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Sample records for human vitamin b12

  1. Folate, vitamin B12 and human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared func...

  2. Vitamin B-12

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Vitamin B-12 Vitamin B-12 What is vitamin B-12? Vitamin B-12 is an important nutrient that is found naturally ... shellfish, meat, eggs, dairy products, and fortified foods. Vitamin B-12 helps make red blood cells and ...

  3. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePlus

    ... naturally in a wide variety of animal proteins. Plant foods have no vitamin B12 unless they are ... animal sources of vitamin B12 much better than plant sources. Non-animal sources of vitamin B12 vary ...

  4. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePlus

    ... body to absorb vitamin B12 from food. First, hydrochloric acid in the stomach separates vitamin B12 from the ... Many older adults, who do not have enough hydrochloric acid in their stomach to absorb the vitamin B12 ...

  5. Vitamin B12 level

    MedlinePlus

    The vitamin B12 level is a blood test that measures how much vitamin B12 is in your blood. ... a form of megaloblastic anemia caused by poor vitamin B12 absorption. This can occur when the stomach ...

  6. Vitamin B12 source (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The human body stores several years' worth of vitamin B12, so nutritional deficiency of this vitamin is extremely rare. Although, people who follow a strict vegetarian diet and do not consume eggs or dairy products may require vitamin B12 supplements.

  7. Effect of gastrointestinal proteases on purified human intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 (IF-B12) complex.

    PubMed

    Srikumar, K; Premalatha, R

    2003-04-01

    Intrinsic factor (IF) from human gastric juice was purified and complexed with vitamin B12 (IF-B12 complex) on Sepharose-vitamin B12 affinity matrix. By labeling studies, using [(57)Co] vitamin B12 and (125)I, the specific B12 binding activity of IF was found to be 23 microg B12/mg protein, and the molecular size by gel filtration 60 kDa. Proteolysis of the IF-B12 complex by sequential treatment with pepsin, trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase A, followed by chromatography of proteolysed complex and IF-B12 showed higher mobility of proteolysed fraction. Gel filtration, however, showed same molecular size for both proteolysed and the IF-B12 complex. On SDS-PAGE, purified IF-B12 appeared as a single band of 60 kDa. The proteolysed complex had higher mobility on SDS-PAGE and did not bind to zirconium phosphate gel. Immunodiffusion with rabbit antisera had positive reaction with IF-B12, but there was no reaction with the proteolysed sample. PMID:22900303

  8. Vitamin B-12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

  9. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

  10. Rapid determination of vitamin B2 and B12 in human urine by isocratic liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Mandal, Mahitosh; Ghosh, Ananta K; Dey, Satyahari

    2009-04-27

    A simple and rapid method for the identification and quantification of vitamin B(2) and B(12) in human urine has been developed using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the peaks identity were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). HPLC separation was performed in single wavelength detector (lambda(365)) mode and separated isocratically using mobile phase methanol: 1mM aqueous TFA (1:4) in C18 column. The calibration graphs plotted with different concentrations of vitamin B(2) and B(12) was linear with a correlation coefficients (r(2))=0.9975 and 0.9985, respectively. The recoveries of vitamin B(2) and B(12) were above 87% and 90%, respectively. The results of this present study suggest that the proposed method may be simple and convenient way of identifying and quantifying vitamin B(2) and B(12) from human urine. PMID:19362629

  11. Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio

    2007-11-01

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B(12) are animal foods, meat, milk, egg, fish, and shellfish. As the intrinsic factor-mediated intestinal absorption system is estimated to be saturated at about 1.5-2.0 microg per meal under physiologic conditions, vitamin B(12) bioavailability significantly decreases with increasing intake of vitamin B(12) per meal. The bioavailability of vitamin B(12) in healthy humans from fish meat, sheep meat, and chicken meat averaged 42%, 56%-89%, and 61%-66%, respectively. Vitamin B(12) in eggs seems to be poorly absorbed (< 9%) relative to other animal food products. In the Dietary Reference Intakes in the United States and Japan, it is assumed that 50% of dietary vitamin B(12) is absorbed by healthy adults with normal gastro-intestinal function. Some plant foods, dried green and purple lavers (nori) contain substantial amounts of vitamin B(12), although other edible algae contained none or only traces of vitamin B(12). Most of the edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) used for human supplements predominantly contain pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive in humans. The edible cyanobacteria are not suitable for use as vitamin B(12) sources, especially in vegans. Fortified breakfast cereals are a particularly valuable source of vitamin B(12) for vegans and elderly people. Production of some vitamin B(12)-enriched vegetables is also being devised. PMID:17959839

  12. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  13. Experimental vitamin B12 deficiency in a human subject: a longitudinal investigation of the performance of the holotranscobalamin (HoloTC, Active-B12) immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Golding, Paul Henry

    2016-01-01

    Based on Victor Herbert's model for sequential stages in the development of vitamin B12 deficiency, the holotranscobalamin (HoloTC) immunoassay has controversially been promoted as a more specific and sensitive replacement for the total vitamin B12 test, for the diagnosis of deficiency. There have been no longitudinal studies, by means of experimental cobalamin deficiency, because ethical considerations prevent such risky studies on patients or healthy human volunteers. The objective was to provide a detailed record of the response of HoloTC, compared to total vitamin B12 and metabolites, to the development of experimental vitamin B12 deficiency in an initially replete human subject. This 54 year old male, with a vitamin B12 deficiency possibly caused by a defect in the intracellular cobalamin metabolism, ensured an initially replete condition by means of oral doses of cyanocobalamin supplements at 1000 μg/day for 12 weeks. The subject then depleted himself of vitamin B12, by withholding treatment and using a low-cobalamin diet, until significant metabolic disturbances were observed. The responses of serum total vitamin B12 and HoloTC and the two metabolites, plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine, were monitored by weekly blood tests. HoloTC was not significantly more sensitive than either total serum vitamin B12 or total homocysteine, and was much less sensitive than methylmalonic acid. HoloTC decreased from an initial concentration of >128 pmol/L to a minimum of 33 pmol/L on day 742, the only day on which it fell below the lower limit of the reference interval. Total vitamin B12 decreased from an initial concentration of 606 pmol/L to a minimum of 171 pmol/L on day 728. Total homocysteine increased from an initial concentration of 8.4 μmol/L to a maximum of 14.2 μmol/L on day 609. Methylmalonic acid unexpectedly contained four distinct peaks; initially at 0.17 μmol/L, it first exceeded the upper limit of the reference interval on day 386

  14. Release of vitamin B12—binding protein by human leukocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Corcino, José; Krauss, Stephen; Waxman, Samuel; Herbert, Victor

    1970-01-01

    Human granulocytes (G) contain a vitamin B12-binding protein (B12BP). There is evidence that chronic myelogenous leukemia leukocytes (CMLL) may synthesize B12BP. Our prior studies suggested that intact, living intravascular G synthesize and release such protein into extracellular compartments in vivo. In the present study, CMLL were incubated in Trisbuffered Hank's basal salt solution (pH 7.2) containing 0.1% human serum albumin to study release of B12BP into the medium. B12BP was released continuously and in increasing amounts over a 5 hr period at 37°C; this release was inhibited almost completely when the cells were incubated at 4°C and by about half as much in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide (1 mmole/liter). Cycloheximide (50 μg/ml) had no effect on the release of B12BP but significantly inhibited incorporation of leucine-3H into leukocyte protein. G incubated with 20 mg/ml of compound 48/80, an experimental histamine-releasing agent, had a 6-fold increase in release of B12BP over a 2 hr period. Subcellular fractionation studies of human granulocytes demonstrate that most of the B12BP is associated with the granular (20,000 g) layer with an excellent correlation observed between its subcellular distribution and that of acid phosphatase. These findings suggest that the release of B12BP from G is mediated by an active process and provide further evidence that granulocytes are secretory as well as phagocytic cells. Images PMID:5273803

  15. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23193625 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer ... Saunders; 2011:chap 225. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's ...

  16. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... vitamin B12. They include: Chronic alcoholism Crohn disease, celiac disease, infection with the fish tapeworm, or other problems ... may no longer be needed after Crohn disease, celiac disease, or alcohol use is properly treated. Your provider ...

  17. Bioavailability of vitamin B12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

  18. Transcobalamin derived from bovine milk stimulates apical uptake of vitamin B12 into human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hine, Brad; Boggs, Irina; Green, Ralph; Miller, Joshua W; Hovey, Russell C; Humphrey, Rex; Wheeler, Thomas T

    2014-11-01

    Intestinal uptake of vitamin B12 (hereafter B12) is impaired in a significant proportion of the human population. This impairment is due to inherited or acquired defects in the expression or function of proteins involved in the binding of diet-derived B12 and its uptake into intestinal cells. Bovine milk is an abundant source of bioavailable B12 wherein it is complexed with transcobalamin. In humans, transcobalamin functions primarily as a circulatory protein, which binds B12 following its absorption and delivers it to peripheral tissues via its cognate receptor, CD320. In the current study, the transcobalamin-B12 complex was purified from cows' milk and its ability to stimulate uptake of B12 into cultured bovine, mouse and human cell lines was assessed. Bovine milk-derived transcobalamin-B12 complex was absorbed by all cell types tested, suggesting that the uptake mechanism is conserved across species. Furthermore, the complex stimulated the uptake of B12 via the apical surface of differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. These findings suggest the presence of an alternative transcobalamin-mediated uptake pathway for B12 in the human intestine other than that mediated by the gastric glycoprotein, intrinsic factor. Our findings highlight the potential for transcobalamin-B12 complex derived from bovine milk to be used as a natural bioavailable alternative to orally administered free B12 to overcome B12 malabsorption. PMID:24913691

  19. Methionine synthetase activity of human lymphocytes both replete in and depleted of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Hall, C A; Begley, J A; Chu, R C

    1986-10-01

    The activity of the enzyme methionine synthetase (MS) (methyltetrahydrofolate:homocysteine methyltransferase) (EC 2.1.1.13) was measured in human lymphocytes of various types and cobalamin (vitamin B12) status. Total and holo MS activity was low in unstimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes from persons with tissue deficiency of cobalamin, but not in cells from those with low serum cobalamin levels for other reasons. The MS activity of the lymphocyte was increased by treatment of the patients with vitamin B12. The number of lymphocytes was often low or low normal in the circulation of those deficient in cobalamin. Holo MS activity was low in an established line of human B cells, RPMI 6410 cells, depleted of cobalamin. The total and holo MS activity of both RPMI 6410 cells, replete or depleted, and lymphocytes stimulated in culture was increased by cobalamin in vitro; 222 nmol/L free cobalamin was roughly the equivalent of 0.22 nmol/L cobalamin bound to transcobalamin II. Both lymphocytes and RPMI 6410 cells required folate for growth and could meet these needs via methylfolate, homocysteine, and the cobalamin-dependent MS reaction. Depleted RPMI 6410 cells, however, used cobalamin in some way in addition to the provision of available folate from methylfolate. The consequences of the reduced MS activity in deficient cells could include a reduction in available folate with diminished capacity for clonal expansion of lymphocytes in reaction to infection and impairment of essential methylations including those of protein synthesis. The prompt induction of MS activity by cobalamin, especially in the in vitro model, suggests an effect of therapeutic vitamin B12 well in advance of the numerical increase in cells of the blood. PMID:3760673

  20. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin B 12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B 12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B 12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  6. Microbial production of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Martens, J H; Barg, H; Warren, M J; Jahn, D

    2002-03-01

    One of the most alluring and fascinating molecules in the world of science and medicine is vitamin B12 (cobalamin), which was originally discovered as the anti pernicious anemia factor and whose enigmatic complex structure is matched only by the beguiling chemistry that it mediates. The biosynthesis of this essential nutrient is intricate, involved and, remarkably, confined to certain members of the prokaryotic world, seemingly never have to have made the eukaryotic transition. In humans, the vitamin is required in trace amounts (approximately 1 microg/day) to assist the actions of only two enzymes, methionine synthase and (R)-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase; yet commercially more than 10 t of B12 are produced each year from a number of bacterial species. The rich scientific history of vitamin B12 research, its biological functions and the pathways employed by bacteria for its de novo synthesis are described. Current strategies for the improvement of vitamin B12 production using modern biotechnological techniques are outlined. PMID:11935176

  7. [Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Leischker, A H; Kolb, G F

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age. Patients with dementia and spouses of patients with dementia are at special risk for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency. In a normal diet this vitamin is present only in animal source foods; therefore, vegans frequently develop vitamin B12 deficiency if not using supplements or foods fortified with cobalamin. Apart from dementia, most of these manifestations are completely reversible under correct therapy; therefore it is crucial to identify and to treat even atypical presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency as early as possible. This article deals with the physiology and pathophysiology of vitamin B12 metabolism. A practice-oriented algorithm which also considers health economic aspects for a rational laboratory diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is presented. In cases with severe neurological symptoms, therapy should be parenteral, especially initially. For parenteral treatment, hydroxocobalamin is the drug of choice. PMID:25586321

  8. Update on vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Langan, Robert C; Zawistoski, Kimberly J

    2011-06-15

    Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) deficiency is a common cause of megaloblastic anemia, a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, and elevated serum homocysteine levels, especially in older persons. There are a number of risk factors for vitamin B(12) deficiency, including prolonged use of metformin and proton pump inhibitors. No major medical organizations, including the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, have published guidelines on screening asymptomatic or low-risk adults for vitamin B(12) deficiency, but high-risk patients, such as those with malabsorptive disorders, may warrant screening. The initial laboratory assessment of a patient with suspected vitamin B(12) deficiency should include a complete blood count and a serum vitamin B(12) level. Measurements of serum vitamin B(12) may not reliably detect deficiency, and measurement of serum homocysteine and/or methylmalonic acid should be used to confirm deficiency in asymptomatic high-risk patients with low normal levels of vitamin B(12). Oral administration of high-dose vitamin B(12) (1 to 2 mg daily) is as effective as intramuscular administration in correcting the deficiency, regardless of etiology. Because crystalline formulations are better absorbed than naturally occurring vitamin B(12), patients older than 50 years and strict vegetarians should consume foods fortified with vitamin B(12) and vitamin B(12) supplements, rather than attempting to get vitamin B(12) strictly from dietary sources. Administration of vitamin B(12) to patients with elevated serum homocysteine levels has not been shown to reduce cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients or alter the cognitive decline of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. PMID:21671542

  9. The difficulties with vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Ruth; Alvares, Debie

    2016-08-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with progressive sensory ataxia and optic neuropathy. Previous investigation by her general practitioner had found a low serum vitamin B12, which had been corrected with oral supplementation. Neurological investigations showed raised plasma homocysteine and methylmalonic acid towards the upper limit of normal with a low serum vitamin B12 MRI showed an extensive cord lesion in keeping with subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. We treated her with high dose parenteral vitamin B12 and she has made a partial recovery. We discuss the management of patients who present with neurological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency; highlighting the fact that parenteral replacement is needed in such cases, even if the serum vitamin B12 level appears to be normal. We also discuss ancillary investigations that should be performed in patients with suspected vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27009308

  10. [Therapy of hyperhomocysteinemia with vitamin B12].

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Sebeková, K; Valachovicová, M

    2002-11-01

    Prevalence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians and vegans is a consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Clinical study of homocysteine reduction by vitamin B12 consisted of subjective healthy adults on alternative nutrition (n = 9) with vitamin B12 deficiency and with mild hyperhomocysteinemia. Vitamin B12 treatment was implemented by 5 intramuscular cyanocobalamin injections of a total content of 2200 micrograms during two weeks. Homocysteine level was significantly reduced (from 22 mumol/l to 11.7 mumol/l; individual reduction 29-55%). Vitamin B12 concentration in blood was significantly increased (from 152 pmol/l to 277 pmol/l; individual % of increase 63-150). The results show a high effect of vitamin B12 treatment in homocysteine value reduction of subjects on alternative nutrition. PMID:12501494

  11. Vitamin B-12 and Perinatal Health.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Layden, Alexander J; Stover, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency (<148 pmol/L) is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, including developmental anomalies, spontaneous abortions, preeclampsia, and low birth weight (<2500 g). The importance of adequate vitamin B-12 status periconceptionally and during pregnancy cannot be overemphasized, given its fundamental role in neural myelination, brain development, and growth. Infants born to vitamin B-12-deficient women may be at increased risk of neural tube closure defects, and maternal vitamin B-12 insufficiency (<200 pmol/L) can impair infant growth, psychomotor function, and brain development, which may be irreversible. However, the underlying causal mechanisms are unknown. This review was conducted to examine the evidence that links maternal vitamin B-12 status and perinatal outcomes. Despite the high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency and associated risk of pregnancy complications, few prospective studies and, to our knowledge, only 1 randomized trial have examined the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy. The role of vitamin B-12 in the etiology of adverse perinatal outcomes needs to be elucidated to inform public health interventions. PMID:26374177

  12. Human gut microbes use multiple transporters to distinguish vitamin B12 analogs and compete in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Patrick H.; Barry, Natasha A.; Mok, Kenny C.; Taga, Michiko E.; Goodman, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Genomic and metagenomic sequencing efforts, including human microbiome projects, reveal that microbes often encode multiple systems that appear to accomplish the same task. Whether these predictions reflect actual functional redundancies is unclear. We report that the prominent human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron employs three functional, homologous vitamin B12 transporters that in at least two cases confer a competitive advantage in the presence of distinct B12 analogs (corrinoids). In the mammalian gut, microbial fitness can be determined by the presence or absence of a single transporter. The total number of distinct corrinoid transporter families in the human gut microbiome likely exceeds those observed in B. thetaiotaomicron by an order of magnitude. These results demonstrate that human gut microbes use elaborate mechanisms to capture and differentiate corrinoids in vivo and that apparent redundancies observed in these genomes can instead reflect hidden specificities that determine whether a microbe will colonize its host. PMID:24439897

  13. Release of vitamin B12 from carrier erythrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eichler, H G; Raffesberg, W; Gasic, S; Korn, A; Bauer, K

    1985-01-01

    Resealed erythrocyte ghosts (carrier erythrocytes) are potential in vivo carriers for exogenous enzymes or drugs, but data on carrier erythrocyte survival and clearance rate in humans are not available. We have measured the in vitro efflux of vitamin B12 encapsulated in human red cell by hypo-osmotic dialysis, as a preliminary for its use as a marker for in vivo human studies. Vitamin B12 was encapsulated into erythrocytes at a relative incorporation efficiency of 60%. In vitro hemolysis of carrier erythrocytes was minimal over 40 h, but vitamin B12 was rapidly lost from the cells, efflux t/2 was 5 h, presumably by diffusion through the intact cell membrane. Vitamin B12 (Vit B12) may, nevertheless, be a suitable marker for short-term human studies on carrier erythrocyte splanchnic clearance. PMID:4048655

  14. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Peter J.; Dueker, Stephen; Miller, Joshua; Green, Ralph; Roth, John; Carkeet, Colleen; Buchholz,; Bruce A.

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  15. Thiol antioxidants in combination with vitamin B12 induce apoptotic death of human lymphocytic leukemia cells by destabilization of lysosomes with the involvement of iron ions.

    PubMed

    Solovyeva, M E; Faskhutdinova, A A; Solovyev, V V; Akatov, V S

    2013-02-01

    The extensively used thiol antioxidants (dithiothreitol, glutathione, and N-acetylcysteine) in combination with hydroxycobalamine (vitamin B12) gain toxic activity in relation to human lymphocytic leukemia cell line HL60. Combined treatment with thiol and vitamin B12 was followed by early destabilization of lysosomes and apoptotic death of cells. The cytotoxic effect was abolished by caspase inhibitors. An iron-chelating agent deferoxamine partly prevented cell death, while lysosomal protease inhibitor pepstatin produced no protective effect. PMID:23486578

  16. [Vitamin B12 and related genetic disorders].

    PubMed

    Guéant, Jean-louis; Coelho, David; Nicolas, Jean-Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin (Cbl)) is a water-soluble vitamin that requires complex mechanisms for its assimilation, blood transport and intracellular metabolism. Three proteins, intrinsic factor (IF), haptocorrin (HC), and transcobalamin (TC), and their specific receptors are involved in B12 absorption and transport. Acquired and inherited deficiencies can result in megaloblastic anemia and neurological manifestations. Several genetic diseases are linked to these two steps, namely inherited deficits in FI and TC, and Imerslund-Gräsbeck disease. In mammalian cells, only two enzymes depend on vitamin B12: L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (EC 5.4.99.2) in mitochondria, and methionine synthase (EC 2.1.1.13) in cytoplasm. Direct metabolic consequences of impaired B12 absorption and metabolism are the accumulation of methylmalonic acid (MMA) and of homocysteine (HCy), respectively. More than a dozen genes are involved in the intracellular metabolism of B12, and their defects result in several diseases designated cblA through cblJ This article reviews the steps involved in vitamin B12 absorption, transport and intracellular metabolism, and the main related genetic defects. PMID:26983191

  17. Vitamin B12 deficiency: the great masquerader.

    PubMed

    Dobrozsi, Sarah; Flood, Veronica H; Panepinto, Julie; Scott, J Paul; Brandow, Amanda

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in children, with nonspecific symptoms including failure to thrive, vomiting, anorexia, and neurologic changes with or without hematologic disturbances. The neuropathy can be severe and irreversible. We report four cases of children with B12 deficiency secondary to adult type pernicious anemia, a presumed transport protein abnormality, and a metabolic defect. All demonstrated neurologic compromise that improved after initiation of B12 therapy. Hematologic manifestations may be preceded by constitutional, gastrointestinal, or neurologic changes, and must raise concern for B12 deficiency. Therapy should be initiated promptly in this setting to prevent irreversible neuropathy. PMID:24115632

  18. The role of Vitamin B12 in the critically ill-a review.

    PubMed

    Romain, M; Sviri, S; Linton, D M; Stav, I; van Heerden, P V

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin B12 is an essential micronutrient, as humans have no capacity to produce the vitamin and it needs to be ingested from animal proteins. The ingested Vitamin B12 undergoes a complex process of absorption and assimilation. Vitamin B12 is essential for cellular function. Deficiency affects 15% of patients older than 65 and results in haematological and neurological disorders. Low levels of Vitamin B12 may also be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. High levels of Vitamin B12 are associated with inflammation and represent a poor outlook for critically ill patients. Treatment of Vitamin B12 deficiency is simple, but may be lifelong. PMID:27456173

  19. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin B 12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862....1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862....1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  4. [Production of vitamin B12 by fermentation].

