rios, L.F.; Santos, A.O.; Terto, V.; Munõz-Laboy, M.

    2011-01-01

    Religious communities have been a challenge to HIV prevention globally. Focusing on the acceptability component of the right to health, this intervention study examined how local Catholic, Evangelical and Afro-Brazilian religious communities can collaborate to foster young people’s sexual health and ensure their access to comprehensive HIV prevention in their communities in Brazil. This article describes the process of a three-stage sexual health promotion and HIV prevention initiative that used a multicultural human rights approach to intervention. Methods included 27 in-depth interviews with religious authorities on sexuality, AIDS prevention and human rights, and training 18 young people as research-agents, who surveyed 177 youth on the same issues using self-administered questionnaires. The results, analysed using a rights-based perspective on health and the vulnerability framework, were discussed in daylong interfaith workshops. Emblematic of the collaborative process, workshops are the focus of the analysis. Our findings suggest that this human rights framework is effective in increasing inter-religious tolerance and in providing a collective understanding of the sexuality and prevention needs of youth from different religious communities, and also serves as a platform for the expansion of state AIDS programmes based on laical principles. PMID:20373192

  6. Human Genome Diversity Project. Summary of planning workshop 3(B): Ethical and human-rights implications

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The third planning workshop of the Human Genome Diversity Project was held on the campus of the US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from February 16 through February 18, 1993. The second day of the workshop was devoted to an exploration of the ethical and human-rights implications of the Project. This open meeting centered on three roundtables, involving 12 invited participants, and the resulting discussions among all those present. Attendees and their affiliations are listed in the attached Appendix A. The discussion was guided by a schedule and list of possible issues, distributed to all present and attached as Appendix B. This is a relatively complete, and thus lengthy, summary of the comments at the meeting. The beginning of the summary sets out as conclusions some issues on which there appeared to be widespread agreement, but those conclusions are not intended to serve as a set of detailed recommendations. The meeting organizer is distributing his recommendations in a separate memorandum; recommendations from others who attended the meeting are welcome and will be distributed by the meeting organizer to the participants and to the Project committee.

  7. [Cultural diversity and pluralism in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights].

    PubMed

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2011-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups. PMID:22984748

  8. Evolving Human Rights and the Science of Antiretroviral Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Matthew; Cohn, Jennifer; Mabote, Lynette; Meier, Benjamin Mason; Williams, Brian; Russell, Asia; Sikwese, Kenly; Baker, Brook

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen significant advances in the science of using antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) to fight HIV. Where not long ago ARVs were used late in disease to prevent sick people from dying, today people living with HIV can use ARVs to achieve viral suppression early in the course of disease. This article reviews the mounting new scientific evidence of major clinical and prevention ARV benefits. This has changed the logic of the AIDS response, eliminating competition between "treatment" and "prevention" and encouraging early initiation of treatment for individual and public health benefit. These breakthroughs have implications for the health-related human rights duties of States. With medical advance, the "highest attainable standard" of health has taken a leap, and with it the rights obligations of States. We argue that access to early treatment for all is now a core State obligation and restricting access to, or failing to provide accurate information about, it violates both individual and collective rights. In a context of real political and technical challenges, however, in this article we review the policy implications of evolving human rights obligations given the new science. National and international legal standards require action on budget, health and intellectual property policy, which we outline. PMID:26204587

  9. The Role of Education in Freedom from Poverty as a Human Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhillon, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Education lies at the heart of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR): "Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms". However, when education is mentioned in the philosophical literature on human rights, or even within the…

  10. Girl child abuse: violation of her human rights.

    PubMed

    Kapur, P

    1995-01-01

    The human rights of female children in India and elsewhere, even when protected on paper, are violated in practice. An equitable and egalitarian world order must be established. A comprehensive campaign is needed that combats gender-based inequalities, discrimination, exploitation, oppression, abuse, violence, inhuman values, and violations of human rights, particularly against female children. People must radically change their attitudes and actions towards female children. Female children are not a commodity or sex-object but "an equally worthy human being to be loved, respected, and cared for." Strategies that accomplish these ends include the promotion of human and spiritual values of love, compassion, and nonviolence, and discouragement of values of consumerism and materialism and worthlessness of human beings. Effective education and mass media should counter corruption, dishonesty, selfishness, and inhuman actions. Family structures need to strengthened and enriched. The abuse of female children occurs due to the following interrelated factors: entrenched patriarchal value systems, the perpetuation of traditions and practices that identify girls as inferior to boys, the gender-biased and discriminatory attitude that identifies girl children as a burden or liability and as a sex-object or commodity, and prevalent illiteracy, poverty, and negative parenting life style patterns. Other factors include the low status of women, the reduction in human and spiritual values, and the rise of consumerism and corruption. Girls are subjected to female infanticide, feticide, lack of social and economic development, burdensome domestic work, early marriage and childbearing, neglect and denial of healthy living conditions, sexual abuse and exploitation, prostitution, rape, and a denial of their right to protection. PMID:12158013

  11. 42 CFR 405.1811 - Right to contractor hearing; contents of, and adding issues to, hearing request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adding issues to, hearing request. 405.1811 Section 405.1811 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... hearing; contents of, and adding issues to, hearing request. (a) Right to hearing on final contractor... paragraphs (d)(1) and (d)(2) of this section. (e) Adding issues to the hearing request. After filing...

  12. "Clutching a knifeblade": human rights and development from Asian women's perspective.

    PubMed

    Sancho-liao, N

    1993-06-01

    A brief, vivid portrait of the human rights conditions for women in Asia was presented: "kapit sa patalim" or utter despair, urban migration, export processing zones, tourism and prostitution, political repression, and military sexual slavery. Advocates of women's human rights for Asian women must contend with patriarchal and male-dominated systems that oppress and exploit women to a much greater extent than men. Liberation from these systems and the domination and exploitation by wealthier nations must be a goal of a new economic world order. Unjust and repressive structures must be destroyed, and equitable distribution of wealth and democracy and popular initiatives promoted. The status of women must be raised to coequal status with men. The most important objective of human rights advocates should be the empowerment of women at the individual, community, national, regional, and international level. The Asian Women's Human Rights Council was established as an addition to 3 already operating regional commissions of women's organizations. The aim was not just to describe women as victims, but to pressure development activity to account for women's human rights. Sex tribunals have been scheduled between 1993 and 1994 to address the following issues: 1) sex trafficking (Japan, May 1993); 2) violence against women (Pakistan, December 1993); 3) militarism, environment, and violence against women (Korea, March 1994); 4) crimes of development against women in Asia (India); 5) religion and violence against women (Malaysia, 1994); and 6) indigenous women (December 1994). Women were victims when Filipino domestic workers were stranded and raped in Iraq during the chaos of war, when girls from landless peasant families migrated near Clark Air Force Base to earn a living as prostitutes for US servicemen, when women were forced to work 36-hour shifts in foreign-owned garment factories in Bataan, when women migrated for work, and when women were abused and battered in

  13. Preventing Torture in Nepal: A Public Health and Human Rights Intervention.

    PubMed

    Celermajer, Danielle D; Saul, Jack

    2016-06-01

    In this article we address torture in military and police organizations as a public health and human rights challenge that needs to be addressed through multiple levels of intervention. While most mental health approaches focus on treating the harmful effects of such violence on individuals and communities, the goal of the project described here was to develop a primary prevention strategy at the institutional level to prevent torture from occurring in the first place. Such an approach requires understanding and altering the conditions that cause and sustain "atrocity producing situations" (Lifton 2000, 2004). Given the persistence of torture across the world and its profound health consequences, this is an increasingly important issue in global health and human rights. PMID:27022924

  14. Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ronald, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

  15. Mental health and inequity: a human rights approach to inequality, discrimination, and mental disability.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jonathan Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Mental disability and mental health care have been neglected in the discourse around health, human rights, and equality. This is perplexing as mental disabilities are pervasive, affecting approximately 8% of the world population. Furthermore, the experience of persons with mental disability is one characterized by multiple interlinked levels of inequality and discrimination within society. Efforts directed toward achieving formal equality should not stand alone without similar efforts to achieve substantive equality for persons with mental disabilities. Structural factors such as poverty, inequality, homelessness, and discrimination contribute to risk for mental disability and impact negatively on the course and outcome of such disabilities. A human rights approach to mental disability means affirming the full personhood of those with mental disabilities by respecting their inherent dignity, their individual autonomy and independence, and their freedom to make their own choices. A rights-based approach requires us to examine and transform the language, terminology, and models of mental disability that have previously prevailed especially within health discourse. Such an approach also requires us to examine the multiple ways in which inequality and discrimination characterize the lives of persons with mental disabilities and to formulate a response based on a human rights framework. In this article, I examine issues of terminology, models of understanding mental disability, and the implications of international treaties such as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for our response to the inequalities and discrimination that exist within society--both within and outside the health care system. Finally, while acknowledging that health care professionals have a role to play as advocates for equality, non-discrimination, and justice, I argue that it is persons with mental disabilities themselves who have the right to exercise agency

  16. Education in Responsibility in Order to Secure Human Rights in Times of Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrigan, Michaël

    2014-01-01

    Education in and awareness about human rights is generally seen as one of the less contentious elements of citizenship education. However, it would seem that, for the concept of human rights to have a real impact in today's world, theoretical knowledge of human rights standards should be complemented by an understanding of the ethical concept of…

  17. Human Rights Education and Religious Education: From Mutual Suspicion to Elective Affinity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyette, Frederick W.

    2009-01-01

    What are the prospects for joining religious education and human rights education? (1) Human rights educators may cite good historical and philosophical reasons for teaching about human rights without making any reference whatsoever to a religious foundation. (2) For their part, many religious communities have resisted opportunities to form…

  18. Women's Human Rights Education Trainers in Turkey: Situated Empowerment for Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibbitts, Felisa L.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents evidence of the links between human rights education and social change by analyzing the long-term effects on 88 trainers engaged in a non-formal adult training program sponsored by a women's human rights group in Turkey, Women for Women's Human Rights--New Ways. In this article, I show the transformative impacts of carrying…

  19. Human Rights and Curricular Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights have become increasingly salient for nations, organizations, and individuals since the end of World War II (Lauren 2003). Discussions of human rights now are common in formal education, including in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). A variety of indicators suggest that countries in Latin America have integrated human rights into…

  20. "The Path of Social Justice": A Human Rights History of Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carl A.; Gibson, Melissa Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's human rights initiatives. The efforts of human rights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…

  1. Mind the Gap: The Human Rights of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobrial, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have the same human value as other children and are entitled to their basic human rights. And yet, in developing countries they face many barriers to accessing these rights. This study focuses on children with IDs in Egypt. Method: A new measure, the Human Rights of children with…

  2. Human Rights Education in Canada: Results from a CTF Teacher Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froese-Germain, Bernie; Riel, Rick; Theoret, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations has placed a high priority on human rights education. Building on the foundation laid by the UN Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004), the UN General Assembly launched the World Programme for Human Rights Education in December 2004 "as a global initiative, structured in consecutive phases, to advance the implementation…

  3. 76 FR 24787 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria By the authority vested in me as..., and in Executive Order 13460 of February 13, 2008, finding that the Government of Syria's human rights... police, security forces, and other entities that have engaged in human rights abuses, constitute...

  4. Human Factors Technologies: Past Promises, Future Issues. Final Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alluisi, Earl A.

    This discussion of the major issues confronting the human factors profession begins by pointing out that the concepts of systems and system design are central to the roles and functions of the human factors specialist. Three related disciplines--human factors engineering, ergonomics, and human skilled performance--are briefly described, and the…

  5. [Human enhancement: three uses, three issues].

