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Sample records for human surfactant protein

  1. Surfactant protein D in human lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Hartl, D; Griese, M

    2006-06-01

    The lung is continuously exposed to inhaled pollutants, microbes and allergens. Therefore, the pulmonary immune system has to defend against harmful pathogens, while an inappropriate inflammatory response to harmless particles must be avoided. In the bronchoalveolar space this critical balance is maintained by innate immune proteins, termed surfactant proteins. Among these, surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays a central role in the pulmonary host defence and the modulation of allergic responses. Several human lung diseases are characterized by decreased levels of bronchoalveolar SP-D. Thus, recombinant SP-D has been proposed as a therapeutical option for cystic fibrosis, neonatal lung disease and smoking-induced emphysema. Furthermore, SP-D serum levels can be used as disease activity markers for interstitial lung diseases. This review illustrates the emerging role of SP-D translated from in vitro studies to human lung diseases. PMID:16684127

  2. Expression and Localization of Lung Surfactant Proteins in Human Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Walter; Matthies, Cord; Ruf, Christian; Hartmann, Arndt; Garreis, Fabian; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Background Surfactant proteins (SPs) have been described in various tissues and fluids including tissues of the nasolacrimal apparatus, airways and digestive tract. Human testis have a glandular function as a part of the reproductive and the endocrine system, but no data are available on SPs in human testis and prostate under healthy and pathologic conditions. Objective The aim of the study was the detection and characterization of the surfactant proteins A, B, C and D (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D) in human testis. Additionally tissue samples affected by testicular cancer were investigated. Results Surfactant proteins A, B, C and D were detected using RT-PCR in healthy testis. By means of Western blot analysis, these SPs were detected at the protein level in normal testis, seminoma and seminal fluid, but not in spermatozoa. Expression of SPs was weaker in seminoma compared to normal testicular tissue. SPs were localized in combination with vimentin immunohistochemically in cells of Sertoli and Leydig. Conclusion Surfactant proteins seem to be inherent part of the human testis. By means of physicochemical properties the proteins appear to play a role during immunological and rheological process of the testicular tissue. The presence of SP-B and SP-C in cells of Sertoli correlates with their function of fluid secretion and may support transportation of spermatozoa. In seminoma the expression of all SP's was generally weaker compared to normal germ cells. This could lead to a reduction of immunomodulatory and rheology processes in the germ cell tumor. PMID:26599233

  3. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Express and Secrete Human Surfactant Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Worlitzsch, Dieter; Bensel, Tobias; Sawers, R. Gary; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Surfactant proteins (SP), originally known from human lung surfactant, are essential to proper respiratory function in that they lower the surface tension of the alveoli. They are also important components of the innate immune system. The functional significance of these proteins is currently reflected by a very large and growing number of publications. The objective goal of this study was to elucidate whether Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to express surfactant proteins. 10 different strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were analyzed by means of RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, ELISA, immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy. The unexpected and surprising finding revealed in this study is that different strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa express and secrete proteins that react with currently commercially available antibodies to known human surfactant proteins. Our results strongly suggest that the bacteria are either able to express ‘human-like’ surfactant proteins on their own or that commercially available primers and antibodies to human surfactant proteins detect identical bacterial proteins and genes. The results may reflect the existence of a new group of bacterial surfactant proteins and DNA currently lacking in the relevant sequence and structure databases. At any rate, our knowledge of human surfactant proteins obtained from immunological and molecular biological studies may have been falsified by the presence of bacterial proteins and DNA and therefore requires critical reassessment. PMID:23349731

  4. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa express and secrete human surfactant proteins.

    PubMed

    Bräuer, Lars; Schicht, Martin; Worlitzsch, Dieter; Bensel, Tobias; Sawers, R Gary; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Surfactant proteins (SP), originally known from human lung surfactant, are essential to proper respiratory function in that they lower the surface tension of the alveoli. They are also important components of the innate immune system. The functional significance of these proteins is currently reflected by a very large and growing number of publications. The objective goal of this study was to elucidate whether Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to express surfactant proteins. 10 different strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were analyzed by means of RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, ELISA, immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy. The unexpected and surprising finding revealed in this study is that different strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa express and secrete proteins that react with currently commercially available antibodies to known human surfactant proteins. Our results strongly suggest that the bacteria are either able to express 'human-like' surfactant proteins on their own or that commercially available primers and antibodies to human surfactant proteins detect identical bacterial proteins and genes. The results may reflect the existence of a new group of bacterial surfactant proteins and DNA currently lacking in the relevant sequence and structure databases. At any rate, our knowledge of human surfactant proteins obtained from immunological and molecular biological studies may have been falsified by the presence of bacterial proteins and DNA and therefore requires critical reassessment. PMID:23349731

  5. Human Pulmonary Surfactant Protein SP-A1 Provides Maximal Efficiency of Lung Interfacial Films.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Pascual, Alicia; Arroyo, Raquel; Floros, Joanna; Perez-Gil, Jesus

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein complex that reduces surface tension to prevent alveolar collapse and contributes to the protection of the respiratory surface from the entry of pathogens. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a hydrophilic glycoprotein of the collectin family, and its main function is related to host defense. However, previous studies have shown that SP-A also aids in the formation and biophysical properties of pulmonary surfactant films at the air-water interface. Humans, unlike rodents, have two genes, SFTPA1 and SFTPA2. The encoded proteins, SP-A1 and SP-A2, differ quantitatively or qualitatively in function. It has been shown that both gene products are necessary for tubular myelin formation, an extracellular structural form of lung surfactant. The goal of this study was to investigate potential differences in the biophysical properties of surfactants containing human SP-A1, SP-A2, or both. For this purpose, we have studied for the first time, to our knowledge, the biophysical properties of pulmonary surfactant from individual humanized transgenic mice expressing human SP-A1, SP-A2, or both SP-A1 and SP-A2, in the captive bubble surfactometer. We observed that pulmonary surfactant containing SP-A1 reaches lower surface tension after postexpansion interfacial adsorption than surfactants containing no SP-A or only SP-A2. Under interfacial compression-expansion cycling conditions, surfactant films containing SP-A1 also performed better, particularly with respect to the reorganization of the films that takes place during compression. On the other hand, addition of recombinant SP-A1 to a surfactant preparation reconstituted from the hydrophobic fraction of a porcine surfactant made it more resistant to inhibition by serum than the addition of equivalent amounts of SP-A2. We conclude that the presence of SP-A1 allows pulmonary surfactant to adopt a particularly favorable structure with optimal biophysical properties. PMID:27508436

  6. Structural aspects of a protein-surfactant assembly: native and reduced States of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Anand, Uttam; Ray, Sutapa; Ghosh, Subhadip; Banerjee, Rajat; Mukherjee, Saptarshi

    2015-04-01

    The inherently present seventeen disulfide bonds of the circulatory protein, human serum albumin (HSA) provide the necessary structural stability. Various spectroscopic approaches were used to investigate the effect of reduction of these disulfide bonds and its binding with the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Based on several spectroscopic analyses, our investigations highlight the following interesting aspects: (1) HSA on reduction loses not only its tertiary structure but also a significant amount of secondary structure as well. However, the reduced state of the protein is not like the molten-globule, (2) this structural loss of the protein due to reduction is more prominent than that caused by higher SDS concentrations alone and can certainly be attributed to the role of disulfide bonds, (3) lower surfactant concentrations provide marginal structural rigidity to the native state of the protein, whereas, higher concentrations of SDS induces secondary structure to the reduced state of HSA, (4) the binding of SDS with both the native and reduced states of HSA, occurred in three distinct stages which was followed by a saturation stage. However, the nature of such binding is different for both the states as investigated by using the Stern-Volmer equations and estimating the thermodynamic parameters. Besides, in contrast to the native state, the reduced state of HSA shows that the lone tryptophan residue gets more buried. However, there occurs a sudden decrement in the lifetime of the tryptophan and the hydrodynamic diameter increases by twofold. PMID:25821118

  7. Human surfactant protein-C: Genetic homogeneity and expression in RDS; comparison with other species

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzis, D.; Deiter, G.; deMello, D.E.; Floros, J. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital, St. Louis, MO )

    1994-01-01

    Human surfactant protein C (SP-C) mRNA is detected early during fetal lung development before the differentiation of the type II cell and the need for surfactant. Later in life SP-C contributes to the surface-lowering properties of surfactant, as shown by several investigators. In this study the authors sequenced both coding and noncoding regions of 12 genomic SP-C clones from several human groups including RDS (respiratory distress syndrome), whites, and black Nigerians, and examined the expression of SP-C in tissues from RDS and from non-RDS. The data showed that all clones had identical DNA sequences, not only within coding regions, consistent with previous observations, but also within intervening, 5[prime] flanking, and 3[prime] untranslated regions. Some differences from the previously published sequence were noted. The expression of SP-C in tissues from RDS and non-RDS as determined by tissue in situ hybridization was comparable between the two groups, suggesting that altered SP-C expression, the result of pretranslational regulatory abnormalities, is an unlikely contributor to the pathogenesis of RDS. In addition the results show, using genomic blot analysis, that a remarkable conservation within coding and 5[prime] flanking but not within 3[prime] untranslated sequences exists in all mammalian species examined. These data taken together suggest that strong evolutionary pressures have been exerted on SP-C to maintain conservation, not only among humans but also among species, which may underscore important roles of SP-C in as yet unknown developmental/functional lung processes. 38 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. An alternatively spliced surfactant protein B mRNA in normal human lung: disease implication.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Z; Wang, G; Demello, D E; Floros, J

    1999-01-01

    We identified an alternatively-spliced surfactant protein B (SP-B) mRNA from normal human lung with a 12 nt deletion at the beginning of exon 8. This deletion causes a loss of four amino acids in the SP-B precursor protein. Sequence comparison of the 3' splice sites reveals only one difference in the frequency of U/C in the 11 predominantly-pyrimidine nucleotide tract, 73% for the normal and 45% for the alternatively-spliced SP-B mRNA (77-99% for the consensus sequence). Analysis of SP-B mRNA in lung indicates that the abundance of the alternatively-spliced form is very low and varies among individuals. Although the relative abundance of the deletion form of SP-B mRNA remains constant among normal lungs, it is found with relatively higher abundance in the lungs of some individuals with diseases such as congenital alveolar proteinosis, respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, alveolar capillary dysplasia and hypophosphatasia. This observation points to the possibility that the alternative splicing is a potential regulatory mechanism of SP-B and may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease under certain circumstances. PMID:10493923

  9. Structure binding relationship of human surfactant protein D and various lipopolysaccharide inner core structures.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Anika; Wehle, Marko; Geissner, Andreas; Crouch, Erika C; Kang, Yu; Yang, You; Anish, Chakkumkal; Santer, Mark; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-09-01

    As a major player of the innate immune system, surfactant protein D (SP-D) recognizes and promotes elimination of various pathogens such as Gram-negative bacteria. SP-D binds to l-glycero-d-manno-heptose (Hep), a constituent of the partially conserved lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inner core of many Gram-negative bacteria. Binding and affinity of trimeric human SP-D to Hep in distinct LPS inner core glycans differing in linkages and adjacent residues was elucidated using glycan array and surface plasmon resonance measurements that were compared to in silico interaction studies. The combination of in vitro assays using defined glycans and molecular docking and dynamic simulation approaches provides insights into the interaction of trimeric SP-D with those glycan ligands. Trimeric SP-D wildtype recognized larger LPS inner core oligosaccharides with slightly enhanced affinity than smaller compounds suggesting the involvement of stabilizing secondary interactions. A trimeric human SP-D mutant D324N+D325N+R343K resembling rat SP-D bound to various LPS inner core structures in a similar pattern as observed for the wildtype but with higher affinity. The selective mutation of SP-D promotes targeting of LPS inner core oligosaccharides on Gram-negative bacteria to develop novel therapeutic agents. PMID:27350640

  10. Glucocorticoid regulation of human pulmonary surfactant protein-B mRNA stability involves the 3'-untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Huang, Helen W; Bi, Weizhen; Jenkins, Gaye N; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2008-04-01

    Expression of pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of lipids and proteins that acts to reduce alveolar surface tension, is developmentally regulated and restricted to lung alveolar type II cells. The hydrophobic protein surfactant protein-B (SP-B) is essential in surfactant function, and insufficient levels of SP-B result in severe respiratory dysfunction. Glucocorticoids accelerate fetal lung maturity and surfactant synthesis both experimentally and clinically. Glucocorticoids act transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally to increase steady-state levels of human SP-B mRNA; however, the mechanism(s) by which glucocorticoids act post-transcriptionally is unknown. We hypothesized that glucocorticoids act post-transcriptionally to increase SP-B mRNA stability via sequence-specific mRNA-protein interactions. We found that glucocorticoids increase SP-B mRNA stability in isolated human type II cells and in nonpulmonary cells, but do not alter mouse SP-B mRNA stability in a mouse type II cell line. Deletion analysis of an artificially-expressed SP-B mRNA indicates that the SP-B mRNA 3'-untranslated region (UTR) is necessary for stabilization, and the region involved can be restricted to a 126-nucleotide-long region near the SP-B coding sequence. RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicate that cytosolic proteins bind to this region in the absence or presence of glucocorticoids. The formation of mRNA:protein complexes is not seen in other regions of the SP-B mRNA 3'-UTR. These results indicate that a specific 126-nucleotide region of human SP-B 3'-UTR is necessary for increased SP-B mRNA stability by glucocorticoids by a mechanism that is not lung cell specific and may involve mRNA-protein interactions. PMID:18006875

  11. Cis-acting sequences from a human surfactant protein gene confer pulmonary-specific gene expression in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Korfhagen, T.R.; Glasser, S.W.; Wert, S.E.; Bruno, M.D.; Daugherty, C.C.; McNeish, J.D.; Stock, J.L.; Potter, S.S.; Whitsett, J.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is produced in late gestation by developing type II epithelial cells lining the alveolar epithelium of the lung. Lack of surfactant at birth is associated with respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants. Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is a highly hydrophobic peptide isolated from pulmonary tissue that enhances the biophysical activity of surfactant phospholipids. Like surfactant phospholipid, SP-C is produced by epithelial cells in the distal respiratory epithelium, and its expression increases during the latter part of gestation. A chimeric gene containing 3.6 kilobases of the promoter and 5{prime}-flanking sequences of the human SP-C gene was used to express diphtheria toxin A. The SP-C-diphtheria toxin A fusion gene was injected into fertilized mouse eggs to produce transgenic mice. Affected mice developed respiratory failure in the immediate postnatal period. Morphologic analysis of lungs from affected pups showed variable but severe cellular injury confined to pulmonary tissues. Ultrastructural changes consistent with cell death and injury were prominent in the distal respiratory epithelium. Proximal components of the tracheobronchial tree were not severely affected. Transgenic animals were of normal size at birth, and structural abnormalities were not detected in nonpulmonary tissues. Lung-specific diphtheria toxin A expression controlled by the human SP-C gene injured type II epithelial cells and caused extensive necrosis of the distal respiratory epithelium. The absence of type I epithelial cells in the most severely affected transgenic animals supports the concept that developing type II cells serve as precursors to type I epithelial cells.

  12. Biofoams and natural protein surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2010-01-01

    Naturally occurring foam constituent and surfactant proteins with intriguing structures and functions are now being identified from a variety of biological sources. The ranaspumins from tropical frog foam nests comprise a range of proteins with a mixture of surfactant, carbohydrate binding and antimicrobial activities that together provide a stable, biocompatible, protective foam environment for developing eggs and embryos. Ranasmurfin, a blue protein from a different species of frog, displays a novel structure with a unique chromophoric crosslink. Latherin, primarily from horse sweat, but with similarities to salivary, oral and upper respiratory tract proteins, illustrates several potential roles for surfactant proteins in mammalian systems. These proteins, together with the previously discovered hydrophobins of fungi, throw new light on biomolecular processes at air–water and other interfaces. This review provides a perspective on these recent findings, focussing on structure and biophysical properties. PMID:20615601

  13. Genetic complexity of the human surfactant-associated proteins SP-A1 and SP-A2

    PubMed Central

    Silveyra, Patricia; Floros, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays a key role in innate lung host defense, in surfactant-related functions, and in parturition. In the course of evolution, the genetic complexity of SP-A has increased, particularly in the regulatory regions (i.e. promoter, untranslated regions). Although most species have a single SP-A gene, two genes encode SP-A in humans and primates (SFTPA1and SFTPA2). This may account for the multiple functions attributed to human SP-A, as well as the regulatory complexity of its expression by a relatively diverse set of protein and non-protein cellular factors. The interplay between enhancer cis-acting DNA sequences and trans-acting proteins that recognize these DNA elements is essential for gene regulation, primarily at the transcription initiation level. Furthermore, regulation at the mRNA level is essential to ensure proper physiological levels of SP-A under different conditions. To date, numerous studies have shown significant complexity of the regulation of SP-A expression at different levels, including transcription, splicing, mRNA decay, and translation. A number of trans-acting factors have also been described to play a role in the control of SP-A expression. The aim of this report is to describe the genetic complexity of the SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 genes, as well as to review regulatory mechanisms that control SP-A expression in humans and other animal species. PMID:23069847

  14. Protein recovery from surfactant precipitation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu Ian; Stuckey, David C

    2011-01-01

    The recovery of lysozyme from an aqueous solution containing precipitated lysozyme-AOT complexes formed by the direct addition of sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) to a lysozyme solution was studied using both solvents, and a counterionic surfactant. Ethanol,methanol and solvent mixtures dissolved the surfactant precipitate and recovered lysozyme as a solid. Recovery efficiency and protein stability varied with the type of solvent used. An entirely different method of recovery was also evaluated using a counterionic surfactant: tri-octylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC) which bound to AOT releasing lysozyme into solution.Complete recovery (100%) of lysozyme was achieved at a molar ratio of 2:1(TOMAC:AOT), and the original protein activity was maintained in the final aqueous phase.The recovered lysozyme retained its secondary structure as observed in circular dichroism(CD) spectra. Specific activity studies show that counterionic surfactant extraction does not alter the biological activity of the enzyme. PMID:22235487

  15. Effect of cysteine 85 on biochemical properties and biological function of human surfactant protein A variants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guirong; Myers, Catherine; Mikerov, Anatoly; Floros, Joanna

    2007-07-17

    Four "core" amino acid differences within the collagen-like domain distinguish the human surfactant protein A1 (SP-A1) variants from the SP-A2 variants. One of these, cysteine 85 that could form intermolecular disulfide bonds, is present in SP-A1 (Cys85) and absent in SP-A2 (Arg85). We hypothesized that residue 85 affects both the structure and function of SP-A1 and SP-A2 variants. To test this, wild-type (WT) variants, 6A2 of SP-A1 and 1A0 of SP-A2, and their mutants (6A2(C85R) and 1A0(R85C)) were generated and studied. We found the following: (1) Residue 85 affected the binding ability to mannose and the oligomerization pattern of SP-As. The 1A0(R85C) and 6A2(C85R) patterns were similar and/or resembled those of WT 6A2 and 1A0, respectively. (2) Both SP-A WT and mutants differentially induced rough LPS and Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregation in the following order: 1A0 > 6A2 > 6A2(C85R) > 1A0(R85C) for Re-LPS aggregation and 1A0 > 6A2 = 6A2(C85R) = 1A0(R85C) for bacterial aggregation. (3) SP-A WT and mutants enhanced phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa by rat alveolar macrophages. Their phagocytic index order was 6A2(C85R) > 1A0 > 6A2 = 1A0(R85C). The activity of mutant 1A0(C85R) was significantly lower than WT 1A0 but similar to 6A2. Compared to WT 6A2, the 6A2(C85R) mutant exhibited a significantly higher activity. These results indicate that the SP-A variant/mutant with Arg85 exhibits a higher ability to enhance bacterial phagocytosis than that with Cys85. Residue 85 plays an important role in the structure and function of SP-A and is a major factor for the differences between SP-A1 and SP-A2 variants. PMID:17580966

  16. Biomimicry of surfactant protein C.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nathan J; Johansson, Jan; Barron, Annelise E

    2008-10-01

    Since the widespread use of exogenous lung surfactant to treat neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, premature infant survival and respiratory morbidity have dramatically improved. Despite the effectiveness of the animal-derived surfactant preparations, there still remain some concerns and difficulties associated with their use. This has prompted investigation into the creation of synthetic surfactant preparations. However, to date, no clinically used synthetic formulation is as effective as the natural material. This is largely because the previous synthetic formulations lacked analogues of the hydrophobic proteins of the lung surfactant system, SP-B and SP-C, which are critical functional constituents. As a result, recent investigation has turned toward the development of a new generation of synthetic, biomimetic surfactants that contain synthetic phospholipids along with a mimic of the hydrophobic protein portion of lung surfactant. In this Account, we detail our efforts in creating accurate mimics of SP-C for use in a synthetic surfactant replacement therapy. Despite SP-C's seemingly simple structure, the predominantly helical protein is extraordinarily challenging to work with given its extreme hydrophobicity and structural instability, which greatly complicates the creation of an effective SP-C analogue. Drawing inspiration from Nature, two promising biomimetic approaches have led to the creation of rationally designed biopolymers that recapitulate many of SP-C's molecular features. The first approach utilizes detailed SP-C structure-activity relationships and amino acid folding propensities to create a peptide-based analogue, SP-C33. In SP-C33, the problematic and metastable polyvaline helix is replaced with a structurally stable polyleucine helix and includes a well-placed positive charge to prevent aggregation. SP-C33 is structurally stable and eliminates the association propensity of the native protein. The second approach follows the same design

  17. Human Surfactant Protein A2 Gene Mutations Impair Dimmer/Trimer Assembly Leading to Deficiency in Protein Sialylation and Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Haitao; Li, Hui; Yang, Wenbing; Pan, Bing; Huang, Guowei; Lin, Guangyu; Ma, Lian; Willard, Belinda; Gu, Jiang; Zheng, Lemin; Wang, Yongyu

    2012-01-01

    Surfactant protein A2 (SP-A2) plays an essential role in surfactant metabolism and lung host defense. SP-A2 mutations in the carbohydrate recognition domain have been related to familial pulmonary fibrosis and can lead to a recombinant protein secretion deficiency in vitro. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of protein secretion deficiency and the subsequent biological effects in CHO-K1 cells expressing both wild-type and several different mutant forms of SP-A2. We demonstrate that the SP-A2 G231V and F198S mutants impair the formation of dimmer/trimer SP-A2 which contributes to the protein secretion defect. A deficiency in sialylation, but not N-linked glycosylation, is critical to the observed dimmer/trimer impairment-induced secretion defect. Furthermore, both mutant forms accumulate in the ER and form NP-40-insoluble aggregates. In addition, the soluble mutant SP-A2 could be partially degraded through the proteasome pathway but not the lysosome or autophagy pathway. Intriguingly, 4-phenylbutyrate acid (4-PBA), a chemical chaperone, alleviates aggregate formation and partially rescued the protein secretion of SP-A2 mutants. In conclusion, SP-A2 G231V and F198S mutants impair the dimmer/trimer assembly, which contributes to the protein sialylation and secretion deficiency. The intracellular protein mutants could be partially degraded through the proteasome pathway and also formed aggregates. The treatment of the cells with 4-PBA resulted in reduced aggregation and rescued the secretion of mutant SP-A2. PMID:23056344

  18. Effect of surfactant protein A (SP-A) on the production of cytokines by human pulmonary macrophages.

    PubMed

    Arias-Diaz, J; Garcia-Verdugo, I; Casals, C; Sanchez-Rico, N; Vara, E; Balibrea, J L

    2000-09-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is thought to play a role in the modulation of lung inflammation during acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, SP-A has been reported both to stimulate and to inhibit the proinflammatory activity of pulmonary macrophages (Mphi). Because of the interspecies differences and heterogeneity of Mphi subpopulations used may have influenced previous controversial results, in this study, we investigated the effect of human SP-A on the production of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators by two well-defined subpopulations of human pulmonary Mphi. Surfactant and both alveolar (aMphi) and interstitial (iMphi) macrophages were obtained from multiple organ donor lungs by bronchoalveolar lavage and enzymatic digestion. Donors with either recent history of tobacco smoking, more than 72 h on mechanical ventilation, or any radiological pulmonary infiltrate were discarded. SP-A was purified from isolated surfactant using sequential butanol and octyl glucoside extractions. After 24-h preculture, purified Mphi were cultured for 24 h in the presence or absence of LPS (10 microg/mL), SP-A (50 microg/mL), and combinations. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide (CO) generation (pmol/microg protein), cell cGMP content (pmol/microg protein), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6 release to the medium (pg/microg protein) were determined. SP-A inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNFalpha response of both interstitial and alveolar human Mphi, as well as the IL-1 response in iMphi. The SP-A effect on TNFalpha production could be mediated by a suppression in the LPS-induced increase in intracellular cGMP. In iMphi but not in aMphi, SP-A also inhibited the LPS-induced IL-1 secretion and CO generation. These data lend further credit to a physiological function of SP-A in regulating alveolar host defense and inflammation by suggesting a fundamental role of this apoprotein in limiting excessive proinflammatory

  19. Cholesterol-mediated surfactant dysfunction is mitigated by surfactant protein A.

    PubMed

    Hiansen, Joshua Qua; Keating, Eleonora; Aspros, Alex; Yao, Li-Juan; Bosma, Karen J; Yamashita, Cory M; Lewis, James F; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W

    2015-03-01

    The ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce surface tension at the alveolar surface is impaired in various lung diseases. Recent animal studies indicate that elevated levels of cholesterol within surfactant may contribute to its inhibition. It was hypothesized that elevated cholesterol levels within surfactant inhibit human surfactant biophysical function and that these effects can be reversed by surfactant protein A (SP-A). The initial experiment examined the function of surfactant from mechanically ventilated trauma patients in the presence and absence of a cholesterol sequestering agent, methyl-β-cyclodextrin. The results demonstrated improved surface activity when cholesterol was sequestered in vitro using a captive bubble surfactometer (CBS). These results were explored further by reconstitution of surfactant with various concentrations of cholesterol with and without SP-A, and testing of the functionality of these samples in vitro with the CBS and in vivo using surfactant depleted rats. Overall, the results consistently demonstrated that surfactant function was inhibited by levels of cholesterol of 10% (w/w phospholipid) but this inhibition was mitigated by the presence of SP-A. It is concluded that cholesterol-induced surfactant inhibition can actively contribute to physiological impairment of the lungs in mechanically ventilated patients and that SP-A levels may be important to maintain surfactant function in the presence of high cholesterol within surfactant. PMID:25522687

  20. Surfactant protein B deficiency: insights into surfactant function through clinical surfactant protein deficiency.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M W

    2001-01-01

    Surfactant protein B (SP-B) deficiency is a disorder of surfactant function with complete or transient absence of SP-B in term neonates. SP-B, 1 of 4 described surfactant-associated proteins, plays a key role in surfactant metabolism, particularly in intracellular packaging of surfactant components, formation of tubular myelin, and the presentation of the surfactant phospholipid monolayer to the air-fluid interface within the alveolus. Neonates with clinical SP-B deficiency best demonstrate the key role of SP-B in surfactant function. "Classic" deficiency results in severe respiratory failure in term infants and death unless lung transplantation is performed. Because the initial description of complete deficiency secondary to a homozygous frameshift mutation in codon 121 of the SP-B cDNA, partial deficiencies with differing genetic backgrounds and less severe clinical courses have been reported. These partial deficiency states may provide a clearer picture of genotype/phenotype relationships in SP-B function and surfactant metabolism. SP-B deficiency or dysfunction may be more common than once thought and may play a significant role in neonatal lung disease. PMID:11202476

  1. Differential susceptibility of transgenic mice expressing human surfactant protein B genetic variants to Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lin; Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Rimei; Xu, Yongan; Zuo, Yi Y; Cooney, Robert N; Wang, Guirong

    2016-01-01

    Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is essential for lung function. Previous studies have indicated that a SP-B 1580C/T polymorphism (SNP rs1130866) was associated with lung diseases including pneumonia. The SNP causes an altered N-linked glycosylation modification at Asn129 of proSP-B, e.g. the C allele with this glycosylation site but not in the T allele. This study aimed to generate humanized SP-B transgenic mice carrying either SP-B C or T allele without a mouse SP-B background and then examine functional susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia in vivo. A total of 18 transgenic mouse founders were generated by the DNA microinjection method. These founders were back-crossed with SP-B KO mice to eliminate mouse SP-B background. Four founder lines expressing similar SP-B levels to human lung were chosen for further investigation. After intratracheal infection with 50 μl of Pseudomonas aeruginosa solution (1 × 10(6) CFU/mouse) or saline in SP-B-C, SP-B-T mice the mice were sacrificed 24 h post-infection and tissues were harvested. Analysis of surfactant activity revealed differential susceptibility between SP-B-C and SP-B-T mice to bacterial infection, e.g. higher minimum surface tension in infected SP-B-C versus infected SP-B-T mice. These results demonstrate for the first time that human SP-B C allele is more susceptible to bacterial pneumonia than SP-B T allele in vivo. PMID:26620227

  2. Surfactant Protein A Prevents IFN-γ/IFN-γ Receptor Interaction and Attenuates Classical Activation of Human Alveolar Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Minutti, Carlos M; García-Fojeda, Belén; Sáenz, Alejandra; de Las Casas-Engel, Mateo; Guillamat-Prats, Raquel; de Lorenzo, Alba; Serrano-Mollar, Anna; Corbí, Ángel L; Casals, Cristina

    2016-07-15

    Lung surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays an important function in modulating inflammation in the lung. However, the exact role of SP-A and the mechanism by which SP-A affects IFN-γ-induced activation of alveolar macrophages (aMϕs) remains unknown. To address these questions, we studied the effect of human SP-A on rat and human aMϕs stimulated with IFN-γ, LPS, and combinations thereof and measured the induction of proinflammatory mediators as well as SP-A's ability to bind to IFN-γ or IFN-γR1. We found that SP-A inhibited (IFN-γ + LPS)-induced TNF-α, iNOS, and CXCL10 production by rat aMϕs. When rat macrophages were stimulated with LPS and IFN-γ separately, SP-A inhibited both LPS-induced signaling and IFN-γ-elicited STAT1 phosphorylation. SP-A also decreased TNF-α and CXCL10 secretion by ex vivo-cultured human aMϕs and M-CSF-derived macrophages stimulated by either LPS or IFN-γ or both. Hence, SP-A inhibited upregulation of IFN-γ-inducible genes (CXCL10, RARRES3, and ETV7) as well as STAT1 phosphorylation in human M-CSF-derived macrophages. In addition, we found that SP-A bound to human IFN-γ (KD = 11 ± 0.5 nM) in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and prevented IFN-γ interaction with IFN-γR1 on human aMϕs. We conclude that SP-A inhibition of (IFN-γ + LPS) stimulation is due to SP-A attenuation of both inflammatory agents and that the binding of SP-A to IFN-γ abrogates IFN-γ effects on human macrophages, suppressing their classical activation and subsequent inflammatory response. PMID:27271568

  3. Hydrophobic surfactant proteins and their analogues.

    PubMed

    Walther, Frans J; Waring, Alan J; Sherman, Mark A; Zasadzinski, Joseph A; Gordon, Larry M

    2007-01-01

    Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and four surfactant-associated proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). Its major function in the lung alveolus is to reduce surface tension at the air-water interface in the terminal airways by the formation of a surface-active film enriched in surfactant lipids, hence preventing cellular collapse during respiration. Surfactant therapy using bovine or porcine lung surfactant extracts, which contain only polar lipids and native SP-B and SP-C, has dramatically improved the therapeutic outcomes of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). One important goal of surfactant researchers is to replace animal-derived therapies with fully synthetic preparations based on SP-B and SP-C, produced by recombinant technology or peptide synthesis, and reconstituted with selected synthetic lipids. Here, we review recent research developments with peptide analogues of SP-B and SP-C, designed using either the known primary sequence and three-dimensional (3D) structure of the native proteins or, alternatively, the known 3D structures of closely homologous proteins. Such SP-B and SP-C mimics offer the possibility of studying the mechanisms of action of the respective native proteins, and may allow the design of optimized surfactant formulations for specific pulmonary diseases (e.g., acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)). These synthetic surfactant preparations may also be a cost-saving therapeutic approach, with better quality control than may be obtained with animal-based treatments. PMID:17575474

  4. Expression of a human surfactant protein C mutation associated with interstitial lung disease disrupts lung development in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Bridges, James P; Wert, Susan E; Nogee, Lawrence M; Weaver, Timothy E

    2003-12-26

    Surfactant Protein C (SP-C) is a secreted transmembrane protein that is exclusively expressed by alveolar type II epithelial cells of the lung. SP-C associates with surfactant lipids to reduce surface tension within the alveolus, maintaining lung volume at end expiration. Mutations in the gene encoding SP-C (SFTPC) have recently been linked to chronic lung disease in children and adults. The goal of this study was to determine whether a disease-linked mutation in SFTPC causes lung disease in transgenic mice. The SFTPC mutation, designated g.1728 G --> A, results in the deletion of exon4, generating a truncated form of SP-C (SP-C(Deltaexon4)). cDNA encoding SP-C(Deltaexon4) was constitutively expressed in type II epithelial cells of transgenic mice. Viable F0 transgene-positive mice were not generated after two separate rounds of pronuclear injections. Histological analysis of lung tissue harvested from embryonic day 17.5 F0 transgene-positive fetuses revealed that SP-C(Deltaexon4) caused a dose-dependent disruption in branching morphogenesis of the lung associated with epithelial cell cytotoxicity. Transient expression of SP-C(Deltaexon4) in isolated type II epithelial cells or HEK293 cells resulted in incomplete processing of the mutant proprotein, a dose-dependent increase in BiP transcription, trapping of the proprotein in the endoplasmic reticulum, and rapid degradation via a proteasome-dependent pathway. Taken together, these data suggest that the g.1728 G --> A mutation causes misfolding of the SP-C proprotein with subsequent induction of the unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathways ultimately resulting in disrupted lung morphogenesis. PMID:14525980

  5. Surfactant protein A and surfactant protein D variation in pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Husby, Steffen; Holmskov, Uffe

    2007-01-01

    Surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and D (SP-D) have been implicated in pulmonary innate immunity. The proteins are host defense lectins, belonging to the collectin family which also includes mannan-binding lectin (MBL). SP-A and SP-D are pattern-recognition molecules with the lectin domains binding preferentially to sugars on a broad spectrum of pathogen surfaces and thereby facilitating immune functions including viral neutralization, clearance of bacteria, fungi and apoptotic and necrotic cells, modulation of allergic reactions, and resolution of inflammation. SP-A and SP-D can interact with receptor molecules present on immune cells leading to enhanced microbial clearance and modulation of inflammation. SP-A and SP-D also modulate the functions of cells of the adaptive immune system including dendritic cells and T cells. Studies on SP-A and SP-D polymorphisms and protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage and blood have indicated associations with a multitude of pulmonary inflammatory diseases. In addition, accumulating evidence in mouse models of infection and inflammation indicates that recombinant forms of the surfactant proteins are biologically active in vivo and may have therapeutic potential in controlling pulmonary inflammatory disease. The presence of the surfactant collectins, especially SP-D, in non-pulmonary tissues, such as the gastrointestinal tract and genital organs, suggest additional actions located to other mucosal surfaces. The aim of this review is to summarize studies on genetic polymorphisms, structural variants, and serum levels of human SP-A and SP-D and their associations with human pulmonary disease. PMID:17544823

  6. Probing nanoparticle effect in protein-surfactant complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2015-06-01

    SANS experiments have been carried to probe the role of anionic silica nanoparticles in the anionic BSA protein-cationic DTAB surfactant complexes. In protein-surfactant complex, surfactant molecules aggregate to form micelle-like clusters along the unfolded polypeptide chains of the protein. The nanoparticle aggregation mediated by oppositely charged protein-surfactant complex coexists with the free protein-surfactant complexes in the nanoparticle-protein-surfactant system. There is rearrangement of micelles in adsorbed protein-surfactant complex on nanoparticles in leading to their (nanoparticle) aggregation. On the other hand, the unfolding of protein in free protein-surfactant complex is found to be significantly enhanced in presence of nanoparticles.

  7. Hydrophobic surfactant proteins strongly induce negative curvature.

    PubMed

    Chavarha, Mariya; Loney, Ryan W; Rananavare, Shankar B; Hall, Stephen B

    2015-07-01

    The hydrophobic surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C greatly accelerate the adsorption of vesicles containing the surfactant lipids to form a film that lowers the surface tension of the air/water interface in the lungs. Pulmonary surfactant enters the interface by a process analogous to the fusion of two vesicles. As with fusion, several factors affect adsorption according to how they alter the curvature of lipid leaflets, suggesting that adsorption proceeds via a rate-limiting structure with negative curvature, in which the hydrophilic face of the phospholipid leaflets is concave. In the studies reported here, we tested whether the surfactant proteins might promote adsorption by inducing lipids to adopt a more negative curvature, closer to the configuration of the hypothetical intermediate. Our experiments used x-ray diffraction to determine how the proteins in their physiological ratio affect the radius of cylindrical monolayers in the negatively curved, inverse hexagonal phase. With binary mixtures of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), the proteins produced a dose-related effect on curvature that depended on the phospholipid composition. With DOPE alone, the proteins produced no change. With an increasing mol fraction of DOPC, the response to the proteins increased, reaching a maximum 50% reduction in cylindrical radius at 5% (w/w) protein. This change represented a doubling of curvature at the outer cylindrical surface. The change in spontaneous curvature, defined at approximately the level of the glycerol group, would be greater. Analysis of the results in terms of a Langmuir model for binding to a surface suggests that the effect of the lipids is consistent with a change in the maximum binding capacity. Our findings show that surfactant proteins can promote negative curvature, and support the possibility that they facilitate adsorption by that mechanism. PMID:26153706

  8. Sequences of a hairpin structure in the 3'-untranslated region mediate regulation of human pulmonary surfactant protein B mRNA stability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Helen W; Payne, David E; Bi, Weizhen; Pan, Su; Bruce, Shirley R; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2012-05-15

    The ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension requires adequate expression of surfactant protein B (SP-B). Dexamethasone (DEX, 10(-7) M) increases human SP-B mRNA stability by a mechanism that requires a 126-nt-long segment (the 7.6S region) of the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). The objective of this study was to identify sequences in the 7.6S region that mediate regulation of SP-B mRNA stability. The 7.6S region was found to be sufficient for DEX-mediated stabilization of mRNA. Sequential substitution mutagenesis of the 7.6S region indicates that a 90-nt region is required for DEX-mediated stabilization and maintenance of intrinsic stability. In this region, one 30-nt-long element (002), predicted to form a stem-loop structure, is sufficient for DEX-mediated stabilization of mRNA and intrinsic mRNA stability. Cytosolic proteins specifically bind element 002, and binding activity is unaffected whether proteins are isolated from cells incubated in the absence or presence of DEX. While loop sequences of element 002 have no role in regulation of SP-B mRNA stability, the proximal stem sequences are required for DEX-mediated stabilization and specific binding of proteins. Mutation of the sequences that comprise the proximal or distal arm of the stem negates the destabilizing activity of element 002 on intrinsic SP-B mRNA stability. These results indicate that cytosolic proteins bind a single hairpin structure that mediates intrinsic and hormonal regulation of SP-B mRNA stability via mechanisms that involve sequences of the stems of the hairpin structure. PMID:22367784

  9. Experimental Study on How Human Lung Surfactant Protein SP-B1-25 is Oxidized by Ozone in the Presence of Fe(II) and Ascorbic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colussi, A. J.; Enami, S.; Hoffmann, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    We will report the results of experiments on the chemical fate of the human lung surfactant protein SP-B1-25 upon exposure to gaseous ozone in realistic aqueous media simulating the conditions prevalent in epithelial lining fluids in polluted ambient air. Our experiments consist of exposing aqueous microjets containing SP-B1-25, the natural antioxidant ascorbic acid, and the Fe2+ carried by most atmospheric fine particulates, under mild acidic conditions, such as those created by the innate lung host defense response. Reactants and the products of such interactions are detected via online electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We will show that ascorbic acid largely inhibits the ozonation of SP-B1-25 in the absence of Fe2+, leading to the formation of an ascorbic acid ozonide (Enami et al., PNAS 2008). In the presence of Fe2+, however, the ozonide decomposes into reactive intermediates that result in the partial oxidation of SP-B1-25, presumable affecting its function as surfactant. We infer that these experimental results establish a plausible causal link for the observed synergic adverse health effects of ambient ozone and fine particulates

  10. Human lung surfactant protein A exists in several different oligomeric states: oligomer size distribution varies between patient groups.