    PubMed

    Oğultekin, R; Oner, M

    1985-10-01

    In this work, the methods and technology of vitamin B12 production were studied on laboratory scale. The microorganisms used for experiments were Streptomyces olivaceus IFO 3409, Streptomyces olivaceus CBS 355.53 and Streptomyces griseus CBS 161.45 which were brought from foreign countries. Vitamin B12 activity that have been obtained from fermentation experiments of each microorganisms are determined by microbiological assays using Lactobacillus leichmannii IFO 3073 (ATCC 4797) which is a test microorganism. As a result of these assays S. olivaceus IFO 3409 (2 micrograms/ml) was found as the most efficient strain were followed by S. olivaceus CBS 355.53 and S. griseus CBS 16.45 respectively. PMID:3938519

  5. Phenotypic and genotypic screening of human-originated lactobacilli for vitamin B12 production potential: process validation by micro-assay and UFLC.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat; Tomar, S K; Mandal, Surajit

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12) production is a strain specific, rare and hidden functional attribute of lactobacilli and a cogent protocol for selection of such isolates from the herd of lactobacilli is required. The present study included isolation of lactobacilli from human samples (milk and fecal), screening them by a polyphasic (three-phase) methodology for probable B12 production potential and validating the screening protocol by exploring selected strains for in vitro vitamin production (two-phase fermentation) and quantification [micro-assay and ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC)]. Fifty-nine Lactobacillus strains were recovered from tested biological samples. Contrary to screening inapplicabilities of first [growth potential (GP) in B12-free medium] and second phases (GP in B12-free and cobalt chloride-supplemented conditions), third phase (cbiK gene detection on genomic DNA) alone was revealed as a validated strategy for selection of two probable B12-producing lactobacilli. Microbiological assay confirmed production and bioavailability of produced vitamin, while UFLC testing validated the results by precisely quantifying the cyanocobalamin (industrially produced bio-available form of B12) in cell extracts of both possible B12 producers [BHM10 (10.91 ± 1.55 μg/l) and BCF20 (23.90 ± 1.73 μg/l)] and positive standard [Lactobacillus reuteri DSM20016 (20.03 ± 4.17 μg/l)]. Moreover, this study generates a novel report for genomic detection, partial amplification and sequencing of cbiK gene in Lactobacillus plantarum species (both BHM10 and BCF20). In conclusion, contrary to first two phases, cbiK gene detection strategy successfully selects B12-producing strains from a group of human-originated lactobacilli and can be used in the future for similar screening studies. PMID:27234139

  6. Vitamin B12 and methionine deficiencies induce genome damage measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay in human B lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiayu; Cheng, Jiaoni; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    One-carbon metabolism is a network of interrelated biochemical reactions that has 2 major functions: DNA methylation and DNA synthesis. Methionine (Met), an essential amino acid, is converted to S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM), the body's main methyl group donor, which is converted to S-adenosylhomocysteine during methylation reactions. Vitamin B12 (B12) acts as a coenzyme of methionine synthase, which is required for the synthesis of Met and SAM. To determine the effects of Met and B12, we used the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in GM13705 and GM12593 cell line cultures exposed to 13 unique combinations of B12 and Met concentrations over 9 days. The nutrient levels chosen span the normal physiological ranges in humans. The Met-B12 concentration significantly and negatively correlated with all markers of genotoxicity in the 2 cell lines tested. In both cell lines, all markers of genotoxicity were significantly higher when treated with 15 μM Met than when treated with 50 μM Met, regardless of the B12 treatment level. Genotoxicity was significantly reduced in the group treated with 50 μM Met and 600 pM B12. Concentrations of 50 μM Met and 600 pM B12 are an optimal combination for stabilizing the genome. It is advisable to acquire adequate amounts of Met and B12 for maintaining genome stability. PMID:23909731

  7. Vitamin B12 enhances the phase-response of circadian melatonin rhythm to a single bright light exposure in humans.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, S; Kohsaka, M; Morita, N; Fukuda, N; Honma, S; Honma, K

    1996-12-13

    Eight young males were subjected to a single blind cross-over test to see the effects of vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin; VB12) on the phase-response of the circadian melatonin rhythm to a single bright light exposure. VB12 (0.5 mg/day) or vehicle was injected intravenously at 1230 h for 11 days, which was followed by oral administration (2 mg x 3/day) for 7 days. A serial blood sampling was performed under dim light condition (less than 200 lx) and plasma melatonin rhythm was determined before and after a single bright light exposure (2500 lx for 3 h) at 0700 h. The melatonin rhythm before the light exposure showed a smaller amplitude in the VB12 trial than in the placebo. The light exposure phase-advanced the melatonin rhythm significantly in the VB12 trail, but not in the placebo. These findings indicate that VB12 enhances the light-induced phase-shift in the human circadian rhythm. PMID:8981490

  8. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and....1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88CoN14O14P, CAS Reg. No. 68-0919... exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may be used in infant formula in...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B 12..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12.. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B 12.. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  13. Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tanioka, Yuri; Bito, Tomohiro

    2013-07-17

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-source based foods, including meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish, although a few plant-based foods such as certain types of dried lavers (nori) and mushrooms contain substantial and considerable amounts of vitamin B12, respectively. Unexpectedly, detailed characterization of vitamin B12 compounds in foods reveals the presence of various corrinoids that are inactive in humans. The majority of edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and certain edible shellfish predominately contain an inactive corrinoid known as pseudovitamin B12. Various factors affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. For example, vitamin B12 is partially degraded and loses its biological activity during cooking and storage of foods. The intrinsic factor-mediated gastrointestinal absorption system in humans has evolved to selectively absorb active vitamin B12 from naturally occurring vitamin B12 compounds, including its degradation products and inactive corrinoids that are present in daily meal foods. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date information on various factors that can affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. To prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify plant-source foods that contain high levels of bioactive vitamin B12 and, in conjunction, to prepare the use of crystalline vitamin B12-fortified foods. PMID:23782218

  14. Neuro-regression in vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sanwar; Nathani, Shweta

    2009-01-01

    Neuroregression in infants has varied aetiology and vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the uncommon causes. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency is encountered in malnourished infants or in offspring of strict vegan mothers. We present two cases, both infants of 10 and 8 months of age, whose mothers had vitamin B12 deficiency. On admission, the patients were apathic, hypotonic and lethargic. Serum vitamin B12 levels were below normal limits. On cranial MRI, T2-weighted images revealed frontoparietal cortical atrophy. Both the infants responded to vitamin B12 treatment. PMID:21686891

  15. Biochemistry, function, and deficiency of vitamin B12 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Bito, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Fumio

    2016-09-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a nematode that has been widely used as an animal for investigation of diverse biological phenomena. Vitamin B12 is essential for the growth of this worm, which contains two cobalamin-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase. A full complement of gene homologs encoding the enzymes associated with the mammalian intercellular metabolic processes of vitamin B12 is identified in the genome of C elegans However, this worm has no orthologs of the vitamin B12-binders that participate in human intestinal absorption and blood circulation. When the worm is treated with a vitamin B12-deficient diet for five generations (15 days), it readily develops vitamin B12 deficiency, which induces worm phenotypes (infertility, delayed growth, and shorter lifespan) that resemble the symptoms of mammalian vitamin B12 deficiency. Such phenotypes associated with vitamin B12 deficiency were readily induced in the worm. PMID:27486161

  16. [Vegetarians are at high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Javid, Parva; Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Since vegetarians have a lower intake of vitamin B12 (B12) than non-vegetarians, they are at increased risk of developing B12 deficiency. The less animal products the food contains the worse the B12 status. However, even lacto-ovo-vegetarians run the risk of becoming deficient in B12. Vegetarians are recommended regularly to take supplements of B12, and they should be informed of the lacking content of B12 of plant products and the hazards of B12 deficiency. Furthermore, vegetarians should routinely be checked for possible B12 deficiency. PMID:26750191

  17. [Hemolytic anemias and vitamin B12 deficieny].

    PubMed

    Dietzfelbinger, Hermann; Hubmann, Max

    2015-08-01

    Hemolytic anemias consist of corpuscular, immun-hemolytic and toxic hemolytic anemias. Within the group of corpuscular hemolytic anemias, except for the paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), all symptoms are caused by underlying heredetiary disorders within the red blood cell membran (hereditary spherocytosis), deficiencies of red cell enzymes (G6PDH- and pyrovatkinase deficiency) or disorders in the hemoglobin molecule (thalassaemia and sickle cell disease). Immune-hemolytic anemias are acquired hemolytic anemias and hemolysis is caused by auto- or allo-antibodies which are directed against red blood cell antigens. They are classified as warm, cold, mixed type or drug-induced hemolytic anemia. Therapy consists of glucocorticoids and other immunsuppressive drugs. Pernicious anemia is the most important vitamin B12 deficiency disorder. Diagnosis relies on cobalamin deficiency and antibodies to intrinsic factor. The management should focus on a possibly life-long replacement treatment with cobalamin. PMID:26306021

  18. [Treatable Dementia due to Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency].

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Toshihiro

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin deficiency is one of the major causes of treatable dementia. Specifically, patients suffering from dementia frequentry display low serum levels of vitamin B(12). There is a close metabolic interaction between folate and vitamin B(12). Folate deficiency causes various neuropsychiatric symptoms, which resemble those observed in vitamin B(12) deficiency. This review summarizes, the basic pathophysiology of vitamin B(12) and folate deficiency, its clinical diagnosis, associated neuropsychiatric symptoms such as subacute combined degeneration and dementia, and epidemiological studies of cognitive decline and brain atrophy. PMID:27056859

  19. Biomarkers and Algorithms for the Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Luciana; Lysne, Vegard; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Behringer, Sidney; Grünert, Sarah C; Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Jacobsen, Donald W; Blom, Henk J

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl, B12) is an indispensable water-soluble micronutrient that serves as a coenzyme for cytosolic methionine synthase (MS) and mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM). Deficiency of Cbl, whether nutritional or due to inborn errors of Cbl metabolism, inactivate MS and MCM leading to the accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA), respectively. In conjunction with total B12 and its bioactive protein-bound form, holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC), Hcy, and MMA are the preferred serum biomarkers utilized to determine B12 status. Clinically, vitamin B12 deficiency leads to neurological deterioration and megaloblastic anemia, and, if left untreated, to death. Subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency (usually defined as a total serum B12 of <200 pmol/L) presents asymptomatically or with rather subtle generic symptoms that oftentimes are mistakenly ascribed to unrelated disorders. Numerous studies have now established that serum vitamin B12 has limited diagnostic value as a stand-alone marker. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 not always represent deficiency, and likewise, severe functional deficiency of the micronutrient has been documented in the presence of normal and even high levels of serum vitamin B12. This review discusses the usefulness and limitations of current biomarkers of B12 status in newborn screening, infant and adult diagnostics, the algorithms utilized to diagnose B12 deficiency and unusual findings of vitamin B12 status in various human disorders. PMID:27446930

  20. Biomarkers and Algorithms for the Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Luciana; Lysne, Vegard; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Behringer, Sidney; Grünert, Sarah C.; Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Jacobsen, Donald W.; Blom, Henk J.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl, B12) is an indispensable water-soluble micronutrient that serves as a coenzyme for cytosolic methionine synthase (MS) and mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM). Deficiency of Cbl, whether nutritional or due to inborn errors of Cbl metabolism, inactivate MS and MCM leading to the accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA), respectively. In conjunction with total B12 and its bioactive protein-bound form, holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC), Hcy, and MMA are the preferred serum biomarkers utilized to determine B12 status. Clinically, vitamin B12 deficiency leads to neurological deterioration and megaloblastic anemia, and, if left untreated, to death. Subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency (usually defined as a total serum B12 of <200 pmol/L) presents asymptomatically or with rather subtle generic symptoms that oftentimes are mistakenly ascribed to unrelated disorders. Numerous studies have now established that serum vitamin B12 has limited diagnostic value as a stand-alone marker. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 not always represent deficiency, and likewise, severe functional deficiency of the micronutrient has been documented in the presence of normal and even high levels of serum vitamin B12. This review discusses the usefulness and limitations of current biomarkers of B12 status in newborn screening, infant and adult diagnostics, the algorithms utilized to diagnose B12 deficiency and unusual findings of vitamin B12 status in various human disorders. PMID:27446930

  1. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  2. Bound vitamin B12 absorption in patients with low serum B12 levels.

    PubMed

    Miller, A; Furlong, D; Burrows, B A; Slingerland, D W

    1992-07-01

    In many patients with low serum levels of vitamin B12, the absorption of the free vitamin has been normal. The present study, using a total body counter 57CoB12 absorption method that clearly separated those with intrinsic factor deficiency from controls, found that of 94 patients with low B12 levels and intact stomachs in whom the absorption of free and bound B12 was determined, 44 (47%) had normal absorption of both. However, 20 of the 94 (21%) with normal absorption of free B12 had low absorption of bound B12. The remainder (32%) had low absorption of both free and bound B12. All patients with high serum gastrin levels had low bound B12 absorption, but so did 21% of those patients with normal serum gastrin levels. PMID:1609768

  3. Selective vitamin B12 malabsorption in two siblings

    PubMed Central

    Khakee, Sam; Stachewitsch, Andrew; Katz, Max

    1974-01-01

    Two siblings with megaloblastic anemia responsive to parenteral vitamin B12 were studied to elucidate the cause of the B12 deficiency. Gastric juice from both contained acid and functional intrinsic factor. Serum contained transcobalamin II and lacked antibodies to intrinsic factor. Schilling tests showed vitamin B12 malabsorption uncorrected by hog intrinsic factor or pancreatic extract. Other parameters of small intestinal function were normal. Proteinuria was initially present in both but cleared in one following treatment with B12. These patients with “familial selective vitamin B12 malabsorption” are the first reported from Canada. Only 37 cases have been reported in the world literature to date. PMID:4817548

  4. Vitamin B12 as a modulator of gut microbial ecology

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Patrick H.; Taga, Michiko E.; Goodman, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial mechanisms and key metabolites that shape the composition of the human gut microbiota are largely unknown, impeding efforts to manipulate dysbiotic microbial communities towards stability and health. Vitamins, which by definition are not synthesized in sufficient quantities by the host and can mediate fundamental biological processes in microbes, represent an attractive target for reshaping microbial communities. Here, we discuss how vitamin B12 (cobalamin) impacts diverse host-microbe symbioses. Although cobalamin is synthesized by some human gut microbes, it is a precious resource in the gut and is likely not provisioned to the host in significant quantities. However, this vitamin may make an unrecognized contribution in shaping the structure and function of human gut microbial communities. PMID:25440056

  5. Vitamin B-12 supplementation of rural Mexican women changes biochemical B-12 status indicators but does not affect hematology or a bone turnover marker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on the high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and low dietary intake of the vitamin in Latin American studies including research in Mexico, it appears that vitamin B-12 deficiency is common. Whether this is associated with adverse effects on human function is unknown. To eval...

  6. Vitamin B12 Deficiency due to Chlorofluorocarbon: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Hemlata; Chaudhary, Rekha

    2010-01-01

    Background. Vitamin B12 is vital for optimal functioning of various organ systems but more importantly the central nervous system and the hematological system. Deficiency of vitamin B12 clinically manifests as excessive daytime fatigue, memory difficulties, encephalopathy, myelopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and optic neuropathy. In occupational medicine, vitamin B12 deficiency has been reported with exposure to nitrous oxide in health care workers. However, not much is known about exposure to Freons in other industries and vitamin B12 deficiency. Aim. We are reporting a case of vitamin B12 deficiency in the setting of exposure to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases. Case Report. A 55-year-old male refrigerator mechanic experienced recurrent visual symptoms, which included diplopia and blurring. A complete workup was done and was significant of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, his B12 levels were refractory to supplementation. Appropriate precautions at workplace improved patient's symptoms and were associated with significant improvement in B12 levels. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of vitamin B12 deficiency (that remains refractory to supplementation) in the setting of exposure to Freon gases. PMID:21461374

  7. Causes of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetar...

  8. Nature and nurture in vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zschocke, J; Schindler, S; Hoffmann, G F; Albani, M

    2002-07-01

    We report on a child in whom severe nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency was exacerbated by a genetic impairment of the folate cycle, causing reduced CSF concentrations of the methyl group donor 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Some patients with vitamin B12 deficiency may benefit from high dose folic acid supplementation, even if plasma concentrations are high. PMID:12089131

  9. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

    2014-08-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

  10. Effect of a Klamath algae product ("AFA-B12") on blood levels of vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegan subjects: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Luciana; Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Serena; Bonetto, Chiara; Pagliarani, Silvia; Benedetti, Yanina; Rocchi, Marco; Canestrari, Franco

    2009-03-01

    Vitamin B12 is a critical nutrient that is often inadequate in a plant-based (vegan) diet, thus the inclusion of a reliable vitamin B12 source in a vegan diet is recommended as essential. Unfortunately, many natural sources of vitamin B12 have been proven to contain biologically inactive vitamin B12 analogues, inadequate for human supplementation. The aim of this non-randomized open trial was to determine whether supplementation with a natural Klamath algae-based product ("AFA-B12", Aphanizomenon flos-aquae algae plus a proprietary mix of enzymes) could favorably affect the vitamin B12 status of a group of 15 vegan subjects. By assessing blood concentration of vitamin B12, folate, and more importantly homocysteine (Hcy, a reliable marker in vegans of their B12 absorption), the vitamin B12 status of the participants at the end of the 3-month intervention period, while receiving the Klamath-algae supplement (T2), was compared with their vitamin B12 status at the end of the 3-month control period (T1), when they were not receiving any supplement, having stopped taking their usual vitamin B12 supplement at the beginning of the study (T0). Compared to the control period, in the intervention period participants improved their vitamin B12 status, significantly reducing Hcy blood concentration (p=0.003). In conclusion, the Klamath algae product AFA-B12 appears to be, in a preliminary study, an adequate and reliable source of vitamin B12 in humans. PMID:20108213

  11. Determining Functional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Khodabandehloo, Niloofar; Vakili, Masoud; Hashemian, Zahra; Zare Zardini, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elevated concentration of serum total homocysteine usually occurs in vitamin B-12 deficiency. This metabolite can be measured and used for screening functional vitamin B-12 deficiency. Objectives: We assessed functional vitamin B12 deficiency in Tehranian elderly admitted to elderly research center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences. Patients and Materials: A cross-sectional study was performed on 232 elderly admitted to elderly research center in Tehran, Iran in 2012. According to other studies, individuals were classified into two groups: high risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency (< 220 pmol/L) and borderline vitamin B-12 (220–258 pmol/L) accompanied by elevated homocysteine (> 15 micmol/L). Results: Cut-off of 15.0 pmol/L for homocysteine was identified for persons with normal or elevated concentrations. Among persons aged 65–74 and ≥ 75 years, respectively, 56% and 93% were at high risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Conclusions: The prevalence of B12 deficiency was higher in this study compared to other studies, so more attention and massive efficacious policy should be designed to reduce the deficiency of this vitamin. PMID:26430518

  12. Characterization of vitamin B12 in Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Kumudha, Anantharajappa; Sarada, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of nature's complex metabolite which is industrially produced using certain bacteria. Algae could be an alternative source of vitamin B12 and in this study, vitamin B12 from a halotolerant green alga, Dunaliella salina V-101 was purified and characterized. The extract of Dunaliella was purified by passing through Amberlite XAD-2 and EASI-extract vitamin B12 immunoaffinity column. The total vitamin B12 content in purified sample fractions was 42 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as determined by the chemiluminescence method which was almost close to 49 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as estimated by microbiological method. Further quantification of total vitamin B12 using gold nanoparticle (AUNPs) based aptamer showed 40 ± 0.8/100 g dry weight. There was a good correlation among all the methods of quantification. Adenosylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 which is a cofactor for methylmalonyl CoA mutase was identified by HPLC. Upon quantification, Dunaliella was found to contain 34 ± 4 μg of adenosylcobalamin for 100 g dry biomass. Authenticity of adenosylcobalmin was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), selected ion recording (SIR) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) studies. PMID:26788012

  13. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

  14. Anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand of vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Amrita B.; Han, Andrew W.; Mehta, Angad P.; Mok, Kenny C.; Osadchiy, Vadim; Begley, Tadhg P.; Taga, Michiko E.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is required by humans and other organisms for diverse metabolic processes, although only a subset of prokaryotes is capable of synthesizing B12 and other cobamide cofactors. The complete aerobic and anaerobic pathways for the de novo biosynthesis of B12 are known, with the exception of the steps leading to the anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Here, we report the identification and characterization of the complete pathway for anaerobic DMB biosynthesis. This pathway, identified in the obligate anaerobic bacterium Eubacterium limosum, is composed of five previously uncharacterized genes, bzaABCDE, that together direct DMB production when expressed in anaerobically cultured Escherichia coli. Expression of different combinations of the bza genes revealed that 5-hydroxybenzimidazole, 5-methoxybenzimidazole, and 5-methoxy-6-methylbenzimidazole, all of which are lower ligands of cobamides produced by other organisms, are intermediates in the pathway. The bza gene content of several bacterial and archaeal genomes is consistent with experimentally determined structures of the benzimidazoles produced by these organisms, indicating that these genes can be used to predict cobamide structure. The identification of the bza genes thus represents the last remaining unknown component of the biosynthetic pathway for not only B12 itself, but also for three other cobamide lower ligands whose biosynthesis was previously unknown. Given the importance of cobamides in environmental, industrial, and human-associated microbial metabolism, the ability to predict cobamide structure may lead to an improved ability to understand and manipulate microbial metabolism. PMID:26246619

  15. [Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in infants breastfed by vegans].

    PubMed

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-10-19

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period. PMID:19852900

  16. [Biosynthesis, fermentation and application of vitamin B12--a review].

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Chunxiao; Yi, Hong

    2008-06-01

    Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient widely used in feed, food and medicine field. China is the primary producing area and the VB12 production is 27 t in 2007, 77% of total production in the world. VB12 is the most complex small molecule difficult to chemosynthesize. It ismanufactured by bacteria and archaea via two alternative routes, aerobic or anaerobic pathway. The main strains used in industry fermentation are Propionibacterium freudenrechii and Pseudomonas denitrificans. The basic characteristics, biosynthesis and fermentation of vitamin B12 are reviewed. The vitamin B12 application and market are also summarized. PMID:18807971

  17. Genetic disorders of vitamin B12 metabolism: eight complementation groups – eight genes

    PubMed Central

    Froese, D. Sean; Gravel, Roy A.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is an essential nutrient in human metabolism. Genetic diseases of vitamin B12 utilisation constitute an important fraction of inherited newborn disease. Functionally, B12 is the cofactor for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl CoA mutase. To function as a cofactor, B12 must be metabolised through a complex pathway that modifies its structure and takes it through subcellular compartments of the cell. Through the study of inherited disorders of vitamin B12 utilisation, the genes for eight complementation groups have been identified, leading to the determination of the general structure of vitamin B12 processing and providing methods for carrier testing, prenatal diagnosis and approaches to treatment. PMID:21114891

  18. Application of vitamin B(12)-targeting site on Lactobacillus helveticus B-1 to vitamin B(12) assay by chemiluminescence method.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuyoshi; Muramatsu, Kumi; Amano, Setsumi

    2002-09-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus B-1 is assumed to have a vitamin B(12)-targeting (or B(12)-binding) site on the cells, since the binding reaction of vitamin B(12) with L. helveticus B-1 cells proceeded instantly and quantitatively. This reaction is specific to complete B(12) compounds, cobalamins, and can be used for a vitamin B(12) assay method by chemiluminescence. The calibration graph was linear from 0.1 to 10.0 ng/mL. The B(12) contents in oyster and sardine were 75.9 and 39.4 microg/100g, respectively. These values were very close to those obtained using a chemilumi-ADVIA Centaur immunoassay system with intrinsic factor and to those obtained by microbiological assays. PMID:12234457

  19. Human Vitamin B12 Absorption and Metabolism are Measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Using Specifically Labeled 14C-Cobalamin

    SciTech Connect

    Carkeet, C; Dueker, S R; Lango, J; Buchholz, B A; Miller, J W; Green, R; Hammock, B D; Roth, J R; Anderson, P J

    2006-01-26

    There is need for an improved test of human ability to assimilate dietary vitamin B{sub 12}. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B{sub 12} is important because defects can lead to hematological and neurological complications. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is uniquely suited for assessing absorption and kinetics of {sup 14}C-labeled substances after oral ingestion because it is more sensitive than decay counting and can measure levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) in microliter volumes of biological samples, with negligible exposure of subjects to radioactivity. The test we describe employs amounts of B{sub 12} in the range of normal dietary intake. The B{sub 12} used was quantitatively labeled with {sup 14}C at one particular atom of the DMB moiety by exploiting idiosyncrasies of Salmonellametabolism. In order to grow aerobically on ethanolamine, S. entericamust be provided with either pre-formed B{sub 12} or two of its precursors: cobinamide and dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). When provided with {sup 14}C-DMB specifically labeled in the C2 position, cells produced {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} of high specific activity (2.1 GBq/mmol, 58 mCi/mmol) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human kinetic study, a physiological dose (1.5 mg, 2.2 KBq/59 nCi) of purified {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} was administered and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin. This method opens new avenues for study of B{sub 12} assimilation.