    PubMed

    Bateman, Simone; Gayon, Jean

    2012-10-01

    The term human enhancement refers to a set of actual or proposed actions that aim to increase the potential of the human body, and even create new ones. Most of these actions are based on a reorientation of biomedical techniques used in medical practice, but now also appeal to converging technologies. This article distinguishes three uses of the English term, according to the meaning given to the adjective "human": improvement of human capacities, improvement of human nature, self-improvement. These layers of meaning stem from different contexts but all draw on longstanding currents of thought. It is this collusion of old ideas and new means that is expressed in the term human enhancement. PMID:23067422

  6. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  7. Citizenship Education and Human Rights in Sites of Ethnic Conflict: Toward Critical Pedagogies of Compassion and Shared Fate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-01-01

    The present essay discusses the value of citizenship as shared fate in sites of ethnic conflict and analyzes its implications for citizenship education in light of three issues: first, the requirements of affective relationality in the notion of citizenship-as-shared fate; second, the tensions between the values of human rights and shared fate in…

  8. [Gender, human rights and socioeconomic impact of AIDS in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues

    2006-04-01

    The paper critically analyzes, from the gender standpoint, official results presented in the Brazilian government report to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Specifically, the fulfillment of 2003 targets set forth in the United Nations Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, under the category of Human Rights and Reduction of the Economic and Social Impact of AIDS, are evaluated. Key concepts are highlighted, including indicators and strategies that may help civilian society better monitor these targets until 2010. PMID:16729162

  9. Citations for the Human Rights and Nursing Awards 2016.

    PubMed

    Tschudin, Verena

    2016-09-01

    The International Care Ethics Observatory is pleased to announce that on 14 September 2016 the Human Rights and Nursing Awards will be given at a short ceremony at the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. The awards will be presented at the 17th annual Nursing Ethics and 2nd Ethics in Care conference, organised in conjunction with the PAHO/WHO Collaborating Centre for Nursing Research Development, the College of Nursing at the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto, and Nursing Ethics. PMID:27621320

  10. Human Resources Issues: A Critical Concern for CEOs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manley, Frank B.; Forsyth, Suzanne

    1996-01-01

    A survey of chief executive officers at approximately 200 colleges and universities found CEOs consider human resources issues highly important and spend up to one-third of their time on such issues. Although relatively few human resources executives currently report directly to the CEO, survey results support an increasing role for the human…

  11. Making the case for human rights in global health education, research and policy.

    PubMed

    Forman, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    If the 2010 CPHA conference is a bellwether of mainstream Canadian public and global health practice, its dearth of human rights papers suggests that, outside a small scholarly cohort, human rights remain marginal therein. This potential 'rights gap' conflicts with growing recognition of the relationship between health and human rights and ergo, the importance of human rights education for health professionals. This gap not only places Canadian health research outside the growing vanguard of academic research on health and human rights, but also ignores a potentially influential tool for achieving health equity. I suggest that human rights make a distinctive contribution to such efforts not replicated within other social justice and equity approaches, making human rights education a crucial complement to other ethical training. These contributions are evident in the normative specificity of the right to health in international law and its legally binding nature, in the success of litigation, the successful advocacy for AIDS treatment and the growing adoption of rights-based approaches to health. Canadian academic and research institutions should take up their rightful place within health and human rights research, education and practice globally, including by ramping up human rights-oriented education for health professionals within Canadian universities. PMID:21714321

  12. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Catholic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lanzone, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The catholic perspective in human reproduction is based on the concept that the human being is to be respected and treated as a person from the moment of conception. In this paper the ethical implications derived from such a principle are discussed. PMID:24020861

  13. The nurse, the Geneva Conventions and human rights.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Alleged reports from the warfronts over the past few years have been shocking: bombing of hospitals and ambulances, health workers refusing to care for wounded members of the opposition, medical involvement in the torture of prisoners, etc. Such conduct is in violation of professional codes of conduct and the Geneva Conventions. Yet the combatants and health care personnel in too many instances remain impervious. In many economically and politically unstable countries, where uprisings and war can explode any day, anyone can become involved, but particularly health care professionals because of the nature of their work. When confronted with a dilemma in a conflict situation, nurses must remember that they are accountable for their own professional actions and as such must be aware of patient/client rights and of their rights and obligations under the terms of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the Additional Protocols of 1977. To assist nurses in making the right decisions, ICN developed a Code for Nurses and in 1984, with the League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, prepared an educational package for nurses on the Geneva conventions and the principles of humanitarian law. Subsequently ICN, with its member nurses' associations, developed position papers on the role of nurses in caring for prisoners and detainees and in safeguarding human rights. And today in face of daily reports of humanitarian violations, ICN urges NNAs to reconfirm their commitment and to take concrete moves to assure that their members fully understand what is expected of nurses in conflict situations. Extracts of the Geneva Conventions' essential provisions and ICN's position statements are provided below as one step in bringing about this awareness. PMID:1582772

  14. Exploring the Issues: Humans and Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Huber M.

    This presentation addresses three basic social issues generated by the computer revolution. The first section, "Money Matters," focuses on the economic effects of computer technology. These include the replacement of workers by fully automated machines, the threat to professionals posed by expanded access to specialized information, and the…

  15. Science, Technology, & Human Values. Issue No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelanski, Vivien B., Ed.; La Follette, Marcel C., Ed.

    This issue contains articles on the recombinant DNA controversy, the ethical principles of scientific institutions, and the effect of disaster novels on public opinion and technology assessment, as well as a guide to funding for science, technology and values projects, and a bibliography on professional ethics. In addition, 14 pages of news items…

  16. [Genetic individuality and the universal declaration on the human genome and human rights].

    PubMed

    Siqueiros, Jesús M; Saruwatari, Garbiñe; Oliva-Sánchez, Pablo Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the epistemic and ontological relationship between science and law through the concept of individual in the Universal Declaration of the Human Genome and Human Rights. We argue for a better understanding of this relationship in order to foresee ethical and social consequences derived from Law adopting concepts with a strong scientific meaning. PMID:23520917

  17. The discursive production of professionals about humanizing health: singularity, rights and ethics1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; Pereira, Eliane Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to describe the discursive production of professionals about the humanization of health. Method: qualitative study of descriptive approach, inspired by the social representation theory, with 24 professionals in the healthcare field, working in a university hospital with the established humanization policy. The selection of participants was conducted according to criteria of adequacy and diversity for an intentional sample. Data collection was conducted by semi-structured interviews. Results: through content analysis, three categories emerged, around which the analyses were conducted: "humanizing health as an act of accepting the other as unique", "humanizing health as a matter of right" and "humanizing health as an ethical issue". The discursive production of professionals is based on a perspective which is based on the humanist prospect with socio-historical bias. Conclusion: healthcare professionals must know the National Humanization Policy in order to provide quality care, promoting the meeting, welcoming and recognition of oneself, others and their profession in the political and socio-historical scenario of their country as a citizen, not only of rights, but also of obligations. PMID:26487145

  18. Genetic basis of human left-right asymmetry disorders.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hao; Xia, Hong; Deng, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Humans and other vertebrates exhibit left-right (LR) asymmetric arrangement of the internal organs, and failure to establish normal LR asymmetry leads to internal laterality disorders, including situs inversus and heterotaxy. Situs inversus is complete mirror-imaged arrangement of the internal organs along LR axis, whereas heterotaxy is abnormal arrangement of the internal thoraco-abdominal organs across LR axis of the body, most of which are associated with complex cardiovascular malformations. Both disorders are genetically heterogeneous with reduced penetrance, presumably because of monogenic, polygenic or multifactorial causes. Research in genetics of LR asymmetry disorders has been extremely prolific over the past 17 years, and a series of loci and disease genes involved in situs inversus and heterotaxy have been described. The review highlights the classification, chromosomal abnormalities, pathogenic genes and the possible mechanism of human LR asymmetry disorders. PMID:26258520

  19. Human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in relation to access to medicines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hunt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Although access to medicines is a vital feature of the right to the highest attainable standard of health ("right to health"), almost two billion people lack access to essential medicines, leading to immense avoidable suffering. While the human rights responsibility to provide access to medicines lies mainly with States, pharmaceutical companies also have human rights responsibilities in relation to access to medicines. This article provides an introduction to these responsibilities. It briefly outlines the new UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and places the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in this context. The authors draw from the work of the first UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, in particular the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in Relation to Access to Medicines that he presented to the UN General Assembly in 2008, and his UN report on GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). While the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights are general human rights standards applicable to all business entities, the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies consider the specific human rights responsibilities of one sector (pharmaceutical companies) in relation to one area of activity (access to medicines). The article signals the human rights responsibilities of all pharmaceutical companies, with particular attention to patent-holding pharmaceutical companies. Adopting a right-to-health "lens," the article discusses GSK and accountability. The authors argue that human rights should shape pharmaceutical companies' policies, and provide standards in relation to which pharmaceutical companies could, and should, be held accountable. They conclude that it is now crucial to devise independent, accessible, transparent, and effective mechanisms to monitor pharmaceutical companies and hold them publicly accountable for their human rights responsibilities. PMID:22789042

  20. Human rights and the requirement for international medical aid.

    PubMed

    Tolchin, Benjamin

    2008-08-01

    Every year approximately 18 million people die prematurely from treatable medical conditions including infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies. The deaths occur primarily amongst the poorest citizens of poor developing nations. Various groups and individuals have advanced plans for major international medical aid to avert many of these unnecessary deaths. For example, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health estimated that eight million premature deaths could be prevented annually by interventions costing roughly US$57 bn per year. This essay advances an argument that human rights require high-income nations to provide such aid. The essay briefly examines John Rawls' obligations of justice and the reasons that their applicability to cases of international medical aid remains controversial. Regardless, the essay argues that purely humanitarian obligations bind the governments and citizens of high-income liberal democracies at a minimum to provide major medical aid to avert premature deaths in poor nations. In refusing to undertake such medical relief efforts, developed nations fail to adequately protect a fundamental human right to life. PMID:19143091

  1. The third era of human rights: global accountability.

    PubMed

    Suter, Keith

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that the trend in the current protection of human rights may be seen as a revival of an old idea: governments are accountable for their actions. The protection of human rights has gone through three eras. In the first era, the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages claimed to rule from a divine mandate. This principle of natural law was a unifying factor in western Europe because it created a standard system of morality. The second era, beginning in the seventeenth century with the doctrine of state sovereignty, rejected that natural law. Rulers wanted to run their own territories and not be subject to foreign influence. Laws were created by the 'national sovereign' (king, queen, president, parliament, congress and so on). This legal doctrine survived for about three centuries, but the excesses of leaders such as Hitler in the middle of last century forced a re-think. Although the term 'natural law' is not used, there has been a revival of its essential meaning: that governments have to be answerable to a higher authority for their behaviour. PMID:17822064

  2. Reflections on human rights as a reality for women and midwives.

    PubMed

    Murphy-Lawless, Jo

    2015-10-01

    We often speak of a woman's right to choose the way she wishes to give birth. This article discusses how 'real' that right is. Some of the legal background to human rights as they relate to childbirth is set out, centred on the 2010 European Court of Human Rights ruling in the home birth case, Ternovszky v Hungary. The limitations of this case point to why resorting to the law to achieve their rights about birth may not be the most fruitful remedy for women. Instead the argument is made for creating equality of voice in the clinical area to achieve a stronger collective voice for anchoring human rights in practice. PMID:26638648

  3. Peace, development, disarmament and human rights education: The dilemma between the status quo and curriculum overload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Stephen

    1983-09-01

    With the purpose of facilitating the promotion of peace, development, disarmament and human rights education in the context of intense competition for curriculum time, including from other new `educations', some tentative definitions are offered. Clarification of the basic concepts and their implications leads to a discussion of the inter-relationships amongst them. Hence, a conceptual approach is suggested which is based on the Peace — Human Rights — Development dialectic, defended as crucial with regards to education which must go beyond the transmission of knowledge to the involvement of the participants in their own social reality so that they become subjects rather than objects of their own history. Models are developed to illustrate the pedagogical implications of the dialectical relations among the concepts, aimed at (1) enabling coverage of the topics and their inter-relationships in traditional courses, and (2) suggesting themes for specialized courses which would allow more in-depth analysis. Finally, practical issues with examples for secondary-and tertiary-level teaching are discussed. Rather than giving in to some utopian ideal, educators should realistically draw on the ideas currently being worked out in peace, development, disarmament and human rights education.

  4. Human rights and ethical considerations for a tobacco-free generation

    PubMed Central

    van der Eijk, Yvette; Porter, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a new tobacco ‘endgame’ has been proposed: the denial of tobacco sale to any citizen born after a certain year, thus creating new tobacco-free generations. The proposal would not directly affect current smokers, but would impose a restriction on potential future generations of smokers. This paper examines some key legal and ethical issues raised by this proposal, critically assessing how an obligation to protect human rights might limit or support a state's ability to phase out tobacco. PMID:24114564

  5. Correlates of violence in Guinea's Maison Centrale Prison: a statistical approach to documenting human rights abuses.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Ronald E

    2010-01-01

    Les Mêmes Droits Pour Tous (MDT) is a human rights NGO in Guinea, West Africa that focuses on the rights of prisoners in Maison Centrale, the country's largest prison located in the capital city of Conakry. In 2007, MDT completed a survey of the prison population to assess basic legal and human rights conditions. This article uses statistical tools to explore MDT's survey results in greater depth, shedding light on human rights violations in Guinea. It contributes to human rights literature that argues for greater use of econometric tools in rights reporting, and demonstrates how human rights practitioners and academics can work together to construct an etiology of violence and torture by state actors, as physical violence is perhaps the most extreme violation of the individual's right to health. PMID:21178191

  6. 42 CFR 405.1835 - Right to Board hearing; contents of, and adding issues to, hearing request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right to Board hearing; contents of, and adding...; contents of, and adding issues to, hearing request. (a) Criteria. A provider (but no other individual... appeal(s). (c) Adding issues to the hearing request. After filing a hearing request in accordance...

  7. 42 CFR 405.1835 - Right to Board hearing; contents of, and adding issues to, hearing request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Right to Board hearing; contents of, and adding...; contents of, and adding issues to, hearing request. (a) Criteria. A provider (but no other individual... appeal(s). (c) Adding issues to the hearing request. After filing a hearing request in accordance...

  8. 42 CFR 405.1835 - Right to Board hearing; contents of, and adding issues to, hearing request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Right to Board hearing; contents of, and adding...; contents of, and adding issues to, hearing request. (a) Criteria. A provider (but no other individual... appeal(s). (c) Adding issues to the hearing request. After filing a hearing request in accordance...

  9. 42 CFR 405.1835 - Right to Board hearing; contents of, and adding issues to, hearing request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Right to Board hearing; contents of, and adding...; contents of, and adding issues to, hearing request. (a) Criteria. A provider (but no other individual... appeal(s). (c) Adding issues to the hearing request. After filing a hearing request in accordance...

  10. Human Rights. Selected Documents, No. 5 (Revised). General Foreign Policy Series 310, Report No. 8961.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Public Affairs (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    The booklet contains the text of eight selected documents on human rights. The documents are Excerpts from the UN Charter; Universal Declaration of Human Rights; Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide; International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights; International Covenant on Civil and Political…

  11. School-Based Human Rights Education: Young Bahrainis' Knowledge and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Fatima H.