    PubMed Central

    Hickling, T. P.; Malhotra, R.; Sim, R. B.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a complex molecule composed of up to 18 polypeptide chains. In vivo, SP-A probably binds to a wide range of inhaled materials via the interaction of surface carbohydrates with the lectin domains of SP-A and mediates their interaction with cells as part of a natural defense system. Multiplicity of lectin domains gives high-affinity binding to carbohydrate-bearing surfaces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gel filtration analyses were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from three patient groups: pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (n = 12), birch pollen allergy (n = 11), and healthy volunteers (n = 4). Sucrose density gradient centrifugation was employed to determine molecular weights of SP-A oligomers. SP-A was solubilized from the lipid phase to compare oligomeric state with that of water soluble SP-A. RESULTS: SP-A exists as fully assembled complexes with 18 polypeptide chains, but it is also consistently found in smaller oligomeric forms. This is true for both the water- and lipid-soluble fractions of SP-A. CONCLUSION: The three patient groups analyzed show a shift towards lower oligomeric forms of SP-A in the following sequence: healthy-pulmonary alveolar proteinosis-pollen allergy. Depolymerization would be expected to lead to loss of binding affinity for carbohydrate-rich surfaces, with loss or alteration of biological function. While there are many complex factors involved in the establishment of an allergy, it is possible that reduced participation of SP-A in clearing a potential allergen from the lungs could be an early step in the chain of events. Images Fig. 4 FIG. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:9606179

  11. Therapeutic effects of recombinant forms of full-length and truncated human surfactant protein D in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mamta; Madan, Taruna; Waters, Patrick; Sonar, Sanchaita; Singh, Shiv K; Kamran, Mohammad F; Bernal, Andrés López; Sarma, P Usha; Singh, Vijay K; Crouch, Erika C; Kishore, Uday

    2009-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus (Afu) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that can cause fatal invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in immunocompromised individuals. Previously, surfactant protein D (SP-D), a surfactant-associated innate immune molecule, has been shown to enhance phagocytosis and killing of Afu conidia by phagocytic cells in vitro. An intranasal treatment of SP-D significantly increased survival in a murine model of IPA. Here we have examined mechanisms via which recombinant forms of full-length (hSP-D) or truncated human SP-D (rhSP-D) offer protection in a murine model of IPA that were immunosuppressed with hydrocortisone and challenged intranasally with Afu conidia prior to the treatment. SP-D or rhSP-D treatment increased the survival rate to 70% and 80%, respectively (100% mortality on day 7 in IPA mice), with concomitant reduction in the growth of fungal hyphae in the lungs, and increased levels of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in the lung suspension supernatants, as compared to untreated IPA mice. The level of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) in the lung cell suspension was also raised considerably following treatment with SP-D or rhSP-D. Our results appear to reaffirm the notion that under immunocompromised conditions, human SP-D or its truncated form can offer therapeutic protection against fatal challenge with Afu conidia challenge. Taken together, the SP-D-mediated protective mechanisms include enhanced phagocytosis by recruited macrophages and neutrophils and fungistatic properties, suppression of the levels of pathogenic Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5), enhanced local production of protective Th1 cytokines, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, and that of protective C-C chemokine, MIP-1 alpha. PMID:19403176

  12. Glucocorticoid regulation of human pulmonary surfactant protein-B (SP-B) mRNA stability is independent of activated glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Tillis, Ceá C; Huang, Helen W; Bi, Weizhen; Pan, Su; Bruce, Shirley R; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2011-06-01

    Adequate expression of surfactant protein-B (SP-B) is critical in the function of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension. Expression of SP-B mRNA is restricted to specific lung-airway epithelial cells, and human SP-B mRNA stability is increased in the presence of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX). Although the mechanism of SP-B mRNA stabilization by DEX is unknown, studies suggest involvement of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We developed a dual-cistronic plasmid-based expression assay in which steady-state levels of SP-B mRNA, determined by Northern analysis, reproducibly reflect changes in SP-B mRNA stability. Using this assay, we found that steady-state levels of SP-B mRNA increased greater than twofold in transfected human-airway epithelial cells (A549) incubated with DEX (10(-7) M). DEX-mediated changes in SP-B mRNA levels required the presence of the SP-B mRNA 3'-untranslated region but did not require ongoing protein synthesis. The effect of DEX on SP-B mRNA levels was dose dependent, with maximal effect at 10(-7) M. DEX increased levels of SP-B mRNA in cells lacking GR, and the presence of the GR antagonist RU486 did not interfere with the effect of DEX. Surprisingly, other steroid hormones (progesterone, estradiol, and vitamin D; 10(-7) M) significantly increased SP-B mRNA levels, suggesting a common pathway of steroid hormone action on SP-B mRNA stability. These results indicate that the effect of DEX to increase SP-B mRNA stability is independent of activated GR and suggests that the mechanism is mediated by posttranscriptional or nongenomic effects of glucocorticoids. PMID:21398497

  13. Impact of C-reactive protein (CRP) on surfactant function

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.J.; Sanders, R.L.; McAdam, K.P.; Hales, C.A.; Thompson, B.T.; Gelfand, J.A.; Burke, J.F. )

    1989-12-01

    Plasma levels of the acute-phase reactant, C-reactive protein (CRP), increase up to one thousand-fold as a result of trauma or inflammation. CRP binds to phosphorylcholine (PC) in a calcium-ion dependent manner. The structural homology between PC and the major phospholipid component of surfactant, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), led to the present study in which we examined if CRP levels might be increased in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and subsequently interfere with surfactant function. Our results showed that CRP levels in the bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) was increased in patients with ARDS (97.8 +/- 84.2 micrograms/mg total protein vs. 4.04 +/- 2.2 micrograms/mg total protein in normals). Our results show that CRP binds to liposomes containing DPPC and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). As a result of this interaction, CRP inhibits the surface activity of a PG-DPPC mixture when tested with a Wilhelmy surfactometer or with the Enhorning pulsating bubble apparatus. Furthermore, the surface activity of a clinically used surfactant replacement, Surfactant TA (2 mg/ml), was also severely impaired by CRP in a dose-dependent manner (doses used ranging from 24.5 to 1,175 micrograms/ml). In contrast, human serum albumin (HSA) at 500 and 900 micrograms/ml had no inhibitory effect on Surfactant TA surface activity. These results suggest that CRP, although not an initiating insult in ARDS, may contribute to the subsequent abnormalities of surfactant function and thus the pathogenesis of the pulmonary dysfunction seen in ARDS.

  14. Structural study of surfactant-dependent interaction with protein

    SciTech Connect

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K.; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2015-06-24

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the complex structure of anionic BSA protein with three different (cationic DTAB, anionic SDS and non-ionic C12E10) surfactants. These systems form very different surfactant-dependent complexes. We show that the structure of protein-surfactant complex is initiated by the site-specific electrostatic interaction between the components, followed by the hydrophobic interaction at high surfactant concentrations. It is also found that hydrophobic interaction is preferred over the electrostatic interaction in deciding the resultant structure of protein-surfactant complexes.

  15. Adsorption of surfactant protein D from human respiratory secretions by carbon nanotubes and polystyrene nanoparticles depends on nanomaterial surface modification and size.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Magda; Shaffer, Milo S P; Zambianchi, Martina; Chen, Shu; Superti, Fabiana; Schwander, Stephan; Gow, Andrew; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Chung, Kian Fan; Ryan, Mary P; Porter, Alexandra E; Tetley, Teresa D

    2015-02-01

    The alveolar respiratory unit constitutes one of the main targets of inhaled nanoparticles; the effect of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) on human health is largely unknown. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is synthesized by alveolar type II epithelial cells and released into respiratory secretions; its main function is in immune defence, notably against inhaled microbes. SP-D also plays an important role in modulating an appropriate inflammatory response in the lung, and reduced SP-D is associated with a number of inflammatory lung diseases. Adsorption of SP-D to inhaled NMs may facilitate their removal via macrophage phagocytosis. This study addresses the hypothesis that the chemistry, size and surface modification of engineered NMs will impact on their interaction with, and adsorption of, SP-D. To this purpose, we have examined the interactions between SP-D in human lung lavage and two NMs, carbon nanotubes and polystyrene nanoparticles, with different surface functionalization. We have demonstrated that particle size, functionalization and concentration affect the adsorption of SP-D from human lung lavage. Functionalization with negatively charged groups enhanced the amount of SP-D binding. While SP-D binding would be expected to enhance macrophage phagocytosis, these results suggest that the degree of binding is markedly affected by the physicochemistry of the NM and that deposition of high levels of some nanoparticles within the alveolar unit might deplete SP-D levels and affect alveolar immune defence mechanisms. PMID:25533095

  16. Adsorption of surfactant protein D from human respiratory secretions by carbon nanotubes and polystyrene nanoparticles depends on nanomaterial surface modification and size

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Magda; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Zambianchi, Martina; Chen, Shu; Superti, Fabiana; Schwander, Stephan; Gow, Andrew; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-01-01

    The alveolar respiratory unit constitutes one of the main targets of inhaled nanoparticles; the effect of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) on human health is largely unknown. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is synthesized by alveolar type II epithelial cells and released into respiratory secretions; its main function is in immune defence, notably against inhaled microbes. SP-D also plays an important role in modulating an appropriate inflammatory response in the lung, and reduced SP-D is associated with a number of inflammatory lung diseases. Adsorption of SP-D to inhaled NMs may facilitate their removal via macrophage phagocytosis. This study addresses the hypothesis that the chemistry, size and surface modification of engineered NMs will impact on their interaction with, and adsorption of, SP-D. To this purpose, we have examined the interactions between SP-D in human lung lavage and two NMs, carbon nanotubes and polystyrene nanoparticles, with different surface functionalization. We have demonstrated that particle size, functionalization and concentration affect the adsorption of SP-D from human lung lavage. Functionalization with negatively charged groups enhanced the amount of SP-D binding. While SP-D binding would be expected to enhance macrophage phagocytosis, these results suggest that the degree of binding is markedly affected by the physicochemistry of the NM and that deposition of high levels of some nanoparticles within the alveolar unit might deplete SP-D levels and affect alveolar immune defence mechanisms. PMID:25533095

  17. Lung surfactant levels are regulated by Ig-Hepta/GPR116 by monitoring surfactant protein D.

    PubMed

    Fukuzawa, Taku; Ishida, Junji; Kato, Akira; Ichinose, Taro; Ariestanti, Donna Maretta; Takahashi, Tomoya; Ito, Kunitoshi; Abe, Jumpei; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Wakana, Shigeharu; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2013-01-01

    Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins, which is secreted from the alveolar type II epithelial cell and coats the surface of alveoli as a thin layer. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of alveolar collapse through its ability to reduce surface tension. Under normal conditions, surfactant homeostasis is maintained by balancing its release and the uptake by the type II cell for recycling and the internalization by alveolar macrophages for degradation. Little is known about how the surfactant pool is monitored and regulated. Here we show, by an analysis of gene-targeted mice exhibiting massive accumulation of surfactant, that Ig-Hepta/GPR116, an orphan receptor, is expressed on the type II cell and sensing the amount of surfactant by monitoring one of its protein components, surfactant protein D, and its deletion results in a pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and emphysema-like pathology. By a coexpression experiment with Sp-D and the extracellular region of Ig-Hepta/GPR116 followed by immunoprecipitation, we identified Sp-D as the ligand of Ig-Hepta/GPR116. Analyses of surfactant metabolism in Ig-Hepta(+/+) and Ig-Hepta(-/-) mice by using radioactive tracers indicated that the Ig-Hepta/GPR116 signaling system exerts attenuating effects on (i) balanced synthesis of surfactant lipids and proteins and (ii) surfactant secretion, and (iii) a stimulating effect on recycling (uptake) in response to elevated levels of Sp-D in alveolar space. PMID:23922714

  18. "SP-G", a putative new surfactant protein--tissue localization and 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Felix; Schicht, Martin; Paulsen, Friedrich; Ngueya, Ivan; Bräuer, Lars; Brandt, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Surfactant proteins (SP) are well known from human lung. These proteins assist the formation of a monolayer of surface-active phospholipids at the liquid-air interface of the alveolar lining, play a major role in lowering the surface tension of interfaces, and have functions in innate and adaptive immune defense. During recent years it became obvious that SPs are also part of other tissues and fluids such as tear fluid, gingiva, saliva, the nasolacrimal system, and kidney. Recently, a putative new surfactant protein (SFTA2 or SP-G) was identified, which has no sequence or structural identity to the already know surfactant proteins. In this work, computational chemistry and molecular-biological methods were combined to localize and characterize SP-G. With the help of a protein structure model, specific antibodies were obtained which allowed the detection of SP-G not only on mRNA but also on protein level. The localization of this protein in different human tissues, sequence based prediction tools for posttranslational modifications and molecular dynamic simulations reveal that SP-G has physicochemical properties similar to the already known surfactant proteins B and C. This includes also the possibility of interactions with lipid systems and with that, a potential surface-regulatory feature of SP-G. In conclusion, the results indicate SP-G as a new surfactant protein which represents an until now unknown surfactant protein class. PMID:23094088

  19. Recognition of Mannosylated Ligands and Influenza A Virus by Human Surfactant Protein D: Contributions of an Extended Site and Residue 343

    SciTech Connect

    Crouch, E.; Hartshorn, K; Horlacher, T; McDonald, B; Smith, K; Cafarella, T; Seaton, B; Seeberger, P; Head, J

    2009-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in antiviral host defense. Although SP-D shows a preference for glucose/maltose, the protein also recognizes d-mannose and a variety of mannose-rich microbial ligands. This latter preference prompted an examination of the mechanisms of mannose recognition, particularly as they relate to high-mannose viral glycans. Trimeric neck plus carbohydrate recognition domains from human SP-D (hNCRD) preferred ?1-2-linked dimannose (DM) over the branched trimannose (TM) core, ?1-3 or ?1-6 DM, or d-mannose. Previous studies have shown residues flanking the carbohydrate binding site can fine-tune ligand recognition. A mutant with valine at 343 (R343V) showed enhanced binding to mannan relative to wild type and R343A. No alteration in affinity was observed for d-mannose or for ?1-3- or ?1-6-linked DM; however, substantially increased affinity was observed for ?1-2 DM. Both proteins showed efficient recognition of linear and branched subdomains of high-mannose glycans on carbohydrate microarrays, and R343V showed increased binding to a subset of the oligosaccharides. Crystallographic analysis of an R343V complex with 1,2-DM showed a novel mode of binding. The disaccharide is bound to calcium by the reducing sugar ring, and a stabilizing H-bond is formed between the 2-OH of the nonreducing sugar ring and Arg349. Although hNCRDs show negligible binding to influenza A virus (IAV), R343V showed markedly enhanced viral neutralizing activity. Hydrophobic substitutions for Arg343 selectively blocked binding of a monoclonal antibody (Hyb 246-05) that inhibits IAV binding activity. Our findings demonstrate an extended ligand binding site for mannosylated ligands and the significant contribution of the 343 side chain to specific recognition of multivalent microbial ligands, including high-mannose viral glycans.

  20. Binding of pulmonary surfactant proteins A and D to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia enhances phagocytosis and killing by human neutrophils and alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Madan, T; Eggleton, P; Kishore, U; Strong, P; Aggrawal, S S; Sarma, P U; Reid, K B

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether the lung surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and D (SP-D) are involved in the initial protective immunity against opportunistic pulmonary fungal infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, we performed a series of in vitro functional studies to see if SP-A and SP-D enhanced binding, phagocytosis, activation, and killing of A. fumigatus conidia by human alveolar macrophages and circulating neutrophils. Both SP-A and SP-D bound to carbohydrate structures on A. fumigatus conidia in a calcium-dependent manner. SP-A and SP-D were also chemoattractant and significantly enhanced agglutination and binding of conidia to alveolar macrophages and neutrophils. Furthermore, in the presence of SP-A and SP-D, the phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and killing of A. fumigatus conidia by neutrophils were significantly increased. These findings indicate that SP-A and SP-D may have an important immunological role in the early antifungal defense responses in the lung, through inhibiting infectivity of conidia by agglutination and by enhancing uptake and killing of A. fumigatus by phagocytic cells. PMID:9234771

  1. Protective effects of a recombinant fragment of human surfactant protein D in a murine model of pulmonary hypersensitivity induced by dust mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mamta; Madan, Taruna; Waters, Patrick; Parida, Shreemanta K; Sarma, P Usha; Kishore, Uday

    2003-05-01

    Lung surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a carbohydrate pattern recognition immune molecule. It can interact with a range of pathogens, stimulate immune cells and manipulate cytokine profiles during host's immune response. SP-D has also been shown to interact, via its carbohydrate recognition domains, with glycoprotein allergens of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Derp), inhibiting specific IgE isolated from mite-sensitive asthmatic patients from binding these allergens, and blocking subsequent histamine release from sensitized basophils. In the present study, we have examined the protection offered by various doses of intranasal administration of a recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rhSP-D) in a murine model of pulmonary hypersensitivity to Derp allergens which showed characteristic high levels of specific IgE antibodies, peripheral blood eosinophilia, pulmonary infiltrates and a Th2 cytokine response. Treatment of Derp mice with rhSP-D led to significant reduction in Derp-specific IgE levels, blood eosinophilia and pulmonary cellular infiltration. The levels of IL-4 and IL-5 were decreased, while those of IL-12 and IFN-gamma were raised in the supernatant of the cultured splenocytes, indicating a Th2 to Th1 polarization. These results suggest that SP-D has a protective role in the modulation of allergic sensitization and in the development of allergic reactions to Derp allergens and highlight potential of the rhSP-D as a therapeutic for pulmonary hypersensitivity. PMID:12706535

  2. Surfactant Proteins in Smoking-Related Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Andriana I; Papiris, Spyridon; Papadaki, Georgia; Manali, Effrosyni D; Roussou, Aneza; Spathis, Aris; Karakitsos, Petros; Kostikas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a highly surface-active mixture of proteins and lipids that is synthesized and secreted in the alveoli by type II epithelial cells and is found in the fluid lining the alveolar surface. The protein part of surfactant constitutes two hydrophilic proteins (SP-A and SP-D) that regulate surfactant metabolism and have immunologic functions, and two hydrophobic proteins (SP-B and SP-C), which play a direct role in the organization of the surfactant structure in the interphase and in the stabilization of the lipid layers during the respiratory cycle. Several studies have shown that cigarette smoke seems to affect, in several ways, both surfactant homeostasis and function. The alterations in surfactants' biophysical properties caused by cigarette smoking, contribute to the development of several smoking related lung diseases. In this review we provide information on biochemical and physiological aspects of the pulmonary surfactant and on its possible association with the development of two major chronic diseases of the lung known to be related to smoking, i.e. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Additional information on the possible role of surfactant protein alterations and/or dysfunction in the combination of these two conditions, recently described as combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) are also provided. PMID:26420367

  3. 14-3-3 isoforms bind directly exon B of the 5′-UTR of human surfactant protein A2 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Noutsios, Georgios T.; Ghattas, Paul; Bennett, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Human surfactant protein (SP) A (SP-A), an innate immunity molecule, is encoded by two genes, SFTPA1 and SFTPA2. The 5′-untranslated splice variant of SP-A2 (ABD), but not SP-A1 (AD), contains exon B (eB). eB is an enhancer for transcription and translation and contains cis-regulatory elements. Specific trans-acting factors, including 14-3-3, bind eB. The 14-3-3 protein family contains seven isoforms that have been found by mass spectrometry in eB electromobility shift assays (Noutsios et al. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 304: L722–L735, 2013). We used four different approaches to investigate whether 14-3-3 isoforms bind directly to eB. 1) eB RNA pulldown assays showed that 14-3-3 isoforms specifically bind eB. 2) RNA electromobility shift assay complexes were formed using purified 14-3-3 isoforms β, γ, ε, η, σ, and τ, but not isoform ζ, with wild-type eB RNA. 3 and 4) RNA affinity chromatography assays and surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that 14-3-3 isoforms β, γ, ε, η, σ, and τ, but not isoform ζ, specifically and directly bind eB. Inhibition of 14-3-3 isoforms γ, ε, η, and τ/θ with shRNAs in NCI-H441 cells resulted in downregulation of SP-A2 levels but did not affect SP-A1 levels. However, inhibition of 14-3-3 isoform σ was correlated with lower levels of SP-A1 and SP-A2. Inhibition of 14-3-3 isoform ζ/δ, which does not bind eB, had no effect on expression levels of SP-A1 and SP-A2. In conclusion, the 14-3-3 protein family affects differential regulation of SP-A1 and SP-A2 by binding directly to SP-A2 5′-UTR mRNA. PMID:26001776

  4. Key interactions of surfactants in therapeutic protein formulations: A review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tarik A; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Kishore, Ravuri S K

    2015-11-01

    Proteins as amphiphilic, surface-active macromolecules, demonstrate substantial interfacial activity, which causes considerable impact on their multifarious applications. A commonly adapted measure to prevent interfacial damage to proteins is the use of nonionic surfactants. Particularly in biotherapeutic formulations, the use of nonionic surfactants is ubiquitous in order to prevent the impact of interfacial stress on drug product stability. The scope of this review is to convey the current understanding of interactions of nonionic surfactants with proteins both at the interface and in solution, with specific focus to their effects on biotherapeutic formulations. PMID:26435336

  5. Pulmonary surfactant proteins and polymer combinations reduce surfactant inhibition by serum.

    PubMed

    Lu, Karen W; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Echaide, Mercedes; Taeusch, H William

    2011-10-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory condition that can be associated with capillary leak of serum into alveoli causing inactivation of surfactant. Resistance to inactivation is affected by types and concentrations of surfactant proteins, lipids, and polymers. Our aim was to investigate the effects of different combinations of these three components. A simple lipid mixture (DPPC/POPG) or a more complex lipid mixture (DPPC/POPC/POPG/cholesterol) was used. Native surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C obtained from pig lung lavage were added either singly or combined at two concentrations. Also, non-ionic polymers polyethylene glycol and dextran and the anionic polymer hyaluronan were added either singly or in pairs with hyaluronan included. Non-ionic polymers work by different mechanisms than anionic polymers, thus the purpose of placing them together in the same surfactant mixture was to evaluate if the combination would show enhanced beneficial effects. The resulting surfactant mixtures were studied in the presence or absence of serum. A modified bubble surfactometer was used to evaluate surface activities. Mixtures that included both SP-B and SP-C plus hyaluronan and either dextran or polyethylene glycol were found to be the most resistant to inhibition by serum. These mixtures, as well as some with either SP-B or SP-C with combined polymers were as or more resistant to inactivation than native surfactant. These results suggest that improved formulations of lung surfactants are possible and may be useful in reducing some types of surfactant inactivation in treating lung injuries. PMID:21741354

  6. Magnetic Surfactants and Polymers with Gadolinium Counterions for Protein Separations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul; Bromberg, Lev; Rial-Hermida, M Isabel; Wasbrough, Matthew; Hatton, T Alan; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2016-01-26

    New magnetic surfactants, (cationic hexadecyltrimethlyammonium bromotrichlorogadolinate (CTAG), decyltrimethylammonium bromotrichlorogadolinate (DTAG), and a magnetic polymer (poly(3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium tetrachlorogadolinate (APTAG)) have been synthesized by the simple mixing of the corresponding surfactants and polymer with gadolinium metal ions. A magnetic anionic surfactant, gadolinium tri(1,4-bis(2-ethylhexoxy)-1,4-dioxobutane-2-sulfonate) (Gd(AOT)3), was synthesized via metathesis. Both routes enable facile preparation of magnetically responsive magnetic polymers and surfactants without the need to rely on nanocomposites or organic frameworks with polyradicals. Electrical conductivity, surface tensiometry, SQUID magnetometry, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) demonstrate surface activity and self-aggregation behavior of the magnetic surfactants similar to their magnetically inert parent analogues but with added magnetic properties. The binding of the magnetic surfactants to proteins enables efficient separations under low-strength (0.33 T) magnetic fields in a new, nanoparticle-free approach to magnetophoretic protein separations and extractions. Importantly, the toxicity of the magnetic surfactants and polymers is, in some cases, lower than that of their halide analogues. PMID:26725503

  7. Deduced amino acid sequence of human pulmonary surfactant proteolipid: SPL(pVal)

    SciTech Connect

    Whitsett, J.A.; Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.E.; Clark, J.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Meuth, J.; Fox, J.L.

    1987-05-01

    Hydrophobic, proteolipid-like protein of Mr 6500 was isolated from ether/ethanol extracts of human, canine and bovine pulmonary surfactant. Amino acid composition of the protein demonstrated a remarkable abundance of hydrophobic residues, particularly valine and leucine. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the human protein was determined: N-Leu-Ile-Pro-Cys-Cys-Pro-Val-Asn-Leu-Lys-Arg-Leu-Leu-Ile-Val4... An oligonucleotide probe was used to screen an adult human lung cDNA library and resulted in detection of cDNA clones with predicted amino acid sequence with close identity to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the human peptide. SPL(pVal) was found within the reading frame of a larger peptide. SPL(pVal) results from proteolytic processing of a larger preprotein. Northern blot analysis detected in a single 1.0 kilobase SPL(pVal) RNA which was less abundant in fetal than in adult lung. Mixtures of purified canine and bovine SPL(pVal) and synthetic phospholipids display properties of rapid adsorption and surface tension lowering activity characteristic of surfactant. Human SPL(pVal) is a pulmonary surfactant proteolipid which may therefore be useful in combination with phospholipids and/or other surfactant proteins for the treatment of surfactant deficiency such as hyaline membrane disease in newborn infants.

  8. Cell-specific modulation of surfactant proteins by ambroxol treatment.

    PubMed

    Seifart, Carola; Clostermann, Ursula; Seifart, Ulf; Müller, Bernd; Vogelmeier, Claus; von Wichert, Peter; Fehrenbach, Heinz

    2005-02-15

    Ambroxol [trans-4-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzylamino)-cyclohexanole hydrochloride], a mucolytic agent, was postulated to provide surfactant stimulatory properties and was previously used to prevent surfactant deficiency. Currently, the underlying mechanisms are not exactly clear. Because surfactant homeostasis is regulated by surfactant-specific proteins (SP), we analyzed protein amount and mRNA expression in whole lung tissue, isolated type II pneumocytes and bronchoalveolar lavage of Sprague-Dawley rats treated with ambroxol i.p. (75 mg/kg body weight, twice a day [every 12 h]). The methods used included competitive polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Northern blotting, Western immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. In isolated type II pneumocytes of ambroxol-treated animals, SP-C protein and mRNA content were increased, whereas SP-A, -B and -D protein, mRNA, and immunoreactivity remained unaffected. However, ambroxol treatment resulted in a significant increase of SP-B and in a decrease of SP-D in whole lung tissue with enhanced immunostaining for SP-B in Clara Cells. SP-A and SP-D were significantly decreased in BAL fluid of ambroxol-treated animals. The data suggest that surfactant protein expression is modulated in a cell-specific manner by ambroxol, as type II pneumocytes exhibited an increase in SP-C, whereas Clara cells exhibited an increase in the immunoreactivity for SP-B accounting for the increased SP-B content of whole lung tissue. The results indicate that ambroxol may exert its positive effects, observed in the treatment of diseases related to surfactant deficiency, via modulation of surfactant protein expression. PMID:15694461

  9. Cell-specific modulation of surfactant proteins by ambroxol treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Seifart, Carola . E-mail: zwiebel@mailer.uni-marburg.de; Clostermann, Ursula; Seifart, Ulf

    2005-02-15

    Ambroxol [trans-4-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzylamino)-cyclohexanole hydrochloride], a mucolytic agent, was postulated to provide surfactant stimulatory properties and was previously used to prevent surfactant deficiency. Currently, the underlying mechanisms are not exactly clear. Because surfactant homeostasis is regulated by surfactant-specific proteins (SP), we analyzed protein amount and mRNA expression in whole lung tissue, isolated type II pneumocytes and bronchoalveolar lavage of Sprague-Dawley rats treated with ambroxol i.p. (75 mg/kg body weight, twice a day [every 12 h]). The methods used included competitive polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Northern blotting, Western immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. In isolated type II pneumocytes of ambroxol-treated animals, SP-C protein and mRNA content were increased, whereas SP-A, -B and -D protein, mRNA, and immunoreactivity remained unaffected. However, ambroxol treatment resulted in a significant increase of SP-B and in a decrease of SP-D in whole lung tissue with enhanced immunostaining for SP-B in Clara Cells. SP-A and SP-D were significantly decreased in BAL fluid of ambroxol-treated animals. The data suggest that surfactant protein expression is modulated in a cell-specific manner by ambroxol, as type II pneumocytes exhibited an increase in SP-C, whereas Clara cells exhibited an increase in the immunoreactivity for SP-B accounting for the increased SP-B content of whole lung tissue. The results indicate that ambroxol may exert its positive effects, observed in the treatment of diseases related to surfactant deficiency, via modulation of surfactant protein expression.

  10. NMR spectroscopy of proteins encapsulated in a positively charged surfactant.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Brian G; Liu, Weixia; Peterson, Ronald W; Valentine, Kathleen G; Wand, A Joshua

    2005-07-01

    Traditionally, large proteins, aggregation-prone proteins, and membrane proteins have been difficult to examine by modern multinuclear and multidimensional solution NMR spectroscopy. A major limitation presented by these protein systems is that their slow molecular reorientation compromises many aspects of the more powerful solution NMR methods. Several approaches have emerged to deal with the various spectroscopic difficulties arising from slow molecular reorientation. One of these takes the approach of actively seeking to increase the effective rate of molecular reorientation by encapsulating the protein of interest within the protective shell of a reverse micelle and dissolving the resulting particle in a low viscosity fluid. Since the encapsulation is largely driven by electrostatic interactions, the preparation of samples of acidic proteins suitable for NMR spectroscopy has been problematic owing to the paucity of suitable cationic surfactants. Here, it is shown that the cationic surfactant CTAB may be used to prepare samples of encapsulated anionic proteins dissolved in low viscosity solvents. In a more subtle application, it is further shown that this surfactant can be employed to encapsulate a highly basic protein, which is completely denatured upon encapsulation using an anionic surfactant. PMID:15949753

  11. A Function of Lung Surfactant Protein SP-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, M. L.; Bisagno, A. M.; Zasadzinski, J. A. N.; Bruni, R.; Waring, A. J.

    1993-07-01

    The primary function of lung surfactant is to form monolayers at the alveolar interface capable of lowering the normal surface tension to near zero. To accomplish this process, the surfactant must be capable of maintaining a coherent, tightly packed monolayer that avoids collapse during expiration. The positively charged amino-terminal peptide SP-B1-25 of lung surfactant-specific protein SP-B increases the collapse pressure of an important component of lung surfactant, palmitic acid (PA), to nearly 70 millinewtons per meter. This alteration of the PA isotherms removes the driving force for "squeeze-out" of the fatty acids from the primarily dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers of lung surfactant. An uncharged mutant of SP-B1-25 induced little change in the isotherms, suggesting that a specific charge interaction between the cationic peptide and the anionic lipid is responsible for the stabilization. The effect of SP-B1-25 on fatty acid isotherms is remarkably similar to that of simple poly-cations, suggesting that such polymers might be useful as components of replacement surfactants for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome.

  12. cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of human pulmonary surfactant-associated proteolipid SPL(Phe)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Fox, J.L.; Whitsett, J.A.

    1987-06-01

    Hydrophobic surfactant-associated protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 was isolated from either/ethanol or chloroform/methanol extracts of mammalian pulmonary surfactant. Automated Edman degradation in a gas-phase sequencer showed the major N-terminus of the human low molecular weight protein to be Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-Try-Cys-Trp-Leu-Cys-Arg-Ala-Leu-. Because of the N-terminal phenylalanine, the surfactant protein was designated SPL(Phe). Antiserum generated against hydrophobic surfactant protein(s) from bovine pulmonary surfactant recognized protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 in immunoblot analysis and was used to screen a lambdagt11 expression library constructed from adult human lung poly(A)/sup +/ RNA. This resulted in identification of a 1.4-kilobase cDNA clone that was shown to encode the N-terminus of the surfactant polypeptide SPL(Phe) (Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-) within an open reading frame for a larger protein. Expression of a fused ..beta..-galactosidase-SPL (Phe) gene in Escherichia coli yielded an immunoreactive M/sub r/ 34,000 fusion peptide. Hybrid-arrested translation with the cDNA and immunoprecipitation of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled in vitro translation products of human poly(A)/sup +/ RNA with a surfactant polyclonal antibody resulted in identification of a M/sub r/ 40,000 precursor protein. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated RNA from human lung detected a 2.0-kilobase RNA that was more abundant in adult lung than in fetal lung. These proteins, and specifically SPL(Phe), may therefore be useful for synthesis of replacement surfactants for treatment of hyaline membrane disease in newborn infants or of other surfactant-deficient states.

  13. Discrimination of Proteins Using an Array of Surfactant-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, Jacob L; Verma, Mohit S; Gu, Frank X

    2016-08-01

    Protein analysis is a fundamental aspect of biochemical research. Gold nanoparticles are an emerging platform for various biological applications given their high surface area, biocompatibility, and unique optical properties. The colorimetric properties of gold nanoparticles make them ideal for point-of-care diagnostics. Different aspects of gold nanoparticle-protein interactions have been investigated to predict the effect of protein adsorption on colloidal stability, but the role of surfactants is often overlooked, despite their potential to alter both protein and nanoparticle properties. Herein we present a method by which gold nanoparticles can be prepared in various surfactants and used for array-based quantification and identification of proteins. The exchange of surfactant not only changed the zeta potential of those gold nanoparticles but also drastically altered their aggregation response to five different proteins (bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, immunoglobulin G, lysozyme, and hemoglobin) in a concentration-dependent manner. Finally, we demonstrate that varying surfactant concentration can be used to control assay sensitivity. PMID:27399345

  14. Establishment of LC-MS methods for the analysis of palmitoylated surfactant proteins.

    PubMed

    Harayama, Takeshi; Shindou, Hideo; Kita, Yoshihiro; Otsubo, Eiji; Ikeda, Kazushige; Chida, Shoichi; Weaver, Timothy E; Shimizu, Takao

    2015-07-01

    The surfactant proteins (SPs), SP-B and SP-C, are important components of pulmonary surfactant involved in the reduction of alveolar surface tension. Quantification of SP-B and SP-C in surfactant drugs is informative for their quality control and the evaluation of their biological activity. Western blot analysis enabled the quantification of SP-B, but not SP-C, in surfactant drugs. Here, we report a new procedure involving chemical treatments and LC-MS to analyze SP-C peptides. The procedure enabled qualitative analysis of SP-C from different species with discrimination of the palmitoylation status and the artificial modifications that occur during handling and/or storage. In addition, the method can be used to estimate the total amount of SP-C in pulmonary surfactant drugs. The strategy described here might serve as a prototype to establish analytical methods for peptides that are extremely hydrophobic and behave like lipids. The new method provides an easy measurement of SP-C from various biological samples, which will help the characterization of various experimental animal models and the quality control of surfactant drugs, as well as diagnostics of human samples. PMID:26022805

  15. Stabilizing and destabilizing protein surfactant-based foams in the presence of a chemical surfactant: Effect of adsorption kinetics.

    PubMed

    Li, Huazhen; Le Brun, Anton P; Agyei, Dominic; Shen, Wei; Middelberg, Anton P J; He, Lizhong

    2016-01-15

    Stimuli-responsive protein surfactants promise alternative foaming materials that can be made from renewable sources. However, the cost of protein surfactants is still higher than their chemical counterparts. In order to reduce the required amount of protein surfactant for foaming, we investigated the foaming and adsorption properties of the protein surfactant, DAMP4, with addition of low concentrations of the chemical surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). The results show that the small addition of SDS can enhance foaming functions of DAMP4 at a lowered protein concentration. Dynamic surface tension measurements suggest that there is a synergy between DAMP4 and SDS which enhances adsorption kinetics of DAMP4 at the initial stage of adsorption (first 60s), which in turn stabilizes protein foams. Further interfacial properties were revealed by X-ray reflectometry measurements, showing that there is a re-arrangement of adsorbed protein-surfactant layer over a long period of 1h. Importantly, the foaming switchability of DAMP4 by metal ions is not affected by the presence of SDS, and foams can be switched off by the addition of zinc ions at permissive pH. This work provides fundamental knowledge to guide formulation using a mixture of protein and chemical surfactants towards a high performance of foaming at a low cost. PMID:26433478

  16. Surfactant enhanced disinfection of the human norovirus surrogate, tulane virus with organic acids and surfactant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human infection with foodborne viruses can occur following consumption of contaminated food, person-to-person body contact, or release of aerosols. Combinatorial treatments of surfactants and organic acids may have synergistic or additive mechanisms to inactivate foodborne viruses and prevent outbr...

  17. Hydrophobic Surfactant Proteins Induce a Phosphatidylethanolamine to Form Cubic Phases

    PubMed Central

    Chavarha, Mariya; Khoojinian, Hamed; Schulwitz, Leonard E.; Biswas, Samares C.; Rananavare, Shankar B.; Hall, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The hydrophobic surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C promote rapid adsorption of pulmonary surfactant to an air/water interface. Previous evidence suggests that they achieve this effect by facilitating the formation of a rate-limiting negatively curved stalk between the vesicular bilayer and the interface. To determine whether the proteins can alter the curvature of lipid leaflets, we used x-ray diffraction to investigate how the physiological mixture of these proteins affects structures formed by 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine, which by itself undergoes the lamellar-to-inverse hexagonal phase transition at 71°C. In amounts as low as 0.03% (w:w) and at temperatures as low as 57°C, the proteins induce formation of bicontinuous inverse cubic phases. The proteins produce a dose-related shift of diffracted intensity to the cubic phases, with minimal evidence of other structures above 0.1% and 62°C, but no change in the lattice-constants of the lamellar or cubic phases. The induction of the bicontinuous cubic phases, in which the individual lipid leaflets have the same saddle-shaped curvature as the hypothetical stalk-intermediate, supports the proposed model of how the surfactant proteins promote adsorption. PMID:20409474

  18. Structural model for an AxxxG-mediated dimer of surfactant-associated protein C.

    PubMed

    Kairys, Visvaldas; Gilson, Michael K; Luy, Burkhard

    2004-06-01

    The pulmonary surfactant prevents alveolar collapse and is required for normal pulmonary function. One of the important components of the surfactant besides phospholipids is surfactant-associated protein C (SP-C). SP-C shows complex oligomerization behavior and a transition to beta-amyloid-like fibril structures, which are not yet fully understood. Besides this nonspecific oligomerization, MS and chemical cross-linking data combined with CD spectra provide evidence of a specific, mainly alpha-helical, dimer at low to neutral pH. Furthermore, resistance to CNBr cleavage and dual NMR resonances of porcine and human recombinant SP-C with Met32 replaced by isoleucine point to a dimerization site located at the C-terminus of the hydrophobic alpha-helix of SP-C, where a strictly conserved heptapeptide sequence is found. Computational docking of two SP-C helices, described here, reveals a dimer with a helix-helix interface that strikingly resembles that of glycophorin A and is mediated by an AxxxG motif similar to the experimentally determined GxxxG pattern of glycophorin A. It is highly likely that mature SP-C adopts such a dimeric structure in the lamellar bilayer systems found in the surfactant. Dimerization has been shown in previous studies to have a role in sorting and trafficking of SP-C and may also be important to the surfactant function of this protein. PMID:15153098

  19. Spectroscopic probing of the microenvironment in a protein-surfactant assembly.

    PubMed

    Anand, Uttam; Jash, Chandrima; Mukherjee, Saptarshi

    2010-12-01

    The effect of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the protein human serum albumin (HSA) was studied using steady-state spectroscopy, time-resolved measurements, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The binding of SDS to the domain IIA of HSA, housing the single tryptophan amino acid residue (Trp214), was monitored, and it was found that this addition of the surfactant takes place in a sequential manner depending upon the concentration of the added surfactant. Both fluorescence intensity and lifetimes of HSA decreased with the increasing concentration of SDS, and the surfactant molecules serve the role of a quencher for the fluorescence of Trp214. Circular dichroism data also support the structural changes induced by SDS. The 17 disulfide bridges present in HSA provide the necessary structural rigidity to the protein. Stern-Volmer plots and thermodynamic parameters have been used to characterize the sequential binding of SDS to HSA, and these parameters not only confirm that the binding is spontaneous in nature but also is quite strong, depending on the concentration of the added surfactant. PMID:21077590

  20. Fluorescently labeled pulmonary surfactant protein C in spread phospholipid monolayers.

    PubMed Central

    Nag, K; Perez-Gil, J; Cruz, A; Keough, K M

    1996-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant, a lipid-protein complex, secreted into the fluid lining of lungs prevents alveolar collapse at low lung volumes. Pulmonary surfactant protein C (SP-C), an acylated, hydrophobic, alpha-helical peptide, enhances the surface activity of pulmonary surfactant lipids. Fluorescein-labeled SP-C (F-SP-C) (3, 6, 12 wt%) in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), and DPPC:dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) [DPPC:DPPG 7:3 mol/mol] in spread monolayers was studied by epifluorescence microscopy. Mass spectometry of F-SP-C indicated that the protein is partially deacylated and labeled with 1 mol fluorescein/1 mol protein. The protein partitioned into the fluid, or liquid expanded, phase. Increasing amounts of F-SP-C in DPPC or DPPC:DPPG monolayers decreased the size and total amounts of the condensed phase at all surface pressures. Calcium (1.6 mM) increased the amount of the condensed phase in monolayers of DPPC:DPPG but not of DPPC alone, and such monolayers were also perturbed by F-SP-C. The study indicates that SP-C perturbs the packing of neutral and anionic phospholipid monolayers even when the latter systems are condensed by calcium, indicating that interactions between SP-C and the lipids are predominantly hydrophobic in nature. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 7 PMID:8804608

  1. Impact of a surfactant on the electroactivity of proteins at an aqueous-organogel microinterface array.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Shane; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2013-02-01

    The impact of surfactant addition to the organic phase on the electroactivity of proteins at the aqueous-organogel interface was examined by voltammetry. The presence of bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) in the organogel phase, as the sodium salt, caused marked changes in the peak currents for myoglobin detection. The protein desorption voltammetric peak exhibited a 6-fold increase in the current compared to the corresponding experiment without surfactant. Interfacial coverage showed a 17-fold increase in the adsorbed protein at the interface, from 50 pmol cm(-2), in the absence of surfactant, to 850 pmol cm(-2), in the presence of 10 mM surfactant. Additionally, the presence of the surfactant resulted in a second pair of adsorption/desorption peaks at lower potentials and in a change in the capacitance of the system. The formation of surfactant-protein and surfactant-protein-organic anion deposits is proposed on the basis of these features, leading to increased voltammetric signals for myoglobin, hemoglobin, and cytochrome c. The mechanism of protein-surfactant interaction was probed by using the surfactant as the anion in the organic phase electrolyte salt. Repetitive cyclic voltammetry of cytochrome c showed that in the presence of surfactant there was an enhancement of the signal, caused by a buildup of the protein-surfactant-electrolyte anion assembly at the interface. These findings provide the basis for surfactant-modified interfaces to enhance the electroanalytical performance for protein detection. PMID:23259491

  2. Infant formula alters surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-B expression in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Maurice G; Atkins, Constance L; Bruce, Shirley R; Khan, Amir M; Liu, Yuying; Alcorn, Joseph L

    2011-09-01

    Surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and SP-B are critical in the ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension and provide innate immunity. Aspiration of infant milk formula can lead to lung dysfunction, but direct effects of aspirated formula on surfactant protein expression in pulmonary cells have not been described. The hypothesis that infant formula alters surfactant protein homeostasis was tested in vitro by assessing surfactant protein gene expression in cultured pulmonary epithelial cell lines expressing SP-A and SP-B that were transiently exposed (6 hr) to infant formula. Steady-state levels of SP-A protein and mRNA and SP-B mRNA in human bronchiolar (NCI-H441) and mouse alveolar (MLE15) epithelial cells were reduced in a dose-dependent manner 18 hr after exposure to infant formula. SP-A mRNA levels remained reduced 42 hr after exposure, but SP-B mRNA levels increased 10-fold. Neither soy formula nor non-fat dry milk affected steady-state SP-A and SP-B mRNA levels; suggesting a role of a component of infant formula derived from cow milk. These results indicate that infant formula has a direct, dose-dependent effect to reduce surfactant protein gene expression. Ultimately, milk aspiration may potentially result in a reduced capacity of the lung to defend against environmental insults. PMID:21520433

  3. PLUNC Is a Novel Airway Surfactant Protein with Anti-Biofilm Activity

    PubMed Central

    Penterman, Jon; Mizrachi, Dario; Singh, Pradeep K.; Mallampalli, Rama K.; Ramaswamy, S.; McCray, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Background The PLUNC (“Palate, lung, nasal epithelium clone”) protein is an abundant secretory product of epithelia present throughout the conducting airways of humans and other mammals, which is evolutionarily related to the lipid transfer/lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LT/LBP) family. Two members of this family - the bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI) and the lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) - are innate immune molecules with recognized roles in sensing and responding to Gram negative bacteria, leading many to propose that PLUNC may play a host defense role in the human airways. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on its marked hydrophobicity, we hypothesized that PLUNC may be an airway surfactant. We found that purified recombinant human PLUNC greatly enhanced the ability of aqueous solutions to spread on a hydrophobic surface. Furthermore, we discovered that PLUNC significantly reduced surface tension at the air-liquid interface in aqueous solutions, indicating novel and biologically relevant surfactant properties. Of note, surface tensions achieved by adding PLUNC to solutions are very similar to measurements of the surface tension in tracheobronchial secretions from humans and animal models. Because surfactants of microbial origin can disperse matrix-encased bacterial clusters known as biofilms [1], we hypothesized that PLUNC may also have anti-biofilm activity. We found that, at a physiologically relevant concentration, PLUNC inhibited biofilm formation by the airway pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an in vitro model. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that the PLUNC protein contributes to the surfactant properties of airway secretions, and that this activity may interfere with biofilm formation by an airway pathogen. PMID:20161732

  4. Is treatment with hydroxychloroquine effective in surfactant protein C deficiency?

    PubMed

    Rabach, Ingrid; Poli, Furio; Zennaro, Floriana; Germani, Claudio; Ventura, Alessandro; Barbi, Egidio

    2013-05-01

    We present the case of two twin brothers with surfactant protein C deficiency who were treated with hydroxychloroquine for three years, with apparent success. The exact physiopathology of this disease is not known and there is no specific treatment for it. There is merely news from a few previous descriptions in the literature about the use of hydroxychloroquine for surfactant protein C deficiency with satisfactory results. Two years after the treatment was withdrawn, the twins were evaluated once again: they presented no new infections, growth and general state were normal and chest CT showed a notable additional reduction in the interstitial pneumopathy. These data seem to cast some doubt on the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine, and they suggest that the clinical improvement was simply the natural evolution of the disease. PMID:23137777

  5. Tuning of protein-surfactant interaction to modify the resultant structure.

    PubMed

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2015-09-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering studies have been carried out to examine the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein with different surfactants under varying solution conditions. We show that the interaction of anionic BSA protein (pH7) with surfactant and the resultant structure are strongly modified by the charge head group of the surfactant, ionic strength of the solution, and mixed surfactants. The protein-surfactant interaction is maximum when two components are oppositely charged, followed by components being similarly charged through the site-specific binding, and no interaction in the case of a nonionic surfactant. This interaction of protein with ionic surfactants is characterized by the fractal structure representing a bead-necklace structure of micellelike clusters adsorbed along the unfolded protein chain. The interaction is enhanced with ionic strength only in the case of site-specific binding of an anionic surfactant with an anionic protein, whereas it is almost unchanged for other complexes of cationic and nonionic surfactants with anionic proteins. Interestingly, the interaction of BSA protein with ionic surfactants is significantly suppressed in the presence of nonionic surfactant. These results with mixed surfactants thus can be used to fold back the unfolded protein as well as to prevent surfactant-induced protein unfolding. For different solution conditions, the results are interpreted in terms of a change in fractal dimension, the overall size of the protein-surfactant complex, and the number of micelles attached to the protein. The interplay of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions is found to govern the resultant structure of complexes. PMID:26465504

  6. Tuning of protein-surfactant interaction to modify the resultant structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K.; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2015-09-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering studies have been carried out to examine the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein with different surfactants under varying solution conditions. We show that the interaction of anionic BSA protein (p H 7 ) with surfactant and the resultant structure are strongly modified by the charge head group of the surfactant, ionic strength of the solution, and mixed surfactants. The protein-surfactant interaction is maximum when two components are oppositely charged, followed by components being similarly charged through the site-specific binding, and no interaction in the case of a nonionic surfactant. This interaction of protein with ionic surfactants is characterized by the fractal structure representing a bead-necklace structure of micellelike clusters adsorbed along the unfolded protein chain. The interaction is enhanced with ionic strength only in the case of site-specific binding of an anionic surfactant with an anionic protein, whereas it is almost unchanged for other complexes of cationic and nonionic surfactants with anionic proteins. Interestingly, the interaction of BSA protein with ionic surfactants is significantly suppressed in the presence of nonionic surfactant. These results with mixed surfactants thus can be used to fold back the unfolded protein as well as to prevent surfactant-induced protein unfolding. For different solution conditions, the results are interpreted in terms of a change in fractal dimension, the overall size of the protein-surfactant complex, and the number of micelles attached to the protein. The interplay of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions is found to govern the resultant structure of complexes.

