Kates, Robert W.
Presents the report of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee in Human Rights which seeks to ease the plight of individual scientists, engineers, and medical personnel suffering severe repression. Case studies of instances of negligence of human rights are provided. (CP)
International Labour Review, 1998
Includes "Introduction"; "International Labour Standards and Human Rights" (Valticos); "The Origins of Convention No. 87 on Freedom of Association and the Right to Organize" (Dunning); "Human Rights Law and Freedom of Association" (Swepston); "Freedom of Association" (von Potobsky); "The ILO [International Labour Organization] Declaration of 1998…
Brabeck, Mary M.; Rogers, Lauren
Proposes a cross over between moral education and human rights work, suggesting that human rights documents allow moral educators to learn from human rights activists and educators. Argues that Latin Americans and other marginalized groups can inform moral education work. Includes five suggestions for incorporating human rights into moral…
Bunch, Charlotte; Carrillo, Roxanna
This document includes two articles describing the failure of the international human rights movement to consider or remedy the situation of women outside of the basic demand for political rights of people in general. The first article, "Women's Rights as Human Rights: Toward a Re-Vision of Human Rights" (Charlotte Bunch), emphasizes the…
Leila Srour, M; Marck, Klaas W; Baratti-Mayer, Denise
Noma, an orofacial gangrene and opportunistic infection, affects primarily malnourished children living in extreme poverty. Neglected, forgotten, unknown by most health workers, noma results in death, disfigurement and disability of some of the world's most vulnerable children. Noma is a biological indicator of multiple human rights violations, including the right to food. International support and national attention in countries with noma are lacking. The end of neglect of noma can lead to the elimination of this horrific childhood disease. PMID:25609756
The most pervasive form of human rights abuse is violence against women. This violence includes domestic violence, sexual abuse, rape, forced prostitution, female genital mutilation, and murder. It cuts across socioeconomic lines and is so deeply embedded in tradition that millions of women consider violence their lot in life, yet international efforts to combat violence against women are currently in a fledgling state. Most women experience violence in their homes, and as many as 20% of women worldwide have been raped (most know their attacker). More than half of all sexual assaults target girls aged 15 years and younger, and armies continue to use rape as a weapon of war. The female infanticide and sex selective abortions that are caused by son preference have led to imbalances in sex ratios characterized by millions of females "missing" from populations in Asia, China, and north Africa. India is the site of an estimated 5000 dowry-related deaths each year, and an estimated 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital mutilation with two million more at risk each year. In response to this problem, more than 160 countries have ratified the UN's Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Violence Against Women, and many countries have included provisions to protect women against violence in their constitutions and criminal codes. Only 44 countries specifically protect women against domestic violence, however, and only 17 countries consider marital rape a crime (12 countries in Latin America excuse a rapist from prosecution if he marries his victim). The US has worked to place women's rights on the human rights agenda by increasing monitoring of women's human rights abuses, supporting national efforts to revise legislation, supporting campaigns to help women reduce their dependency on men and understand their rights, and equating women's rights with human rights. PMID:12321050
Allan, Stuart; Sonwalkar, Prasun; Carter, Cynthia
This article assesses the potential of online news reporting to create discursive spaces for emphatic engagement--of bearing witness--at a distance, especially where human rights violations are concerned. Taking as its focus the emergent forms and practices of citizen journalism, it examines the spontaneous actions of ordinary people compelled to…
The "Dowa" (Human Rights) education program has become an effective method of changing concept and situations of "Burakumin," a group of people that has been discriminated against in Japan. One educational strategy was to speak out their personal stories, which has become a trigger to some sexual minority teachers to come out, as well as others to…
Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S
Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that is manifest in diverse contexts. In this article, we examine the situations that precipitate the movement of large numbers of people across several African countries, producing a unique type of undocumented migrant--the refugee. These refugee movements impact already fragile African health care systems and often involve human rights violations that are of particular concern, such as gender-based violence and child soldiers. We use examples from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current research, and our personal international experiences, we provide an overview of forced migration and discuss implications and opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice, and policy related to refugee health. PMID:25645484
Nour, Nawal M
Marriages in which a child under the age of 18 years is involved occur worldwide, but are mainly seen in South Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A human rights violation, child marriage directly impacts girls’ education, health, psychologic well-being, and the health of their offspring. It increases the risk for depression, sexually transmitted infection, cervical cancer, malaria, obstetric fistulas, and maternal mortality. Their offspring are at an increased risk for premature birth and, subsequently, neonatal or infant death. The tradition, driven by poverty, is perpetuated to ensure girls’ financial futures and to reinforce social ties. One of the most effective methods of reducing child marriage and its health consequences is mandating that girls stay in school. PMID:19399295
During the last 50 years, principles, institutions, and policies of human rights have been developed worldwide. This book brings together European and international conventions on human rights, the rights of women, and the users and uses of education, and places them in their wider context. It examines issues in how human rights work, the ways in…
In 2001, the United Nations Security Council established an Expert Panel to study the issue of whether the UN should institute HIV testing of peacekeeping personnel. This article, based on a 9 July 2002 presentation to the XIV International AIDS Conference (abstract TuOrG1173), reports on the findings of a paper prepared for the Expert Panel by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network. The paper examined whether it is permissible for the UN to implement mandatory HIV testing of its peacekeeping personnel, and whether HIV-positive UN peacekeeping personnel should be excluded or restricted from service on the basis of their HIV status or HIV disease progression. The article describes some of the court cases in which these issues have been considered; discusses the importance of analyzing such issues in the context of a human rights-based approach to the pandemic; and formulates a series of key principles for guiding UN decision-making. The article concludes that a policy of mandatory HIV testing for all UN peacekeeping personnel cannot be justified on the basis that it is required in order to assess their physical and mental capacity for service; that HIV-positive peacekeeping personnel cannot be excluded from service based on their HIV status alone, but only on their ability to perform their duties; and that the UN cannot resort to mandatory HIV testing for all UN peacekeeping personnel to protect the health and safety of HIV-negative personnel unless it can demonstrate that alternatives to such a policy would not reduce the risk sufficiently. In the end, the Expert Panel unanimously rejected mandatory testing and instead endorsed voluntary HIV counselling and testing for UN peacekeeping personnel. PMID:14743823
Human rights are commonly conceived as more relevant to foreign policy than day-to-day living. Drawing on Eleanor Roosevelt's conception of human rights as beginning close to home, this article illustrates how human rights principles might inform everyday processes of schooling and learning to live together. It considers rights to, in and…
Cools, Martine; Simmonds, Margaret; Elford, Sue; Gorter, Joke; Ahmed, S Faisal; D'Alberton, Franco; Springer, Alex; Hiort, Olaf
Intersex/disorders of sex development advocacy groups and associated health care professionals question the legitimacy of the Council of Europe issue paper, express their worries about its potentially harmful consequences, and urge the Council of Europe to consult more widely with relevant stakeholders. PMID:27210458
Perilla, Julia L.
Examines domestic violence from a human rights perspective. Explores the antecedents, dynamics, and effects of domestic abuse in light of the historical, philosophical, cultural, social, spiritual, and political realities of Latino immigrants in the United States. Discusses levels of awareness and responsibility necessary to break the…
In 2003, four high school students from the Tashkent International School in the capital city confronted the issue of their nation's human rights problems head on by researching the topic and publishing their findings on the Web. The site, "Uzbekistan: Opaque Reality," was created as an entry for the non-profit Global SchoolNet's Doors to…
Verhellen, Eugeen, Ed.; Spiesschaert, Frans, Ed.
A number of research seminars were organized to clarify the fundamental principles underlying local, regional, and international efforts to establish a structure for monitoring and promoting children's rights. This book contains papers presented at these seminars by experts on child advocacy, promotion of children's interests by children, and…
Gives a variety of educational resources on human rights that include videos, resource notebooks, books, publications, and websites along with short descriptions of the materials. Provides the contact information for a list of human-rights organizations, such as the Center for Human Rights Education and the Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt…
Zambrano, Elias, Comp.
This document provides information about 25 programs/brochures which focus on human rights topics. Specific topics include: (1) counselor preparation; (2) multicultural awareness; (3) abuse and neglect; (4) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; (5) self-awareness; (6) human rights awareness and human rights of students; (7) cultural diversity; (8)…
Berman, Howard R.
The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…
Donahue, David M.
This curriculum is intended to further thoughtful examination and responsible action among high school students about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues. Unlike other curricula this discussion is not in the context of civil or political rights but in the broader context of human rights. These rights, as defined in the Universal…
Since the United Nations adopted the International Bill of Human Rights in 1948, the deprivation of human rights has been rampant and brutal. To help students understand human rights devaluation and protection issues, teachers in all curricular areas can use three primary elements: knowledge, values, and social participation. (11 references) (MLH)
Neylon, Lyn Beth
Discusses the results from a survey commissioned by Human Rights USA that investigated what individuals know and think about human rights issues in the United States. Asserts that the survey gives community activists, educators, and decision makers the means to analyze local and national human-rights problems and move toward solutions. (CMK)
According to the author, teaching for social justice entails the acquisition of the following learning outcomes: (1) knowledge of the meaning, historical development, and application of human rights; (2) ability to analyze human rights from multiple perspectives; and (3) willingness to address human rights issues in local, global, intercultural,…
As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.
Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. PMID:20303830
Speak Truth To Power consists of 17 teacher-developed lessons based on the stories of rights advocates from all over the world. The lessons were created for sixth-through 12th-grade students, and have come to New York schools thanks to the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights and the New York State United Teachers union. Speak…
Syed, Khalida Tanvir
This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…
This paper recounts development of a community college humanities course titled Human Rights/Human Wrongs: The History, Philosophy, Law, Art, and Literature of the Human Rights Movement. The author argues that a special focus, interdisciplinary course provides a broader base for exploring and understanding most of the pressing issues of our time.…
The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.
Ryan, John Paul, Ed.
This publication examines ways to teach about law in the liberal arts. This issue focuses on future voting rights issues by exploring the 2000 presidential election. Articles included are: "Voting Rights in the New Millennium" (Jason F. Kirksey); "Legal and Political Lessons from 'Bush v. Gore'" (David Schultz); "The Ford-Carter Commission and…
Brundtland, G H
This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development. PMID:12290435
Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…
The International Bill of Rights enshrines a right to health, which includes a right to access essential medicines. This right frequently appears to conflict with the intellectual property regime that governs pharmaceutical patents. However, there is also a human right that protects creative works, including scientific productions. Does this right support intellectual property protections, even when they may negatively affect health? This article examines the recent attempt by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to resolve this issue and argues that it fails. This is problematic because it means defenders of the present patent regime can continue using human rights documents to support their position. I offer a new framework for resolving the problem by examining the values that underlie human rights. PMID:18974405
The International Bill of Rights enshrines a right to health, which includes a right to access essential medicines. This right frequently appears to conflict with the intellectual property regime that governs pharmaceutical patents. However, there is also a human right that protects creative works, including scientific productions. Does this right support intellectual property protections, even when they may negatively affect health? This article examines the recent attempt by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to resolve this issue and argues that it fails. This is problematic because it means defenders of the present patent regime can continue using human rights documents to support their position. I offer a new framework for resolving the problem by examining the values that underlie human rights. PMID:18974405
... Proclamation 8616--Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In 1948,...
Osler, Audrey; Starkey, Hugh
Why do teachers need to be familiar with human rights? In multicultural societies, whose values take precedence? How do schools resolve tensions between children's rights and teachers' rights? Campaigners, politicians and the media cite human rights to justify or challenge anything from peaceful protest to military action. The phrase "human…
A discussion is presented of the meaning of human rights, implications of human rights for foreign policy, and obstacles to its realization on a global scale. Chapter I identifies human rights as a critical issue, commends President Carter's initiative in this area, and points out difficulties of implementing a human rights policy. Chapter II…
Human rights, including the right to health, are grounded in protecting and promoting human dignity. Although commitment to human dignity is a widely shared value, the precise meaning and requirements behind the term are elusive. It is also unclear as to how a commitment to human dignity translates into specific human rights, such as the right to the highest attainable standard of health, and delineates their scope and obligations. The resulting lack of clarity about the foundations of and justification for the right to health has been problematic in a number of ways. This article identifies the strengths of and some of the issues with the grounding of the right to health in human dignity. It then examines ethical and philosophical expositions of human dignity and several alternative foundations proposed for the right to health, including capability theory and the work of Norman Daniels, to assess whether any offer a richer and more adequate conceptual grounding for the right to health. PMID:26204585
This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…
Hatch, Virginia; And Others
Created to heighten teachers' awareness of human rights issues, particularly those related to children's rights, this guide offers children knowledge and skills in developing both self-worth and empathy for others. These feelings, the curriculum argues, are the foundation children need if they are to understand their rights as children and the…
Butts, R. Freeman
In order to understand the context of the role that human rights should play in civic education in the United States, the era in which those rights were first debated (1789-1790's) must be examined, as well as contemporary political and education trends in the United States and the world. Human rights were at the heart of the democratic…
The global reproductive justice community has turned its attention to the abuse and disrespect that many women suffer during facility-based childbirth. In 2014, the World Health Organization released a statement on the issue, endorsed by more than 80 civil society and health professional organizations worldwide.The statement acknowledges a growing body of research that shows widespread patterns of women's mistreatment during labor and delivery-physical and verbal abuse, neglect and abandonment, humiliation and punishment, coerced and forced care-in a range of health facilities from basic rural health centers to tertiary care hospitals. Moreover, the statement characterizes this mistreatment as a human rights violation. It affirms: "Every woman has the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which includes the right to dignified, respectful health care throughout pregnancy and childbirth."The WHO statement and the strong endorsement of it mark a critical turn in global maternal rights advocacy. It is a turn from the public health world of systems and resources in preventing mortality to the intimate clinical setting of patient and provider in ensuring respectful care. PMID:26204582
To establish an objective conception of human rights, one must first identify basic needs intrinsic to all people and then determine whether these needs are or can be hierarchically ordered. Many scholars have conducted research on the concept of human needs, particularly in the area of human rights. Among these scholars are Abraham H. Maslow…
Provides an annotated list of websites that focus on international human rights. Explains that human rights can be incorporated into curricula whether the focus is on human geography or contemporary global issues. Indicates that the Northern Light search engine produced over 700,000 hits for human rights websites. (CMK)
Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together. PMID:17176464
Considers how biotechnology affects human-rights issues; in particular, the need for reexamining concerns about reproductive technology, the rights of indigenous peoples, and the rights of future generations. Maintains that the new areas for human-rights discussions, such as germ-line manipulation and genetic screening, are unprecedented concerns…
Crocco, Margaret Smith
The author considers the treatment of women's rights as human rights in the social studies curriculum. She discusses the role of the United Nations in promoting women's rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. She also reviews the treatment of women's rights within social studies curriculum today through a…
Ellis, Sonja J.