  20. Cobalamin's (Vitamin B12) Surprising Function as a Photoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhuo; Yamamoto, Haruki; Bauer, Carl E

    2016-08-01

    Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) is an adenosyl- or methyl-donating cofactor for many enzymes, yet many proteins with unknown or nonenzymatic function also contain B12-binding domains. Recent studies show that light excitation energy can promote covalent linkage of B12 to transcription factors with this linkage, affecting gene expression. Thus, B12 now has a newly described regulatory function. Here, our bioinformatics analysis reveals other transcription factors, photoreceptors, kinases, and oxygen sensors that harbor a B12-binding domain that could also regulate activity in response to light absorption. PMID:27217104

  1. Immunohistochemical Quantification of the Vitamin B12 Transport Protein (TCII), Cell Surface Receptor (TCII-R) and Ki-67 in Human Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Sysel, Annette M.; Valli, Victor E.; Nagle, Ray B.; Bauer, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Cancer cells have an essential demand for vitamin B12 (cobalamin) to enable cellular replication. The present pilot study quantified the immunohistochemical expression of vitamin B12 transport protein (Transcobalamin II; TCII), cell surface receptor (Transcobalamin II-R; TCII-R) and proliferation protein (Ki-67) in human tumor xenografts. Materials and Methods Tissue microarray slides containing 34 xenograft tumor tissues were immunohistochemically stained using TCN2 (anti-TCII), CD320 (anti-TCII-R) and MIB-1 (anti-Ki-67) antibodies. Representatively stained areas of all slides were digitally imaged and protein expression was quantified using ImageJ software plugins. Results All xenograft tumor tissues stained positively for TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 proteins; expression varied both within and between tumor types. Correlation between TCII/TCII-R and Ki-67 expression was not significant in xenograft tissues. Conclusion Proliferating cancer cells express measurable levels of TCII and TCII-R. Immunohistochemical quantification of these markers may be useful as a tool for detection of tumors, tailored selection of anti-tumor therapies and surveillance for evidence of recurrent disease. PMID:24122983

  2. Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in an adolescent white boy

    PubMed Central

    O'Gorman, P; Holmes, D; Ramanan, A V; Bose-Haider, B; Lewis, M J; Will, A

    2002-01-01

    Dietary deficiency of cobalamin resulting in tissue deficiency in white individuals is unusual. However, several patients with dietary deficiency who were neither vegan nor Hindu have been described. This report describes the case of a 14 year old boy who was a white non-Hindu with a very low intake of cobalamin, which was not apparent until a detailed dietary assessment was performed. The patient responded rapidly to a combination of oral and parenteral B12. This case illustrates the fact that severe dietary vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in non-Hindu white individuals. Inadequate dietary content of B12 may not be apparent until a detailed dietary assessment is performed. This patient is likely to have had subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency for several years. Increased vitamin B12 requirements associated with the adolescent growth spurt may have provoked overt tissue deficiency. PMID:12037034

  3. Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in an adolescent white boy.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, P; Holmes, D; Ramanan, A V; Bose-Haider, B; Lewis, M J; Will, A

    2002-06-01

    Dietary deficiency of cobalamin resulting in tissue deficiency in white individuals is unusual. However, several patients with dietary deficiency who were neither vegan nor Hindu have been described. This report describes the case of a 14 year old boy who was a white non-Hindu with a very low intake of cobalamin, which was not apparent until a detailed dietary assessment was performed. The patient responded rapidly to a combination of oral and parenteral B12. This case illustrates the fact that severe dietary vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in non-Hindu white individuals. Inadequate dietary content of B12 may not be apparent until a detailed dietary assessment is performed. This patient is likely to have had subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency for several years. Increased vitamin B12 requirements associated with the adolescent growth spurt may have provoked overt tissue deficiency. PMID:12037034

  4. Neuroenhancement with vitamin B12-underestimated neurological significance.

    PubMed

    Gröber, Uwe; Kisters, Klaus; Schmidt, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L) have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer's disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage. PMID:24352086

  5. Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2008-06-01

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor vitamin B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetarians (vegans) are at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, evidence now indicates that low intakes of animal-source foods, such as occur in some lacto-ovo vegetarians and many less-industrialized countries, cause vitamin B12 depletion. Malabsorption of the vitamin is most commonly observed as food-bound cobalamin malabsorption due to gastric atrophy in the elderly, and probably as a result of Helicobacter pylori infection. There is growing evidence that gene polymorphisms in transcobalamins affect plasma vitamin B12 concentrations. The primary cause of folate deficiency is low intake of sources rich in the vitamin, such as legumes and green leafy vegetables, and the consumption of these foods may explain why folate status can be adequate in relatively poor populations. Other situations in which the risk of folate deficiency increases include lactation and alcoholism. PMID:18709879

  6. Down beat nystagmus in vitamin B 12 deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Puri, V; Chaudhry, N; Satyawani, M

    2006-01-01

    A 34 years old male, presenting with progressive proximal weakness, with a neurogenic pattern on needle EMG, and a family history suggestive of an autosomal recessive disorder, was found to have additional features of myeloneuropathy and a down beat nystagmus. A low serum vitamin B12 level was found, and on vitamin B12 supplementation there was a partial clinical as well as electrophysiological recovery. PMID:16795999

  7. A rare case of vitamin B12 deficiency with ascites.

    PubMed

    Rajsekhar, Putta; Reddy, Mugannagari Maheshwar; Vaddera, Sameeraja; Rajini, G; Tikeli, Vinil

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widespread than assumed in population. At risk are older people, pregnant women, vegans, patients with renal and intestinal diseases. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. In the population, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in younger people is 5% to 7% which is less compared to elderly people. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Here, we present a 16-year-old female patient presenting with ascites since 2 months who was subsequently investigated and diagnosed to have nutritional megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency after exclusion of other infective, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inspite, patient was treated with antitubercular drugs but she did not respond. After supplementation of Vitamin B12, ascites responded well. Inadequate intake due to low consumption of animal source foods is the main cause of low serum vitamin B12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor population worldwide. PMID:25177593

  8. The electronic structure and chemical bonding of vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurmaev, E. Z.; Moewes, A.; Ouyang, L.; Randaccio, L.; Rulis, P.; Ching, W. Y.; Bach, M.; Neumann, M.

    2003-05-01

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and B12-derivative (methylcobalamin) are studied by means of X-ray emission (XES) and photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy. The obtained results are compared with ab initio electronic structure calculations using the orthogonalized linear combination of the atomic orbital method (OLCAO). We show that the chemical bonding in vitamin B12 is characterized by the strong Co-C bond and relatively weak axial Co-N bond. It is further confirmed that the Co-C bond in cyanocobalamin is stronger than that of methylcobalamin resulting in their different biological activity.

  9. Regulation of phytoplankton dynamics by vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Gobler, C. J.; Okbamichael, M.; Taylor, G. T.

    2006-02-01

    Despite the biological necessity of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), its importance in phytoplankton ecology has been ignored for nearly three decades. Here we report strong and selective responses of phytoplankton communities to varying low levels (5-87 pM) of dissolved B12 in several coastal embayments. The ecological importance of this vitamin is inferred from observed declines in dissolved B12 levels as field populations of large (>5 μm) phytoplankton increased. In contrast, biomass of small (<5 μm) phytoplankton varied independently of B12 concentrations. These observations were corroborated by field-based nutrient amendment experiments, in which B12 additions stimulated growth of large phytoplankton taxa 6-fold over unamended controls. In contrast, small taxa (<5 μm) were largely unaffected. This study provides the first evidence of vitamin B12's influence on phytoplankton field population dynamics based on direct chemical measurements of cobalamin, and implicates B12 as an important organic regulator of photoautotrophic fertility in marine systems.

  10. Isolation and analysis of vitamin B12 from plant samples.

    PubMed

    Nakos, M; Pepelanova, I; Beutel, S; Krings, U; Berger, R G; Scheper, T

    2017-02-01

    Based on increased demands of strict vegetarians, an investigation of vitamin B12 content in plant sources, was carried out. The vitamin B12 concentration was determined by RP-HPLC with UV detection, after prior matrix isolation by immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC). Vitamin B12 was extracted in the presence of sodium cyanide, to transform all forms of cobalamin into cyanocobalamin. Diode array detector was used to monitor vitamin B12, after its chromatographic separation under gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid 0.025% (w/v). The method demonstrated excellent linearity with a limit of detection 0.004μg/ml. The method precision was evaluated for plant samples and it was below 0.7% (n=6). Significant amounts of vitamin B12 in plants were detected in Hippophae rhamnoides (37μg/100g dry weight), in Elymus (26μg/100g dry weight) and in Inula helenium (11μg/100g dry weight). PMID:27596424

  11. Neurological consequences of vitamin B12 deficiency and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Chalouhi, Christel; Faesch, Sabine; Anthoine-Milhomme, Marie-Constance; Fulla, Yvonne; Dulac, Olivier; Chéron, Gérard

    2008-08-01

    In developed countries, the vitamin B12 deficiency usually occurs in children exclusively breast-fed, whose mothers are vegetarians, causing low stores of vitamin B12. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency appear during the second trimester of life and include failure to thrive, lethargy, hypotonia, and arrest or regression of developmental skills. A megaloblastic anemia can be present. One half of the infants exhibit abnormal movements before the start of treatment with intramuscular cobalamin, which disappear 1 or 2 days after. More rarely, movement disorders appear a few days after treatment, whereas neurological symptoms are improving. These abnormal movements can last for 2 to 6 weeks. If not treated, vitamin B12 deficiency can cause lasting neurodisability. Therefore, efforts should be directed to preventing deficiency in pregnant and breast-feeding women on vegan diets and their infants by giving them vitamin B12 supplements. When preventive supplementation has failed, one should recognize and treat quickly an infant presenting with failure to thrive and delayed development. PMID:18708898

  12. Seasonal distribution of vitamin B12 in Lake Kinneret.

    PubMed Central

    Cavari, B; Grossowicz, N

    1977-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is formed in Lake Kinneret in the hypolimnion and in the sediment. The highest value of B12 recorded in the lake water was about 100 ng/liter in November and December of 1975 at a 40-m depth. The vitamin was liberated from the hypolimnion during the turnover period. This supply of the vitamin to the photic zone was accompanied by increasing biomass of Dinoflagellates, Bacillariophyta, and Chlorophyta. The decrease in the vitamin concentration, followed by an increase, is correlated with a decline and subsequent rise in the algal biomass, respectively. Cyanophyta biomass, on the other hand, increased when the vitamin concentration in the photic zone was at its lowest level. PMID:907339

  13. The potential cocarcinogenic effect of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Friso, Simonetta; Choi, Sang-Woon

    2005-01-01

    Since vitamin B12 serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of methyl precursors for biological methylation and enables methylfolate to be recycled for nucleotide synthesis, B12 deficiency has been known to induce hyperhomocysteinemia and inadequate DNA synthesis, along with "methylfolate trap". Even though depletion of B12, a common B-vitamin deficiency in the elderly, has not often been invoked as a causative factor in carcinogenesis, a recent animal study demonstrated that a B12-deficient diet, which was of insufficient severity to cause anemia or illness, disturbed normal homeostasis of one-carbon metabolism in the colonic mucosa and resulted in diminished genomic DNA methylation and increased uracil misincorporation in DNA, both of which are purported mechanisms for one-carbon metabolism-related colonic carcinogenesis. PMID:16197314

  14. Nitrous oxide misuse and vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Massey, Thomas H; Pickersgill, Trevor T; J Peall, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old man presented to hospital with a 5-week history of ascending limb paraesthesiae and balance difficulties. He had no medical or travel history of note, but admitted habitual nitrous oxide (N2O) inhalation. Neurological examination revealed a sensory ataxia with pseudoathetosis in the upper limbs and reduced vibration sensation to the hips bilaterally. Significant investigation results included a low serum vitamin B12 concentration, mild macrocytosis and raised serum homocysteine concentration. T2 MRI of the spinal cord demonstrated increased signal extending from C1 to T11 in keeping with a longitudinal myelitis. The patient was diagnosed with a myeloneuropathy secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting from heavy N2O inhalation. He was treated with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections and received regular physiotherapy. At discharge, he was able to mobilise short distances with the aid of a zimmer frame, and was independently mobile 8 weeks later. PMID:27247211

  15. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L.; van der Velde, Nathalie; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy) and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (≥65 years). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs), and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th–75th percentile): 4.18 (3.29–5.38) versus 3.47 (2.64–4.40) μg/day), serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L). Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy—predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish. PMID:26389945

  16. Involuntary movements misdiagnosed as seizure during vitamin B12 treatment.

    PubMed

    Carman, Kursat Bora; Belgemen, Tugba; Yis, Uluc

    2013-11-01

    Seizures and epilepsy are a common problem in childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events are conditions that can mimic seizure and frequent in early childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events can be due to physiological or exaggerated physiological responses, parasomnias, movement disorders, behavioral or psychiatric disturbances, or to hemodynamic, respiratory, or gastrointestinal dysfunction. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of failure to thrive and developmental regression, involuntary movements, and anemia. Involuntary movements rarely may appear a few days after the initiation of vitamin B12 treatments and might be misdiagnosed as seizure. Here, we report 2 patients who presented with involuntary movements with his video image. PMID:24196096

  17. Metabolic network rewiring of propionate flux compensates vitamin B12 deficiency in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emma; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Hoy, Michael J; Li, Chi-Hua; Louisse, Timo; Yao, Victoria; Mori, Akihiro; Holdorf, Amy D; Troyanskaya, Olga G; Ralser, Markus; Walhout, Albertha Jm

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic network rewiring is the rerouting of metabolism through the use of alternate enzymes to adjust pathway flux and accomplish specific anabolic or catabolic objectives. Here, we report the first characterization of two parallel pathways for the breakdown of the short chain fatty acid propionate in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic interaction mapping, gene co-expression analysis, pathway intermediate quantification and carbon tracing, we uncover a vitamin B12-independent propionate breakdown shunt that is transcriptionally activated on vitamin B12 deficient diets, or under genetic conditions mimicking the human diseases propionic- and methylmalonic acidemia, in which the canonical B12-dependent propionate breakdown pathway is blocked. Our study presents the first example of transcriptional vitamin-directed metabolic network rewiring to promote survival under vitamin deficiency. The ability to reroute propionate breakdown according to B12 availability may provide C. elegans with metabolic plasticity and thus a selective advantage on different diets in the wild. PMID:27383050

  18. Vitamin B12 modulates the transcriptome of the skin microbiota in acne pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dezhi; Shi, Baochen; Erfe, Marie C; Craft, Noah; Li, Huiying

    2015-06-24

    Various diseases have been linked to the human microbiota, but the underlying molecular mechanisms of the microbiota in disease pathogenesis are often poorly understood. Using acne as a disease model, we aimed to understand the molecular response of the skin microbiota to host metabolite signaling in disease pathogenesis. Metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that the transcriptional profiles of the skin microbiota separated acne patients from healthy individuals. The vitamin B12 biosynthesis pathway in the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes was significantly down-regulated in acne patients. We hypothesized that host vitamin B12 modulates the activities of the skin microbiota and contributes to acne pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the skin microbiota in healthy subjects supplemented with vitamin B12. We found that the supplementation repressed the expression of vitamin B12 biosynthesis genes in P. acnes and altered the transcriptome of the skin microbiota. One of the 10 subjects studied developed acne 1 week after vitamin B12 supplementation. To further understand the molecular mechanism, we revealed that vitamin B12 supplementation in P. acnes cultures promoted the production of porphyrins, which have been shown to induce inflammation in acne. Our findings suggest a new bacterial pathogenesis pathway in acne and provide one molecular explanation for the long-standing clinical observation that vitamin B12 supplementation leads to acne development in a subset of individuals. Our study discovered that vitamin B12, an essential nutrient in humans, modulates the transcriptional activities of skin bacteria, and provided evidence that metabolite-mediated interactions between the host and the skin microbiota play essential roles in disease development. PMID:26109103

  19. Vitamin B12 deficiency in relation to functional disabilities.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Breanna S; Tangney, Christy C; Gustashaw, Kristin A R; Rasmussen, Heather E

    2013-11-01

    This study was designed to assess whether symptoms, functional measures, and reported disabilities were associated with vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency when defined in three ways. Participants, aged 60 or more years of age, in 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were categorized in relation to three previously used definitions of B12 deficiency: (1) serum B12 < 148 pmol/L; (2) serum B12 < 200 pmol/L and serum homocysteine > 20 μmol/L; and (3) serum B12 < 258 pmol/L or serum methylmalonic acid > 0.21 μmol/L. Functional measures of peripheral neuropathy, balance, cognitive function, gait speed, along with self-reported disability (including activities of daily living) were examined with standardized instruments by trained NHANES interviewers and technicians. Individuals identified as B12 deficient by definition 2 were more likely to manifest peripheral neuropathy OR (odds) (95% confidence intervals), p value: 9.70 (2.24, 42.07), 0.004 and report greater total disability, 19.61 (6.22, 61.86) 0.0001 after adjustments for age, sex, race, serum creatinine, and ferritin concentrations, smoking, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Smaller, but significantly increased, odds of peripheral neuropathy and total disability were also observed when definition 3 was applied. Functional measures and reported disabilities were associated with B12 deficiency definitions that include B12 biomarkers (homocysteine or methylmalonic acid). Further study of these definitions is needed to alert clinicians of possible subclinical B12 deficiency because functional decline amongst older adults may be correctable if the individual is B12 replete. PMID:24225845

  20. [Neurological signs due to isolated vitamin B12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Martinez Estrada, K M; Cadabal Rodriguez, T; Miguens Blanco, I; García Méndez, L

    2013-01-01

    Isolated vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition in elderly patients but uncommon in patients younger than 30 years, with an average age of onset between 60 and 70 years. This is because the dietary cobalamin, which is normally split by enzymes in meat in the presence of hydrochloric acid and pepsin in the stomach, is not released in the stomachs of elderly patients, usually due to achlorhydria. Although the body may be unable to release cobalamin it does retain the ability to absorb vitamin B12 in its crystalline form, which is present in multivitamin preparations. Other causes are due to drugs that suppress gastric acid production. Neurological signs of vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in patients with a normal haematocrit and red cell indices. They include paresthesia, loss of sensation and strength in the limbs, and ataxia. Reflexes may be slowed down or increased. Romberg and Babinsky signs may be positive, and vibration and position sensitivity often decreases. Behavoural disorders range from irritability and memory loss to severe dementia. The symptoms often do not fully respond to treatment. A case is presented of an isolated vitamin B12 deficiency in 27 year-old female patient who was seen in primary health care. During anamnesis she mentioned low back pain, to which she attributed the loss of strength and tenderness in the right side of the body, as well as the slow and progressive onset of accompanied headache for the previous 4 days. PMID:23834987

  1. How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Roman; Parrott, Scott James; Raj, Sudha; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Lucus, Debbie

    2013-02-01

    Vegetarians are at risk for vitamin B(12) (B12) deficiency due to suboptimal intake. The goal of the present literature review was to assess the rate of B12 depletion and deficiency among vegetarians and vegans. Using a PubMed search to identify relevant publications, 18 articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid, holo-transcobalamin II, or both. The deficiency rates reported for specific populations were as follows: 62% among pregnant women, between 25% and almost 86% among children, 21-41% among adolescents, and 11-90% among the elderly. Higher rates of deficiency were reported among vegans compared with vegetarians and among individuals who had adhered to a vegetarian diet since birth compared with those who had adopted such a diet later in life. The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12. PMID:23356638

  2. Spinal myoclonus associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Ebru Apaydin; Yuruten, Betigul

    2007-11-01

    We report a 85-year-old female patient with involuntary and regular movements restricted to abdominal muscles, resembling belly dance, with additional clinical features; ataxia, impaired cognition, neuropathy and glossitis. We initially excluded the possible cortical and spinal structural abnormalities with magnetic resonance imagings and performed routine blood analysis which revealed that serum vitamin B12 (vB12) level was under normal ranges. The relation of low serum vB12 level and myoclonus is speculative and very few studies have demonstrated such patients. In this case report, serum vB12 deficiency is discussed in the context of its probable role in the generation of spinal myoclonus. PMID:17766037

  3. Plasma folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and risk of breast cancer in women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: B vitamins such as folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 are coenzymes that are important for DNA integrity and stability. Deficiency in these B vitamins may promote tumor carcinogenesis. Objective: We prospectively evaluated plasma concentrations of folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; ...

  4. Folate–vitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports on pernicious anemia treatment suggested that high folic acid intake adversely influences the natural history of vitamin B-12 deficiency, which affects many elderly individuals. However, experimental investigation of this hypothesis is unethical, and the few existing observational d...

  5. The cytotoxic effect of the vitamin B12 inhibitor cyanocobalamin [c-lactam], and a review of other vitamin B12 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J H

    1998-09-01

    The vitamin B12 antagonist cyanocobalamin [c-lactam] was cytotoxic to cultured human leukemia cells, grown in methylfolate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12, but not in the presence of methionine. Small concentrations of methionine were effective in restoring the growth rate in a dose-dependent fashion, confirming methionine deficiency as the cytotoxic principle. Cyanocobalamin [c-lactam] prevented utilization of the methyl group of methylfolate, but no evidence of folate deficiency developed in long-term culture. High concentrations of non-methylated folate were unable to reverse the cytotoxicity, excluding a methylfolate 'trap' as the cause. Low concentrations of serine in the medium induced transient biochemical megaloblastosis. Cyanocobalamin [c-lactam] caused this to occur earlier, and persist. In high concentrations of serine, the inhibitor caused only transient changes in deoxyuridine suppression. Homocysteine cannot be remethylated without vitamin B12, and condensation with serine is the only other excretory pathway for this toxic amino acid. We hypothesize that impaired DNA synthesis in vitamin B12 deficiency is the result of diverting serine away from thymidylate synthesis, into homocysteine metabolism. PMID:9720712

  6. Characterization and bioavailability of vitamin B12-compounds from edible algae.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Takenaka, Shigeo; Kittaka-Katsura, Hiromi; Ebara, Shuhei; Miyamoto, Emi

    2002-10-01

    Substantial amounts of vitamin B12 were found in some edible algae (green and purple lavers) and algal health food (chlorella and spirulina tablets) using the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC7830 microbiological assay method. Corrinoid-compounds were purified and characterized from these algae to clarify the chemical properties and bioavailability of the algal vitamin B12. True vitamin B12 is the predominate cobamide of green and purple lavers and chlorella tablets. Feeding the purple laver to vitamin B12-deficient rats significantly improved the vitamin B12 status. The results suggest that algal vitamin B12 is a bioavailable source for mammals. Pseudovitamin B12 (an inactive corrinoid) predominated in the spirulina tablets, which are not suitable for use as a vitamin B12 source, especially for vegetarians. algal health food, bioavailability, cobalamin, edible algae, vitamin B12 PMID:12656203

  7. [Stability of folic acid and vitamin B12 in TPN].

    PubMed

    Almodóvar, M J; Hernández Jaras, M V; León-Sanz, M; Ortuño, B; Estenoz, J; Negro Vega, E; Marfagón, N; Herreros de Tejada, A

    1991-01-01

    The stability of folic acid (FA) in mixtures of Total Parenteral Nutrition has been and is a controversial subject, with discussion concerning the influence of factors such as temperature, light and storage time. As regards the stability of the vitamin B12, there are few studies in scientific literature. For all those reasons, we consider it necessary to make a proper study to evaluate the influence of different factors in the stability of both vitamins. The study was made on 3 liter TPN bags of the EVA type, the composition of which was as follows: AA (85g), glucosa (225g), fat (50g), Na (86mEq), K (60 mEq), Ca (15 mEq), Cl (90 mEq), P (17 mmol) acetate (149 mEq) and 10 ml of MVI-12 which contain 400 micrograms of PA and 5 micrograms of Vitamin B 12. Consideration was also given to the stability of these two vitamins in the same diet, to which were added 10 ml of a commercial preparation of oligo-elements. Six TPN bags were prepared (without oligo-elements); two of them were kept in a fridge and protected from the light, two were kept at room temperature and protected from the light and the other two at room temperature without protection from the light. Samples were taken from all the bags immediately after their preparation and after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The same process was carried with other TPN bags which did contain oligo-elements. The method for determining FA and Vitamin B12 was by radioassay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1764534

  8. [Psychiatric manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report].