  7. Solvation dynamics in a protein surfactant complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Partha; Sen, Pratik; Halder, Arnab; Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Sen, Sobhan; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2003-08-01

    Solvation dynamics in the denatured state of a protein, lysozyme (denatured by sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) is markedly slower than that in the native state. For coumarin 153 bound to lysozyme, the average solvation time, < τs> is 330 ps. In the lysozyme-SDS complex, the solvation dynamics is markedly slower with < τs>=7250 ps. On addition of dithiothreitol (DTT) to the lysozyme-SDS complex, when the di-sulfide bonds are destroyed, < τs> is found to be 1140 ps. The slow dynamics in the denatured protein is attributed to the polymer chain dynamics and the exchange of bound and free water molecules.

  8. The Diverse Structures and Functions of Surfactant Proteins.

    PubMed

    Schor, Marieke; Reid, Jack L; MacPhee, Cait E; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R

    2016-07-01

    Surface tension at liquid-air interfaces is a major barrier that needs to be surmounted by a wide range of organisms; surfactant and interfacially active proteins have evolved for this purpose. Although these proteins are essential for a variety of biological processes, our understanding of how they elicit their function has been limited. However, with the recent determination of high-resolution 3D structures of several examples, we have gained insight into the distinct shapes and mechanisms that have evolved to confer interfacial activity. It is now a matter of harnessing this information, and these systems, for biotechnological purposes. PMID:27242193

  9. SANS and DLS Studies of Protein Unfolding in Presence of Urea and Surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Aswal, V. K.; Chodankar, S. N.; Wagh, A. G.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Vavrin, R.

    2008-03-17

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) have been used to study conformational changes in protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) during its unfolding in presence of protein denaturating agents urea and surfactant. On addition of urea, the BSA protein unfolds for urea concentrations greater than 4 M and acquires a random coil configuration with its radius of gyration increasing with urea concentration. The addition of surfactant unfolds the protein by the formation of micelle-like aggregates of surfactants along the unfolded polypeptide chains of the protein. The fractal dimension of such a protein-surfactant complex decreases and the overall size of the complex increases on increasing the surfactant concentration. The conformation of the unfolded protein in the complex has been determined directly using contrast variation SANS measurements by contrast matching the surfactant to the medium. Results of DLS measurements are found to be in good agreement with those obtained using SANS.

  10. Exon B of human surfactant protein A2 mRNA, alone or within its surrounding sequences, interacts with 14-3-3; role of cis-elements and secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    Noutsios, Georgios T.; Silveyra, Patricia; Bhatti, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    Human surfactant protein A, an innate immunity molecule, is encoded by two genes: SFTPA1 (SP-A1) and SFTPA2 (SP-A2). The 5′ untranslated (5′UTR) splice variant of SP-A2 (ABD), but not of SP-A1 (AD), contains exon B (eB), which is an enhancer for transcription and translation. We investigated whether eB contains cis-regulatory elements that bind trans-acting factors in a sequence-specific manner as well as the role of the eB mRNA secondary structure. Binding of cytoplasmic NCI-H441 proteins to wild-type eB, eB mutant, AD, and ABD 5′UTR mRNAs were studied by RNA electromobility shift assays (REMSAs). The bound proteins were identified by mass spectroscopy and specific antibodies (Abs). We found that 1) proteins bind eB mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, with two cis-elements identified within eB to be important; 2) eB secondary structure is necessary for binding; 3) mass spectroscopy and specific Abs in REMSAs identified 14-3-3 proteins to bind (directly or indirectly) eB and the natural SP-A2 (ABD) splice variant but not the SP-A1 (AD) splice variant; 4) other ribosomal and cytoskeletal proteins, and translation factors, are also present in the eB mRNA-protein complex; 5) knockdown of 14-3-3 β/α isoform resulted in a downregulation of SP-A2 expression. In conclusion, proteins including the 14-3-3 family bind two cis-elements within eB of hSP-A2 mRNA in a sequence- and secondary structure-specific manner. Differential regulation of SP-A1 and SP-A2 is mediated by the 14-3-3 protein family as well as by a number of other proteins that bind UTRs with or without eB mRNA. PMID:23525782

  11. Partitioning lung and plasma proteins: circulating surfactant proteins as biomarkers of alveolocapillary permeability.

    PubMed

    Doyle, I R; Nicholas, T E; Bersten, A D

    1999-03-01

    1. The alveolocapillary membrane faces an extraordinary task in partitioning the plasma and lung hypophase proteins, with a surface area approximately 50-fold that of the body and only 0.1-0.2 micron thick. 2. Lung permeability is compromised under a variety of circumstances and the delineation between physiological and pathological changes in permeability is not always clear. Although the tight junctions of the epithelium, rather than the endothelium, are regarded as the major barrier to fluid and protein flux, it is becoming apparent that the permeability of both are dynamically regulated. 3. Whereas increased permeability and the flux of plasma proteins into the alveolar compartment has dire consequences, fortuitously the flux of surfactant proteins from the airspaces into the circulation may provide a sensitive means of non-invasively monitoring the lung, with important implications for treatment modalities. 4. Surfactant proteins are unique in that they are present in the alveolar hypophase in high concentrations. They diffuse down their vast concentration gradients (approximately 1:1500-7000) into the circulation in a manner that reflects lung function and injury score. Surfactant proteins vary markedly in size (approximately 20-650 kDa) and changes in the relative amounts appear particularly diagnostic with regard to disease severity. Alveolar levels of surfactant proteins remain remarkably constant despite respiratory disease and, unlike the flux of plasma proteins into the alveolus, which may reach equilibrium in acute lung injury, the flux of surfactant proteins is unidirectional because of the concentration gradient and because they are rapidly cleared from the circulation. 5. Ultimately, the diagnostic usefulness of surfactant proteins as markers of alveolocapillary permeability will demand a sound understanding of their kinetics through the vascular compartment. PMID:10081613

  12. Modifications in structure and interaction of nanoparticle-protein-surfactant complexes in electrolyte solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehan, Sumit; Kumar, S.; Aswal, V. K.; Schweins, R.

    2016-05-01

    SANS experiments of three-component system of anionic silica nanoparticles, anionic BSA protein and anionic SDS surfactants have been carried out without and with electrolyte in aqueous solution. In both the cases, the interaction of surfactant with protein results in formation of bead-necklace structure of protein-surfactant complexes in solution. These protein-surfactant complexes interact very differently with nanoparticles in absence and presence of electrolyte. In absence of electrolyte, nanoparticles remain in dispersed phase in solution, whereas with the addition of electrolyte the nanoparticles fractal aggregates are formed. SANS describes the phase behavior to be governed by competition of electrostatic and depletion interactions among the components solution.

  13. Lung surfactant proteins A and D can inhibit specific IgE binding to the allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus and block allergen-induced histamine release from human basophils

    PubMed Central

    MADAN, T; KISHORE, U; SHAH, A; EGGLETON, P; STRONG, P; WANG, J Y; AGGRAWAL, S S; SARMA, P U; REID, K B M

    1997-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen which, in the immunocompetent host, causes allergic disorders such as allergic rhinitis, allergic sinusitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and allergic bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA). In the present study, the interaction of 3-week culture filtrate (3wcf) allergens and various purified glycosylated and non-glycosylated allergens of A. fumigatus with lung surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, was investigated. Purified SP-A and SP-D, isolated from human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, bound to the 3wcf allergens and purified allergens, gp55 and gp45, in a carbohydrate-specific and calcium-dependent manner. Both SP-A and SP-D did not bind to deglycosylated allergens, suggesting that the ability of SP-A and SP-D to bind certain allergens is mediated through their carbohydrate recognition domains, interacting with the carbohydrate residues on the allergen. Both SP-A and SP-D could inhibit the ability of allergen-specific IgE from Aspergillosis patients to bind these allergens, suggesting that SP-A and SP-D may be involved in the modulation of allergic sensitization and/or development of allergic reactions. The view that SP-A and SP-D play a protective role against airborne allergens is further supported by the demonstration of their ability to inhibit A. fumigatus allergen-induced histamine release from allergic patients' basophils. PMID:9367408

  14. Lung surfactant proteins A and D can inhibit specific IgE binding to the allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus and block allergen-induced histamine release from human basophils.

    PubMed

    Madan, T; Kishore, U; Shah, A; Eggleton, P; Strong, P; Wang, J Y; Aggrawal, S S; Sarma, P U; Reid, K B

    1997-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen which, in the immunocompetent host, causes allergic disorders such as allergic rhinitis, allergic sinusitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and allergic bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA). In the present study, the interaction of 3-week culture filtrate (3wcf) allergens and various purified glycosylated and non-glycosylated allergens of A. fumigatus with lung surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, was investigated. Purified SP-A and SP-D, isolated from human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, bound to the 3wcf allergens and purified allergens, gp55 and gp45, in a carbohydrate-specific and calcium-dependent manner. Both SP-A and SP-D did not bind to deglycosylated allergens, suggesting that the ability of SP-A and SP-D to bind certain allergens is mediated through their carbohydrate recognition domains, interacting with the carbohydrate residues on the allergen. Both SP-A and SP-D could inhibit the ability of allergen-specific IgE from Aspergillosis patients to bind these allergens, suggesting that SP-A and SP-D may be involved in the modulation of allergic sensitization and/or development of allergic reactions. The view that SP-A and SP-D play a protective role against airborne allergens is further supported by the demonstration of their ability to inhibit A. fumigatus allergen-induced histamine release from allergic patients' basophils. PMID:9367408

  15. Observation of two different fractal structures in nanoparticle, protein and surfactant complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Mehan, Sumit Kumar, Sugam Aswal, V. K.

    2014-04-24

    Small angle neutron scattering has been carried out from a complex of nanoparticle, protein and surfactant. Although all the components are similarly (anionic) charged, we have observed strong interactions in their complex formation. It is characterized by the coexistence of two different mass fractal structures. The first fractal structure is originated from the protein and surfactant interaction and second from the depletion effect of first fractal structure leading the nanoparticle aggregation. The fractal structure of protein-surfactant complex represents to bead necklace structure of micelle-like clusters of surfactant formed along the unfolded protein chain. Its fractal dimension depends on the surfactant to protein ratio (r) and decreases with the increase in r. However, fractal dimension of nanoparticle aggregates in nanoparticle-protein complex is found to be independent of protein concentration and governed by the diffusion limited aggregation like morphology.

  16. Observation of two different fractal structures in nanoparticle, protein and surfactant complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehan, Sumit; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.

    2014-04-01

    Small angle neutron scattering has been carried out from a complex of nanoparticle, protein and surfactant. Although all the components are similarly (anionic) charged, we have observed strong interactions in their complex formation. It is characterized by the coexistence of two different mass fractal structures. The first fractal structure is originated from the protein and surfactant interaction and second from the depletion effect of first fractal structure leading the nanoparticle aggregation. The fractal structure of protein-surfactant complex represents to bead necklace structure of micelle-like clusters of surfactant formed along the unfolded protein chain. Its fractal dimension depends on the surfactant to protein ratio (r) and decreases with the increase in r. However, fractal dimension of nanoparticle aggregates in nanoparticle-protein complex is found to be independent of protein concentration and governed by the diffusion limited aggregation like morphology.

  17. Domains of surfactant protein A that affect protein oligomerization, lipid structure and surface tension.

    PubMed

    Palaniyar, N; Ikegami, M; Korfhagen, T; Whitsett, J; McCormack, F X

    2001-05-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an abundant protein found in pulmonary surfactant which has been reported to have multiple functions. In this review, we focus on the structural importance of each domain of SP-A in the functions of protein oligomerization, the structural organization of lipids and the surface-active properties of surfactant, with an emphasis on ultrastructural analyses. The N-terminal domain of SP-A is required for disulfide-dependent protein oligomerization, and for binding and aggregation of phospholipids, but there is no evidence that this domain directly interacts with lipid membranes. The collagen-like domain is important for the stability and oligomerization of SP-A. It also contributes shape and dimension to the molecule, and appears to determine membrane spacing in lipid aggregates such as common myelin and tubular myelin. The neck domain of SP-A is primarily involved in protein trimerization, which is critical for many protein functions, but it does not appear to be directly involved in lipid interactions. The globular C-terminal domain of SP-A clearly plays a central role in lipid binding, and in more complex functions such as the formation and/or stabilization of curved membranes. In recent work, we have determined that the maintenance of low surface tension of surfactant in the presence of serum protein inhibitors requires cooperative interactions between the C-terminal and N-terminal domains of the molecule. This effect of SP-A requires a high degree of oligomeric assembly of the protein, and may be mediated by the activity of the protein to alter the form or physical state of surfactant lipid aggregates. PMID:11369537

  18. Binding of Alkyl Polyglucoside Surfactants to Bacteriorhodopsin and its Relation to Protein Stability

    PubMed Central

    Santonicola, M. Gabriella; Lenhoff, Abraham M.; Kaler, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    The binding of alkyl polyglucoside surfactants to the integral membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and the formation of protein-surfactant complexes are investigated by sedimentation equilibrium via analytical ultracentrifugation and by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Contrast variation techniques in SANS enable measurement of the composition of the protein-surfactant complexes and determination of the thickness of the surfactant shell bound to the protein. The results indicate that alkyl polyglucosides can bind to BR as single surfactant layers or as a thicker shell. The thickness of the surfactant shell increases with increasing surfactant tail length, and it is generally unrelated to the aggregation number of the micelles even for a small and predominantly hydrophobic membrane protein such as BR. The aggregation numbers determined by sedimentation equilibrium methods match those measured by SANS, which also allows reconstruction of the shape of the protein-detergent complex. When the surfactant is present as a single layer, the BR loses activity, as measured by absorption spectroscopy, more quickly than it does when the surfactant forms a thicker shell. PMID:18234822

  19. DECREASED PRODUCTION OF SURFACTANT PROTEINS AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE INCREASES SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D), termed collectins, enhance the opsonization of foreign particles and pathogens by phagocytic cells. Inhaled pollutants such as diesel exhaust (DE) have a possible role in suppressing the production of surfactant proteins whic...

  20. Surfactant Protein A Expression in Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Atrophic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed; Hamed, Atef A.; Mohamed, Abd ElRaof Said; Nofal, Ahmad Abdel-Fattah; Mohamed, Maha A.; Abdel-Aziz, Hesham R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Surfactant protein A (SP-A) exhibits antimicrobial properties and interacts with a variety of respiratory tract pathogens. Objective The objective of this study was to detect the presence of SP-A and measure its alterations in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and primary atrophic rhinitis (PAR) versus healthy controls. Methods Inferior turbinate and sinus mucosal biopsies were taken from 30 patients with CRS, 30 patients with PAR, and 20 healthy controls. Immunohistochemical staining for SP-A and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of SP-A messenger RNA were performed on nasal tissue samples. Results Immunostaining localized SP-A to the mucosa and submucosal glands in CRS specimens but failed to localize it in PAR specimens. Quantitative PCR showed a high, statistically significant increase in the SP-A levels of patients with CRS when compared with controls (p < 0.0001) and also demonstrated a significant reduction of SP-A in patients with PAR compared with controls (p < 0.005). Conclusion SP-A is significantly increased in CRS and decreased significantly in PAR and appears to be expressed by respiratory epithelial cells and submucosal glandular elements of the sinonasal mucosa. The potential therapeutic applications of surfactant in the enhancement of mucociliary clearance need to be studied. PMID:25992168

  1. Novel surfactant mixtures for NMR spectroscopy of encapsulated proteins dissolved in low-viscosity fluids

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Ronald W.; Pometun, Maxim S.; Shi, Zhengshuang; Wand, A. Joshua

    2005-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy of encapsulated proteins dissolved in low-viscosity fluids is emerging as a tool for biophysical studies of proteins in atomic detail in a variety of otherwise inaccessible contexts. The central element of the approach is the encapsulation of the protein of interest within the aqueous core of a reverse micelle with high structural fidelity. The process of encapsulation is highly dependent upon the nature of the surfactant(s) employed. Here we describe novel mixtures of surfactants that are capable of successfully encapsulating a range of types of proteins under a variety of conditions. PMID:16199658

  2. Structural and functional differences among human surfactant proteins SP-A1, SP-A2 and co-expressed SP-A1/SP-A2: role of supratrimeric oligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Barbero, Fernando; Rivas, Germán; Steinhilber, Wolfram; Casals, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    SP-A (surfactant protein A) is a membrane-associated SP that helps to maintain the lung in a sterile and non-inflamed state. Unlike SP-As from other mammalian species, human SP-A consists of two functional gene products: SP-A1 and SP-A2. In all the functions examined, recombinant human SP-A1 invariably exhibits lower biological activity than SP-A2. The objective of the present study was to investigate why SP-A2 possesses greater biological activity than SP-A1 and what advantage accrues to having two polypeptide chains instead of one. We analysed structural and functional characteristics of recombinant baculovirus-derived SP-A1, SP-A2 and co-expressed SP-A1/SP-A2 using a wide array of experimental approaches such as analytical ultracentrifugation, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and fluorescence. We found that the extent of supratrimeric assembly is much lower in SP-A1 than SP-A2. However, the resistance to proteolysis is greater for SP-A1 than for SP-A2. Co-expressed SP-A1/SP-A2 had greater thermal stability than SP-A1 and SP-A2 and exhibited properties of each protein. On the one hand, SP-A1/SP-A2, like SP-A2, had a higher degree of oligomerization than SP-A1, and consequently had lower Kd for binding to bacterial Re-LPS (rough lipopolysaccharide), higher self-association in the presence of calcium and greater capability to aggregate Re-LPS and phospholipids than SP-A1. On the other hand, SP-A1/SP-A2, like SP-A1, was more resistant to trypsin degradation than SP-A2. Finally, the importance of the supratrimeric assembly for SP-A immunomodulatory function is discussed. PMID:17542781

  3. Impact of the New Generation Reconstituted Surfactant CHF5633 on Human CD4+ Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fehrholz, Markus; Glaser, Kirsten; Seidenspinner, Silvia; Ottensmeier, Barbara; Curstedt, Tore; Speer, Christian P.; Kunzmann, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Background Natural surfactant preparations, commonly isolated from porcine or bovine lungs, are used to treat respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. Besides biophysical effectiveness, several studies have documented additional immunomodulatory properties. Within the near future, synthetic surfactant preparations may be a promising alternative. CHF5633 is a new generation reconstituted synthetic surfactant preparation with defined composition, containing dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine, palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol and synthetic analogs of surfactant protein (SP-) B and SP-C. While its biophysical effectiveness has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, possible immunomodulatory abilities are currently unknown. Aim The aim of the current study was to define a potential impact of CHF5633 and its single components on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses in human CD4+ lymphocytes. Methods Purified human CD4+ T cells were activated using anti CD3/CD28 antibodies and exposed to CHF5633, its components, or to the well-known animal-derived surfactant Poractant alfa (Curosurf®). Proliferative response and cell viability were assessed using flow cytometry and a methylthiazolyldiphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. The mRNA expression of IFNγ, IL-2, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-4, and IL-10 was measured by quantitative PCR, while intracellular protein expression was assessed by means of flow cytometry. Results Neither CHF5633 nor any of its phospholipid components with or without SP-B or SP-C analogs had any influence on proliferative ability and viability of CD4+ lymphocytes under the given conditions. IFNγ, IL-2, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-4, and IL-10 mRNA as well as IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 protein levels were unaffected in both non-activated and activated CD4+ lymphocytes after exposure to CHF5633 or its constituents compared to non-exposed controls. However, in comparison to Curosurf®, expression levels of anti-inflammatory IL-4 and IL-10 m

  4. Interaction of surfactant protein A with peroxiredoxin 6 regulates phospholipase A2 activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Zheng; Manevich, Yefim; Baldwin, James L; Dodia, Chandra; Yu, Kevin; Feinstein, Sheldon I; Fisher, Aron B

    2006-03-17

    Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a "moonlighting" protein with both GSH peroxidase and phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activities. This protein is responsible for degradation of internalized dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid component of lung surfactant. The PLA(2) activity is inhibited by surfactant protein A (SP-A). We postulate that SP-A regulates the PLA(2) activity of Prdx6 through direct protein-protein interaction. Recombinant human Prdx6 and SP-A isolated from human alveolar proteinosis fluid were studied. Measurement of kinetic constants at pH 4.0 (maximal PLA(2) activity) showed K(m)0.35 mm and V(max) 138 nmol/min/mg of protein. SP-A inhibited PLA(2) activity non-competitively with K(i) 10 mug/ml and was Ca(2+) -independent. Activity at pH 7.4 was approximately 50% less, and inhibition by SP-A was partially dependent on Ca(2+). Interaction of SP-A and Prdx6 at pH 7.4 was shown by Prdx6-mediated inhibition of SP-A binding to agarose beads, a pull-down assay using His-tagged Prdx6 and Ni(2) -chelating beads, co-immunoprecipitation from lung epithelial cells and from a binary mixture of the two proteins, binding after treatment with a trifunctional cross-linker, and size-exclusion chromatography. Analysis by static light scattering and surface plasmon resonance showed calcium-independent SP-A binding to Prdx6 at pH 4.0 and partial Ca(2+) dependence of binding at pH 7.4. These results indicate a direct interaction between SP-A and Prdx6, which provides a mechanism for regulation of the PLA(2) activity of Prdx6 by SP-A. PMID:16330552

  5. A nonionic surfactant-decorated liquid crystal sensor for sensitive and selective detection of proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Hu, Qiongzheng; Tian, Tongtong; Gao, Yan'an; Yu, Li

    2016-09-21

    Proteins are responsible for most biochemical events in human body. It is essential to develop sensitive and selective methods for the detection of proteins. In this study, liquid crystal (LC)-based sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of lysozyme, concanavalin A (Con A), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was constructed by utilizing the LC interface decorated with a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl β-d-glucopyranoside. A change of the LC optical images from bright to dark appearance was observed after transferring dodecyl β-d-glucopyranoside onto the aqueous/LC interface due to the formation of stable self-assembled surfactant monolayer, regardless of pH and ion concentrations studied in a wide range. The optical images turned back from dark to bright appearance after addition of lysozyme, Con A and BSA, respectively. Noteworthy is that these proteins can be further distinguished by adding enzyme inhibitors and controlling incubation temperature of the protein solutions based on three different interaction mechanisms between proteins and dodecyl β-d-glucopyranoside, viz. enzymatic hydrolysis, specific saccharide binding, and physical absorption. The LC-based sensor decorated with dodecyl β-d-glucopyranoside shows high sensitivity for protein detection. The limit of detection (LOD) for lysozyme, Con A and BSA reaches around 0.1 μg/mL, 0.01 μg/mL and 0.001 μg/mL, respectively. These results might provide new insights into increasing selectivity and sensitivity of LC-based sensors for the detection of proteins. PMID:27590553

  6. Binding of cationic surfactants to DNA, protein and DNA-protein mixtures.

    PubMed

    Gani, S A; Chattoraj, D K; Mukherjee, D C

    1999-06-01

    Extent of binding (gamma 2(1)) of cationic surfactants cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), myristyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (MTAB) and dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) to calf-thymus DNA, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and to their binary mixture respectively have been measured as function of bulk concentration of the surfactant by using equilibrium dialysis technique. Binding of CTAB has been studied at different pH, ionic strength (mu), temperature and biopolymer composition and with native and denatured states of the biopolymers. The chain-length of different long chain amines plays a significant role in the extent of binding under identical solution condition. The binding ratios for CTAB to collagen, gelatin, DNA-collagen and DNA-gelatin mixtures respectively have also been determined. The conformational structures of different biopolymers are observed to play significant role in macromolecular interactions between protein and DNA in the presence of CTAB. From the experimental values of the maximum binding ratio (gamma 2m) at the saturation level for each individual biopolymer, ideal values (gamma 2m)id have been theoretically calculated for binary mixtures of biopolymers using additivity rule. The protein-DNA-CTAB interaction in mixture has been explained in terms of the deviation (delta) of (gamma 2m) from (gamma 2m)id in the presence of a surfactant in bulk. The binding of surfactants to biopolymers and to their binary mixtures are compared more precisely in terms of the Gibbs' free energy decrease (-delta G degree) for the saturation of the binding sites in the biopolymers or biopolymer mixtures with the change of the bulk surfactant activity from zero to unity in the rational mole fraction scale. PMID:10650715

  7. Thermodynamics, interfacial pressure isotherms and dilational rheology of mixed protein-surfactant adsorption layers.

    PubMed

    Fainerman, V B; Aksenenko, E V; Krägel, J; Miller, R

    2016-07-01

    Proteins and their mixtures with surfactants are widely used in many applications. The knowledge of their solution bulk behavior and its impact on the properties of interfacial layers made great progress in the recent years. Different mechanisms apply to the formation process of protein/surfactant complexes for ionic and non-ionic surfactants, which are governed mainly by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The surface activity of these complexes is often remarkably different from that of the individual protein and has to be considered in respective theoretical models. At very low protein concentration, small amounts of added surfactants can change the surface activity of proteins remarkably, even though no strongly interfacial active complexes are observed. Also small added amounts of non-ionic surfactants change the surface activity of proteins in the range of small bulk concentrations or surface coverages. The modeling of the equilibrium adsorption behavior of proteins and their mixtures with surfactants has reached a rather high level. These models are suitable also to describe the high frequency limits of the dilational viscoelasticity of the interfacial layers. Depending on the nature of the protein/surfactant interactions and the changes in the interfacial layer composition rather complex dilational viscoelasticities can be observed and described by the available models. The differences in the interfacial behavior, often observed in literature for studies using different experimental methods, are at least partially explained by a depletion of proteins, surfactants and their complexes in the range of low concentrations. A correction of these depletion effects typically provides good agreement between the data obtained with different methods, such as drop and bubble profile tensiometry. PMID:26198014

  8. Intratracheal Recombinant Surfactant Protein D Prevents Endotoxin Shock in the Newborn Preterm Lamb

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Machiko; Carter, Karen; Bishop, Kimberly; Yadav, Annuradha; Masterjohn, Elizabeth; Brondyk, William; Scheule, Ronald K.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: The susceptibility of neonates to pulmonary and systemic infection has been associated with the immaturity of both lung structure and the immune system. Surfactant protein (SP) D is a member of the collectin family of innate immune molecules that plays an important role in innate host defense of the lung. Objectives: We tested whether treatment with recombinant human SP-D influenced the response of the lung and systemic circulation to intratracheally administered Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides. Methods: After intratracheal lipopolysaccharide instillation, preterm newborn lambs were treated with surfactant and ventilated for 5 h. Measurement: Survival rate, physiologic lung function, lung and systemic inflammation, and endotoxin level in plasma were evaluated. Main Results: In control lambs, intratracheal lipopolysaccharides caused septic shock and death associated with increased endotoxin in plasma. In contrast, all lambs treated with recombinant human SP-D were physiologically stable and survived. Leakage of lipopolysaccharides from the lungs to the systemic circulation was prevented by intratracheal recombinant human SP-D. Recombinant human SP-D prevented systemic inflammation and decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-6 in the spleen and liver. Likewise, recombinant human SP-D decreased IL-1β and IL-6 in the lung and IL-8 in the plasma. Recombinant human SP-D did not alter pulmonary mechanics following endotoxin exposure. Recombinant human SP-D was readily detected in the lung 5 h after intratracheal instillation. Conclusions: Intratracheal recombinant human SP-D prevented shock caused by endotoxin released from the lung during ventilation in the premature newborn. PMID:16556693

  9. Characterization of a human surfactant protein A1 (SP-A1) gene-specific antibody; SP-A1 content variation among individuals of varying age and pulmonary health.

    PubMed

    Tagaram, Hephzibah Rani S; Wang, Guirong; Umstead, Todd M; Mikerov, Anatoly N; Thomas, Neal J; Graff, Gavin R; Hess, Joseph C; Thomassen, Mary Jane; Kavuru, Mani S; Phelps, David S; Floros, Joanna

    2007-05-01

    The human surfactant protein A (SP-A) locus consists of two functional genes (SP-A1, SP-A2) with gene-specific products exhibiting qualitative and quantitative differences. The aim here was twofold: 1) generate SP-A1 gene-specific antibody, and 2) use this to assess gene-specific SP-A content in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). An SP-A1-specific polyclonal antibody (hSP-A1_Ab(68-88)_Col) was raised in chicken, and its specificity was determined by immunoblot and ELISA using mammalian Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-expressed SP-A1 and SP-A2 variants and by immunofluorescence with stably transfected CHO cell lines expressing SP-A1 or SP-A2 variants. SP-A1 content was evaluated according to age and lung status. A gradual decrease (P < 0.05) in SP-A1/SP-A ratio was observed in healthy subjects (HS) with increased age, although no significant change was observed in total SP-A content among age groups. Total SP-A and SP-A1 content differed significantly between alveolar proteinosis (AP) patients and HS, with no significant difference observed in SP-A1/SP-A ratio between AP and HS. The cystic fibrosis (CF) ratio was significantly higher compared with AP, HS, and noncystic fibrosis (NCF), even though SP-A1 and total SP-A were decreased in CF compared with most of the other groups. The ratio was higher in culture-positive vs. culture-negative samples from CF and NCF (P = 0.031). A trend of an increased ratio was observed in culture-positive CF (0.590 +/- 0.10) compared with culture-positive NCF (0.368 +/- 0.085). In summary, we developed and characterized an SP-A1 gene-specific antibody and used it to identify gene-specific SP-A content in BALFs as a function of age and lung health. PMID:17189324

  10. Interactions between Surfactants in Solution and Electrospun Protein Fibers: Effects on Release Behavior and Fiber Properties.

    PubMed

    Stephansen, Karen; García-Díaz, María; Jessen, Flemming; Chronakis, Ioannis S; Nielsen, Hanne M

    2016-03-01

    Intermolecular interaction phenomena occurring between endogenous compounds, such as proteins and bile salts, and electrospun compounds are so far unreported, despite the exposure of fibers to such biorelevant compounds when applied for biomedical purposes, e.g., tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery. In the present study, we present a systematic investigation of how surfactants and proteins, as physiologically relevant components, interact with insulin-loaded fish sarcoplasmic protein (FSP) electrospun fibers (FSP-Ins fibers) in solution and thereby affect fiber properties such as accessible surface hydrophilicity, physical stability, and release characteristics of an encapsulated drug. Interactions between insulin-loaded protein fibers and five anionic surfactants (sodium taurocholate, sodium taurodeoxycholate, sodium glycocholate, sodium glycodeoxycholate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate), a cationic surfactant (benzalkonium chloride), and a neutral surfactant (Triton X-100) were studied. The anionic surfactants increased the insulin release in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the neutral surfactant had no significant effect on the release. Interestingly, only minute amounts of insulin were released from the fibers when benzalkonium chloride was present. The FSP-Ins fibers appeared dense after incubation with this cationic surfactant, whereas high fiber porosity was observed after incubation with anionic or neutral surfactants. Contact angle measurements and staining with the hydrophobic dye 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid indicated that the FSP-Ins fibers were hydrophobic, and showed that the fiber surface properties were affected differently by the surfactants. Bovine serum albumin also affected insulin release in vitro, indicating that also proteins may affect the fiber performance in an in vivo setting. PMID:26389817

  11. Overcoming inactivation of the lung surfactant by serum proteins: a potential role for fluorocarbons?

    PubMed

    Krafft, Marie Pierre

    2015-08-14

    In many pulmonary conditions serum proteins interfere with the normal adsorption of components of the lung surfactant to the surface of the alveoli, resulting in lung surfactant inactivation, with potentially serious untoward consequences. Here, we review the strategies that have recently been designed in order to counteract the biophysical mechanisms of inactivation of the surfactant. One approach includes protein analogues or peptides that mimic the native proteins responsible for innate resistance to inactivation. Another perspective uses water-soluble additives, such as electrolytes and hydrophilic polymers that are prone to enhance adsorption of phospholipids. An alternative, more recent approach consists of using fluorocarbons, that is, highly hydrophobic inert compounds that were investigated for partial liquid ventilation, that modify interfacial properties and can act as carriers of exogenous lung surfactant. The latter approach that allows fluidisation of phospholipid monolayers while maintaining capacity to reach near-zero surface tension definitely warrants further investigation. PMID:26110877

  12. Keeping lung surfactant where it belongs: protein regulation of two-dimensional viscosity.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Coralie; Waring, Alan; Zasadzinski, Joseph A

    2005-07-01

    Lung surfactant causes the surface tension, gamma, in the alveoli to drop to nearly zero on exhalation; in the upper airways gamma is approximately 30 mN/m and constant. Hence, a surface tension gradient exists between alveoli and airways that should lead to surfactant flow out of the alveoli and elimination of the surface tension gradient. However, the lung surfactant specific protein SP-C enhances the resistance to surfactant flow by regulating the ratio of solid to fluid phase in the monolayer, leading to a jamming transition at which the monolayer transforms from fluidlike to solidlike. The accompanying three orders of magnitude increase in surface viscosity helps minimize surfactant flow to the airways and likely stabilizes the alveoli against collapse. PMID:15833995

  13. Species Differences in the Carbohydrate Binding Preferences of Surfactant Protein D

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, Erika C.; Smith, Kelly; McDonald, Barbara; Briner, David; Linders, Bruce; McDonald, Joseph; Holmskov, Uffe; Head, James; Hartshorn, Kevan

    2006-01-01

    Interactions of surfactant protein D (SP-D) with micro-organisms and organic antigens involve binding to the trimeric neck plus carbohydrate recognition domain (neck+CRD). In these studies, we compared the ligand binding of homologous human, rat, and mouse trimeric neck+CRD fusion proteins, each with identical N-terminal tags remote from the ligand-binding surface. Although rat and mouse showed similar affinities for saccharide competitors, both differed markedly from the human protein. The human neck+CRD preferentially recognized N-acetyl-mannosamine, whereas the rat and mouse proteins showed greater affinity for myoinositol, maltose, and glucose. Although human neck+CRDs bound to maltosyl-agarose and fungal mannan, only rat and mouse neck+CRDs showed significant binding to maltosyl-Toyopearl beads, solid-phase maltosyl-albumin neo-glycoprotein, or the Phil82 strain of influenza A virus. Likewise, human SP-D dodecamers and trimeric subunits of full-length rat, but not full-length human SP-D trimers, bound to maltosyl-Toyopearl. Site-directed mutagenesis of the human neck+CRD demonstrated an important role of Asp324-Asp325 in the recognition of N-acetyl-mannosamine, and substitution of the corresponding murine sequence (Asn324-Asn325) conferred a capacity to interact with immobilized maltose. Thus, ligand recognition by human SP-D involves a complex interplay between saccharide presentation, the valency of trimeric subunits, and species-specific residues that flank the primary carbohydrate binding site. PMID:16514117

  14. Exposure of surfactant protein A to ozone in vitro and in vivo impairs its interactions with alveolar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oosting, R.S.; Van Iwaarden, J.F.; Van Bree, L.; Verhoef, J.; Van Golde, L.M.; Haagsman, H.P. )

    1992-01-01

    This study focused on the question of whether exposure of surfactant protein A (SP-A) to ozone affected properties of this protein that may be involved in regulating alveolar type II cell and alveolar macrophage functions. In vitro exposure of human or canine SP-A to ozone reduced the ability of this protein to inhibit phorbol-ester induced secretion of (3H)phosphatidylcholine by alveolar type II cells in culture. Ozone-exposed human SP-A showed a decreased ability to enhance phagocytosis of herpes simplex virus and to stimulate superoxide anion production by alveolar macrophages. Experiments with elastase showed that ozone-exposed canine SP-A was more susceptible to proteolysis. A conformational change of the protein could underlie this phenomenon. Surfactant isolated from ozone-exposed rats (0.4 ppm ozone for 12 h) was also less able to stimulate superoxide anion production by alveolar macrophages than surfactant from control rats, which suggested that SP-A in vivo was also susceptible to ozone. The results of this study suggest that SP-A-alveolar cell interactions can be inhibited by ozone exposure, which may contribute to the toxicity of ozone in the lungs.

  15. Critical Role of Arg/Lys343 in the Species-Dependent Recognition of Phosphatidylinositol by Plumonary Surfactant Protein D

    SciTech Connect

    Crouch,E.; McDonald, B.; Smith, K.; Roberts, M.; Mealy, T.; Seaton, B.; Head, J.