Despite a paucity of psychological research exploring the interface between lesbian and gay issues and human rights, a human rights framework has been widely adopted in debates to gain equality for lesbians and gay men. Given this prominence within political discourse of human rights as a framework for the promotion of positive social change for…
The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws. PMID:24714897
Cohen, Jonathan; Ezer, Tamar
The concept of "human rights in patient care" refers to the application of human rights principles to the context of patient care. It provides a principled alternative to the growing discourse of "patients' rights" that has evolved in response to widespread and severe human rights violations in health settings. Unlike "patients' rights," which is rooted in a consumer framework, this concept derives from inherent human dignity and neutrally applies universal, legally recognized human rights principles, protecting both patients and providers and admitting of limitations that can be justified by human rights norms. It recognizes the interrelation between patient and provider rights, particularly in contexts where providers face simultaneous obligations to patients and the state ("dual loyalty") and may be pressured to abet human rights violations. The human rights lens provides a means to examine systemic issues and state responsibility. Human rights principles that apply to patient care include both the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which covers both positive and negative guarantees in respect of health, as well as civil and political rights ranging from the patient's right to be free from torture and inhumane treatment to liberty and security of person. They also focus attention on the right of socially excluded groups to be free from discrimination in the delivery of health care. Critical rights relevant to providers include freedom of association and the enjoyment of decent work conditions. Some, but not all, of these human rights correspond to rights that have been articulated in "patients' rights" charters. Complementary to—but distinct from—bioethics, human rights in patient care carry legal force and can be applied through judicial action. They also provide a powerful language to articulate and mobilize around justice concerns, and to engage in advocacy through the media and political negotiation. As "patients' rights" movements and
This lecture transcript discusses human rights issues related to people with disabilities in Australia, focusing on concepts of discrimination, legislation, and social justice. Findings from recent federal inquiries into homeless children and mental illness highlight major deficits in services for people with disabilities. (Author/DB)
El Morr, Christo
Holistic disability rights monitoring is essential in order to translate rights on paper into rights in reality for people with disabilities. At the same time, evidence-based knowledge produced through holistic monitoring has to be made accessible to a broad range of groups - researchers, representatives of disability community, people with disabilities, the media, policy makers, general public - and also has to contribute to building capacity within disability community around human rights issues. This article focuses on the design process of a complex Virtual Knowledge Network (VKN) as an operational tool to support mobilization and dissemination of evidence-based knowledge produced by the Disability Rights Promotion International Canada (DRPI-Canada) project. This tool is embedded in the more general framework of the project grounded in a human rights approach to disability and that acknowledges the importance of creating knowledgeable communities in order to make the disability rights monitoring efforts sustainable, advancing thus the decision making process in Canada in order to enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities. PMID:22874302
This article explores various strategies which could be used to hold the tobacco industry accountable for human rights violations precipitated by its conduct. First, a brief overview of the international human rights regime and the tobacco related jurisprudence issued by human rights treaty bodies is provided. The article then explains how tobacco control advocates could promote more systematic consideration of governments' tobacco related human rights violations by reconceptualising the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the language of rights. The feasibility of using the existing human rights framework to target the tobacco industry directly is analysed with the conclusion that this approach has serious limitations. Emerging human rights norms, which have greater potential to affect the industry's conduct, are presented. Finally, given the questionable authoritativeness of these norms, alternative ways that they could be employed to hold tobacco companies accountable for the rights related consequences of their activities are proposed. PMID:16046696
What a human rights course should consist of, i.e., the objectives, course content, teaching methods, and evaluation techniques, are discussed. Human rights education must foster attitudes of tolerance and respect, provide knowledge about human rights, and develop students' awareness of how to translate human rights into social and political…
Sajan, K. S.
This paper describes the importance of human rights education as proclaimed by UN (1994) and also the strategies for developing human rights education by UN General assembly 2005. In proclaiming the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004), in December 1994, the General Assembly defined human rights education as "a life-long…
A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…
... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8616 of December 10, 2010. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010 8616 Proclamation 8616 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8616 of December 10, 2010 Proc. 8616 Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010By the President...
The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it "implies a commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms." The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, adopted in 2005, states that "cultural diversity can be protected and promoted only if human rights and fundamental freedoms … are guaranteed" (Article 2). The precise relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, however, is not clarified and thus leaves room for further exploration. This contribution analyses the issues surrounding the relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, in particular cultural rights. Firstly, it addresses general human rights issues such as universality and cultural relativism and the principles of equality and non-discrimination. Secondly, it explores the scope of cultural rights, as well as the cultural dimension of human rights. Thirdly, several cases are discussed in which human rights were invoked to protect cultural interests, confirming the value of cultural diversity. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented, indicating which areas require attention in order to further improve the promotion and protection of human rights in relation to cultural diversity. PMID:21132940
The Linguistic Human Rights (LHRs) paradigm is motivated by the desire to combat linguistic discrimination, where speakers of discriminated languages find themselves unable to use their preferred language in society at large. However, in an increasingly globalised world where speakers may feel the need or the desire to travel across state…
Ross, Loretta J.; Gupta, Meghna
Discusses the purpose and focus of human-rights education. Traces the definition of human rights, emphasizing the role of the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Compares the U.S. record on human rights against the UDHR. Suggests that human-rights education is limited, and offers ideas for improvement (DSK)
Merryfield, Merry M.; Badang, Germain; Bragg, Christina; Kvasov, Aleksandr; Taylor, Nathan; Waliaula, Anne; Yamaguchi, Misato
The study of human rights is inseparable from social studies. Beyond the basic political, economic, and social freedoms and rights spelled out in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, hundreds of specialized topics have developed that demonstrate the complex nature of human rights in the twenty-first-century world--environmental exploitation…
Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove, Ed.; Phillipson, Robert, Ed.
A collection of essays on linguistic human rights includes: "Combining Immigrant and Autochthonous Language Rights: A Territorial Approach to Multilingualism" (Francois Grin); "On the Limits of Ethnolinguistic Democracy" (Joshua A. Fishman); "Linguistic Human Rights and Educational Policy in Russia" (Alexei A. Leontiev); "Linguistic Human Rights,…
This article traces the development of the "Deaf President Now" (DPN) movement and its similarities to the black civil rights movement. Movements typically begin with a concrete, precipitating event but are usually the result of known or shared incidents on the part of the participants, and the "Deaf President Now" movement…
Oklahoma Univ., Norman. Southwest Center for Human Relations Studies.
The guide contains ideas, materials, and suggested practices for teachers and administrators in dealing with human rights issues. It is organized into six parts. Part I discusses the human rights concept, its importance in Western democratic society, its legal bases, racism, and school responsibility. Part II outlines the responsibilities of…
Carano, Kenneth T.; Clabough, Jeremiah
The authors explore how graphic novels can be used in the middle and high school social studies classroom to teach human rights. The article begins with a rationale on the benefits of using graphic novels. It next focuses on four graphic novels related to human rights issues: "Maus I: A Survivor's Tale: My Father Bleeds" (Speigelman…
Discusses the state of children's rights in the United States in the wake of U.S. Senate refusal to ratify the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child. Examines the discrepancy between the U.S. leadership role in human rights and child advocacy and the legal system's treatment of children strictly according to law. (JPB)
Joshua, I A; Dangata, Y Y; Audu, O; Nmadu, A G; Omole, N V
In Nigeria, just like in many other parts of the world, one of the most extensively discussed issues on the public agenda today is the increase in prison population. The aims of imprisonment are protection, retribution, deterrence, reformation and vindication. Investigations revealed that the prison services have been,neglected more than any other criminal justice agency in Nigeria. For example, most of the prisons were built during the colonial era for the purpose of accommodating a small number of inmates. Human Rights are the basic guarantees for human beings to be able to achieve happiness and self-respect; consequently, in most jurisdictions, the Human Rights Act confirms that these Rights do not stop at the prison gates. However, most States fail to meet the Human Rights obligations of their prisoners. As regards to health, for example, every prison should have proper health facilities and medical staff to provide dental and psychiatric care among others. This article discusses the Nigerian Prison System and challenges, trends and the related Human Rights and Ethical issues in Nigerian prisons. Some of the unmet needs of Nigerian prisoners which include, inter alia, living in unwholesome cells, delayed trial of inmates, lack of voting rights, access to information, lack of conjugal facilities for married prisoners, poor and inadequate nutrition, poor medical care, torture, inhumane treatment and the need to protect prisoners in a changing world. The present report has policy implications for reforming prison services in Nigeria, and countries that sing from the same song sheet with Nigeria on prison services, to conform to the Fundamental Human Rights of prisoners in the 21St century. PMID:27351045
Chun, Ki-Taek; Zalokar, Nadja
In 1989, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights held a series of roundtable conferences to learn about the civil rights concerns of Asian Americans within their communities. Using information gathered at these conferences as a point of departure, the Commission undertook this study of the wide-ranging civil rights issues facing Asian Americans in the…
The article explores the intersection between child rights, water scarcity, sanitation, and the human security paradigm. The recognition of child rights has been advanced through the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international legal instruments, while water rights are increasingly affirmed in international law and through the historic July 2010 United Nations General Assembly resolution that strengthened the legal foundation for water security and human rights. Yet there remains a development gap in terms of child access to clean and secure water sources for basic human development needs. The human security paradigm provides a legal and humanitarian foundation for the extension of child rights related to water and sanitation. PMID:22773100
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human Rights Week, 2009 8464 Proclamation 8464 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009 Proc. 8464 Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And...
Durrant, Joan E
Once considered a legitimate parenting tool, physical punishment is increasingly being redefined as a developmental risk factor by health professionals. Three forces that have contributed to this significant social change are the evolution of pediatric psychology, increasing understanding of the dynamics of parental violence, and growing recognition of children as rights bearers. However, despite the consistency of research findings demonstrating the risks of physical punishment, some practitioners still struggle with the question of whether physical punishment is an appropriate practice among some cultural or ethnic groups. This issue is explored through an analysis of studies examining cultural differences and similarities in physical punishment's effects, as well as legal decisions made throughout the world. Despite practitioners' awareness of the prevalence and impact of parental violence, some still struggle with deciding where to "draw the line" in advising parents about spanking. This issue is addressed through an examination of the role that physical punishment plays in child maltreatment. Finally, the human rights perspective on physical punishment is offered as a new lens through which practitioners may view physical punishment to clarify the fuzzy issues of cultural relativity and the punishment-abuse dichotomy. PMID:18300726
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).
A background paper for the Symposium on Population and Human Rights reviews the proceedings and resolutions of the United Nations Internal Conference on Human Rights of 1968, General Assembly resolutions, and relevant supporting statistics concerned with the relations of population and human rights. This information is organized into the following…
Francis, Greg; Inoue, Keiko; Orrick, Stefanie
The United Nations' founding in 1945 and the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights reflected the international community's growing commitment to the protection and recognition of what is now referred to as human rights. Despite increased international attention, human rights violations continue to occur at the local, regional,…
The Australian Capital Territory's Human Rights Act 2004 and the establishment of an ACT Human Rights Commission have begun to create a human rights culture in the ACT. This paper highlights the influence of this culture on the design and build of the ACT's new youth justice centre. (Contains 2 figures.)
Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.
In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…
While respect for human rights has long been endorsed as a goal of education, only recently has significant attention been paid to the need to incorporate rights within educational processes. Current support for human rights within education, however, has a variety of motivations. This paper provides a theoretical exploration of these diverse…
Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge
The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community education on immigration issues, and political action toward a more humane immigration reform. Detailed examples of human rights abuses and the WICIR activities described in response to the abuses serve as illustrations of social work advocacy, education, and policy formulation that affect the general public, policymakers, and law enforcement officials. PMID:23724575
Gallagher, James J.