    PubMed

    Durand, C; Mary, S; Brazo, P; Dollfus, S

    2003-01-01

    Psychiatric manifestations are frequently associated with pernicious anemia including depression, mania, psychosis, dementia. We report a case of a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency, who has presented severe depression with delusion and Capgras' syndrome, delusion with lability of mood and hypomania successively, during a period of two Months. Case report - Mme V., a 64-Year-old woman, was admitted to the hospital because of confusion. She had no history of psychiatric problems. She had history of diabetes, hypertension and femoral prosthesis. The red blood count revealed a normocytosis with anemia (hemoglobin=11,4 g/dl). At admission she was uncooperative, disoriented in time and presented memory and attention impairment and sleep disorders. She seemed sad and older than her real age. Facial expression and spontaneous movements were reduced, her speech and movements were very slow. She had depressed mood, guilt complex, incurability and devaluation impressions. She had a Capgras' syndrome and delusion of persecution. Her neurologic examination, cerebral scanner and EEG were postponed because of uncooperation. Further investigations confirmed anemia (hemoglobin=11,4 g/dl) and revealed vitamin B12 deficiency (52 pmol/l) and normal folate level. Antibodies to parietal cells were positive in the serum and antibodies to intrinsic factor were negative. An iron deficiency was associated (serum iron=7 micromol/l; serum ferritin concentration=24 mg/l; serum transferrin concentration=3,16 g/l). This association explained normocytocis anemia. Thyroid function, hepatic and renal tests, glycemia, TP, TCA, VS, VDRL-TPHA were normal. Vitamin B12 replacement therapy was started with hydroxycobalamin 1 000 ng/day im for 10 days and iron replacement therapy. Her mental state improved dramatically within a few days. After one week of treatment the only remaining symptoms were lability of mood, delusion of persecution, Capgras' syndrome but disappeared totally 9 days after the

  9. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  10. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content. PMID:27040783

  11. A review of vitamin B12 in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Brescoll, Jennifer; Daveluy, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is important in the hematological and nervous systems, and it has a complex relationship with the skin. Altered cobalamin levels can lead to dermatological manifestations, which may indicate a deficiency or excess of this vitamin. The biochemistry and metabolism of cobalamin is complex, and diseases can be associated with alterations of this metabolic pathway. The cutaneous manifestations of cobalamin deficiency include hyperpigmentation (most commonly); hair and nail changes; and oral changes, including glossitis. Additionally, several dermatologic conditions, including vitiligo, aphthous stomatitis, atopic dermatitis, and acne are related to cobalamin excess or deficiency. The cutaneous complications of cobalamin therapy include acne, rosacea, and allergic site reactions, or anaphylaxis with cobalamin injections. As cobalt is a component of cobalamin, patients with cobalt sensitivity have been reported to have cutaneous manifestations when receiving cobalamin replacement therapy. PMID:25559140

  12. [Vitamin B 12 deficiency in strict vegetarian diet. Why do some people choose such a diet, and what will they do in case of vitamin B 12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Johnsen, J B; Fønnebø, V

    1991-01-10

    Nine persons in the county of Troms, Norway, were interviewed on their strict vegetarian diet. Improved health was indicated as the main reason for their choice of diet, but religion was a contributing reason for some. Most of the study persons would increase the intake of vitamin B12 if a deficiency state were to occur. One person reported, however, that she would not regard vitamin B12 deficiency as a health problem. The interviews disclosed beliefs regarding human physiology that are very far removed from standard scientific knowledge. The article indicates that communication between patient and the health care system may be difficult in such circumstances. Problems of communication would probably be minimized if the patient had a thorough understanding of human physiology and the health worker a thorough understanding of the reasons for the patient's choice of diet. PMID:2000592

  13. Nutrient Acquisition: The Generation of Bioactive Vitamin B12 by Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Arthur

    2016-04-25

    Many microalgae acquire vitamin B12 from marine prokaryotes. A new study demonstrates that vitamin B12 is synthesized by planktonic cyanobacteria as pseudocobalamin, a form not bioactive in microalgae. However, some microalgae can remodel pseudocobalamin to the active cobalamin form, adding complexity to our assessment of active vitamin B12 in the environment. PMID:27115686

  14. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia.

    PubMed

    Crawford, John Ross; Say, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 7-year-old Caucasian boy was hospitalised for evaluation of acute ataxia and failure to thrive, initially suspicious for an intracranial mass. Weight and body mass index were below the third percentile and he demonstrated loss of joint position and vibratory sense on examination. Laboratory studies revealed megaloblastic anaemia while an initial MRI of the brain showed no evidence of mass lesions or other abnormalities. A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods. The child was diagnosed with presumed vitamin B12 deficiency and was treated with intramuscular B12 injections. Neurological symptoms resolved promptly within several days after starting therapy. This case underlines the importance of assessing nutritional status in the evaluation of neurological dysfunction in the pediatric patient. PMID:23536622

  15. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, John Ross; Say, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 7-year-old Caucasian boy was hospitalised for evaluation of acute ataxia and failure to thrive, initially suspicious for an intracranial mass. Weight and body mass index were below the third percentile and he demonstrated loss of joint position and vibratory sense on examination. Laboratory studies revealed megaloblastic anaemia while an initial MRI of the brain showed no evidence of mass lesions or other abnormalities. A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods. The child was diagnosed with presumed vitamin B12 deficiency and was treated with intramuscular B12 injections. Neurological symptoms resolved promptly within several days after starting therapy. This case underlines the importance of assessing nutritional status in the evaluation of neurological dysfunction in the pediatric patient. PMID:23536622

  16. Review of the magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies worldwide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 result in adverse effects which may be of public health significance, but the magnitude of these deficiencies is unknown. Therefore, we examine the prevalence data currently available, assess global coverage of surveys, determine the frequency with which...

  17. Vitamin B12: one carbon metabolism, fetal growth and programming for chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Rush, E C; Katre, P; Yajnik, C S

    2014-01-01

    This review brings together human and animal studies and reviews that examine the possible role of maternal vitamin B12 (B12) on fetal growth and its programming for susceptibility to chronic disease. A selective literature review was undertaken to identify studies and reviews that investigate these issues, particularly in the context of a vegetarian diet that may be low in B12 and protein and high in carbohydrate. Evidence is accumulating that maternal B12 status influences fetal growth and development. Low maternal vitamin B12 status and protein intake are associated with increased risk of neural tube defect, low lean mass and excess adiposity, increased insulin resistance, impaired neurodevelopment and altered risk of cancer in the offspring. Vitamin B12 is a key nutrient associated with one carbon metabolic pathways related to substrate metabolism, synthesis and stability of nucleic acids and methylation of DNA which regulates gene expression. Understanding of factors regulating maternal-fetal one carbon metabolism and its role in fetal programming of non communicable diseases could help design effective interventions, starting with maternal nutrition before conception. PMID:24219896

  18. [Rare Case of Strongyloides stercoralis with Vitamin B12 Deficiency].

    PubMed

    Kadılar, Özlem; Bozkurt, Berna; Karakeçe, Engin; Kaya, Tezcan; Çiftçi, İhsan Hakkı; Tamer, Ali

    2015-09-01

    Strongyloidiyasis is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, and mostly soil transmitted nematode disease that is seen as sporadic cases in Turkey. As may be asymptomatic in healthy individuals, it may even cause death in immunosuppressive people. We report a case of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a patient, 29 years old young male was admitted to our institution with diarrhea who has got vitamin B12 deficiency and eosinophilia. The case represents an extremely rare and in our knowledge, it is the first case in Sakarya. PMID:26470934

  19. Folate and vitamin B12 status in schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Djalali, Mahmoud; Moghadam, Ali Malekshahi; Ramezankhani, Ozra; Najmi, Laya

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine red blood cell (RBC) and serum folate and vitamin B12 levels as well as their intake in schizophrenic patients. METHODS: The folate and cobalamin status of 60 schizophrenic patients (15-55 years) was compared to 60 matched healthy controls using Radio Isotope Dilution Assay (RIDA). RESULTS: Serum and RBC folate in schizophrenic patients was significantly lower than the control group. Mean serum cobalamin levels in the schizophrenic group were higher than controls. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that folate deficiency is common in schizophrenic patients; therefore, it is important to pay attention to folate levels in these patients. PMID:22247731

  20. Hepatoprotective effect of vitamin B12 on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Katsuhiro; Kagaya, Noritaka; Akamatsu, Soichiro; Hayashi, Shinji; Tamesada, Makoto; Watanabe, Aiko; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Tagawa, Yoh-ichi; Kondoh, Masuo; Kawase, Masaya; Yagi, Kiyohito

    2008-02-01

    Vitamin B(12) contains a cobalt complex and accumulates at high levels in the liver. Vitamin B(12) was examined for its hepatoprotective effect on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury in mice. Vitamin B(12) decreased the blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and clearly inhibited the overaccumulation of collagen fibrils. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the liver showed that the gene expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and heat-shock protein 47, which are markers of fibrosis, were suppressed by vitamin B(12) administration. Our findings indicate that vitamin B(12) could be an effective hepatoprotective agent. PMID:18239293

  1. Effect of vitamin B12-enriched thraustochytrids on the population growth of rotifers.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masahiro; Yukino, Tsugiyo; Watanabe, Fumio; Miyamoto, Emi; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    2007-01-01

    Newly isolated thraustochytrids showed uptake of vitamin B12 from the culture into the cells. Cultivation of thraustochytrids in a medium containing 1 microg/ml of vitamin B12 greatly increased the contents of vitamin B12 in the cells. Similarly to Schizochytrium limacinum, odd numbered fatty acids decreased in the cells of new isolates cultivated with vitamin B12. Vitamin B12-enriched thraustochytrids, strain mh0186, enhanced the population growth of rotifers fed on the cells as sole feed. PMID:17213643

  2. Improved method for measuring vitamin B12 in serum using intrinsic factor, 57CoB12, and coated charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Raven, J. L.; Robson, M. B.; Walker, P. L.; Barkhan, P.

    1969-01-01

    An improved and simplified method is described for the measurement of vitamin B12 in serum using intrinsic factor, 57CoB12, and coated charcoal. The extraction of serum in the presence of cyanide and the incorporation of B12-deficient serum into the intrinsic factor control has increased the accuracy of the method for both sera and crystalline B12 solutions. There are interesting differences between the results obtained for some sera by the isotope and L. leichmannii methods and the reasons for these differences are discussed. PMID:5776552

  3. Vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 levels after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Altun, Idiris; Kurutaş, Ergül Belge

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 were altered after crush-induced peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat model. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomized into one control (n = 8) and six study groups (1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3, and 7 days after experimental nerve injury; n = 12 for each group). Crush-induced peripheral nerve injury was performed on the sciatic nerves of rats in six study groups. Tissue samples from the sites of peripheral nerve injury were obtained at 1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after experimental nerve injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve were significantly greater at 1 and 12 hours after experimental nerve injury, while they were significantly lower at 7 days than in control group. Tissue level of vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve was significantly lower at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours than in the control group. These results suggest that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 vary with progression of crush-induced peripheral nerve injury, and supplementation of these vitamins in the acute period may be beneficial for acceleration of nerve regeneration. PMID:27335572

  4. Production of vitamin B-12 in tempeh, a fermented soybean food.

    PubMed

    Liem, I T; Steinkraus, K H; Cronk, T C

    1977-12-01

    Several varieties of soybeans contained generally less than 1 ng of vitamin B-12 per g. It was found that use of a lactic fermentation typical of tropical conditions during the initial soaking of the soybeans did not influence the vitamin B-12 content of the resulting tempeh. Pure tempeh molds obtained from different sources did not produce vitamin B-12. It was found that the major source of vitamin B-12 in commercial tempeh purchased in Toronto, Canada, was a bacterium that accompanies the mold during fermentation. Reinoculation of the pure bacterium onto dehulled, hydrated, and sterilized soybeans resulted in the production of 148 ng of vitamin B-12 per g. The presence of the mold, along with the bacterium, did not inhibit or enhance production of vitamin B-12. Nutritionally significant amounts of vitamin B-12 were also found in the Indonesian fermented food, ontjom. PMID:563702

  5. Enhancing the vitamin B12 production and growth of Propionibacterium freudenreichii in tofu wastewater via a light-induced vitamin B12 riboswitch.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Zhu, Xuan; Shen, Yubiao; Yao, Huanghong; Wang, Peiheng; Ye, Kun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Qing

    2015-12-01

    The vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch is a crucial factor that regulates gene transcription to mediate the growth of and vitamin B12 synthesis by Propionibacterium freudenreichii. In this study, the effect of various wavelengths of light on the growth rate and vitamin B12 synthesis was studied. Red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were selected, and a dark condition was used as the control. The microorganism growth rate was measured using a spectrophotometer and plate counting, while the vitamin B12 content was determined using an HPLC-based method. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) values indicated that P. freudenreichii grew better under the continuous and discontinuous blue light conditions. Moreover, under the blue light condition, P. freudenreichii tended to have a higher growth rate (0.332 h(-1)) and vitamin B12 synthesis (ca. 10 μg/mL) in tofu wastewater than in dark conditions. HPLC analysis also showed that more methylcobalamin was produced under the blue light conditions than in the other conditions. The cbiB gene transcription results showed that blue light induced the synthesis of this vitamin B12 synthesis enzyme. Moreover, the results of inhibiting the expression of green fluorescent protein indicated that blue light removed the inhibition by the vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch. This method can be used to reduce fermentation time and produce more vitamin B12 in tofu wastewater. PMID:26373724

  6. Immunomodulation by vitamin B12: augmentation of CD8+ T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cell activity in vitamin B12-deficient patients by methyl-B12 treatment.

    PubMed

    Tamura, J; Kubota, K; Murakami, H; Sawamura, M; Matsushima, T; Tamura, T; Saitoh, T; Kurabayshi, H; Naruse, T

    1999-04-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin B12 (vit.B12) plays an important role in immune system regulation, but the details are still obscure. In order to examine the action of vit.B12 on cells of the human immune system, lymphocyte subpopulations and NK cell activity were evaluated in 11 patients with vit.B12 deficiency anaemia and in 13 control subjects. Decreases in the number of lymphocytes and CD8+ cells and in the proportion of CD4+ cells, an abnormally high CD4/CD8 ratio, and suppressed NK cell activity were noted in patients compared with control subjects. In all 11 patients and eight control subjects, these immune parameters were evaluated before and after methyl-B12 injection. The lymphocyte counts and number of CD8+ cells increased both in patients and in control subjects. The high CD4/CD8 ratio and suppressed NK cell activity were improved by methyl-B12 treatment. Augmentation of CD3-CD16+ cells occurred in patients after methyl-B12 treatment. In contrast, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity, lectin-stimulated lymphocyte blast formation, and serum levels of immunoglobulins were not changed by methyl-B12 treatment. These results indicate that vit.B12 might play an important role in cellular immunity, especially relativing to CD8+ cells and the NK cell system, which suggests effects on cytotoxic cells. We conclude that vit.B12 acts as an immunomodulator for cellular immunity. PMID:10209501

  7. NutriPhone: a mobile platform for low-cost point-of-care quantification of vitamin B12 concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoho; O'Dell, Dakota; Hohenstein, Jess; Colt, Susannah; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is necessary for formation of red blood cells, DNA synthesis, neural myelination, brain development, and growth. Vitamin B12 deficiency is often asymptomatic early in its course; however, once it manifests, particularly with neurological symptoms, reversal by dietary changes or supplementation becomes less effective. Access to easy, low cost, and personalized nutritional diagnostics could enable individuals to better understand their own deficiencies as well as track the effects of dietary changes. In this work, we present the NutriPhone, a mobile platform for the analysis of blood vitamin B12 levels in 15 minutes. The NutriPhone technology comprises of a smartphone accessory, an app, and a competitive-type lateral flow test strip that quantifies vitamin B12 levels. To achieve the detection of sub-nmol/L physiological levels of vitamin B12, our assay incorporates an innovative "spacer pad" for increasing the duration of the key competitive binding reaction and uses silver amplification of the initial signal. We demonstrate the efficacy of our NutriPhone system by quantifying physiologically relevant levels of vitamin B12 and performing human trials where it was used to accurately evaluate blood vitamin B12 status of 12 participants from just a drop (~40 μl) of finger prick blood. PMID:27301282

  8. NutriPhone: a mobile platform for low-cost point-of-care quantification of vitamin B12 concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seoho; O’Dell, Dakota; Hohenstein, Jess; Colt, Susannah; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is necessary for formation of red blood cells, DNA synthesis, neural myelination, brain development, and growth. Vitamin B12 deficiency is often asymptomatic early in its course; however, once it manifests, particularly with neurological symptoms, reversal by dietary changes or supplementation becomes less effective. Access to easy, low cost, and personalized nutritional diagnostics could enable individuals to better understand their own deficiencies as well as track the effects of dietary changes. In this work, we present the NutriPhone, a mobile platform for the analysis of blood vitamin B12 levels in 15 minutes. The NutriPhone technology comprises of a smartphone accessory, an app, and a competitive-type lateral flow test strip that quantifies vitamin B12 levels. To achieve the detection of sub-nmol/L physiological levels of vitamin B12, our assay incorporates an innovative “spacer pad” for increasing the duration of the key competitive binding reaction and uses silver amplification of the initial signal. We demonstrate the efficacy of our NutriPhone system by quantifying physiologically relevant levels of vitamin B12 and performing human trials where it was used to accurately evaluate blood vitamin B12 status of 12 participants from just a drop (~40 μl) of finger prick blood. PMID:27301282

  9. Metabolic network rewiring of propionate flux compensates vitamin B12 deficiency in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Emma; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Hoy, Michael J; Li, Chi-Hua; Louisse, Timo; Yao, Victoria; Mori, Akihiro; Holdorf, Amy D; Troyanskaya, Olga G; Ralser, Markus; Walhout, Albertha JM

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic network rewiring is the rerouting of metabolism through the use of alternate enzymes to adjust pathway flux and accomplish specific anabolic or catabolic objectives. Here, we report the first characterization of two parallel pathways for the breakdown of the short chain fatty acid propionate in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic interaction mapping, gene co-expression analysis, pathway intermediate quantification and carbon tracing, we uncover a vitamin B12-independent propionate breakdown shunt that is transcriptionally activated on vitamin B12 deficient diets, or under genetic conditions mimicking the human diseases propionic- and methylmalonic acidemia, in which the canonical B12-dependent propionate breakdown pathway is blocked. Our study presents the first example of transcriptional vitamin-directed metabolic network rewiring to promote survival under vitamin deficiency. The ability to reroute propionate breakdown according to B12 availability may provide C. elegans with metabolic plasticity and thus a selective advantage on different diets in the wild. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17670.001 PMID:27383050

  10. Vitamin B12 intake and status and cognitive function in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Doets, Esmée L; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Szczecińska, Anna; Dullemeijer, Carla; Souverein, Olga W; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; van 't Veer, Pieter; Brzozowska, Anna; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2013-01-01

    Current recommendations on vitamin B12 intake vary from 1.4 to 3.0 μg per day and are based on the amount needed for maintenance of hematologic status or on the amount needed to compensate obligatory losses. This systematic review evaluates whether the relation between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function should be considered for underpinning vitamin B12 recommendations in the future. The authors summarized dose-response evidence from randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies on the relation of vitamin B12 intake and status with cognitive function in adults and elderly people. Two randomized controlled trials and 6 cohort studies showed no association or inconsistent associations between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that serum/plasma vitamin B12 (50 pmol/L) was not associated with risk of dementia (4 cohort studies), global cognition z scores (4 cohort studies), or memory z scores (4 cohort studies). Although dose-response evidence on sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status (methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamin) was scarce, 4 of 5 cohort studies reported significant associations with risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or global cognition. Current evidence on the relation between vitamin B12 intake or status and cognitive function is not sufficient for consideration in the development of vitamin B12 recommendations. Further studies should consider the selection of sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status. PMID:23221971

  11. Maximal Load of the Vitamin B12 Transport System: A Study on Mice Treated for Four Weeks with High-Dose Vitamin B12 or Cobinamide

    PubMed Central

    Lildballe, Dorte L.; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik; Nexo, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an inert derivative, we established a mouse model using implanted osmotic minipumps to deliver saline, cobinamide (Cbi) (4.25 nmol/h), or B12 (1.75 nmol/h) for 27 days (n = 7 in each group). B12 content and markers of B12 metabolism were analysed in plasma, urine, kidney, liver, and salivary glands. Both Cbi and B12 treatment saturated the transcobalamin protein in mouse plasma. Cbi decreased the content of B12 in tissues to 33–50% of the level in control animals but did not influence any of the markers examined. B12 treatment increased the tissue B12 level up to 350%. In addition, the transcript levels for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in kidneys and for transcobalamin and transcobalamin receptor in the salivary glands were reduced. Our study confirms the feasibility of delivering drugs through the B12 transport system but emphasises that B12 status should be monitored because there is a risk of decreasing the transport of endogenous B12. This risk may lead to B12 deficiency during prolonged treatment. PMID:23049711

  12. Insights into the evolution of vitamin B12 auxotrophy from sequenced algal genomes.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, Katherine E; Wheeler, Glen L; Leptos, Kyriacos C; Goldstein, Raymond E; Smith, Alison G

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) is a dietary requirement for humans because it is an essential cofactor for two enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase (METH). Land plants and fungi neither synthesize or require cobalamin because they do not contain methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, and have an alternative B(12)-independent methionine synthase (METE). Within the algal kingdom, approximately half of all microalgal species need the vitamin as a growth supplement, but there is no phylogenetic relationship between these species, suggesting that the auxotrophy arose multiple times through evolution. We set out to determine the underlying cellular mechanisms for this observation by investigating elements of B(12) metabolism in the sequenced genomes of 15 different algal species, with representatives of the red, green, and brown algae, diatoms, and coccolithophores, including both macro- and microalgae, and from marine and freshwater environments. From this analysis, together with growth assays, we found a strong correlation between the absence of a functional METE gene and B(12) auxotrophy. The presence of a METE unitary pseudogene in the B(12)-dependent green algae Volvox carteri and Gonium pectorale, relatives of the B(12)-independent Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, suggest that B(12) dependence evolved recently in these lineages. In both C. reinhardtii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, growth in the presence of cobalamin leads to repression of METE transcription, providing a mechanism for gene loss. Thus varying environmental conditions are likely to have been the reason for the multiple independent origins of B(12) auxotrophy in these organisms. Because the ultimate source of cobalamin is from prokaryotes, the selective loss of METE in different algal lineages will have had important physiological and ecological consequences for these organisms in terms of their dependence on bacteria. PMID:21551270

  13. The source and content of vitamin B12 in the tempehs.

    PubMed

    Areekul, S; Pattanamatum, S; Cheeramakara, C; Churdchue, K; Nitayapabskoon, S; Chongsanguan, M

    1990-03-01

    Vitamin B12 contents were determined on 10 commercial tempeh samples purchased from various markets in Jakarta, Indonesia. A relatively high vitamin B12 content was found, i.e., 19 ng/g (ranges from 1.8 to 41.4 ng/g). As soybeans contain no vitamin B12, the amount of vitamin in the tempeh must therefore be derived from the other sources during the fermentation process. The tempeh prepared in the laboratory by inoculation of the commercial starter into the sterile soybean contained a much higher amount of vitamin B12, 127 ng/g (ranges from 122 to 136 ng/g). Pure mold and a single species of bacteria were isolated from the starter and commercial tempehs. Pure mold did not produce vitamin B12 in the sterile broth, soybean and medium used for vitamin B12 production. Only the isolated bacteria, identified as K. pneumoniae, could produce vitamin B12 in those substrates. The presence of mold did not significantly enhance or inhibit the vitamin B12 production by K. pneumoniae. It was, therefore, concluded that K. pneumoniae, the bacteria contaminated during the process of tempeh production, was responsible for the vitamin B12 production. PMID:2380647

  14. Further Studies on the Binding of Vitamin B12 to the Cell Wall of a B12-Requiring Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takashi

    1972-01-01

    The vitamin B12-binding property of Lactobacillus leichmannii ATCC 7830 has been studied. The organism could bind 0.52 μg of B12 per mg of cells. With regard to the cellular site for B12 accumulation, three-quarters of the B12 bound to the cell was found in the crude cell wall fraction, and the remaining one-quarter was found in the particulate (ribosome) fraction. After receiving enzymatic treatments with ribonuclease, lipase, and trypsin, the wall fraction retained three-fifths of the initial B12. The possibility of cross-contamination of the wall and particulate fractions was excluded by measuring the contents of ribonucleic acid and hexosamines in each fraction. The B12-binding activity of the wall was destroyed by pretreatment of the wall with pepsin, Pronase, or trypsin. However, once bound to the wall, the B12 was not released by the same treatments. These facts suggest that B12 is bound to a polypeptide in the wall on which these enzymes act and that, once bound, B12 somehow inhibits the enzymatic actions as described earlier with L. delbrueckii no. 1. A B12-polypeptide complex was isolated by treatment with 0.2 n HCl from walls to which B12 had been bound. The complex was then purified. The complex moves as a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its molecular weight was estimated around 21,500 with microheterogeneity on a Sephadex G-75 column. The mode of B12 binding was found to be similar to that of L. delbrueckii. Images PMID:4550659