    2007-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in lung host defense. However, it can also recognize specific host molecules and contributes to surfactant homeostasis. The major known surfactant-associated ligand is phosphatidylinositol (PI). Trimeric neck-carbohydrate recognition domains (NCRDs) of rat and human SP-D exhibited dose-dependent, calcium-dependent, and inositol-sensitive binding to solid-phase PI and to multilamellar PI liposomes. However, the rat protein exhibited a >5-fold higher affinity for solid-phase PI than the human NCRD. In addition, human dodecamers, but not full-length human trimers, efficiently coprecipitated with multilamellar PI liposomes in the presence of calcium. A human NCRD mutant resembling the rat and mouse proteins at position 343 (hR343K) showed much stronger binding to PI. A reciprocal rat mutant with arginine at the position of lysine 343 (rK343R) showed weak binding to PI, even weaker than that of the wild-type human protein. Crystal complexes of the human trimeric NCRD with myoinositol and inositol 1-phosphate showed binding of the equatorial OH groups of the cyclitol ring of the inositol to calcium at the carbohydrate binding site. Myoinositol binding occurred in two major orientations, while inositol 1-phosphate appeared primarily constrained to a single, different orientation. Our studies directly implicate the CRD in PI binding and reveal unexpected species differences in PI recognition that can be largely attributed to the side chain of residue 343. In addition, the studies indicate that oligomerization of trimeric subunits is an important determinant of recognition of PI by human SP-D.

  16. Regulation of translation by upstream translation initiation codons of surfactant protein A1 splice variants

    PubMed Central

    Tsotakos, Nikolaos; Silveyra, Patricia; Lin, Zhenwu; Thomas, Neal; Vaid, Mudit

    2014-01-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A), a molecule with roles in lung innate immunity and surfactant-related functions, is encoded by two genes in humans: SFTPA1 (SP-A1) and SFTPA2 (SP-A2). The mRNAs from these genes differ in their 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTR) due to differential splicing. The 5′-UTR variant ACD′ is exclusively found in transcripts of SP-A1, but not in those of SP-A2. Its unique exon C contains two upstream AUG codons (uAUGs) that may affect SP-A1 translation efficiency. The first uAUG (u1) is in frame with the primary start codon (p), but the second one (u2) is not. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of uAUGs on SP-A1 expression. We employed RT-qPCR to determine the presence of exon C-containing SP-A1 transcripts in human RNA samples. We also used in vitro techniques including mutagenesis, reporter assays, and toeprinting analysis, as well as in silico analyses to determine the role of uAUGs. Exon C-containing mRNA is present in most human lung tissue samples and its expression can, under certain conditions, be regulated by factors such as dexamethasone or endotoxin. Mutating uAUGs resulted in increased luciferase activity. The mature protein size was not affected by the uAUGs, as shown by a combination of toeprint and in silico analysis for Kozak sequence, secondary structure, and signal peptide and in vitro translation in the presence of microsomes. In conclusion, alternative splicing may introduce uAUGs in SP-A1 transcripts, which in turn negatively affect SP-A1 translation, possibly affecting SP-A1/SP-A2 ratio, with potential for clinical implication. PMID:25326576

  17. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  18. Altered surfactant protein A gene expression and protein metabolism associated with repeat exposure to inhaled endotoxin.

    PubMed

    George, Caroline L S; White, Misty L; O'Neill, Marsha E; Thorne, Peter S; Schwartz, David A; Snyder, Jeanne M

    2003-12-01

    Chronically inhaled endotoxin, which is ubiquitous in many occupational and domestic environments, can adversely affect the respiratory system resulting in an inflammatory response and decreased lung function. Surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) is part of the lung innate immune system and may attenuate the inflammatory response in various types of lung injury. Using a murine model to mimic occupational exposures to endotoxin, we hypothesized that SP-A gene expression and protein would be elevated in response to repeat exposure to inhaled grain dust and to purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our results demonstrate that repeat exposure to inhaled endotoxin, either in the form of grain dust or purified LPS, results in increased whole lung SP-A gene expression and type II alveolar epithelial cell hyperplasia, whereas SP-A protein levels in lung lavage fluid are decreased. Furthermore, these alterations in SP-A gene activity and protein metabolism are dependent on an intact endotoxin signaling system. PMID:12922979

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Heterologous Production Systems for Recombinant Pulmonary Surfactant Protein D

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Daniela; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan; Twyman, Richard M.; Rasche, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Commercial surfactant products derived from animal lungs are used for the treatment of respiratory diseases in premature neonates. These products contain lipids and the hydrophobic surfactant proteins B and C, which help to lower the surface tension in the lungs. Surfactant products are less effective when pulmonary diseases involve inflammatory complications because two hydrophilic surfactant proteins (A and D) are lost during the extraction process, yet surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a component of the innate immune system that helps to reduce lung inflammation. The performance of surfactant products could, therefore, be improved by supplementing them with an additional source of SP-D. Recombinant SP-D (rSP-D) is produced in mammalian cells and bacteria (Escherichia coli), and also experimentally in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Mammalian cells produce full-size SP-D, but the yields are low and the cost of production is high. In contrast, bacteria produce a truncated form of SP-D, which is active in vitro and in vivo, and higher yields can be achieved at a lower cost. We compare the efficiency of production of rSP-D in terms of the total yields achieved in each system and the amount of SP-D needed to meet the global demand for the treatment of pulmonary diseases, using respiratory distress syndrome as a case study. PMID:25538707

  20. Glucocorticoids regulate surfactant protein synthesis in a pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    O'Reilly, M.A.; Gazdar, A.F.; Clark, J.C.; Pilot-Matias, T.J.; Wert, S.E.; Hull, W.M.; Whitsett, J.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Synthesis of pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C was demonstrated in a cell line derived from a human adenocarcinoma of the lung. The cells contained numerous lamellar inclusion bodies and formed organized groups of cells containing well-developed junctional complexes and apical microvillous membranes. Synthesis of SP-A was detected in the cells by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay and by immunoprecipitation of (35S)methionine-labeled protein. SP-A was identified as an Mr 31,000-36,000 polypeptide containing asparagine-linked carbohydrate. Northern blot analysis detected SP-A mRNA of 2.2 kb. Dexamethasone (1-10 nM) enhanced the relative abundance of SP-A mRNA. Despite stimulation of SP-A mRNA, intracellular SP-A content was unaltered or inhibited by dexamethasone. SP-B and SP-C mRNAs and synthesis of the SP-B and SP-C precursors were markedly induced by dexamethasone. ProSP-B was synthesized and secreted primarily as an Mr 42,000-46,000 polypeptide. Proteolysis of the proSP-B resulted in the generation of endoglycosidase F-sensitive Mr = 19,000-21,000 and 25,000-27,000 peptides, which were detected both intra- and extracellularly. SP-C proprotein of Mr = 22,000 and smaller SP-C fragments were detected intracellularly but were not detected in the media. Mature forms of SP-B (Mr = 8,000) and SP-C (Mr = 4,000) were not detected. Glucocorticoids directly enhance the relative synthesis and mRNA of the surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C. Discrepancies among SP-A mRNA, its de novo synthesis, and cell content suggest that glucocorticoid may alter both pre- and posttranslational factors modulating SP-A expression.

  1. Orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR116 regulates pulmonary surfactant pool size.

    PubMed

    Bridges, James P; Ludwig, Marie-Gabrielle; Mueller, Matthias; Kinzel, Bernd; Sato, Atsuyasu; Xu, Yan; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Ikegami, Machiko

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary surfactant levels within the alveoli are tightly regulated to maintain lung volumes and promote efficient gas exchange across the air/blood barrier. Quantitative and qualitative abnormalities in surfactant are associated with severe lung diseases in children and adults. Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control surfactant metabolism have been studied intensively, the critical molecular pathways that sense and regulate endogenous surfactant levels within the alveolus have not been identified and constitute a fundamental knowledge gap in the field. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR116, in the murine lung is developmentally regulated, reaching maximal levels 1 day after birth, and is highly expressed on the apical surface of alveolar type I and type II epithelial cells. To define the physiological role of GPR116 in vivo, mice with a targeted mutation of the Gpr116 locus, Gpr116(Δexon17), were generated. Gpr116(Δexon17) mice developed a profound accumulation of alveolar surfactant phospholipids at 4 weeks of age (12-fold) that was further increased at 20 weeks of age (30-fold). Surfactant accumulation in Gpr116(Δexon17) mice was associated with increased saturated phosphatidylcholine synthesis at 4 weeks and the presence of enlarged, lipid-laden macrophages, neutrophilia, and alveolar destruction at 20 weeks. mRNA microarray analyses indicated that P2RY2, a purinergic receptor known to mediate surfactant secretion, was induced in Gpr116(Δexon17) type II cells. Collectively, these data support the concept that GPR116 functions as a molecular sensor of alveolar surfactant lipid pool sizes by regulating surfactant secretion. PMID:23590306

  2. Sputum and BAL Clara cell secretory protein and surfactant protein D levels in asthma.

    PubMed

    Emmanouil, P; Loukides, S; Kostikas, K; Papatheodorou, G; Papaporfyriou, A; Hillas, G; Vamvakaris, I; Triggidou, R; Katafigiotis, P; Kokkini, A; Papiris, S; Koulouris, N; Bakakos, P

    2015-06-01

    Clara cell secretory protein (CC16) is associated with Th2 modulation. Surfactant protein D (SPD) plays an important role in surfactant homeostasis and eosinophil chemotaxis. We measured CC16 and SPD in sputum supernatants of 84 asthmatic patients and 12 healthy controls. In 22 asthmatics, we additionally measured CC16 and SPD levels in BAL and assessed smooth muscle area (SMA), reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickness, and epithelial detachment (ED) in bronchial biopsies. Induced sputum CC16 and SPD were significantly higher in patients with severe asthma (SRA) compared to mild-moderate and healthy controls. BAL CC16 and SPD levels were also higher in SRA compared to mild-moderate asthma. CC16 BAL levels correlated with ED, while SPD BAL levels correlated with SMA and RBM. Severity represented a significant covariate for these associations. CC16 and SPD levels are upregulated in SRA and correlate with remodeling indices, suggesting a possible role of these biomarkers in the remodeling process. PMID:25728058

  3. The structure of latherin, a surfactant allergen protein from horse sweat and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Steven J.; McDonald, Rhona E.; Cooper, Alan; Smith, Brian O.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2013-01-01

    Latherin is a highly surface-active allergen protein found in the sweat and saliva of horses and other equids. Its surfactant activity is intrinsic to the protein in its native form, and is manifest without associated lipids or glycosylation. Latherin probably functions as a wetting agent in evaporative cooling in horses, but it may also assist in mastication of fibrous food as well as inhibition of microbial biofilms. It is a member of the PLUNC family of proteins abundant in the oral cavity and saliva of mammals, one of which has also been shown to be a surfactant and capable of disrupting microbial biofilms. How these proteins work as surfactants while remaining soluble and cell membrane-compatible is not known. Nor have their structures previously been reported. We have used protein nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the conformation and dynamics of latherin in aqueous solution. The protein is a monomer in solution with a slightly curved cylindrical structure exhibiting a ‘super-roll’ motif comprising a four-stranded anti-parallel β-sheet and two opposing α-helices which twist along the long axis of the cylinder. One end of the molecule has prominent, flexible loops that contain a number of apolar amino acid side chains. This, together with previous biophysical observations, leads us to a plausible mechanism for surfactant activity in which the molecule is first localized to the non-polar interface via these loops, and then unfolds and flattens to expose its hydrophobic interior to the air or non-polar surface. Intrinsically surface-active proteins are relatively rare in nature, and this is the first structure of such a protein from mammals to be reported. Both its conformation and proposed method of action are different from other, non-mammalian surfactant proteins investigated so far. PMID:23782536

  4. Combine and Conquer: Surfactants, Solvents, and Chaotropes for Robust Mass Spectrometry Based Analyses of Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomic technologies enable the identification and quantification of membrane proteins as well as their post-translational modifications. A prerequisite for their quantitative and reliable MS-based bottom-up analysis is the efficient digestion into peptides by proteases, though digestion of membrane proteins is typically challenging due to their inherent properties such as hydrophobicity. Here, we investigated the effect of eight commercially available MS-compatible surfactants, two organic solvents, and two chaotropes on the enzymatic digestion efficiency of membrane protein-enriched complex mixtures in a multiphase study using a gelfree approach. Multiple parameters, including the number of peptides and proteins identified, total protein sequence coverage, and digestion specificity were used to evaluate transmembrane protein digestion performance. A new open-source software tool was developed to allow for the specific assessment of transmembrane domain sequence coverage. Results demonstrate that while Progenta anionic surfactants outperform other surfactants when tested alone, combinations of guanidine and acetonitrile improve performance of all surfactants to near similar levels as well as enhance trypsin specificity to >90%, which has critical implications for future quantitative and qualitative proteomic studies. PMID:24392666

  5. Solubilizing and Stabilizing Proteins in Anhydrous Ionic Liquids through Formation of Protein-Polymer Surfactant Nanoconstructs.

    PubMed

    Brogan, Alex P S; Hallett, Jason P

    2016-04-01

    Nonaqueous biocatalysis is rapidly becoming a desirable tool for chemical and fuel synthesis in both the laboratory and industry. Similarly, ionic liquids are increasingly popular anhydrous reaction media for a number of industrial processes. Consequently, the use of enzymes in ionic liquids as efficient, environment-friendly, commercial biocatalysts is highly attractive. However, issues surrounding the poor solubility and low stability of enzymes in truly anhydrous media remain a significant challenge. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that engineering the surface of a protein to yield protein-polymer surfactant nanoconstructs allows for dissolution of dry protein into dry ionic liquids. Using myoglobin as a model protein, we show that this method can deliver protein molecules with near native structure into both hydrophilic and hydrophobic anhydrous ionic liquids. Remarkably, using temperature-dependent synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy to measure half-denaturation temperatures, our results show that protein stability increases by 55 °C in the ionic liquid as compared to aqueous solution, pushing the solution thermal denaturation beyond the boiling point of water. Therefore, the work presented herein could provide a platform for the realization of biocatalysis at high temperatures or in anhydrous solvent systems. PMID:26976718

  6. Capillary electromigration separation of proteins and microorganisms dynamically modified by chromophoric nonionogenic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Horká, Marie; Růzicka, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Kahle, Vladislav; Moravcová, Dana; Slais, Karel

    2009-08-15

    A chromophoric nonionogenic surfactant poly(ethylene glycol) 3-(2-hydroxy-5-n-octylphenylazo)-benzoate, HOPAB, has been prepared and used as a buffer additive for a dynamic modification of proteins and/or microorganisms including Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus epidermidis (biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative), and the strains of yeast cells Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis (biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative) during a capillary electrophoresis and a capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) with UV detection at 326 nm. Values of isoelectric points of labeled proteins and microorganisms have been calculated using UV-detectable pI markers and have been found comparable with pI of the native compounds. Minimum detectable amount has been assessed lower than picograms of proteins and lower than a hundred cells injected into a separation capillary. The introduced labeling method facilitates CIEF separation of microorganisms from the clinical sample of the infected urine at their clinically important levels in the pH gradient pH range of 2-5 and their subsequent cultivation. At the same time, it has enabled the determination of albumin in human urine as a major clinical marker of urinary tract infections and kidney diseases. PMID:19627124

  7. Effect of protein-surfactant interactions on aggregation of β-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Hansted, Jon G; Wejse, Peter L; Bertelsen, Hans; Otzen, Daniel E

    2011-05-01

    The milk protein β-lactoglobulin (βLG) dominates the properties of whey aggregates in food products. Here we use spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques to elucidate how anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants interact with bovine βLG and modulate its heat-induced aggregation. Alkyl trimethyl ammonium chlorides (xTAC) strongly promote aggregation, while sodium alkyl sulfates (SxS) and alkyl maltopyranosides (xM) reduce aggregation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) binds to non-aggregated βLG in several steps, but reduction of aggregation was associated with the first binding step, which occurs far below the critical micelle concentration. In contrast, micellar concentrations of xMs are required to reduce aggregation. The ranking order for reduction of aggregation (normalized to their tendency to self-associate) was C10-C12>C8>C14 for SxS and C8>C10>C12>C14>C16 for xM. xTAC promote aggregation in the same ranking order as xM reduce it. We conclude that SxS reduce aggregation by stabilizing the protein's ligand-bound state (the melting temperature t(m) increases by up to 10°C) and altering its charge potential. xM monomers also stabilize the protein's ligand-bound state (increasing t(m) up to 6°C) but in the absence of charged head groups this is not sufficient by itself to prevent aggregation. Although micelles of both anionic and non-ionic surfactants destabilize βLG, they also solubilize unfolded protein monomers, leaving them unavailable for protein-protein association and thus inhibiting aggregation. Cationic surfactants promote aggregation by a combination of destabilization and charge neutralization. The food compatible surfactant sodium dodecanoate also inhibited aggregation well below the cmc, suggesting that surfactants may be a practical way to modulate whey protein properties. PMID:21440683

  8. Surfactant protein A modulates the inflammatory response in macrophages during tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gold, Jeffrey A; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Naohiko; Rom, William N; Raju, Bindu; Condos, Rany; Weiden, Michael D

    2004-02-01

    Tuberculosis leads to immune activation and increased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in the lung. However, in vitro models of mycobacterial infection of human macrophages do not fully reproduce these in vivo observations, suggesting that there are additional host factors. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an important mediator of innate immunity in the lung. SP-A levels were assayed in the human lung by using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). There was a threefold reduction in SP-A levels during tuberculosis only in the radiographically involved lung segments, and the levels returned to normal after 1 month of treatment. The SP-A levels were inversely correlated with the percentage of neutrophils in BAL fluid, suggesting that low SP-A levels were associated with increased inflammation in the lung. Differentiated THP-1 macrophages were used to test the effect of decreasing SP-A levels on immune function. In the absence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, SP-A at doses ranging from 5 to 0.01 micro g/ml inhibited both interleukin-6 (IL-6) production and HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) activity. In macrophages infected with M. tuberculosis, SP-A augmented both IL-6 production and HIV-1 LTR activity. To better understand the effect of SP-A, we measured expression of CAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta), a transcription factor central to the regulation of IL-6 and the HIV-1 LTR. In macrophages infected with M. tuberculosis, SP-A reduced expression of a dominant negative isoform of C/EBPbeta. These data suggest that SP-A has pleiotropic effects even at the low concentrations found in tuberculosis patients. This protein augments inflammation in the presence of infection and inhibits inflammation in uninfected macrophages, protecting uninvolved lung segments from the deleterious effects of inflammation. PMID:14742504

  9. Evaluation of sucrose esters as alternative surfactants in microencapsulation of proteins by the solvent evaporation method.

    PubMed

    Youan, Bi-Botti C; Hussain, Alamdar; Nguyen, Nga T

    2003-01-01

    Sucrose esters (SE) are surfactants with potential pharmaceutical applications because of their low toxicity, biocompatibility, and excellent biodegradability. The objective of the study was to investigate SE as alternative surfactants in stabilizing emulsions for the preparation of protein-loaded microparticles. To achieve this goal, using bovine serum albumin as model protein and 75/25 poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) as polymer carrier, we have investigated the influence of the following formulation variables on particle characteristics: (1) SE concentration from 0.01% to 1% (wt/vol), (2) hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value of SE from 6 to 15, and (3) the nature of emulsion stabilizer. The formulations were characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, bicinchoninic acid protein assay, optical microscopy and SDS-PAGE. Results showed that at 0.05% (wt/vol) surfactant concentration, SE with HLB of 6 to 15 provided discrete and spherical microparticles with the highest encapsulation efficiency compared with controls polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poloxamer 188. These results may be explained by the difference in critical micelle concentration, diffusion, and partition coefficient among the tested surfactants. HLB values were consistent with SE spectral data. The protein molecular weight was preserved after the encapsulation process. The effective SE concentration was far less (20- to 200-fold) than that is usually required for PVA in microencapsulation of proteins. However, the encapsulation efficiency was relatively lower (approximately 13.5%). These preliminary results suggest that it may be desirable to optimize such formulations in vitro and in vivo for SE to be eventually used as alternative surfactants in the development of microparticulate systems for parenteral delivery of protein and gene medicines. PMID:12866947

  10. Binding sites for interaction of peroxiredoxin 6 with surfactant protein A.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Saikumari Y; Dodia, Chandra; Sorokina, Elena M; Li, Haitao; Feinstein, Sheldon I; Fisher, Aron B

    2016-04-01

    Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a bifunctional enzyme with peroxidase and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities. This protein participates in the degradation and remodeling of internalized dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the major phospholipid component of lung surfactant. We have shown previously that the PLA2 activity of Prdx6 is inhibited by the lung surfactant-associated protein called surfactant protein A (SP-A) through direct protein-protein interaction. Docking of SPA and Prdx6 was modeled using the ZDOCK (zlab.bu.edu) program in order to predict molecular sites for binding of the two proteins. The predicted peptide sequences were evaluated for binding to the opposite protein using isothermal titration calorimetry and circular dichroism measurement followed by determination of the effect of the SP-A peptide on the PLA2 activity of Prdx6. The sequences 195EEEAKKLFPK204.in the Prdx6 helix and 83DEELQTELYEIKHQIL99 in SP-A were identified as the sites for hydrophobic interaction and H(+)-bonding between the 2 proteins. Treatment of mouse endothelial cells with the SP-A peptide inhibited their recovery from lipid peroxidation associated with oxidative stress indicating inhibition of Prdx6 activity by the peptide in the intact cell. PMID:26723227

  11. Persistence of LPS-induced lung inflammation in surfactant protein-C-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Stephan W; Maxfield, Melissa D; Ruetschilling, Teah L; Akinbi, Henry T; Baatz, John E; Kitzmiller, Joseph A; Page, Kristen; Xu, Yan; Bao, Erik L; Korfhagen, Thomas R

    2013-11-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein-C (SP-C) gene-targeted mice (Sftpc(-/-)) develop progressive lung inflammation and remodeling. We hypothesized that SP-C deficiency reduces the ability to suppress repetitive inflammatory injury. Sftpc(+/+) and Sftpc(-/-) mice given three doses of bacterial LPS developed airway and airspace inflammation, which was more intense in the Sftpc(-/-) mice at 3 and 5 days after the final dose. Compared with Sftpc(+/+)mice, inflammatory injury persisted in the lungs of Sftpc(-/-) mice 30 days after the final LPS challenge. Sftpc(-/-) mice showed LPS-induced airway goblet cell hyperplasia with increased detection of Sam pointed Ets domain and FoxA3 transcription factors. Sftpc(-/-) type II alveolar epithelial cells had increased cytokine expression after LPS exposure relative to Sftpc(+/+) cells, indicating that type II cell dysfunction contributes to inflammatory sensitivity. Microarray analyses of isolated type II cells identified a pattern of enhanced expression of inflammatory genes consistent with an intrinsic low-level inflammation resulting from SP-C deficiency. SP-C-containing clinical surfactant extract (Survanta) or SP-C/phospholipid vesicles blocked LPS signaling through the LPS receptor (Toll-like receptor [TLR] 4/CD14/MD2) in human embryonic kidney 293T cells, indicating that SP-C blocks LPS-induced cytokine production by a TLR4-dependent mechanism. Phospholipid vesicles alone did not modify the TLR4 response. In vivo deficiency of SP-C leads to inflammation, increased cytokine production by type II cells, and persistent inflammation after repetitive LPS stimulation. PMID:23795648

  12. Surfactant protein A integrates activation signal strength to differentially modulate T cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sambuddho; Giamberardino, Charles; Thomas, Joseph; Evans, Kathy; Goto, Hisatsugu; Ledford, Julie G; Hsia, Bethany; Pastva, Amy M; Wright, Jo Rae

    2012-02-01

    Pulmonary surfactant lipoproteins lower the surface tension at the alveolar-airway interface of the lung and participate in host defense. Previous studies reported that surfactant protein A (SP-A) inhibits lymphocyte proliferation. We hypothesized that SP-A-mediated modulation of T cell activation depends upon the strength, duration, and type of lymphocyte activating signals. Modulation of T cell signal strength imparted by different activating agents ex vivo and in vivo in different mouse models and in vitro with human T cells shows a strong correlation between strength of signal (SoS) and functional effects of SP-A interactions. T cell proliferation is enhanced in the presence of SP-A at low SoS imparted by exogenous mitogens, specific Abs, APCs, or in homeostatic proliferation. Proliferation is inhibited at higher SoS imparted by different doses of the same T cell mitogens or indirect stimuli such as LPS. Importantly, reconstitution with exogenous SP-A into the lungs of SP-A(-/-) mice stimulated with a strong signal also resulted in suppression of T cell proliferation while elevating baseline proliferation in unstimulated T cells. These signal strength and SP-A-dependent effects are mediated by changes in intracellular Ca(2+) levels over time, involving extrinsic Ca(2+)-activated channels late during activation. These effects are intrinsic to the global T cell population and are manifested in vivo in naive as well as memory phenotype T cells. Thus, SP-A appears to integrate signal thresholds to control T cell proliferation. PMID:22219327

  13. Proteomic analysis reveals down-regulation of surfactant protein B in murine type II pneumocytes infected with influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Kebaabetswe, Lemme P.; Haick, Anoria K.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Matzke, Melissa M.; Smith, Richard D.; Waters, Katrina M.; Metz, Thomas O.; Miura, Tanya A.

    2015-01-01

    Infection of type II alveolar epithelial (ATII) cells by influenza A viruses (IAV) correlates with severe respiratory disease in humans and mice. To understand pathogenic mechanisms during IAV infection of ATII cells, murine ATII cells were cultured to maintain a differentiated phenotype, infected with IAV-PR8, which causes severe lung pathology in mice, and proteomics analyses were performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. PR8 infection increased levels of proteins involved in interferon signaling, antigen presentation, and cytoskeleton regulation. Proteins involved in mitochondrial membrane permeability, energy metabolism, and chromatin formation had reduced levels in PR8-infected cells. Phenotypic markers of ATII cells in vivo were identified, confirming the differentiation status of the cultures. Surfactant protein B had decreased levels in PR8-infected cells, which was confirmed by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays. Analysis of ATII cell protein profiles will elucidate cellular processes in IAV pathogenesis, which may provide insight into potential therapies to modulate disease severity. PMID:25965799

  14. Surfactant Protein A Enhances Constitutive Immune Functions of Clathrin Heavy Chain and Clathrin Adaptor Protein 2.

    PubMed

    Moulakakis, Christina; Steinhäuser, Christine; Biedziak, Dominika; Freundt, Katja; Reiling, Norbert; Stamme, Cordula

    2016-07-01

    NF-κB transcription factors are key regulators of pulmonary inflammatory disorders and repair. Constitutive lung cell type- and microenvironment-specific NF-κB/inhibitor κBα (IκB-α) regulation, however, is poorly understood. Surfactant protein (SP)-A provides both a critical homeostatic and lung defense control, in part by immune instruction of alveolar macrophages (AMs) via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The central endocytic proteins, clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and the clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complex AP2, have pivotal alternative roles in cellular homeostasis that are endocytosis independent. Here, we dissect endocytic from alternative functions of CHC, the α-subunit of AP2, and dynamin in basal and SP-A-modified LPS signaling of macrophages. As revealed by pharmacological inhibition and RNA interference in primary AMs and RAW264.7 macrophages, respectively, CHC and α-adaptin, but not dynamin, prevent IκB-α degradation and TNF-α release, independent of their canonical role in membrane trafficking. Kinetics studies employing confocal microscopy, Western analysis, and immunomagnetic sorting revealed that SP-A transiently enhances the basal protein expression of CHC and α-adaptin, depending on early activation of protein kinase CK2 (former casein kinase II) and Akt1 in primary AMs from rats, SP-A(+/+), and SP-A(-/-) mice, as well as in vivo when intratracheally administered to SP-A(+/+) mice. Constitutive immunomodulation by SP-A, but not SP-A-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced NF-κB activity and TNF-α release, requires CHC, α-adaptin, and dynamin. Our data demonstrate that endocytic proteins constitutively restrict NF-κB activity in macrophages and provide evidence that SP-A enhances the immune regulatory capacity of these proteins, revealing a previously unknown pathway of microenvironment-specific NF-κB regulation in the lung. PMID:26771574

  15. Interaction of Moringa oleifera seed protein with a mineral surface and the influence of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kwaambwa, Habauka M; Hellsing, Maja S; Rennie, Adrian R; Barker, Robert

    2015-06-15

    The paper describes the adsorption of purified protein from seeds of Moringa oleifera to a sapphire interface and the effects of addition of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Neutron reflection was used to determine the structure and composition of interfacial layers adsorbed at the solid/solution interface. The maximum surface excess of protein was found to be about 5.3 mg m(-2). The protein does not desorb from the solid/liquid interface when rinsed with water. Addition of SDS increases the reflectivity indicating co-adsorption. It was observed that CTAB is able to remove the protein from the interface. The distinct differences to the behavior observed previously for the protein at the silica/water interface are identified. The adsorption of the protein to alumina in addition to other surfaces has shown why it is an effective flocculating agent for the range of impurities found in water supplies. The ability to tailor different surface layers in combination with various surfactants also offers the potential for adsorbed protein to be used in separation technologies. PMID:25746187

  16. Protein-nanoparticle interactions evaluation by immunomethods: Surfactants can disturb quantitative determinations.

    PubMed

    Fornaguera, Cristina; Calderó, Gabriela; Solans, Conxita; Vauthier, Christine

    2015-08-01

    The adsorption of proteins on nanoparticle surface is one of the first events that occur when nanoparticles enter in the blood stream, which influences nanoparticles lifetime and further biodistribution. Albumin, which is the most abundant protein in serum and which has been deeply characterized, is an interesting model protein to investigate nanoparticle-protein interactions. Therefore, the interaction of nanoparticles with serum albumin has been widely studied. Immunomethods were suggested for the investigation of adsorption isotherms because of their ease to quantify the non-adsorbed bovine serum albumin without the need of applying separation methods that could modify the balance between the adsorbed and non-adsorbed proteins. The present work revealed that this method should be applied with caution. Artifacts in the determination of free protein can be generated by the presence of surfactants such as polysorbate 80, widely used in the pharmaceutical and biomedical field, that are needed to preserve the stability of nanoparticle dispersions. It was shown that the presence of traces of polysorbate 80 in the dispersion leads to an overestimation of the amount of bovine serum albumin remaining free in the dispersion medium when determined by both radial immunodiffusion and rocket immunoelectrophoresis. However, traces of poloxamer 188 did not result in clear perturbed migrations. These methods are not appropriate to perform adsorption isotherms of proteins on nanoparticle dispersions containing traces of remaining free surfactant. They should only be applied on dispersions that are free of surfactant that is not associated with nanoparticles. PMID:26070388

  17. Probing the micellar properties of Quinacrine 2HCl and its binding with surfactants and Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Siddiq, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    This manuscript reports physicochemical behavior of an antimalarial drug Quinacrine 2HCl (QUN) drug as well as its interaction with surfactant and Human Serum Albumin (HSA). Surface tension and specific conductivity were employed to detect the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and thus its surface and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Solublization of this drug within micelles of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has also been studied. UV/Visible spectroscopy was used to calculate partition coefficient (Kx), free energy of partition and number of drug molecules per micelle. The complexation of drug with HSA at physiological conditions (pH 7.4) has been analyzed by using UV/Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. In this way the values of drug-protein binding constant, number of binding sites and free energy of binding were calculated.

  18. Separation of proteins and peptides by capillary electrophoresis in acid buffers containing high concentrations of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Miksík, I; Deyl, Z

    1999-08-01

    Separations of proteins at acid pH in the presence of a high concentration of surfactant [sodium laurylsulfate (SDS), 50 mmol/l] was investigated. The purpose of using high concentrations of SDS as background electrolyte modifier was threefold: First, the surfactant exerts a washing effect upon the capillary wall thus preventing binding of analytes and possible clogging of the capillary. Second, it was revealed that even under very acid conditions (below pH 3) the surfactant is capable of forming associates with protein analytes which still bear considerable negative charge and can be separated on this basis. Third, the system can be applied not only for protein mixtures sufficiently soluble in neutral to alkaline media (leukocyte lysates, standard proteins), but it can be used also with proteins, that are under such conditions virtually insoluble and their solubilization is possible in acid buffers only (eggshell proteins or collagen CNBr fragments). The result was that adsorption to the capillary wall was minimized and the analytes were separated as negatively charged associates with high efficiency. With collagen fragments partition was possible on the affinity differences of the peptides to the surfactant micelles and inner wall of the capillary. Theoretical plate counts approaching 100,000 were easily achieved even with proteins which under the more conventional operation conditions exhibit considerable sticking to the capillary wall. The other feature of this system is that the associates move very rapidly to the anode. Owing to the low pH, endoosmotic flow is negligible, and therefore the system has to be operated at reversed polarity. PMID:10480258

  19. Crystal Structure of Trimeric Carbohydrate Recognition and Neck Domains of Surfactant Protein A

    SciTech Connect

    Head,J.; Mealy, T.; McCormack, F.; Seaton, B.

    2003-01-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A), one of four proteins associated with pulmonary surfactant, binds with high affinity to alveolar phospholipid membranes, positioning the protein at the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens. SP-A exhibits both calcium-dependent carbohydrate binding, a characteristic of the collectin family, and specific interactions with lipid membrane components. The crystal structure of the trimeric carbohydrate recognition domain and neck domain of SP-A was solved to 2.1-{angstrom} resolution with multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing from samarium. Two metalbinding sites were identified, one in the highly conserved lectin site and the other 8.5 {angstrom} away. The interdomain carbohydrate recognition domain-neck angle is significantly less in SP-A than in the homologous collectins, surfactant protein D, and mannose-binding protein. This conformational difference may endow the SP-A trimer with a more extensive hydrophobic surface capable of binding lipophilic membrane components. The appearance of this surface suggests a putative binding region for membrane-derived SP-A ligands such as phosphatidylcholine and lipid A, the endotoxic lipid component of bacterial lipopolysaccharide that mediates the potentially lethal effects of Gram-negative bacterial infection.

  20. Mutant surfactant A2 proteins associated with familial pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer induce TGF-β1 secretion

    PubMed Central

    Maitra, Meenakshi; Cano, Christopher A.; Garcia, Christine Kim

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the genes encoding the lung surfactant proteins are found in patients with interstitial lung disease and lung cancer, but their pathologic mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from humans heterozygous for a missense mutation in the gene encoding surfactant protein (SP)-A2 (SFTPA2) contains more TGF-β1 than control samples. Expression of mutant SP-A2 in lung epithelial cells leads to secretion of latent TGF-β1, which is capable of autocrine and paracrine signaling. TGF-β1 secretion is not observed in lung epithelial cells expressing the common SP-A2 variants or other misfolded proteins capable of increasing cellular endoplasmic reticulum stress. Activation of the unfolded protein response is necessary for maximal TGF-β1 secretion because gene silencing of the unfolded protein response transducers leads to an ∼50% decrease in mutant SP-A2–mediated TGF-β1 secretion. Expression of the mutant SP-A2 proteins leads to the coordinated increase in gene expression of TGF-β1 and two TGF-β1–binding proteins, LTBP-1 and LTBP-4; expression of the latter is necessary for secretion of this cytokine. Inhibition of the TGF-β autocrine positive feedback loop by a pan–TGF-β–neutralizing antibody, a TGF-β receptor antagonist, or LTBP gene silencing results in the reversal of TGF-β–mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cell death. Because secretion of latent TGF-β1 is induced specifically by mutant SP-A2 proteins, therapeutics targeted to block this pathway may be especially beneficial for this molecularly defined subgroup of patients. PMID:23223528

  1. Capillary electrophoretic focusing of covalently derivatized protein induced by surfactant.

    PubMed

    Oukacine, Farid; Quirino, Joselito P; Mesbah, Kiarach; Taverna, Myriam

    2016-05-01

    In this communication, we present a very simple strategy to focus covalently derivatized proteins for high sensitivity CE analysis by LIF detection. We demonstrated that the covalently tagged protein can be focused just by adding SDS at a concentration above the CMC in the derivatized sample. Under specific injection conditions, SDS concentration below the CMC is also sufficient to induce the focusing of the tagged protein. This method allows the quantification and detection of the covalently tagged protein in a narrow zone with an efficiency approaching 220 000 plates/m. Very good linearity was obtained for the ubiquitin in a concentration range of 2-25 μM. PMID:26940436

  2. Recognition of Heptoses and the Inner Core of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides by Surfactant Protein D

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,H.; Head, J.; Kosma, P.; Brade, H.; Muller-Loennies, S.; Sheikh, S.; McDonald, B.; Smith, K.; Cafarella, T.; et al

    2008-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria are important mediators of bacterial virulence that can elicit potent endotoxic effects. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) shows specific interactions with LPS, both in vitro and in vivo. These interactions involve binding of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) to LPS oligosaccharides (OS); however, little is known about the mechanisms of LPS recognition. Recombinant neck+CRDs (NCRDs) provide an opportunity to directly correlate binding interactions with a crystallographic analysis of the binding mechanism. In these studies, we examined the interactions of wild-type and mutant trimeric NCRDs with rough LPS (R-LPS). Although rat NCRDs bound more efficiently than human NCRDs to Escherichia coli J-5 LPS, both proteins exhibited efficient binding to solid-phase Rd2-LPS and to Rd2-LPS aggregates presented in the solution phase. Involvement of residues flanking calcium at the sugar binding site was demonstrated by reciprocal exchange of lysine and arginine at position 343 of rat and human CRDs. The lectin activity of hNCRDs was inhibited by specific heptoses, including l-glycero-{alpha}-d-manno-heptose (l, d-heptose), but not by 3-deoxy-{alpha}-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo). Crystallographic analysis of the hNCRD demonstrated a novel binding orientation for l, d-heptose, involving the hydroxyl groups of the side chain. Similar binding was observed for a synthetic {alpha}1{yields}3-linked heptose disaccharide corresponding to heptoses I and II of the inner core region in many LPS. 7-O-Carbamoyl-l, d-heptose and d-glycero-{alpha}-d-manno-heptose were bound via ring hydroxyl groups. Interactions with the side chain of inner core heptoses provide a potential mechanism for the recognition of diverse types of LPS by SP-D.

  3. DNA Methylation Profile and Expression of Surfactant Protein A2 gene in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grageda, Melissa; Silveyra, Patricia; Thomas, Neal J.; DiAngelo, Susan L.; Floros, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the methylation profile of genes allow for the identification of biomarkers that may guide diagnosis and effective treatment of disease. Human surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays an important role in lung homeostasis and immunity, and is encoded by two genes (SFTPA1 and SFTPA2). The goal of this study was to identify differentially methylated CpG sites in the promoter region of the SFTPA2 gene in lung cancer tissue, and to determine the correlation between the promoter’s methylation profile and gene expression. For this, we collected 28 pairs of cancerous human lung tissue and adjacent non-cancerous (NC) lung tissue: 17 adenocarcinoma (AC), 9 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 2 AC with SCC features, and we evaluated DNA methylation of the SFTPA2 promoter region by bisulfite conversion. Our results identified a higher methylation ratio in one CpG site of the SFTPA2 gene in cancerous tissue vs. NC tissue (0.36 vs. 0.11, p=0.001). When assessing AC samples, we also found cancerous tissues associated with a higher methylation ratio (0.43 vs. 0.10, p=0.02). In the SCC group, although cancerous tissue showed a higher methylation ratio (0.22 vs. 0.11), this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.35). Expression of SFTPA2 mRNA and total SP-A protein was significantly lower in cancer tissue when compared to adjacent NC tissue (p<0.001), and correlated with the hypermethylated status of a SFTPA2 CpG site in AC samples. The findings of this pilot study may hold promise for future use of SFTPA2 as a biomarker for the diagnosis of lung cancer. PMID:25514367

  4. A ToF-SIMS study of the lateral organization of lipids and proteins in pulmonary surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Keating, Eleonora; Waring, Alan J; Walther, Frans J; Possmayer, Fred; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W; Petersen, Nils O

    2011-03-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex lipid-protein mixture whose main function is to reduce the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of alveoli to minimize the work of breathing. The exact mechanism by which surfactant monolayers and multilayers are formed and how they lower surface tension to very low values during lateral compression remains uncertain. We used time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to study the lateral organization of lipids and peptide in surfactant preparations ranging in complexity. We show that we can successfully determine the location of phospholipids, cholesterol and a peptide in surfactant Langmuir-Blodgett films and we can determine the effect of cholesterol and peptide addition. A thorough understanding of the lateral organization of PS interfacial films will aid in our understanding of the role of each component as well as different lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions. This may further our understanding of pulmonary surfactant function. PMID:21110942

  5. Pulmonary surfactant mitigates silver nanoparticle toxicity in human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Leo, Bey Fen; Chen, Shu; Abraham-Thomas, Nisha; Thorley, Andrew J; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Shaffer, Milo S P; Chung, Kian Fan; Ryan, Mary P; Porter, Alexandra E; Tetley, Teresa D

    2016-09-01

    Accompanying increased commercial applications and production of silver nanomaterials is an increased probability of human exposure, with inhalation a key route. Nanomaterials that deposit in the pulmonary alveolar region following inhalation will interact firstly with pulmonary surfactant before they interact with the alveolar epithelium. It is therefore critical to understand the effects of human pulmonary surfactant when evaluating the inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of AgNPs on human alveolar type-I-like epithelial (TT1) cells in the absence and presence of Curosurf(®) (a natural pulmonary surfactant substitute), hypothesising that the pulmonary surfactant would act to modify toxicity. We demonstrated that 20nm citrate-capped AgNPs induce toxicity in human alveolar type I-like epithelial cells and, in agreement with our hypothesis, that pulmonary surfactant acts to mitigate this toxicity, possibly through reducing AgNP dissolution into cytotoxic Ag(+) ions. For example, IL-6 and IL-8 release by TT1 cells significantly increased 10.7- and 35-fold, respectively (P<0.01), 24h after treatment with 25μg/ml AgNPs. In contrast, following pre-incubation of AgNPs with Curosurf(®), this effect was almost completely abolished. We further determined that the mechanism of this toxicity is likely associated with Ag(+) ion release and lysosomal disruption, but not with increased reactive oxygen species generation. This study provides a critical understanding of the toxicity of AgNPs in target human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells and the role of pulmonary surfactant in mitigating this toxicity. The observations reported have important implications for the manufacture and application of AgNPs, in particular for applications involving use of aerosolised AgNPs. PMID:27182651

  6. Photoreversible conformational changes in membrane proteins using light-responsive surfactants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Shao-Chun; Lee, C Ted

    2009-06-25

    Photoreversible control of the conformation of bacteriorhodopsin in the presence of a light-responsive surfactant is demonstrated through combined UV-vis, FT-IR, and (31)P NMR spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The azobenzene-based surfactant photoisomerizes upon 434 nm visible (trans, relatively hydrophobic) and 350 nm UV (cis, relatively hydrophilic) illumination, allowing surfactant micellization to be reversibly controlled. This leads to partitioning of the membrane protein into micelles in the unfolded state under visible light, while UV light leads to solubilization of the protein within purple membrane bilayers in the folded state. A three-stage model of purple membrane-photosurfactant interactions is examined through NMR and DLS measurements. Phototriggered unfolding of bacteriorhodopsin, occurring through alpha(II) --> alpha(I) and reverse beta-turn --> extended beta-strand transitions, requires approximately 20 s for completion, while light-induced refolding requires a somewhat longer 80 s as the membrane protein repartitions into the reformed bilayer membrane. Each of these conformational changes can be precisely and reversibly controlled with simple light illumination, providing a novel technique to probe membrane protein folding. PMID:19485396

  7. Lipid Specificity of Surfactant Protein B Studied by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Breitenstein, D.; Batenburg, J. J.; Hagenhoff, B.; Galla, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    One of the key functions of mammalian pulmonary surfactant is the reduction of surface tension to minimal values. To fulfill this function it is expected to become enriched in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine either on its way from the alveolar type II pneumocytes to the air/water interface of the lung or within the surface film during compression and expansion of the alveoli during the breathing cycle. One protein that may play a major role in this enrichment process is the surfactant protein B. The aim of this study was to identify the lipidic interaction partner of this protein. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to analyze the lateral distribution of the components in two SP-B-containing model systems. Either native or partly isotopically labeled lipids were analyzed. The results of both setups give strong indications that, at least under the specific conditions of the chosen model systems (e.g., concerning pH and lipid composition), the lipid interacting with surfactant protein B is not phosphatidylglycerol as generally accepted, but dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine instead. PMID:16632503

  8. Surfactant protein D suppresses lung cancer progression by downregulation of epidermal growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Y; Takahashi, M; Ariki, S; Asakawa, D; Tajiri, M; Wada, Y; Yamaguchi, Y; Nishitani, C; Takamiya, R; Saito, A; Uehara, Y; Hashimoto, J; Kurimura, Y; Takahashi, H; Kuroki, Y

    2015-02-12

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a member of the collectin family that has an important role in maintaining pulmonary homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrated that SP-D inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that SP-D suppressed epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling in A549 cells, H441 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and human EGF receptor (EGFR) stable expression CHO-K1 cells. A binding study using (125)I-EGF demonstrated that SP-D downregulated the binding of EGF to EGFR. A ligand blot indicated that SP-D bound to EGFR, and a lectin blot suggested that EGFR in A549 cells had both high-mannose type and complex type N-glycans. We purified the recombinant extracellular domain of EGFR (soluble EGFR=soluble EGFR (sEGFR)), and demonstrated that SP-D directly bound to sEGFR in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. The binding of SP-D to sEGFR was suppressed by EDTA, mannose or N-glycopeptidase F treatment. Mass spectrometric analysis indicated that N-glycans in domain III of EGFR were of a high-mannose type. These data suggest that SP-D reduces EGF binding to EGFR through the interaction between the carbohydrate recognition domain of SP-D and N-glycans of EGFR, and downregulates EGF signaling. Our finding suggests the novel type of regulation system of EGF signaling involving lectin-to-carbohydrate interaction and downregulation of ligand binding. PMID:24608429

  9. Expression of p53 protein, Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus matrix protein, and surfactant protein in the lungs of sheep with pulmonary adenomatosis.