In this article, James J. Gallagher explains, in the context of education, that "civil rights" means the guarantee of equal opportunity and justice for all and the actions taken against those barriers that stand in the way of such equality. How does the issue of civil rights bear on an area of special education such as the education of…
The increasing volume and complexities of migratory flow has led to a range of problems such as human rights issues, public health, disease and border control, and also the regulatory processes. As result of war or internal conflicts missing person cases and management have to be regarded as a worldwide issue. On the other hand, even in peace, the issue of a missing person is still relevant. In 2007 the Italian Ministry of Interior nominated an extraordinary commissar in order to analyse and assess the total number of unidentified recovered bodies and verify the extent of the phenomena of missing persons, reported as 24,912 people in Italy (updated 31 December 2011). Of these 15,632 persons are of foreigner nationalities and are still missing. The census of the unidentified bodies revealed a total of 832 cases recovered in Italy since the year 1974. These bodies/human remains received a regular autopsy and were buried as 'corpse without name". In Italy judicial autopsy is performed to establish cause of death and identity, but odontology and dental radiology is rarely employed in identification cases. Nevertheless, odontologists can substantiate the identification through the 'biological profile' providing further information that can narrow the search to a smaller number of missing individuals even when no ante mortem dental data are available. The forensic dental community should put greater emphasis on the role of the forensic odontology as a tool for humanitarian action of unidentified individuals and best practise in human identification. PMID:23221266
This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional human rights treaties, non-binding or so-called soft law instruments from international organisations and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies. It explores the use of economic, social and cultural rights mechanisms, and those within civil and political rights, as they engage the right to health of prisoners, and identifies the minimum legal obligations of governments in order to remain compliant with human rights norms as defined within the international case law. In addressing these issues, this article adopts a holistic approach to the definition of the highest attainable standard of health. This includes a consideration of adequate standards of general medical care, including preventative health and mental health services. It also examines the question of environmental health, and those poor conditions of detention that may exacerbate health decline, disease transmission, mental illness or death. The paper examines the approach to prison health of the United Nations human rights system and its various monitoring bodies, as well as the regional human rights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Based upon this analysis, the paper draws conclusions on the current fulfilment of the right to health of prisoners on an international scale, and proposes expanded mechanisms under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment to monitor and promote the health rights of prisoners at the international and domestic levels. PMID:18382849
For centuries, medical and surgical treatment has emphasized saving the life of the patient rather than ameliorating the patient's pain, particularly when there were few options for the latter. Today at the dawn of the 21st century, the best available evidence indicates a major gap between an increasingly understanding of the pathophysiology of pain and widespread inadequacy of its treatment. Epidemiologic evidence has proven that chronic pain is a widespread public health issue. Studies of cancer patients' pain control consistently reveal that up to half of patients receive inadequate analgesia and 30% do not receive appropriate drugs for their pain. Equally, for patients suffering HIV/AIDS, 60%-100% will experience pain at some stage in their illness. In the developed world, this gap has prompted a series of declarations and actions by national and international bodies advocating better pain control. One response to the worldwide undertreatment of pain has been to promote the concept that pain relief is a public health issue of such critical importance as to constitute an international imperative and fundamental human right. The importance of pain relief as the core of the medical ethic is clear. Pain clinicians promote the status of pain management beyond that of appropriate clinical practice or even an ethic of good medicine. They advocate a paradigm shift in the medical professions' perspective on pain management, from simply good practice to an imperative founded on patient rights. There is a need to promote policies which create conditions where human beings can bear even incurable illnesses and death in a dignified manner. This must help health professionals or lay groups to initiate a powerful agenda to reform local statutes. The essential components of such legislation are: 1. Reasonable pain management is a right. 2. Doctors have a duty to listen to and reasonably respond to a patient's report of pain. 3. Provision of necessary pain relief is immune from
Jacobs, Allan J; Arora, Kavita Shah
Opponents of male circumcision have increasingly used human rights positions to articulate their viewpoint. We characterize the meaning of the term "human rights." We discuss these human rights arguments with special attention to the claims of rights to an open future and to bodily integrity. We offer a three-part test under which a parental decision might be considered an unacceptable violation of a child's right. The test considers the impact of the practice on society, the impact of the practice on the individual, and the likelihood of adverse impact. Infant circumcision is permissible under this test. We conclude that infant circumcision may be proscribed as violating local norms, even though it does not violate human rights. PMID:25674955
Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L
Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. PMID:23586767
This book outlines the contents of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and its Protocols 1 and 4. The major goal of the Convention, which constitutes an innovation in international law, is to guarantee the protection of "human rights" by allowing both member states and individuals to institute proceedings…
The idea of human rights has increasingly been playing a very important part in people's contemporary life, the political in particular, the cultural in general. This explains why Dr. Griffin in "Beyond Anarchy and Plutocracy: the need for global democracy" includes a chapter on human rights. "My contention," Dr. Griffin writes, "is that now, in…
Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia
Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647
Banks, James A.
The 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a propitious time for educators to examine its implications for educating citizens in multicultural nation states. The author argues that students must experience democratic classrooms and schools that reflect their cultures and identities to internalize human rights values,…
Duncan, Garrett Albert
States that moral educators can learn from North Americans who have challenged U.S. human rights violations, especially violations within the United States. Uses race as an analytical tool to illustrate human rights abuses. Concludes by discussing the implications for crossing boundaries between human rights work and moral education. (CMK)
Hersey, Page Elizabeth
Human rights education (HRE) holds the potential for educators to begin an honest dialogue with students and to connect local issues with international struggles for human rights. However, HRE and other teaching approaches that build understanding of systems of power and oppression that lead to human rights violations are not widely embraced in…
Hill, L B
This article seeks to 1) stimulate debate on the tension between democracy and human rights that arises from the fact that the organizational unit of modern democracy remains the state, which is incompatible with the quest for transnational human rights based on a transcendent human identity, and 2) explore this tension as it is revealed in migration policy in South Africa. The introduction of the article critiques the criticisms offered by contemporary writers as grounds for an overhaul of current migration policy. Next, the article presents an analysis of modern, state-based democracy and of the rise of international human rights, with a focus on the following trends: 1) development of the notion of citizenship resulting from a view of the state as the guarantor but not the progenitor of rights, 2) the growth of human rights traditions in industrialized democracies as judicial activism countered populist and nationalist inclinations of national legislatures, and 3) the growth of an international human rights juridical tradition. The article then highlights the issues raised within the migration policy debate in South Africa since 1994 and examines the 1997 Draft Green Paper on International Migration. It is concluded that, because South Africa fits the general pattern of a receiving state, an overly ambitious human rights approach to immigration will conflict with the exigencies of the new democracy as it builds institutional capacity. PMID:12294201
el Dawla, A S
Because the definitions of reproductive health and reproductive rights are so broad, it has been possible in Egypt and elsewhere for one or other issue on the reproductive health agenda to be prioritised to the detriment or exclusion of others, and a comprehensive approach avoided. Reproductive health and rights language was introduced in Egypt around the time of the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. From the moment these concepts were translated into Arabic, activists, scholars and women themselves discussed and debated their meanings and questioned whether Egyptian culture permitted a rights approach of this kind and whether reproductive rights were actually perceived as such by Egyptian women. This paper discusses the language of reproductive rights in relation to cultural specificity in the Egyptian context, Egyptian women's perceptions of reproductive rights, the role of tradition and religion, and the ways in which reproductive rights are taken up under Egyptian law. It analyses some of the arguments used against reproductive rights on these grounds. PMID:11424249
The question discussed is how far crossgenerational sexual relations with or by minors could be considered to be a gay rights issue. The author discusses the issue from the perspective of general principles found in the case-law of the European Court on Human Rights. These principles suggest that the basic right to privacy should be interpreted as providing comprehensive protection of the right of children and adolescents to sexual self-determination, namely both the right to effective protection from (unwanted) sex and abuse on the one hand and the right to (wanted) sex on the other. The analysis is based upon the findings of natural and social science as well as an extensive international survey of national legal provisions and it leads to the conclusion that consensual sexual relations of and with adolescents over 14 (out of relations of authority) should be qualified a gay rights issue; likewise (as the exception to the rule) the possibility of filtering out cases from prosecution where a contact/relation is proven (beyond reasonable doubt) as consensual and harmless even though the minor involved is under 14. The legalization of (objectively consensual) sexual relations with persons under 14 as such, however, should not be considered to be a gay rights issue. PMID:10482330
This article discusses youth and adult education in a twofold perspective: that of a human right and that of human development. The first perspective is related to the concept of rights and the second perspective is related to the guarantee or negation of the right to development. In this article, the author discusses the universality of rights…
Orbinski, James; Beyrer, Chris; Singh, Sonal
For humanitarian health-care practitioners bearing witness to violations of human dignity has become synonymous with denunciations, human rights advocacy, or lobbying for political change. A strict reliance on legal interpretations of humanitarianism and human rights is inadequate for fully understanding the problems inherent in political change. With examples from the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the USA, the Rwandan genocide, and physician-led political activism in Nepal, we describe three cases in which health practitioners bearing witness to humanitarian and human-rights issues have had imperfect outcomes. However these acts of bearing witness have been central to the promotion of humanitarianism and human rights, to the pursuit of justice that they have inevitably and implicitly endorsed, and thus to the politics that have or might yet address these issues. Despite the imperfections, bearing witness, having first-hand knowledge of humanitarian and human-rights principles and their limitations, and systematically collecting evidence of abuse, can be instrumental in tackling the forces that constrain the realisation of human health and dignity. PMID:17720021
Michigan State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.
This report is a summary statement of the Michigan Advisory Committee's study on civil rights issues facing Arab American communities in Michigan. It is based on information received by the Committee at a community forum held in Dearborn, Michigan, in 1999. Six sections focus on: (1) "Introduction," including Arab American demographics in Wayne…
Brown, Kathleen M.; Schainker, Stanley A.
Teacher retention has become a national crisis. This case study describes one principal's efforts to support new teachers and reduce the turnover rate at her school. Recognizing the problem a few years ago, the principal took what she thought were a number of proactive, decisive steps to resolve the issue--she is doing all the right things.…
Background Human rights approaches to health have been criticized as antithetical to equity, principally because they are seen to prioritise rights of individuals at the expense of the interests of groups, a core tenet of public health. The objective of this study was to identify how human rights approaches can promote health equity. Methods The Network on Equity in Health in Southern Africa undertook an exploration of three regional case studies – antiretroviral access, patient rights charters and civic organization for health. A combination of archival reviews and stakeholder interviews were complemented with a literature review to provide a theoretical framework for the empirical evidence. Results Critical success factors for equity are the importance of rights approaches addressing the full spectrum from civil and political, through to socio-economic rights, as well as the need to locate rights in a group context. Human rights approaches succeed in achieving health equity when coupled with community engagement in ways that reinforce community capacity, particularly when strengthening the collective agency of its most vulnerable groups. Additionally, human rights approaches provide opportunities for mobilising resources outside the health sector, and must aim to address the public-private divide at local, national and international levels. Conclusion Where it is clear that rights approaches are predicated upon understanding the need to prioritize vulnerable groups and where the way rights are operationalised recognizes the role of agency on the part of those most affected in realising their socio-economic rights, human rights approaches appear to offer powerful tools to support social justice and health equity. PMID:17257421
Tarrow, Norma Bernstein, Ed.
This book discusses the relationship between human rights and education. Education is discussed both within the context of human rights, and as the ultimate sanction and guarantee of all human rights. Part 1, "Education as a Human Right," is comprised of the following chapters: (1) "Human Rights and Education: An Overview" (D. R. Ray; N. B.…
Abdussalam, Ahmad Shehu
Argues that Islam considers language a human right that must be guaranteed for all people due to language's advantageous effect on sociocultural relations. Denotes "right" as any action whose fulfillment might cause advantage or prevent damage to individuals or societies; and emphasizes that it is natural for individuals to use the language of…
British Information Service, New York, NY. Reference Div.
This pamphlet uses the Articles of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a framework within which to describe legal safeguards of individual rights in the United Kingdom. Under each article of the Declaration, a historical perspective of the tradition of civil liberties is provided, as are descriptions of recent trends and…
This document reprints major provisions of the Yukon's (Canada) 1987 Human Rights Act. The Act furthers the public policy that every individual is free and equal in dignity and rights, seeks to discourage and eliminate discrimination, and promotes the underlying principles of Canadian and international human rights instruments. Part 1 contains a Bill of Rights that protects the right to freedom of: 1) religion and conscience, 2) expression, 3) assembly and association, and 4) to enjoyment and disposition of property. Part 2 prohibits discrimination based on ancestry (including color and race), national origin, ethnic or linguistic background or origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), and marital or family status. Discrimination is also prohibited when offering services, goods, or facilities to the public; in connection with employment; in connection with membership in trade unions or trade, occupational, or professional associations; and in negotiation or performance of public contracts. The Bill of Rights lists reasonable causes for discrimination as well as exemptions, including preferential treatment for organization or family members or employment in a private home. Special programs and affirmative action programs are specifically not considered discrimination under this Act. The Act sets forth rules for providing equal pay for work of equal value and creates a Yukon Human Rights Commission to promote human rights and assist adjudication of complaints. PMID:12346749
Rep. Tierney, John F. [D-MA-6
09/08/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Digital rights management (DRM) provides a unified approach to specifying, interpreting, enforcing and managing digital rights throughout the entire life cycle of digital assets. Using a declarative rights expression language (REL) for specifying rights and conditions in the form of licenses, as opposite to some other approaches (such as data structures and imperative languages), has been considered and adopted as a superior technology for implementing effective, interoperable and scalable DRM systems. This paper discusses some principles and issues for designing RELs, based on the experiences of developing a family of REL"s (DPRL, XrML 1.x, XrML 2.0 and MPEG REL). It starts with an overview of a family tree of the past and current REL"s, and their development history, followed by an analysis of their data models and a comparison with access-control oriented models. It then presents a number of primary design principles such as syntactic and semantic un-ambiguity, system interoperability, expressiveness in supporting business models and future extensibility, and discusses a number of key design issues such as maintaining stateful information, multi-tier issuance of rights, meta rights, identification of individual and aggregate objects, late-binding of to-beidentified entities, as well as some advanced ones on revocation and delegation of rights. The paper concludes with some remarks on REL profiling and extension for specific application domains.