    2014-01-01

    The growing interest in Human Rights Education (HRE) is linked in this paper to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, 1989). The linkage between citizenship education and HRE is also highlighted, along with the necessary critiques of human rights pronouncements regarding the situation of HRE in Bahrain while the challenges ahead in…

  12. Learning World Culture or Changing It? Human Rights Education and the Police in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how local law enforcers in India respond to NGO efforts to disseminate world culture through human rights education. Law enforcement officers do not merely decouple from human rights discourse by superficially endorsing it. They also go further than infusing rights with local meaning. Officers use the language and logic of…

  13. Team Packs: Addressing Human Sexuality Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. for Child Health Policy.

    This kit provides materials that teach about Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy using group instructional methodology to actively engage students in the learning process. Using cooperative learning materials and videotape recordings, the program stresses…

  14. Ethical issues: impact of the animal rights movement on surgical research.

    PubMed

    Sonnino, R E; Banks, R E

    1996-08-01

    The aggressive militancy of many animal rights or "antivivisectionist" groups is causing great consternation but little action on the part of medical and surgical researchers. Pediatric surgeons are particularly affected, since issues of tissue healing, growth and development, and organ or total-body responses to surgical insults must be established in the live organism, usually in animal models that cannot be replaced by other methods. Investigators have been threatened physically; laboratories have been vandalized and valuable data destroyed. Biomedical researchers have been called "animal-Nazis." The proliferation of animal rights groups such as the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) have prompted the birth of pro-research organizations such as "Putting People First" and the "incurably ill For Animal Research" (iiFAR). The result of this pro and con activity is an extraordinary amount of time and expense devoted to cover the cost of new regulations and laboratory security (approximately $ 1.5 billion in the U. S. alone) at the expense of research budgets, adding to the increasing shortage of research funding. This situation has created dilemmas for the surgeon involved in basic animal research: is it worth taking personal risks to develop new techniques? Is it ethical to allow these fears to hinder progress in surgery? Should we do away with animal research entirely and test new techniques directly on children? Would that be ethical? These questions are difficult to answer, but must be addressed if we expect medicine to progress. PMID:24057778

  15. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Joscelyne, Amy; Knuckey, Sarah; Satterthwaite, Margaret L.; Bryant, Richard A.; Li, Meng; Qian, Meng; Brown, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work. PMID:26700305

  16. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Joscelyne, Amy; Knuckey, Sarah; Satterthwaite, Margaret L; Bryant, Richard A; Li, Meng; Qian, Meng; Brown, Adam D

    2015-01-01

    Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work. PMID:26700305

  17. Health and human rights of women imprisoned in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The healthcare needs and general experience of women in detention in sub-Saharan Africa are rarely studied and poorly understood. Methods A mixed-methods study was conducted including in-depth interviews with 38 adult female prisoners and 21 prison officers in four Zambian prisons to assess the health and human rights concerns of female detainees. Key informant interviews with 46 officials from government and non-governmental organizations and a legal and policy review were also conducted. Results Despite special protection under international and regional law, incarcerated women's health needs–including prenatal care, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and nutritional support during pregnancy and breastfeeding–are not being adequately met in Zambian prisons. Women are underserved by general healthcare programs including those offering tuberculosis and HIV testing, and reported physical and sexual abuse conducted by police and prison officers that could amount to torture under international law. Conclusions There is an urgent need for women's healthcare services to be expanded, and for general prison health campaigns, including HIV and tuberculosis testing and treatment, to ensure the inclusion of female inmates. Abuses against women in Zambian police and prison custody, which violate their rights and compromise their health, must be halted immediately. PMID:21696625

  18. Tracking Gender-Based Human Rights Violations in Postwar Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sapna; Perry, Melissa J.

    2004-01-01

    Four years have passed since the institution of the cease-fire in Yugoslavia, and questions remain as to how Kosovar women are faring in the country’s postwar reconstruction. Reports, albeit fragmented, suggest that violence against women began to increase in 1998 and 1999. This trend continued through 2001, even while rates of other major crimes decreased. Despite considerable local efforts to address the conditions of women, there remains a lack of systematic data documenting the scope and frequency of violent acts committed against women. A centralized surveillance system focused on tracking human rights abuses needs to be established to address this critical need for empirically based reports and to ultimately guide reform efforts. PMID:15284030

  19. Pains of probation: effective practice and human rights.

    PubMed

    Durnescu, Ioan

    2011-06-01

    This article explores the experience of offenders while under probation supervision and analyses the "pains of probation" in connection to rehabilitation aspirations. The article has two main parts. In the first part of the article, the experiences of probationers are examined using thematic analysis, and eight different pains of probation are identified. In the second part of the article, these pains of probation are examined from two different perspectives: human rights and the Good Lives Model. The conclusion is that these two perspectives support each other and can help reduce the frustrations and deprivations experienced by individuals on probation. By implementing these two perspectives, probation services may overcome the obstacles toward desistance and earn more legitimacy in the eyes of probation recipients. PMID:20442271

  20. Health as a Human Right: Who is Eligible?

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Aaron; Schiff, Teresa; Rieth, Katherine; Yamada, Seiji; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2010-01-01

    In Hawai‘i, health care is a commodity, not a human right: those who can afford it receive care, those who cannot often don't. As health workers and health professional students, we witness the consequences that public policies and budget considerations have on people, on patients, on the health of those that we are dedicated to assisting. Beginning with a case study, we examine the historical antecedents leading to the increasing migration of Micronesians to Hawai‘i, examine the special relation that “Compact of Free Association” citizens have with the United States, and seek to reframe the political discussion regarding their health care status in this state as a debate in which medical considerations, not political or economic ones, should be the primary voice. PMID:20539993

  1. Governing Nanotechnology: Social, Ethical and Human Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, William

    This chapter is a human-centered survey of nanotechnology's broader implications, reporting on the early phase of work by social scientists, philosophers, and other scholars. It begins with the social science agenda developed by governments, and the heritage of research on technology and organizations that social science brings to this mission. It then outlines current thinking about nanotechnology's economic impacts, health or environmental impacts, and social contributions. It discusses how technology can be regulated by a combination of informal ethics and formal law, then concludes by considering the shape of popular nanotechnology culture, as reflected in science fiction, public perceptions, and education.

  2. Vestibular reactions to spaceflight: human factors issues.

    PubMed

    Young, L R

    2000-09-01

    Vestibular function, along with other sensory systems influencing spatial orientation, can have a profound influence on the ability of astronauts to function effectively. Beyond the well-known problems of space motion sickness, vestibular effects can influence astronaut well-being and performance during all phases of a space mission. This paper discusses some of the major vestibular reactions affecting human factors encountered in all space missions, and covers them chronologically in the following sequence: launch, early on-orbit, late on-orbit, EVA, artificial gravity, re-entry, and post-landing. PMID:10993318

  3. [Development, human rights and woman's condition: a new age].

    PubMed

    Isaacs, S L

    1989-06-01

    After World War II (WWII) concern grew about the economic and social development of Third World countries. Most countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East were European colonies while Latin America, even though independent was completely dominated by the US. These countries are characterized by: 1) a poor majority ruled by a small rich minority; 2) large rural populations migrating to the cities resulting in bottlenecks and unemployment; 3) bad health status with deteriorating nutritional states; 4) large families; 5) low levels of education (2/3 of the women in the world are illiterate and 90% live in 17 countries); 5) high levels of corruption in public positions; 6) governments ruled by a military dictator; 7) women in the lowest positions with limited legal rights. After WWII the Marshall Plan was instituted in developing countries (LDCs) to provide economic aid to development a model that used per capita income to measure a country's progress. During the 70's and 80's this model was questioned and more emphasis was put on the need for social and institutional development before investing in economic development. The World Bank and USAID have been promoting the role of the public sector, a strategy that has lowered inflation but has also affected the poor in many countries. For example, infant mortality in Brazil is higher now than 10 years ago. A wise development policy should recognize the need of LDCs to develop their own models while emphasizing agricultural development rather than industrial. Development is never accomplished until every citizen participates in their community. Improving the status of women is not only a human right but a high priority in achieving development. Women in LDCs only have partial rights--they cannot own land, nor inherit, and are not given any credit. Development is not only increasing the per capita income, it includes improving health, education, nutrition, and the quality of life of all its citizens. International law

  4. The tragedy of Tauccamarca: a human rights perspective on the pesticide poisoning deaths of 4 children in the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Erika

    2003-01-01

    The pesticide poisoning deaths of 24 children in an isolated Peruvian village make a compelling case that corporate accountability for pesticide poisonings in the developing south should be examined from a human rights perspective. Highly toxic pesticides cannot be used safely under prevailing socioeconomic conditions. The industry asserts that the deaths of these children were accidental, blaming misuse. Tragedies such as these poisonings are not accidents, but foreseeable, and therefore preventable. Sales of highly toxic pesticides that cause repeated and predictable poisonings violate the fundamental human rights to life, health, and security of person. The Tauccamarca tragedy is a clear example of the urgency of applying a precautionary, human rights approach to pesticide issues in the developing south. PMID:12749631

  5. Overview: Human Factors Issues in Space Station Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is presented of human factors issues in space station architecture. The status of the space station program is given. Habitability concerns such as vibroacoustics, lighting systems, privacy and work stations are discussed in detail.

  6. Ethical issues arising from human genetics.

    PubMed

    Arnold, A; Moseley, R

    1976-03-01

    Advances in understanding genetic disorders have been rapid in the last few years and with them the need and desire for genetic counselling have grown. Almost simultaneously, particularly in the USA, several large screening programmes have been initiated to screen large numbers of people who may be carriers of such deleterious genes as those of Tay-Sachs disease and sickle cell anaemia. The authors of this paper, clinical medical students at University College Hospital, London, spent some time studying the ethical issues raised. The first part of their study, which is not published here, relates to the biochemistry of certain genetic disorders, so leading up to the aspect of the subject which must concern readers of this journal, genetic counselling. At present genetic counselling is generally the province of the medical practitioner working with clinical biochemists, and in this paper their function is described and how programmes of screening for carriers are designed. Whether the subjects of the screening tests are found to be 'innocent' or 'guilty' psychological problems confront them, and of these the genetic counsellor must be aware. In fact the range of ethical problems raised by such counselling is wide and can only be sketched in this article. PMID:957367

  7. Personality and support for universal human rights: a review and test of a structural model.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Sam

    2010-12-01

    All individual differences that predict support for international human rights are first reviewed: support for human rights is linked most positively to "globalism" (other international and environmental concerns), "identification with all humanity," principled moral reasoning, benevolence, and dispositional empathy. It is related most negatively to ethnocentrism and its root dispositions, the social dominance orientation, and authoritarianism. Other correlates are also noted. Secondly, a structural model of the effects of authoritarianism, social dominance, ethnocentrism and identification with all humanity upon commitment to human rights is presented and tested. Across 2 studies (Study 1, N=218 nonstudent adults; Study 2, N=102 university students), ethnocentrism and identification with all humanity directly predicted human rights commitment. The effects of authoritarianism upon this commitment were fully mediated through enhanced ethnocentrism and reduced identification with all humanity. The effects of social dominance were similar, but its direct effect upon human rights commitment remained significant and was not, in the second study, mediated by reduced dispositional empathy. PMID:21039530

  8. Human rights consultation: a 12-year experience of a pediatric bioethics committee.

    PubMed

    Michaels, R H; Oliver, T K

    1986-10-01

    For many years there has been a committee at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh to review research proposals to assure that the rights of children are protected. In 1974, its composition was changed and its mission broadened to include consultation and discussion of ethical issues in clinical care. The committee is called the Human Rights Committee to reflect this mission. Medical ethical consultations are performed by rotating on-call teams consisting of a physician and a nonphysician who are members of the committee. Selected cases from 48 consultations are presented to demonstrate the process and to illustrate some of the questions that were addressed. The clinical diagnoses were varied, but the commonest were congenital malformations. The most frequent reason for consultation was to question the advisability of assisted ventilation (27 cases), but other reasons concerned definitive surgery, intravenous hyperalimentation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and tracheostomy. Consultations are always optional and advisory. The recommendations of the consultation team are subsequently reviewed by the entire Human Rights Committee. The service has been well received by the medical staff. This method has some of the advantages of both the hospital ethics committee and the single consultant. Therefore, it should be considered when planning how to deal with these important problems. PMID:3463927

  9. Integrating Women's Human Rights into Global Health Research: An Action Framework

    PubMed Central

    Kapungu, Chisina; Khare, Manorama H.; Lewis, Yvonne; Barlow-Mosha, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article uses Scale of Change theory as a framework to guide global health researchers to synergistically target women's health outcomes in the context of improving their right to freedom, equity, and equality of opportunities. We hypothesize that health researchers can do so through six action strategies. These strategies include (1) becoming fully informed of women's human rights directives to integrate them into research, (2) mainstreaming gender in the research, (3) using the expertise of grass roots women's organizations in the setting, (4) showcasing women's equity and equality in the organizational infrastructure, (5) disseminating research findings to policymakers in the study locale to influence health priorities, and (6) publicizing the social conditions that are linked to women's diseases. We explore conceptual and logistical dilemmas in transforming a study using these principles and also provide a case study of obstetric fistula reduction in Nigeria to illustrate how these strategies can be operationalized. Our intent is to offer a feasible approach to health researchers who, conceptually, may link women's health to social and cultural conditions but are looking for practical implementation strategies to examine a women's health issue through the lens of their human rights. PMID:20973667

  10. Youth Initiatives and Projects on Human Rights and Ethics in Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, W.; Delegates, Sgs

    2002-01-01

    The `Declaration of Human Rights in Outer Space' project was initiated at the Space Generation Forum (SGF), at UNISPACE-III in 1999. These projects are being further developed at the Space Generation Summit (SGS), an event at World Space Congress (WSC) that will unite international students and young professionals to develop a youth vision and strategy for the peaceful uses of space. SGS, endorsed by the United Nations, will take place from October 11- 13th, during which the 200 delegates will discuss ongoing youth space activities, particularly those stemming from the UNISPACE-III/SGF and taken forward by the Space Generation Advisory Council. Delegates will address a variety of topics with the goal of devising new recommendations according to the theme, 'Accelerating Our Pace in Space'. The material presented here and in other technical sessions throughout WSC includes the findings of these discussions. In this paper, we present the work of the SGS delegates relating to ethical issues arising in space activities, and we discuss plans to organize a space ethics conference. This international and inter-generational event would aim to develop a vision and series of recommendations for how the space sector should proceed with regard to ethical issues. We present also the results of the Space Generation Summit with regards to initiating a declaration of human rights in space.