    PubMed

    İlhan, Fatma; Vural, Sevil A; Yıldırım, Serkan; Sözdutmaz, İbrahim; Alcigir, Mehmet E

    2016-05-01

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a naturally occurring cancer in sheep that is caused by the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). Because the pathologic and epidemiologic features of OPA are similar to those of bronchoalveolar carcinoma in humans, OPA is considered a useful animal model for pulmonary carcinogenesis. In this study, 3,512 lungs from various breeds of sheep were collected and macroscopically examined. OPA was identified in 30 sheep, and samples of these animals were further examined by histologic, immunohistochemical (p53 protein, surfactant protein A [SP-A], proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA], JSRV matrix protein [MA]), and PCR methods. Papillary or acinar adenocarcinomas were detected microscopically in the affected areas. Immunoreactivity for p53 PAb240 was detected in 13 sheep, whereas p53 DO-1 was not detected in any of the OPA animals. PCNA immunoreactivity was recorded in 27 animals. SP-A and JSRV MA protein was immunopositive in all 30. JSRV proviral DNA was detected by PCR analysis in all of the lung samples collected from OPA animals. In addition, the pulmonary SP-A levels were increased in tumor cells. The results of this study suggest that PCNA and p53 protein expression may be useful indicators in monitoring malignancy of pulmonary tumors. PMID:27016721

  10. Functional importance of the NH2-terminal insertion sequence of lung surfactant protein B

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Shelli L.; Pocivavsek, Luka; Waring, Alan J.; Walther, Frans J.; Hernandez-Juviel, Jose M.; Ruchala, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Lung surfactant protein B (SP-B) is required for proper surface activity of pulmonary surfactant. In model lung surfactant lipid systems composed of saturated and unsaturated lipids, the unsaturated lipids are removed from the film at high compression. It is thought that SP-B helps anchor these lipids closely to the monolayer in three-dimensional cylindrical structures termed “nanosilos” seen by atomic force microscopy imaging of deposited monolayers at high surface pressures. Here we explore the role of the SP-B NH2 terminus in the formation and stability of these cylindrical structures, specifically the distribution of lipid stack height, width, and density with four SP-B truncation peptides: SP-B 1–25, SP-B 9–25, SP-B 11–25, and SP-B 1–25Nflex (prolines 2 and 4 substituted with alanine). The first nine amino acids, termed the insertion sequence and the interface seeking tryptophan residue 9, are shown to stabilize the formation of nanosilos while an increase in the insertion sequence flexibility (SP-B 1–25Nflex) may improve peptide functionality. This provides a functional understanding of the insertion sequence beyond anchoring the protein to the two-dimensional membrane lining the lung, as it also stabilizes formation of nanosilos, creating reversible repositories for fluid lipids at high compression. In lavaged, surfactant-deficient rats, instillation of a mixture of SP-B 1–25 (as a monomer or dimer) and synthetic lung lavage lipids quickly improved oxygenation and dynamic compliance, whereas SP-B 11–25 surfactants showed oxygenation and dynamic compliance values similar to that of lipids alone, demonstrating a positive correlation between formation of stable, but reversible, nanosilos and in vivo efficacy. PMID:20023175

  11. Multilayer structures in lipid monolayer films containing surfactant protein C: effects of cholesterol and POPE.

    PubMed

    Malcharek, Stefan; Hinz, Andreas; Hilterhaus, Lutz; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2005-04-01

    The influence of cholesterol and POPE on lung surfactant model systems consisting of DPPC/DPPG (80:20) and DPPC/DPPG/surfactant protein C (80:20:0.4) has been investigated. Cholesterol leads to a condensation of the monolayers, whereas the isotherms of model lung surfactant films containing POPE exhibit a slight expansion combined with an increased compressibility at medium surface pressure (10-30 mN/m). An increasing amount of liquid-expanded domains can be visualized by means of fluorescence light microscopy in lung surfactant monolayers after addition of either cholesterol or POPE. At surface pressures of 50 mN/m, protrusions are formed which differ in size and shape as a function of the content of cholesterol or POPE, but only if SP-C is present. Low amounts of cholesterol (10 mol %) lead to an increasing number of protrusions, which also grow in size. This is interpreted as a stabilizing effect of cholesterol on bilayers formed underneath the monolayer. Extreme amounts of cholesterol (30 mol %), however, cause an increased monolayer rigidity, thus preventing reversible multilayer formation. In contrast, POPE, as a nonbilayer lipid thought to stabilize the edges of protrusions, leads to more narrow protrusions. The lateral extension of the protrusions is thereby more influenced than their height. PMID:15653721

  12. Competitive adsorption of proteins and low-molecular-weight surfactants: computer simulation and microscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Pugnaloni, Luis A; Dickinson, Eric; Ettelaie, Rammile; Mackie, Alan R; Wilde, Peter J

    2004-01-30

    Proteins and low-molecular-weight (LMW) surfactants are used in the food industry as emulsifying (and foaming) ingredients and as stabilizers. These attributes are related to their ability to adsorb at fluid-fluid (and gas-fluid) interfaces lowering the interfacial (and surface) tension of liquids. Hence, the study of the properties of adsorbed layers of these molecules can be expected to lead to a better understanding of their effect on food products. Direct proof of the validity of mesoscopic models of systems of proteins and LMW surfactants can only be achieved by quantitative theoretical predictions being tested against both macroscopic and mesoscopic experiments. Computer simulation constitutes one of the few available tools to predict mathematically the behaviour of models of realistic complexity. Furthermore, experimental techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) now allow high resolution imaging of these systems, providing the mesoscopic scale measurements to compare with the simulations. In this review, we bring together a number of related findings that have been generated at this mesoscopic level over the past few years. A useful simple model consisting of spherical particles interacting via bonded and unbonded forces is described, and the derived computer simulation results are compared against those from the imaging experiments. Special attention is paid to the adsorption of binary mixtures of proteins, mixtures of LMW surfactants, and also protein+surfactant mixed systems. We believe that further development of these mathematically well-defined physical models is necessary in order to achieve a proper understanding of the key physico-chemical processes involved. PMID:14962406

  13. Resonance assignments for latherin, a natural surfactant protein from horse sweat.

    PubMed

    Vance, Steven J; McDonald, Rhona E; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W; Smith, Brian O

    2014-04-01

    Latherin is an intrinsically surfactant protein of ~23 kDa found in the sweat and saliva of horses. Its function is probably to enhance the translocation of sweat water from the skin to the surface of the pelt for evaporative cooling. Its role in saliva may be to enhance the wetting, softening and maceration of the dry, fibrous food for which equines are adapted. Latherin is unusual in its relatively high content of aliphatic amino acids (~25% leucines) that might contribute to its surfactant properties. Latherin is related to the palate, lung, and nasal epithelium carcinoma-associated proteins (PLUNCs) of mammals, at least one of which is now known to exhibit similar surfactant activity to latherin. No structures of any PLUNC protein are currently available. (15)N,(13)C-labelled recombinant latherin was produced in Escherichia coli, and essentially all of the resonances were assigned despite the signal overlap due to the preponderance of leucines. The most notable exceptions include a number of residues located in an apparently dynamic loop region between residues 145 and 154. The assignments have been deposited with BMRB accession number 19067. PMID:23708874

  14. Surfactant protein D in serum from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Krane, M; Griese, M

    2003-10-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) interacts with Aspergillus fumigatus and is strongly increased in the lavage from animals with acute allergic reactions to the fungus, suggesting a central role for SP-D. As the course of cystic fibrosis (CF) is often complicated by an allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), the authors hypothesised that SP-D may also be increased in serum during an ABPA, potentially assisting in its diagnosis and follow-up. In 22 patients with CF (11 with ABPA, 11 matched without ABPA) and 19 control patients without a pulmonary disease, SP-D concentrations in serum were assessed by an enzyme immunoassay. Serum SP-D in CF patients (130 +/- 16 ng x mL(-1) (mean +/- SEM)) was significantly higher than in the controls without lung disease (66 +/- 8 ng x mL(-1)). During the whole ABPA-episode, SP-D level did not change significantly, despite large changes of total serum immunoglobulin E. There was a clear negative correlation between SP-D concentration and overall lung function, i.e. forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity. Serum level of surfactant protein D may be of value to follow pulmonary function and lung injury in cystic fibrosis patients. Surfactant protein D serum levels are not helpful for the diagnosis and follow-up of an allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis episode, contrary to what was expected from animal experiments. PMID:14582909

  15. Surfactant Protein D Interacts with α2-Macroglobulin and Increases Its Innate Immune Potential*

    PubMed Central

    Craig-Barnes, Hayley A.; Doumouras, Barbara S.; Palaniyar, Nades

    2010-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate immune collectin that recognizes microbes via its carbohydrate recognition domains, agglutinates bacteria, and forms immune complexes. During microbial infections, proteases, such as elastases, cleave the carbohydrate recognition domains and can inactivate the innate immune functions of SP-D. Host responses to counterbalance the reduction of SP-D-mediated innate immune response under these conditions are not clearly understood. We have unexpectedly identified that SP-D could interact with protein fractions containing ovomucin and ovomacroglobulin. Here, we show that SP-D interacts with human α2-macroglobulin (A2M), a protease inhibitor present in the lungs and serum. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, surface plasmon resonance, and carbohydrate competition assays, we show that SP-D interacts with A2M both in solid phase (KD of 7.33 nm) and in solution via lectin-carbohydrate interactions under physiological calcium conditions. Bacterial agglutination assays further show that SP-D·A2M complexes increase the ability of SP-D to agglutinate bacteria. Western blot analyses show that SP-D, but not A2M, avidly binds bacteria. Interestingly, intact and activated A2M also protect SP-D against elastase-mediated degradation, and the cleaved A2M still interacts with SP-D and is able to enhance its agglutination abilities. We also found that SP-D and A2M can interact with each other in the airway-lining fluid. Therefore, we propose that SP-D utilizes a novel mechanism in which the collectin interacts with protease inhibitor A2M to decrease its degradation and to concurrently increase its innate immune function. These interactions particularly enhance bacterial agglutination and immune complex formation. PMID:20207732

  16. A new model for assessing the damaging effects of soaps and surfactants on human stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Shukuwa, T; Kligman, A M; Stoudemayer, T J

    1997-01-01

    To elucidate the damage to the horny layers of human skin produced by surfactants and soaps, we evaluated the cytological alterations of corneocytes using an in vitro assay. Suction blisters, 8 mm in diameter, were raised on the forearms of young adult Caucasoids. The roofs were cut off and the viable epidermis was removed. The discs of stratum corneum were then agitated for up to 6 h at 60 degrees C in 1% solution of five soap bars of differing irritancy. Additionally, individual examples of anionic, cationic and nonionic surfactants were similarly evaluated. Measurements of corneocytes included: (1) the number released with time (disaggregation), (2) size (swelling) and (3) morphologic degradation. The effects of the cationic and non-ionic surfactants did not differ significantly from those of distilled water. The anionic surfactant caused more release and less swelling and morphological change. The test soaps had vastly different effects on the structural integrity of the stratum corneum. The harsher ones caused greater disaggregation, more swelling and greater morphologic deterioration of corneocytes, whereas the milder ones had less marked effects on these parameters. This model would be a useful screening technique for formulating milder soaps and might also provide insights into the complex modes of action of surfactants on the stratum corneum. PMID:9059673

  17. Surface properties and sensitivity to protein-inhibition of a recombinant apoprotein C-based phospholipid mixture in vitro--comparison to natural surfactant.

    PubMed

    Seeger, W; Thede, C; Günther, A; Grube, C

    1991-01-01

    Surfactant alterations due to protein leakage are implicated in the pathogenesis of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. In the present study, surface properties of a palmitic acid containing phospholipid mixture (DPPC: PG: PA/68.5:22.5:9) supplemented with 2% recombinant human surfactant apoprotein C (PLM-Crec) were compared to those of the lipids alone (PLM) and to those of calf lung surfactant extract (CLSE). Experiments were performed in a Wilhelmy balance and in a pulsating bubble surfactometer. Adsorption facilities and dynamic surface tension-lowering properties of the surfactants alone, their sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of fibrinogen (fbg), and their capacity to restore surface properties of fbg-inhibited CLSE were investigated. PLM revealed limited surface activity, was very sensitive to inhibition by fbg and had moderate effect on the surface properties of fbg-inhibited CLSE. In contrast, PLM-Crec and CLSE revealed similar excellent adsorption kinetics and dynamic surface tension lowering properties. Higher percentage of SP-C within the synthetic mixture (up to 10%) or additional admixture of human purified or recombinant SP-A (up to 10%) did not further improve these surface properties. However, PLM-Crec was markedly more sensitive to inactivation by fbg than CLSE. The surface activity of fbg-inhibited CLSE was fully restored by additional admixture of CLSE or PLM-Crec in both the Wilhelmy and the bubble system, with slight superiority of the natural surfactant extract. We conclude that the surface properties of PLM-Crec are clearly superior to those of the apoprotein-free lipid mixture and are similar to those of the natural surfactant extract CLSE. PLM-Crec is markedly more sensitive to inhibition by fibrinogen than CLSE, but possesses nearly equivalent efficacy in restoring the surface properties of fbg-inhibited CLSE as compared to the natural material. PMID:1991155

  18. Surfactant protein B gene variations enhance susceptibility to squamous cell carcinoma of the lung in German patients

    PubMed Central

    Seifart, C; Seifart, U; Plagens, A; Wolf, M; von Wichert, P

    2002-01-01

    Genetic factors are thought to influence the risk for lung cancer. Since pulmonary surfactant mediates the response to inhaled carcinogenic substances, candidate genes may be among those coding for pulmonary surfactant proteins. In the present matched case–control study a polymorphism within intron 4 of the gene coding for surfactant specific protein B was analysed in 357 individuals. They were divided into 117 patients with lung cancer (40 patients with small cell lung cancer, 77 patients with non small cell lung cancer), matched controls and 123 healthy individuals. Surfactant protein B gene variants were analysed using specific PCR and cloned surfactant protein B sequences as controls. The frequency of the intron 4 variation was similar in both control groups (13.0% and 9.4%), whereas it was increased in the small cell lung cancer group (17.5%) and the non small cell lung cancer group (16.9%). The gene variation was found significantly more frequently in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (25.0%, P=0.016, odds ratio=3.2, 95%CI=1.24–8.28) than in the controls. These results indicate an association of the surfactant protein B intron 4 variants and/or its flanking loci with mechanisms that may enhance lung cancer susceptibility, especially to squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 37, 212–217. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600353 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12107845

  19. Effect of silk protein surfactant on silk degumming and its properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Cao, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2015-10-01

    The silk protein surfactant (SPS) first used as a silk degumming agent in this study is an amino acid-type anionic surfactant that was synthesized using silk fibroin amino acids and lauroyl chloride. We studied it systematically in comparison with the traditional degumming methods such as sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and neutral soap (NS). The experimental results showed that the sericin can be completely removed from the silk fibroin fiber after boiling the fibers three times for 30 min and using a bath ratio of 1:80 (g/mL) and a concentration of 0.2% SPS in an aqueous solution. The results of the tensile properties, thermal analysis, and SEM all show that SPS is similar to the NS, far superior to Na2CO3. In short, SPS may be used as an environmentally friendly silk degumming/refining agent in the silk textile industry and in the manufacture of silk floss quilts. PMID:26117747

  20. Determination of Lipid-Protein Interactions in Lung Surfactants Using Computer Simulations and Structural Bioinformatics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaznessis, Yiannis

    2001-06-01

    Proteins are the primary components of the networks that conduct the flows of mass, energy and information in living organisms. The discovery of the principles of protein structure and function allows the development of design rules for biological activities. The microscopic nature of the operating mechanisms of protein activity, and the vast complexity of the networks of interaction call for the employment of powerful computational methodologies that can decipher the physicochemical and evolutionary principles underlying protein structure and function. An example will be presented that reflects the strength of computational approaches. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and structural bioinformatics tools are employed to investigate the interactions between the first 25 N-terminal residues of surfactant protein B (SP-B 1-25) and the lipid components of the lung surfactant (LS). An understanding of the molecular level interactions between the LS components is essential for the establishment of design rules for the development of synthetic LS and the treatment of the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, which results from deficiency or inactivation of LS.

  1. Structure of protein surfactant complexes as studied by small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodankar, S.; Aswal, V. K.; Hassan, P. A.; Wagh, A. G.

    2007-08-01

    The structure of protein-surfactant complexes of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). SANS data indicate that addition of BSA to micellar surfactant solution leads to the formation of a complex that has a fractal structure. The fractal structure has been evaluated using a necklace model considering that the micelle-like aggregates are randomly distributed around the polypeptide chain. We have observed that the structure of protein-surfactant complex is independent of the size of micelles in their pure surfactant solutions. The SDS micelle size was varied using salts LiBr or/and NaBr, where SDS forms larger micelles in presence of NaBr than LiBr. The fractal dimension and the extent of the complex as well as the size and number of micelles attached to the complex have been determined. The micelle-like aggregates bound to protein in the complex are spherical with a much smaller aggregation number than those in pure surfactant solutions. DLS measurements support the above results on the protein-surfactant complexes as obtained using SANS.

  2. Proteasome dysfunction inhibits surfactant protein gene expression in lung epithelial cells: mechanism of inhibition of SP-B gene expression.

    PubMed

    Das, Aparajita; Boggaram, Vijayakumar

    2007-01-01

    Surfactant proteins maintain lung function through their actions to reduce alveolar surface tension and control of innate immune responses in the lung. The ubiquitin proteasome pathway is responsible for the degradation of majority of intracellular proteins in eukaryotic cells, and proteasome dysfunction has been linked to the development of neurodegenerative, cardiac, and other diseases. Proteasome function is impaired in interstitial lung diseases associated with surfactant protein C (SP-C) mutation mapping to the BRICHOS domain located in the proSP-C protein. In this study we determined the effects of proteasome inhibition on surfactant protein expression in H441 and MLE-12 lung epithelial cells to understand the relationship between proteasome dysfunction and surfactant protein gene expression. Proteasome inhibitors lactacystin and MG132 reduced the levels of SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C mRNAs in a concentration-dependent manner in H441 and MLE-12 cells. In H441 cells, lactacystin and MG132 inhibition of SP-B mRNA was associated with similar decreases in SP-B protein, and the inhibition was due to inhibition of gene transcription. Proteasome inhibitors decreased thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1)/Nkx2.1 DNA binding activity, and the reduced TTF-1 DNA binding activity was due to reduced expression levels of TTF-1 protein. These data indicated that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway is essential for the maintenance of surfactant protein gene expression and that disruption of this pathway inhibits surfactant protein gene expression via reduced expression of TTF-1 protein. PMID:16905641

  3. Surfactant protein D induces immune quiescence and apoptosis of mitogen-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Hrishikesh; Thakur, Gargi; Koippallil Gopalakrishnan, Aghila Rani; Dodagatta-Marri, Eswari; Patil, Anushree; Kishore, Uday; Madan, Taruna

    2016-02-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an integral molecule of the innate immunity secreted by epithelial cells lining the mucosal surfaces. The C-type lectin domain of SP-D performs pattern recognition functions while it binds to putative receptors on immune cells to modify cellular functions. Activation of immune cells and increased serum SP-D is observed in a range of patho-physiological conditions including infections. We speculated if SP-D can modulate systemic immune response via direct interaction with activated PBMCs. In this study, we examined interaction of a recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rhSP-D) on PHA-activated PBMCs. We report a significant downregulation of activation receptors such as TLR2, TLR4, CD11c and CD69 upon rhSP-D treatment. rhSP-D inhibited production of Th1 (TNF-α and IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17A) cytokines along with IL-6. Interestingly, levels of IL-2, Th2 (IL-4) and regulatory (IL-10 and TGF-β) cytokines remained unaltered. Analysis of co-stimulatory CD28 and co-inhibitory CTLA4 receptors along with their ligands CD80 and CD86 revealed a selective up-regulation of CTLA4 in the lymphocyte subset. rhSP-D induced apoptosis in the activated but not in non-activated lymphocytes. Blockade of CTLA4 inhibited rhSP-D mediated apoptosis of activated lymphocytes, confirming involvement of CTLA4. We conclude that SP-D restores immune homeostasis. It regulates expression of immunomodulatory receptors and cytokines, which is followed by induction of apoptosis in activated lymphocytes. These findings suggest a critical role of SP-D in immune surveillance against activated immune cells. PMID:26563748

  4. Patterns of neutrophil serine protease-dependent cleavage of surfactant protein D in inflammatory lung disease.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Jessica; McDonald, Barbara; Accurso, Frank J; Crouch, Erika C; Remold-O'Donnell, Eileen

    2008-04-01

    The manuscript presents definitive studies of surfactant protein D (SP-D) in the context of inflammatory lung fluids. The extent of SP-D depletion in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of children affected with cystic fibrosis (CF) is demonstrated to correlate best with the presence of the active neutrophil serine protease (NSP) elastase. Novel C-terminal SP-D fragments of 27 kDa and 11 kDa were identified in patient lavage fluid in addition to the previously described N-terminal, 35-kDa fragment by the use of isoelectrofocusing, modified blotting conditions, and region-specific antibodies. SP-D cleavage sites were identified. In vitro treatment of recombinant human SP-D dodecamers with NSPs replicated the fragmentation, but unexpectedly, the pattern of SP-D fragments generated by NSPs was dependent on calcium concentration. Whereas the 35- and 11-kDa fragments were generated when incubations were performed in low calcium (200 microM CaCl(2)), incubations in physiological calcium (2 mM) with higher amounts of elastase or proteinase-3 generated C-terminal 27, 21, and 14 kDa fragments, representing cleavage within the collagen and neck regions. Studies in which recombinant SP-D cleavage by individual NSPs was quantitatively evaluated under low and high calcium conditions showed that the most potent NSP for cleaving SP-D is elastase, followed by proteinase-3, followed by cathepsin G. These relative potency findings were considered in the context of other studies that showed that active NSPs in CF BALF are in the order: elastase, followed by cathepsin G, followed by proteinase-3. The findings support a pre-eminent role for neutrophil elastase as the critical protease responsible for SP-D depletion in inflammatory lung disease. PMID:18211966

  5. Hypoxia-inducible factor regulates expression of surfactant protein in alveolar type II cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoko; Ahmad, Aftab; Kewley, Emily; Mason, Robert J

    2011-11-01

    Alveolar type II (ATII) cells cultured at an air-liquid (A/L) interface maintain differentiation, but they lose these properties when they are submerged. Others showed that an oxygen tension gradient develops in the culture medium as ATII cells consume oxygen. Therefore, we wondered whether hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) signaling could explain differences in the phenotypes of ATII cells cultured under A/L interface or submerged conditions. ATII cells were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured on inserts coated with a mixture of rat-tail collagen and Matrigel, in medium including 5% rat serum and 10 ng/ml keratinocyte growth factor, with their apical surfaces either exposed to air or submerged. The A/L interface condition maintained the expression of surfactant proteins, whereas that expression was down-regulated under the submerged condition, and the effect was rapid and reversible. Under submerged conditions, there was an increase in HIF1α and HIF2α in nuclear extracts, mRNA levels of HIF inducible genes, vascular endothelial growth factor, glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1), and the protein level of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme-1. The expression of surfactant proteins was suppressed and GLUT1 mRNA levels were induced when cells were cultured with 1 mM dimethyloxalyl glycine. The expression of surfactant proteins was restored under submerged conditions with supplemented 60% oxygen. HIF signaling and oxygen tension at the surface of cells appears to be important in regulating the phenotype of rat ATII cells. PMID:21454802

  6. Role of surfactant protein A in non-infectious lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hisatsugu; Mitsuhashi, Atsushi; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a large multimeric protein found in the airways and alveoli of the lungs. SP-A is a member of the collectin family of proteins, characterized by NH2-terminal collagen-like regions and COOH-terminal lectin domains. Although other surfactant proteins such as SP-B function to reduce surface tension in the lungs, SP-A as well as SP-D regulates the pulmonary immune response. To date, a number of studies have shown the immunoregulatory function of SP-A, mainly in the field of infectious diseases. By binding to a wide variety of pathogens, SP-A opsonizes and enhances pathogen uptake by phagocytes. In addition to the effect on pathogens, recent studies have shown that SP-A also modulates lung immune system in the area of non-infectious lung diseases. In this review, the potential role of SP-A in the multiple aspects of pulmonary host defense will be discussed, focusing mainly on non-infectious lung diseases such as acute and chronic pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. J. Med. Invest. 61: 1-6, February, 2014. PMID:24705741

  7. Aqueous solubilization of C60 fullerene by natural protein surfactants, latherin and ranaspumin-2.

    PubMed

    Vance, Steven J; Desai, Vibhuti; Smith, Brian O; Kennedy, Malcolm W; Cooper, Alan

    2016-01-01

    C60 fullerene is not soluble in water and dispersion usually requires organic solvents, sonication or vigorous mechanical mixing. However, we show here that mixing of pristine C60 in water with natural surfactant proteins latherin and ranaspumin-2 (Rsn-2) at low concentrations yields stable aqueous dispersions with spectroscopic properties similar to those previously obtained by more vigorous methods. Particle sizes are significantly smaller than those achieved by mechanical dispersion alone, and concentrations are compatible with clusters approximating 1:1 protein:C60 stoichiometry. These proteins can also be adsorbed onto more intractable carbon nanotubes. This promises to be a convenient way to interface a range of hydrophobic nanoparticles and related materials with biological macromolecules, with potential to exploit the versatility of recombinant protein engineering in the development of nano-bio interface devices. It also has potential consequences for toxicological aspects of these and similar nanoparticles. PMID:27214760

  8. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Surfactants and Denaturants to Elute and Denature Adsorbed Protein on Different Surface Chemistries.

    PubMed

    Thyparambil, Aby A; Wei, Yang; Latour, Robert A

    2015-11-01

    The elution and/or denaturation of proteins from material surfaces by chemical excipients such as surfactants and denaturants is important for numerous applications including medical implant reprocessing, bioanalyses, and biodefense. The objective of this study was to develop and apply methods to quantitatively assess how surface chemistry and adsorption conditions influence the effectiveness of three commonly used surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate, n-octyl-β-d-glucoside, and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate) and two denaturants (guanidium hydrochloride and urea) to elute protein (hen egg white lysozyme and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A) from three different surface chemistries (silica glass, poly(methyl methacrylate), and high-density polyethylene). The structure and bioactivity of residual protein on the surface following elution were characterized using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry and enzyme assays to assess the extent of protein denaturation. Our results indicate that the denaturants were generally more effective than the surfactants in removing the adsorbed proteins from each type of surface. Also, the denaturing capacity of these excipients on the residual proteins on the surfaces was distinctly different from their influence on the proteins in solution and was unique for each of the adsorption conditions. Taken altogether, these results reveal that the effectiveness of surfactants and denaturants to elute and denature adsorbed protein is significantly influenced by surface chemistry and the conditions from which the protein was adsorbed. These results provide a basis for the selection, design, and further development of chemical agents for protein elution and surface decontamination. PMID:26449787

  9. Nonlinear Surface Dilatational Rheology and Foaming Behavior of Protein and Protein Fibrillar Aggregates in the Presence of Natural Surfactant.

    PubMed

    Wan, Zhili; Yang, Xiaoquan; Sagis, Leonard M C

    2016-04-19

    The surface and foaming properties of native soy glycinin (11S) and its heat-induced fibrillar aggregates, in the presence of natural surfactant steviol glycoside (STE), were investigated and compared at pH 7.0 to determine the impact of protein structure modification on protein-surfactant interfacial interactions. The adsorption at, and nonlinear dilatational rheological behavior of, the air-water interface were studied by combining drop shape analysis tensiometry, ellipsometry, and large-amplitude oscillatory dilatational rheology. Lissajous plots of surface pressure versus deformation were used to analyze the surface rheological response in terms of interfacial microstructure. The heat treatment generates a mixture of long fibrils and unconverted peptides. The presence of small peptides in 11S fibril samples resulted in a faster adsorption kinetics than that of native 11S. The addition of STE affected the adsorption of 11S significantly, whereas no apparent effect on the adsorption of the 11S fibril-peptide system was observed. The rheological response of interfaces stabilized by 11S-STE mixtures also differed significantly from the response for 11S fibril-peptide-STE mixtures. For 11S, the STE reduces the degree of strain hardening in extension and increases strain hardening in compression, suggesting the interfacial structure may change from a surface gel to a mixed phase of protein patches and STE domains. The foams generated from the mixtures displayed comparable foam stability to that of pure 11S. For 11S fibril-peptide mixtures STE only significantly affects the response in extension, where the degree of strain softening is decreased compared to the pure fibril-peptide system. The foam stability of the fibril-peptide system was significantly reduced by STE. These findings indicate that fibrillization of globular proteins could be a potential strategy to modify the complex surface and foaming behaviors of protein-surfactant mixtures. PMID:27043221

  10. Hybrid Fluorinated and Hydrogenated Double-Chain Surfactants for Handling Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fréderic; Breyton, Cécile; Guillet, Pierre; Ebel, Christine; Durand, Grégory

    2016-01-15

    Two hybrid fluorinated double-chain surfactants with a diglucosylated polar head were synthesized. The apolar domain consists of a perfluorohexyl main chain and a butyl hydrogenated branch as a side chain. They were found to self-assemble into small micelles at low critical micellar concentrations, demonstrating that the short branch increases the overall hydrophobicity while keeping the length of the apolar domain short. They were both able to keep the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin stable, one of them for at least 3 months. PMID:26694765

  11. Cytotoxicity Effects of Different Surfactant Molecules Conjugated to Carbon Nanotubes on Human Astrocytoma Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lifeng; Witkowski, Colette M.; Craig, Michael M.; Greenwade, Molly M.; Joseph, Katherine L.

    2009-12-01

    Phase contrast and epifluorescence microscopy were utilized to monitor morphological changes in human astrocytoma cells during a time-course exposure to single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) conjugates with different surfactants and to investigate sub-cellular distribution of the nanotube conjugates, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that cytotoxicity of the nanotube/surfactant conjugates is related to the toxicity of surfactant molecules attached on the nanotube surfaces. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) are toxic to cells. Exposure to CNT/SDS conjugates (0.5 mg/mL) for less than 5 min caused changes in cell morphology resulting in a distinctly spherical shape compared to untreated cells. In contrast, sodium cholate (SC) and CNT/SC did not affect cell morphology, proliferation, or growth. These data indicate that SC is an environmentally friendly surfactant for the purification and dispersion of SWCNTs. Epifluorescence microscopy analysis of CNT/DNA conjugates revealed distribution in the cytoplasm of cells and did not show adverse effects on cell morphology, proliferation, or viability during a 72-h incubation. These observations suggest that the SWCNTs could be used as non-viral vectors for diagnostic and therapeutic molecules across the blood-brain barrier to the brain and the central nervous system.

  12. Cytotoxicity effects of different surfactant molecules conjugated to carbon nanotubes on human astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lifeng; Witkowski, Colette M; Craig, Michael M; Greenwade, Molly M; Joseph, Katherine L

    2009-01-01

    Phase contrast and epifluorescence microscopy were utilized to monitor morphological changes in human astrocytoma cells during a time-course exposure to single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) conjugates with different surfactants and to investigate sub-cellular distribution of the nanotube conjugates, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that cytotoxicity of the nanotube/surfactant conjugates is related to the toxicity of surfactant molecules attached on the nanotube surfaces. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) are toxic to cells. Exposure to CNT/SDS conjugates (0.5 mg/mL) for less than 5 min caused changes in cell morphology resulting in a distinctly spherical shape compared to untreated cells. In contrast, sodium cholate (SC) and CNT/SC did not affect cell morphology, proliferation, or growth. These data indicate that SC is an environmentally friendly surfactant for the purification and dispersion of SWCNTs. Epifluorescence microscopy analysis of CNT/DNA conjugates revealed distribution in the cytoplasm of cells and did not show adverse effects on cell morphology, proliferation, or viability during a 72-h incubation. These observations suggest that the SWCNTs could be used as non-viral vectors for diagnostic and therapeutic molecules across the blood-brain barrier to the brain and the central nervous system. PMID:20652100

  13. Cytotoxicity Effects of Different Surfactant Molecules Conjugated to Carbon Nanotubes on Human Astrocytoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Phase contrast and epifluorescence microscopy were utilized to monitor morphological changes in human astrocytoma cells during a time-course exposure to single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) conjugates with different surfactants and to investigate sub-cellular distribution of the nanotube conjugates, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that cytotoxicity of the nanotube/surfactant conjugates is related to the toxicity of surfactant molecules attached on the nanotube surfaces. Both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) are toxic to cells. Exposure to CNT/SDS conjugates (0.5 mg/mL) for less than 5 min caused changes in cell morphology resulting in a distinctly spherical shape compared to untreated cells. In contrast, sodium cholate (SC) and CNT/SC did not affect cell morphology, proliferation, or growth. These data indicate that SC is an environmentally friendly surfactant for the purification and dispersion of SWCNTs. Epifluorescence microscopy analysis of CNT/DNA conjugates revealed distribution in the cytoplasm of cells and did not show adverse effects on cell morphology, proliferation, or viability during a 72-h incubation. These observations suggest that the SWCNTs could be used as non-viral vectors for diagnostic and therapeutic molecules across the blood–brain barrier to the brain and the central nervous system. PMID:20652100

  14. Modified natural porcine surfactant inhibits superoxide anions and proinflammatory mediators released by resting and stimulated human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Walti, H; Polla, B S; Bachelet, M

    1997-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant has a potential role in modulating inflammation in normal and injured lungs. In lung injury, monocytes become activated and participate in lung inflammation. We therefore, investigated the proinflammatory functions of stimulated human blood monocytes after an overnight preincubation period with modified natural porcine surfactant (Curosurf) (500-1000 micrograms/mL). Monocytes were stimulated either with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), bacterial extract OM-85, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or Ca2+ ionophore A23187. The present study shows that Curosurf significantly inhibits: 1) the production of superoxide anions stimulated with OM-85 (1 mg/mL, 30 min), but not with PMA (100 ng/mL, 30 min); 2) the release of cyclooxygenase metabolites prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 stimulated with OM-85 (1 mg/mL, overnight); 3) the release of lipoxygenase metabolite leukotriene C4 stimulated with A23187 (10 microM, 10 min); 4) the release of the cytokine TNF-alpha stimulated overnight with either OM-85 (1 mg/mL) or LPS (10 micrograms/mL)) in a dose-dependent fashion. In addition, Curosurf decreases the spontaneous adherence of monocytes to plastic culture wells in a dose-dependent fashion. Experiments performed with staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC) indicate that, in contrast with PMA, the production of superoxide anions stimulated by OM-85 is not related to PKC activation. Consequently, we propose that the mechanism involved in the suppressive effects of Curosurf is PKC-independent. In summary, the present study provides experimental evidence that favors the anti-inflammatory role of modified natural porcine surfactant (Curosurf) in human monocytes in vitro. PMID:8979299

  15. Different modes of interaction of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-B in phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, A; Casals, C; Keough, K M; Pérez-Gil, J

    1997-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B (SP-B) has been incorporated into vesicles of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (PC) by two different procedures to characterize the dependence of lipid-protein interactions on the method of reconstitution. In method A the protein was dissolved in a small volume of either methanol or 60% (v/v) acetonitrile and injected into an aqueous phase containing phospholipid vesicles. In method B the vesicles were prepared by injection of a mixture of phospholipid and SP-B dissolved in methanol or aqueous acetonitrile. Both methods of reconstitution led to the extensive interaction of SP-B with PC bilayers as demonstrated by co-migration during centrifugation, marked protection against proteolysis, change in the fluorescence emission intensity of SP-B, and protection of SP-B tryptophan fluorescence from quenching by acrylamide. SP-B promoted the rapid adsorption of DPPC on an air/liquid interface irrespective of the method of protein reconstitution. However, the interfacial adsorption activity of SP-B reconstituted by method B remained stable for hours, but that of SP-B prepared by method A decreased with time. Electron microscopy showed that the injection of SP-B into an aqueous phase containing PC or DPPC vesicles (method A) induced a rapid aggregation of vesicles. By contrast, a much longer time was required for detecting vesicle aggregation when the protein was reconstituted by co-injection of SP-B and phospholipids (method B). The presence of 5% (w/w) SP-B in DPPC bilayers prepared by method B broadened the differential scanning calorimetry thermogram and decreased the enthalpy of the transition. In contrast, the injection of SP-B into preformed DPPC vesicles (method A) did not influence the gel-to-liquid phase transition of DPPC bilayers. Taken together, these results indicate that the mode and extent of interaction of SP-B with surfactant phospholipids depends on the conditions of

  16. Micellar and biochemical properties of a propyl-ended fluorinated surfactant designed for membrane-protein study.

    PubMed

    Abla, Maher; Unger, Sebastian; Keller, Sandro; Bonneté, Françoise; Ebel, Christine; Pucci, Bernard; Breyton, Cécile; Durand, Grégory

    2015-05-01

    Our goal is to design optimised fluorinated surfactants for handling membrane proteins in solution. We report herein the self-assembling and biochemical properties of a new hemifluorinated surfactant (H3F6H3DigluM) with a branched diglucosylated polar head group and an apolar tail consisting of a perfluorohexane core decorated with a hydrogenated propyl tip. For the sake of comparison, its fluorinated analogue without propyl tip (F6H3DigluM) was also studied. Isothermal titration calorimetry and surface tension showed that the addition of a propyl tip has a significant effect on the overall hydrophobicity of the surfactant, in contrast to the behaviour described when adding an ethyl tip to a fluorinated surfactant. From dynamic light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering, both H3F6H3DigluM and F6H3DigluM self-assemble into small globular micelles of 5-7 nm in diameter and have aggregation numbers of 62±8 and 46±2, respectively. Finally, H3F6H3DigluM was found to be the best fluorinated surfactant developed in our group to stabilise the model membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) in aqueous solution. This study demonstrates the suitability of this new propyl-ended fluorinated surfactant for biochemical and structural applications and confirms the superiority of hemifluorinated chains over fluorinated ones. PMID:25616252

  17. Role of the N-Terminal Seven Residues of Surfactant Protein B (SP-B)

    PubMed Central

    Sharifahmadian, Mahzad; Sarker, Muzaddid; Palleboina, Dharamaraju; Waring, Alan J.; Walther, Frans J.; Morrow, Michael R.; Booth, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Breathing is enabled by lung surfactant, a mixture of proteins and lipids that forms a surface-active layer and reduces surface tension at the air-water interface in lungs. Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is an essential component of lung surfactant. In this study we probe the mechanism underlying the important functional contributions made by the N-terminal 7 residues of SP-B, a region sometimes called the “insertion sequence”. These studies employed a construct of SP-B, SP-B (1–25,63–78), also called Super Mini-B, which is a 41-residue peptide with internal disulfide bonds comprising the N-terminal 7-residue insertion sequence and the N- and C-terminal helices of SP-B. Circular dichroism, solution NMR, and solid state 2H NMR were used to study the structure of SP-B (1–25,63–78) and its interactions with phospholipid bilayers. Comparison of results for SP-B (8–25,63–78) and SP-B (1–25,63–78) demonstrates that the presence of the 7-residue insertion sequence induces substantial disorder near the centre of the lipid bilayer, but without a major disruption of the overall mechanical orientation of the bilayers. This observation suggests the insertion sequence is unlikely to penetrate deeply into the bilayer. The 7-residue insertion sequence substantially increases the solution NMR linewidths, most likely due to an increase in global dynamics. PMID:24023779

  18. Non-ionic surfactant vesicles in pulmonary glucocorticoid delivery: characterization and interaction with human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Marianecci, Carlotta; Paolino, Donatella; Celia, Christian; Fresta, Massimo; Carafa, Maria; Alhaique, Franco

    2010-10-01

    Non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NSVs) were proposed for the pulmonary delivery of glucocorticoids such as beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and various type of pulmonary fibrosis. The thin layer evaporation method followed by sonication was used to prepare small non-ionic surfactant vesicles containing beclomethasone dipropionate. Light scattering experiments showed that beclomethasone dipropionate-loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles were larger than unloaded ones and showed a significant (P<0.001) decrease of the zeta potential. The morphological analysis, by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy, showed the maintenance of a vesicular structure in the presence of the drug. The colloidal and storage stability were evaluated by Turbiscan Lab Expert, which evidenced the good stability of BDP-loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles, thus showing no significant variations of mean size and no colloidal phase segregation. Primary human lung fibroblast (HLF) cells were used for in vitro investigation of vesicle tolerability, carrier-cell interaction, intracellular drug uptake and drug-loaded vesicle anti-inflammatory activity. The investigated NSVs did not show a significant cytotoxic activity at all incubation times for concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1 μM. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed vesicular carrier localization at the level of the cytoplasm compartment, where the glucocorticoid receptor (target site) is localized. BDP-loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles elicited a significant improvement of the HLF intracellular uptake of the drug with respect to the free drug solution, drug/surfactant mixtures and empty vesicles used as references. The treatment of HLF cells with BDP-loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles determined a noticeable increase of the drug anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the secretion of both constitutive and interleukin-1

  19. Colloidally Stable and Surfactant-Free Protein-Coated Gold Nanorods in Biological Media

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the ligand exchange of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with bovine serum albumin for gold nanorods. We demonstrate by surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements that CTAB, which is used as a shape-directing agent in the particle synthesis, is completely removed from solution and particle surface. Thus, the protein-coated nanorods are suitable for bioapplications, where cationic surfactants must be avoided. At the same time, the colloidal stability of the system is significantly increased, as evidenced by spectroscopic investigation of the particle longitudinal surface plasmon resonance, which is sensitive to aggregation. Particles are stable at very high concentrations (cAu 20 mg/mL) in biological media such as phosphate buffer saline or Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium and over a large pH range (2–12). Particles can even be freeze-dried (lyophilized) and redispersed. The protocol was applied to gold nanoparticles with a large range of aspect ratios and sizes with main absorption frequencies covering the visible and the near-IR spectral range from 600 to 1100 nm. Thus, these colloidally stable and surfactant-free protein-coated nanoparticles are of great interest for various plasmonic and biomedical applications. PMID:25706195

  20. Surfactant-Bound Monolithic Columns for Separation of Proteins in Capillary High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Congying; He, Jun; Jia, Jinping; Fang, Nenghu; Simmons, Robert; Shamsi, Shahab A.