Update on Law-Related Education, 1998
Identifies 10 terms on human rights and the law that have been introduced and discussed throughout this issue of "Update on Law-Related Education." Offers students a chance to match each item to its definition by writing the letter of the terms on the line next to the number of the definition. (CMK)
This article analyses three normative accounts that can underlie educational policies, with special attention to gender issues. These three models of education are human capital theory, rights discourses and the capability approach. I first outline five different roles that education can play. Then I analyse these three models of educational…
Rossetti, Jeanette; Fox, Patricia G; Burns, Kenneth
The media has shared with the American public horrors of abuse towards prisoners of war in recent newscasts. Prisoners, and others in vulnerable positions, can fall victim to neglect and abuse at the hands of their captors. Often, human rights can be violated. Therefore, people in vulnerable positions need advocates who will defend and protect their rights. The role of advocate is familiar to nursing professionals. In the mid-1980's advocacy grew attention due to disclosure of human rights abuses in mental health facilities. Today, worldwide, nursing leaders continue to confront abuses in multiple settings. In the United States, the Human Rights Authority was specifically developed to address issues of abuse of persons with physical disabilities and or mental illness. Globally, nurses will want to support the development and enforcement of policies that protect persons in vulnerable positions. PMID:16268230
Fariss, Christopher J.; Linder, Fridolin J.; Jones, Zachary M.; Crabtree, Charles D.; Biek, Megan A.; Ross, Ana-Sophia M.; Kaur, Taranamol; Tsai, Michael
We introduce and make publicly available a large corpus of digitized primary source human rights documents which are published annually by monitoring agencies that include Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, and the United States Department of State. In addition to the digitized text, we also make available and describe document-term matrices, which are datasets that systematically organize the word counts from each unique document by each unique term within the corpus of human rights documents. To contextualize the importance of this corpus, we describe the development of coding procedures in the human rights community and several existing categorical indicators that have been created by human coding of the human rights documents contained in the corpus. We then discuss how the new human rights corpus and the existing human rights datasets can be used with a variety of statistical analyses and machine learning algorithms to help scholars understand how human rights practices and reporting have evolved over time. We close with a discussion of our plans for dataset maintenance, updating, and availability. PMID:26418817
Benatar, Solomon R
Backgound The concept of Human Rights has become the modern civilising standard to which all should aspire and indeed attain. Discussion In an era characterised by widening disparities in health and human rights across the world and spectacular advances in biotechnology it is necessary to reflect on the extent to which human rights considerations are selectively applied for the benefit of the most privileged people. Attention is drawn particularly to sub-Saharan Africa as a marginalised region at risk of further marginalisation if the power associated with the new biotechnology is not used more wisely than power has been used in the past. To rectify such deficiencies it is proposed that the moral agenda should be broadened and at the very least the concept of rights should be more closely integrated with duties Summary New forms of power being unleashed by biotechnology will have to be harnessed and used with greater wisdom than power has been used in the past. Widening disparities in the world are unlikely to be diminished merely by appealing to human rights. We recommend that a deeper understanding is required of the underlying causes of such disparities and that the moral discourse should be extended beyond human rights language. PMID:11960562
Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L
Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading—whether scientifically aided or not—have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non‐human animals should be accorded. PMID:16446412
Public opinion surrounding two of the most well-known gay rights issues-same-sex marriage and adoption by gays and lesbians-varies widely: About 30% of the public favors same-sex marriage, while about 50% favors adoption. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the demographic variables that predict attitudes toward same-sex marriage and adoption by gays and lesbians. Political ideology and attendance at religious services emerged as the strongest predictors. However, a close examination of the two issues shows that there were important differences between them. These differences may aid gay rights advocates in crafting media campaigns designed to increase support for same-sex marriage. PMID:20582800
Birgden, Astrid; Cucolo, Heather
Public policy is necessarily a political process with the law and order issue high on the political agenda. Consequently, working with sex offenders is fraught with legal and ethical minefields, including the mandate that community protection automatically outweighs offender rights. In addressing community protection, contemporary sex offender treatment is based on management rather than rehabilitation. We argue that treatment-as-management violates offender rights because it is ineffective and unethical. The suggested alternative is to deliver treatment-as-rehabilitation underpinned by international human rights law and universal professional ethics. An effective and ethical community-offender balance is more likely when sex offenders are treated with respect and dignity that, as human beings, they have a right to claim. PMID:20937793
Although human rights education (HRE) has a long history, it has only recently begun to realize its transformative potential. A critical catalyst in this process is the emerging global ethos of accountability. Within this context, HRE can play a crucial role in the construction of a universal culture of human rights, inspired by a shared commitment to a humane order and a belief that human beings have both the capacity and the responsibility to make a difference. In such an effort, the training of professionals is vital, especially of those professionals who can influence public debate on accountability and governance. Innovative HRE initiatives, characterized by a commitment to experiential learning and to international and regional cooperation among state and non-state actors, constitute a step in the right direction.
Electricity access is already well established within the framework of human rights, either as an implicit attribute of a pre-existing right (such as non-discrimination or sustainable development) or explicitly in the context of eliminating discrimination against women. There is also broad acknowledgement by states of the desirability of eliminating energy poverty - for all, but particularly for the rural poor, and women. (author)
Vranes, Aleksandra Jovic; Mikanovic, Vesna Bjegovic; Vukovic, Dejana; Djikanovic, Bosiljka; Babic, Momcilo
Ensuring and enforcing human rights in patient care are important to promote health and to provide quality and appropriate healthcare services. Therefore, continued medical education (CME) is essential for healthcare professionals to utilize their sphere of influence to affect change in healthcare practice. A total of 123 participants attended three CME courses. Course topics covered: (i) the areas of human rights and healthcare, (ii) rights, obligations and responsibilities of healthcare professionals in relation to human rights and the rights of patients, (iii) healthcare of vulnerable groups and (iv) access to essential medical services. Evaluation of the CME courses involved two components: evaluation of participants' performance and the participants' evaluation of the teaching process. The participants were assessed at the beginning and end of each course. Each of the courses was evaluated by the participants through a questionnaire distributed at the end of each course. Descriptive statistics was used for data interpretation. Knowledge of the healthcare professionals improved at the end of all the three courses. The participants assessed several aspects of the courses, including the course topics, educational methods, the course methods, organization, duration and dynamics as well as the physical environment and the technical facilities of the course, and rated each very highly. Our results corroborate the importance and necessity of courses to heighten awareness of the state of current healthcare and human rights issues to increase the involvement of healthcare professionals both locally and globally. PMID:25344878
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 241 / Friday, December 14, 2012 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8915 of December 10, 2012 Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 241 / Monday, December 16, 2013 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 9069 of December 9, 2013 Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013 By the President of the United...
McCardle, Elizabeth, Ed.
This unit on human rights designed for secondary students in Alberta, Canada includes both student and teacher manuals. Eleven chapters in the student manual examine what human rights are, the causes and effects of prejudice and discrimination, relevant laws, and social action. Each chapter includes readings followed by discussion questions and…
The relationship between religion and human rights is an ambiguous and complex one, but there are academic, moral and political arguments for the inclusion of human rights in religious education (RE). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights advocates education in human rights and the English school curriculum aims to encourage a commitment to…
Lupisella, M. L.
A potential challenge for a human Mars mission is that while humans are by most measures the obvious best way to search for life on Mars, we may also be the most problematic in that we could unduly compromise the search for life by contaminating relevant environments and/or possibly adversely and irreversibly affecting indigenous life. Perhaps more problematic is the fundamental epistemic challenge of the "one data point" limitation which could decrease confidence in applying terrestrially based research to extraterrestrial life issues in general. An informal decision tree is presented as one way to begin thinking about contamination issues. There are many sub-questions and distinctions not shown such as biological vs. nonbiological (but biologically relevant) contamination, viable vs. dead organisms, masking indigenous organisms vs. merely making the search more difficult, and independent origin vs. panspermia distinctions. While it may be unlikely that terrestrial microbes could survive on Mars, let alone reproduce and unduly compromise the search for life, the unpredictable potential for microbial life to survive, grow exponentially, evolve and modify (and sometimes destroy) environments, warrants focusing carefully on biologically relevant contamination as we prepare to send humans to the first planet that may have indigenous life-forms.
Daniel, John, Ed.; And Others
This collection of reports gives a picture of educational systems from a human rights perspective, monitoring academic freedom in the context of freedom of thought and freedom of opinion and expression. The World University Service's Lima Declaration on Academic Freedom and Autonomy of Institutions of Higher Education of 1988 is used as the…
Teaching the rules of war to human rights practitioners calls for emphasis on not taking sides; applying existing law rather than inventing standards for the occasion; applying the Geneva Conventions; recognizing that ends do not justify means; determining legitimate military targets; and realizing that "good guys" should be held to the same…
There is a human rights crisis in Indian Country. This crisis--one of many--is the result of an almost universal lack of legal representation of Native people when they appear as defendants in tribal courts. The lack of lay advocates and attorneys representing Native defendants creates tremendous problems for tribal members who find themselves in…
Industry control over the production and distribution of pharmaceutical safety and efficacy data has become a serious public health and health care funding concern. Various recent scandals, several involving the use of flawed representations of scientific data in the most influential medical journals, highlight the urgency of enhancing pharmaceutical knowledge governance. This paper analyzes why this is a human rights concern and what difference a human rights analysis can make. The paper first identifies the challenges associated with the current knowledge deficit. It then discusses, based on an analysis of case law, how various human rights associated interests can be invoked to support the claim that states have an obligation to actively contribute to independent knowledge governance, for example through ensuring clinical trials transparency. The paper further discusses a conceptual use of human rights, as a methodology which requires a comprehensive analysis of the different interwoven historical, economic, cultural, and social factors that contribute to the problem. Such an analysis reveals that historically grown drug regulations have, in fact, contributed directly to industry control over pharmaceutical knowledge production. This type of finding should inform needed reforms of drug regulation. The paper ends with a recommendation for a comprehensive global response to the problem of pharmaceutical knowledge governance. PMID:23581664
The non-violent participation of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhist monks in resistance efforts to advocate for the welfare of Myanmar's people has played an important role in educating the world about human rights violations in the country. Faced with international condemnation, Myanmar's junta released Aung San Suu Kyi from…
Snauwaert, Dale T.
The foundation upon which this discussion is based is the basic nature of democracy as both a political and moral ideal. Democracy can be understood as a system of rights premised upon the logic of equality. At its core is a fundamental belief in moral equality, a belief that all human beings possess an equal inherent dignity or worth. The ideal…
... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proclamation 8915 of December 10, 2012. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2012 8915 Proclamation 8915 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8915 of December 10, 2012 Proc. 8915 Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2012By the...
... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 9069 of December 9, 2013. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013 9069 Proclamation 9069 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 9069 of December 9, 2013 Proc. 9069 Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2013By the...
Nazzari, Vincenza; McAdams, Paul; Roy, Daniel
This paper examines the essential practices and conditions for fostering transformative learning using the Canadian Human Rights Foundation's "International Human Rights Training Program" as a case study. It suggests that the program's participants challenge their own values and assumptions about human rights, their work and their society through…
Adams, Eric M
This review focuses on the human rights dimensions of creating and implementing physical standards for employment for prospective and incumbent employees. The review argues that physical standards for employment engage two fundamental legal concepts of employment law: freedom of contract and workplace human rights. While the former promotes an employer's right to set workplace standards and make decisions of whom to hire and terminate, the latter prevents employers from discriminating against individuals contrary to human rights legislation. With reference to applicable human rights legislative regimes and their judicial interpretation in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, this review demonstrates the judicial preference for criterion validation in testing mechanisms in the finding of bona fide occupational requirements. With particular attention to the Supreme Court of Canada decision in Meiorin, this review argues that an effective balance between workplace safety and human rights concerns can be found, not in applying different standards to different groups of individuals, but in an approach that holds employers to demonstrating a sufficient connection between a uniform physical standard of employment and the actual minimum requirements to perform the job safety and efficiently. Combined with an employer's duty to accommodate, such an approach to lawful physical standards for employment conceives of worker and public safety and workplace diversity as emanating from a shared concern for human rights. PMID:27277568
Modern environmental- and occupational-related morbidities and mortality are determined by the power relations inherent in our existing capitalist systems of production and consumption. These systems thwart human public health rights because of the priority to maximize profit for the systems' owners rather than to establish ecologically sound and socially just development for all. The international public health community must return to its primary prevention roots and take action to eliminate the potential for population morbidities that result from hazardous substance exposures in work and community environments. The 1988 Adelaide Recommendations on Healthy Public Policy provide us with guidelines that incorporate a human rights approach and build on several decades of international public health declarations and charters. To succeed, public health must work with the labor movement. A human rights approach to environmental public health can help us make a transition to sustainable modes of production and consumption. The environmental justice movement's strategy for an economic greening that sets as a priority "pathways out of poverty" can help to advance environmental public health rights. PMID:21733799
Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M
The legal approach to abortion is evolving from criminal prohibition towards accommodation as a life-preserving and health-preserving option, particularly in light of data on maternal mortality and morbidity. Modern momentum for liberalization comes from international adoption of the concept of reproductive health, and wider recognition that the resort to safe and dignified healthcare is a major human right. Respect for women's reproductive self-determination legitimizes abortion as a choice when family planning services have failed, been inaccessible, or been denied by rape. Recognition of women's rights of equal citizenship with men requires that their choices for self-determination be legally respected, not criminalized. PMID:15719517
Noonan, Michael A.