  15. Drugs and vitamin B12 and folate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lindenbaum, J

    1983-01-01

    Deficiency of either folic acid or vitamin B12 may interfere with DNA synthesis and result in megaloblastic anemia or other conditions. These 2 vitamins have dissimilar molecular structures and are present in different foods; they are also absorbed and metabolized differently. In 201 consecutive cases of megaloblastic anemia, for 90% the cause was alcoholism and poor diet; 0.5% (1 case) was related to oral contraceptives (OCs). Megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency has occasionally been reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and has been attributed to poor diet, impaired absorption, and increased tissue utilization of folate. Sulfasalazine, a compound containing a sulfa drug and a salicylate that is broken down to its active components by the gut flora, is widely used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and has been shown to impair the absorption of folic acid, polyglutamyl folate, and methyl-tetrahydrofolic acid in patients with these disorders. There is also evidence suggesting an interaction between anticonvulsant drugs and folate balance. A number of cases of megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency have been reported in women taking OCs. While in some cases no apparent cause for the megaloblastic anemia other than contraceptive therapy was demonstrated, in many patients other underlying disorders that were likely to disturb folate balance such as celiac disease, decreased dietary vitamin intake, and the administration of other drugs known to affect folate status have also been present. There is no convincing evidence that sex steroids affect folate absorption; about 20% of women taking OCs were found to have mild megaloblastic changes on Papanicolaou smears. These changes disappered after folic acid therapy, suggesting that OCs may cause an increased demand for folate limited to the reproductive system. Another finding is of low serum cobalamin levels in women using OCs; this appears however to be a laboratory abnormality

  16. Update: vitamin B12 deficiency among Bhutanese refugees resettling in the United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Cuffe, Kendra; Stauffer, William; Painter, John; Shetty, Sharmila; Montour, Jessica; Zhou, Weigong

    2014-07-18

    In 2008, clinicians performing routine medical examinations in the United States reported high rates of hematologic and neurologic disorders caused by vitamin B12 deficiency in resettled Bhutanese refugees. To confirm this finding, CDC screened Bhutanese refugees' serum samples for vitamin B12 levels and found vitamin B12 deficiency in 64% (n = 99) of samples obtained before departure and 27% (n = 64) of samples obtained after arrival in the United States. In response, CDC recommended that arriving Bhutanese refugees receive oral vitamin B12 supplements and nutrition advice. In 2012, based on anecdotal reports of decreasing rates of vitamin B12 deficiency in this population, CDC worked with select domestic refugee health programs to determine if the recommendations had reduced the vitamin B12 deficiency rate among Bhutanese refugees. PMID:25029113

  17. Biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in NHANES: a roundtable summary123456

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Phinney, Karen W; Bailey, Regan L; Blackmore, Sheena; Bock, Jay L; Brody, Lawrence C; Carmel, Ralph; Curtin, L Randy; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón A; Eckfeldt, John H; Green, Ralph; Gregory, Jesse F; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Jacobsen, Donald W; Jacques, Paul F; Lacher, David A; Molloy, Anne M; Massaro, Joseph; Mills, James L; Nexo, Ebba; Rader, Jeanne I; Selhub, Jacob; Sempos, Christopher; Shane, Barry; Stabler, Sally; Stover, Patrick; Tamura, Tsunenobu; Tedstone, Alison; Thorpe, Susan J; Johnson, Clifford L; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2011-01-01

    A roundtable to discuss the measurement of vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) status biomarkers in NHANES took place in July 2010. NHANES stopped measuring vitamin B-12–related biomarkers after 2006. The roundtable reviewed 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status used in past NHANES—serum vitamin B-12, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine (tHcy)—and discussed the potential utility of measuring holotranscobalamin (holoTC) for future NHANES. The roundtable focused on public health considerations and the quality of the measurement procedures and reference methods and materials that past NHANES used or that are available for future NHANES. Roundtable members supported reinstating vitamin B-12 status measures in NHANES. They noted evolving concerns and uncertainties regarding whether subclinical (mild, asymptomatic) vitamin B-12 deficiency is a public health concern. They identified the need for evidence from clinical trials to address causal relations between subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency and adverse health outcomes as well as appropriate cutoffs for interpreting vitamin B-12–related biomarkers. They agreed that problems with sensitivity and specificity of individual biomarkers underscore the need for including at least one biomarker of circulating vitamin B-12 (serum vitamin B-12 or holoTC) and one functional biomarker (MMA or tHcy) in NHANES. The inclusion of both serum vitamin B-12 and plasma MMA, which have been associated with cognitive dysfunction and anemia in NHANES and in other population-based studies, was preferable to provide continuity with past NHANES. Reliable measurement procedures are available, and National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials are available or in development for serum vitamin B-12 and MMA. PMID:21593512

  18. Urinary levels of early kidney injury molecules in children with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Güneş, Ali; Aktar, Fesih; Tan, İlhan; Söker, Murat; Uluca, Ünal; Balık, Hasan; Mete, Nuriye

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate urine early kidney injury molecules, including human kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty-acid binding protein (L-FABP), N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase A (NAG), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in children with vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency (CD). Twelve children with vitamin B12 deficiency and 20 healthy matched controls were included. Hematologic parameters, serum urea, creatinine (Cr), electrolytes, B12 and folate levels were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. Urine protein, electrolytes, andurinary early markers were measured. Patients with CD had significantly higher urine electrolyte/Cr ratios (p <0.05). Significantly higher urinary KIM-1/Cr, L-FABP/Cr, NAG/Cr and NGAL/Cr were found in CD group (p <0.05). Significant negative correlations were found between levels of serum B12 and urinary markers in the patients (p <0.05). Increased urinary kidney injury molecules and electrolytes in children with B12 deficiency suggest a possible subclinical renal dysfunction, which cannot be determined by conventional kidney function tests. PMID:27606644

  19. Extraction of serum vitamin B12 for radio-isotopic and Lactobacillus leichmannii assay.

    PubMed Central

    Raven, J L; Robson, M B

    1975-01-01

    The protein precipitates discarded during the extraction process of the Lactobacillus leichmannii vitamin B12 assay have been shown to contain significant amounts of vitamin B12. This loss of vitamin B12 provide a satisfactory explanation for many of the descrepancies between the serum vitamin B12 values obtained by the L. leichmannii method and the radio-isotopic method of Raven et al (1969). It is possible to produce lower results by the method of Raven et al (1969)by incorporating into that method the L. leichmannii extraction process; it is also possible to produce higher results by the L. leichmannii method using a papain extraction process. Images PMID:1150894

  20. Plasma vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid and heart rate variability in healthy young Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Sucharita, Sambashivaiah; Sowmya, Sharma; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura V; Vaz, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the Indian population is not known, however; it is considered to be higher than in the Western population. Vitamin B12 deficiency is generally diagnosed by the plasma vitamin B12 level. Metabolites of vitamin B12 such as homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) are considered to be better markers to diagnose vitamin B12 deficiency at the tissue level. Autonomic neuropathy in vitamin B12 deficiency appears to precede other neurological signs. One of the recent techniques to evaluate autonomic neuropathy is heart rate variability (HRV). We evaluated 14 healthy young adults to explore the association of plasma vitamin B12, MMA, and Hcy levels with HRV. Resting lead II ECG was recorded and power spectral analyses were performed. Plasma MMA level was significantly and negatively correlated with the log-transformed low frequency (r = - 0.74, p = 0.002) and total power spectra (r = - 0.55, p = 0.03) of HRV in absolute units. Low frequency (LF) (r = - 0.56, p = 0.03) and high frequency (HF) (r = 0.57, p = 0.03), when represented in normalized units, were also correlated significantly with plasma MMA. In summary, plasma MMA but not vitamin B12 was significantly associated with HRV indices in a young adult population, suggesting that a tissue-level marker of vitamin B12 deficiency is more closely correlated with functional changes. PMID:24846903

  1. [Effects of Vitamin B12 in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Peripheral Neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Nodera, Hiroyuki; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin B(12)(vB(12)) deficient is regarded as iatrogenic in some cases. Although the recommended oral intake of vB(12) has been determined, administration of vB(12) exceeding the recommended dose could have multiple pharmacological effects. "Ultra-high dose" vB(12) therapy has been used for peripheral neuropathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, suggesting its promising neuroprotective effects. PMID:26329154

  2. Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B12 in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B12, resulting in maintenance of health status. PMID:21436999

  3. Holotranscobalamin (HoloTC, Active-B12) and Herbert's model for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency: a review and alternative hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Golding, Paul Henry

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of total vitamin B12 in serum is not a sufficiently sensitive or specific indicator for the reliable diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. Victor Herbert proposed a model for the staged development of vitamin B12 deficiency, in which holotranscobalamin (HoloTC) is the first indicator of deficiency. Based on this model, a commercial immunoassay has been controversially promoted as a replacement for the total vitamin B12 test. HoloTC is cobalamin (vitamin B12) attached to the transport protein transcobalamin, in the serum, for delivery to cells for metabolism. Although there have been many published reports supporting the claims for HoloTC, the results of some studies were inconsistent with the claim of HoloTC as the most sensitive marker of vitamin B12 deficiency. This review examines the evidence for and against the use of HoloTC, and concludes that the HoloTC immunoassay cannot be used to measure vitamin B12 status any more reliably than total vitamin B12, or to predict the onset of a metabolic deficiency, because it is based on an erroneous hypothesis and a flawed model for the staged development of vitamin B12 deficiency. The author proposes an alternative model for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27350907

  4. Daily milk intake improves vitamin B-12 status in young vegetarian Indians: an intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic Indian lacto vegetarians, who make up more than half of the Indian population in different geographic regions, have distinctly low vitamin B-12 concentrations than non- vegetarians. Vegetarians consume milk but it seems that the amount is not enough to improve vitamin B-12 status or vitamin B-12 concentration in milk itself may be low. The aim of this study was to determine if daily milk consumption can improve vitamin B-12 status. Methods Fifteen male and 36 female, young healthy post-graduate volunteers participated. Blood from ten participants (4 males and 6 females) was collected (day-1). They continued their regular diet for next fourteen days and on day-15, blood of all 51 participants was collected, plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was measured and were divided into two groups; Normal (vitamin B-12 >148 pmol/L, n = 22) and Vitamin B-12 deficient (<148 pmol/L, n = 29), the remaining plasma was stored. All participants consumed 600 ml. of non-enriched buffalo milk (200 × 3) during the day along with their usual diet. Next day blood was collected for plasma holotranscobalamin II measurement. Subjects from deficient group continued to drink 400 ml of milk daily for next 14 days and blood was collected on day-30. Plasma holotranscoabalamin II (day-1, 15, 16, 30), vitamin B-12, folate, total homocysteine, creatinine and hematoloical parameters (day-1, 15, 30), and milk vitamin B-12 concentrations (day-15, 16, 30) were measured. Results Fifty seven per cent of the participants were vitamin B-12 deficient and 65% were hyperhomocysteinemic. No significant difference in biomarkers was observed when there was no intervention. Plasma holotranscobalamin II concentration increased from 19.6 to 22.27 pmol/L (p < 0.0001) 24 hrs after milk load in the whole group. Plasma vitamin B-12 increased from 92.5 to 122 pmol/L and tHcy concentrations decreased from 31.9 to 24.9 μ mol/L (p < 0.0001 for both) 14 days after regular milk

  5. Oral Vitamin B12 Replacement for the Treatment of Pernicious Anemia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Catherine Qiu Hua; Low, Lian Leng; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with pernicious anemia are treated with lifelong intramuscular (IM) vitamin B12 replacement. As early as the 1950s, there were studies suggesting that oral vitamin B12 replacement may provide adequate absorption. Nevertheless, oral vitamin B12 replacement in patients with pernicious anemia remains uncommon in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 for the treatment of pernicious anemia, the recommended dosage, and the required frequency of laboratory test and clinical monitoring. Relevant articles were identified by PubMed search from January 1, 1980 to March 31, 2016 and through hand search of relevant reference articles. Two randomized controlled trials, three prospective papers, one systematic review, and three clinical reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We found that oral vitamin B12 replacement at 1000 μg daily was adequate to replace vitamin B12 levels in patients with pernicious anemia. We conclude that oral vitamin B12 is an effective alternative to vitamin B12 IM injections. Patients should be offered this alternative after an informed discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of both treatment options. PMID:27602354

  6. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  7. False-normal vitamin B12 results in a patient with pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, P; Narayanan, S; Cook, P

    2015-12-01

    Pernicious anaemia is a common autoimmune disorder with a prevalence of approximately 4% amongst Europeans. If untreated, it can result in permanent neurological disability or death. Central to the diagnosis is establishing the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Concern has been raised recently regarding false-normal results obtained with competitive-binding vitamin B12 assays performed on automated biochemistry platforms in patients with pernicious anaemia due to the presence of interfering anti-intrinsic factor antibodies in the patient sample. We report a case in which diagnosis of pernicious anaemia was delayed due to false-normal vitamin B12 results. Questioning the results in light of high pre-test probability, and knowledge of the role of functional markers of vitamin B12 deficiency enabled the correct diagnosis to be made so that effective treatment could be initiated. It is crucial that those who frequently request vitamin B12 are aware of the potential problems with the available assays and how these problems can be addressed. We suggest that all patients with normal vitamin B12 levels where there is a high clinical suspicion for deficiency such as a macrocytic anaemia, neurological symptoms or megaloblastic bone marrow should have a functional assay of vitamin B12 (plasma homocysteine or methylmalonic acid) checked to further investigate for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:26277634

  8. Vitamin B-12 and homocysteine status among vegetarians: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Singer, Ingrid

    2009-05-01

    Evidence exists that well-planned vegetarian diets provide numerous health benefits and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle. It is also known that animal foods provide micronutrients that are nonexistent or available only in limited amounts in plant foods. Restriction or exclusion of all animal foods may therefore result in low intake of certain micronutrients such as vitamin B-12, thereby affecting vitamin B-12 status and elevating plasma homocysteine concentrations. Overall, the studies we reviewed showed reduced mean vitamin B-12 status and elevated mean homocysteine concentrations in vegetarians, particularly among vegans. Low vitamin B-12 intake may lead to decreased bioavailability and functional deficiency of cobalamin. Although early noticeable symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency are nonspecific (unusual fatigue, digestion problems, frequent upper respiratory infections), the best-known clinical manifestations of cobalamin malabsorption are hematologic (pernicious anemia) and neurologic symptoms. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Given these health concerns, vegetarians, particularly vegans, must be advised to carefully plan their diets, to monitor their plasma vitamin B-12 on a regular basis to facilitate early detection of low cobalamin status, and to use vitamin B-12-fortified foods or take vitamin B-12 supplements if necessary. PMID:19357223

  9. Prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency among patients with thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Collins, Aryn B; Pawlak, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Due to the non-specificity of symptoms and possibly severe consequences of untreated vitamin B-12 deficiency, screening is important for at-risk patients to ensure the prompt delivery of treatment. In this review, studies assessing the prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in thyroid dysfunction are evaluated to determine whether regular vitamin B-12 screening is necessary. A literature search was conducted using multiple electronic databases. Only original studies assessing the prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in thyroid dysfunction that reported their findings as percentages of the sample were eligible for inclusion. From a total of 7091 manuscripts generated, 6 were included in this review. The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in hypothyroidism was reported as 10, 18.6, and 40.5% in three separate studies. The prevalence of deficiency in autoimmune thyroid disease was reported as 6.3, 28, and 55.5% in three studies. The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disease are reflective of the nutrition status of the population. Autoimmune thyroid disease is also associated with the autoimmune disorders pernicious anemia and atrophic gastritis which may lead to malabsorption of vitamin B-12. Vitamin B-12 screening is recommended upon initial diagnosis with autoimmune thyroid disease and then periodically thereafter. There is not enough evidence to recommend regular screening for patients with hypothyroidism unless the underlying cause is autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:27222404

  10. Oral Vitamin B12 Replacement for the Treatment of Pernicious Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Catherine Qiu Hua; Low, Lian Leng; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with pernicious anemia are treated with lifelong intramuscular (IM) vitamin B12 replacement. As early as the 1950s, there were studies suggesting that oral vitamin B12 replacement may provide adequate absorption. Nevertheless, oral vitamin B12 replacement in patients with pernicious anemia remains uncommon in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 for the treatment of pernicious anemia, the recommended dosage, and the required frequency of laboratory test and clinical monitoring. Relevant articles were identified by PubMed search from January 1, 1980 to March 31, 2016 and through hand search of relevant reference articles. Two randomized controlled trials, three prospective papers, one systematic review, and three clinical reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We found that oral vitamin B12 replacement at 1000 μg daily was adequate to replace vitamin B12 levels in patients with pernicious anemia. We conclude that oral vitamin B12 is an effective alternative to vitamin B12 IM injections. Patients should be offered this alternative after an informed discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of both treatment options. PMID:27602354

  11. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water-soluble vitamins B6, B12 and C play important roles in maternal health as well as fetal development and physiology during gestation. This systematic review evaluates the risks and benefits of interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health ...

  12. If high folic acid aggravates vitamin B12 deficiency what should be done about it?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mary Ann

    2007-10-01

    The most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people is malabsorption of food-bound vitamin B12. Thus, it is suggested that the recommended daily allowance of 2.4 microg/d be met primarily with crystalline vitamin B12, which is believed to be well absorbed in individuals who have food-bound malabsorption. There is concern that high intakes of folic acid from fortified food and dietary supplements might mask the macrocytic anemia of vitamin B12 deficiency, thereby eliminating an important diagnostic sign. One recent study indicates that high serum folate levels during vitamin B12 deficiency exacerbate (rather than mask) anemia and worsen cognitive symptoms. Another study suggests that once vitamin B12 deficiency is established in subjects with food-bound malabsorption, 40 microg/d to 80 microg/d of oral crystalline vitamin B12 for 30 d does not reverse the biochemical signs of deficiency. Together, these studies provide further evidence that public health strategies are needed to improve vitamin B12 status in order to decrease the risk of deficiency and any potentially adverse interactions with folic acid. PMID:17972439

  13. Serum Vitamin B12 and thyroid hormone levels in Saudi patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khamis, Fahd A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Materials and Methods: One hundred and ten patients with MS were recruited for this study after Institutional Review Board approval. All patients signed a written informed consent form and donated a single blood sample. Plasma Vitamin B12 levels, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) hormone levels were measured. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Analysis of Vitamin B12 levels in 110 patients with MS revealed that 65% had normal levels of Vitamin B12 (200–900 pg/ml), 30% had low levels of Vitamin B12 (<200 pg/ml), and 5% high levels of Vitamin B12 (higher than 900 pg/ml). Further analysis of patients with low levels of Vitamin B12 revealed that this cohort exhibited a significantly high number of patients with low levels of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) (P < 0.005). Conclusion: This study suggests a relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones. This opens the possibility that the use of therapies that increase triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels might be beneficial to patients with MS. PMID:27625581

  14. Medical intelligence in Sweden. Vitamin B12: oral compared with parenteral?

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, M; Norberg, B; Hultdin, J; Sandstrom, H; Westman, G; Lokk, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Sweden is the only country in which oral high dose vitamin B12 has gained widespread use in the treatment of deficiency states. Objective: The aim of the study was to describe prescribing patterns and sales statistics of vitamin B12 tablets and injections in Sweden 1990–2000. Design, setting, and sources: Official statistics of cobalamin prescriptions and sales were used. Results: The use of vitamin B12 increased in Sweden 1990–2000, mainly because of an increase in the use of oral high dose vitamin B12 therapy. The experience, in statistical terms a "total investigation", comprised 1 000 000 patient years for tablets and 750 000 patient years for injections. During 2000, 13% of residents aged 70 and over were treated with vitamin B12, two of three with the tablet preparation. Most patients in Sweden requiring vitamin B12 therapy have transferred from parenteral to oral high dose vitamin B12 since 1964, when the oral preparation was introduced. Conclusion: The findings suggest that many patients in other post-industrial societies may also be suitable for oral vitamin B12 treatment. PMID:15749797

  15. Neomycin has no persistent sparing effect on vitamin B-12 status in pectin-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Cullen, R W; Oace, S M

    1989-10-01

    In the present study, rats were depleted of vitamin B-12 with fiber-free or 5% pectin diets, with or without neomycin. Through use of this intestinal antibiotic reported to "spare" vitamin B-12, we sought to determine if bacterial fermentation of pectin might explain our previous observations of negative effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status. However, neomycin did not lessen interference by pectin with vitamin B-12 metabolism. Pectin increased urinary methylmalonate and decreased propionate oxidation to a greater extent in the presence than in the absence of neomycin. Also, regardless of the presence of neomycin, the biologic half-life of injected [57Co]vitamin B-12 was 58 d for rats fed the fiber-free diets and only 38 d for rats fed 5% pectin diets. Neomycin delayed early fecal excretion of 57Co but had no persistent effect. Thus, neomycin-sensitive bacteria do not mediate the negative effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status. Pectin may interfere directly with vitamin B-12 absorption or may stimulate vitamin B-12 uptake or propionate production by microbial species that have adapted to neomycin. PMID:2555466

  16. Experience with a commercial kit for the radioisotopic assay of vitamin B12 in serum: the Phadebas B12 Test

    PubMed Central

    Raven, J. L.; Robson, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    The first commercial kit for the radioisotopic assay of vitamin B12 in serum—the Phadebas B12 Test produced higher values than the radioisotopic method of Raven, Robson, Walker, and Barkham (1969) and the Lactobacillus leichmannii microbiological assay. Its normal range was 300-1100 pg/ml and its reproducibility was similar to that of the other radioisotopic method. It should be possible to lower the results obtained by the Phadebas method by modifying its standard curve and to reduce the time taken for the assay by shortening its incubation period. PMID:4821096

  17. Is it time for vitamin B-12 fortification? What are the questions?1234

    PubMed Central

    Green, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of folic acid fortification of flour 10 y ago, an initiative to consider fortifying flour with vitamin B-12 has gained momentum in the United States. The impetus for this move stems from several considerations, including some evidence that a proportion of neural tube defect pregnancies may be the result of vitamin B-12 rather than folate deficiency. However, no interventional trials have taken place to show the efficacy of vitamin B-12 supplementation or fortification in the primary prevention or recurrence of neural tube defect pregnancies, as was the case with folic acid. Other reasons put forward for the institution of vitamin B-12 fortification include the high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in certain demographic groups, including the elderly and the young in some countries. Much of this deficiency, however, is subclinical and not associated with manifest morbidity. Moreover, individuals affected by the most severe cases of vitamin B-12 deficiency that are associated with morbidity would not benefit from the concentrations of vitamin B-12 fortification that are practical or that are being considered, because such individuals suffer from malabsorption of vitamin B-12 rather than from an inadequacy of intake of the vitamin. In addition to the well-recognized complications of vitamin B-12 deficiency, such as macrocytic anemia and neurological complications affecting sensory and motor function, more subtle effects have also been described, including osteopenia, neurocognitive impairment, and increased vascular disease risk associated with elevated homocysteine. This analysis focuses on the research questions that are pertinent to the consideration of whether or not to introduce mandatory vitamin B-12 fortification in the United States. PMID:19141694

  18. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiting; Hodgson, Nathaniel W.; Trivedi, Malav S.; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M.; Fournier, Margot; Cuenod, Michel; Do, Kim Quang; Deth, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age), primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY). Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO) mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26799654

  19. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiting; Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Trivedi, Malav S; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Fournier, Margot; Cuenod, Michel; Do, Kim Quang; Deth, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age), primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY). Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO) mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26799654

  20. Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish

    SciTech Connect

    Limsuwan, T.; Lovell, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks.