    2011-01-01

    A surfactant bound monolithic stationary phase based on the co-polymerization of 11-acrylamino-undecanoic acid (AAUA) is designed for capillary high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using D-optimal design, the effect of the polymerization mixture (concentrations of monomer, crosslinker and porogens) on the chromatographic performance (resolution and analysis time) of the AAUA-EDMA monolithic column was evaluated. The polymerization mixture was optimized using three proteins as model test solutes. The D-optimal design indicates a strong dependence of chromatographic parameters on the concentration of porogens (1,4-butanediol and water) in the polymerization mixture. Optimized solutions for fast separation and high resolution separation, respectively, were obtained using the proposed multivariate optimization. Differences less than 6.8% between the predicted and the experimental values in terms of resolution and retention time indeed confirmed that the proposed approach is practical. Using the optimized column, fast separation of proteins could be obtained in 2.5 min, and a tryptic digest of myoglobin was successfully separated on the high resolution column. The physical properties (i.e. morphology, porosity and permeability) of the optimized monolithic column were thoroughly investigated. It appears that this surfactant-bound monolith may have a great potential as a new generation of capillary HPLC stationary phase. PMID:20031139

  1. Increased and prolonged pulmonary fibrosis in surfactant protein C-deficient mice following intratracheal bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Lawson, William E; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Stathopoulos, Georgios T; Zoia, Ornella; Han, Wei; Lane, Kirk B; Li, Bo; Donnelly, Edwin F; Holburn, George E; Lewis, Kenneth G; Collins, Robert D; Hull, William M; Glasser, Stephan W; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Blackwell, Timothy S

    2005-11-01

    Recent reports have linked mutations in the surfactant protein C gene (SFTPC) to familial forms of pulmonary fibrosis, but it is uncertain whether deficiency of mature SP-C contributes to disease pathogenesis. In this study, we evaluated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice with genetic deletion of SFTPC. Compared with wild-type (SFTPC+/+) controls, mice lacking surfactant protein C (SFTPC-/-) had greater lung neutrophil influx at 1 week after intratracheal bleomycin, greater weight loss during the first 2 weeks, and increased mortality. At 3 and 6 weeks after bleomycin, lungs from SFTPC-/- mice had increased fibroblast numbers, augmented collagen accumulation, and greater parenchymal distortion. Furthermore, resolution of fibrosis was delayed. Although remodeling was near complete in SFTPC+/+ mice by 6 weeks, SFTPC-/- mice did not return to baseline until 9 weeks after bleomycin. By terminal dUTP nick-end labeling staining, widespread cell injury was observed in SFTPC-/- and SFTPC+/+ mice 1 week after bleomycin; however, ongoing apoptosis of epithelial and interstitial cells occurred in lungs of SFTPC-/- mice, but not SFTPC+/+ mice, 6 weeks after bleomycin. Thus, SP-C functions to limit lung inflammation, inhibit collagen accumulation, and restore normal lung structure after bleomycin. PMID:16251411

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Pulmonary Surfactant Protein B Peptide in a Lipid Monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Freites, J. Alfredo; Choi, Yunsoo; Tobias, Douglas J.

    2003-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins that lines the air/liquid interface of the alveolar hypophase and confers mechanical stability to the alveoli during the breathing process. The desire to formulate synthetic mixtures for low-cost prophylactic and therapeutic applications has motivated the study of the specific roles and interactions of the different components. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a model system composed of a monolayer of palmitic acid (PA) and a surfactant protein B peptide, SP-B1–25. A detailed structural characterization as a function of the lipid monolayer specific area revealed that the peptide remains inserted in the monolayer up to values of specific area corresponding to an untilted condensed phase of the the pure palmitic acid monolayer. The system remains stable by altering the conformational order of both the anionic lipid monolayer and the peptide secondary structure. Two elements appear to be key for the constitution of this phase: an electrostatic interaction between the cationic peptide residues with the anionic headgroups, and an exclusion of the aromatic residues on the hydrophobic end of the peptide from the hydrophilic and aqueous regions. PMID:12668426

  3. Proteomic and Lipidomic Analysis of Nanoparticle Corona upon Contact with Lung Surfactant Reveals Differences in Protein, but Not Lipid Composition.

    PubMed

    Raesch, Simon Sebastian; Tenzer, Stefan; Storck, Wiebke; Rurainski, Alexander; Selzer, Dominik; Ruge, Christian Arnold; Perez-Gil, Jesus; Schaefer, Ulrich Friedrich; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2015-12-22

    Pulmonary surfactant (PS) constitutes the first line of host defense in the deep lung. Because of its high content of phospholipids and surfactant specific proteins, the interaction of inhaled nanoparticles (NPs) with the pulmonary surfactant layer is likely to form a corona that is different to the one formed in plasma. Here we present a detailed lipidomic and proteomic analysis of NP corona formation using native porcine surfactant as a model. We analyzed the adsorbed biomolecules in the corona of three NP with different surface properties (PEG-, PLGA-, and Lipid-NP) after incubation with native porcine surfactant. Using label-free shotgun analysis for protein and LC-MS for lipid analysis, we quantitatively determined the corona composition. Our results show a conserved lipid composition in the coronas of all investigated NPs regardless of their surface properties, with only hydrophilic PEG-NPs adsorbing fewer lipids in total. In contrast, the analyzed NP displayed a marked difference in the protein corona, consisting of up to 417 different proteins. Among the proteins showing significant differences between the NP coronas, there was a striking prevalence of molecules with a notoriously high lipid and surface binding, such as, e.g., SP-A, SP-D, DMBT1. Our data indicate that the selective adsorption of proteins mediates the relatively similar lipid pattern in the coronas of different NPs. On the basis of our lipidomic and proteomic analysis, we provide a detailed set of quantitative data on the composition of the surfactant corona formed upon NP inhalation, which is unique and markedly different to the plasma corona. PMID:26575243

  4. Elevation of serum surfactant protein-A with exacerbation in canine eosinophilic pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    SONE, Katsuhito; AKIYOSHI, Hideo; HAYASHI, Akiyoshi; OHASHI, Fumihito

    2015-01-01

    A 7-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was admitted to our hospital, because of cough with sputum. She was diagnosed as having canine eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) based on blood eosinophilia, bronchial pattern and infiltrative shadow observed on thoracic radiography, bronchiolar obstruction and air-space consolidation predominantly affecting the right caudal lung lobe, as revealed by computed tomography (CT), predominant eosinophils in CT-guided fine needle aspiration and the clinical course. She exhibited a good response to steroid therapy, and the cough disappeared. The serum surfactant protein (SP)-A level increased with the aggravated symptom and decreased markedly with improvement compared with the C-reactive protein level and the number of eosinophils. We propose that serum SP-A level is a good biomarker in CEP. PMID:26300438

  5. Stretching surfactant- or protein-coated droplets in a high frequency electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Greg

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant-stabilized and protein-coated droplets are stretched in a high-frequency AC electric field. This is the first work to study aqueous droplets stretching at a frequency (20 MHz) high enough that water behaves as a pure dielectric. Consequently, the water/oil system is free of steady electrohydrodynamic flow. The absence of a steady flow provides a potential way to measure interfacial rheological properties of water soluble additives with droplet stretching models. Results are presented for both the wide gap and thin gap geometries. Adding dilute protein additives (e.g. bovine serum albumin, switchable peptides, hydrophobins) to form interfacial elastic layers inhibits stretching, which is an important milestone in our efforts to engineer a continuous, uniform wall thickness shell production process. Work supported by General Atomics IR&D Funds.

  6. Serum surfactant protein-A, but not surfactant protein-D or KL-6, can predict preclinical lung damage induced by smoking.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hideo; Kanoh, Soichiro; Motoyoshi, Kazuo

    2008-06-01

    Serum surfactant protein (SP)-A offers a useful clinical marker for interstitial lung disease (ILD). However, SP-A is occasionally elevated in non-ILD pulmonary patients. The present study was conducted to investigate factors that affect serum SP- A levels in respiratory medicine. Serum SP-A, serum SP-D, serum Klebs von den Lungen (KL)-6 and pulmonary function tests were evaluated in 929 patients (current smokers, n=255; ex-smokers, n=242; never-smokers, n=432) without ILD or pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Serum SP-A was significantly higher in current smokers than in never- or ex-smokers (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Serum SP- A was significantly higher in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary thromboembolism than in other diseases (p<0.01). Serum SP-A correlated positively with amount of smoking (p<0.01) and negatively with forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (p<0.05). Serum SP-D and KL-6 were unaffected by smoking. Smoking should be taken into account when evaluating serum SP-A levels, and different baseline levels of serum SP-A should be established for smokers and non-smokers. Serum SP-A may also represent a useful marker for predicting COPD in the preclinical stage. PMID:18595202

  7. [The ocular surfactant system and its relevance in the dry eye].

    PubMed

    Schicht, M; Posa, A; Paulsen, F; Bräuer, L

    2010-11-01

    The amphiphilic surfactant proteins B (SP-B) and C (SP-C) are tightly bound to phospholipids. These proteins play important roles in maintaining the surface tension-lowering properties of pulmonary surfactant. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) and D (SP-D) are hydrophilic and are thought to have a role in recycling surfactant and, especially, in improving host defense in the lung. Moreover, SP-A supports the hydrophobic surfactant proteins B and during surfactant subtype assembly and inhibits the secretion of lamellar bodies into the alveolar space. During recent years surfactant proteins have also been detected at locations outside the lung such as the lacrimal apparatus. In this review, the latest information regarding SP function and regulation in the human lacrimal system, the tear film and the ocular surface is summarised with regard to dry eye, rheological and antimicrobial properties of the tear film, tear outflow, certain disease states and possible therapeutic perspectives. PMID:21077020

  8. Environmental Pollutant Ozone Causes Damage to Lung Surfactant Protein B (SP-B).

    PubMed

    Hemming, Joanna M; Hughes, Brian R; Rennie, Adrian R; Tomas, Salvador; Campbell, Richard A; Hughes, Arwel V; Arnold, Thomas; Botchway, Stanley W; Thompson, Katherine C

    2015-08-25

    Lung surfactant protein B (SP-B) is an essential protein found in the surfactant fluid at the air-water interface of the lung. Exposure to the air pollutant ozone could potentially damage SP-B and lead to respiratory distress. We have studied two peptides, one consisting of the N-terminus of SP-B [SP-B(1-25)] and the other a construct of the N- and C-termini of SP-B [SP-B(1-25,63-78)], called SMB. Exposure to dilute levels of ozone (~2 ppm) of monolayers of each peptide at the air-water interface leads to a rapid reaction, which is evident from an increase in the surface tension. Fluorescence experiments revealed that this increase in surface tension is accompanied by a loss of fluorescence from the tryptophan residue at the interface. Neutron and X-ray reflectivity experiments show that, in contrast to suggestions in the literature, the peptides are not solubilized upon oxidation but rather remain at the interface with little change in their hydration. Analysis of the product material reveals that no cleavage of the peptides occurs, but a more hydrophobic product is slowly formed together with an increased level of oligomerization. We attributed this to partial unfolding of the peptides. Experiments conducted in the presence of phospholipids reveal that the presence of the lipids does not prevent oxidation of the peptides. Our results strongly suggest that exposure to low levels of ozone gas will damage SP-B, leading to a change in its structure. The implication is that the oxidized protein will be impaired in its ability to interact at the air-water interface with negatively charged phosphoglycerol lipids, thus compromising what is thought to be its main biological function. PMID:26270023

  9. Environmental Pollutant Ozone Causes Damage to Lung Surfactant Protein B (SP-B)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lung surfactant protein B (SP-B) is an essential protein found in the surfactant fluid at the air–water interface of the lung. Exposure to the air pollutant ozone could potentially damage SP-B and lead to respiratory distress. We have studied two peptides, one consisting of the N-terminus of SP-B [SP-B(1–25)] and the other a construct of the N- and C-termini of SP-B [SP-B(1–25,63–78)], called SMB. Exposure to dilute levels of ozone (∼2 ppm) of monolayers of each peptide at the air–water interface leads to a rapid reaction, which is evident from an increase in the surface tension. Fluorescence experiments revealed that this increase in surface tension is accompanied by a loss of fluorescence from the tryptophan residue at the interface. Neutron and X-ray reflectivity experiments show that, in contrast to suggestions in the literature, the peptides are not solubilized upon oxidation but rather remain at the interface with little change in their hydration. Analysis of the product material reveals that no cleavage of the peptides occurs, but a more hydrophobic product is slowly formed together with an increased level of oligomerization. We attributed this to partial unfolding of the peptides. Experiments conducted in the presence of phospholipids reveal that the presence of the lipids does not prevent oxidation of the peptides. Our results strongly suggest that exposure to low levels of ozone gas will damage SP-B, leading to a change in its structure. The implication is that the oxidized protein will be impaired in its ability to interact at the air–water interface with negatively charged phosphoglycerol lipids, thus compromising what is thought to be its main biological function. PMID:26270023

  10. Developmental regulation of chicken surfactant protein A and its localization in lung.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Cuperus, Tryntsje; van Dijk, Albert; Skjødt, Karsten; Hansen, Søren; Haagsman, Henk P; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A

    2016-08-01

    Surfactant Protein A (SP-A) is a collagenous C-type lectin (collectin) that plays an important role in the early stage of the host immune response. In chicken, SP-A (cSP-A) is expressed as a 26 kDa glycosylated protein in the lung. Using immunohistochemistry, cSP-A protein was detected mainly in the lung lining fluid covering the parabronchial epithelia. Specific cSP-A producing epithelial cells, resembling mammalian type II cells, were identified in the parabronchi. Gene expression of cSP-A markedly increased from embryonic day 14 onwards until the time of hatch, comparable to the SP-A homologue chicken lung lectin, while mannan binding lectin and collectins CL-L1 and CL-K1 only showed slightly changed expression during development. cSP-A protein could be detected as early as ED 18 in lung tissue using Western blotting, and expression increased steadily until day 28 post-hatch. Our observations are a first step towards understanding the role of this protein in vivo. PMID:26976230

  11. Immunohistochemical characteristics of surfactant proteins a, B, C and d in inflammatory and tumorigenic lung lesions of f344 rats.

    PubMed

    Yokohira, Masanao; Yamakawa, Keiko; Nakano, Yuko; Numano, Takamasa; Furukawa, Fumio; Kishi, Sosuke; Ninomiya, Fumiko; Kanie, Shohei; Hitotsumachi, Hiroko; Saoo, Kousuke; Imaida, Katsumi

    2014-10-01

    Surfactant proteins (SPs), originally known as human lung surfactants, are essential to respiratory structure and function. There are 4 subtypes, SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D, with SP-A and SP-D having immunological functions, and SP-B and SP-C having physicochemical properties that reduce the surface tension at biological interfaces. In this experiment, the expressions of SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D in lung neoplastic lesions induced by N-bis (2-hydroxypropyl) nitrosamine (DHPN) and inflammatory lesions due to quartz instillation were examined and compared immunohistochemically. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) lung samples featuring inflammation were obtained with a rat quartz instillation model, and neoplastic lesions, hyperplasias and adenomas, were obtained with the rat DHPN-induced lung carcinogenesis model. In the rat quartz instillation model, male 10-week old F344 rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation (IT) to quartz at a dose of 2 mg/rat suspended in saline (0.2 ml) on day 0, and sacrificed on day 28. Lung tumorigenesis in F344 male rats was initiated by DHPN in drinking water for 2 weeks, and the animals were then sacrificed in week 30. Lung proliferative lesions, hyperplasias and adenomas, were observed with DHPN, and inflammation was observed with quartz. The expressions of SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D were examined immunohistochemically. SP-B and SP-C showed strong expression in lung hyperplasias and adenomas, while SP-A and SP-D were observed in mucus or exudates in inflammatory alveoli. These results suggest the possibility that SP-B and SP-C are related to lung tumorigenesis. PMID:25378802

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and inhaled steroids alter surfactant protein D (SP-D) levels: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Michael W; Tal-Singer, Ruth M; Kierstein, Sonja; Musani, Ali I; Beers, Michael F; Panettieri, Reynold A; Haczku, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Background Surfactant protein D (SP-D), an innate immune molecule, plays an important protective role during airway inflammation. Deficiency of this molecule induces emphysematous changes in murine lungs, but its significance in human COPD remains unclear. Methods We collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 20 subjects with varying degrees of COPD (8 former smokers and 12 current smokers) and 15 asymptomatic healthy control subjects (5 never smokers, 3 remote former smokers, and 7 current smokers). All subjects underwent a complete medical history and pulmonary function testing. SP-D was measured by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric methods and multivariable linear regression for control of confounding. The effect of corticosteroid treatment on SP-D synthesis was studied in vitro using an established model of isolated type II alveolar epithelial cell culture. Results Among former smokers, those with COPD had significantly lower SP-D levels than healthy subjects (median 502 and 1067 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.01). In a multivariable linear regression model controlling for age, sex, race, and pack-years of tobacco, COPD was independently associated with lower SP-D levels (model coefficient -539, p = 0.04) and inhaled corticosteroid use was independently associated with higher SP-D levels (398, p = 0.046). To support the hypothesis that corticosteroids increase SP-D production we used type II alveolar epithelial cells isolated from adult rat lungs. These cells responded to dexamethasone treatment by a significant increase of SP-D mRNA (p = 0.041) and protein (p = 0.037) production after 4 days of culture. Conclusion Among former smokers, COPD is associated with lower levels of SP-D and inhaled corticosteroid use is associated with higher levels of SP-D in the lung. Dexamethasone induced SP-D mRNA and protein expression in isolated epithelial cells in vitro. Given the importance of this molecule as a modulator

  13. Eosinophil-Associated Lung Diseases. A Cry for Surfactant Proteins A and D Help?

    PubMed Central

    Ledford, Julie G.; Addison, Kenneth J.; Foster, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Surfactant proteins (SP)-A and SP-D (SP-A/-D) play important roles in numerous eosinophil-dominated diseases, including asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and allergic rhinitis. In these settings, SP-A/-D have been shown to modulate eosinophil chemotaxis, inhibit eosinophil mediator release, and mediate macrophage clearance of apoptotic eosinophils. Dysregulation of SP-A/-D function in eosinophil-dominated diseases is also not uncommon. Alterations in serum SP-A/-D levels are associated with disease severity in allergic rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Furthermore, oligimerization of SP-A/-D, necessary for their proper function, can be perturbed by reactive nitrogen species, which are increased in eosinophilic disease. In this review, we highlight the associations of eosinophilic lung diseases with SP-A and SP-D levels and functions. PMID:24960334

  14. Surfactant Protein D Modulates HIV Infection of Both T-Cells and Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Palaniyar, Nades; Dong, Tao; Mitchell, Daniel A.; Clark, Howard W.

    2013-01-01

    Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) is an oligomerized C-type lectin molecule with immunomodulatory properties and involvement in lung surfactant homeostasis in the respiratory tract. SP-D binds to the enveloped viruses, influenza A virus and respiratory syncytial virus and inhibits their replication in vitro and in vivo. SP-D has been shown to bind to HIV via the HIV envelope protein gp120 and inhibit infectivity in vitro. Here we show that SP-D binds to different strains of HIV (BaL and IIIB) and the binding occurs at both pH 7.4 and 5.0 resembling physiological relevant pH values found in the body and the female urogenital tract, respectively. The binding of SP-D to HIV particles and gp120 was inhibited by the presence of several hexoses with mannose found to be the strongest inhibitor. Competition studies showed that soluble CD4 and CVN did not interfere with the interaction between SP-D and gp120. However, soluble recombinant DC-SIGN was shown to inhibit the binding between SP-D and gp120. SP-D agglutinated HIV and gp120 in a calcium dependent manner. SP-D inhibited the infectivity of HIV strains at both pH values of 7.4 and 5.0 in a concentration dependent manner. The inhibition of the infectivity was abolished by the presence of mannose. SP-D enhanced the binding of HIV to immature monocyte derived dendritic cells (iMDDCs) and was also found to enhance HIV capture and transfer to the T-cell like line PM1. These results suggest that SP-D can bind to and inhibit direct infection of T-cells by HIV but also enhance the transfer of infectious HIV particles from DCs to T-cells in vivo. PMID:23527085

  15. A Unique Sugar-binding Site Mediates the Distinct Anti-influenza Activity of Pig Surfactant Protein D*

    PubMed Central

    van Eijk, Martin; Rynkiewicz, Michael J.; White, Mitchell R.; Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Zou, Xueqing; Schulten, Klaus; Luo, Dong; Crouch, Erika C.; Cafarella, Tanya R.; Head, James F.; Haagsman, Henk P.; Seaton, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Pigs can act as intermediate hosts by which reassorted influenza A virus (IAV) strains can be transmitted to humans and cause pandemic influenza outbreaks. The innate host defense component surfactant protein D (SP-D) interacts with glycans on the hemagglutinin of IAV and contributes to protection against IAV infection in mammals. This study shows that a recombinant trimeric neck lectin fragment derived from porcine SP-D (pSP-D) exhibits profound inhibitory activity against IAV, in contrast to comparable fragments derived from human SP-D. Crystallographic analysis of the pSP-D fragment complexed with a viral sugar component shows that a unique tripeptide loop alters the lectin site conformation of pSP-D. Molecular dynamics simulations highlight the role of this flexible loop, which adopts a more stable conformation upon sugar binding and may facilitate binding to viral glycans through contact with distal portions of the branched mannoside. The combined data demonstrate that porcine-specific structural features of SP-D contribute significantly to its distinct anti-IAV activity. These findings could help explain why pigs serve as important reservoirs for newly emerging pathogenic IAV strains. PMID:22685299

  16. Surfactant proteins A and D protect mice against pulmonary hypersensitivity induced by Aspergillus fumigatus antigens and allergens.

    PubMed

    Madan, T; Kishore, U; Singh, M; Strong, P; Clark, H; Hussain, E M; Reid, K B; Sarma, P U

    2001-02-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an allergic disorder caused by an opportunistic fungal pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus (AFU:). Lung surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D can interact with the glycosylated antigens and allergens of AFU:, inhibit specific IgE binding to these allergens, and block histamine release from sensitized basophils. We have now examined the therapeutic effect of exogenous administration of human SP-A, SP-D, and a recombinant fragment of SP-D (rSP-D), in a murine model of pulmonary hypersensitivity induced by AFU: antigens and allergens, which resembles human ABPA immunologically. The ABPA mice exhibited high levels of AFU:-specific IgG and IgE, blood eosinophilia, extensive infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils in the lung sections, and a Th2 cytokine response. Treatment with SP-A, SP-D, and rSP-D lowered blood eosinophilia, pulmonary infiltration, and specific Ab levels considerably, which persisted up to 4 days in the SP-A-treated ABPA mice, and up to 16 days in the SP-D- or rSP-D-treated ABPA mice. The levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-5 were decreased, while the level of IFN-gamma was raised in the splenic supernatants of the treated mice, indicating a marked shift from Th2 to Th1 response. These results clearly implicate pulmonary SP-A and SP-D in the modulation of allergic reactions. PMID:11181646

  17. Phosphorylation of human link proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Oester, D.A.; Caterson, B.; Schwartz, E.R.

    1986-06-13

    Three link proteins of 48, 44 and 40 kDa were purified from human articular cartilage and identified with monoclonal anti-link protein antibody 8-A-4. Two sets of lower molecular weight proteins of 30-31 kDa and 24-26 kDa also contained link protein epitopes recognized by the monoclonal antibody and were most likely degradative products of the intact link proteins. The link proteins of 48 and 40 kDa were identified as phosphoproteins while the 44 kDa link protein did not contain /sup 32/P. The phosphorylated 48 and 40 kDa link proteins contained approximately 2 moles PO/sub 4//mole link protein.

  18. Elucidation of Lipid Binding Sites on Lung Surfactant Protein A Using X-ray Crystallography, Mutagenesis, and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Goh, Boon Chong; Wu, Huixing; Rynkiewicz, Michael J; Schulten, Klaus; Seaton, Barbara A; McCormack, Francis X

    2016-07-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a collagenous C-type lectin (collectin) that is critical for pulmonary defense against inhaled microorganisms. Bifunctional avidity of SP-A for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipid A and for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the major component of surfactant membranes lining the air-liquid interface of the lung, ensures that the protein is poised for first-line interactions with inhaled pathogens. To improve our understanding of the motifs that are required for interactions with microbes and surfactant structures, we explored the role of the tyrosine-rich binding surface on the carbohydrate recognition domain of SP-A in the interaction with DPPC and lipid A using crystallography, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular dynamics simulations. Critical binding features for DPPC binding include a three-walled tyrosine cage that binds the choline headgroup through cation-π interactions and a positively charged cluster that binds the phosphoryl group. This basic cluster is also critical for binding of lipid A, a bacterial PAMP and target for SP-A. Molecular dynamics simulations further predict that SP-A binds lipid A more tightly than DPPC. These results suggest that the differential binding properties of SP-A favor transfer of the protein from surfactant DPPC to pathogen membranes containing appropriate lipid PAMPs to effect key host defense functions. PMID:27324153

  19. Genetic disorders of surfactant homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant reduces surface tension at the air-liquid interface in the alveolus, thereby maintaining lung volumes during the respiratory cycle. In premature newborn infants, the lack of surfactant causes atelectasis and respiratory failure, characteristic of respiratory of distress syndrome. Surfactant is comprised of lipids and associated proteins that are required for surfactant function. Surfactant proteins B and C and a lamellar body associated transport protein, ABCA3 play critical roles in surfactant synthesis and function. Mutations in the genes encoding these proteins cause lethal respiratory distress in newborn infants. This review discusses the clinical and pathological findings associated with these inherited disorders of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:16798578

  20. Innate immune collectin surfactant protein D enhances the clearance of DNA by macrophages and minimizes anti-DNA antibody generation.

    PubMed

    Palaniyar, Nades; Clark, Howard; Nadesalingam, Jeya; Shih, Michael J; Hawgood, Samuel; Reid, Kenneth B M

    2005-06-01

    Dying microbes and necrotic cells release highly viscous DNA that induces inflammation and septic shock, and apoptotic cells display DNA, a potential autoantigen, on their surfaces. However, innate immune proteins that mediate the clearance of free DNA and surface DNA-containing cells are not clearly established. Pulmonary surfactant proteins (SP-) A and D are innate immune pattern recognition collectins that contain fibrillar collagen-like regions and globular carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). We have recently shown that collectins SP-A, SP-D, and mannose binding lectin recognize DNA and RNA via their collagen-like regions and CRDs. Here we show that SP-D enhances the uptake of Cy3-labeled fragments of DNA and DNA-coated beads by U937 human monocytic cells, in vitro. Analysis of DNA uptake by freshly isolated mouse alveolar macrophages shows that SP-D, but not SP-A, deficiency results in reduced clearance of DNA, ex vivo. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid shows that SP-D- but not SP-A-deficient mice are defective in clearing free DNA from the lung. Additionally, both SP-A- and SP-D-deficient mice accumulate anti-DNA Abs in sera in an age-dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that collectins such as SP-A and SP-D reduce the generation of anti-DNA autoantibody, which may be explained in part by the defective clearance of DNA from the lungs in the absence of these proteins. Our findings establish two new roles for these innate immune proteins and that SP-D enhances efficient pinocytosis and phagocytosis of DNA by macrophages and minimizes anti-DNA Ab generation. PMID:15905582

  1. Thyroid transcription factor-1, hepatocyte nuclear factor-3β and surfactant protein A and B in the developing chick lung

    PubMed Central

    ZENG, XIN; YUTZEY, KATHERINE E.; WHITSETT, JEFFREY A.

    1998-01-01

    Expression of surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B and the transcription factors TTF-1 and HNF-3β was identified by immunohistochemistry in the developing chicken. SP-B, a small hydrophobic peptide critical for lung function and surfactant homeostasis in mammals, was detected in the epithelial cells of parabronchi in embryonic chicken lung from the 15th day of incubation, prior to the onset of the breathing movements and was expressed at high levels in the posthatching chicken lung. SP-A, an abundant surfactant protein involved in innate defence of the mammalian lung, was detected in the chick embryo in subsets of epithelial cells in the mesobronchus, starting from d 15 and was detected in the posthatching chicken lung. The transcription factors hepatocyte nuclear factor 3β (HNF-3β) and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), both regulators epithelial cell differentiation and gene expression in mammalian species, were detected at the onset of lung bud formation (d 4 of incubation) and throughout lung development. Abundant nuclear expression was detected in nuclei of respiratory epithelial cells of developing bronchial tubules for both transcription factors. In contrast to the surfactant proteins, expression of both TTF-1 and HNF-3β decreased markedly in posthatching chicken lung. The expression of SP-A and SP-B in chick lung demonstrates the conservation of surfactant proteins in vertebrates. The temporospatial pattern of TTF-1 and HNF-3β overlaps with that of SP-A and SP-B, supporting their potential roles in chick lung development and demonstrating the conservation of regulatory mechanisms contributing to gene expression in respiratory epithelial cells in vertebrates. PMID:9877295

  2. Effect of surfactants on Ra-sHSPI - A small heat shock protein from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus annulatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqi, Mohammad Khursheed; Shahein, Yasser E.; Hussein, Nahla; Khan, Rizwan H.

    2016-09-01

    Electrostatic interaction plays an important role in protein aggregation phenomenon. In this study, we have checked the effect of anionic - Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and cationic-Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) surfactant on aggregation behavior of Ra-sHSPI, a small heat shock protein purified from Rhipicephalus annulatus tick. To monitor the effect of these surfactants, we have employed several spectroscopic methods such as Rayleigh light scattering measurements, ANS (8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) fluorescence measurements, ThT (Thioflavin T) binding assays, Far-UV CD (Circular Dichroism) and dynamic light scattering measurements. In the presence of anionic surfactant-SDS, Ra-sHSPI forms amyloid fibrils, in contrast, no amyloid formation was observed in presence of cationic surfactant at low pH. Enhancement of ANS fluorescence intensity confirms the exposition of more hydrophobic patches during aggregation. ThT binding assay confirms the amyloid fibrillar nature of the SDS induced Ra-sHSPI aggregates and supported by PASTA 2.0 (prediction of amyloid structural aggregation) software. This study demonstrates the crucial role of charge during amyloid fibril formation at low pH in Ra-sHSPI.

  3. Effects of surfactant and salt species in reverse micellar forward extraction efficiency of isoflavones with enriched protein from soy flour.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wei, Zhiyi; Du, Fangling; Zhu, Junqing

    2010-11-01

    Suitability of reverse micelles of anionic surfactant sodium bis(2-ethyl hexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic surfactant hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and nonionic surfactant polyoxyethylene p-t-octylphenol (TritonX-100) in organic solvent isooctane for extraction of soy isoflavone-enriching proteins was investigated. The results showed that the order of combined isoflavone contents was SDS>CTAB>Triton X-100>AOT, while the order of protein recovery was SDS>AOT>TritonX-100>CTAB. As compared with ACN-HCl extraction, the total amount of isoflavones was lower than reverse micellar extraction. Ion strength was one of the important conditions to control extraction of isoflavone-enriching proteins with AOT reversed micelles. For the six salt systems, KNO(3), KCl, MgCl(2), CaCl(2), NaCl, and Na(2)SO(4), extracted fraction of isoflavone-enriching proteins was measured. Salt solutions greatly influenced the extraction efficiency of isoflavones in an order of KNO(3)>MgCl(2)>CaCl(2)>KCl>NaCl>Na(2)SO(4), while protein in an order of MgCl(2)>CaCl(2)>NaCl>KNO(3)>Na(2)SO(4)>KCl. PMID:20473722

  4. Surfactant protein C-deficient mice are susceptible to respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Stephan W; Witt, Teah L; Senft, Albert P; Baatz, John E; Folger, Dusti; Maxfield, Melissa D; Akinbi, Henry T; Newton, Danforth A; Prows, Daniel R; Korfhagen, Thomas R

    2009-07-01

    Patients with mutations in the pulmonary surfactant protein C (SP-C) gene develop interstitial lung disease and pulmonary exacerbations associated with viral infections including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Pulmonary infection with RSV caused more severe interstitial thickening, air space consolidation, and goblet cell hyperplasia in SP-C-deficient (Sftpc(-/-)) mice compared with SP-C replete mice. The RSV-induced pathology resolved more slowly in Sftpc(-/-) mice with lung inflammation persistent up to 30 days postinfection. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte and macrophage counts were increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of Sftpc(-/-) mice. Viral titers and viral F and G protein mRNA were significantly increased in both Sftpc(-/-) and heterozygous Sftpc(+/-) mice compared with controls. Expression of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mRNA was increased in the lungs of Sftpc(-/-) mice relative to Sftpc(+/+) mice before and after RSV infection. Consistent with the increased TLR3 expression, BAL inflammatory cells were increased in the Sftpc(-/-) mice after exposure to a TLR3-specific ligand, poly(I:C). Preparations of purified SP-C and synthetic phospholipids blocked poly(I:C)-induced TLR3 signaling in vitro. SP-C deficiency increases the severity of RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation through regulation of TLR3 signaling. PMID:19304906

  5. Surfactant Proteins SP-A and SP-D Modulate Uterine Contractile Events in ULTR Myometrial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriadis, Georgios; Dodagatta-Marri, Eswari; Kouser, Lubna; Alhamlan, Fatimah S.; Kishore, Uday; Karteris, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules. However, there is extrapulmonary existence, especially in the amniotic fluid and at the feto-maternal interface. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that SP-A and SP-D are involved in the initiation of labour. This is of great importance given that preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In this study, we investigated the effects of recombinant forms of SP-A and SP-D (rhSP-A and rhSP-D, the comprising of trimeric lectin domain) on contractile events in vitro, using a human myometrial cell line (ULTR) as an experimental model. Treatment with rhSP-A or rhSP-D increased the cell velocity, distance travelled and displacement by ULTR cells. rhSP-A and rhSP-D also affected the contractile response of ULTRs when grown on collagen matrices showing reduced surface area. We investigated this effect further by measuring contractility-associated protein (CAP) genes. Treatment with rhSP-A and rhSP-D induced expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and connexin 43 (CX43). In addition, rhSP-A and rhSP-D were able to induce secretion of GROα and IL-8. rhSP-D also induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-6 Ra. We provide evidence that SP-A and SP-D play a key role in modulating events prior to labour by reconditioning the human myometrium and in inducing CAP genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines thus shifting the uterus from a quiescent state to a contractile one. PMID:26641881

  6. Human MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    Chapelle, A. de la; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.

    1997-01-07

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error{sup +} (RER{sup +}) tumor cells. 19 figs.

  7. Human MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    de la Chapelle, Albert; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  8. The surfactant system protects both fetus and newborn.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Surfactant complex and its individual components decrease surface tension, silence inflammatory responses, bind and destroy air-borne microbes, facilitate phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages and bind endogenous and exogenous molecules. Surfactant components generally decrease harmful inflammatory responses. New exogenous surfactants and new indications for surfactant therapy remain to be studied. At term the pool of human surfactant from developing airways extends to the amniotic cavity and to the gastrointestinal tract. Preterm labor-inducing inflammatory ligands (interleukin-1 or lipopolysaccharide) cause a robust induction of surfactant complex and lower the risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The effect of antenatal glucocorticoid therapy is complementary. According to transgenic experiments or genetic evidence in humans, surfactant proteins A, D or C (SP-A, SP-D, SP-C), expressed in fetal tissue, influence the onset of term or preterm labor. After birth, the surface tension-reducing and the inflammation-silencing effects of exogenous and endogenous surfactant are complementary. Surfactant proteins influence the genetic predisposition of RDS, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and airway infections in early infancy. Moderate to severe BPD has a strong genetic predisposition. Deleterious mutations of SP-B, ABCA3 or SP-C cause congenital interstitial lung disease that mimics the phenotype of established severe BPD. I propose that lung surfactant protects both the fetus and the newborn. Surfactant ameliorates inflammatory responses that are harmful to the mother, fetus and infant. In chorioamnionitis, inflammatory ligands are carried from the fetal membranes to the alveolar space via amniotic fluid and developing airways. They induce surfactant synthesis and secretion. Surfactant ameliorates severe inflammatory responses in fetal compartments and promotes spontaneous preterm birth. PMID:23736009

  9. The juxtamembrane lysine and arginine residues of surfactant protein C precursor influence palmitoylation via effects on trafficking.