This 2001 edition of Educational International's (EI) "Barometer on Trade Union and Human Rights in the Education Sector" focuses on four fundamental human rights: (1) the right to education; (2) academic freedom; (3) children's right to be protected from exploitation; and (4) workers' rights to form and join trade unions and to organize and…
AIDS is killing more people worldwide than any other infectious disease. Given the expensive treatments for AIDS, preventing new infections is the only way to stem the growing tide of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing world. Yet in almost every developing country, prevention programs have no effect in preventing new infections, and are often narrow in scope and applicability. In many cases, interventions focus on the individual and on individual behavioral change. Socioeconomic and political factors such as gender-based inequalities, poverty, corruption and government inaction are not addressed. The paper discusses the link between HIV/AIDS, development and human rights. It presents case studies and other examples of rights-based projects and activities that provide models for rights-based programming that can be adapted to different national contexts. PMID:12179439
... all people have the right to liberty, equality, and justice under the law. On Human Rights Day and... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proclamation 8765 of December 8, 2011. Human Rights Day and Human Rights Week, 2011 8765 Proclamation 8765 Presidential Documents...
Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A
The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect
For more than 30 years, I have devoted my life to promoting scientific freedom and human rights around the world. This devotion led me to put pressure on the American Chemical Society (ACS) to become active in the fight for human rights. Due to this pressure, in 1986, ACS established the Subcommittee on Scientific Freedom and Human Rights, which I chaired since its' inception for over 25 years. In 1988, I met with Andrei Sakharov who advised me to never stop pressuring governments or organizations that abuse human rights. Based on his council, I took a crash course in Russian before traveling to the Soviet Union several times to meet with dissidents, despite the risk to my own safety. After the Tiananmen Square incident in 1989, I worked diligently on the issue of human rights in China. Traveling often to work on the release of pro-democracy prisoners, I met with several dissidents of China, including physicist Xu Liangying who was under house arrest. In my lecture, I will discuss additional cases of my fight for human rights. After 9/11/2001, I expanded my work on scientific freedom and human rights to the Middle East by organizing the Malta Conferences, which use science for diplomacy and as a bridge to peace. These conferences bring together scientists from 15 Middle East countries including Iran, Iraq, Syria, Israel, Palestine, Jordan, etc. with 6 Nobel Laureates to work for 5 days on solving regional problems. Although acts of war and terrorism have destabilized the political and economic climate in the Middle East, the Malta Conferences have made it possible for scientists from countries that are on the opposing sides of political and cultural conflicts to meet in a politically neutral environment. There they can work to forge relationships that bridge the deep chasms of mistrust and intolerance. Scientists who normally don't have the opportunity to speak with one another are able to discuss their research and issues of mutual concern. In a time when the
Carter, Christina E.; Davidson, Russ
Presents a cross-section of categories of Internet sites that deal with human rights issues: (1) gateway sites; (2) sites that focus on particular broad groups; (3) international organizations; (4) human rights documents; (5) regional and country sites; and (6) news services and periodicals. For each site, information on the sponsor(s), contents,…
Dunkerly-Bean, Judith; Bean, Thomas; Alnajjar, Khaled
The purpose of this study was to explore middle school (grade 6-8) students' understanding and interpretation of human rights issues with local and global implications as they engaged in the process of creating a film after reading print and multimedia texts and participating in human rights education activities. As the students explored…
Spero, Andrea McEvoy
Urban youth in the United States often experience daily human rights violations such as racism and violence. Therefore, Human Rights Education (HRE) can strengthen their understanding of these issues and unleash their power to act toward positive change. This qualitative study attempted to gain a deeper understanding of the use of performance arts…
This paper was presented at a working group on Human Rights Education (HRE), organised by Volker Lenhart and Christel Adick, as part of the biennial conference of the German Society for Educational Research (DGfE), held in 2000 in Göttingen. In the spirit of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) it contributes to the global discourse about HRE by summarising its foundations in international declarations and conventions, by discussing some examples for diverse approaches and conceptions of HRE and, finally by introducing some major obstacles or problems. The paper is part of the author's PhD project in the field of HRE and presents only an interim résumé of her recent work.
Bausch, Daniel G; Clougherty, Marguerite M
Outbreaks of the filoviruses, Ebola and Marburg, usually garner immense public attention, often with a sensationalist bent in the lay press, focused on the apparently mysterious origins of the outbreak and the high mortality rates. The scientific community may present a more objective viewpoint, but usually with a rather technical focus on identifying epidemiological risk factors and experimental therapies and vaccines. Often lost in the discussion are the human rights elements that consistently underlie large outbreaks of these dangerous viruses. PMID:26203057
Only too often ideology means fanaticism, intolerance, even violence, but the term can be used also to denote sets of preconceptions and presuppositions which act as a stimulus and a guide to scientific innovation, particularly in the field of social science. This sort of insight into the realities of life and the world is a contribution to knowledge and the search for truth, also in the field of human rights. These are taken in the paper as those rights whose infringement constitutes a "vulnus" of the essential characteristics of human beings and those which assume the role of a basic safeguard of them. The meaning of the insistence on the human rights theme in the United Nations system is briefly touched upon, but the main effort is spent in trying to find a firm base for both fundamental rights and duties, shown as strictly and simmetrically linked. Various examples of population policies - broadly defined as governmental interventions influencing demographic variables - are then examined in the light of the basic principles laid down in the said effort. The fields taken up in succession for consideration are international and internal migration, mortality, marriage, fertility in countries at different stages of demographic transition, and growth. Rather than trying an extensive coverage of the whole horizon, a line of critical and deep thought about typical problematic themes is preferred. One of the main conclusions which may be quoted is a statement according to which the problem remains wide open of discovering acceptable ways aiming at a modification of fertility patterns which combine a reduction of the average family size with the maintenance of its variability in order to respect free and responsible individual choices. How important and urgent this task is, is underscored by the observations advanced in the final section of the paper including a meditation on the limits that human sexuality appears to have imposed on itself. PMID:12309393
Irmansyah, I; Prasetyo, YA; Minas, H
Background Although attention to human rights in Indonesia has been improving over the past decade, the human rights situation of persons with mental disorders is still far from satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to examine the legal framework for protection of human rights of persons with mental disorder and the extent to which Indonesia's international obligations concerning the right to health are being met. Methods We examined the Indonesian constitution, Indonesian laws relevant to the right to health, the structure and operation of the National Human Rights Commission, and what is known about violations of the human rights of persons with mental illness from research and the media. Results The focus of the Indonesian Constitution on rights pre-dated the Universal Declaration, Indonesia has ratified relevant international covenants and domestic law provides an adequate legal framework for human rights protections. However, human rights abuses persist, are widespread, and go essentially unremarked and unchallenged. The National Human Rights Commission has only recently become engaged in the issue of protection of the rights of persons with mental illness. Conclusion More than legislation is needed to protect the human rights of persons with mental illness. Improving the human rights situation for persons with mental illness in Indonesia will require action by governments at national, provincial and district levels, substantial increases in the level of investment in mental health services, coordinated action by mental health professionals and consumer and carer organisations, and a central role for the National Human Rights Commission in protecting the rights of persons with mental illness. PMID:19545362
Budiani-Saberi, Debra; Columb, Seán
Human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) should not be reduced to a problem of supply and demand of organs for transplantation, a problem of organized crime and criminal justice, or a problem of voiceless, abandoned victims. Rather, HTOR is at once an egregious human rights abuse and a form of human trafficking. As such, it demands a human-rights based approach in analysis and response to this problem, placing the victim at the center of initiatives to combat this phenomenon. Such an approach requires us to consider how various measures impact or disregard victims/potential victims of HTOR and gives us tools to better advocate their interests, rights and freedoms. PMID:23743564
Thoms, Oskar NT; Ron, James
Although epidemiology is increasingly contributing to policy debates on issues of conflict and human rights, its potential is still underutilized. As a result, this article calls for greater collaboration between public health researchers, conflict analysts and human rights monitors, with special emphasis on retrospective, population-based surveys. The article surveys relevant recent public health research, explains why collaboration is useful, and outlines possible future research scenarios, including those pertaining to the indirect and long-term consequences of conflict; human rights and security in conflict prone areas; and the link between human rights, conflict, and International Humanitarian Law. PMID:18005430
Education, as a human right, is the acknowledgement of the individual's rights rather than his or her role in the capitalist goals of the economic growth; the human right to education is the way through which one can conquer freedom and become a genuine individuated being, self-aware and yet deeply and truly connected to others. A rights-based…
This article proposes a set of human rights education standards for classroom teachers and, by implication, outcomes for teacher preparation programs. The discussion includes a brief description of human rights education and concludes with recommendations for teacher preparation programs.
Bureau of Public Affairs (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.
Excerpts from 100 speeches, essays, and legal documents dating from classical times to the present illustrate the record of human rights discussion over the centuries. The compilation was made in 1968 to mark the 20th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The readings indicate that human rights initially meant freedom from a…
General statements of basic entitlements are established as a guide for potential laws and regulations protecting human rights. Human rights are those claimed to belong to every individual regardless of nationality or position within society. The historical evolution of human rights relative to health in the Republic of South Africa is discussed. PMID:25080665
Steen, Julie A.; Mathiesen, Sally
This article presents a descriptive assessment of human rights education within schools of social work and law. A review of course titles and descriptions within MSW programs and law programs was conducted for identification of human rights content. The results suggest a dearth of human rights content in social work curricula and a great disparity…
Sohn, Louis B.; Roosevelt, Curtis
Conference participants examined the attitudes toward human rights which led to the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, as compared to today's perceptions of the meaning of human rights. Using Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms" as a point of departure--freedom of speech and expression, freedom of every person to…
Cassidy, Claire; Brunner, Richard; Webster, Elaine
Human rights education is a prominent concern of a number of international organisations and has been dominant on the United Nations' agenda for the past 20 years. The UN Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) has been followed by the World Programme for Human Rights Education (2005-ongoing) and the recently adopted UN Declaration on…
Does rhetoric have a place in the discourse of human rights? Without certain reply, as the dilemmas of defining, claiming, and promoting human rights appear both to include and exclude the rhetorical gesture, this question invites inquiry into the preface of the contemporary human rights regime, the moment of the aftermath that provokes a struggle…
Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III
International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…
Childhood Education, 2005
Research indicates that few state departments of education have actually mandated human rights education in their schools. Clearly, individual teachers will need to take responsibility for the integration of peace education and human rights education. By integrating human rights education and peace education into the daily fabric of the school…
Maintains that the high poverty levels in the United States implies that the goals of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) have not yet transformed the reality of U.S. citizens. Describes the national campaign called "Economic Human Rights: The Time Has Come!" that combats the violations of basic human rights like poverty. (CMK)
Brookshire, David S.; Watts, Gary L.; Merrill, James L.
This paper examines the quantification of federal reserved water rights from legal, institutional, and economic perspectives. Special attention is directed toward Indian reserved water rights and the concept of practicably irrigable acreage. We conclude by examining current trends and exploring alternative approaches to the dilemma of quantifying Indian reserved water rights.
Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J
Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as "the problem", and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally. PMID:19553779
Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J.
Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as “the problem”, and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally. PMID:19553779
Baker, Dana Lee
In issue definition in rights-based policy Canada stereotypically embraces a more positive, human rights-centered approach as compared with the American stereotype associated with the USA's more presumptively negative, civil rights-based tack. Since exclusionary infrastructures violate the core values of democratic governance, a failure to address…
Pirttilä-Backman, Anna-Maija; Kassea, Raul; Sakki, Inari
Social representations of human and peoples' rights were studied among Cameroonian university students (N = 666) with a questionnaire based on the UN Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and Duties. The respondents were asked how important and how well realized they regarded the 39 human and peoples' rights to be. A 13-factor model provided the best fit with Cameroonian students' perceptions of human and peoples' rights. Taken as a whole, our results are in line with previous quantitative studies on human rights, confirming structural similarity but also country-specific variation in the aggregation of specific rights. Moreover, our data showed that Cameroonian students value human and peoples' rights highly (M = 6.18), whereas their fulfillment is not regarded as highly (M = 5.09). Same law for all, equality and freedom, and right to work and living were highly appreciated but lowly realized rights. Higher than average in importance and realization were right to education and self-fulfillment, right to marriage and property, peoples' social and political basic rights and right to life and safety. Low in importance and realization were peoples' right to their country's natural resources and independence, right to meetings, and right to express opinion. Women appreciated the rights more than men and thought of their rights as better realized compared to men. We suggest that when women say that their rights are better fulfilled than men do, it is in comparison with the older generation, who are still very dependent on men. Nowadays, thanks to education and urbanization, young women have wider choices or opportunities for marriage and jobs. Men may feel frustrated in the context of political liberalization because the freedoms are more theoretical than fulfilled; the economic crises and cultural changes have hindered their economic domination and their prerogatives. PMID:22029663
While the issue of giving women their human rights has been firmly placed on the agendas of international conferences, the plight of refugee women has gone largely unrecognized. Refugee women face rape, sexual abuse, sexual extortion, and physical insecurity. Such violations precipitate their flight, characterize their attempts to gain refugee status, and continue during their tenure in refugee camps, where they are excluded from positions of authority. Because the definition of refugees in the 1951 UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees omits sex as a grounds for determining refugee status or as a grounds on which it prohibits discrimination based on sex, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees decided in 1985 that such claims must fall under the classification of membership of a particular group. Unfortunately, agreement with this is discretionary for states. It has been argued that states which protect aliens from discrimination based on sex must afford the same privilege to refugees, but, again, such behavior is subject to debate. Concerns about the human rights of refugee women should be strengthened by being addressed in the existing framework of human rights conventions in international law, such as the Commission on the Status of Women and the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). One recent advance in this area was the establishment of the Yugoslav and Rwanda War Crimes Tribunals which will investigate the sexual abuse of women during the armed conflicts. The issue of violence against women in every situation must remain on CEDAW's agenda. In addition, the Fourth World Conference on Women provides a welcome opportunity to place these issues in the forefront of global efforts to protect women. PMID:12290124
Koo, Jeong-Woo; Ramirez, Francisco O.