  11. Human rights versus legal control over women's reproductive self-determination.

    PubMed

    Uberoi, Diya; de Bruyn, Maria

    2013-01-01

    States have a duty under international human rights law to protect people's health. Nonetheless, while some health-related policies and laws protect basic human rights, others violate fundamental rights when they criminalize, prohibit, and restrict access to necessary health services. For example, laws and regulations related to protection of life from conception, contraception, actions of pregnant women, and abortion can harm women and place women and health care providers in jeopardy of legal penalization. Given the adverse consequences of punitive and restrictive laws related to pregnancy, advocates, civil society groups, human rights groups, and government institutions must work together to promote, protect, and fulfill women's fundamental reproductive rights. PMID:25006084

  12. Health, human rights, and the conduct of clinical research within oppressed populations

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Edward J; Singh, Sonal

    2007-01-01

    Background Clinical trials evaluating interventions for infectious diseases require enrolling participants that are vulnerable to infection. As clinical trials are conducted in increasingly vulnerable populations, issues of protection of these populations become challenging. In settings where populations are forseeably oppressed, the conduct of research requires considerations that go beyond common ethical concerns and into issues of international human rights law. Discussion Using examples of HIV prevention trials in Thailand, hepatitis-E prevention trials in Nepal and malaria therapeutic trials in Burma (Myanmar), we address the inadequacies of current ethical guidelines when conducting research within oppressed populations. We review existing legislature in the United States and United Kingdom that may be used against foreign investigators if trial hardships exist. We conclude by making considerations for research conducted within oppressed populations. PMID:17996056

  13. Right ventricular long noncoding RNA expression in human heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan; Su, Yan Ru; Clark, Travis; Brittain, Evan; Absi, Tarek; Maltais, Simon; Hemnes, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human heart failure (HF) has not been widely studied. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), we compared lncRNA expression in 22 explanted human HF hearts with lncRNA expression in 5 unused donor human hearts. We used Cufflinks to identify isoforms and DESeq to identify differentially expressed genes. We identified the noncoding RNAs by cross-reference to Ensembl release 73 (Genome Reference Consortium human genome build 37) and explored possible functional roles using a variety of online tools. In HF hearts, RNA-Seq identified 84,793 total messenger RNA coding and noncoding different transcripts, including 13,019 protein-coding genes, 2,085 total lncRNA genes, and 1,064 pseudogenes. By Ensembl noncoding RNA categories, there were 48 lncRNAs, 27 pseudogenes, and 30 antisense RNAs for a total of 105 differentially expressed lncRNAs in HF hearts. Compared with donor hearts, HF hearts exhibited differential expression of 7.7% of protein-coding genes, 3.7% of lncRNAs (including pseudogenes), and 2.5% of pseudogenes. There were not consistent correlations between antisense lncRNAs and parent genes and between pseudogenes and parent genes, implying differential regulation of expression. Exploratory in silico functional analyses using online tools suggested a variety of possible lncRNA regulatory roles. By providing a comprehensive profile of right ventricular polyadenylated messenger RNA transcriptome in HF, RNA-Seq provides an inventory of differentially expressed lncRNAs, including antisense transcripts and pseudogenes, for future mechanistic study. PMID:25992278

  14. A Local Response to the Global Human Rights Standard: The "Ubuntu" Perspective on Human Dignity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murithi, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Some African leaders have made the argument that the promotion of an international human rights standard is a strategy that is used and abused by hypocritical Western governments to justify their intervention into the affairs of African countries. The tacit objective behind this articulation is the desire to avoid an external evaluation or…

  15. Human Resource Management Issues. Symposium 22. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on human resource management issues consists of three presentations. "Work and Family Conflict: A Review of the Theory and Literature" (Susan R. Madsen) explores the literature related to work and family conflict and its possible implications to human resource development (HRD) theory and practice. It presents four existing…

  16. Issues for the Humanities in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arthur M.

    1979-01-01

    Four-year institutions as well as community colleges are concerned about maintaining the humanities in the curriculum. Several issues faced by advocates of the humanities are presented along with specific proposals for changes in instruction, curriculum, and patterns of support. (JMF)

  17. Workplace Issues in Human Resources. Symposium 40. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on workplace issues in human resources consists of two presentations. "The Effect of Organizational Structure on Single-Source and Multiple-Source Performance Appraisal Processes: Implications for Human Resource Development (HRD)" (Karen K. Yarrish, Judith A. Kolb) investigates ratee acceptance of single- and multi-source…

  18. The human right to the highest attainable standard of health: new opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Paul

    2006-07-01

    The health and human rights communities have much in common. Recently, the international community has begun to devote more attention to the right to the highest attainable standard of health ("the right to health"). Today, this human right presents health and human rights professionals with a range of new opportunities and challenges. The right to health is enshrined in binding international treaties and constitutions. It has numerous elements, including the right to health care and the underlying determinants of health, such as adequate sanitation and safe water. It empowers disadvantaged individuals and communities. If integrated into national and international policies, it can help to establish policies that are meaningful to those living in poverty. The author introduces his work as the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health. By way of illustration, he briefly considers his interventions on Niger's Poverty Reduction Strategy, Uganda's neglected (or tropical or poverty-related) diseases, and the recent US-Peru trade negotiations. With the maturing of human rights, health professionals have become an indispensable part of the global human rights movement. While human rights do not provide magic solutions, they have a constructive contribution to make. The failure to use them is a missed opportunity of major proportions. PMID:16650880

  19. Evaluating a Human Rights-Based Advocacy Approach to Expanding Access to Pain Medicines and Palliative Care: Global Advocacy and Case Studies from India, Kenya, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Diederik; Amon, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Palliative care has been defined as care that is person-centered and attentive to physical symptoms and psychological, social, and existential distress in patients with severe or life-threatening illness. The identification of access to palliative care and pain treatment as a human rights issue first emerged among palliative care advocates, physicians, and lawyers in the 1990s, with a basis in the right to health and the right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. Using a case study approach, we evaluate the results of a human rights-based advocacy approach on access to pain medicine and palliative care in India, Kenya, and Ukraine. In each country, human rights advocacy helped raise awareness of the issue, identify structural barriers to care, define government obligations, and contribute to the reform of laws, policies, and practices impeding the availability of palliative care services. In addition, advocacy efforts stimulated civil society engagement and high-level political leadership that fostered the implementation of human rights-based palliative care programs. Globally, access to palliative care was increasingly recognized by human rights bodies and within global health and drug policy organizations as a government obligation central to the right to health. PMID:26766856

  20. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W.; Kramer, J.

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  1. Language Rights and the Medium of Instruction Issue in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Phil

    1997-01-01

    Outlines concepts of language rights in the Hong Kong context. Considers development of a medium of instruction policy from the point of view of language rights and suggests that while policy enforcing Chinese medium of instruction is consonant with the language rights of the Cantonese majority, continued existence of an English-medium stream may…

  2. Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974: Issues and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Melissa Hufstetler

    2009-01-01

    It is imperative that school administrators understand the rights of parents and students as guaranteed by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). School personnel should know the rights of parents and students regarding access to education records and understand the restrictions of disclosure. Educational leaders must balance the…

  3. The Pan American Health Organization and the mainstreaming of human rights in regional health governance.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Ayala, Ana S

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of centralized human rights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of human rights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream human rights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream human rights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American human rights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers in implementing human rights through PAHO governance. Analyzing the themes arising from this narrative, the authors examine the structural role of secretariat leadership, state support, legal expertise, and technical unit commitment in facilitating a rights-based approach to the health in the Americas. Human rights are increasingly framing PAHO efforts, and this analysis of the structures underlying PAHO's approach provides an understanding of the institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health, highlighting generalizable themes for the mainstreaming of human rights through regional health governance. With this regional-level understanding of health governance, future national-level research can begin to understand the causal forces linking regional human rights work with national policy reforms and public health outcomes. PMID:25264093

  4. Does ratification of human-rights treaties have effects on population health?

    PubMed

    Palmer, Alexis; Tomkinson, Jocelyn; Phung, Charlene; Ford, Nathan; Joffres, Michel; Fernandes, Kimberly A; Zeng, Leilei; Lima, Viviane; Montaner, Julio S G; Guyatt, Gordon H; Mills, Edward J

    2009-06-01

    Human-rights treaties indicate a country's commitment to human rights. Here, we assess whether ratification of human-rights treaties is associated with improved health and social indicators. Data for health (including HIV prevalence, and maternal, infant, and child [<5 years] mortalities) and social indicators (child labour, human development index, sex gap, and corruption index), gathered from 170 countries, showed no consistent associations between ratification of human-rights treaties and health or social outcomes. Established market economy states had consistently improved health compared with less wealthy settings, but this was not associated with treaty ratification. The status of treaty ratification alone is not a good indicator of the realisation of the right to health. We suggest the need for stringent requirements for ratification of treaties, improved accountability mechanisms to monitor compliance of states with treaty obligations, and financial assistance to support the realisation of the right to health. PMID:19501746

  5. Child Custody Determinations in Cases Involving Intimate Partner Violence: a Human Rights Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Jay G.; Mesh, Cynthia M.; Cuthbert, Carrie V.; Slote, Kim; Bancroft, Lundy

    2004-01-01

    Intimate partner violence and child abuse are recognized both as public health concerns and as violations of human rights, but related government actions and inactions are rarely documented as human rights violations in the United States. Men who abuse female partners are also highly likely to abuse the children of these women. However, family courts are reported to often ignore risks posed by abusive men in awarding child custody and visitation. Battered women involved in child custody litigation in Massachusetts (n = 39) were interviewed. A recurring pattern of potential human rights violations by the state was documented, corresponding to rights guaranteed in multiple internationally accepted human rights covenants and treaties. The human rights framework is a powerful tool for demonstrating the need for legal, social, and political reform regarding public health concerns. PMID:15249297

  6. Conceptualizing a Human Right to Prevention in Global HIV/AIDS Policy

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Brugh, Kristen Nichole; Halima, Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    Given current constraints on universal treatment campaigns, recent advances in public health prevention initiatives have revitalized efforts to stem the tide of HIV transmission. Yet, despite a growing imperative for prevention—supported by the promise of behavioral, structural and biomedical approaches to lower the incidence of HIV—human rights frameworks remain limited in addressing collective prevention policy through global health governance. Assessing the evolution of rights-based approaches to global HIV/AIDS policy, this review finds that human rights have shifted from collective public health to individual treatment access. While the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic gave meaning to rights in framing global health policy, the application of rights in treatment access litigation came at the expense of public health prevention efforts. Where the human rights framework remains limited to individual rights enforced against a state duty bearer, such rights have faced constrained application in framing population-level policy to realize the public good of HIV prevention. Concluding that human rights frameworks must be developed to reflect the complementarity of individual treatment and collective prevention, this article conceptualizes collective rights to public health, structuring collective combination prevention to alleviate limitations on individual rights frameworks and frame rights-based global HIV/AIDS policy to assure research expansion, prevention access and health system integration. PMID:23226723

  7. The Right to Education: Reaganism, Reaganomics, or Human Capital? Occasional Paper, 1983, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollett, Kenneth S.