    PubMed

    ten Brinke, A; Batenburg, J J; Gadella, B M; Haagsman, H P; Vaandrager, A B; van Golde, L M

    2001-08-01

    Surfactant protein (SP)-C propeptide (proSP-C) becomes palmitoylated on cysteines 5 and 6 before mature SP-C is formed by several proteolytic steps. To study the structural requirements for the palmitoylation of proSP-C, his-tagged human proSP-C (his-proSP-C) and his-proSP-C mutants were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and analyzed by metabolic labeling with [(3)H]palmitate and immunocytochemistry. Substitution of cysteines 5 and 6 by serines showed that these were the only two cysteine residues palmitoylated in his-proSP-C. Substitution of the juxtamembrane basic residues lysine and arginine by uncharged glutamines led to a large decrease in palmitoylation level of proSP-C. The addition of brefeldin A nearly abolished this decrease for the lysine and double mutant; the palmitoylation of the arginine mutant increased also, but not to wild-type (WT) levels. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry showed that WT proSP-C was localized in punctate vesicles throughout the cell, whereas the mutant lacking the juxtamembrane positive charges was found more perinuclear, probably in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This indicates that the two basic juxtamembrane residues influence palmitoylation of proSP-C by preventing the transport of proSP-C out of the ER, implying that proSP-C becomes palmitoylated normally in a compartment distal to the ER. PMID:11509324

  10. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) inhibits agglomeration and macrophage uptake of toxic amine modified nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Zofi; Kendall, Michaela; Mackay, Rose-Marie; Whitwell, Harry; Elgy, Christine; Ding, Ping; Mahajan, Sumeet; Morgan, Cliff; Griffiths, Mark; Clark, Howard; Madsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The lung provides the main route for nanomaterial exposure. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an important respiratory innate immune molecule with the ability to bind or opsonise pathogens to enhance phagocytic removal from the airways. We hypothesised that SP-A, like surfactant protein D, may interact with inhaled nanoparticulates, and that this interaction will be affected by nanoparticle (NP) surface characteristics. In this study, we characterise the interaction of SP-A with unmodified (U-PS) and amine-modified (A-PS) polystyrene particles of varying size and zeta potential using dynamic light scatter analysis. SP-A associated with both 100 nm U-PS and A-PS in a calcium-independent manner. SP-A induced significant calcium-dependent agglomeration of 100 nm U-PS NPs but resulted in calcium-independent inhibition of A-PS self agglomeration. SP-A enhanced uptake of 100 nm U-PS into macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner but in contrast inhibited A-PS uptake. Reduced association of A-PS particles in RAW264.7 cells following pre-incubation of SP-A was also observed with coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. Consistent with these findings, alveolar macrophages (AMs) from SP-A−/− mice were more efficient at uptake of 100 nm A-PS compared with wild type C57Bl/6 macrophages. No difference in uptake was observed with 500 nm U-PS or A-PS particles. Pre-incubation with SP-A resulted in a significant decrease in uptake of 100 nm A-PS in macrophages isolated from both groups of mice. In contrast, increased uptake by AMs of U-PS was observed after pre-incubation with SP-A. Thus we have demonstrated that SP-A promotes uptake of non-toxic U-PS particles but inhibits the clearance of potentially toxic A-PS particles by blocking uptake into macrophages. PMID:25676620

  11. Circulating pro-surfactant protein B as a risk biomarker for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Ayumu; Hanash, Samir; Rundle, Andrew; McKeague, Ian; Tang, Deliang; Darakjy, Salima; Gaziano, J. Michael; Sesso, Howard D.; Perera, Frederica

    2013-01-01

    Background Our prior studies of lung cancer suggested that a novel biomarker (pro-surfactant protein B or pro-SFTPB) might serve as a predictive marker for this disease. We aimed to determine the potential utility of pro-SFTPB for distinguishing lung cancer cases from matched controls as a risk marker. Methods Study subjects were drawn from the longitudinal Physicians’ Health Study (PHS). Cases (n = 188) included individuals who were cancer-free at study enrollment but developed lung cancer during follow-up. Controls (n = 337) were subjects who did not develop lung cancer. Cases and controls were matched on date of study enrollment, age at enrollment, and smoking status and amount. Baseline plasma samples drawn at enrollment were analyzed for pro-SFTPB using ELISA to detect differences in protein expression levels for cases and controls. Results Pro-SFTPB-non-detectable status was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (OR = 5.88, 95% CI 1.24, 27.48). Among subjects with detectable levels of the protein, increasing plasma concentration of pro-SFTPB was associated with higher lung cancer risk (OR = 1.41 per unit increase in log pro-SFTPB, 95% CI 1.08, 1.84). Conclusion These results suggest a non-linear, J-shaped association between plasma pro-SFTPB levels and lung cancer risk, with both non-detectable and higher levels of the marker being associated with lung cancer. Impact These results show promise of a risk marker that could contribute to predicting risk for lung cancer development and to narrowing the high risk population for low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. PMID:23897585

  12. Combined and Independent Action of Proteins SP-B and SP-C in the Surface Behavior and Mechanical Stability of Pulmonary Surfactant Films

    PubMed Central

    Schürch, David; Ospina, Olga L.; Cruz, Antonio; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    The hydrophobic proteins SP-B and SP-C are essential for pulmonary surfactant function, even though they are a relatively minor component (<2% of surfactant dry mass). Despite countless studies, their specific differential action and their possible concerted role to optimize the surface properties of surfactant films have not been completely elucidated. Under conditions kept as physiologically relevant as possible, we tested the surface activity and mechanical stability of several surfactant films of varying protein composition in vitro using a captive bubble surfactometer and a novel (to our knowledge) stability test. We found that in the naturally derived surfactant lipid mixtures, surfactant protein SP-B promoted film formation and reextension to lower surface tensions than SP-C, and in particular played a vital role in sustaining film stability at the most compressed states, whereas SP-C produced no stabilization. Preparations containing both proteins together revealed a slight combined effect in enhancing film formation. These results provide a qualitative and quantitative framework for the development of future synthetic therapeutic surfactants, and illustrate the crucial need to include SP-B or an efficient SP-B analog for optimal function. PMID:21081077

  13. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Surfactant Protein-C Promoter Variants Associated with Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome Reduce Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Wambach, Jennifer A.; Yang, Ping; Wegner, Daniel J.; An, Ping; Hackett, Brian P.; Cole, F. S.; Hamvas, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Dominant mutations in coding regions of the surfactant protein-C gene (SFTPC) cause respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in infants. However, the contribution of variants in noncoding regions of SFTPC to pulmonary phenotypes is unknown. Using a case-control group of infants ≥34 weeks gestation (n=538), we used complete resequencing of SFTPC and its promoter, genotyping, and logistic regression to identify 80 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Three promoter SNPs were statistically associated with neonatal RDS among European descent infants. To assess the transcriptional effects of these three promoter SNPs, we selectively mutated the SFTPC promoter and performed transient transfection using MLE-15 cells and a firefly luciferase reporter vector. Each promoter SNP decreased SFTPC transcription. The combination of two variants in high linkage dysequilibrium also decreased SFTPC transcription. In silico evaluation of transcription factor binding demonstrated that the rare allele at g.-1167 disrupts a SOX (SRY-related high mobility group box) consensus motif and introduces a GATA-1 site, at g.-2385 removes a MZF-1 (myeloid zinc finger) binding site, and at g.-1647 removes a potential methylation site. This combined statistical, in vitro, and in silico approach suggests that reduced SFTPC transcription contributes to the genetic risk for neonatal RDS in developmentally susceptible infants. PMID:20539253

  15. A novel nanobody specific for respiratory surfactant protein A has potential for lung targeting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shan-Mei; He, Xian; Li, Nan; Yu, Feng; Hu, Yang; Wang, Liu-Sheng; Zhang, Peng; Du, Yu-Kui; Du, Shan-Shan; Yin, Zhao-Fang; Wei, Ya-Ru; Mulet, Xavier; Coia, Greg; Weng, Dong; He, Jian-Hua; Wu, Min; Li, Hui-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Lung-targeting drugs are thought to be potential therapies of refractory lung diseases by maximizing local drug concentrations in the lung to avoid systemic circulation. However, a major limitation in developing lung-targeted drugs is the acquirement of lung-specific ligands. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SPA) is predominantly synthesized by type II alveolar epithelial cells, and may serve as a potential lung-targeting ligand. Here, we generated recombinant rat pulmonary SPA (rSPA) as an antigen and immunized an alpaca to produce two nanobodies (the smallest naturally occurring antibodies) specific for rSPA, designated Nb6 and Nb17. To assess these nanobodies’ potential for lung targeting, we evaluated their specificity to lung tissue and toxicity in mice. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that these anti-rSPA nanobodies selectively bound to rat lungs with high affinity. Furthermore, we intravenously injected fluorescein isothiocyanate-Nb17 in nude mice and observed its preferential accumulation in the lung to other tissues, suggesting high affinity of the nanobody for the lung. Studying acute and chronic toxicity of Nb17 revealed its safety in rats without causing apparent histological alterations. Collectively, we have generated and characterized lung-specific nanobodies, which may be applicable for lung drug delivery. PMID:25926731

  16. Effect of calcium on phospholipid interaction with pulmonary surfactant protein C.

    PubMed Central

    Dico, A S; Taneva, S; Morrow, M R; Keough, K M

    1997-01-01

    Porcine pulmonary surfactant-associated protein SP-C was incorporated into bilayers of chain-perdeuterated dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG-d62) and chain-perdeuterated dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC-d62) and into bilayers containing 70 mol% dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 30 mol% DPPG-d62 or 70 mol% DPPC-d62 and 30 mol% dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG). The effect of SP-C on the phase behavior, lipid chain order, and dynamics in these bilayers was examined by using deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance. SP-C was found to have a similar effect on the chain order and phase behavior of DPPC-d62 and DPPG-d62 in bilayers with a single lipid component. In gel phase DPPC/DPPG (7:3) bilayers with one or the other lipid component chain-perdeuterated, SP-C was found to affect first spectral moment more strongly for DPPG-d62 than for DPPC-d62. This may indicate that SP-C induced a nonrandom lateral distribution in the mixed lipid bilayer. SP-C was also found to influence motions responsible for deuteron transverse relaxation in both the gel and liquid crystalline phases. The presence of 5 mM Ca2+ in the aqueous phase substantially altered the effect of SP-C on transverse relaxation in the bilayer. PMID:9370454

  17. Surfactant Protein-D Is Essential for Immunity to Helminth Infection.

    PubMed

    Thawer, Sumaiyya; Auret, Jennifer; Schnoeller, Corinna; Chetty, Alisha; Smith, Katherine; Darby, Matthew; Roberts, Luke; Mackay, Rosie-Marie; Whitwell, Harry J; Timms, John F; Madsen, Jens; Selkirk, Murray E; Brombacher, Frank; Clark, Howard William; Horsnell, William G C

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial cell responses can enhance type 2 immunity and contribute to control of nematode infections. An important epithelial product is the collectin Surfactant Protein D (SP-D). We found that SP-D concentrations increased in the lung following Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection; this increase was dependent on key components of the type 2 immune response. We carried out loss and gain of function studies of SP-D to establish if SP-D was required for optimal immunity to the parasite. N. brasiliensis infection of SP-D-/- mice resulted in profound impairment of host innate immunity and ability to resolve infection. Raising pulmonary SP-D levels prior to infection enhanced parasite expulsion and type 2 immune responses, including increased numbers of IL-13 producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), elevated expression of markers of alternative activation by alveolar macrophages (alvM) and increased production of the type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. Adoptive transfer of alvM from SP-D-treated parasite infected mice into naïve recipients enhanced immunity to N. brasiliensis. Protection was associated with selective binding by the SP-D carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) to L4 parasites to enhance their killing by alvM. These findings are the first demonstration that the collectin SP-D is an essential component of host innate immunity to helminths. PMID:26900854

  18. Autophagy regulates hyperoxia-induced intracellular accumulation of surfactant protein C in alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Shuang; Yuan, Li-Jie; Wu, Hong-Min; Jiang, Hong; Zhao, Shi-Meng; Luo, Gang; Xue, Xin-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Surfactant protein C (SP-C) deficiency is a risk factor for hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia in newborn infants. However, the role of SP-C deficiency in the process is unclear. Here, using neonatal rat BPD model and MLE-12, mouse alveolar epithelial type II cell, we examined the changes of SP-C levels during hyperoxia. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and ELISA analysis showed SP-C accumulation in alveolar epithelial type II cells. Electron microscopy further demonstrated the accumulation of lamellar bodies and the co-localization of lamellar bodies with autophagosomes in the cytoplasm of alveolar epithelial type II cells. The inhibition of autophagy with 3-Methyladenine and knockdown of Atg7 abolished hyperoxia-induced SP-C accumulation in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK signaling with SP600125 suppressed hyperoxia-induced Atg7 expression and SP-C accumulation. These findings suggest that hyperoxia triggers autophagy via JNK signaling-mediated Atg7 expression, which promotes the accumulation of SP-C within alveolar epithelial type II cells. Our data provide a potential approach for hyperoxic lung injury therapy by targeted pharmacological inhibition of autophagic pathway. PMID:26122393

  19. Macrophage dysfunction and susceptibility to pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in surfactant protein C-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Stephan W; Senft, Albert P; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Maxfield, Melissa D; Ross, Gary F; Richardson, Theresa R; Prows, Daniel R; Xu, Yan; Korfhagen, Thomas R

    2008-07-01

    To determine the role of surfactant protein C (SP-C) in host defense, SP-C-deficient (Sftpc-/-) mice were infected with the pulmonary pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by intratracheal injection. Survival of young, postnatal day 14 Sftpc-/- mice was decreased in comparison to Sftpc+/+ mice. The sensitivity to Pseudomonas bacteria was specific to the 129S6 strain of Sftpc-/- mice, a strain that spontaneously develops interstitial lung disease-like lung pathology with age. Pulmonary bacterial load and leukocyte infiltration were increased in the lungs of Sftpc-/- mice 24 h after infection. Early influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the lungs of uninfected newborn Sftpc-/- mice relative to Sftpc+/+ mice indicate that the lack of SP-C promotes proinflammatory responses in the lung. Mucin expression, as indicated by Alcian blue staining, was increased in the airways of Sftpc-/- mice following infection. Phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages from Sftpc-/- mice was reduced. The uptake of fluorescent beads in vitro and the number of bacteria phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages in vivo was decreased in the Sftpc-/- mice. Alveolar macrophages from Sftpc-/- mice expressed markers of alternative activation that are associated with diminished pathogen response and advancing pulmonary fibrosis. These findings implicate SP-C as a modifier of alveolar homeostasis. SP-C plays an important role in innate host defense of the lung, enhancing macrophage-mediated Pseudomonas phagocytosis, clearance and limiting pulmonary inflammatory responses. PMID:18566429

  20. Measurement of pulmonary status and surfactant protein levels during dexamethasone treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J. Y.; Yeh, T. F.; Lin, Y. C.; Miyamura, K.; Holmskov, U.; Reid, K. B.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early postnatal use of dexamethasone in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has been shown effectively to improve pulmonary status and to allow early weaning off mechanical ventilation. However, the mechanisms to explain the beneficial effects of dexamethasone in ventilatory dependent preterm infants remain unclear. METHODS: A double blind, placebo controlled study was performed to determine the change in pulmonary ventilation of premature infants with RDS as a result of dexamethasone treatment, and to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone on the levels of surfactant-associated proteins A (SP-A) and D (SP-D) in the tracheal fluid from 34 premature infants with RDS and 29 control subjects. RESULTS: Dexamethasone treatment decreased fractional inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2), arterial carbon dioxide tension (PCO2), mean airway pressure (MAP), and facilitated successful weaning from mechanical ventilation. SP-A concentrations in the tracheal aspirates were increased at days 7 and 14, and SP-D concentrations were increased during the period from days 3 to 14 in the dexamethasone treated group compared with the control group. However, albumin levels in the tracheal aspirate samples were decreased after dexamethasone treatment over the period from days 3 to 14. There was an inverse correlation between PCO2 values and SP-A concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that early use of dexamethasone can improve pulmonary status and also increase SP-A and SP-D levels in the tracheal fluid in premature infants with RDS. PMID:8984701

  1. Surfactant Protein-D Is Essential for Immunity to Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schnoeller, Corinna; Chetty, Alisha; Smith, Katherine; Darby, Matthew; Roberts, Luke; Mackay, Rosie-Marie; Whitwell, Harry J.; Timms, John F.; Madsen, Jens; Selkirk, Murray E.; Brombacher, Frank; Clark, Howard William; Horsnell, William G. C.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary epithelial cell responses can enhance type 2 immunity and contribute to control of nematode infections. An important epithelial product is the collectin Surfactant Protein D (SP-D). We found that SP-D concentrations increased in the lung following Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection; this increase was dependent on key components of the type 2 immune response. We carried out loss and gain of function studies of SP-D to establish if SP-D was required for optimal immunity to the parasite. N. brasiliensis infection of SP-D-/- mice resulted in profound impairment of host innate immunity and ability to resolve infection. Raising pulmonary SP-D levels prior to infection enhanced parasite expulsion and type 2 immune responses, including increased numbers of IL-13 producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), elevated expression of markers of alternative activation by alveolar macrophages (alvM) and increased production of the type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. Adoptive transfer of alvM from SP-D-treated parasite infected mice into naïve recipients enhanced immunity to N. brasiliensis. Protection was associated with selective binding by the SP-D carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) to L4 parasites to enhance their killing by alvM. These findings are the first demonstration that the collectin SP-D is an essential component of host innate immunity to helminths. PMID:26900854

  2. Human genome protein function database.

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, D. K.

    1991-01-01

    A database which focuses on the normal functions of the currently-known protein products of the Human Genome was constructed. Information is stored as text, figures, tables, and diagrams. The program contains built-in functions to modify, update, categorize, hypertext, search, create reports, and establish links to other databases. The semi-automated categorization feature of the database program was used to classify these proteins in terms of biomedical functions. PMID:1807638

  3. Alcohol--Induced Polyelectrolyte-Surfactant Complex Coacervate Systems: Characterization and Applications in Enzyme and Protein Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejati Moshtaghin, Mahboubeh

    The focus of this thesis is to achieve a better understanding of the newly discovered surfactant-polyelectrolyte complex coacervate (SPCC) systems induced by fluoroalcohol/acid as well as short chain aliphatic alcohol; and to elucidate their applications in extraction and enrichment of proteins and enzyme. We have discovered that fluoroalcohols and --acids induce complex coacervation and phase separation in the aqueous mixtures of oppositely charged anionic polyelectrolytes; specifically, sodium salts of polyacrylic acid and polymethacrylic acid and cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) over a broad range of concentrations of mole fractions of the oppositely charged amphiphiles. Accordingly, these new classes of coacervators will significantly broaden the scope and facilitate engineering of new coacervate phases. Toward these goals, we have inspected the formation of surfactant-polyelectrolyte complex coacervates in the presence of fluoroalcohols namely hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and Trifluoroethanol (TFE). Furthermore, the extent of coacervation as a function of concentrations the system components, and charge ratios of the oppositely charged amphiphiles has been investigated. Polyelectrolytes are considered to be milder reagents, as compared to surfactants, regarding proteins denaturation. This highlights the importance of a detailed investigation of the efficiency of our coacervate systems for extraction and preconcentration of proteins and enzymes, especially, when the biological activity of the extracted proteins needs to be maintained based on the objectives mentioned above, the results of the investigations have been organized in four chapters. In Chapter II, the phase behavior of the FA-SPCC will be investigated. The objective is to examine the phase behavior and phase properties with respect to the extent of coacervation in different solution conditions. In particular, the effects of different solution variables such as concentration

  4. Protein Crystal Recombinant Human Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Recombiant Human Insulin; space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). On STS-60, Spacehab II indicated that space-grown crystals are larger and of greater optical clarity than their earth-grown counterparts. Recombiant Human Insulin facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  5. Critical Structural and Functional Roles for the N-Terminal Insertion Sequence in Surfactant Protein B Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Frans J.; Waring, Alan J.; Hernandez-Juviel, Jose M.; Gordon, Larry M.; Wang, Zhengdong; Jung, Chun-Ling; Ruchala, Piotr; Clark, Andrew P.; Smith, Wesley M.; Sharma, Shantanu; Notter, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Surfactant protein B (SP-B; 79 residues) belongs to the saposin protein superfamily, and plays functional roles in lung surfactant. The disulfide cross-linked, N- and C-terminal domains of SP-B have been theoretically predicted to fold as charged, amphipathic helices, suggesting their participation in surfactant activities. Earlier structural studies with Mini-B, a disulfide-linked construct based on the N- and C-terminal regions of SP-B (i.e., ∼residues 8–25 and 63–78), confirmed that these neighboring domains are helical; moreover, Mini-B retains critical in vitro and in vivo surfactant functions of the native protein. Here, we perform similar analyses on a Super Mini-B construct that has native SP-B residues (1–7) attached to the N-terminus of Mini-B, to test whether the N-terminal sequence is also involved in surfactant activity. Methodology/Results FTIR spectra of Mini-B and Super Mini-B in either lipids or lipid-mimics indicated that these peptides share similar conformations, with primary α-helix and secondary β-sheet and loop-turns. Gel electrophoresis demonstrated that Super Mini-B was dimeric in SDS detergent-polyacrylamide, while Mini-B was monomeric. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR), predictive aggregation algorithms, and molecular dynamics (MD) and docking simulations further suggested a preliminary model for dimeric Super Mini-B, in which monomers self-associate to form a dimer peptide with a “saposin-like” fold. Similar to native SP-B, both Mini-B and Super Mini-B exhibit in vitro activity with spread films showing near-zero minimum surface tension during cycling using captive bubble surfactometry. In vivo, Super Mini-B demonstrates oxygenation and dynamic compliance that are greater than Mini-B and compare favorably to full-length SP-B. Conclusion Super Mini-B shows enhanced surfactant activity, probably due to the self-assembly of monomer peptide into dimer Super Mini-B that mimics the functions and putative structure of

  6. Surfactant-associated protein A provides critical immunoprotection in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    George, Caroline L S; Goss, Kelli L; Meyerholz, David K; Lamb, Fred S; Snyder, Jeanne M

    2008-01-01

    The collectins surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) and SP-D are components of innate immunity that are present before birth. Both proteins bind pathogens and assist in clearing infection. The significance of SP-A and SP-D as components of the neonatal immune system has not been investigated. To determine the role of SP-A and SP-D in neonatal immunity, wild-type, SP-A null, and SP-D null mice were bred in a bacterium-laden environment (corn dust bedding) or in a semisterile environment (cellulose fiber bedding). When reared in the corn dust bedding, SP-A null pups had significant mortality (P < 0.001) compared to both wild-type and SP-D null pups exposed to the same environment. The mortality of the SP-A null pups was associated with significant gastrointestinal tract pathology but little lung pathology. Moribund SP-A null newborn mice exhibited Bacillus sp. and Enterococcus sp. peritonitis. When the mother or newborn produced SP-A, newborn survival was significantly improved (P < 0.05) compared to the results when there was a complete absence of SP-A in both the mother and the pup. Significant sources of SP-A likely to protect a newborn include the neonatal lung and gastrointestinal tract but not the lactating mammary tissue of the mother. Furthermore, exogenous SP-A delivered by mouth to newborn SP-A null pups with SP-A null mothers improved newborn survival in the corn dust environment. Therefore, a lack of SP-D did not affect newborn survival, while SP-A produced by either the mother or the pup or oral exogenous SP-A significantly reduced newborn mortality associated with environmentally induced infection in SP-A null newborns. PMID:17967856

  7. Linking surfactant protein SP-D and IL-13: implications in asthma and allergy.

    PubMed

    Qaseem, Asif S; Sonar, Sanchaita; Mahajan, Lakshna; Madan, Taruna; Sorensen, Grith L; Shamji, Mohamed H; Kishore, Uday

    2013-05-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate immune molecule that plays a protective role against lung infection, allergy, asthma and inflammation. In vivo experiments with murine models have shown that SP-D can protect against allergic challenge via a range of mechanisms including inhibition of allergen-IgE interaction, histamine release by sensitised mast cells, downregulation of specific IgE production, suppression of pulmonary and peripheral eosinophilia, inhibition of mechanisms that cause airway remodelling, and induction of apoptosis in sensitised eosinophils. SP-D can also shift helper T cell polarisation following in vivo allergenic challenge, from pathogenic Th2 to a protective Th1 cytokine response. Interestingly, SP-D gene deficient (-/-) mice show an IL-13 over-expressing phenotype. IL-13 has been shown to be involved in the development of asthma. Transgenic mice over-expressing IL-13 in the lung develop several characteristics of asthma such as pulmonary eosinophilia, airway epithelial hyperplasia, mucus cell metaplasia, sub-epithelial fibrosis, charcot-Leyden-Like crystals, airways obstruction, and non-specific airways hyper-responsiveness to cholinergic stimulation. Although both IL-4 and IL-13 are capable of inducing asthma like phenotype, the effector activity of IL-13 appears to be greater than that of IL-4. SP-D -/- mice seem to express considerably higher levels of IL-13, which is consistent with increased sensitivity and exaggerated immune response of the mice to allergenic challenge. Allergenic exposure also induces elevation in SP-D protein levels in an IL-4/IL-13-dependent manner, which prevents further activation of sensitised T cells. This negative feedback loop seems essential in protecting the airways from inflammatory damage after allergen inhalation. Here, we examine this link between IL-13 and SP-D, and its implications in the progression/regulation of asthma and allergy. PMID:23220073

  8. Surfactant protein D, a clinical biomarker for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with excellent discriminant values

    PubMed Central

    AKIKI, ZEINA; FAKIH, DALIA; JOUNBLAT, RANIA; CHAMAT, SOULAIMA; WAKED, MIRNA; HOLMSKOV, UFFE; SORENSEN, GRITH L.; NADIF, RACHEL; SALAMEH, PASCALE

    2016-01-01

    Biological markers can help to better identify a disease or refine its diagnosis. In the present study, the association between surfactant protein D (SP-D) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was studied among subjects consulting for respiratory diseases or symptoms and was compared with C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen. A further aim of this study was to identify the optimal cut-off point of SP-D able to discriminate COPD patients. A case-control study including 90 COPD patients, 124 asthma patients and 180 controls was conducted. Standardized questionnaires were administered and lung function tests were performed. Biological markers were measured in blood samples according to standardized procedures. The association between SP-D and COPD was investigated using logistic regression models. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used for threshold identification. SP-D levels above the median value were positively associated with COPD [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=3.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.51–9.85, P=0.005). No associations with COPD or asthma were found for CRP or fibrinogen levels. Scores for COPD diagnosis in all COPD patients or ever-smoker COPD patients were identified (sensitivity, 76.4 and 77.8%; specificity, 89.3 and 88.5%, respectively). The results indicate that SP-D can differentiate COPD from other respiratory symptoms or diseases. Used with socio-demographic characteristics and respiratory symptoms, SP-D is able to discriminate COPD patients from controls, particularly among smokers. PMID:26997985

  9. Conformational Stability of the NH2-Terminal Propeptide of the Precursor of Pulmonary Surfactant Protein SP-B

    PubMed Central

    Bañares-Hidalgo, Ángeles; Estrada, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Assembly of pulmonary surfactant lipid-protein complexes depends on conformational changes coupled with proteolytic maturation of proSP-B, the precursor of pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B), along the surfactant biogenesis pathway in pneumocytes. Conformational destabilization of the N-terminal propeptide of proSP-B (SP-BN) triggers exposure of the mature SP-B domain for insertion into surfactant lipids. We have studied the conformational stability during GdmCl- or urea-promoted unfolding of SP-BN with trp fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies. Binding of the intermediate states to bis-ANS suggests their molten globule-like character. ΔG0H2O was ~ 12.7 kJ·mol-1 either with urea or GdmCl. None of the thermal transitions of SP-BN detected by CD correspond to protein unfolding. Differential scanning calorimetry of SP-BN evidenced two endothermic peaks involved in oligomer dissociation as confirmed with 2 M urea. Ionic strength was relevant since at 150 mM NaCl, the process originating the endotherm at the highest temperature was irreversible (Tm2 = 108.5°C) with an activation energy of 703.8 kJ·mol-1. At 500 mM NaCl the process became reversible (Tm2 = 114.4°C) and data were fitted to the Non-two States model with two subpeaks. No free thiols in the propeptide could be titrated by DTNB with or without 5.7 M GdmCl, indicating disulfide bonds establishment. PMID:27380171

  10. Purifying selection drives the evolution of surfactant protein C (SP-C) independently of body temperature regulation in mammals.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sally; Orgeig, Sandra; Donnellan, Stephen; Daniels, Christopher B

    2007-06-01

    The pulmonary surfactant system of heterothermic mammals must be capable of dealing with the effect of low body temperatures on the physical state of the lipid components. We have shown previously that there is a modest increase in surfactant cholesterol during periods of torpor, however these changes do not fully explain the capacity of surfactant to function under the wide range of physical conditions imposed by torpor. Here we examine indirectly the role of surfactant protein C (SP-C) in adapting to variable body temperatures by testing for the presence of positive (adaptive) selection during evolutionary transitions between heterothermy and homeothermy. We sequenced SP-C from genomic DNA of 32 mammalian species from groups of closely related heterothermic and homeothermic species (contrasts). We used phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood estimates of rates of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions and fully Bayesian inference of these sequences to determine whether the mode of body temperature regulation exerts a selection pressure driving the molecular adaptation of SP-C. The protein sequence of SP-C is highly conserved with synonymous or highly conservative amino acid substitutions being predominant. The evolution of SP-C among mammals is characterised by high codon usage bias and high rates of transition/transversion. The only contrast to show evidence of positive selection was that of the bears (Ursus americanus and U. maritimus). The significance of this result is unclear. We show that SP-C is under strong evolutionary constraints, driven by purifying selection, presumably to maintain protein function despite variation in the mode of body temperature regulation. PMID:20483290

  11. Effects of the lung surfactant protein B construct Mini-B on lipid bilayer order and topography

    PubMed Central

    Palleboina, Dharamaraju; Waring, Alan J.; Notter, Robert H.; Booth, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    The hydrophobic lung surfactant protein, SP-B, is essential for survival. Cycling of lung volume during respiration requires a surface-active lipid–protein layer at the alveolar air–water interface. SP-B may contribute to surfactant layer maintenance and renewal by facilitating contact and transfer between the surface layer and bilayer reservoirs of surfactant material. However, only small effects of SP-B on phospholipid orientational order in model systems have been reported. In this study, N-terminal (SP-B8–25) and C-terminal (SP-B63–78) helices of SP-B, either linked as Mini-B or unlinked but present in equal amounts, were incorporated into either model phospholipid mixtures or into bovine lipid extract surfactant in the form of vesicle dispersions or mechanically oriented bilayer samples. Deuterium and phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used to characterize effects of these peptides on phospholipid chain orientational order, headgroup orientation, and the response of lipid–peptide mixtures to mechanical orientation by mica plates. Only small effects on chain orientational order or headgroup orientation, in either vesicle or mechanically oriented samples, were seen. In mechanically constrained samples, however, Mini-B and its component helices did have specific effects on the propensity of lipid–peptide mixtures to form unoriented bilayer populations which do not exchange with the oriented fraction on the timescale of the NMR experiment. Modification of local bilayer orientation, even in the presence of mechanical constraint, may be relevant to the transfer of material from bilayer reservoirs to a flat surface-active layer, a process that likely requires contact facilitated by the formation of highly curved protrusions. PMID:22903196

  12. Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor modulates surfactant protein B and C expression in mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qiangsong; Zheng, Liduan; Dodd-o, Jeffrey; Langer, John; Wang, Danming; Li, Dechun

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a robust pulmonary expression of hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF) during the perinatal period, when surfactant protein (SP) synthesis begins. We hypothesized that HIMF modulates SP expression and participates in lung development and maturation. The temporal-spatial expression of HIMF, SP-B, and SP-C in developing mouse lungs was examined by immunohistochemical staining, Western blot, and RT-PCR. The expression and localization of SP-B and SP-C were investigated in mouse lungs after intratracheal instillation of HIMF in adult mice. The effects of HIMF on SP-B and SP-C transcription activity, and on mRNA degradation, were investigated in mouse lung epithelial (MLE)-12 and C10 cells using the promoter-luciferase reporter assay and actinomycin D incubation. The activation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was explored by Western blot. Intratracheal instillation of HIMF resulted in significant increases of SP-B and SP-C production, predominantly localized to alveolar type II cells. In MLE-12 and C10 cells, HIMF enhanced SP-B and SP-C mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, HIMF increased transcription activity and prevented actinomycin D-facilitated SP-B and SP-C mRNA degradation in MLE-12 cells. Incubation of cells with LY294002, PD098059, or U0126 abolished HIMF-induced Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and suppressed HIMF-induced SP-B and SP-C production, whereas SB203580 had no effect. These results indicate that HIMF induces SP-B and SP-C production in mouse lungs and alveolar type II-like cell lines via activations of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase, suggesting that HIMF plays critical roles in lung development and maturation. PMID:16166744

  13. In vitro analysis of the effect of alkyl-chain length of anionic surfactants on the skin by using a reconstructed human epidermal model.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Fumiko; Watanabe, Shin-Ichi; Harada, Fusae; Miyake, Miyuki; Yoshida, Masaki; Okano, Tomomichi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the alkyl-chain length of anionic surfactants on the skin using an in vitro model. The evaluated anionic surfactants were sodium alkyl sulfate (AS) and sodium fatty acid methyl ester sulfonate (MES), which had different alkyl-chain lengths (C8-C14). Skin tissue damage and permeability were examined using a reconstructed human epidermal model, LabCyte EPI-MODEL24. Skin tissue damage was examined by measuring cytotoxicity with an MTT assay. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) were used to detect surfactants that permeated into the assay medium through an epidermal model. To assess the permeation mechanism and cell damage caused by the surfactants through the epidermis, we evaluated the structural changes of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), used as a simple model protein, and the fluidity of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphpcholine (DPPC) liposome, which serves as one of the most abundant phospholipid models of living cell membranes in the epidermis. The effects of the surfactants on the proteins were measured using Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, while the effects on membrane fluidity were investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. ET50 (the 50% median effective time) increased as follows: C10 < C12 < C8 < C14 in AS and C8, C10 < C12 < C14 in MES. The order of permeation through the LabCyte EPI-MODEL24 was C10 > C12 > C14, for both AS and MES. For both AS and MES, the order parameter, which is the criteria for the microscopic viscosity of lipid bilayers, increased as follows: C10 < C12 < C14, which means the membrane fluidity is C10 > C12 > C14. It was determined that the difference in skin tissue damage in the LabCyte EPI-MODEL24 with C10 to C14 AS and MES was caused by the difference in permeation and cell membrane fluidity through the lipid bilayer path in the epidermis. PMID:25213449

  14. Studies on the synthesis, characterization, human serum albumin binding and biological activity of single chain surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, G; Sugumar, K; Arunachalam, S; Vignesh, S; Arthur James, R; Arun, R; Premkumar, K

    2016-03-01

    The interaction of surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes [Co(bpy)(dien)TA](ClO4)3 · 3H2O (1) and [Co(dien)(phen)TA](ClO4)3 · 4H2O (2), where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dien = diethylenetriamine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline and TA = tetradecylamine with human serum albumin (HSA) under physiological conditions was analyzed using steady state, synchronous, 3D fluorescence, UV/visabsorption and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. The results show that these complexes cause the fluorescence quenching of HSA through a static mechanism. The binding constant (Kb ) and number of binding-sites (n) were obtained at different temperatures. The corresponding thermodynamic parameters (∆G°, ∆H° and ∆S°) and Ea were also obtained. According to Förster's non-radiation energy transfer theory, the binding distance (r) between the complexes and HSA were calculated. The results of synchronous and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy indicate that the binding process has changed considerably the polarity around the fluorophores, along with changes in the conformation of the protein. The antimicrobial and anticancer activities of the complexes were tested and the results show that the complexes have good activities against pathogenic microorganisms and cancer cells. PMID:26250655

  15. Pro–Surfactant Protein B As a Biomarker for Lung Cancer Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Don D.; Tammemagi, C. Martin; Lam, Stephen; Barnett, Matt J.; Duan, Xiaobo; Tam, Anthony; Auman, Heidi; Feng, Ziding; Goodman, Gary E.; Hanash, Samir; Taguchi, Ayumu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Preliminary studies have identified pro–surfactant protein B (pro-SFTPB) to be a promising blood biomarker for non–small-cell lung cancer. We conducted a study to determine the independent predictive potential of pro-SFTPB in identifying individuals who are subsequently diagnosed with lung cancer. Patients and Methods Pro-SFTPB levels were measured in 2,485 individuals, who enrolled onto the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study by using plasma sample collected at the baseline visit. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the predictive ability of pro-SFTPB in addition to known lung cancer risk factors. Calibration and discrimination were evaluated, the latter by an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). External validation was performed with samples collected in the Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) participants using a case-control study design. Results Adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, personal history of cancer, family history of lung cancer, forced expiratory volume in one second percent predicted, average number of cigarettes smoked per day, and smoking duration, pro-SFTPB (log transformed) had an odds ratio of 2.220 (95% CI, 1.727 to 2.853; P < .001). The AUCs of the full model with and without pro-SFTPB were 0.741 (95% CI, 0.696 to 0.783) and 0.669 (95% CI, 0.620 to 0.717; difference in AUC P < .001). In the CARET Study, the use of pro-SFPTB yielded an AUC of 0.683 (95% CI, 0.604 to 0.761). Conclusion Pro-SFTPB in plasma is an independent predictor of lung cancer and may be a valuable addition to existing lung cancer risk prediction models. PMID:24248694

  16. Serum Levels of Surfactant Proteins in Patients with Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema (CPFE)

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Andriana I.; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Manali, Effrosyni D.; Papadaki, Georgia; Roussou, Aneza; Spathis, Aris; Mazioti, Argyro; Tomos, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Ilias; Loukides, Stelios; Chainis, Kyriakos; Karakitsos, Petros; Griese, Matthias; Papiris, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) present either per se or coexist in combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE). Serum surfactant proteins (SPs) A, B, C and D levels may reflect lung damage. We evaluated serum SP levels in healthy controls, emphysema, IPF, and CPFE patients and their associations to disease severity and survival. Methods 122 consecutive patients (31 emphysema, 62 IPF, and 29 CPFE) and 25 healthy controls underwent PFTs, ABG-measurements, 6MWT and chest HRCT. Serum levels of SPs were measured. Patients were followed-up for 1-year. Results SP-A and SP-D levels differed between groups (p = 0.006 and p<0.001 respectively). In post-hoc analysis, SP-A levels differed only between controls and CPFE (p<0.05) and CPFE and emphysema (p<0.05). SP-D differed between controls and IPF or CPFE (p<0.001 for both comparisons). In IPF SP-B correlated to pulmonary function while SP-A, correlated to the Composite Physiological Index (CPI). Controls current smokers had higher SP-A and SP-D levels compared to non-smokers (p = 0.026 and p = 0.023 respectively). SP-D levels were higher in CPFE patients with extended emphysema (p = 0.042). In patients with IPF, SP-B levels at the upper quartile of its range (≥26 ng/mL) presented a weak association with reduced survival (p = 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, serum SP-A and SP-D levels were higher where fibrosis exists or coexists and related to disease severity, suggesting that serum SPs relate to alveolar damage in fibrotic lungs and may reflect either local overproduction or overleakage. The weak association between high levels of SP-B and survival needs further validation in clinical trials. PMID:27337142

  17. Surfactant protein (SP)-A suppresses preterm delivery and inflammation via TLR2.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Varkha; Smart, Keith; Jilling, Tamas; Hirsch, Emmet

    2013-01-01

    Toll like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition molecules that initiate the innate immune response to pathogens. Pulmonary surfactant protein (SP)-A is an endogenously produced ligand for TLR2 and TLR4. SP-A has been proposed as a fetally produced signal for the onset of parturition in the mouse. We examined the effect of interactions between SP-A and the pathogenic TLR agonists lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and polyinosinic:cytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) (ligands for TLR4, TLR2 and TLR3, respectively) on the expression of inflammatory mediators and preterm delivery. Three types of mouse macrophages (the cell line RAW 264.7, and fresh amniotic fluid and peritoneal macrophages, including macrophages from TLR4 and TLR2 knockout mice) were treated for up to 7 hours with pathogenic TLR agonists with or without SP-A. SP-A alone had no effect upon inflammatory mediators in mouse macrophages and did not independently induce preterm labor. SP-A significantly suppressed TLR ligand-induced expression of inflammatory mediators (interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the chemokine CCL5) via a TLR2 dependent mechanism. In a mouse inflammation-induced preterm delivery model, intrauterine administration of SP-A significantly inhibited preterm delivery, suppressed the expression of proinflammatory mediators and enhanced the expression of the CXCL1 and anti-inflammatory mediator IL-10. We conclude that SP-A acts via TLR2 to suppress TLR ligand-induced preterm delivery and inflammatory responses. PMID:23700442

  18. Innate immunity of surfactant proteins A and D in urinary tract infection with uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fengqi; Ding, Guohua; Zhang, Zhiyong; Gatto, Louis A.; Hawgood, Samuel; Poulain, Francis R.; Cooney, Robert N.; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A, SP-D) in urinary tract infection (UTI), SP-A and SP-D double knockout (SP-A/D KO) and wild type (WT) C57BL/6 female mice were infected with uropathogenic Escherichia coli by intravesical inoculation. Compared with WT mice SP-A/D KO mice showed increased susceptibility to UTI as evidenced by higher bacterial CFU, more infiltrating neutrophils and severe pathological changes. Keratinocyte-derived chemokine increased in the kidney of WT mice but not in SP-A/D KO mice 24 h post-infection. Compared to control, level of IL-17 was elevated in the kidney of infected WT and SP-A/D KO mice and the level of IL-17 was higher in the infected SP-A/D KO mice than infected WT mice 24 and 48 h post-infection. Basal level of p38 MAPK phosphorylation in SP-A/D KO mice was higher compared to WT mice. Phosphorylated-p38 level was elevated in the kidney of WT mice post-infection but not in SP-A/D KO mice. Furthermore, in vitro growth of uropathogenic E. coli was inhibited by SP-A and SP-D. We conclude that SP-A and SP-D function as mediators of innate immunity by inhibiting bacterial growth and modulating renal inflammation in part by regulating p38 MAPK-related pathway in murine UTI. PMID:26511057

  19. Innate immunity of surfactant proteins A and D in urinary tract infection with uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fengqi; Ding, Guohua; Zhang, Zhiyong; Gatto, Louis A; Hawgood, Samuel; Poulain, Francis R; Cooney, Robert N; Wang, Guirong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D, respectively) in urinary tract infection (UTI), SP-A and SP-D double knockout (SP-A/D KO) and wild type (WT) C57BL/6 female mice were infected with uropathogenic Escherichia coli by intravesical inoculation. Compared with WT mice SP-A/D KO mice showed increased susceptibility to UTI, as evidenced by higher bacterial CFU, more infiltrating neutrophils and severe pathological changes. Keratinocyte-derived chemokine increased in the kidney of WT mice but not in SP-A/D KO mice 24 h post-infection. Compared with control, the level of IL-17 was elevated in the kidney of infected WT and SP-A/D KO mice and the level of IL-17 was higher in the infected SP-A/D KO mice than in infected WT mice 24 and 48 h post-infection. The basal level of p38 MAPK phosphorylation in SP-A/D KO mice was higher than in WT mice. The phosphorylated p38 level was elevated in the kidney of WT mice post infection but not in SP-A/D KO mice. Furthermore, in vitro growth of uropathogenic E. coli was inhibited by SP-A and SP-D. We conclude that SP-A and SP-D function as mediators of innate immunity by inhibiting bacterial growth and modulating renal inflammation in part by regulating p38 MAPK-related pathway in murine UTI. PMID:26511057