Using an event history framework we analyze the adoption rate of national human rights institutions. Neo-realist perspective predicts adoption rates to be positively influenced by favorable national profiles that lower the costs and make it more reasonable to establish these institutions. From a world polity perspective adoption rates will be…
This article argues that faith-based schools are a necessary feature of democratic and pluralistic societies and a legitimate expression of human rights as constituted in the European Convention in Human Rights (2000). It further argues that if the rights of parents to have a real choice for faith-based schools (regardless of ability to pay) are…
Massachusetts State Commission on the Legal and Civil Rights of the Developmentally Disabled, Boston.
Presented is the final report of the Massachusetts Commission on Legal and Civil Rights of the Developmentally Disabled formed to investigate the civil rights problems of developmentally disabled citizens and to recommend and take action to correct the problems. It is noted that the report deals with the following areas: self-determination and…
Language revitalization, oral tradition and epistemology are expressions of Native peoples intellectual sovereignty, and thus the foundation for indigenous intellectual property rights. As the people of California move towards language and cultural revitalization the question arises: What constitutes or constructs the definitions of intellectual property and how can appropriation of indigenous knowledge be protected? Looking at the issues faced by the California's indigenous populace and by implication, other indigenous peoples in the United States, this essay examines how protection may be afforded under the United Nations definition of 'heritage'. Given that the holding safe of a 'culture' or 'heritage' is inclusive of language, and thus has been determined to be a human right. PMID:15156749
Meason, Braden; Paterson, Ryan
Chikungunya is a re-emerging arbovirus that causes significant morbidity and some mortality. Global climate change leading to warmer temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns allow mosquito vectors to thrive at altitudes and at locations where they previously have not, ultimately leading to a spread of mosquito-borne diseases. While mutations to the chikungunya virus are responsible for some portion of the re-emergence, chikungunya epidemiology is closely tied with weather patterns in Southeast Asia. Extrapolation of this regional pattern, combined with known climate factors impacting the spread of malaria and dengue, summate to a dark picture of climate change and the spread of this disease from south Asia and Africa into Europe and North America. This review describes chikungunya and collates current data regarding its spread in which climate change plays an important part. We also examine human rights obligations of States and others to protect against this disease. PMID:25474599
Laurie, M; Petchesky, R P
In this paper, we investigate the intersections of gender, health and human rights in sites of political exclusion. We apply the political theory of Giorgio Agamben on 'states of exception', seeking to better understand how the recent 'war on terror', that seemingly knows no limits of time or space, is driving health outcomes in refugee and Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps. Reproductive health, militarization, and gender-based violence in camps are explored in depth. The evidence presented reveals a number of contradictions of refugee and IDP camps, further highlighting the need for a more rights based humanitarianism. We conclude that foregrounding states of exception, as a way of understanding current gender dynamics in the social determinants of health, is both epidemiologically necessary and conceptually useful. We find that, in these sites of exclusion, the indispensability of a human rights approach to gender and health equity issues is revealed most directly. Furthermore, we are able to make new connections between the 'crisis of humanitarianism', gender, and health. PMID:19288341
From 2002 to 2005, two literature reviews identified a number of reproductive-health issues that appeared to be relatively neglected in relation to HIV/AIDS: contraceptive information tailored to the needs of HIV-positive people; voluntary HIV counselling and testing during antenatal care, labour, and delivery; parenting options for HIV-positive people besides pregnancy through unprotected intercourse (i.e. assisted conception and legal adoption or foster care); unwanted pregnancy; and abortion-related care. An additional finding was that stigma and discrimination were frequently cited as barriers to enjoyment of reproductive rights by HIV-positive women. Subsequently, a pilot project was initiated in which non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in developing countries used benchmarks to ascertain whether these neglected issues were addressed in local programmes and interventions serving women affected by HIV and AIDS. The benchmarks also assessed whether policies and programmes paid attention to the human and reproductive rights of HIV-positive women. This paper describes the main findings from the two exercises in relation to contraception for women living with HIV or AIDS, abortion-related care, legal adoption by HIV-positive parents, and reproductive rights. It concludes with a number of recommendations on topics to be incorporated into the international research agenda, policies, and programmes in the field of HIV/AIDS. PMID:17591338
Eisenberg, John; Bourne, Paula
One of a series adapted from the Canadian Public Issues Project, this book is designed to stimulate discussion and reflection about controversial issues through case studies. The book is based on high school units originally drawn from cases in newspapers, journals, books, legal documents, and government reports. Conflicts from issues arising over…
This paper explores complementarities between bioethics and human rights in the ethical analysis of early childhood development (ECD) policies. It is argued that conceptual synergies arising from the integration of these fields are considerable, if underexplored, and best illumined through application to specific domains of health policy. ECD represents an especially germane case study: it is characterized by rapidly evolving science whose normative implications are complex, emergent, and understudied, yet whose societal impacts are wide-ranging. The paper first charts the disciplinary evolution of bioethics, demonstrating its gradual social turn: from the individual to collective, from the medical to the societal. It then reviews points of theoretical confluence between bioethics and human rights, to assess the value and feasibility of their joint application to health policy analysis. Finally, it maps these complementarities onto issues provoked by the epigenetics of ECD, in the hopes that both the policy domain and the analysis of theoretical synergies are enriched. It finds that the distinctly relational and emergent nature of ECD science and policy demands novel forms of normative inquiry. Only an ethical approach supple enough to adapt to emergent questions, examine issues from varied theoretical perspectives, and assimilate insights across traditional disciplinary bounds will prove sufficient to the task. PMID:26204580
Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.
A review of reproductive functioning in animal species studied during space flight demonstrated that most species were affected significantly by the absence of gravity and/or the presence of radiation. These two factors induced alterations in normal reproductive functioning independently of, as well as in combination with, each other. Based on animal models, several potential problem areas regarding human reproductive physiology and functioning in the space environment were identified. While there are no current space flight investigations, the animal studies suggest priorities for future research in human reproduction. Such studies will be critical for the successful colonization of the space frontier.
Rhodebeck, Laurie A
Drawing from the theory of policy voting, this study examines the impact of opinions about gay rights on voting for presidential candidates. Qualitative analysis of the major party platforms and candidate campaign rhetoric from the six presidential elections held between 1988 and 2008 indicates that Democratic and Republican presidential candidates began openly expressing opposing positions on gay rights issues in 1992. Quantitative analysis of public opinion shows that, starting in 1992 and continuing through 2008, gay rights issues became more salient to the public, and opinions about gay rights began to exert a significant effect on vote choice. The study concludes with a discussion of the partisan forces that shaped the electoral significance of gay rights issues during the period from 1988 to 2008 and speculation about the role of gay rights issues in shaping future partisan electoral strategy. PMID:25530286
Illinois State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Springfield.
This report is the result of a conference that examined major civil rights issues facing people who are blind and visually impaired in Illinois and is intended to inform the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights concerning issues of equal protection. The introductory chapter reviews leading types and causes of blindness and visual impairment, incidence…
Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.
Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…
Unlike private enterprises in developed markets, political influence is profound upon Chinese state-dominated firms. Under this consideration, this paper demonstrates how political impact interferes in Chinese managers' decisions. State-assigned managers were found to deliberately transfer cash raised via rights issues from the public shareholders to the state by cash dividends in order to please Chinese politicians. Especially, to meet the regulatory requirement of rights issues, managers from firms which distributed more cash dividends in the same year of rights issues were more likely to inflate earnings before rights issues. The earnings inflation which managers use to boost firm's incomes is defined as "earnings management." Furthermore, the empirical results also exhibit that firm's close relationship with the state enables managers to obtain approvals of rights issues easily, which reduces the firm's earnings management tendency. The manager's incentives of earnings management is closely attributed to the political intervention.
Meier, B M; Onzivu, W
The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political constraints in international relations, organizational resistance to legal discourses, and medical ambivalence toward human rights. Through legal research on international treaty obligations, historical research in the WHO organizational archives, and interview research with global health stakeholders, this research examines WHO's contributions to (and, in many cases, negligence of) the rights-based approach to health. Based upon such research, this article analyzes the evolving role of WHO in the development and implementation of human rights for global health, reviews the current state of human rights leadership in the WHO Secretariat, and looks to future institutions to reclaim the mantle of human rights as a normative framework for global health governance. PMID:24439475
Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam
In the decade since its introduction, the Human Rights Act 1998 has had a profound effect on the way district nurses practice. New laws underpinning the principles and obligations of human rights law have seen a gradual legalisation of health care and a reigning in of the discretionary powers of health professionals such as district nurses.This article reflects on the Human Rights Act 1998's influence on district nurse practice. PMID:19966686
Davis, William W.; Mullany, Luke C.; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K.; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris
Background Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. Methods and Findings We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Conclusion Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations. PMID:26308850
The history of the Society's involvement in the defense of human rights, a history of which the Society can be proud, will be summarized; the summary will include illustrative specific APS human rights defense actions in illustrative specific cases. As will be emphasized, the aforesaid involvement has been primarily through the activities of the APS Committee on International Freedom of Scientists (CIFS). It is noteworthy-and one of the reasons the Society can be proud-that CIFS is charged with ``monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists,'' not solely for physicists, and that CIFS indeed has sought to protect the human rights of nonphysicists.
Rahman, Redwanur M
Background This paper broadly discusses the role of the State of Bangladesh in the context of the health system and human rights. The interrelation between human rights, health and development are well documented. The recognition of health as a fundamental right by WHO and subsequent approval of health as an instrument of welfare by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights (ICSECR) further enhances the idea. Moreover, human rights are also recognized as an expedient of human development. The state is entrusted to realize the rights enunciated in the ICSECR. Discussion In exploring the relationship of the human rights and health situation in Bangladesh, it is argued, in this paper, that the constitution and major policy documents of the Bangladesh government have recognized the health rights and development. Bangladesh has ratified most of the international treaties and covenants including ICCPR, ICESCR; and a signatory of international declarations including Alma-Ata, ICPD, Beijing declarations, and Millennium Development Goals. However the implementation of government policies and plans in the development of health institutions, human resources, accessibility and availability, resource distribution, rural-urban disparity, the male-female gap has put the health system in a dismal state. Neither the right to health nor the right to development has been established in the development of health system or in providing health care. Summary The development and service pattern of the health system have negative correlation with human rights and contributed to the underdevelopment of Bangladesh. The government should take comprehensive approach in prioritizing the health rights of the citizens and progressive realization of these rights. PMID:16611360
On the 2nd of October 2000, The Human Rights Act 1998 came into full force, signalling the incorporation of The European Convention on Human Rights into U.K. law. Areas of law believed to be inconsistent with the Convention may now be challenged in both The European Court of Human Rights and domestic courts. This article considers whether existing laws on the regulation of access to infertility services, in particular surrogacy, will be deemed incompatible with the ECHR. Human rights as enshrined within Articles 8 and 12 will be examined in light of recent suggestions that there may arise legal challenges by those who have had access to reproductive services restricted or denied. It will be shown that, although existing and potential future controls may arguably infringe these rights, it is nevertheless unlikely that they will be held to be in contravention of The Human Rights Act 1998. PMID:15040377
Children should have the same First Amendment rights as adults except when it can be empirically shown that the children in question differ from minimally normal adults in relevant intellectual competencies and would, as a result, be likely to suffer harm if accorded full First Amendment liberties. In this paper, specific principles derived from…
Business and Professional Women's Foundation, Washington, DC.