    This paper begins with the theme that because education is so important to the exercise of one's fundamental rights and to personal, social, cultural, political, economic, and human development, it is one of the unenumerated rights retained by the American people through Amendment IX of the Bill of Rights. After arguing for the proposition that…

  8. Curricular Choices of Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Communities: Translating International Human Rights Law into Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Hazan, Lotem

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs the provisions of international human rights law in order to analyse whether and how liberal states should regulate Haredi educational practices, which sanctify the exclusive focus on religious studies in schools for boys. It conceptualises the conflict between the right to acceptable education and the right to adaptable…

  9. The Potential of Human Rights Education for Conflict Prevention and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of human rights education (HRE) to conflict prevention and to the promotion of security. It outlines the difficulties in evaluating the long-term impact of HRE, but then proposes five benefits of a rights-based approach to education--rights as secular, man-made, requiring transparency, enabling freedom from…

  10. Fighting ambient air pollution and its impact on health: from human rights to the right to a clean environment.

    PubMed

    Guillerm, N; Cesari, G

    2015-08-01

    Clean air is one of the basic requirements of human health and well-being. However, almost nine out of 10 individuals living in urban areas are affected by air pollution. Populations living in Africa, South-East Asia, and in low- and middle-income countries across all regions are the most exposed. Exposure to outdoor air pollution ranks as the ninth leading risk factor for mortality, killing 3.2 million people each year, especially young children, the elderly, persons with lung or cardiovascular disease, those who work or exercise outdoors and low-income populations. In October 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, calling air pollution 'a major environmental health problem'. Human rights and environmental norms are powerful tools to combat air pollution and its impact on health. The dependence of human rights on environmental quality has been recognised in international texts and by human rights treaty bodies. The growing awareness of the environment has already yielded considerable legislative and regulatory output. However, the implementation of standards remains a pervasive problem. In the fight against violations of norms, citizens have a crucial role to play. We discuss the relevance of a yet to be proclaimed standalone right to a healthy environment. PMID:26162353

  11. Damned if you do, damned if you don't? The Lundbeck case of pentobarbital, the guiding principles on business and human rights, and competing human rights responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Buhmann, Karin

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 it emerged that to induce the death penalty, United States authorities had begun giving injections of pentobarbital, a substance provided by Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck. Lundbeck's product pentobarbital is licensed for treatment of refractory forms of epilepsy and for usage as an anaesthetic, thus for a very different purpose. The Lundbeck case offers a difficult, but also interesting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) dilemma between choices facing a pharmaceutical company to stop the distribution of a medical substance in order to avoid complicity in human rights violations, or to retain distribution of the substance in order not to impede access to the medicine for those patients who need it. The dilemma arose at a time when the United Nations (UN) Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, Professor John Ruggie, was finalizing a set of Guiding Principles to operationalize recommendations on business and human rights that he had presented to the UN Human Rights Council in 2008. The article discusses the dilemma in which Lundbeck was placed in from the perspective of the Guiding Principles on business and human rights and the 2008 Protect, Respect, Remedy UN Framework. The analysis seeks to assess what guidance may be gauged from the Guiding Principles in relation to the dilemma at hand and discusses the adequacy the Guiding Principles for dealing with acute human rights dilemmas of conflicting requirements in which a decision to avoid one type of violation risks causing violation of another human right. The article concludes by drawing up perspectives for further development of guidance on implementation of the UN Framework that could be considered by the newly established Working Group on Business and Human Rights and related UN bodies. PMID:22789041

  12. Human rights from the grassroots up: Vermont's campaign for universal health care.

    PubMed

    McGill, Mariah

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, the Vermont Workers' Center launched the "Healthcare Is a Human Right Campaign," a grassroots campaign to secure the creation of a universal health care system in Vermont. Campaign organizers used a human rights framework to mobilize thousands of voters in support of universal health care. In response to this extraordinary grassroots effort, the state legislature passed health care legislation that incorporates human rights principles into Vermont law and provides a framework for universal health care. The United States has often lagged behind other nations in recognizing economic, social, and cultural (ESC) rights, including the right to health. Nonetheless, activists have begun to incorporate ESC rights into domestic advocacy campaigns, and state and local governments are beginning to respond where the federal government has not. Vermont serves as a powerful example of how a human rights framework can inform health care policy and inspire grassroots campaigns in the United States. This three-part article documents the Vermont Workers' Center campaign and discusses the impact that human rights activity at the grassroots level may have on attitudes towards ESC rights in the United States. The first part describes the Vermont health care crisis and explains why the center adopted international human rights principles for their campaign. The article then goes on to discuss the three-year campaign and analyze the health care reform bill that the Vermont legislature passed. Finally, the article discusses the campaign's local and national impact. PMID:22773094

  13. The First Amendment Right to Speak About the Human Genome.

    PubMed

    Evans, Barbara J

    2014-02-01

    This article explores whether laws that restrict the communication of genetic test results may, under certain circumstances, violate the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The focus is whether investigators have a right to return results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories in situations where a research participant requests the results and the investigator is willing to share them but is concerned that doing so may violate regulations under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 ("CLIA"). This article takes no position on whether investigators can be compelled to return results when they do not wish to do so. It examines only whether investigators may, not whether they must, return results to a willing research participant. The article: (1) surveys state and federal laws that block communication of genetic test results to research participants; (2) examines the historical use of speech restrictions as a tool for protecting human research subjects; (3) traces how First Amendment doctrine has evolved since the 1970s when foundations of modern research bioethics were laid; (4) inquires whether recent bioethical and policy debate has accorded due weight to the First Amendment. The article applies two common methods of legal analysis, textual and constitutional analysis. It concludes that the CLIA regulations, when properly construed, do not treat the return of results as an event that triggers CLIA's certification requirements. Moreover, there is a potential First Amendment problem in construing CLIA's research exception in a way that bans the return of results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories. PMID:25473380

  14. Healthcare justice and human rights in perinatal medicine.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2016-06-01

    This article describes an approach to ethics of perinatal medicine in which "women and children first" plays a central role, based on the concept of healthcare justice. Healthcare justice requires that all patients receive clinical management based on their clinical needs, which are defined by deliberative (evidence-based, rigorous, transparent, and accountable) clinical judgment. All patients in perinatal medicine includes pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients. Healthcare justice also protects the informed consent process, which is intended to empower the exercise of patient autonomy in the decision-making process about patient care. In the context of healthcare justice, the informed consent process should not be influenced by ethically irrelevant factors. Healthcare justice should be understood as a basis for the human rights to healthcare and to participate in decisions about one's healthcare. Healthcare justice in perinatal medicine creates an essential role for the perinatologist to be an effective advocate for pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients, i.e., for "women and children first." PMID:26811097

  15. Planetary protection issues in advance of human exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Davis, Wanda L.

    1989-01-01

    The major planetary quarantine issues associated with human exploration of Mars, which is viewed as being more likely to harbor indigenous life than is the moon, are discussed. Special attention is given to the environmental impact of human missions to Mars due to contamination and mechanical disturbances of the local environment, the contamination issues associated with the return of humans, and the planetary quarantine strategy for a human base. It is emphasized that, in addition to the question of indigenous life, there may be some concern of returning to earth the earth microorganisms that have spent some time in the Martian environment. It is suggested that, due to the fact that a robot system can be subjected to more stringent controls and protective treatments than a mission involving humans, a robotic sample return mission can help to eliminate many planetary-quarantine concerns about returning samples.

  16. Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-08-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.

  17. Preventing and Addressing Homophobic and Transphobic Bullying in Education: A Human Rights-Based Approach Using the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornu, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Homophobic and transphobic bullying in schools can have a serious effect on children and young people subjected to it at a crucial moment in their lives. It is an obstacle to the right to education, which is one of the basic universal human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and various United Nations Conventions. This…

  18. "Small places close to home": toward a health and human rights strategy for the US.

    PubMed

    Tobin Tyler, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Much of the discussion about "health as a human right" has centered on global health initiatives, largely ignoring the application of human rights principles to the significant socioeconomic and racial health disparities in the United States. Given the persistent gaps in insurance coverage and access to quality preventive care in the US, the health and human rights movement has primarily focused its efforts on achieving universal health care coverage. However, this focus has left unaddressed how a human rights strategy might also address the social determinants of health. As Americans' health continues to worsen-the US Institute of Medicine recently reported that the US now fares worse in nine areas of health than 16 peer high-income democracies--a broader social determinants approach is warranted. This article explores the application of international human rights principles, including a "right to health" to the US context, and analyzes how existing domestic law may be used to advance health as a human right for America's most vulnerable populations. It demonstrates that an effective health and human rights strategy must build partnerships among health care providers, public health professionals, and lawyers to identify rights violations, hold officials and systems accountable, and mobilize communities to advocate for systems and policy change. PMID:24421171

  19. Employing human rights frameworks to realize access to an HIV cure

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Gelpi, Adriane; Kavanagh, Matthew M; Forman, Lisa; Amon, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The scale of the HIV pandemic – and the stigma, discrimination and violence that surrounded its sudden emergence – catalyzed a public health response that expanded human rights in principle and practice. In the absence of effective treatment, human rights activists initially sought to protect individuals at high risk of HIV infection. With advances in antiretroviral therapy, activists expanded their efforts under international law, advocating under the human right to health for individual access to treatment. Discussion As a clinical cure comes within reach, human rights obligations will continue to play a key role in political and programmatic decision-making. Building upon the evolving development and implementation of the human right to health in the global response to HIV, we outline a human rights research agenda to prepare for HIV cure access, investigating the role of human rights law in framing 1) resource allocation, 2) international obligations, 3) intellectual property and 4) freedom from coercion. Conclusions The right to health is widely recognized as central to governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental responses to the pandemic and critical both to addressing vulnerability to infection and to ensuring universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. While the advent of an HIV cure will raise new obligations for policymakers in implementing the right to health, the resolution of past debates surrounding HIV prevention and treatment may inform claims for universal access. PMID:26568056

  20. Human Rights Discourse in the Sustainable Development Agenda Avoids Obligations and Entitlements

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Carmel; Blaiklock, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Our commentary on Forman et al paper explores their thesis that right to health language can frame global health policy responses. We examined human rights discourse in the outcome documents from three 2015 United Nations (UN) summits and found rights-related terms are used in all three. However, a deeper examination of the discourse finds the documents do not convey the obligations and entitlements of human rights and international human rights law. The documents contain little that can be used to empower the participation of those already left behind and to hold States and the private sector to account for their human rights duties. This is especially worrying in a neoliberal era. PMID:27285518

  1. The right to practice medicine without repercussions: ethical issues in times of political strife.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Leith

    2012-01-01

    This commentary examines the incursion on the neutrality of medical personnel now taking place as part of the human rights crises in Bahrain and Syria, and the ethical dilemmas which these incursions place not only in front of physicians practicing in those nations, but in front of the international community as a whole.In Bahrain, physicians have recently received harsh prison terms, apparently for treating demonstrators who clashed with government forces. In Syria, physicians are under the same political pressure to avoid treating political demonstrators or to act as informants against their own patients, turning them in to government authorities. This pressure has been severe, to the point that some physicians have become complicit in the abuse of patients who were also political demonstrators.This paper posits that physicians in certain countries in the Middle East during the "Arab Spring," specifically Syria and Bahrain, are being used as both political pawns and political weapons in clear violation of Geneva Convention and World Medical Association guidelines, and that this puts them into the most extreme sort of "dual loyalty" dilemma. They are being forced to choose between their own safety and well-being and that of their patients - a negative sum scenario wherein there is no optimal choice. As such, an international call for a United Nations inquiry must be made in order to protect the neutrality of medical care and personnel during times of armed conflict. PMID:22974272

  2. The right to practice medicine without repercussions: ethical issues in times of political strife

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This commentary examines the incursion on the neutrality of medical personnel now taking place as part of the human rights crises in Bahrain and Syria, and the ethical dilemmas which these incursions place not only in front of physicians practicing in those nations, but in front of the international community as a whole. In Bahrain, physicians have recently received harsh prison terms, apparently for treating demonstrators who clashed with government forces. In Syria, physicians are under the same political pressure to avoid treating political demonstrators or to act as informants against their own patients, turning them in to government authorities. This pressure has been severe, to the point that some physicians have become complicit in the abuse of patients who were also political demonstrators. This paper posits that physicians in certain countries in the Middle East during the “Arab Spring,” specifically Syria and Bahrain, are being used as both political pawns and political weapons in clear violation of Geneva Convention and World Medical Association guidelines, and that this puts them into the most extreme sort of “dual loyalty” dilemma. They are being forced to choose between their own safety and well-being and that of their patients – a negative sum scenario wherein there is no optimal choice. As such, an international call for a United Nations inquiry must be made in order to protect the neutrality of medical care and personnel during times of armed conflict. PMID:22974272

  3. Human milk banking-facts and issues to resolve.

    PubMed

    Corpeleijn, Willemijn E; Vermeulen, Marijn J; van Vliet, Ineke; Kruger, Caroline; van Goudoever, Johannes B

    2010-07-01

    The number of human milk banks is increasing worldwide. Although the beneficial effects of feeding premature infants with their mother's milk are well documented, less is known about the effects of feeding these infants with pasteurized donor milk. We propose a randomized trial comparing the effects of a 100% human milk-based diet (human milk supplemented with a human milk-derived fortifier) and a diet (partially) based on bovine milk. In theory, human milk has a beneficial effect on various aspects of human physiology, most of which become apparent after infancy. We therefore propose an extensive follow-up program that takes this aspect into consideration. Other issues concerning the practice of human milk banks need to be addressed as well as optimization of the feeding strategies for preterm infants. PMID:22254053

  4. Sexual minorities, human rights and public health strategies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Epprecht, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made towards the recognition of sexual minority rights in Africa. At the same time, a marked increase in attacks, rhetorical abuse, and restrictive legislation against sexual minorities or ‘homosexuality’ makes activism for sexual rights a risky endeavour in many African countries. Campaigns for sexual rights and ‘coming out’ are frequently perceived as a form of Western cultural imperialism, leading to an exportation of Western gay identities and provoking a patriotic defensiveness. Cultures of quiet acceptance of same-sex relationships or secretive bisexuality are meanwhile also problematic given the high rate of HIV prevalence on much of the continent. This article examines specific initiatives that are using subtle, somewhat covert means to negotiate a path between rights activism and secretive bisexuality. It argues that strategies primarily focused on health concerns that simultaneously yet discreetly promote sexual rights are having some success in challenging prevalent homophobic or ‘silencing’ cultures and discourses. PMID:22826897

  5. Toward Cosmopolitan Ethics in Teacher Education: An Ontological Dimension of Learning Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adami, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    There is a globalization trend in teacher education, emphasizing the role of teachers to make judgments based on human rights in their teaching profession. Rather than emphasizing the epistemological dimension of acquiring knowledge "about" human rights through teacher education, an ontological dimension is emphasized in this paper of…

  6. Let's Talk about Human Rights. Students' Books 1-3. Teacher's Guides, Books 1-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Ricki; Sarna, Shirley

    These documents are designed to introduce students to some of the fundamental concepts, principles, and values of human rights and to a basic knowledge of human rights legal instruments as they apply to daily lives. Student handbook 1 is a series of lessons and activities that stimulate reading and discussion around the following ideas: What is a…

  7. Eleanor Roosevelt and the Declaration of Human Rights: A Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Sally; Shollenberger, Kathy