  1. Delayed auditory conduction in diabetes: is metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency responsible?

    PubMed Central

    Khattar, Deepti; Khaliq, Farah; Vaney, Neelam; Madhu, Sri Venkata

    2016-01-01

    Summary The present study aims to evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory pathway in patients with diabetes taking metformin. A further aim is to assess its association with vitamin B12 deficiency induced by metformin. Thirty diabetics taking metformin and 30 age-matched non-diabetic controls were enrolled. Stimulus-related potentials and vitamin B12 levels were evaluated in all the subjects. The diabetics showed deficient vitamin B12 levels and delayed wave III latency and III–V interpeak latency in the right ear and delayed Na and Pa wave latencies in the left ear compared with the controls. The dose and duration of metformin showed no association with the stimulus-related potentials. Therefore, although vitamin B12 levels were deficient and auditory conduction impairment was present in the diabetics on metformin, this impairment cannot be attributed to the vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27358222

  2. The master key effect of vitamin B12 in treatment of malignancy--a potential therapy?

    PubMed

    Volkov, Ilia

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin B12 plays a functional role in a variety of organs and body systems and the list of these organs and body systems is growing. According to our working hypothesis ("Master Key Effect") vitamin B12 has some unique functions, which are still not accepted; vitamin B12 functions to keep body systems in balance, even under the stress of severe pathology. What is the explanation for elevation of cobalamin level in oncological patients? As yet I have not been able to find another explanation for high level of vitamin B12 in oncology patients other than that it is a compensatory mechanism. Perhaps following this body's "warning sign", we should start treatment with high doses of vitamin B12 to try to help the stabilization of normal function of the organs and systems. Laboratory researches should be continued to substantiate introduction of cobalamin as preliminary treatment of particular diseases. PMID:17640826

  3. Study on methane fermentation and production of vitamin B12 from alcohol waste slurry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenya; Quan, Taisheng; Li, Pomin; Zhang, Yansheng; Sugiura, Norio; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2004-01-01

    We studied biogas fermentation from alcohol waste fluid to evaluate the anaerobic digestion process and the production of vitamin B12 as a byproduct. Anaerobic digestion using acclimated methanogens was performed using the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and fixed-bed reactor packed with rock wool as carrier material at 55 degrees C. We also studied the effects of metal ions added to the culture broth on methane and vitamin B12 formation. Vitamin B12 production was 2.92 mg/L in the broth of the fixed-bed reactor, twice that of the CSTR. The optimum concentrations of trace metal ions added to the culture liquid for methane and vitamin B12 production were 1.0 and 8 mL/L for the CSTR and fixed-bed reactor, respectively. Furthermore, an effective method for extracting and purifying vitamin B12 from digested fluid was developed. PMID:15054251

  4. The Folate-Vitamin B12 Interaction, Low Hemoglobin, and the Mortality Risk from Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-03-21

    Abnormal hemoglobin levels are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the mechanism underlying these associations is elusive, inadequate micronutrients, particularly folate and vitamin B12, may increase the risk for anemia, cognitive impairment, and AD. In this study, we investigated whether the nutritional status of folate and vitamin B12 is involved in the association between low hemoglobin levels and the risk of AD mortality. Data were obtained from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the NHANES (1999-2006) Linked Mortality File. A total of 4,688 participants aged ≥60 years with available baseline data were included in this study. We categorized three groups based on the quartiles of folate and vitamin B12 as follows: Group I (low folate and vitamin B12); Group II (high folate and low vitamin B12 or low folate and high vitamin B12); and Group III (high folate and vitamin B12). Of 4,688 participants, 49 subjects died due to AD. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education, smoking history, body mass index, the presence of diabetes or hypertension, and dietary intake of iron, significant increases in the AD mortality were observed in Quartile1 for hemoglobin (HR: 8.4, 95% CI: 1.4-50.8), and the overall risk of AD mortality was significantly reduced with increases in the quartile of hemoglobin (p for trend = 0.0200), in subjects with low levels of both folate and vitamin B12 at baseline. This association did not exist in subjects with at least one high level of folate and vitamin B12. Our finding shows the relationship between folate and vitamin B12 levels with respect to the association between hemoglobin levels and AD mortality. PMID:27003215

  5. Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together regulate lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Our recent study indicates that maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status influence plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profile in dams. The present study examines the effects of prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status on lipid metabolism in the offspring. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: Control; Vitamin B12 deficient (BD); Vitamin B12 supplemented (BS); Vitamin B12 deficient group supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (BDO); Vitamin B12 supplemented group with omega-3 fatty acids (BSO). The offspring were continued on the same diets till 3 month of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased cholesterol levels (p<0.01) but reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (p<0.05), liver mRNA levels of acetyl CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) (p<0.05) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) (p<0.01) in the offspring. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to this group normalized cholesterol but not mRNA levels of ACC-1 and CPT-1. Vitamin B12 supplementation normalized the levels cholesterol to that of control but increased plasma triglyceride (p<0.01) and reduced liver mRNA levels of adiponectin, ACC-1, and CPT-1 (p<0.01 for all). Supplementation of both vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid normalized triglyceride and mRNA levels of all the above genes. Prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together play a crucial role in regulating the genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult offspring. PMID:26003565

  6. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Multiple Sclerosis; Is there Any Association?

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mohamad Reza; Shaygannajad, Vahid; Mirpourian, Maryam; Gholamrezaei, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) deficiency can result in some clinical and paraclinical characteristics similar to what is seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This study aimed to evaluate the controversial association between vitamin B12 deficiency and MS. Methods: We measured serum vitamin B12 in 60 patients with MS and 38 healthy controls. Clinical disability was evaluated according to the Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Serum B12 concentration was measured with Radioimmunoassay Dual Isotope method. The cutoff value for low serum vitamin B12 concentrations was 75 pg/mL. Patients were in remission at the time of blood draw. Results: There were 13 (21.6%) MS patients and 10 (26.3%) controls with low serum B12 concentration with no significant difference between the groups; P>0.05. The mean serum vitamin B12 concentration in MS patients (108.9±45.3 pg/mL) was not significantly different compared with controls (98.9±44.4 pg/mL); P=0.284. Likewise, there was no correlation between the concentration of serum vitamin B12 and disease’ age of onset, duration, subtypes, or disability status. Conclusions: In contrast to some previous reports, our findings did not support any association between B12 deficiency and MS. PMID:22624086

  7. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-μmol/L increase above 10 μmol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 μmol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements. PMID:25998928

  8. Vitamin B12 deficiency in resettled Bhutanese refugees--United States, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    2011-03-25

    Since 2008, approximately 30,000 Bhutanese refugees have been resettled in the United States. Routine medical examinations of refugees after arrival in resettlement states indicated hematologic and neurologic disorders caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. These cases were reported by examining physicians and state health departments to CDC, which initiated an investigation. This report summarizes the results of that investigation. Sera from overseas medical examinations, postarrival examinations in three state health departments (Minnesota, Utah, and Texas), and medical records and interviews at a health clinic in St. Paul, Minnesota, were evaluated. Vitamin B12 deficiency, defined as serum vitamin B12 concentration <203 pg/mL, was found in 64% (63 of 99) of overseas specimens, 27% (17 of 64) of postarrival medical screenings, and 32% (19 of 60) of Bhutanese refugees screened for vitamin B12 deficiency at the St. Paul clinic. Although the deficiencies might be multifactorial, the main cause is thought to be the diet consumed by these refugees for nearly two decades in Nepal, which lacked meat, eggs, and dairy products, the major dietary sources of vitamin B12. Additionally, infection with Helicobacter pylori might play a role. Clinicians should be aware of the risk for vitamin B12 deficiency in Bhutanese refugees. All Bhutanese refugees should be given nutrition advice and should receive supplemental vitamin B12 upon arrival in the United States. In addition, refugees with clinical manifestations suggestive of deficiency should be tested for adequate serum vitamin B12 concentrations and, if found to have a B12 deficiency, screened for underlying causes, treated with parenteral vitamin B12 or high-dose oral supplements, and evaluated for response to therapy. PMID:21430638

  9. Vitamin B12 intake and status in early pregnancy among urban South Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Tinu Mary; Duggan, Christopher; Thomas, Tinku; Bosch, Ronald; Rajendran, Ramya; Virtanen, Suvi M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the vitamin B12 status of South Indian women in early pregnancy and its relationship with sociodemographic, anthropometry and dietary intake. Methods Cross-sectional study among 366 pregnant urban South Indian women ≤14 weeks of gestation with outcome variables defined as low vitamin B12 blood concentration (<150 pmol/L) and impaired vitamin B12 status [low vitamin B12 plus elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) >0.26 μmol/L)]. Results Low plasma vitamin B12 concentration was observed in 51.1% of the women, while 42.4% had impaired B12 status. Elevated MMA, elevated homocysteine ( >10 μmol/L) and low erythrocyte folate (<283 nmol/L) was observed among 75.8%, 43.3% and 22.2% of women, respectively. The median (25th, 75th percentile) dietary intake of vitamin B12 was 1.25 (0.86, 1.96) μg/day. Lower maternal body weight was associated with higher vitamin B12 concentration [prevalence ratios (PR) (95% CI) 0.57 (0.39, 0.84)). The predictors of impaired vitamin B12 status were non-use of yoghurt [PR (95%CI) 1.63 (1.03, 2.58)], non-use of fish [PR (95% CI) 1.32 (1.01, 1.71)] and primiparity [PR (95% CI) 1.41 (1.05, 1.90)]. Conclusion A high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in early pregnancy among urban South Indian women was related to primiparity and to a low consumption of yoghurt and fish. PMID:23344013

  10. Methylmalonic Acid and Homocysteine as Indicators of Vitamin B-12 Deficiency in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vashi, Pankaj; Edwin, Persis; Popiel, Brenten; Lammersfeld, Carolyn; Gupta, Digant

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Normal or high serum vitamin B-12 levels can sometimes be seen in a B-12 deficient state, and can therefore be misleading. High levels of Methymalonic Acid (MMA) and Homocysteine (HC) have been identified as better indicators of B-12 deficiency than the actual serum B-12 level itself. We evaluated the prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency using appropriate cut-off levels of vitamin B-12, MMA and HC, and determined the relationship between serum levels of vitamin B-12, MMA and HC in cancer. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using a consecutive case series of 316 cancer patients first seen at Cancer Treatment Centers of America® (CTCA) at Midwestern Regional Medical Center between April 2014 and June 2014. All patients were evaluated at baseline for vitamin B-12 (pg/mL), MMA (nmol/L) and HC (μmol/L) levels. In accordance with previously published research, the following cut-offs were used to define vitamin B-12 deficiency: <300 pg/mL for vitamin B-12, >260 nmol/L for MMA and >12 μmol/L for HC. The relationship between B-12, MMA and HC was evaluated using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient and cross-tabulation analysis. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were estimated using the non-parametric method to further evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of vitamin B-12 using Fedosov quotient as the "gold standard". Results Mean age at presentation was 52.5 years. 134 (42.4%) patients were males while 182 (57.6%) were females. Median vitamin B-12, MMA and HC levels were 582.5 pg/mL, 146.5 nmol/L and 8.4 μmol/L respectively. Of 316 patients, 28 (8.9%) were vitamin B-12 deficient based on vitamin B-12 (<300pg/mL), 34 (10.8%) were deficient based on MMA (>260 nmol/L) while 55 (17.4%) were deficient based on HC (>12 μmol/L). Correlation analysis revealed a significant weak negative correlation between vitamin B-12 and MMA (rho = -0.22) as well as B-12 and HC (rho = -0.35). ROC curves suggested MMA to have the best discriminatory power in

  11. Subjective well-being in older adults: folate and vitamin B12 independently predict positive affect.

    PubMed

    Edney, Laura C; Burns, Nicholas R; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2015-10-28

    Vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine have long been implicated in mental illness, and growing evidence suggests that they may play a role in positive mental health. Elucidation of these relationships is confounded due to the dependence of homocysteine on available levels of vitamin B12 and folate. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and subjective well-being were assessed in a sample of 391 older, community-living adults without clinically diagnosed depression. Levels of vitamin B12, but not folate, influenced homocysteine levels 18 months later. Vitamin B12, folate and their interaction significantly predicted levels of positive affect (PA) 18 months later, but had no impact on the levels of negative affect or life satisfaction. Cross-sectional relationships between homocysteine and PA were completely attenuated in the longitudinal analyses, suggesting that the cross-sectional relationship is driven by the dependence of homocysteine on vitamin B12 and folate. This is the first study to offer some evidence of a causal link between levels of folate and vitamin B12 on PA in a large, non-clinical population. PMID:26346363

  12. Neurology of Nutritional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Infants: Case Series From India and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Goraya, Jatinder Singh; Kaur, Sukhjot; Mehra, Bharat

    2015-11-01

    We studied 27 infants aged 6 to 27 months with vitamin B12 deficiency also known as "infantile tremor syndrome" in India. All were exclusively breast-fed by vegetarian mothers. Developmental delay or regression, pallor, skin hyperpigmentation, and sparse brown hair were present in all. Majority were hypotonic and involuntary movements were encountered in 18. Anemia and macrocytosis was found in 83% and 71% infants, respectively. Low serum vitamin B12 was present in 12 of 21 infants. Seven of the 9 infants with normal serum vitamin B12 had received vitamin B12 before referral. Twelve mothers had low serum vitamin B12. Cerebral atrophy was present in all the 9 infants who underwent neuroimaging. Treatment with vitamin B12 resulted in dramatic improvement in general activity and appetite within 48 to 72 hours followed by return of lost milestones. Tremors resolved in all by 3 to 4 weeks. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of neurologic dysfunction in infants. PMID:25953825

  13. [Maternal Crohn's disease-related vitamin B12 deficient megaloblastic anemia in an infant].

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Wataru; Yamaoka, Masayoshi; Yokoi, Kentaro; Iwahashi, Megumi; Inage, Yuka; Arihiro, Seiji; Koganei, Kazutaka; Sugita, Akira; Ida, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    We report an 11-month-old breast-fed boy with feeding difficulties, lethargy, and developmental delay. Blood examination showed pancytopenia and decreased serum levels of vitamin B12. Anisocytosis and poikilocytes were detected in his peripheral blood, and increased megaloblastosis without leukemic cells was detected in his bone marrow. After the diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency, symptoms were improved by vitamin B12 administration. Further investigation of the mother identified Crohn's disease and suggested that the supply of vitamin B12 from the mother to the infant, via the placenta during pregnancy and via breast milk after birth, was decreased due to impaired absorption of vitamin B12 in the mother's small intestine. Magnetic resonance imaging of the boy's brain on admission showed cerebral cortex atrophy which had improved by the age of 1 year and 10 months after vitamin B12 treatment, though developmental delay was still evident at the age of 3 years. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency often presents with nonspecific manifestations, such as developmental delay and failure to thrive, in addition to anemia and is thus not easily diagnosed. To prevent severe neurological sequelae, this condition must be rapidly diagnosed, because a prolonged duration increases the risk of permanent disabilities. PMID:26861098

  14. Mathematical Modeling of Glutathione Status in Type 2 Diabetics with Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Karamshetty, Varun; Acharya, Jhankar D.; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Goel, Pranay

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies in vitamin B12 and glutathione (GSH) are associated with a number of diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus. We tested newly diagnosed Indian diabetic patients for correlation between their vitamin B12 and GSH, and found it to be weak. Here we seek to examine the theoretical dependence of GSH on vitamin B12 with a mathematical model of 1-carbon metabolism due to Reed and co-workers. We study the methionine cycle of the Reed-Nijhout model by developing a simple “stylized model” that captures its essential topology and whose kinetics are analytically tractable. The analysis shows—somewhat counter-intuitively—that the flux responsible for the homeostasis of homocysteine is, in fact, peripheral to the methionine cycle. Elevation of homocysteine arises from reduced activity of methionine synthase, a vitamin B12-dependent enzyme, however, this does not increase GSH biosynthesis. The model suggests that the lack of vitamin B12–GSH correlation is explained by suppression of activity in the trans-sulfuration pathway that limits the synthesis of cysteine and GSH from homocysteine. We hypothesize this “cysteine-block” is an essential consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. It can be clinically relevant to appreciate that these secondary effects of vitamin B12 deficiency could be central to its pathophysiology. PMID:27047940

  15. Methylmalonic acid and coenzyme A concentrations in the livers of pair-fed vitamin B12-deficient and vitamin B12-treated sheep

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R. M.; Osborne-White, W. S.; Russell, G. R.

    1969-01-01

    The concentrations of CoA in the livers of severely vitamin B12-deficient ewes were about 2·6 times those in pair-fed animals treated with vitamin B12. When the feeding rates of the pair-fed animals were closely similar, the concentrations of methylmalonic acid in deficient livers were about twice those in vitamin B12-sufficient livers. The molar concentrations of CoA present were more than three times those of methylmalonic acid in both deficient and treated animals, and it is concluded that the elevated concentrations of CoA in the deficient livers were not primarily due to accumulation of methylmalonyl-CoA. PMID:4898195

  16. The effects of exercise training and acute exercise duration on plasma folate and vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam; Hwang, Ji Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Energy production and the rebuilding and repair of muscle tissue by physical activity require folate and vitamin B12 as a cofactor. Thus, this study investigated the effects of regular moderate exercise training and durations of acute aerobic exercise on plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in moderate exercise trained rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Fifty rats underwent non-exercise training (NT, n = 25) and regular exercise training (ET, n = 25) for 5 weeks. The ET group performed moderate exercise on a treadmill for 30 min/day, 5 days/week. At the end of week 5, each group was subdivided into 4 groups: non-exercise and 3 exercise groups. The non-exercise group (E0) was sacrificed without exercising and the 3 exercise groups were sacrificed immediately after exercising on a treadmill for 0.5 h (E0.5), 1 h (E1), and 2 h (E2). Blood samples were collected and plasma folate and vitamin B12 were analyzed. RESULTS After exercise training, plasma folate level was significantly lower and vitamin B12 concentration was significantly higher in the ET group compared with the NT group (P < 0.05). No significant associations were observed between plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations. In both the NT and ET groups, plasma folate and vitamin B12 were not significantly changed by increasing duration of aerobic exercise. Plasma folate concentration of E0.5 was significantly lower in the ET group compared with that in the NT group. Significantly higher vitamin B12 concentrations were observed in the E0 and E0.5 groups of the ET group compared to those of the NT group. CONCLUSION Regular moderate exercise training decreased plasma folate and increased plasma vitamin B12 levels. However, no significant changes in plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were observed by increasing duration of acute aerobic exercise. PMID:27087899

  17. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  18. Vitamin B-12 concentrations in breast milk are low and are not associated with reported household hunger, recent animal source food or vitamin B-12 intake among women in rural Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Breastmilk vitamin B-12 concentration may be inadequate in mothers living in regions where animal source food consumption is low or infrequent. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes megaloglastic anemia and impairs growth and development in children. Objective: To measure vitamin B-12 in breast...

  19. Prevalent vitamin B-12 deficiency in twelve-month-old Guatemalan infants is predicted by maternal B-12 deficiency and infant diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marginal (<148 pmol/L) or deficient (148-220 pmol/L) plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were reported previously in approximately one third of low-income women and children studied in Guatemala. Since vitamin B-12 deficiency can adversely affect infant development and cognitive function, this study ...

  20. Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large datasets.

    PubMed

    Grarup, Niels; Sulem, Patrick; Sandholt, Camilla H; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Bjarnason, Helgi; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Magnusson, Olafur T; Sparsø, Thomas; Albrechtsen, Anders; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Tian, Geng; Cao, Hongzhi; Nie, Chao; Kristiansen, Karsten; Husemoen, Lise Lotte; Thuesen, Betina; Li, Yingrui; Nielsen, Rasmus; Linneberg, Allan; Olafsson, Isleifur; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I; Jørgensen, Torben; Wang, Jun; Hansen, Torben; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefánsson, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf

    2013-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies have mainly relied on common HapMap sequence variations. Recently, sequencing approaches have allowed analysis of low frequency and rare variants in conjunction with common variants, thereby improving the search for functional variants and thus the understanding of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B(12) (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B(12) and folate measurements, respectively. We found six novel loci associating with serum B(12) (CD320, TCN2, ABCD4, MMAA, MMACHC) or folate levels (FOLR3) and confirmed seven loci for these traits (TCN1, FUT6, FUT2, CUBN, CLYBL, MUT, MTHFR). Conditional analyses established that four loci contain additional independent signals. Interestingly, 13 of the 18 identified variants were coding and 11 of the 13 target genes have known functions related to B(12) and folate pathways. Contrary to epidemiological studies we did not find consistent association of the variants with cardiovascular diseases, cancers or Alzheimer's disease although some variants demonstrated pleiotropic effects. Although to some degree impeded by low statistical power for some of these conditions, these data suggest that sequence variants that contribute to the population diversity in serum B(12) or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations. PMID:23754956

  1. 4-Ethylphenyl-Cobalamin Impairs Tissue Uptake of Vitamin B12 and Causes Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, Elena; Ruetz, Markus; Birn, Henrik; Kräutler, Bernhard; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III) alamin (EtPhCbl) is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl) which binds to transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl). In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl suggesting that administration of EtPhCbl may cause cellular Cbl deficiency. Here, we investigate the in vivo effect of EtPhCbl in mice and its ability, if any, to induce Cbl deficiency. We show that EtPhCbl binds to mouse TC and we examined mice that received 3.5 nmol/24h EtPhCbl (n=6), 3.5 nmol/24h CNCbl (n=7) or NaCl (control group) (n=5) through osmotic mini-pumps for four weeks. We analyzed plasma, urine, liver, spleen, submaxillary glands and spinal cord for Cbl and markers of Cbl deficiency including methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (tHcy). Plasma MMA (mean±SEM) was elevated in animals treated with EtPhCbl (1.01±0.12 µmol/L) compared to controls (0.30±0.02 µmol/L) and CNCbl (0.29±0.01 µmol/L) treated animals. The same pattern was observed for tHcy. Plasma total Cbl concentration was higher in animals treated with EtPhCbl (128.82±1.87 nmol/L) than in CNCbl treated animals (87.64±0.93 nmol/L). However, the organ levels of total Cbl were significantly lower in animals treated with EtPhCbl compared to CNCbl treated animals or controls, notably in the liver (157.07±8.56 pmol/g vs. 603.85±20.02 pmol/g, and 443.09±12.32 pmol/g, respectively). Differences between the three groups was analysed using one-way ANOVA and, Bonferroni post-hoc test. EtPhCbl was present in all tissues, except the spinal cord, accounting for 35-90% of total Cbl. In conclusion, treatment with EtPhCbl induces biochemical evidence of Cbl deficiency. This may in part be caused by a compromised tissue accumulation of Cbl. PMID:24073261

  2. [Vitamin B12, folic acid and mental function in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Meertens, Lesbia; Solano, Liseti

    2005-03-01

    Elderly people is a vulnerable population group to specific nutrient deficiencies as vitamin B12 and folic acid, which are closely related to mental functions deterioration, especially of cognitive functions. This study was aimed to measure B12 vitamin and folic acid indicators and to establish relationships to mental function. 53 elderly, older than 60 years, living in a geriatric home were assessed. The dietary intake was evaluated by the direct weighed method, serum B12 vitamin and folic acid by radioimmunoanalysis and mental function by Foltein's mini-mental test. Dietary intake for Vit B12 was adequate and deficient for folic acid while serum levels were within normal range. Vitamin B12 levels were at marginal or deficiency values in 26,4% of the elderly and folic acid deficiency was present in 43.4%. 49% of the elderly had mental function alterations and B12 vitamin levels were significantly lower in this group. A positive association between age and mental function (elderly below 80 years had lower risk of mental impairment) and between serum B12 and mental function were found. Elderly were at risk of deficiency for both vitamins and age and mental function were associated to this risk. Further evaluation including other nutrients should be performed. PMID:15782537

  3. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Charu; Kawatra, Rahul; Gupta, Jaya; Awasthi, Vishnu; Dungana, Homnath

    2016-01-01

    True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases) received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg) weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20) patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS) after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus. PMID:26960786

  4. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charu; Kawatra, Rahul; Gupta, Jaya; Awasthi, Vishnu; Dungana, Homnath

    2016-01-01

    True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases) received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg) weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20) patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS) after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus. PMID:26960786

  5. Vitamin B12, folate and iron levels in primary nocturnal enuresis

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Sebahattin; Zengin, Kürsad; Tanik, Serhat; Daar, Ghaniya; Ozdamar, Mustafa Yasar; Bakirtas, Hasan; Imamoglu, M. Abdurrahim; Gurdal, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Folate, vitamin B12 and iron are important vitamin and minerals which play role in the development of nervous system. The aim of this study was looking at the presence of folate, vitamin B12 and iron deficiency among patients with Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) and possible relation between the delay of central nervous system (CNS) development, PNE and folate, vitamin B12 and iron states. Methods: Consecutively applied forty patients with PNE (23 girls and 17 boys) and otherwise normal thirty control subjects (17 girls and 13 boys) were included in the study. Average ages (in range) of PNE and the control group were 9.2(6-12) years and 9.3 (6-12) years accordingly. Age, height, weight, complete blood count, blood vitamin B12, folate, ferritin and iron values of both groups were recorded and compared to each other. Results: Average vitamin B12 and folate levels of patients with PNE were significantly and statistically lower compared to those of the control group. Average blood iron of patients with PNE was significantly higher than that of the control group and also average ferritin level of the PNE group was detected to be higher than the control group but this relation was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Primary nocturnal enuresis is related to the delay in CNS maturation so it was thought that low vitamin B12 and folate which were found in patients with PNE may have role in the delay of CNS maturation. Additionally, further studies are needed to investigate the role of vitamin B12 and folate either alone or as combination in treatment of patients with PNE who have low vitamin B12and folate level. PMID:25878620

  6. Metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency: a missed opportunity to prevent dementia and stroke.

    PubMed

    Spence, J David

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this narrative review is to highlight insights into the importance and frequency of metabolic vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency, reasons why it is commonly missed, and reasons for the widespread but mistaken belief that treatment of B12 deficiency does not prevent stroke or improve cognitive function. Metabolic B12 deficiency is common, being present in 10%-40% of the population; is frequently missed; is easily treated; and contributes importantly to cognitive decline and stroke in older people. Measuring serum B12 alone is not sufficient for diagnosis; it is necessary to measure holotranscobalamin or functional markers of B12 adequacy such as methylmalonic acid or plasma total homocysteine. B-vitamin therapy with cyanocobalamin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with normal renal function but is harmful (perhaps because of thiocyanate accumulation from cyanide in cyanocobalamin) in patients with renal impairment. Methylcobalamin may be preferable in renal impairment. B12 therapy slowed gray matter atrophy and cognitive decline in the Homocysteine and B Vitamins in Cognitive Impairment Trial. Undiagnosed metabolic B12 deficiency may be an important missed opportunity for prevention of dementia and stroke; in patients with metabolic B12 deficiency, it would be prudent to offer inexpensive and nontoxic supplements of oral B12, preferably methylcobalamin or hydroxycobalamin. Future research is needed to distinguish the effects of thiocyanate from cyanocobalamin on hydrogen sulfide, and effects of treatment with methylcobalamin on cognitive function and stroke, particularly in patients with renal failure. PMID:26597770

  7. Vitamin B12-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles as a drug carrier in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Genç, Lütfi; Kutlu, H Mehtap; Güney, Gamze

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructure-mediated drug delivery, a key technology for the realization of nanomedicine, has the potential to improve drug bioavailability, ameliorate release deviation of drug molecules and enable precision drug targeting. Due to their multifunctional properties, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have received great attention of scientists to find a solution to cancer. Vitamin supplements may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cancer. Vitamin B12 has several characteristics that make it an attractive entity for cancer treatment and possible therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to produce B12-loaded SLNs (B12-SLNs) and determine the cytotoxic effects of B12-SLNs on H-Ras 5RP7 and NIH/3T3 control cell line. Results obtained by MTT assay, transmission electron and confocal microscopy showed that B12-loaded SLNs are more effective than free vitamin B12 on cancer cells. In addition, characterization studies indicate that while the average diameter of the B12 was about 650 nm, B12-SLNs were about 200 nm and the drug release efficiency of vit. B12 by means of SLNs increased up to 3 h. These observations point to the fact that B12-SLNs could be used as carrier systems due to the therapeutic effects on cancer. PMID:24344935

  8. FRACTION OF TOTAL PLASMA VITAMIN B12 BOUND TO TRANSCOBALAMIN CORRELATES WITH COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY LATINOS WITH DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The fraction of total plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC/B12 ratio) may reflect tissue levels of the vitamin, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Methods: associations between cognitive function and total B12, holoTC, and holoTC/B12 ratio were assessed in a cohort of ...