Reproductive rights are essential to a woman's full participation in the workplace. Procreative decisions are private ones, and once the door is open to government restrictions it will be hard to close. Prior to 1850, abortion was legal in most states. Not until the professionalization of the medical field did physicians and others seek to…
Dresler, Carolyn; Lando, Harry; Schneider, Nick; Sehgal, Hitakshi
The Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) is currently the most potent tool for implementation of tobacco control laws across the globe. The FCTC is derivative from previously constructed international human rights conventions. These previous conventions have enforcement mechanisms, unlike the FCTC. However, the FCTC relies on state parties to report periodically on its implementation rather than on a continuous monitoring system. The Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network proposes that abiding by the principles of human rights delineated by international treaties, citizens across the globe can demand effective action for tobacco control. This paper explains the link between fundamental human rights and the right to tobacco control. Mechanisms are described to link the FCTC and its principles with human rights-based monitoring reports, which are provided to oversight committees for the other human rights conventions. The initial work of the Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network is summarised and considers the future directions for the human rights-based approach to tobacco control. PMID:22345248
There are various grounds on which one may wish to distinguish a right to health care from a right to health. In this article, I review some old grounds before introducing some new grounds. But my central task is to argue that separating a right to health care from a right to health has objectionable consequences. I offer two main objections. The domestic objection is that separating the two rights prevents the state from fulfilling its duty to maximise the health it provides each citizen from its fixed health budget. The international objection is that separating a human right to health care fails the moral requirement that, for any given moral human right, the substance to which any two right-holders are entitled be of an equal standard. PMID:27491747
Blumberg, R L
This analysis opens by noting that the fact that women's equality is a human right is gaining universal acceptance and by outlining some of the major events that have marked recognition of the concept of human rights and women's rights. The analysis then considers the history of how humans have subsisted on earth in hunter-gatherer societies, horticultural (hoe-based, shifting cultivation) societies, agrarian (plow, permanent cultivation) societies, industrial societies, and information and technological societies. Next, a theory of gender stratification is applied to each situation to show how gender stratification depends upon who has control of economic resources (not who does the most work or even who legally owns the resources). Thus, women and men enjoy equality and cooperation to survive in foraging societies, men dominate in horticultural and agrarian societies, and women begin to regain ground in industrial societies. The analysis also takes into account macro- and micro-level "discount" factors that affect the amount of leverage a woman can get from money earned. The next section of the analysis deals with present conditions and notes that women can achieve equal rights via economic empowerment in combination with macro-level changes. This section also explains how "sexism kills" and considers the economic factors affecting violence against women. The article goes on to quantify progress to date, with a focus on women's gains in education, health, work and income, and political equality as well as slower gains in ratification of pertinent international treaties. The article concludes with an optimistic view of the future as the information age allows women to gain more power. PMID:12157792
Arguments against commercial surrogacy frequently focus on the rights of the surrogate. For-example, those opposed to commercial surrogacy often argue that surrogacy arrangements amount to the exploitation of women and the commodification of their wombs. Phrased in the language of rights, such arguments draw on the right to be free from degrading treatment and the right to be free from discrimination. In contrast, those who support commercial surrogacy refute the arguments relating to exploitation and commodification and cite the right to work and more commonly the right to privacy/autonomy as the key rights in question. This article focuses on the human right to autonomy and interrogates whether prohibitions on commercial surrogacy violate the right of a woman to choose to be a surrogate. PMID:26939504
Khosla, Rajat; Van Belle, Nuna; Temmerman, Marleen
Introduction The right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is an essential part of the right to health and is dependent upon substantive equality, including freedom from multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination that result in exclusion in both law and practice. Nonetheless, general and specific SRH needs of women living with HIV are often not adequately addressed. For example, services that women living with HIV need may not be available or may have multiple barriers, in particular stigma and discrimination. This study was conducted to review United Nations Human Rights Council, Treaty Monitoring Bodies and Special Rapporteur reports and regional and national mechanisms regarding SRH issues of women living with HIV. The objective is to assess areas of progress, as well as gaps, in relation to health and human rights considerations in the work of these normative bodies on health and human rights. Methods The review was done using keywords of international, regional and national jurisprudence on findings covering the 2000 to 2014 period for documents in English; searches for the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and national judgments were also conducted in Spanish. Jurisprudence of UN Treaty Monitoring Bodies, regional mechanisms and national bodies was considered in this regard. Results and discussion In total, 236 findings were identified using the search strategy, and of these 129 were selected for review based on the inclusion criteria. The results highlight that while jurisprudence from international, regional and national bodies reflects consideration of some health and human rights issues related to women living with HIV and SRH, the approach of these bodies has been largely ad hoc and lacks a systematic integration of human rights concerns of women living with HIV in relation to SRH. Most findings relate to non-discrimination, accessibility, informed decision-making and accountability. There are critical gaps on normative standards
Phay, Robert E.
Reviews the major procedural issues that have been litigated when an employee has challenged a layoff. These areas include timely notice, notice of reason, burden of proof, standard of proof, prior hearing, and impartial hearer. (Author/IRT)
... Civil Rights Search U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Search Close HHS A-Z Index About Us ... to participate in certain health care and human services programs without unlawful discrimination. HIPAA - Health Information Privacy ...
Lee, Sharon E.
According to the United Nations, education is a right to which all human beings are entitled. Since 2000, the UN has been promoting the Millennium Development Goal to achieve free universal primary education for all, regardless of gender, by 2015. If the UN is correct to suggest that education is both a human right in itself and an indispensable…
The following resources are cited in this annotated bibliography dealing with human rights: general references (background readings for teachers and students); classroom materials; fiction; audiovisuals; periodicals; and organizations and associations dedicated to the investigation of human rights infractions or education and communication on…
Pérez De Nucci, Armando M
This article aims to show the existence of important failures in the field of Human Rights and equal possibilities in health. Human rights are analyzed an developed in the field of public and social health in our country. Ethics is the main field proposed to reach solutions in the context on EPEP (Etica para la erradicación de la pobreza). PMID:17643140
Deep divisions in public opinion on human rights goals are transforming the American population into two societies that are separate and unequal. Halting the transformation requires long-term programs that educate the public about racism, communicate to increase dialogue about human rights goals, advocate changes in legislation, and celebrate…
Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa; Garran, Ann Marie
A human rights perspective must be embedded in the institutions, organisations or agencies where social work students find themselves. This paper will focus on one particular strategy that could be helpful to the process of solidifying a commitment to human rights for our students. Using a pedagogical tool from a school of social work in the USA originally developed to combat the social injustice of racism, the example transcends the academic institution and offers a solid link in connecting human rights, social justice and social work. Using the construct of critical realism, we argue that, for social work programmes to take steps towards an explicit commitment to human rights, not only must human rights be infused throughout the curriculum, but educators must provide opportunities for making more overt the links between human rights principles, social justice and social work. By addressing behaviours, tendencies and attitudes, students then acquire not only the skills and deeper understanding, but they internalise the motivation and commitment to broaden their human rights frame. In the process of developing a more firm commitment to human rights, we must not be limited to the walls of the academy, but rather extend beyond to our field agencies, organisations and communities. PMID:27559204
Miles, Steven H
This paper reviews how human rights advocates during the "war-on-terror" have found new ways to use the World Wide Web (Web) to combat human rights abuses. These include posting of human rights reports; creating large, open-access and updated archives of government documents and other data, tracking CIA rendition flights and maintaining blogs, e-zines, list-serves and news services that rapidly distribute information between journalists, scholars and human rights advocates. The Web is a powerful communication tool for human rights advocates. It is international, instantaneous, and accessible for uploading, archiving, locating and downloading information. For its human rights potential to be fully realized, international law must be strengthened to promote the declassification of government documents, as is done by various freedom of information acts. It is too early to assess the final impact of the Web on human rights abuses in the "war-on-terror". Wide dissemination of government documents and human rights advocates' reports has put the United States government on the defensive and some of its policies have changed in response to public pressure. Even so, the essential elements of secret prisons, detention without charges or trials, and illegal rendition remain intact. PMID:19289894
Burridge Nina; Buchanan, John; Chodkiewicz, Andrew
The place of education for and about human rights within the school curriculum remains contested and this paper reports on the first national cross-sectoral investigation of its place in Australian curricula and more specifically in national and state History curriculum documents. Opportunities for the inclusion of human rights based studies were…
In our global age, educational researchers and practitioners need tools that can be applied in a range of contexts and scales: local, national, and international. This article argues that human rights education (HRE) is a site of struggle in which human rights and democracy need to be constantly renewed. It contextualizes HRE within a critical,…
This study aims to obtain teacher perspectives on the civic and human rights education course included in the eighth grade curriculum in Turkish schools. The study group was selected with criterion sampling from among teachers who were teaching the eighth grade civic and human rights education at elementary schools in central Hatay. Using the…
In 2003, the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP)--a program implemented in thousands of schools globally--introduced a human rights course (Makivirta, 2003). This curriculum is the first of its kind to hold potential widespread influence on human rights education in the formal education sector. In this study, I analyze the…
This article builds on previous comparative education research by analyzing the current discourse surrounding this emerging education model--human rights education. The first section provides a brief history of human rights education in formal education. The second section reviews research on international reforms, emphasizing analyses of…
This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…
Background/Context: Human rights education has proliferated in the past four decades and can be found in policy discussions, textbook reforms, and grassroots initiatives across the globe. This article specifically explores the role of creativity and imagination in human rights education (HRE) by focusing on a case study of one non-governmental…
Muedini, Fait A.
This article discusses my approach to teaching a course on Islam and human rights. I begin by examining the attention Islam has received in the media and classroom. Then, I discuss how I structure lectures on Islam and human rights, the various readings associated with the lectures, as well as common themes discussed in class that include but are…
Suarez, David; Bromley, Patricia
Research on the human rights movement emphasizes direct changes in nation-states, focusing on the efficacy of treaties and the role of advocacy in mitigating immediate violations. However, more than 140 universities in 59 countries established academic chairs, research centers, and programs for human rights from 1968-2000, a development that…
The debate around the issues raised by HIV/AIDS and human rights has largely focused on the protection from rights violations of individuals or groups affected by the disease. The relationship between political and social conditions where human rights abuses are frequent and the spread of HIV infection has been less studied. Two countries in Southeast Asia, Burma and Cambodia, are currently undergoing serious and uncontrolled epidemics of HIV; both are marked by political cultures of state violence and corruption, chronic civil war and insurgency, and widespread human rights violations. This article attempts to investigate associations between rapid HIV spread and political and social crises, using Burma and Cambodia as case studies. The climate and context of rights abuses are seen as significant factors of national vulnerability to the epidemic spread of HIV/AIDS. PMID:10347369
Bone, Melissa; Seddon, Toby
This paper explores the interplay between the human rights and drug control frameworks and critiques case law on medicinal cannabis use to demonstrate that a bona fide human rights perspective allows for a broader conception of ‘health’. This broad conception, encompassing both medicalised and social constructionist definitions, can inform public health policies relating to medicinal cannabis use. The paper also demonstrates how a human rights lens can alleviate a core tension between the State and the individual within the drug policy field. The leading medicinal cannabis case in the UK highlights the judiciary’s failure to engage with an individual’s human right to health as they adopt an arbitrary, externalist view, focussing on the legality of cannabis to the exclusion of other concerns. Drawing on some international comparisons, the paper considers how a human rights perspective can lead to an approach to medicinal cannabis use which facilitates a holistic understanding of public health. PMID:26692654
Konecky, Joshua; Wolinsky, Sid
This article reviews basic legal requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act relative to individuals with learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Within this framework, legal issues surrounding reasonable accommodations on professional licensing and screening exams are…
Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.
Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.
Amon, Joseph; Wurth, Margaret; McLemore, Megan
Between October 2011 and September 2013, we conducted research on the use, by police and/or prosecutors, of condom possession as evidence of intent to engage in prostitution-related offenses. We studied the practice in five large, geographically diverse cities in the U.S. To facilitate our advocacy on this issue, conducted concurrent to and following our research, we developed an advocacy framework consisting of six dimensions: (1) raising awareness, (2) building and engaging coalitions, (3) framing debate, (4) securing rhetorical commitments, (5) reforming law and policy, and (6) changing practice. Using a case study approach, we describe how this framework also provided a basis for the evaluation of our work, and discuss additional considerations and values related to the measurement and evaluation of human rights advocacy. PMID:26204588
Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge
The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community…
Klinck, M E; Iuris, B; Louw, D A; Peens, B J
This article focuses on specific issues that pose a threat to the application of children's rights in South Africa. Under remedial interventions survival, development and the standard of living and health will be discussed; while issues pertaining to children's right to education and parental care are also addressed. As far as protection interventions are concerned attention will be paid to abuse and neglect, child labour and children in difficult situations such as violence, disabilities, juvenile justice and street children. PMID:10994213
Human beings have always desired to claim their rights, even in times when only a small proportion of the population was considered fully human and the rest were slaves, servants, uncivilized, colonized, underdeveloped, or, in the recent euphemism, "developing". The French Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789 marked the 1st time in history that rights for all people were publicly affirmed. The rights in question were essentially constitutional and political, but the idea of claiming rights had been born. In 1948, the international community approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which encompassed all types of rights. Other international acts on civil and political rights and the rights of women and children have complemented and interpreted the 1948 document. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirmed that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that all persons have a right to satisfaction of economic, social, and cultural needs. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women referred in its preamble to the particular disadvantages of women living in poverty and affirmed the right of all women to education in health and family welfare, including family planning, as well as to medical and family planning services. Women were affirmed to have the same rights as men to decide freely and in an informed manner on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education, and means to exercise these rights. The United Nations has demonstrated its interest in Population Commission in 1946 and of the UN Fund for Population Activities in 1969, and through decennial worldwide population conferences in 1954, 1965, 1974, and 1984. UN demographic goals include reduced fertility on a worldwide basis, a reduced proportion of women not using reliable contraception, a substantial reduction of early marriage and adolescent pregnancy, reduction in infant and maternal
Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily
The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. PMID:24337891
This article argues that human rights education should become an integral part of general education. The author discusses efforts to realise this aim within the German general educational system. She pays special attention to three areas. First, at the theoretical level, she examines how human rights education can be conceptualised within the context of general education and against the background of globalisation and multiculturalism. Second, she examines the political and administrative level, including questions of curriculum. Thirdly, she looks at the didactical aspect of human rights education. In conclusion she points out some of the implications for teacher training.
Since Einstein first visited Shanghai on 1922, he was deeply and constantly concerned about the cases of injustice, suppression, and human rights abuses in China. The strong sense of social responsibility shown by Einstein is an illustrious role model for Chinese intellectual, especially physicists, who advocate the universal principle of human rights. I will briefly review this history. I will also briefly report what have been done and is doing by Chinese physicists in the long and difficult journey toward democracy and human rights of China.