  20. Protective Role of Surfactant Protein D in Ocular Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdel-Razek, Osama; Hawgood, Samuel; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens causing keratitis. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays a critical role in host defense and innate immunity. In order to investigate the role of SP-D in ocular S. aureus infection, the eyes of wild-type (WT) and SP-D knockout (SP-D KO) C57BL/6 mice were infected with S. aureus (107 CFU/eye) in the presence and absence of cysteine protease inhibitor(E64).Bacterial counts in the ocular surface were examined 3, 6, 12, 24 hrs after infection. Bacterial phagocytosis by neutrophils and bacterial invasion in ocular epithelial cells were evaluated quantitatively. S. aureus-induced ocular injury was determined with corneal fluorescein staining. The results demonstrated that SP-D is expressed in ocular surface epithelium and the lacrimal gland; WT mice had increased clearance of S. aureus from the ocular surface (p<0.05) and reduced ocular injury compared with SP-D KO mice. The protective effects of SP-D include increased bacterial phagocytosis by neutrophils (p<0.05) and decreased bacterial invasion into epithelial cells (p<0.05) in WT mice compared to in SP-D KO mice. In the presence of inhibitor (E64), WT mice showed enhanced bacterial clearance (p<0.05) and reduced ocular injury compared to absent E64 while SP-D KO mice did not. Collectively, we concluded that SP-D protects the ocular surface from S. aureus infection but cysteine protease impairs SP-D function in this murine model, and that cysteine protease inhibitor may be a potential therapeutic agent in S. aureus keratitis. PMID:26398197

  1. Surfactant protein A genetic variants associate with severe respiratory insufficiency in pandemic influenza A virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Inherited variability in host immune responses influences susceptibility and outcome of Influenza A virus (IAV) infection, but these factors remain largely unknown. Components of the innate immune response may be crucial in the first days of the infection. The collectins surfactant protein (SP)-A1, -A2, and -D and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) neutralize IAV infectivity, although only SP-A2 can establish an efficient neutralization of poorly glycosylated pandemic IAV strains. Methods We studied the role of polymorphic variants at the genes of MBL (MBL2), SP-A1 (SFTPA1), SP-A2 (SFTPA2), and SP-D (SFTPD) in 93 patients with H1N1 pandemic 2009 (H1N1pdm) infection. Results Multivariate analysis showed that two frequent SFTPA2 missense alleles (rs1965708-C and rs1059046-A) and the SFTPA2 haplotype 1A0 were associated with a need for mechanical ventilation, acute respiratory failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The SFTPA2 haplotype 1A1 was a protective variant. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression also showed that diplotypes not containing the 1A1 haplotype were associated with a significantly shorter time to ICU admission in hospitalized patients. In addition, rs1965708-C (P = 0.0007), rs1059046-A (P = 0.0007), and haplotype 1A0 (P = 0.0004) were associated, in a dose-dependent fashion, with lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio, whereas haplotype 1A1 was associated with a higher PaO2/FiO2 ratio (P = 0.001). Conclusions Our data suggest an effect of genetic variants of SFTPA2 on the severity of H1N1pdm infection and could pave the way for a potential treatment with haplotype-specific (1A1) SP-A2 for future IAV pandemics. PMID:24950659

  2. Cationic surfactants in the form of nanoparticles and micelles elicit different human neutrophil responses: a toxicological study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Sung, Calvin T; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-02-01

    Cationic surfactants are an ingredient commonly incorporated into nanoparticles for clinical practicability; however, the toxicity of cationic surfactants in nanoparticles is not fully elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the inflammatory responses of cationic nanobubbles and micelles in human neutrophils. Soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate (SME) and hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) are the two cationic surfactants employed in this study. The zeta potential of CTAB nanobubbles was 80 mV, which was the highest among all formulations. Nanobubbles, without cationic surfactants, showed no cytotoxic effects on neutrophils in terms of inflammatory responses. Cationic nanobubbles caused a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of degranulation (elastase release) and membrane damage (release of lactate dehydrogenase, LDH). Among all nanoparticles and micelles, CTAB-containing nanosystems showed the greatest inflammatory responses. A CTAB nanobubble diluent (1/150) increased the LDH release 80-fold. Propidium iodide staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) verified cell death and morphological change of neutrophils treated by CTAB nanobubbles. SME, in a micelle form, strengthened the inflammatory response more than SME-loaded nanobubbles. Membrane interaction and subsequent Ca(2+) influx were the mechanisms that triggered inflammation. The information obtained from this work is beneficial in designing nanoparticulate formulations for balancing clinical activity and toxicity. PMID:24246197

  3. Human decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into functional alveolar type II-like cells that synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant complexes.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Alejandro; de la Torre, Paz; Grande, Jesús; Haller, Thomas; Flores, Ana I; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Lung alveolar type II (ATII) cells are specialized in the synthesis and secretion of pulmonary surfactant, a lipid-protein complex that reduces surface tension to minimize the work of breathing. Surfactant synthesis, assembly and secretion are closely regulated and its impairment is associated with severe respiratory disorders. At present, well-established ATII cell culture models are not available. In this work, Decidua-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (DMSCs) have been differentiated into Alveolar Type II- Like Cells (ATII-LCs), which display membranous cytoplasmic organelles resembling lamellar bodies, the organelles involved in surfactant storage and secretion by native ATII cells, and accumulate disaturated phospholipid species, a surfactant hallmark. Expression of characteristic ATII cells markers was demonstrated in ATII-LCs at gene and protein level. Mimicking the response of ATII cells to secretagogues, ATII-LCs were able to exocytose lipid-rich assemblies, which displayed highly surface active capabilities, including faster interfacial adsorption kinetics than standard native surfactant, even in the presence of inhibitory agents. ATII-LCs could constitute a highly useful ex vivo model for the study of surfactant biogenesis and the mechanisms involved in protein processing and lipid trafficking, as well as the packing and storage of surfactant complexes. PMID:25333871

  4. Surfactant protein C peptides with salt-bridges (“ion-locks”) promote high surfactant activities by mimicking the α-helix and membrane topography of the native protein

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Alan J.; Hernández-Juviel, José M.; Ruchala, Piotr; Wang, Zhengdong; Notter, Robert H.; Gordon, Larry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Surfactant protein C (SP-C; 35 residues) in lungs has a cationic N-terminal domain with two cysteines covalently linked to palmitoyls and a C-terminal region enriched in Val, Leu and Ile. Native SP-C shows high surface activity, due to SP-C inserting in the bilayer with its cationic N-terminus binding to the polar headgroup and its hydrophobic C-terminus embedded as a tilted, transmembrane α-helix. The palmitoylcysteines in SP-C act as ‘helical adjuvants’ to maintain activity by overriding the β-sheet propensities of the native sequences. Objective. We studied SP-C peptides lacking palmitoyls, but containing glutamate and lysine at 4-residue intervals, to assess whether SP-C peptides with salt-bridges (“ion-locks”) promote surface activity by mimicking the α-helix and membrane topography of native SP-C. Methods. SP-C mimics were synthesized that reproduce native sequences, but without palmitoyls (i.e., SP-Css or SP-Cff, with serines or phenylalanines replacing the two cysteines). Ion-lock SP-C molecules were prepared by incorporating single or double Glu−–Lys+ into the parent SP-C’s. The secondary structures of SP-C mimics were studied with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and PASTA, an algorithm that predicts β-sheet propensities based on the energies of the various β-sheet pairings. The membrane topography of SP-C mimics was investigated with orientated and hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange FTIR, and also Membrane Protein Explorer (MPEx) hydropathy analysis. In vitro surface activity was determined using adsorption surface pressure isotherms and captive bubble surfactometry, and in vivo surface activity from lung function measures in a rabbit model of surfactant deficiency. Results. PASTA calculations predicted that the SP-Css and SP-Cff peptides should each form parallel β-sheet aggregates, with FTIR spectroscopy confirming high parallel β-sheet with ‘amyloid-like’ properties. The enhanced β-sheet properties

  5. Simultaneous separation of acidic and basic proteins using gemini pyrrolidinium surfactants and hexafluoroisopropanol as dynamic coating additives in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Li, Yunfang; Mei, Jie; Cai, Bo; Dong, Jinfeng; Shi, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yuxiu

    2015-09-18

    The separation of acidic and basic proteins using CE has been limited in part due to the adsorption of proteins onto the capillary wall. In this work, the efficient control of EOF and the simultaneous separation of acidic and basic proteins are achieved by use of C18-4-C18PB as a dynamic coating additive, which is a representative surfactant for 1,1'-(butane-1,s-alkyl)bis(1-alkylpyrrolidinium) bromide (Cn-4-CnPB, n=10, 12, 14, 16 and 18). C18-4-C18PB exhibits a powerful capability in the reversal of EOF, and a low concentration even less than 0.001 mM is sufficient to reverse EOF at the tested pH values (3.0-9.0). Baseline separation of eight proteins with sharp peaks and high efficiencies (54,000-297,000 plates/m) is obtained with 30 mM NaH2PO4 buffer (pH 5.0) containing 4 mM C18-4-C18PB. At the same buffer condition, the Cn-4-CnPB with shorter alkyl chain (n=10, 12, 14, 16) cannot achieve the same effective protein separation as C18-4-C18PB. However, the combined use of small amounts (≤0.5%, v/v) of hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and Cn-4-CnPB (n=10, 12, 14, 16) as additives can completely separate all eight proteins with high efficiencies of 81,000-318,000 plates/m. The RSDs of migration time are less than 0.80% and 5.84% for run-to-run and day-to-day assays (n=5), respectively, and the protein recoveries are larger than 90.15%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the simultaneous separation of acidic and basic proteins using Cn-4-CnPB surfactants or Cn-4-CnPB surfactants combined with HFIP as dynamic coating additives. PMID:26300480

  6. A non-aggregating Surfactant Protein C mutant is misdirected to early endosomes and disrupts phospholipid recycling

    PubMed Central

    Beers, Michael F.; Hawkins, Arie; Maguire, Jean Ann; Kotorashvili, Adam; Zhao, Ming; Newitt, Jennifer L.; Ding, Wenge; Russo, Scott; Guttentag, Susan; Gonzales, Linda; Mulugeta, Surafel

    2011-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease in both children and adults has been linked to mutations in the lung-specific Surfactant protein C gene (SFTPC). Among these, the missense mutation (isoleucine to threonine at codon 73 = hSP-CI73T) accounts for ~30% of all described SFTPC mutations. We reported previously that unlike the BRICHOS misfolding SFTPC mutants, expression of hSP-CI73T induces lung remodeling and alveolar lipoproteinosis without a substantial ER stress response or ER-mediated intrinsic apoptosis. We show here that, in contrast to its wild type counterpart that is directly routed to lysosomal-like organelles for processing, SP-CI73T is misdirected to the plasma membrane and subsequently internalized to the endocytic pathway via early endosomes, leading to the accumulation of abnormally processed proSP-C isoforms. Functionally, cells expressing hSP-CI73T demonstrated both impaired uptake and degradation of surfactant phospholipid, thus providing a molecular mechanism for the observed lipid accumulation in patients expressing hSP-CI73T through the disruption of normal phospholipid recycling. Our data provide evidence for a novel cellular mechanism for conformational protein associated diseases, and suggest a paradigm for mistargeted proteins involved in the disruption of the endosomal/lysosomal sorting machinery. PMID:21707890

  7. Quantitative analysis of surfactant deposits on human skin by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Massey, Karen A; Snelling, Anna M; Nicolaou, Anna

    2010-05-15

    Surfactants are commonly used as cleansing agents and yet there are concerns that they may also have a role in skin irritation. The lack of suitable methods for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of surfactant deposition on skin has hindered the in-depth investigation of such effects. Here, we report the application of reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) assays for two surfactants commonly used in consumer products, namely sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) and laurylamidopropyl betaine (LAPB), to a baseline study aiming to assess deposition levels on human skin. The linearity of the assays was established at 3-20 ng, with coefficient of variation below 5%. The detection limits were 100 pg for LAPB and 1 ng for SLES; quantitation limits were 500 pg for LAPB and 2.5 ng for SLES. The baseline study was conducted using a panel of 40 healthy volunteers. Skin extract samples were taken in triplicate from forearms, using ethanol. SLES was detected on most volunteers, with 75% of them having SLES deposits in the range of 100-600 ng/cm(2). LAPB was detected on the skin of all volunteers with 85% of them having deposit levels within the concentration range of 1-100 ng/cm(2). These results demonstrate the extent to which commonly used surfactants remain on the skin during the day. The analytical methods reported here can be applied to the investigation of surfactants in relation to general skin condition and to the development and optimisation of new consumer wash products. PMID:20391611

  8. Protein Evolution of Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Sagar K; Giuffrida, Francesca; Bertschy, Emmanuelle; De Castro, Antonio; Destaillats, Frédéric; Lee, Le Ye

    2016-01-01

    Given the documented short- and long-term advantages of breastfeeding, human milk (HM) as a sole source of nutrition for the first few months of newborn life is considered a normative standard. Each macroconstituent of HM plays a crucial role in the growth and development of the baby. Lipids are largely responsible for providing more than 50% of the energy as well as providing essential fatty acids and minor lipids that are integral to all cell membranes. Carbohydrates can be broadly divided into lactose and oligosaccharides, which are a readily digestible source of glucose and indigestible nonnutritive components, respectively. Proteins in HM provide essential amino acids indispensable for the growth of infants. What is more interesting is that protein concentration profoundly changes from colostrum to mature milk. In this report, we share data from an observatory, single-center, longitudinal trial assessing the constituents of HM collected 30, 60 and 120 days postpartum from 50 mothers (singleton deliveries: 25 male and 25 female infants). The protein content decreased with evolving stages of lactation from an average of 1.45 to 1.38 g/100 ml. The data did not show any gender differences as it was reported for lipid content at 120 days postpartum by our group. Additionally, we also share consolidated literature data on protein evolution of HM during the first year of lactation. PMID:27336906

  9. The Role of Surfactant in Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Christopher Cheng-Hwa; Ma, Sze

    2012-01-01

    The key feature of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the insufficient production of surfactant in the lungs of preterm infants. As a result, researchers have looked into the possibility of surfactant replacement therapy as a means of preventing and treating RDS. We sought to identify the role of surfactant in the prevention and management of RDS, comparing the various types, doses, and modes of administration, and the recent development. A PubMed search was carried out up to March 2012 using phrases: surfactant, respiratory distress syndrome, protein-containing surfactant, protein-free surfactant, natural surfactant, animal-derived surfactant, synthetic surfactant, lucinactant, surfaxin, surfactant protein-B, surfactant protein-C. Natural, or animal-derived, surfactant is currently the surfactant of choice in comparison to protein-free synthetic surfactant. However, it is hoped that the development of protein-containing synthetic surfactant, such as lucinactant, will rival the efficacy of natural surfactants, but without the risks of their possible side effects. Administration techniques have also been developed with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and selective surfactant administration now recommended; multiple surfactant doses have also reported better outcomes. An aerosolised form of surfactant is being trialled in the hope that surfactant can be administered in a non-invasive way. Overall, the advancement, concerning the structure of surfactant and its mode of administration, offers an encouraging future in the management of RDS. PMID:22859930

  10. Surfactant-free purification of membrane protein complexes from bacteria: application to the staphylococcal penicillin-binding protein complex PBP2/PBP2a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulin, Sarah; Jamshad, Mohammed; Dafforn, Timothy R.; Garcia-Lara, Jorge; Foster, Simon J.; Galley, Nicola F.; Roper, David I.; Rosado, Helena; Taylor, Peter W.

    2014-07-01

    Surfactant-mediated removal of proteins from biomembranes invariably results in partial or complete loss of function and disassembly of multi-protein complexes. We determined the capacity of styrene-co-maleic acid (SMA) co-polymer to remove components of the cell division machinery from the membrane of drug-resistant staphylococcal cells. SMA-lipid nanoparticles solubilized FtsZ-PBP2-PBP2a complexes from intact cells, demonstrating the close physical proximity of these proteins within the lipid bilayer. Exposure of bacteria to (-)-epicatechin gallate, a polyphenolic agent that abolishes β-lactam resistance in staphylococci, disrupted the association between PBP2 and PBP2a. Thus, SMA purification provides a means to remove native integral membrane protein assemblages with minimal physical disruption and shows promise as a tool for the interrogation of molecular aspects of bacterial membrane protein structure and function.

  11. Surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, in respiratory fungal infections: their role in the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Carreto-Binaghi, Laura Elena; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex fluid that comprises phospholipids and four proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) with different biological functions. SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D are essential for the lungs' surface tension function and for the organization, stability and metabolism of lung parenchyma. SP-A and SP-D, which are also known as pulmonary collectins, have an important function in the host's lung immune response; they act as opsonins for different pathogens via a C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain and enhance the attachment to phagocytic cells or show their own microbicidal activity by increasing the cellular membrane permeability. Interactions between the pulmonary collectins and bacteria or viruses have been extensively studied, but this is not the same for fungal pathogens. SP-A and SP-D bind glucan and mannose residues from fungal cell wall, but there is still a lack of information on their binding to other fungal carbohydrate residues. In addition, both their relation with immune cells for the clearance of these pathogens and the role of surfactant proteins' regulation during respiratory fungal infections remain unknown. Here we highlight the relevant findings associated with SP-A and SP-D in those respiratory mycoses where the fungal infective propagules reach the lungs by the airways. PMID:27250970

  12. Human Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangshun

    2014-01-01

    As the key components of innate immunity, human host defense antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) play a critical role in warding off invading microbial pathogens. In addition, AMPs can possess other biological functions such as apoptosis, wound healing, and immune modulation. This article provides an overview on the identification, activity, 3D structure, and mechanism of action of human AMPs selected from the antimicrobial peptide database. Over 100 such peptides have been identified from a variety of tissues and epithelial surfaces, including skin, eyes, ears, mouths, gut, immune, nervous and urinary systems. These peptides vary from 10 to 150 amino acids with a net charge between −3 and +20 and a hydrophobic content below 60%. The sequence diversity enables human AMPs to adopt various 3D structures and to attack pathogens by different mechanisms. While α-defensin HD-6 can self-assemble on the bacterial surface into nanonets to entangle bacteria, both HNP-1 and β-defensin hBD-3 are able to block cell wall biosynthesis by binding to lipid II. Lysozyme is well-characterized to cleave bacterial cell wall polysaccharides but can also kill bacteria by a non-catalytic mechanism. The two hydrophobic domains in the long amphipathic α-helix of human cathelicidin LL-37 lays the basis for binding and disrupting the curved anionic bacterial membrane surfaces by forming pores or via the carpet model. Furthermore, dermcidin may serve as ion channel by forming a long helix-bundle structure. In addition, the C-type lectin RegIIIα can initially recognize bacterial peptidoglycans followed by pore formation in the membrane. Finally, histatin 5 and GAPDH(2-32) can enter microbial cells to exert their effects. It appears that granulysin enters cells and kills intracellular pathogens with the aid of pore-forming perforin. This arsenal of human defense proteins not only keeps us healthy but also inspires the development of a new generation of personalized medicine to

  13. Protective effects of surfactant protein D treatment in 1,3-β-glucan-modulated allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fakih, Dalia; Pilecki, Bartosz; Schlosser, Anders; Jepsen, Christine S; Thomsen, Laura K; Ormhøj, Maria; Watson, Alastair; Madsen, Jens; Clark, Howard W; Barfod, Kenneth K; Hansen, Soren; Marcussen, Niels; Jounblat, Rania; Chamat, Soulaima; Holmskov, Uffe; Sorensen, Grith L

    2015-12-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a pulmonary collectin important in lung immunity. SP-D-deficient mice (Sftpd(-/-)) are reported to be susceptible to ovalbumin (OVA)- and fungal allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation, while treatment with exogenous SP-D has therapeutic effects in such disease models. β-Glucans are a diverse group of polysaccharides previously suggested to serve as fungal ligands for SP-D. We set out to investigate if SP-D could interact with 1,3-β-glucan and attenuate allergic pulmonary inflammation in the presence of 1,3-β-glucan. Allergic airway disease was induced in Sftpd(-/-) and Sftpd(+/+) mice by OVA sensitization and subsequent challenge with OVA, 1,3-β-glucan, or OVA/1,3-β-glucan together. Mice in the combined treatment group were further treated with a high dose of recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D). We demonstrated direct interaction between SP-D and 1,3-β-glucan. OVA-induced mucous cell metaplasia was increased in Sftpd(-/-) mice, supporting previously reported protective effects of endogenous SP-D in allergy. OVA-induced parenchymal CCL11 levels and eosinophilic infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage were unaffected by 1,3-β-glucan, but were reversed with rfhSP-D treatment. 1,3-β-Glucan treatment did, however, induce pulmonary neutrophilic infiltration and increased TNF-α levels in bronchoalveolar lavage, independently of OVA-induced allergy. This infiltration was also reversed by treatment with rfhSP-D. 1,3-β-Glucan reduced OVA-induced mucous cell metaplasia, T helper 2 cytokines, and IFN-γ production. rfhSP-D treatment further reduced mucous metaplasia and T helper 2 cytokine secretion to background levels. In summary, rfhSP-D treatment resulted in attenuation of both allergic inflammation and 1,3-β-glucan-mediated neutrophilic inflammation. Our data suggest that treatment with high-dose SP-D protects from mold-induced exacerbations of allergic asthma. PMID:26432866

  14. Diseases of Pulmonary Surfactant Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Wert, Susan E.; Weaver, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

  15. Diseases of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Wert, Susan E; Weaver, Timothy E

    2015-01-01

    Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

  16. Effects of the conjugation of whey proteins with gellan polysaccharides on surfactant-induced competitive displacement from the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Cai, B; Ikeda, S

    2016-08-01

    Whey proteins can be used to stabilize foams and emulsions against coalescence because of their ability to form viscoelastic films at the interface that resist film rupture on collision between colloidal particles. However, whey proteins are competitively displaced from the interface if small-molecule surfactants are added, leading to destabilization of the entire system. This is because surfactants are more effective in molecular packing at the interface, and they lower interfacial tension to a greater degree than whey proteins do, but their interfacial films are poor in viscoelasticity. We hypothesized that whey proteins would become more resistant to surfactant-induced competitive displacement if they were conjugated with network-forming polysaccharides. The protein moiety of the conjugate would be expected to enable its adsorption to the interface, and the polysaccharide moiety would be expected to form self-assembled networks, strengthening the interfacial film as a whole. In this study, whey proteins were conjugated with gellan polysaccharides using the Maillard reaction. Atomic force microscopy images of interfacial films formed by the whey protein-gellan conjugate at the air-water interface and transferred onto mica sheets using the Langmuir-Blodgett method revealed that gellan did form self-assembled networks at the interface and that interfacial films also contained a large number of unconjugated whey protein molecules. Following the addition of a small-molecule surfactant (Tween 20) to the sub-phase, surface pressure increased, indicating spontaneous adsorption of surfactants to the interface. Atomic force microscopy images showed decreases in interfacial area coverage by whey proteins as surface pressure increased. At a given surface pressure, the interfacial area coverage by whey protein-gellan conjugates was greater than coverage by unconjugated whey proteins, confirming that whey proteins became more resistant to surfactant-induced displacement after

  17. Comparative surfactant reactivity of canine and human stratum corneum: a plea for the use of the corneosurfametry bioassay.

    PubMed

    Goffin, V; Fontaine, J; Piérard, G E

    1999-01-01

    Comparative dermatology has paid little attention to the physiopathology of the stratum corneum. In this study, we investigated the responses of human and canine horny layers to marketed animal wash products by using the corneosurfametry bioassay. Previous work has shown that, with increasing surfactant aggressiveness to the stratum corneum, the colorimetric index of mildness (CIM) decreases, while both the corneosurfametry index (CSMI) and the overall difference in corneosurfametry (ODC) increase. In the present study, stratum corneum reactivity to wash products and inter-individual variability were significantly higher in humans than in dogs. For the three corneosurfametry variables, linear correlations were found between data gathered in the two panel groups. In conclusion, this pilot study suggests that mean stratum corneum reactivity to surfactants is stronger in humans than in dogs. Inter-individual variation, indicative of sensitive skin, also appears to be broader in humans. As a consequence, data gathered from dogs by using the corneosurfametry bioassay cannot be extrapolated to humans. Such variation between species could be important in the assessment of product safety and in supporting claims for mildness. PMID:25423404

  18. Pulmonary surfactant for neonatal respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jeffrey D; Ballard, Roberta A

    2003-04-01

    Surfactant therapy has revolutionized neonatal care and is used routinely for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Recent investigation has further elucidated the function of surfactant-associated proteins and their contribution toward surfactant and lung immune defense functions. As the field of neonatology moves away from intubation and mechanical ventilation of preterm infants at birth toward more aggressive use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure, the optimal timing of exogenous surfactant therapy remains unclear. Evidence suggests that preterm neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and prolonged mechanical ventilation also experience surfactant dysfunction; however, exogenous surfactant therapy beyond the first week of life has not been well studied. Surfactant replacement therapy has been studied for use in other respiratory disorders, including meconium aspiration syndrome and pneumonia. Commercial surfactant preparations currently available are not optimal, given the variability of surfactant protein content and their susceptibility to inhibition. Further progress in the treatment of neonatal respiratory disorders may include the development of "designer" surfactant preparations. PMID:12640270

  19. High resolution mass spectrometric alveolar proteomics: identification of surfactant protein SP-A and SP-D modifications in proteinosis and cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu; Galetskiy, Dmitry; Damoc, Eugen; Paschen, Christian; Liu, Zhiqiang; Griese, Mathias; Liu, Shuying; Przybylski, Michael

    2004-08-01

    In the present study, one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with high resolution Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) have been applied as powerful approaches for the proteome analysis of surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D, including identification of structurally modified and truncation forms, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Highly sensitive micropreparation techniques were developed for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) FT-ICR MS analysis which provided the identification of surfactant proteins at very low levels. Owing to the high resolution, FT-ICR MS was found to provide substantial advantages for the structural identification of surfactant proteins from complex biological matrices with high mass determination accuracy. Several protein bands corresponding to SP-A and SP-D were identified by MALDI-FT-ICR MS after electrophoretic separation by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and provided the identification of structural modifications (hydroxy-proline) and degradation products. The high resolution mass spectrometric proteome analysis should facilitate the unequivocal identification of subunits, aggregations, modifications and degradation products of surfactant proteins and hence contribute to the understanding of the mechanistic basis of lung disease pathogenesis. PMID:15274124

  20. Extreme multifunctional proteins identified from a human protein interaction network

    PubMed Central

    Chapple, Charles E.; Robisson, Benoit; Spinelli, Lionel; Guien, Céline; Becker, Emmanuelle; Brun, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Moonlighting proteins are a subclass of multifunctional proteins whose functions are unrelated. Although they may play important roles in cells, there has been no large-scale method to identify them, nor any effort to characterize them as a group. Here, we propose the first method for the identification of ‘extreme multifunctional' proteins from an interactome as a first step to characterize moonlighting proteins. By combining network topological information with protein annotations, we identify 430 extreme multifunctional proteins (3% of the human interactome). We show that the candidates form a distinct sub-group of proteins, characterized by specific features, which form a signature of extreme multifunctionality. Overall, extreme multifunctional proteins are enriched in linear motifs and less intrinsically disordered than network hubs. We also provide MoonDB, a database containing information on all the candidates identified in the analysis and a set of manually curated human moonlighting proteins. PMID:26054620

  1. Human protein reference database--2006 update.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Gopa R; Suresh, M; Kumaran, K; Kannabiran, N; Suresh, Shubha; Bala, P; Shivakumar, K; Anuradha, N; Reddy, Raghunath; Raghavan, T Madhan; Menon, Shalini; Hanumanthu, G; Gupta, Malvika; Upendran, Sapna; Gupta, Shweta; Mahesh, M; Jacob, Bincy; Mathew, Pinky; Chatterjee, Pritam; Arun, K S; Sharma, Salil; Chandrika, K N; Deshpande, Nandan; Palvankar, Kshitish; Raghavnath, R; Krishnakanth, R; Karathia, Hiren; Rekha, B; Nayak, Rashmi; Vishnupriya, G; Kumar, H G Mohan; Nagini, M; Kumar, G S Sameer; Jose, Rojan; Deepthi, P; Mohan, S Sujatha; Gandhi, T K B; Harsha, H C; Deshpande, Krishna S; Sarker, Malabika; Prasad, T S Keshava; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2006-01-01

    Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) (http://www.hprd.org) was developed to serve as a comprehensive collection of protein features, post-translational modifications (PTMs) and protein-protein interactions. Since the original report, this database has increased to >20 000 proteins entries and has become the largest database for literature-derived protein-protein interactions (>30 000) and PTMs (>8000) for human proteins. We have also introduced several new features in HPRD including: (i) protein isoforms, (ii) enhanced search options, (iii) linking of pathway annotations and (iv) integration of a novel browser, GenProt Viewer (http://www.genprot.org), developed by us that allows integration of genomic and proteomic information. With the continued support and active participation by the biomedical community, we expect HPRD to become a unique source of curated information for the human proteome and spur biomedical discoveries based on integration of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data. PMID:16381900

  2. Lysophospholipid generation and phosphatidylglycerol depletion in phospholipase A(2)-mediated surfactant dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hite, R Duncan; Seeds, Michael C; Safta, Anca M; Jacinto, Randolph B; Gyves, Julianna I; Bass, David A; Waite, B Moseley

    2005-04-01

    Pulmonary surfactant's complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins reduces the work of breathing by lowering alveolar surface tension during respiration. One mechanism of surfactant damage appears to be the hydrolysis of phospholipid by phospholipases activated in the inflamed lung. Humans have several candidate secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) enzymes in lung cells and infiltrating leukocytes that could damage extracellular surfactant. We considered two mechanisms of surfactant disruption by five human sPLA(2)s, including generation of lysophospholipids and the depletion of specific phospholipids. All five sPLA(2)s studied ultimately caused surfactant dysfunction. Each enzyme exhibited a different pattern of hydrolysis of surfactant phospholipids. Phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid in surfactant and the greatest potential source for generation of lysophospholipids, was susceptible to hydrolysis by group IB, group V, and group X sPLA(2)s, but not group IIA or IID. Group IIA hydrolyzed both phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, whereas group IID was active against only phosphatidylglycerol. Thus, with groups IB and X, the generation of lysophospholipids corresponded with surfactant dysfunction. However, hydrolysis of and depletion of phosphatidylglycerol had a greater correlation with surfactant dysfunction for groups IIA and IID. Surfactant dysfunction caused by group V sPLA(2) is less clear and may be the combined result of both mechanisms. PMID:15516491

  3. Palmitoylation of Pulmonary Surfactant Protein SP-C Is Critical for Its Functional Cooperation with SP-B to Sustain Compression/Expansion Dynamics in Cholesterol-Containing Surfactant Films

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, Florian; Ospina, Olga L.; Mingarro, Ismael; Rodríguez-Crespo, Ignacio; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Recent data suggest that a functional cooperation between surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C may be required to sustain a proper compression-expansion dynamics in the presence of physiological proportions of cholesterol. SP-C is a dually palmitoylated polypeptide of 4.2 kDa, but the role of acylation in SP-C activity is not completely understood. In this work we have compared the behavior of native palmitoylated SP-C and recombinant nonpalmitoylated versions of SP-C produced in bacteria to get a detailed insight into the importance of the palmitic chains to optimize interfacial performance of cholesterol-containing surfactant films. We found that palmitoylation of SP-C is not essential for the protein to promote rapid interfacial adsorption of phospholipids to equilibrium surface tensions (∼22 mN/m), in the presence or absence of cholesterol. However, palmitoylation of SP-C is critical for cholesterol-containing films to reach surface tensions ≤1 mN/m at the highest compression rates assessed in a captive bubble surfactometer, in the presence of SP-B. Interestingly, the ability of SP-C to facilitate reinsertion of phospholipids during expansion was not impaired to the same extent in the absence of palmitoylation, suggesting the existence of palmitoylation-dependent and -independent functions of the protein. We conclude that palmitoylation is key for the functional cooperation of SP-C with SP-B that enables cholesterol-containing surfactant films to reach very low tensions under compression, which could be particularly important in the design of clinical surfactants destined to replacement therapies in pathologies such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:21081071

  4. Interactions of the C-terminus of lung surfactant protein B with lipid bilayers are modulated by acyl chain saturation.

    PubMed

    Antharam, Vijay C; Farver, R Suzanne; Kuznetsova, Anna; Sippel, Katherine H; Mills, Frank D; Elliott, Douglas W; Sternin, Edward; Long, Joanna R

    2008-11-01

    Lung surfactant protein B (SP-B) is critical to minimizing surface tension in the alveoli. The C-terminus of SP-B, residues 59-80, has much of the surface activity of the full protein and serves as a template for the development of synthetic surfactant replacements. The molecular mechanisms responsible for its ability to restore lung compliance were investigated with circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and (31)P and (2)H solid-state NMR spectroscopy. SP-B(59-80) forms an amphipathic helix which alters lipid organization and acyl chain dynamics in fluid lamellar phase 4:1 DPPC:POPG and 3:1 POPC:POPG MLVs. At higher levels of SP-B(59-80) in the POPC:POPG lipid system a transition to a nonlamellar phase is observed while DPPC:POPG mixtures remain in a lamellar phase. Deuterium NMR shows an increase in acyl chain order in DPPC:POPG MLVs on addition of SP-B(59-80); in POPC:POPG MLVs, acyl chain order parameters decrease. Our results indicate SP-B(59-80) penetrates deeply into DPPC:POPG bilayers and binds more peripherally to POPC:POPG bilayers. Similar behavior has been observed for KL(4), a peptide mimetic of SP-B which was originally designed using SP-B(59-80) as a template and has been clinically demonstrated to be successful in treating respiratory distress syndrome. The ability of these helical peptides to differentially partition into lipid lamellae based on their degree of monounsaturation and subsequent changes in lipid dynamics suggest a mechanism for lipid organization and trafficking within the dynamic lung environment. PMID:18694722

  5. Human protein reference database—2006 update

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gopa R.; Suresh, M.; Kumaran, K.; Kannabiran, N.; Suresh, Shubha; Bala, P.; Shivakumar, K.; Anuradha, N.; Reddy, Raghunath; Raghavan, T. Madhan; Menon, Shalini; Hanumanthu, G.; Gupta, Malvika; Upendran, Sapna; Gupta, Shweta; Mahesh, M.; Jacob, Bincy; Mathew, Pinky; Chatterjee, Pritam; Arun, K. S.; Sharma, Salil; Chandrika, K. N.; Deshpande, Nandan; Palvankar, Kshitish; Raghavnath, R.; Krishnakanth, R.; Karathia, Hiren; Rekha, B.; Nayak, Rashmi; Vishnupriya, G.; Kumar, H. G. Mohan; Nagini, M.; Kumar, G. S. Sameer; Jose, Rojan; Deepthi, P.; Mohan, S. Sujatha; Gandhi, T. K. B.; Harsha, H. C.; Deshpande, Krishna S.; Sarker, Malabika; Prasad, T. S. Keshava; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2006-01-01

    Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) () was developed to serve as a comprehensive collection of protein features, post-translational modifications (PTMs) and protein–protein interactions. Since the original report, this database has increased to >20 000 proteins entries and has become the largest database for literature-derived protein–protein interactions (>30 000) and PTMs (>8000) for human proteins. We have also introduced several new features in HPRD including: (i) protein isoforms, (ii) enhanced search options, (iii) linking of pathway annotations and (iv) integration of a novel browser, GenProt Viewer (), developed by us that allows integration of genomic and proteomic information. With the continued support and active participation by the biomedical community, we expect HPRD to become a unique source of curated information for the human proteome and spur biomedical discoveries based on integration of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data. PMID:16381900

  6. Severe respiratory insufficiency during pandemic H1N1 infection: prognostic value and therapeutic potential of pulmonary surfactant protein A.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Monica Fern; Palaniyar, Nades

    2014-01-01

    For almost two decades, studies have shown collectins to be critical for effective antimicrobial defense of the airways. Members of this protein family, which includes surfactant proteins (SP)-A and D, provide broad-spectrum protection through promoting the aggregation and clearance of pathogens. Interestingly, these proteins may also modulate the immune response, and growing evidence has shown collectins to be protective against several markers of inflammation and injury. In a recent study by Herrera-Ramos and colleagues, genetic variants of collectins were examined in Spanish patients with the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus. Comparing genotypes for measures of poor lung function, inflammation, and admission to intensive care, these authors identified three variants of the SP-A gene SFTPA2 that positively correlated with flu severity. Remarkably, they also found the haplotype 1A(1) of SFTPA2 to be protective against these indicators, suggesting that targeted therapy with a recombinant form of SP-A2 may improve patient outcome. Although further work is required to confirm the specificity and efficacy of SP-A in therapeutic H1N1 protection, this study is one of the first to suggest a clinical role for SP-A in pandemic influenza. PMID:25184962

  7. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and pulmonary surfactant homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Reed, J A; Whitsett, J A

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant lining the alveolus of the lung is critical to postnatal adaptation to air breathing. Precise concentrations of surfactant proteins and lipids are maintained in the alveolar space by a careful balance among synthesis, recycling, and catabolism. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare pulmonary disease associated with accumulation of surfactant lipids and proteins in the alveolar spaces. Recent work with transgenic mice demonstrated that disruption of the production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or the common beta-subunit of the GM-CSF receptor caused alveolar proteinosis that was histologically similar to that seen in human patients. The defect in surfactant homeostasis is caused by decreased surfactant clearance, mediated (at least in part) by dysfunction of the alveolar macrophage. Local production of GM-CSF corrects the alveolar proteinosis in the GM-CSF knockout mouse. Likewise, transplantation of wild-type bone marrow cells expressing the common beta-chain of the GM-CSF receptor restores surfactant homeostasis in the GM-CSF receptor knockout mouse. These studies demonstrate the previously unanticipated role of GM-CSF signaling in surfactant homeostasis, mediated (at least in part) by its actions on the clearance of surfactant lipids and proteins by the alveolar macrophage. These findings may have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis syndromes in humans. PMID:9686680

  8. Decreased Expression of Surfactant Protein Genes Is Associated with an Increased Expression of Forkhead Box M1 Gene in the Fetal Lung Tissues of Premature Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Won-Ho; Chang, Ji-Young; Lee, Kyung Suk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Recently, Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) was reported to be correlated with lung maturation and expression of surfactant proteins (SPs) in mice models. However, no study has been conducted in rabbit lungs despite their high homology with human lungs. Thus, we attempted to investigate serial changes in the expressions of FoxM1 and SP-A/B throughout lung maturation in rabbit fetuses. Materials and Methods Pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were grouped according to gestational age from 5 days before to 2 days after the day of expected full term delivery (F5, F4, F3, F2, F1, F0, P1, and P2). A total of 64 fetuses were enrolled after Cesarean sections. The expressions of mRNA and proteins of FoxM1 and SP-A/B in fetal lung tissue were tested by quantitative reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR and Western blot. Furthermore, their correlations were analyzed. Results The mRNA expression of SP-A/B showed an increasing tendency positively correlated with gestational age, while the expression of FoxM1 mRNA and protein decreased from F5 to F0. A significant negative correlation was found between the expression levels of FoxM1 and SP-A/B (SP-A: R=-0.517, p=0.001; SP-B: R=-0.615, p<0.001). Conclusion Preterm rabbits demonstrated high expression of FoxM1 mRNA and protein in the lungs compared to full term rabbits. Also, the expression of SP-A/B was inversely related with serial changes in FoxM1 expression. This is the first report to suggest an association between FoxM1 and expression of SP-A/B and lung maturation in preterm rabbits. PMID:24142647

  9. Utilization of modified surfactant-associated protein B for delivery of DNA to airway cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Baatz, J E; Bruno, M D; Ciraolo, P J; Glasser, S W; Stripp, B R; Smyth, K L; Korfhagen, T R

    1994-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant lines the airway epithelium and creates a potential barrier to successful transfection of the epithelium in vivo. Based on the functional properties of pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B) and the fact that this protein is neither toxic nor immunogenic in the airway, we hypothesized that SP-B could be modified to deliver DNA to airway cells. We have modified native bovine SP-B by the covalent linkage of poly(lysine) (average molecular mass of 3.3 or 10 kDa) to the N terminus of SP-B and formed complexes between a test plasmid and the modified SP-B. Transfection efficiency was determined by transfection of pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells (H441) in culture with the test plasmid pCPA-RSV followed by measurement of activity of the reporter gene encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). Transfections were performed with DNA.protein complexes using poly(lysine)10kDa-SP-B ([Lys]10kDa-SP-B) or poly(lysine)3.3kDa-SP-B ([Lys]3.3kDa-SP-B), and results were compared with transfections using unmodified poly(lysine).DNA, unmodified SP-B.DNA, or DNA only. For [Lys]10kDa-SP-B.pCPA-RSV preparations, CAT activity was readily detectable above the background of [Lys]3.3kDa-SP-B or unmodified SP-B. The SP-B-poly(lysine) conjugates were effective over a broad range of protein-to-DNA molar ratios, although they were optimal at approximately 500:1-1000:1. Transfection efficiency varied with the tested cell line but was not specific to airway cells. Addition of replication-defective adenovirus to the [Lys]10kDa-SP-B.pCPA-RSV complex enhanced CAT activity about 30-fold with respect to that produced by the [Lys]10kDa-SP-B.pCPA-RSV complex alone. This increase suggests routing of the adenoviral.[Lys]10kDa-SP-B.pCPA-RSV complex through an endosomal pathway. Effects of covalent modification on the secondary structure of SP-B were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). Results of FTIR indicated that the conformation of [Lys]10kDa-SP-B was

  10. Protein phosphorylation systems in postmortem human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Walaas, S.I.; Perdahl-Wallace, E.; Winblad, B.; Greengard, P. )

    1989-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation systems regulated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), or calcium in conjunction with calmodulin or phospholipid/diacylglycerol, have been studied by phosphorylation in vitro of particulate and soluble fractions from human postmortem brain samples. One-dimensional or two-dimensional gel electrophoretic protein separations were used for analysis. Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was found to be highly active in both particulate and soluble preparations throughout the human CNS, with groups of both widely distributed and region-specific substrates being observed in different brain nuclei. Dopamine-innervated parts of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex contained the phosphoproteins previously observed in rodent basal ganglia. In contrast, calcium/phospholipid-dependent and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation systems were less prominent in human postmortem brain than in rodent brain, and only a few widely distributed substrates for these protein kinases were found. Protein staining indicated that postmortem proteolysis, particularly of high-molecular-mass proteins, was prominent in deeply located, subcortical regions in the human brain. Our results indicate that it is feasible to use human postmortem brain samples, when obtained under carefully controlled conditions, for qualitative studies on brain protein phosphorylation. Such studies should be of value in studies on human neurological and/or psychiatric disorders.