    2001-01-01

    Provides a brief background on Eleanor Roosevelt and the Declaration of Human Rights. Presents a lesson wherein students simulate the creation of the Declaration of Human Rights and consider the leadership skills of Eleanor Roosevelt. Explains that the activity requires three class periods and some student preparation before the lesson. (CMK)

  8. "We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident . . . ": Human Rights as an Educational Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    1986-01-01

    In the last decade, human rights has become a highly visible isssue in United States foreign policy. Schools can't sidestep this controversy, since human rights concerns are an inextricable part of U.S. political heritage. Schools can use a number of teaching approaches to help students understand the complexities and contradictions involved. (2…

  9. Recasting Justice and Ethics through Human Rights Education: The Nigerian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbode, Olusola

    2006-01-01

    The United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) set in motion both formal and informal activities to promote the development of respect for human rights culture through education worldwide. It is said that knowledge is power and ignorance cannot be a defence. But the maxim that says ignorance of the law is no defence is in itself…

  10. A re-analysis of Price's "Islam and human rights: a case of deceptive first appearances".

    PubMed

    Schumm, Walter R

    2003-12-01

    Daniel Price in his analysis of Islamic Political Culture and Human Rights concluded that "... government rooted in Islam does not facilitate the abuse of human rights." A re-analysis of his data for 23 Islamic governments demonstrates otherwise. There is a significant trend (p<.03), despite the low statistical power available in only 23 cases, for an inverted quadratic relationship between Islamic Political Culture and Human Rights. Among the nations scoring low on Islamic Political Culture, the correlation between the two variables is -.01 (ns); among those scoring high on Islamic Political Culture, the correlation shifts to -.78 (p<.02). At lower scores for Islamic Political Culture, there may indeed be little relationship between Political Culture and Human Rights; however, at higher scores there appears to be a significant relationship between increasing Islamic Political Culture and a decline in Human Rights. The data suggest that extreme applications of Sharia law (if not any secular or religious legal system) may have serious implications for human rights--or at least, Western Euro-American conceptualizations of human rights. At the same time, support for human rights may increase as Islamic governments shift from mostly secular to moderate applications of Islamic law. PMID:14765607

  11. Human Rights Education and Student Self-Conception in the Dominican Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, a 3-month course in human rights based on critical inquiry was offered to 8th graders in a slum area of Santo Domingo. The students' attitudes, behaviors and knowledge of human rights principles were measured before and after the course. The curriculum focused on international principles and entrenched local problems such as…

  12. Teaching Recent History in Countries that Have Experienced Human Rights Violations: Case Studies from Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Maria Isabel; Magendzo, Abraham; Gazmuri, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating recent history into the educational curricula of countries that have experienced human rights violations combines the complexities of teaching history, teaching recent history, and human rights education. Recent history makes a historical analysis of social reality and a historiographical analysis of the immediate. It is located…

  13. The Transformative Power of Democracy and Human Rights in Nonformal Education: The Case of Tostan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Diane; Melching, Molly

    2010-01-01

    This case study analyzes the introduction of democracy and human rights into the educational program of Tostan, a nongovernmental organization working in Africa. The authors show how Tostan's original educational approach created a meaningful context for integrating democracy and human rights into its curriculum, a process that took place from…

  14. Hope without Consolation: Prospects for Critical Learning at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failler, Angela

    2015-01-01

    From atop the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR), juts the Tower of Hope, a 23-story illuminated glass architectural feature meant to symbolize "the goal of the human-rights journey," namely, "hope for a changed world." The prominence of hope as an ideal is literally set in stone at the CMHR. Hope for the museum itself is…

  15. 3 CFR 8608 - Proclamation 8608 of November 30, 2010. Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8608 of November 30, 2010. Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010 8608 Proclamation 8608 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8608 of November 30, 2010 Proc. 8608 Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation This year marks the...

  16. Human Rights and the Ethno-Nationalist Problematic through the Eyes of Greek-Cypriot Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Charalambous, Panayiota; Charalambous, Constadina; Lesta, Stalo

    2016-01-01

    The present article aims to examine the interplay between the transnational discourses of human rights and the particularities of local constructions and conceptualisations of human rights within the context of an ethnically divided society, Cyprus. Specifically, this interplay is examined through a qualitative study of Greek-Cypriot primary…

  17. Beyond Study Abroad: A Human Rights Delegation to Teach Policy Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammonley, Denise; Rotabi, Karen Smith; Forte, Janett; Martin, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Advancement of human rights is a core competency in the social work curriculum. Presented is a model to teach policy practice from a human rights perspective based on a violence-against-women delegation visit to Guatemala. Postdelegation policy advocacy responses included White House and State Department briefings on the problems, including…

  18. "No-One Respects Them Anyway": Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Human Rights Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cayir, Kenan; Bagli, Melike Turkan

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of compulsory courses on human rights into the secondary school curriculum in 1998 has been an important first step in developing respect for human rights and responsibilities among the younger generation in Turkey. Yet, these courses have many shortcomings in terms of materials, pedagogy and teacher attitudes. This paper…

  19. Re-Thinking Relations in Human Rights Education: The Politics of Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adami, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Human Rights Education (HRE) has traditionally been articulated in terms of cultivating better citizens or world citizens. The main preoccupation in this strand of HRE has been that of bridging a gap between universal notions of a human rights subject and the actual locality and particular narratives in which students are enmeshed. This…

  20. A Lovely Building for Difficult Knowledge: The Architecture of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodtke, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    One only needs to look at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) logo, with its abstract outline of the CMHR building, to see the way in which the museum's architecture has come to stand for the CMHR's immaterial meanings and content. The CMHR's architecture becomes a material intersection of discourses of cosmopolitanism, human rights, and…

  1. Thinking Locally about Global Human Rights: A Case Study of a Turkish University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandry, Antonia Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines diverse pedagogic approaches to teaching human rights and citizenship at the university level and how a particular academic community perceives of and engages with human rights and citizenship discourse. Based on fieldwork conducted at Sabanci University in Turkey, I explore how students and educators draw on, modify and…

  2. The Teaching of Patriotism and Human Rights: An Uneasy Entanglement and the Contribution of Critical Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the moral, political and pedagogical tensions that are created from the entanglement of patriotism and human rights, and sketches a response to these tensions in the context of critical education. The article begins with a brief review of different forms of patriotism, especially as those relate to human rights, and explains…

  3. Infusing Human Rights into the Curriculum: The Case of the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrim, Nazir; Keet, Andre

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects on experiences of attempting to infuse human rights in the South African Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS). Using our experiences as members of Human Rights and Inclusivity Group (HRIWG), one of the curriculum development structures set up for the RNCS, and focusing particularly on the Learning Area of Mathematics,…

  4. Moral and Human Rights Education: The Contribution of the United Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Print, Murray; Ugarte, Carolina; Naval, Concepcion; Mihr, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Moral education can take many forms. With the end of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (UNDHRE) (1995-2004), we critically review developments in human rights education (HRE) during those ten years in the context of moral education. We argue that, despite some modest successes, the decade lacked direction and a major impact and…

  5. Economic and Political Theories of Organization: The Case of Human Rights INGOs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaser, Arthur W.

    This paper reviews research on international nongovernmental organizations dealing with human rights (INGOs), and interprets this research in light of the overlap of the fields of organizational theory (including group theory) and human rights. The purpose is to contribute toward a useful exchange between social scientists who seek to explain…

  6. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-01-01

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated. PMID:26377091

  7. A Review of the Impact of the Human Rights in Healthcare Programme in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    This article provides the background to an analysis of the Human Rights in Healthcare Programme in England and Wales. Using evidence from source materials, summary publications, and official reports, it charts a small but important change in the relationship between health and human rights and shows how a small number of National Health Service organizations used a human rights-based approach (HRBA) to develop resources aimed at improving the quality of health services and health outcomes. Through a case study of one participating organization, it examines the development of approaches to measuring the outcomes and impacts of HRBAs. The article argues that because of the way the Programme was set up, it is not likely to provide the level of evidence of impact required to bring about a profound change in the relationship between human rights and health care. There is a need for a different approach that considers the big human rights questions that need to be asked. PMID:26766853

  8. Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and State Violence: Medical Documentation of Torture in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Başak

    2016-09-01

    State authorities invested in developing official expert discourses and practices to deny torture in post-1980 coup d'état Turkey. Documentation of torture was therefore crucial for the incipient human rights movement there in the 1980s. Human rights physicians used their expertise not only to treat torture victims but also to document torture and eventually found the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (HRFT) in 1990. Drawing on an ethnographic and archival research at the HRFT, this article examines the genealogy of anti-torture struggles in Turkey and argues that locally mediated intimacies and/or hostilities between victims of state violence, human rights physicians, and official forensics reveal the limitations of certain universal humanitarian and human rights principles. It also shows that locally mediated long-term humanitarian encounters around the question of political violence challenge forensic denial of violence and remake the legitimate levels of state violence. PMID:26435482

  9. The First Amendment Right to Speak About the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether laws that restrict the communication of genetic test results may, under certain circumstances, violate the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The focus is whether investigators have a right to return results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories in situations where a research participant requests the results and the investigator is willing to share them but is concerned that doing so may violate regulations under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (“CLIA”). This article takes no position on whether investigators can be compelled to return results when they do not wish to do so. It examines only whether investigators may, not whether they must, return results to a willing research participant. The article: (1) surveys state and federal laws that block communication of genetic test results to research participants; (2) examines the historical use of speech restrictions as a tool for protecting human research subjects; (3) traces how First Amendment doctrine has evolved since the 1970s when foundations of modern research bioethics were laid; (4) inquires whether recent bioethical and policy debate has accorded due weight to the First Amendment. The article applies two common methods of legal analysis, textual and constitutional analysis. It concludes that the CLIA regulations, when properly construed, do not treat the return of results as an event that triggers CLIA’s certification requirements. Moreover, there is a potential First Amendment problem in construing CLIA’s research exception in a way that bans the return of results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories. PMID:25473380

  10. The Educational Rights of Students: International Perspectives on Demystifying the Legal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J., Ed.; Stewart, Douglas J., Ed.; De Groof, Jan, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Education law has emerged as an important concern to educators in many countries around the world. While there are similarities in the range of rights that students in various countries have, there are also many differences. This book provides a comprehensive examination the status of the legal rights of students in 13 international communities.…

  11. Planetary Protection Issues in the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Race, M. S.; Rummel, J. D.; Baker, A.

    2005-01-01

    This workshop report, long delayed, is the first 21st century contribution to what will likely be a series of reports examining the effects of human exploration on the overall scientific study of Mars. The considerations of human-associated microbial contamination were last studied in a 1990 workshop ("Planetary Protection Issues and Future Mars Missions," NASA CP-10086, 1991), but the timing of that workshop allowed neither a careful examination of the full range of issues, nor an appreciation for the Mars that has been revealed by the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder missions. Future workshops will also have the advantage of Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rover missions, and ESA's Mars Express, but the Pingree Park workshop reported here had both the NCR's (1992) concern that "Missions carrying humans to Mars will contaminate the planet" and over a decade of careful study of human exploration objectives to guide them and to reconcile. A daunting challenge, and one that is not going to be simple (as the working title of this meeting, "When Ecologies Collide?" might suggest), it is clear that the planetary protection issues will have to be addressed to enable human explorers to safely and competently extend out knowledge about Mars, and its potential as a home for life whether martian or human.

  12. Costing Human Rights and Community Support Interventions as a Part of Universal Access to HIV Treatment and Care in a Southern African Setting

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Louisa; Akugizibwe, Paula; Clayton, Michaela; Amon, Joseph J; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Bennett, Rod; Stegling, Christine; Baggaley, Rachel; Kahn, James G; Holmes, Charles B; Garg, Navneet; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Mack, Christina DeFilippo; Williams, Phoebe; Smyth, Caoimhe; Vitoria, Marco; Crowley, Siobhan; Williams, Brian; McClure, Craig; Granich, Reuben; Hirnschall, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has both individual health benefits and potential to decrease HIV incidence. Ensuring access to HIV services is a significant human rights issue and successful programmes require adequate human rights protections and community support. However, the cost of specific human rights and community support interventions for equitable, sustainable and non-discriminatory access to ART are not well described. Human rights and community support interventions were identified using the literature and through consultations with experts. Specific costs were then determined for these health sector interventions. Population and epidemic data were provided through the Statistics South Africa 2009 national mid-year estimates. Costs of scale up of HIV prevention and treatment were taken from recently published estimates. Interventions addressed access to services, minimising stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV, confidentiality, informed consent and counselling quality. Integrated HIV programme interventions included training for counsellors, ‘Know Your Rights’ information desks, outreach campaigns for most at risk populations, and adherence support. Complementary measures included post-service interviews, human rights abuse monitoring, transportation costs, legal assistance, and funding for human rights and community support organisations. Other essential non-health sector interventions were identified but not included in the costing framework. The annual costs for the human rights and community support interventions are United States (US) $63.8 million (US $1.22 per capita), representing 1.5% of total health sector HIV programme costs. Respect for human rights and community engagement can be understood both as an obligation of expanded ART programmes and as a critically important factor in their success. Basic rights-based and community support interventions constitute only a small percentage of overall

  13. Human Rights and the Rights of the Child, a Panoramic View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kenneth M.