This paper explores the application of human rights in (persistent) virtual world environments. The paper begins with describing a number of elements that most virtual environments share and that are relevant for the application of human rights in such a setting; and by describing in a general nature the application of human rights between private individuals. The paper then continues by discussing the application in virtual environments of two universally recognized human rights, namely freedom of expression, and freedom from discrimination. As these specific rights are discussed, a number of more general conclusions on the application of human rights in virtual environments are drawn. The first general conclusion being that, because virtual worlds are private environments, participants are subject to private ordering. The second general conclusion being that participants and non-participants alike have to accept at times that in-world expressions are to an extent private speech. The third general conclusion is that, where participants represent themselves in-world, other participants cannot assume that such in-world representation share the characteristics of the human player; and that where virtual environments contain game elements, participants and non-participants alike should not take everything that happens in the virtual environment at face value or literally, which does however not amount to having to accept a higher level of infringement on their rights for things that happen in such an environment.
Castelli, Mike; Trevathan, Abdullah
The nature of English citizenship, the need for cohesion in society, and the place of faith community schools, particularly Muslim schools, are issues of import in contemporary English society. When these three issues come together, in an examination of the nature of an English Islam, they raise questions that have implications for the nature of…
Hines, Paul D.; Wood, Leslie
Background information and teaching suggestions are offered in this guide for implementing human rights ideas in existing social studies curriculum at the elementary and secondary grade levels in the United States. Emphasis is upon equal universal rights for every person as a concern of education and action. The introduction presents an address by…
Hill, Wilhelmina; Mackintosh, Helen K.
This particular bulletin is concerned with the concept of human rights, and the interpretation of some of these rights in the classroom, in the school, at home, and in the community. Although the discussion is directed toward the classroom teacher primarily, principals, supervisors, administrators, and parents who want children to succeed in all…
Rosenthal, Nina Ribak
As minority groups, civil rights activists, and legislators push for cultural pluralism to replace the melting pot concept, the school counselor's role expands to include advocating and defending human rights. This study investigated religious practices in public schools, the perceptions of teachers regarding such practices, and the existence and…
Hitchcock, Robert K.
Contends that, in the past 30 years, a dramatic upsurge has taken place in activities designed to promote human rights for indigenous peoples around the world. Asserts that, in the case of Africa, attention generally has been concentrated on socioeconomic rights, such as health care, sufficient water, food, and shelter. (CFR)
Dotson, Betty Lou
Describes the objectives and activities of the Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Civil Rights (OCR) within the purview of the Reagan administration's civil rights policy. Describes OCR methodologies designed to ensure enforcement of nondiscrimination requirements in state implementation of programs under federal block grants. (MJL)
Osler, Audrey; Zhu, Juanjuan
Throughout history individual and collective narratives have been used in struggles for justice. We draw on Sen's theory of justice to examine the potential of narratives in teaching and researching for social justice. Human rights are presented as powerful ethical claims that can be critically examined by learners to consider their rights and…
The Human Rights Act 1998 is the most significant British statute to have been passed in the last decade. It has already been the catalyst for a series of high profile cases, ranging from the privacy rights of celebrities ("Douglas v Hello!"  QB 967) to the Home Secretary's sentencing powers in murder cases ("R (Anderson) v Secretary of…
Frazier, Louise; And Others
Human rights are those essentials of human existence that are inherent in the species. They are moral claims that satisfy the basic needs of all human beings. Ten major goals and numerous objectives were developed to undergird the Detroit (Michigan) curriculum, and this guide is established around the 10 major goals for teaching students about…
Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Beaglehole, Robert
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have finally emerged onto the global health and development agenda. Despite the increasingly important role human rights play in other areas of global health, their contribution to NCD prevention and control remains nascent. The recently adopted Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013–2020 is an important step forward, but the lack of concrete attention to human rights is a missed opportunity. With practical implications for policy development, priority setting, and strategic design, human rights offer a logical, robust set of norms and standards; define the legal obligations of governments; and provide accountability mechanisms that can be used to enhance current approaches to NCD prevention and control. Harnessing the power of human rights can strengthen action for NCDs at the local, national, and global levels. PMID:24625165
Asserting that the university as a transnational community of professors and students poses challenges to traditional conceptions of academic freedom, explores the rethinking of academic freedom as part of a human right to education. (EV)
Nightingale, E O; Hannibal, K; Geiger, H J; Hartmann, L; Lawrence, R; Spurlock, J
Human rights and health care under apartheid in South Africa were studied. Human rights violations, such as detention without charge or trial, assault and torture in police custody, and restriction orders, have had devastating effects on the health of persons experiencing them. These violations have occurred in the context of a deliberate policy of discriminatory health care favoring the white minority over the black majority. South Africa's medical societies have had mixed responses to the health problems raised by human rights violations and inequities in the health care system. The amelioration of health care for all and prevention of human rights violations depend on ending apartheid and discrimination and greater government attention to these problems. PMID:2214078
Although studies involving linguistic human rights (LHRs) have focused at length on cases of inter-language discrimination, much less attention has been given to intra-language discrimination (Blommaert 2001a; Skutnabb-Kangas et al. 2001). This paper highlights a number of theoretical issues that the LHRs framework needs to deal with once…
Miller, Paul; Kelly, Kemesha; Spawls, Nicola
The interface between HIV/AIDS, education and human rights is an important issue in Jamaican society. The spread of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean is second only to that in Africa, and Jamaica itself has the second highest numbers of HIV+ individuals within the Caribbean region. Using a qualitative methodology, this exploratory study aimed to discern…
Rubagumya, Casmir M.; Afitska, Oksana; Clegg, John; Kiliku, Patrick
This paper explores how the concept of linguistic citizenship can be applied to the Tanzanian situation in terms of the delivery of bilingual education as well as addressing issues of equity and quality in education. It starts by a brief overview of how the concepts "linguistic human rights" and "linguistic citizenship" are theorized. It then goes…
Androff, David K.; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y.
Many would acknowledge that immigration is a major issue in the United States and that immigration reform should be a priority. However, there is little attention to the human rights crisis on the U.S.-Mexican border. As a result of tightened border security since 1994, it is estimated that over 5,000 migrants have died in the Sonoran desert. The…
ASPBAE Courier, 1993
This special issue centers around the theme of education for peace and human rights. It contains materials concerning the practice of adult education in the Asian-South Pacific region. The journal contains 15 papers. The following papers provide regional perspectives: "Learning to Live in Harmony and Diversity" (editorial) (Rajesh Tandon); "Human…
This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same. PMID:22844029
Patterson, David; London, Leslie
This article explores the relevance of international human rights law in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic at national and international levels. Public health advocates can use arguments based on this body of law to promote responses to HIV/AIDS that reflect sound public health principles and documented best practice. Development assistance is increasingly linked to rights-based approaches, such as participatory processes, and strategic alliances between health professionals, organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS, and affected communities. Legal and human rights advocacy strategies are increasingly productive and necessary. PMID:12571725
Durojaye, Ebenezer T; Mirugi-Mukundi, Gladys
In the wake of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) that is ravaging parts of Africa certain measures are being taken by governments to prevent the spread of the epidemic within their borders. Some of these measures are drastic and may likely have implications for the fundamental rights of individuals. The EVD outbreaks have brought to the fore again the tension between public health and human rights. This article discusses the origin and mode of transmission of the EVD and then considers the human rights challenges that may arise as a result of states' responses to the disease in Africa. PMID:26897909
Harris, Theresa L; Wyndham, Jessica M
A human-rights-based analysis can be a useful tool for the scientific community and policy makers as they develop codes of conduct, harmonized standards, and national policies for data sharing. The human rights framework provides a shared set of values and norms across borders, defines rights and responsibilities of various actors involved in data sharing, addresses the potential harms as well as the benefits of data sharing, and offers a framework for balancing competing values. The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications offers a particularly helpful lens through which to view data as both a tool of scientific inquiry to which access is vital and as a product of science from which everyone should benefit. PMID:26297755
The rights of adolescents to privacy and confidentiality as stipulated in international human rights conventions are poorly protected in reproductive health-care settings. Fear that their private information will become known, particularly to a parent, has been shown to be a major factor in adolescents' failure to seek the services they need. The tension between parental interests in guiding the development of children and public interest in maintaining a healthy population is considered in light of the ethical principles that bear upon these decisions. In practice, health-care workers are the intermediaries who must ensure that the privacy rights of adolescent clients are protected. They are bound through obligations engendered in human rights conventions as well as by ethical principles, especially that of nonmaleficence, to provide the young with information and confidential services, skills that must be acquired through training. Enhancing the survival of adolescents promotes the greater social good. PMID:18284039
Rep. Lowenthal, Alan S. [D-CA-47
01/10/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Lie, Reidar K
Background There has been an increased interest in the role of a human rights framework to mobilize resources for health. Discussion This paper argues that the human rights framework does provide us with an appropriate understanding of what values should guide a nation's health policy, and a potentially powerful means of moving the health agenda forward. It also, however, argues that appeals to human rights may not necessarily be effective at mobilizing resources for specific health problems one might want to do something about. Specifically, it is not possible to argue that a particular allocation of scarce health care resources should be changed to a different allocation, benefiting other groups. Lack of access to health care services by some people only shows that something has to be done, but not what should be done. Summary The somewhat weak claim identified above together with the obligation to realize progressively a right to health can be used to mobilize resources for health. PMID:15473899
Daniel, John, Ed.; And Others
The ten essays in this book examine issues related to academic freedom and university autonomy. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, providing an overview of the situation in universities worldwide, including national and international initiatives to promote academic freedom. It also discusses the role of the World University Service in this…
Crépeau, François; Nakache, Delphine; Atak, Idil
Over the last two decades, the reinforcement of security-related migration policies has resulted in the perception of the foreigner, and especially the irregular migrant, as a category outside the circle of legality. The rights of foreigners in host countries have deteriorated due to the connection made between immigration and criminality. Restrictions imposed upon irregular migrants' basic political and civil rights have been accompanied by major obstacles to their access to economic and social rights, including the right to health. The events of 9/11 further contributed to this trend, which contradicts the basic premises of the human rights paradigm. Recent policy developments and ongoing international cooperation implementing systematic interception and interdiction mechanisms have led to the securitization of migration. The preventive and deterrent measures reinforce the security paradigm. By contrast, various national and international actors have been successful in defending irregular migrants' rights. At the domestic level, the involvement of the judiciary and civil society enhances the rights-based approach to foreigners. The role of judges is vital in holding policy-makers accountable for respecting the high national standards of human rights protection. This article elaborates on the dichotomy between the state's legitimate interest to ensure national security, and its domestic and international obligations to protect human rights for all, including irregular migrants. It focuses on the changing relationship between migration and security, on the one hand, and between state and individual, on the other hand. It affirms the necessity to recognize the pre-eminence of fundamental rights upon security concerns. PMID:17938150
Nixon, Stephanie; Forman, Lisa
Background The fields of human rights and public health ethics are each concerned with promoting health and elucidating norms for action. To date, however, little has been written about the contribution that these two justificatory frameworks can make together. This article explores how a combined approach may make a more comprehensive contribution to resolving normative health issues and to advancing a normative framework for global health action than either approach made alone. We explore this synergy by first providing overviews of public health ethics and of international human rights law relevant to health and, second, by articulating complementarities between human rights and public health ethics. Discussion We argue that public health ethics can contribute to human rights by: (a) reinforcing the normative claims of international human rights law, (b) strengthening advocacy for human rights, and (c) bridging the divide between public health practitioners and human rights advocates in certain contemporary health domains. We then discuss how human rights can contribute to public health ethics by contributing to discourses on the determinants of health through: (a) definitions of the right to health and the notion of the indivisibility of rights, (b) emphasis on the duties of states to progressively realize the health of citizens, and (c) recognition of the protection of human rights as itself a determinant of health. We also discuss the role that human rights can play for the emergent field of public health ethics by refocusing attention on the health and illness on marginalized individuals and populations. Summary Actors within the fields of public health, ethics and human rights can gain analytic tools by embracing the untapped potential for collaboration inherent in such a combined approach. PMID:18237409
Moon, Rennie J.; Koo, Jeong-Woo
What happens to traditional civic notions of nation, national identity, and constitutional rights when national curricula incorporate ideas of global citizenship, other national identities, diversity, and human rights? Using a longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we address this issue by analyzing the nature of changes in South Korean civic…
This paper argues the possibility of establishing common principles of protection from psychosocial risks (PSR) on the basis of the legal positions of the European Court of Human Rights (the Court) expressed in recent cases on degrading treatment and occupational health. The author focuses on the positive obligations of the States to ensure the protection of the right for life and of the right to respect for private life. The prohibition of degrading treatment in relations between private persons is also considered as relevant to the issue of the protection from PSR. Analyzing the Court's case law (judgments of the Court) we substantiate the possibility of claiming protection from PSR under the European Convention on Human Rights, namely, articles 2, 3 and 6, 8. PMID:27064417
Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Münch, Anna K.; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Wielga, Mark
Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human
The Indian Law on Human Organ and Tissue transplantation protects the interests and preserves the lives of both the donor as well as the recipient patient. An issue arises as to the relationship of others with one's body or parts thereof especially one's cadaver. The posessory rights of the cadaver, property rights in the human corpse will be discussed in this paper. The ethical issues involved in altruism give rise to number of contradictions on which this paper focuses. The removal of organs would constitute an "injury" in ethical and legal terms if the intended use of an organ or tissue is not legally and ethically acceptable. How one determines the existence of the 'injury' in this context, where application of the concept of non-malfeasance is itself a good defense, is discussed in the paper. Consent in case of a cadaver has always been a matter of debate. The application of the doctrine of consent will be referred to in the course of this article. PMID:16929814