  9. Genetic animal models to decipher the pathogenic effects of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lu; Dreumont, Natacha; Coelho, David; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Arnold, Carole

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin B12 and folate are essential micronutrients that provide methyl groups for cellular methylations through the so-called one-carbon metabolism. Deficits in the absorption and transport or defects of the enzymes can lead to human pathogenesis comprising hematologic, neural, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, cardiovascular and developmental manifestations. One-carbon metabolism is a complex, multistep and multi-organ metabolism, and the understanding of the mechanisms at work have benefited from human inborn errors and population studies, as well as from nutritional animal models. Since 15 years, a wide variety of genetically engineered mice has been developed and has proved to be useful to decipher the underlying mechanisms. These genetically engineered mice target all the genes that are important for the intestinal absorption, cellular transport and metabolism of vitamin B12 and folate, which are detailed in this article. In conclusion, these mouse models represent valuable experimental paradigms for human pathogenesis. Since no animal model recapitulates the full spectrum of a human disease, researchers have to choose the one that is the most relevant for their specific needs, and this review may help in this respect. PMID:27178438

  10. Vitamin B(12) Immunoassay on Roche Elecsys 2010: Effects of High Excess Concentration of Serum Vitamin B(12) in CKD Patients on Parenteral Administration.

    PubMed

    Basu, Surupa; Chaudhuri, Subimal

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin B(12) being water soluble is excreted in the urine when administered in excess. The probability of finding an abnormally excess serum concentration would be almost surreal. We report a peculiar clinical situation that may impact the vitamin B(12) immunoassay on the Roche Elecsys 2010 due to excess analyte concentration. In separate episodes (Feb and June 2010), the Biochemistry laboratory of a tertiary-care hospital, Kolkata, India, encountered two critically ill patients with background chronic kidney disease (CKD), low urine output, and on cyanocoabalamin supplementation, who had serum vitamin B(12) concentrations far exceeding expected values; even post dialysis. The B(12) assays (pmol/l) were performed using electrochemiluminiscence immunoassay on Roche Elecsys 2010, the assay validity confirmed by concomitant quality control runs. The immunoassays failed to deliver results, flagged with "signal level below limit". Biotin therapy was ruled out as a possible interferent. In the first episode, re-assay of a repeat draw yielded same outcome; outsourcing on Immulite provided concentration of >738 pmol/l. Serial dilution gave result of >29520 pmol/l on Elecsys 2010. In the second, we gained from past experience. Vitamin B(12) concentration >59040 pmol/l was conveyed to the treating nephrologist the very day. The B(12) immunoassay on the Elecsys 2010 employs sequential incubation steps for competitive binding that is compromised in the event of abnormally excess B(12) concentration in patient sera akin to the prozone effect. This knowledge may be beneficial while assaying sera of CKD patients to avoid financial loss due unnecessary repeats and delay in turnaround time. PMID:23024480

  11. The use of blood concentrations of vitamins and their respective functional indicators to define folate and vitamin B12 status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the vitamins folic acid and vitamin B12 because of the realization that the status of these vitamins in populations is less than adequate, and that such inadequacy may be linked to adverse public health outcomes. This concern has prompted the United...

  12. Treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency-methylcobalamine? Cyancobalamine? Hydroxocobalamin?-clearing the confusion.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, K; Billa, G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cyancobalamin, Cbl) has two active co-enzyme forms, methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdCbl). There has been a paradigm shift in the treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency such that MeCbl is being extensively used and promoted. This is despite the fact that both MeCbl and AdCbl are essential and have distinct metabolic fates and functions. MeCbl is primarily involved along with folate in hematopiesis and development of the brain during childhood. Whereas deficiency of AdCbl disturbs the carbohydrate, fat and amino-acid metabolism, and hence interferes with the formation of myelin. Thereby, it is important to treat vitamin B12 deficiency with a combination of MeCbl and AdCbl or hydroxocobalamin or Cbl. Regarding the route, it has been proved that the oral route is comparable to the intramuscular route for rectifying vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25117994

  13. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Caksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Buğra; Arslan, Sükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  14. Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neurodevelopment in infants: current knowledge and possible mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Severe vitamin B12 deficiency produces a cluster of neurological symptoms in infants, including irritability, failure to thrive, apathy, anorexia, and developmental regression, which respond remarkably rapidly to supplementation. The underlying mechanisms may involve delayed myelination or demyelina...

  15. Is Metformin-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency Responsible for Cognitive Decline in Type 2 Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Khattar, Deepti; Khaliq, Farah; Vaney, Neelam; Madhu, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has its deleterious effects on various aspects of cognition such as memory function, executive function, and information-processing speed. The present study aims to assess cognition in diabetes patients and also tries to find its association with Vitamin B12 deficiency induced by metformin. Materials and Methods: Thirty diabetics taking metformin and thirty nondiabetic controls were enrolled. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and serum Vitamin B12 levels were evaluated in them. Results: Vitamin B12 levels were found to be deficient, and latencies of waves P200 and P300 were prolonged in the diabetics as compared to the controls. The dose and duration of metformin had no association with the ERPs. Conclusions: Although the Vitamin B12 levels were deficient in diabetics on metformin, this is not the reason behind the cognitive impairment found in them. PMID:27570337

  16. [Folate metabolism--epigenetic role of choline and vitamin B12 during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Drews, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Adequate choline intake during pregnancy is essential for proper fetal development. Nowadays studies suggest that even in high income countries regular pregnant women diet does not provide the satisfactory amount of choline. Choline demand during pregnancy is high and it seems to exceed present choline intake recommendations. Moreover lactation period also demands choline supplementation because of its high concentration in female milk. Numerous studies on animal model proved correlation between choline supplementation during pregnancy and proper fetal cognitive function development. Despite increased synthesis in maternal liver during pregnancy choline demand is much higher than common dietary uptake. Nowadays studies as to the nutritional recommendations during pregnancy concern also vitamin B12 supplementation. Vitamin B12 deficiency may be an important risk factor of neural tube defects development. Presented article contains a review of data on proper choline and vitamin B12 uptake during pregnancy and lactation and potential results of choline and vitamin B12 poor maternal status. PMID:26995945

  17. Biosynthesis of vitamin B12: identity of fragment extruded during ring contraction to the corrin macrocycle.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A R; Bushell, M J; Jones, C; Lewis, N G; Pfenninger, A

    1981-01-01

    Incorporation experiments with labeled sirohydrochlorin and trimethylisobacteriochlorin demonstrate that ring contraction in vivo to the corrin macrocycle of vitamin B12 liberates acetic acid. The C-20 atom of the precursors becomes the acetate carboxyl carbon. PMID:6938990

  18. Improved large-scale production of vitamin B12 by Pseudomonas denitrificans with betaine feeding.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-Tai; Liu, Dong-Hong; Li, Yong-Liang; Chu, Ju; Wang, Yong-Hong; Zhuang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Si-Liang

    2008-11-01

    The strategy of betaine control for vitamin B12 large-scale fermentation by Pseudomonas denitrificans was investigated in this paper. The results obtained in shake-flask experiments demonstrated that betaine could greatly stimulate vitamin B12 biosynthesis but had an inhibition to cell growth. Based on the influence of betaine on the fermentation of P. denitrificans, betaine feeding was a beneficial strategy to solve the inconsistency between cell growth and vitamin B12 production. As a result, an effective and economical strategy of betaine feeding was established for vitamin B12 fermentation in 120-m3 fermenter, in which betaine was continuously fed to maintain betaine concentration of the broth at the range of 5-7g/l during 50-140h of fermentation. PMID:18440227

  19. Quantitation of vitamin B 12 by first-derivative absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karşilayan, Huriye

    1996-08-01

    Quantitation of vitamin B 12 by first-derivative absorption spectroscopy is described. Peak-to-peak (355 nm to 370 nm) amplitudes were measured from the first derivative spectra. The method permits rapid determination of vitamin B 12, and increases the detection limit while decreasing interference by impurities. The effects of the majority of other absorbing macromolecules which may also be present in biological samples are eliminated or very considerably minimized by this method.

  20. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo. PMID:22846211

  1. Associations between Vitamin B-12 Status and Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Vegetarians and Omnivores

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Wang, Ming-Yang; Lin, Mon-Chiou; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is considered an oxidative stress and a chronic inflammatory disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between vitamin B-12 status and oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic vegetarians and omnivores. We enrolled 154 patients with type 2 diabetes (54 vegetarians and 100 omnivores). Levels of fasting glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes activity, and inflammatory makers were measured. Diabetic vegetarians with higher levels of vitamin B-12 (>250 pmol/L) had significantly lower levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and higher antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase) than those with lower levels of vitamin B-12 (≤250 pmol/L). A significant association was found between vitamin B-12 status and fasting glucose (r = −0.17, p = 0.03), HbA1c (r = −0.33, p = 0.02), oxidative stress (oxidized low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, r = −0.19, p = 0.03), and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, r = 0.28, p = 0.01) in the diabetic vegetarians; vitamin B-12 status was significantly correlated with inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, r = −0.33, p < 0.01) in diabetic omnivores. As a result, we suggest that it is necessary to monitor the levels of vitamin B-12 in patients with diabetes, particularly those adhering to a vegetarian diet. PMID:26927168

  2. Hyperhomocysteinemia, deep vein thrombosis and vitamin B12 deficiency in a metformin-treated diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Chung, Chih-Yuan; Chang, Cheng-Shyong; Wang, Ming-Lun; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Shen, Ming-Ching

    2007-09-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency may be induced by long-term use of metformin, which may in turn lead to hyperhomocysteinemia. Thus, hyperhomocysteinemia may increase the risk of vascular thrombosis in diabetic patients, when metformin is used and a homozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation is present. We report a 65-year-old Taiwanese diabetic woman who was treated with metformin for 6 years and who had suffered from swelling of the left lower extremity for 3 months. Ascending venography confirmed the diagnosis of proximal deep vein thrombosis, while hyperhomocysteinemia, megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, and a homozygous C677T mutation of the MTHFR gene were also found. She had no identifiable venous thrombotic risk factors other than hyperhomocysteinemia, which seemed to be caused by both MTHFR C677T homozygous mutation and vitamin B12 deficiency. With the substitution of insulin injection for metformin, short-term supplement of vitamin B12, and anticoagulant therapy for the deep vein thrombosis, her anemia and hyperhomocysteinemia recovered rapidly. The deep vein thrombosis also responded well. Our findings highly suggested the role of metformin in causing vitamin B12 deficiency, which may serve as an additional risk factor for venous thrombosis in diabetic patients. Our report also highlights the need to check vitamin B12 levels during metformin treatment. PMID:17908667

  3. Associations between Homocysteine, Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Alzheimer's Disease: Insights from Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The associations between homocysteine (Hcy), folic acid, and vitamin B12 and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have gained much interest, while remaining controversial. We aim to perform meta-analyses to evaluate comprehensively: i) Hcy, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels in AD patients in comparison with controls; and ii) the association between Hcy, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels and risk of AD. A literature search was performed using Medline and Scopus databases. A total of 68 studies were identified and included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analyses. First, AD patients may have higher level of Hcy, and lower levels of folate and vitamin B12 in plasma than controls. Further age-subgroup analysis showed no age effect for Hcy levels in plasma between AD patients and matched controls, while the differences in folate and vitamin B12 levels further enlarged with increased age. Second, data suggests that high Hcy and low folate levels may correlate with increased risk of AD occurrence. The comprehensive meta-analyses not only confirmed higher Hcy, lower folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels in AD patients than controls, but also implicated that high Hcy and low folic acid levels may be risk factors of AD. Further studies are encouraged to elucidate mechanisms linking these conditions. PMID:25854931

  4. Associations between Vitamin B-12 Status and Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Vegetarians and Omnivores.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Wang, Ming-Yang; Lin, Mon-Chiou; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes is considered an oxidative stress and a chronic inflammatory disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between vitamin B-12 status and oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic vegetarians and omnivores. We enrolled 154 patients with type 2 diabetes (54 vegetarians and 100 omnivores). Levels of fasting glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes activity, and inflammatory makers were measured. Diabetic vegetarians with higher levels of vitamin B-12 (>250 pmol/L) had significantly lower levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and higher antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase) than those with lower levels of vitamin B-12 (≤ 250 pmol/L). A significant association was found between vitamin B-12 status and fasting glucose (r = -0.17, p = 0.03), HbA1c (r = -0.33, p = 0.02), oxidative stress (oxidized low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, r = -0.19, p = 0.03), and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, r = 0.28, p = 0.01) in the diabetic vegetarians; vitamin B-12 status was significantly correlated with inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, r = -0.33, p < 0.01) in diabetic omnivores. As a result, we suggest that it is necessary to monitor the levels of vitamin B-12 in patients with diabetes, particularly those adhering to a vegetarian diet. PMID:26927168

  5. Investigation of a vitamin B12 conjugate as a PET imaging probe.

    PubMed

    Ikotun, Oluwatayo F; Marquez, Bernadette V; Fazen, Christopher H; Kahkoska, Anna R; Doyle, Robert P; Lapi, Suzanne E

    2014-06-01

    Nutrient demand is a fundamental characteristic of rapidly proliferating cells. Vitamin B12 is vital for cell proliferation; thus neoplastic cells have an increased demand for this essential nutrient. In this study we exploited the vitamin B12 uptake pathway to probe the nutritional demand of proliferating cells with a radiolabeled B12 derivative in various preclinical tumor models. We describe the synthesis and biological evaluations of copper-64-labeled B12 -ethylenediamine-benzyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (B12 -en-Bn-NOTA-(64) Cu), the first example of a B12 derivative for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Small-animal imaging and pharmacological evaluation show high tumor uptake ranging from 2.20 to 4.84% ID g(-1) at 6 h post-administration. Competition studies with excess native B12 resulted in a 95% decrease in tumor accumulation, indicating the specificity of this radiopharmaceutical for B12 endocytotic transport proteins. These results show that a vitamin B12 PET radiopharmaceutical has potential utility for non-invasive imaging of enhanced nutrient demand in proliferating cells. PMID:24753453

  6. Vitamin B12-dependent propionate production by the ruminal bacterium Prevotella ruminicola 23.

    PubMed

    Strobel, H J

    1992-07-01

    When Prevotella ruminicola 23 was grown in a defined medium containing a vitamin mixture, significant amounts of propionate were formed. Succinate and acetate were the major fermentation acids produced when vitamins were omitted, and further experiments demonstrated that propionate formation was dependent on vitamin B12. When the organism was grown in continuous culture at dilution rates of less than 0.20 h-1, propionate and acetate were the predominant fermentation products and little succinate was formed when vitamin B12 was present. However, at higher dilution rates, propionate formation declined and succinate accumulated. Since cell protein yields were reduced 15 to 25% in the absence of vitamin B12, the pathway for propionate formation may contain an energy-conserving step. PMID:1637169

  7. Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in middle and older age: The HAPIEE study

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Pia; Gardiner, Julian; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Schöttker, Ben; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Jansen, Eugene; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutrient status of B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamin B-12, may be related to cognitive ageing but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the association of serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations with cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults from three Central and Eastern European populations. Methods Men and women aged 45–69 at baseline participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study were recruited in Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six urban centres in the Czech Republic. Tests of immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency and letter search were administered at baseline and repeated in 2006–2008. Serum concentrations of biomarkers at baseline were measured in a sub-sample of participants. Associations of vitamin quartiles with baseline (n = 4166) and follow-up (n = 2739) cognitive domain-specific z-scores were estimated using multiple linear regression. Results After adjusting for confounders, folate was positively associated with letter search and vitamin B-12 with word recall in cross-sectional analyses. In prospective analyses, participants in the highest quartile of folate had higher verbal fluency (p < 0.01) and immediate recall (p < 0.05) scores compared to those in the bottom quartile. In addition, participants in the highest quartile of vitamin B-12 had significantly higher verbal fluency scores (β = 0.12; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21). Conclusions Folate and vitamin B-12 were positively associated with performance in some but not all cognitive domains in older Central and Eastern Europeans. These findings do not lend unequivocal support to potential importance of folate and vitamin B-12 status for cognitive function in older age. Long-term longitudinal studies and randomised trials are required before drawing conclusions on the role of these vitamins in cognitive decline. PMID:26808046

  8. Rare sensory and autonomic disturbances associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Puntambekar, Preeti; Basha, Maysaa M; Zak, Imad T; Madhavan, Ramesh

    2009-12-15

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is an important nutritional disorder causing neurological manifestations of myelopathy, neuropathy and dementia. Sub-acute combined degeneration (SCD) with involvement of the posterior columns in the cervical and thoracic cord is a common presentation of this disorder. In this case report, we describe a 43 year old woman with pernicious anemia and myelopathy with atypical clinical features. The patient presented with motor symptoms, a sensory level and bladder dysfunction. She had severe autonomic disturbances including an episode of unexplained bronchospasm, which has not been previously reported as a manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. We review the literature regarding these rarely reported features of vitamin B12 deficiency, and discuss aspects of management of this reversible condition. We emphasize the importance of awareness of autonomic disturbances in B12 deficient individuals. PMID:19720386

  9. Effect of amino acid availability on vitamin B12 production in Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Santos, Filipe; Teusink, Bas; Molenaar, Douwe; van Heck, Maurice; Wels, Michiel; Sieuwerts, Sander; de Vos, Willem M; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2009-06-01

    Recent functional genomics and genome-scale modeling approaches indicated that B(12) production in Lactobacillus reuteri could be improved by optimization of the medium. Here we show that a series of systematic single-amino-acid omissions could significantly modulate the production of B(12) from nearly undetectable levels (with omission of isoleucine) to levels 20-fold higher than the levels previously reported (with omission of cysteine). Using cDNA microarray experiments, we analyzed the transcriptional response of L. reuteri to medium lacking cysteine. The results supported the observed high level of B(12) production and provided new avenues for future improvement of production of vitamin B(12). PMID:19376900

  10. Enhancing vitamin B12 content in soy-yogurt by Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Song, Dafeng; Li, Ping; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-08-01

    More attention from the aged and vegetarians has been paid to soy-product due to its taste, easy digestibility, as well as the association with health. However, soy-product has a defect of low vitamin content, mainly the water-soluble vitamin B12. This study was to investigate co-fermentation of glycerol and fructose in soy-yogurt to enhance vitamin B12 production by Lactobacillus reuteri. After a serial combination experiments, the co-fermentation was confirmed to enhance the production of vitamin B12 up to 18 μg/100mL. Both supplementations induced the expression of cobT and cbiA and functioned to balance the redox reaction. Meanwhile, high content of fructose supplementation reduced the production of vitamin B12 and suppressed expression of cobT in bacteria. It was proved that the vitamin B12 content of this soy-yogurt is higher than other fermented soybean based food and thus can be served as an alternative food for the aged and vegetarians. PMID:25955289

  11. Folate and vitamin B12 status of adolescent girls in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    VanderJagt, D. J.; Spelman, K.; Ambe, J.; Datta, P.; Blackwell, W.; Crossey, M.; Glew, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    The diets of populations in many developing countries are low in folate and vitamin B12 and a deficiency of either of these vitamins results in increased risk for cardiovascular disease and neural tube defects. The rates of neural tube defects in Nigeria are among the highest reported worldwide. Since many girls marry at an early age in northern Nigeria, we therefore determined the folate and vitamin B12 status of adolescent girls between 12 and 16 years of age in Maiduguri, Nigeria. The mean serum folate concentration for subjects was 15.3 +/- 5.2 nmol/L. Whereas only four subjects (2.4%) had serum folate concentrations lower than 6.8 nmol/L, a level indicative of negative folate balance, 9% of the subjects had serum vitamin B12 concentrations at or below 134 pmol/L, the lower limit of the reference range for their age group. Serum homocysteine was measured in 56 of the 162 subjects and the mean level was 15.9 +/- 5.0 mumol/L. The majority of subjects had serum homocysteine concentrations above the upper limit of the reference range for their age group. We conclude that the adolescent girls we studied were at greater risk for vitamin B12 deficiency than folate deficiency. This conclusion is consistent with the fact that their diet included few foods that contained vitamin B12. PMID:10946529

  12. The role of vitamin B 12 and its transport globulins in the production of antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Hitzig, W H; Kenny, A B

    1975-01-01

    Immunological functions were repeatedly tested in a patient with hereditary deficiency of transcobalamin II (TC II): he was unable to synthesize immunoglobulins and specific antibodies, but was able to do so normally after injection of high doses of vitamin B 12 (1000 mug per week). Lymphocytes (B and T) were present in normal numbers prior to therapy, thus indicating normal differentiation of stem cells. In contrast, clonal expansion, necessary for immunoglobulin production, was possible only after vitamin B 12 administration. These observations, as well as the well known disturbances in haemopoiesis, indicate that vitamin B 12 is indispensable to rapidly replicating tissues, and that a severe deficiency of this vitamin in the cells can result from the absence of TC II. PMID:128427

  13. Revisiting Metformin: Annual Vitamin B12 Supplementation may become Mandatory with Long-Term Metformin Use.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, R; Gupta, K

    2010-10-01

    Monitoring of adverse drug reactions of a drug is a continuous process and runs through-out the life of a drug. Many rare adverse effects of a drug are documented after years of use; when a single case (signal generation) is reported leading subsequently to reporting of more cases. Deficiency of Vitamin B12 (vit B(12)) is a known sequel of prolonged metformin therapy. It was recommended to have annual measurement of serum vit B(12) levels in patients on long term metformin therapy way back in 1970 itself. After more than 50 years of use of metformin, we have come to know that metformin induced vit B(12) deficiency can cause neuropathy; forcing to change the recommendation from annual screening of vit B(12) levels to annual supplementation of vit B(12). PMID:21264109