    2007-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of the universal rights of children is critical in a differentiated and pluralist world, which, in coming together through the increase of global economic interdependence and consequent changes, will require a breadth of talents to maintain peace and cooperation. The paper draws on research from historical perspectives…

  14. The Growth of Individual Rights: Ideas and Politics. International Human Rights Syllabi No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Dennis

    Designed for teachers of undergraduate students with some familiarity with political theory, moral philosophy, and social history, this course outline focuses on individual rights and their realization in the United States and the world at large. The syllabus, arranged in 3 major parts, is subdivided into 16 sections that outline major course…

  15. Rise of the New Right: Human and Civil Rights in Jeopardy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, J. Charles

    1980-01-01

    The author warns that ultra-conservatism is growing in strength and sophistication as a political force. He cites literature from various right-wing groups attacking the public schools and suggests that educators must learn to cope with social stress and the political extremism it generates. (SJL)

  16. Some Human Factors Issues in Bringing Jobs to Confined Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overby, Charles

    This paper explores several human factors and other issues associated with taking jobs to disabled persons using computer-telecommunications technology and systems. General concepts of the transportation communications tradeoff are discussed. Legal and institutional dimensions of handicapped employments are addressed. A variety of research and…

  17. Organizational Issues and Human Resource Development Research Questions. A Guide for Researchers in Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L., Ed.

    The nine papers in this monograph, written by members of the University Council for Research in Human Resource Development, respond to the following questions: What is the most important organizational issue of the 1990s, and what human resource development (HRD) research questions might be generated from this issue? The papers are as follows: (1)…

  18. Using human rights in maternal mortality programs: from analysis to strategy.

    PubMed

    Freedman, L P

    2001-10-01

    This article describes an approach to maternal mortality reduction that uses human rights not simply to denounce the injustice of death in pregnancy and childbirth, but also to guide the design and implementation of maternal mortality policies and programs. As a first principle, programs and policies need to prioritize measures that promote universal access to high quality emergency obstetric care services, which we know from health research are essential to saving women's lives. With that priority, human rights principles can be integrated into programs at the clinical, facility management, and national policy levels. For example, a human rights 'audit' can help identify ways to encourage respectful, non-discriminatory treatment of patients, providers and staff in the clinical setting. Human rights principles of entitlement and accountability can inform mechanisms of community participation designed to improve responsiveness and functioning of health facilities. Human rights principles can inform analysis of health sector reform and its impact on access to emergency obstetric care. Whether applied to the intricacies of human relationships within a facility or to the impact of international financial institutions on health systems, the ultimate role of human rights is to identify the workings of power that keep unacceptable levels of maternal morality as they are and to use the human rights vision of dignity and social justice to work for the re-arrangements of power necessary for change. PMID:11597619

  19. Training Trainers in health and human rights: Implementing curriculum change in South African health sciences institutions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of human rights as a professional obligation prompted moves to include human rights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A Train-the-Trainers course in Health and Human Rights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences institutions nationwide with the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge to teach human rights to their students. This study followed up participants to determine the extent of curriculum implementation, support needed as well as barriers encountered in integrating human rights into health sciences teaching and learning. Methods A survey including both quantitative and qualitative components was distributed in 2007 to past course participants from 1998-2006 via telephone, fax and electronic communication. Results Out of 162 past participants, 46 (28%) completed the survey, the majority of whom were still employed in academic settings (67%). Twenty-two respondents (48%) implemented a total of 33 formal human rights courses into the curricula at their institutions. Respondents were nine times more likely (relative risk 9.26; 95% CI 5.14-16.66) to implement human rights education after completing the training. Seventy-two extracurricular activities were offered by 21 respondents, many of whom had successfully implemented formal curricula. Enabling factors for implementation included: prior teaching experience in human rights, general institutional support and the presence of allies - most commonly coworkers as well as deans. Frequently cited barriers to implementation included: budget restrictions, time constraints and perceived apathy of colleagues or students. Overall, respondents noted personal enrichment and optimism in teaching human rights. Conclusion This Train-the-Trainer course provides the historical context, educational tools, and collective motivation to incorporate human

  20. Health and human rights in today’s fight against HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Stemple, Lara

    2012-01-01

    The development of the health and human rights framework coincided with the beginning of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS. Since then, the international community has increasingly turned to human rights language and instruments to address the disease. Not only are human rights essential to addressing a disease that impacts marginalized groups most severely, but the spread of HIV/AIDS itself exacerbates inequality and impedes the realization of a range of human rights. Policy developments of the past decade include the United Nations (UN) Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights’ General Comment on the ‘Right to Health’, the UN Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, and the UN’s International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights, among others. Rights-related setbacks include the failure of the Declaration and its 5-year follow-up specifically to address men who have sex with men, sex workers, and intravenous drug users, political restrictions placed on urgently needed US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) funds, and the failure of many countries to decriminalize same-sex sex and outlaw discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS. Male circumcision as an HIV prevention measure is a topic around which important debate, touching on gender, informed consent and children’s rights, serves to illustrate the ongoing vitality of the health and human rights dialogue. Mechanisms to increase state accountability for addressing HIV/AIDS should be explored in greater depth. Such measures might include an increase in the use of treaty-based judicial mechanisms, the linking of human rights compliance with preferential trade agreements, and rights requirements tied to HIV/ AIDS funding. PMID:18641463

  1. Cultural values embodying universal norms: a critique of a popular assumption about cultures and human rights.

    PubMed

    Jing-Bao, Nie

    2005-09-01

    In Western and non-Western societies, it is a widely held belief that the concept of human rights is, by and large, a Western cultural norm, often at odds with non-Western cultures and, therefore, not applicable in non-Western societies. The Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights reflects this deep-rooted and popular assumption. By using Chinese culture(s) as an illustration, this article points out the problems of this widespread misconception and stereotypical view of cultures and human rights. It highlights the often ignored positive elements in Chinese cultures that promote and embody universal human values such as human dignity and human rights. It concludes, accordingly, with concrete suggestions on how to modify the Declaration. PMID:16128856

  2. Human rights is a US problem, too: the case of women and HIV.

    PubMed Central

    Gollub, E L

    1999-01-01

    Overall, US AIDS incidence and mortality have shown significant declines since 1996, probably because of new antiviral therapies. For women, however, these benefits have been much less pronounced than for men. At the heart of women's HIV risk is gender-based discrimination, which keeps women, and especially women of color, poor and dependent. Although human rights issues are often linked with AIDS issues abroad, in the US they receive insufficient attention in our response to women's HIV risk. Advocacy from public health professionals is needed to overcome the longstanding paternalistic attitudes of federal agencies toward women and to change the paradigm of women's HIV/AIDS prevention and care. Examples of unjust and punitive social policies that may affect women's HIV risk include the 1996 welfare policy legislation, drug treatment policies for women, and women's access to medical research and technology. The overriding public health response to AIDS consists of behavioral interventions aimed at the individual. But this approach will not successfully address the issues of women with AIDS until efforts are made to eliminate society's unjust and unhealthy laws, policies, and practicles. PMID:10511826

  3. Human Rights Education: The United Nations Endeavour and the Importance of Childhood and Intelligent Sympathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantzi, Katerina K.

    2004-01-01

    School is the major vehicle for humanism, which is, in essence, respect on human nature. Human Rights Education is important for the existence of human society in the modern globalising era. Education can function as a unifying factor and produce informed and active citizens of an interdependent world. It can provide the tools for advocacy and…

  4. Human Rights and Social Policy in the United States: An Educational Agenda for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wronka, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Contends that human rights education, particularly in the United States, tends to emphasize civil and political rights. Argues the need to emphasize economic and social rights and the interdependency of human rights. Contends that moral education should open discussion and scholarship so that students will choose their values. (CFR)

  5. Analysis of Adverse Events in Identifying GPS Human Factors Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Hwoschinsky, Peter V.; Adams, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze GPS related adverse events such as accidents and incidents (A/I), Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports and Pilots Deviations (PDs) to create a framework for developing a human factors risk awareness program. Although the occurrence of directly related GPS accidents is small the frequency of PDs and ASRS reports indicated there is a growing problem with situational awareness in terminal airspace related to different types of GPs operational issues. This paper addresses the findings of the preliminary research and a brief discussion of some of the literature on related GPS and automation issues.

  6. Employing moderate resolution sensors in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andrew J.

    Organizations concerned with human rights are increasingly using remote sensing as a tool to improve their detection of human rights and international humanitarian law violations. However, as these organizations have transitioned to human rights monitoring campaigns conducted over large regions and extended periods of time, current methods of using fine- resolution sensors and manpower-intensive analyses have become cost- prohibitive. To support the continued growth of remote sensing in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring campaigns, this study researches how moderate resolution land observatories can provide complementary data to operational human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates the capacity of moderate resolutions to provide data to monitoring efforts by developing an approach that uses Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) as part of a system for the detection of village destruction in Darfur, Sudan. Village destruction is an indicator of a human rights or international humanitarian law violations in Darfur during the 2004 study period. This analysis approach capitalizes on Landsat's historical archive and systematic observations by constructing a historic spectral baseline for each village in the study area that supports automated detection of a potentially destroyed village with each new overpass of the sensor. Using Landsat's near-infrared band, the approach demonstrates high levels of accuracy when compared with a U.S. government database documenting destroyed villages. This approach is then applied to the Darfur conflict from 2002 to 2008, providing new data on when and where villages were destroyed in this widespread and long-lasting conflict. This application to the duration of a real-world conflict illustrates the abilities and shortcomings of moderate resolution sensors in human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates that moderate resolution satellites have the capacity to contribute

  7. Human Rights Abuses and Suicidal Ideation among Male Injecting Drug Users in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Enisha; Samson, Luke; Sweat, Michael; Beyrer, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Background Human rights abuses, denial of care, police surveillance, and violence directed at IDUs have been found to impact HIV prevention efforts due to decreased attendance in harm reduction programs. The association of mental health status with rights abuses has not been examined extensively among drug users. In India, drug control laws are often in conflict with harm reduction policies, thus increasing the likelihood of rights abuses against IDUs. The purpose of this study was to describe human rights abuses occurring among IDUs in Delhi and examine their association with suicidal ideation. Methods 343 IDUs were recruited in two research sites in Delhi through respondent driven sampling and were interviewed with a cross sectional survey questionnaire that included items on human rights and socio demographics. Results IDUs in the study experienced many human rights abuses. Notably among these were denial of admission into hospital (38.5%), denial of needles and syringes (20%), police arrests for carrying needles and using drugs (85%), verbal abuse (95%) and physical abuse (88%). Several human rights abuses were associated with suicidal ideation. These include being denied needles and syringes (OR: 7.28, 95% CI: 3.03- 17.49); being arrested by police for carrying needles and using drugs (OR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.06- 6.03), and being physically abused (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.05- 2.23). The likelihood of suicidal ideation is also strongly related to the cumulative number of abuses. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that there is a high prevalence of human rights abuses among IDUs in Delhi. Given the alarming rate of suicidal ideation and its close relationship with human rights abuses it is essential that IDU interventions are executed within a rights-based framework. PMID:21439808

  8. Obstacles to Health Care in the Black Community: The Denial of a Human Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymally, Mervyn M.; Warner, Mary R.

    1978-01-01

    Although health care has never emerged as a leading issue in the civil rights struggle, there has been a relatively quiet, low key movement over the past ten years to address many of the health issues in the black community. Now, however, the movement is regressing. (Author/AM)

  9. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  10. Human rights violations against sex workers: burden and effect on HIV.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michele R; Crago, Anna-Louise; Chu, Sandra K H; Sherman, Susan G; Seshu, Meena S; Buthelezi, Kholi; Dhaliwal, Mandeep; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-10

    We reviewed evidence from more than 800 studies and reports on the burden and HIV implications of human rights violations against sex workers. Published research documents widespread abuses of human rights perpetrated by both state and non-state actors. Such violations directly and indirectly increase HIV susceptibility, and undermine effective HIV-prevention and intervention efforts. Violations include homicide; physical and sexual violence, from law enforcement, clients, and intimate partners; unlawful arrest and detention; discrimination in accessing health services; and forced HIV testing. Abuses occur across all policy regimes, although most profoundly where sex work is criminalised through punitive law. Protection of sex workers is essential to respect, protect, and meet their human rights, and to improve their health and wellbeing. Research findings affirm the value of rights-based HIV responses for sex workers, and underscore the obligation of states to uphold the rights of this marginalised population. PMID:25059943

  11. State obligations to implement African abortion laws: employing human rights in a changing legal landscape.

    PubMed

    Ngwena, Charles G

    2012-11-01

    Women in the African region are overburdened with unsafe abortion. Abortion regimes that fail to translate any given abortion rights into tangible access are partly to blame. Historically, African abortion laws have been highly restrictive. However, the post-independence era has witnessed a change toward liberalizing abortion law, even if incremental for many jurisdictions. Furthermore, Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa has significantly augmented the regional trend toward liberalization by recognizing abortion as a human right in given circumstances. However, states are failing to implement abortion laws. The jurisprudence that is emerging from the European Court of Human Rights and United Nations treaty bodies is a tool that can be used to render African governments accountable for failure to implement domestic abortion laws. PMID:22944215

  12. The Impact of Human Rights on Universalizing Health Care in Vermont, USA.

    PubMed

    MacNaughton, Gillian; Haigh, Fiona; McGill, Mariah; Koutsioumpas, Konstantinos; Sprague, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, Vermont adopted a new law embracing human rights principles as guidelines for health care reform, and in 2011, Vermont was the first state in the US to enact framework legislation to establish a universal health care system for all its residents. This article reports on the Vermont Workers' Center's human rights-based approach to universal health care and the extent to which this approach influenced decision makers. We found the following: (1) by learning about the human right to health care and sharing experiences, Vermonters were motivated to demand universal health care; (2) mobilizing Vermonters around a unified message on the right to health care made universal health care politically important; (3) using the human rights framework to assess new proposals enabled the Vermont Workers' Center to respond quickly to new policy proposals; (4) framing health care as a human right provided an alternative to the dominant economics-based discourse; and (5) while economics continues to dominate discussions among Vermont leaders, both legislative committees on health care use the human rights principles as guiding norms for health care reform. Importantly, the principles have empowered Vermonters by giving them more voice in policymaking and have been internalized by legislators as democratic principles of governance. PMID:26766864

  13. Equal Educational Opportunity Workshop for Human Rights Workers at the Annual Meeting of the National Association of Human Rights Workers, Seattle, Washington, October 3-7, 1971. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NCRIEEO Newsletter, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The Equal Educational Opportunity Workshop for Human Rights Workers focused on the theme "Equal Educational Opportunity--What Does It Mean to the Human Rights Worker? A Deep Examination of Professional Commitment." Most school systems and educational institutions have human rights specialists devoting staff time and resources to race and…

  14. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  15. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  16. Human rights, human wrongs: torture prevention, documentation and prosecution in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Anasarias, Ernesto A; Molino, Benito; Hernandez, Edeliza P; Briola, Jerbert M

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the challenges faced by human rights organizations and survivors of torture in seeking justice despite the availability of an anti-torture law in the Philippines. Several legal, political, and security-related impediments are cited here to raise the challenge to state agencies to undertake steps to break the culture of impunity in the country by making the anti-torture law an effective remedy to prevent torture and for the victims to obtain redress. This paper draws lessons and recommendations form the insights generated by the authors in the course of their participation in the IRCT-led FEAT project. PMID:22948401

  17. Human Health Effects of Biphenyl: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Hogan, Karen A.; Cai, Christine; Rieth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the human health hazards of biphenyl exposure. Objectives: We review key findings and scientific issues regarding expected human health effects of biphenyl. Methods: Scientific literature from 1926 through September 2012 was critically evaluated to identify potential human health hazards associated with biphenyl exposure. Key issues related to the carcinogenicity and noncancer health hazards of biphenyl were examined based on evidence from experimental animal bioassays and mechanistic studies. Discussion: Systematic consideration of experimental animal studies of oral biphenyl exposure took into account the variety of study designs (e.g., study sizes, exposure levels, and exposure durations) to reconcile differing reported results. The available mechanistic and toxicokinetic evidence supports the hypothesis that male rat urinary bladder tumors arise through urinary bladder calculi formation but is insufficient to hypothesize a mode of action for liver tumors in female mice. Biphenyl and its metabolites may induce genetic damage, but a role for genotoxicity in biphenyl-induced carcinogenicity has not been established. Conclusions: The available health effects data for biphenyl provides suggestive evidence for carcinogenicity in humans, based on increased incidences of male rat urinary bladder tumors at high exposure levels and on female mouse liver tumors. Kidney toxicity is also a potential human health hazard of biphenyl exposure. Citation: Li Z, Hogan KA, Cai C, Rieth S. 2016. Human health effects of biphenyl: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 124:703–712; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509730 PMID:26529796

  18. The Academic Librarian's Human Resources Handbook. Employer Rights and Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, David A.

    This handbook offers "how to" guidance on library management and provides a single source for laws, regulations, executive orders, guidelines, and court decisions on employee and employer rights and responsibilities. Detailed information is provided on: recruiting and selecting personnel; the employment relationship; wages and hours; employee…

  19. Left Brain to Right Brain: Notes from the Human Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumli, Francis

    1982-01-01

    Examines the implications of the left brain-right brain theory on communications styles in male-female relationships. The author contends that women tend to use the vagueness of their emotional responses manipulatively. Men need to apply rational approaches to increase clarity in communication. (AM)

  20. [Human resource management. How do we find the right surgeons?].

    PubMed

    Oubaid, V; Jähne, J

    2013-01-01

    The recruitment of trainee surgeons is a demanding topic. Not only the question whether the number of applicants is sufficient but also the selection of the right candidates are of great importance. Therefore, it is of vital interest to establish the occupational requirements and to develop reliable and valid methods for the selection process. PMID:23292154

  1. Human African trypanosomiasis of the CNS: current issues and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Peter G.E.

    2004-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Current therapy with melarsoprol for CNS HAT has unacceptable side-effects with an overall mortality of 5%. This review discusses the issues of diagnosis and staging of CNS disease, its neuropathogenesis, and the possibility of new therapies for treating late-stage disease. PMID:14966556

  2. Hidden Contradictions and Conditionality: Conceptualisations of Inclusive Education in International Human Rights Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Bronagh

    2013-01-01

    The nature of education that children with disabilities should receive has been subject to much debate. This article critically assesses the ways in which the international human rights framework has conceptualised "inclusive education". It argues that the right to education for children with disabilities in international law is…

  3. Canadian Human Rights Act. Office Consolidation = Loi canadienne sur les droits de la personne. Codification administrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Supply and Services, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Canadian Human Rights Act extends the laws in Canada that proscribe discrimination by establishing that each individual has the right to make the life for him- or herself that he or she is able and wishes to have, consistent with the duties and obligations of a member of society, without being hindered or prevented from doing so by…

  4. Human Rights and Decision-Making in Child Protection through Explicit Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joe; Taylor, Brian; Mc Call, Susannah

    2006-01-01

    A recent judgement in February 2005 by the Lord Chief Justice in Northern Ireland that a Health and Social Services Trust had breached a parent's Article 8 Right to Family Life in the process used to take a young child into care has stimulated major debate about the interface between the Human Rights Act (1998) and professional decision-making in…

  5. Citizenship, Nationalism, Human Rights and Democracy: A Tangling of Terms in the Kuwaiti Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Nakib, Rania

    2011-01-01

    Background: Citizenship, nationalism, human rights and democracy are four terms and concepts that are inextricably linked. In Kuwait, the status of citizen is based on nationality, gender and age, with women, children, naturalised citizens, expatriates and "bidoon" (stateless people) denied many freedoms, rights and services. Citizenship is…

  6. School Attendance as a Civic Duty v. Home Education as a Human Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Franz

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the legal situation of home education in Germany as a multi-level problem touching upon German constitutional law, State (Länder) constitutional law as well as administrative law, and the liberties of the European Convention of Human Rights. Whereas the parents' right to care for their children is explicitly granted by…

  7. Framing the Issue: Religion, Secular Ethics and the Case of Animal Rights Mobilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Marie

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses social movement framing, generally, and within contemporary animal rights movements specifically by conducting focus group analyses of a non-activist population. This contrasts with previous studies of recruitment that have examined the conversion process retroactively, culling data from those already involved in a cause. By…

  8. How to Make Sense of the Right to Education? Issues from the Case of Roma People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemelsoet, Elias

    2012-01-01

    In most cases, discussions on the right to education focus on the way access to education can be warranted for all and which aims should be pursued in rather abstract terms. This article approaches the topic starting from the case of Roma people. The particularity of their living circumstances raises the question what it is that we are aiming at…

  9. An Issue of Conflicting Rights: Nursing Student Charged with Drug Trafficking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Phyllis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a case of a nursing student charged with drug trafficking who was not suspended due to concern over student rights. Reviews case law that would have supported suspension. Advocates clearly defined policies and procedures that ensure due process while allowing for disciplinary action. (SK)

  10. Human Rights Education as a Tool of Grassroots Organizing and Social Transformation: A Case Study from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilkkaracan, Pinar; Amado, Liz Ercevik

    2005-01-01

    Women for Women's Human Rights (WWHR) -- New Ways has been carrying out a "Human Rights Education Program for Women" throughout Turkey for over a decade, in cooperation with community centers. The training has a holistic, comprehensive nature, linking several areas of human rights through a critical gender perspective lens. One of the overarching…

  11. Social Injustice, Human Rights-Based Education and Citizens' Direct Action to Promote Social Transformation in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ty, Reynaldo

    2011-01-01

    This article opens with a proposed framework for human rights education (HRE), which synthesizes ideas drawn from Zinn's people's history, Sen's theory of justice and Freire's critical pedagogy. A review of the literature on HRE and human rights-based learning suggests three existent interrelated models of HRE. Drawing on human rights-based…

  12. 31 CFR 560.545 - Democracy and human rights in Iran and academic and cultural exchange programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Democracy and human rights in Iran and... Policy § 560.545 Democracy and human rights in Iran and academic and cultural exchange programs. (a... training, to support human rights, democratic freedoms, and democratic institutions and to meet basic...

  13. Human Rights Education in Japan: An Historical Account, Characteristics and Suggestions for a Better-Balanced Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Sachiko

    2012-01-01

    Although human rights are often expressed as universal tenets, the concept was conceived in a particular socio-political and historical context. Conceptualisations and practice of human rights vary across societies, and face numerous challenges. After providing an historical account of the conceptualisation of human rights in Japanese society,…

  14. Advancing sexual health through human rights: The role of the law

    PubMed Central

    Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia; Miller, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the International Conference on Population and Development, definitions of sexuality and sexual health have been greatly elaborated alongside widely accepted recognition that sexual health requires respect, protection and fulfilment of human rights. Considerable progress has also been made in enacting or changing laws that affect sexuality and sexual health, in line with human rights standards. These measures include legal guarantees against non-discrimination and violence, decriminalisation of consensual sexual conduct and guaranteeing availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of sexual health information and services to all. Such legal actions have had positive effects on health and specifically on sexual health, particularly for marginalised populations. Yet in all regions of the world, laws still exist which jeopardise health, including sexual health, and violate human rights. In order to ensure accountability for the rights and health of their populations, states have an obligation to bring their laws into line with international, regional and national human rights standards. These rights-based legal guarantees, while insufficient alone, are essential for effective systems of accountability, achieving positive sexual health outcomes and the respect and protection of human rights. PMID:25539286

  15. Human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities in Kathmandu, Nepal: a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nepal has experienced sporadic reports of human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities. Our objective was to identify a range of human rights that are enshrined in international law and/or are commonly reported by sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu, to be nonprotected or violated. Methods In September 2009 three focus group discussions were conducted by trained interviewers among a convenience sample of sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu Nepal. The modified Delphi technique was utilized to elicit and rank participant-generated definitions of human rights and their subsequent violations. Data was analyzed independently and cross checked by another investigator. Results Participants (n = 29) reported experiencing a range of human rights violations at home, work, educational, health care settings and in public places. Lack of adequate legal protection, physical and mental abuse and torture were commonly reported. Access to adequate legal protection and improvements in the family and healthcare environment were ranked as the most important priority areas. Conclusions Sexual and gender minorities in Nepal experienced a range of human rights violations. Future efforts should enroll a larger and more systematic sample of participants to determine frequency, timing, and/or intensity of exposure to rights violations, and estimate the population-based impact of these rights violations on specific health outcomes PMID:22591775

  16. Advancing sexual health through human rights: the role of the law.

    PubMed

    Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia; Miller, Alice M

    2015-01-01

    Since the International Conference on Population and Development, definitions of sexuality and sexual health have been greatly elaborated alongside widely accepted recognition that sexual health requires respect, protection and fulfilment of human rights. Considerable progress has also been made in enacting or changing laws that affect sexuality and sexual health, in line with human rights standards. These measures include legal guarantees against non-discrimination and violence, decriminalisation of consensual sexual conduct and guaranteeing availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of sexual health information and services to all. Such legal actions have had positive effects on health and specifically on sexual health, particularly for marginalised populations. Yet in all regions of the world, laws still exist which jeopardise health, including sexual health, and violate human rights. In order to ensure accountability for the rights and health of their populations, states have an obligation to bring their laws into line with international, regional and national human rights standards. These rights-based legal guarantees, while insufficient alone, are essential for effective systems of accountability, achieving positive sexual health outcomes and the respect and protection of human rights. PMID:25539286

  17. Who Owns My Words? Intellectual Property Rights as a Business Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Daphne A.

    2011-01-01

    Most college faculty approach plagiarism as a moral issue: a violation of the rules of the university and a violation of the behavioral standards of the academic world. However, business communication faculty can enhance students' educations by approaching plagiarism as one aspect of a larger business issue: the protection of intellectual…

  18. Murder in Ciudad Juarez: A parable of women's struggle for human rights.

    PubMed

    Ensalaco, Mark

    2006-05-01

    The murder of hundreds of women in Ciudad Juárez during the past decade has compelled women to mobilize. This mobilization is a parable of women's struggle for human rights because the factors that cause gender-based violence in Mexico are common throughout the world, the authorities' failure to punish those crimes constitutes a form of gender discrimination that is prevalent throughout the world, and the imperative for Mexican women to mobilize in defense of their own human rights is shared by women throughout the world. This struggle involves a double transformation: the transformation of women's organizations into human rights organizations and the transformation of human rights advocacy through the integration of the gender perspective. PMID:16617169

  19. The modernizing bias of human rights: stories of mass killings and genocide in Central America.

    PubMed

    Ekern, Stener

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses selected cases of mass killings and genocide during the civil wars in El Salvador and Guatemala in the 1980s and the way in which the truth commissions in both countries reframed locally grounded narratives to fit the state-centred language of human rights. Redefining wrongdoings as human rights violations produces stories that communicate poorly with local worldviews because the 'truths' that human rights language proposes disregard local realities and transform local conflicts into a type of 'modern', nationwide struggles. Thus, while the concept of genocide might capture well the horrendous nature of a mass killing, it will also ethnify the conflict. Comparisons between local readings and human rights-based reinterpretations reveal a 'modernizing' or 'Westernizing' bias of international law; the article argues for more awareness about such effects in analysis as well as in policy-making. PMID:21280381

  20. A Struggle for Human Rights: The Japanese Spinners' 106-Day Strike of 1954.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Shoya

    1992-01-01

    Inhumane working conditions led to a strike of Japanese silk spinners and formation of a union. Company repression provoked public opinion, resulting in acceptance of worker demands for recognition of human rights in the workplace. (SK)