  14. When the picture is fragmented: Vitamin B12 deficiency masquerading as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

    PubMed Central

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S.; Patil, Pradnya D.; Riley, Elizabeth C.; Mitchell, Charlene K.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) has high mortality and necessitates prompt recognition of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) and initiation of plasmapheresis. We present a challenging diagnostic workup and management of a 42-year-old man who presented with anemia, thrombocytopenia, and schistocytes on peripheral smear, all pointing to MAHA. Plasmapheresis and steroid therapy were promptly initiated, but hemolysis continued. Further workup showed megaloblastic anemia, severe Vitamin B12 deficiency, high iron saturation, and absent reticulocytosis, none of which could be explained by TTP. Severe Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to hemolytic anemia from the destruction of red cells in the marrow that have failed the process of maturation. However, this should not cause thrombotic microangiopathy. Previous reports of B12 deficiency presenting with MAHA and a TTP-like manifestation have identified acute hyperhomocysteinemia as a missing link between B12 deficiency and MAHA, so this possibility was further explored. Our patient similarly had significantly elevated serum homocysteine levels, confirming this suspicion of Vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 replacement led to normalization of the elevated levels of homocysteine, the disappearance of schistocytes on the peripheral smear, and resolution of the microangiopathic hemolysis, thereby confirming the diagnosis. It is pertinent that intensivists not only know the importance of early recognition and treatment of TTP but are also familiar with rare conditions that can present in a similar fashion. PMID:27308258

  15. When the picture is fragmented: Vitamin B12 deficiency masquerading as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Patil, Pradnya D; Riley, Elizabeth C; Mitchell, Charlene K

    2016-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) has high mortality and necessitates prompt recognition of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) and initiation of plasmapheresis. We present a challenging diagnostic workup and management of a 42-year-old man who presented with anemia, thrombocytopenia, and schistocytes on peripheral smear, all pointing to MAHA. Plasmapheresis and steroid therapy were promptly initiated, but hemolysis continued. Further workup showed megaloblastic anemia, severe Vitamin B12 deficiency, high iron saturation, and absent reticulocytosis, none of which could be explained by TTP. Severe Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to hemolytic anemia from the destruction of red cells in the marrow that have failed the process of maturation. However, this should not cause thrombotic microangiopathy. Previous reports of B12 deficiency presenting with MAHA and a TTP-like manifestation have identified acute hyperhomocysteinemia as a missing link between B12 deficiency and MAHA, so this possibility was further explored. Our patient similarly had significantly elevated serum homocysteine levels, confirming this suspicion of Vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 replacement led to normalization of the elevated levels of homocysteine, the disappearance of schistocytes on the peripheral smear, and resolution of the microangiopathic hemolysis, thereby confirming the diagnosis. It is pertinent that intensivists not only know the importance of early recognition and treatment of TTP but are also familiar with rare conditions that can present in a similar fashion. PMID:27308258

  16. Metabolic engineering of cobalamin (vitamin B12) production in Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Biedendieck, Rebekka; Malten, Marco; Barg, Heiko; Bunk, Boyke; Martens, Jan-Henning; Deery, Evelyne; Leech, Helen; Warren, Martin J; Jahn, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) production in Bacillus megaterium has served as a model system for the systematic evaluation of single and multiple directed molecular and genetic optimization strategies. Plasmid and genome-based overexpression of genes involved in vitamin B(12) biosynthesis, including cbiX, sirA, modified hemA, the operons hemAXCDBL and cbiXJCDETLFGAcysG(A)cbiYbtuR, and the regulatory gene fnr, significantly increased cobalamin production. To reduce flux along the heme branch of the tetrapyrrole pathway, an antisense RNA strategy involving silencing of the hemZ gene encoding coproporphyrinogen III oxidase was successfully employed. Feedback inhibition of the initial enzyme of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, HemA, by heme was overcome by stabilized enzyme overproduction. Similarly, the removal of the B(12) riboswitch upstream of the cbiXJCDETLFGAcysG(A)cbiYbtuR operon and the recombinant production of three different vitamin B(12) binding proteins (glutamate mutase GlmS, ribonucleotide triphosphate reductase RtpR and methionine synthase MetH) partly abolished B(12)-dependent feedback inhibition. All these strategies increased cobalamin production in B. megaterium. Finally, combinations of these strategies enhanced the overall intracellular vitamin B(12) concentrations but also reduced the volumetric cellular amounts by placing the organism under metabolic stress. PMID:21255303

  17. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lian-Hua; Quan, Zhen-Yu; Piao, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Meng-Hui; Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su

    2016-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients' clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15-0.60), 0.33 (0.17-0.65), and 0.19 (0.09-0.38). Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02-3.98). HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels), whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results. PMID:27376276

  18. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lian-Hua; Quan, Zhen-Yu; Piao, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Meng-Hui; Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su

    2016-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients’ clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15–0.60), 0.33 (0.17–0.65), and 0.19 (0.09–0.38). Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02–3.98). HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels), whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results. PMID:27376276

  19. Unraveling Vitamin B12-Responsive Gene Regulation in Algae1[W

    PubMed Central

    Helliwell, Katherine E.; Scaife, Mark A.; Sasso, Severin; Araujo, Ana Paula Ulian; Purton, Saul; Smith, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae play a vital role in primary productivity and biogeochemical cycling in both marine and freshwater systems across the globe. However, the growth of these cosmopolitan organisms depends on the bioavailability of nutrients such as vitamins. Approximately one-half of all microalgal species requires vitamin B12 as a growth supplement. The major determinant of algal B12 requirements is defined by the isoform of methionine synthase possessed by an alga, such that the presence of the B12-independent methionine synthase (METE) enables growth without this vitamin. Moreover, the widespread but phylogenetically unrelated distribution of B12 auxotrophy across the algal lineages suggests that the METE gene has been lost multiple times in evolution. Given that METE expression is repressed by the presence of B12, prolonged repression by a reliable source of the vitamin could lead to the accumulation of mutations and eventually gene loss. Here, we probe METE gene regulation by B12 and methionine/folate cycle metabolites in both marine and freshwater microalgal species. In addition, we identify a B12-responsive element of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii METE using a reporter gene approach. We show that complete repression of the reporter occurs via a region spanning −574 to −90 bp upstream of the METE start codon. A proteomics study reveals that two other genes (S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase2) involved in the methionine-folate cycle are also repressed by B12 in C. reinhardtii. The strong repressible nature and high sensitivity of the B12-responsive element has promising biotechnological applications as a cost-effective regulatory gene expression tool. PMID:24627342

  20. Intergenotypic variation of Vitamin B12 and Folate in AD: In north indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chhillar, Neelam; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Bala, Kiran; Basu, Mitra; Sharma, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Changes in lifestyle habits such as diet modification or supplementation have been indicated as probable protective factors for a number of chronic conditions including Alzheimer's disease (AD). With this background, we aim to hypothesize that whether C677T polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene contributes towards the risk of developing AD and its association with vitamin B12 and folate levels. Materials and Methods: A case-control study comprising of total 200 subjects, within the age group of 50-85 years. Their blood samples were analyzed for serum folate, vitamin B12 levels, and MTHFR C677T polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: The mean plasma levels of vitamin B12 and folate were significantly lower in study group when compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Genotypic and allelic frequency of MTHFR gene in both groups was found to be significant (P < 0.05). The intergenotypic variations of vitamin B12 and folate were found to be significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: We concluded that the subjects with homozygous mutated alleles are more prone to AD and also pointed out the influence of presence/absence of MTHFR T allelic variants on serum folate and vitamin B12 levels. PMID:25221401

  1. Vitamin B12 levels of subjects aged 0-24 year(s) in Konya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akin, Fatih; Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-12-01

    Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  2. A case of vitamin B12 deficiency with involuntary movements and bilateral basal ganglia lesions.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Taisuke; Gotoh, Seiji; Takaki, Hayato; Kiyuna, Fumi; Yoshimura, Sohei; Fujii, Kenichiro

    2016-07-28

    An 86-year-old woman with a one-year history of dementia was admitted to our hospital complaining of loss of appetite, hallucinations, and disturbance of consciousness. She gradually presented with chorea-like involuntary movements of the extremities. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral symmetrical hyperintense signals in the basal ganglia. The serum vitamin B12 level was below the lower detection limit of 50 pg/ml. The homocysteine level was markedly elevated at 115.8 nmol/ml. Anti-intrinsic factor and anti-parietal cell antibody tests were positive. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed atrophic gastritis. The patient was diagnosed with encephalopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by pernicious anemia. Involuntary movements and MRI abnormalities improved with parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation. Bilateral basal ganglia lesions are rare manifestations of adult vitamin B12 deficiency. The present case is considered valuable in identifying the pathophysiology of involuntary movement due to vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27356735

  3. Stability of added and in situ-produced vitamin B12 in breadmaking.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Minnamari; Chamlagain, Bhawani; Santin, Marco; Kariluoto, Susanna; Piironen, Vieno

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B12 exists naturally in foods of animal origin and is synthesised only by certain bacteria. New food sources are needed to ensure vitamin B12 intake in risk groups. This study aimed to investigate the stability of added cyanocobalamin (CNCbl, chemically modified form) and hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl, natural form) and in situ-synthesised vitamin B12 in breadmaking. Samples were analysed both with a microbiological (MBA) and a liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method to test applicability of these two methods. Proofing did not affect CNCbl and OHCbl levels. By contrast, 21% and 31% of OHCbl was lost in oven-baking steps in straight- and sponge-dough processes, respectively, whereas CNCbl remained almost stable. In sourdough baking, 23% of CNCbl and 44% of OHCbl were lost. In situ-produced vitamin B12 was almost as stable as added CNCbl and more stable than OHCbl. The UHPLC method showed its superiority to the MBA in determining the active vitamin B12. PMID:26988471

  4. Pseudo-Foster Kennedy Syndrome as a Rare Presentation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Petramfar, Peyman; Hosseinzadeh, Farideh; Mohammadi, S. Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pseudo-Foster Kennedy syndrome is a triad consisting of ipsilateral optic atrophy, contralateral optic disc edema, and ipsilateral anosmia in the absence of an intracranial mass. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in DNA synthesis, and its deficiency causes peripheral neuropathy, myeloneuropathy, and, very rarely, optic neuropathy. Case Presentation In this study, we describe a 34-year-old male who presented with progressive loss of visual acuity and field. Fundoscopy showed optic disc edema with telangiectasia in the right eye, while the left eye had optic disc atrophy. We ruled out nearly all possible and common causes of optic neuropathy, and vitamin B12 deficiency was finally diagnosed. After treatment with vitamin B12, the patient improved. Conclusions Demyelinating disease, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, autoimmune disease, and hereditary optic neuropathy could cause optic neuropathy. Normal CBC parameters and the absence of clinical manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency could not rule out its diagnosis. Careful physical examinations and history-taking with a classical approach led us to the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency and its treatment. PMID:27621919

  5. Vitamin B12 Levels of Subjects Aged 0-24 Year(s) in Konya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  6. The nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 of Buddhist vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 in vegetarians were assessed and compared with those of non- vegetarians in Korea. The vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns who ate no animal source food except for dairy products. The non-vegetarians were divided into two groups: 31 Catholic nuns and 31 female college students. Three-day dietary records were completed, and the blood samples were collected for analyzing a complete blood count, and serum levels of ferritin, folate, and vitamin B-12. There was no difference in hemoglobin among the diet groups. The serum ferritin and hematocrit levels of vegetarians did not differ from that of non- vegetarian students with a high intake of animal source food but low intake of vitamin C, and the levels were lower than that of non-vegetarian Catholic nuns with a modest consumption of animal source food and a high intake of vitamin C. The serum vitamin B-12 levels of all subjects except one vegetarian and the serum folate levels of all subjects except one non-vegetarian student fell within a normal range. In vegetarians, there was a positive correlation between the vitamin C intake and serum ferritin levels as well as between the laver intake and serum vitamin B-12 levels. In order to achieve an optimal iron status, both an adequate amount of iron intake and its bioavailability should be considered. Sufficient intake of vegetables and fruits was reflected in adequate serum folate status. Korean laver can be a good source of vitamin B-12 for vegetarians. PMID:21393109

  7. Isolated cerebellar involvement in vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Dubey, Rachana; Gulati, Sheffali; Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Atin

    2014-11-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 causes megaloblastic anemia and nervous system demyelination. Structures affected in the nervous system include spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerves, and brain white matter. A 9-year-old boy presented with knuckle hyperpigmentation and oral ulcers for 3 years, pallor and easy fatigability for 6 months, gait abnormalities for 3 months, and abnormal speech and behavioral abnormalities for 3 days. On examination, he had physical signs of megaloblastic anemia, mood swings with intermittent hallucinations, and features of cerebellar impairment. Blood investigations revealed megaloblastic anemia, and pernicious anemia was ruled out. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral cerebellar signal changes. He received treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency and appropriate nutritional counseling. Three months later, he showed significant clinical and radiologic resolution. To our knowledge, isolated cerebellar involvement as the sole neurologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency has not been described previously in children. PMID:24346315

  8. [Neurological disorders related to vitamin B12 deficiency in prisons in Guinea: a 22-case study].

    PubMed

    Cisse, F A; Bah, H; Konate, F; Camara, N; Camara, M I; Conde, K; Kassory, I F B; Sanogo, A; Diakhate, I; Cisse, A

    2013-08-01

    Neurological disorders related to vitamin B12 deficiency are common in prisons of tropical Africa. We collected 22 cases (20 men and 2 women). They all showed vitamin B12 deficiency associated with neurological signs that were represented by sclerosis combined with bone marrow (n = 9), peripheral neuropathy (n = 6), cerebellar syndrome (n = 2), a pyramidal syndrome of the lower limbs (n = 4) and optic neuropathy (n = 1). Laboratory tests showed a mean hemoglobin concentration of 7.2 ± 1.5 g/dl, mean 104 ± 28 fl, macrocytic anemia in 10 patients. Biermer's disease was identified in 9 patients, 3 patients showed the syndrome of non dissociation of vitamin B12, a gastrectomy in 2 patients and no etiology was identified in 8 patients. PMID:23793871

  9. Nutritional value of meat: the influence of nutrition and physical activity on vitamin B12 concentrations in ruminant tissues.

    PubMed

    Ortigues-Marty, Isabelle; Micol, Didier; Prache, Sophie; Dozias, Dominique; Girard, Christiane L

    2005-01-01

    An important nutritional characteristic of ruminant meat is its high content in vitamin B12. The variability of these contents is not known. Three studies were been set up in order to test the influence of the animal species (2 studies on Charolais steers slaughtered at 30-32 months of age, n = 24 and n = 30 and a third one on lambs slaughtered at 4.5 months of age, n = 21), of the nature of the diet (grass vs. maize silage, lucerne or concentrate diets) and of physical activity (without or with walking) on the vitamin B12 contents of different muscle types (rather oxidative (Rectus Abdominis, RA), intermediate (Longissimus Dorsi, LD), or glycolytic (Semi Tendinosus, ST)) and on the liver. The animals were supplemented in macro and trace minerals according to usual feeding practices in France in order to theoretically avoid any risk of deficiency. For this reason, cobalt allowances, which are necessary for the ruminal synthesis of vitamin B12, could differ among treatments. The results indicate the following: (1) cobalt allowances varied widely among treatments, from (sub-)deficient to plethoric allowances, influencing vitamin B12 contents of the liver, and muscles (only in case of deficiency), (2) the effects of dietary treatments or of physical exercise were essentially related to differences in cobalt allowances, (3) the oxidative type muscle (RA) showed contents which were double those in glycolytic type muscle (RA 10.8 vs. ST 5.0 ng.g(-1)) and (4) vitamin B12 contents of raw muscles were lower than the values indicated in tables of feed composition for humans for cooked meat (0.5 to 1 vs. 2 to 3 microg.100 g(-1)). PMID:16045893

  10. Effect of Yeast Extract and Vitamin B(12) on Ethanol Production from Cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Goto, S; Yonemura, S; Sekine, K; Okuma, E; Takagi, Y; Hon-Nami, K; Saiki, T

    1992-02-01

    Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B(12), biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B(12) alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20. PMID:16348657

  11. NutriPhone: vitamin B12 testing on your smartphone (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seoho; O'Dell, Dakota; Hohenstein, Jessica; Colt, Susannah; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is the leading cause of cognitive decline in the elderly and is associated with increased risks of several acute and chronic conditions including anemia. The deficiency is prevalent among the world population, most of whom are unaware of their condition due to the lack of a simple diagnostics system. Recent advancements in the smartphone-enabled mobile health can help address this problem by making the deficiency tests more accessible. Previously, our group has demonstrated the NutriPhone, a smartphone platform for the accurate quantification of vitamin D levels. The NutriPhone technology comprises of a disposable test strip that performs a colorimetric reaction upon collecting a sample, a reusable accessory that interfaces with the smartphone camera, and a smartphone app that stores the algorithm for analyzing the test-strip reaction. In this work, we show that the NutriPhone can be expanded to measure vitamin B12 concentrations by developing a lateral flow assay for B12 that is compatible with our NutriPhone system. Our novel vitamin B12 assay incorporates blood sample processing and key reagent storage on-chip, which advances it into a sample-in-answer-out format that is suitable for point-of-care diagnostic applications. In order to enable the detection of pM levels of vitamin B12 levels, silver amplification of the initial signal is used within the total assay time of less than 15 minutes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our NutriPhone system by deploying it in a resource-limited clinical setting in India where it is used to test tens of participants for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  12. [A case of subacute combined degeneration with normal serum vitamin B12 level].

    PubMed

    Nagaishi, Akiko; Takashima, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Yasuo; Kuroda, Yasuo

    2003-09-01

    A 40-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of pancytopenia with megaloblastic anemia. Two months later she complained of rapidly progressive gait disturbance and numbness in the distal part of limbs. She also told that her hair had turned totally gray in the third decade. Neurologically, mental state, cranial nerves and cerebellar functions were normal. Superficial sensations were impaired below the lower thoracic level and deep sensations were completely lost in the lower limbs. Moderate weakness was found in the lower limbs, symmetrically. Deep tendon reflexes were diminished in the upper limbs and absent in the lower limbs. Babinski's reflex was positive bilaterally. MR images of the spinal cord showed hyperintensity in the posterior column below the thoracic cord. Although the serum level of vitamin B12 was within normal range, serum homocysteine level was elevated markedly. Under the diagnosis of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) due to possible vitamin B12 deficiency, the treatment with intravenous injections of 500 micrograms/day of mecobalamin was undertaken. Muscle strength and sensory impairment improved progressively and she became able to walk with a cane. The coloration of her gray hair was also noted. After treatment, pancytopenia and megaloblastic anemia also markedly improved. Vitamin B12 became high in serum concentration and the serum level of homocysteine became normal. These clinical and laboratory findings support the diagnosis of SCD with normal serum level of vitamin B12 in our case, suggesting that the level of vitamin B12 in serum does not always correlate with that in tissue and, therefore, SCD should not be excluded just only by the reason of normal serum vitamin B12 level. PMID:14727562

  13. Effects of vitamin B12 on the corneal nerve regeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Romano, Maria Rosaria; Biagioni, Francesca; Carrizzo, Albino; Lorusso, Massimo; Spadaro, Angelo; Micelli Ferrari, Tommaso; Vecchione, Carmine; Zurria, Monia; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Mascio, Giada; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Madonna, Michele; Fornai, Francesco; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Lograno, Marcello Diego

    2014-03-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effects of a new ophthalmic solution containing 0.05% vitamin B12 0.05% on corneal nerve regeneration in rats after corneal injury. Eyes of anesthetized male Wistar rats were subjected to corneal injury by removing the corneal epithelium with corneal brush (Algerbrush). After the epithelial debridement, the right eye of each animal received the instillation of one drop of the ophthalmic solution containing vitamin B12 0.05% plus taurine 0.5% and sodium hyaluronate 0.5% four time per day for 10 or 30 days. Left eyes were used as control and treated with solution containing taurine 0.5% and sodium hyaluronate 0.5% alone following the same regimen. Fluorescein staining by slit-lamp and morphological analysis was used to determine corneal wound healing. Immunohistochemistry, immunoblot and confocal microscopy were used to examine corneal re-innervation. Slit-lamp and histological analyses showed that re-epithelization of the corneas was accelerated in rats treated with vitamin B12. A clear-cut difference between the two groups of rats was seen after 10 days of treatment, whereas a near-to-complete re-epithelization was observed in both groups at 30 days. Vitamin B12 treatment had also a remarkable effect on corneal re-innervation, as shown by substantial increased in the expression of neurofilament 160 and β-III tubulin at both 10 and 30 days. The presence of SV2A-positive nerve endings suggests the presence of synapse-like specialized structures in corneal epithelium of the eye treated with vitamin B12. Our findings suggest that vitamin B12 treatment represents a powerful strategy to accelerate not only re-epithelization but also corneal re-innervation after mechanical injury. PMID:24486457

  14. [Determination of serum vitamin B12 and folic acid by non boil (new standard) radioassay].

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Y; Tuchii, K; Endo, N; Ikeda, R; Yasuda, K

    1994-06-01

    On purpose to study the radioassay of serum vitamin B12 and folic acid using non boil methods in with these two vitamins were released from their endogenous binding proteins with alkaline denaturation and separated the bound vitamins from the free ones with the magnetic iron particles coated these vitamin binders (purified hog intrinsic factor and beta-lactoglobulin from cow milk) were evaluated on precision and accuracy, compared with boil radioassay. 1. The reproducibilities of non boil method were 4.5 +/- 2.5% on vit. B12 and 3.5 +/- 0.2% on folate (n = 10), respectively. 2. The recovery test of the two serum vitamins with the use of cyanocobalamin and pteroylglutamic acid (J.P.) were finely showed the rations of 95.2-99.0% for vit. B12 and 101.0-108.0% for folic acid. And that of folic acid use of 5-methyl-tetrahydro-pteroylglutamic acid was showed the ratios of 101.0-104.0%. The values of folic acid measured by this method were found slightly higher than non boil method using conventional standard. 3. The correlation coefficient between non boil method and boil method were 0.987 and regression equation was showed y = 0.97x + 73.59 for vit. B12 (n = 75) and r = 0.932, y = 1.02x-0.08 (n = 78) for folic acid. 4. Normal range of serum total vit. B12 concentration was 210-920 (484 +/- 160 pg/ml, n = 259) and that of folic acid was 2.5-9.2 (5.2 +/- 1.4 ng/ml, n = 257), as well as boil method. 5. Accordingly it was considered that non boil (new standard) method was excellent for estimation of vitamin B12 and folic acid clinical status. PMID:8072237

  15. Decreased vitamin B12 availability induces ER stress through impaired SIRT1-deacetylation of HSF1

    PubMed Central

    Ghemrawi, R; Pooya, S; Lorentz, S; Gauchotte, G; Arnold, C; Gueant, J-L; Battaglia-Hsu, S-F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a key determinant of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent epigenomic cellular regulations related to methylation/acetylation and its deficiency produces neurodegenerative disorders by elusive mechanisms. Sirtuin 1 deacetylase (SIRT1) triggers cell response to nutritional stress through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Recently, we have established a N1E115 dopaminergic cell model by stable expression of a transcobalamin–oleosin chimera (TO), which impairs cellular availability of vitamin B12, decreases methionine synthase activity and SAM level, and reduces cell proliferation. In contrast, oleosin-transcobalamin chimera (OT) does not modify the phenotype of transfected cells. Presently, the impaired cellular availability of vitamin B12 in TO cells activated irreversible ER stress pathways, with increased P-eIF-2α, P-PERK, P-IRE1α, ATF6, ATF4, decreased chaperon proteins and increased pro-apoptotic markers, CHOP and cleaved caspase 3, through reduced SIRT1 expression and consequently greater acetylation of heat-shock factor protein 1 (HSF1). Adding either B12, SIRT1, or HSF1 activators as well as overexpressing SIRT1 or HSF1 dramatically reduced the activation of ER stress pathways in TO cells. Conversely, impairing SIRT1 and HSF1 by siRNA, expressing a dominant negative form of HSF1, or adding a SIRT1 inhibitor led to B12-dependent ER stress in OT cells. Addition of B12 abolished the activation of stress transducers and apoptosis, and increased the expression of protein chaperons in OT cells subjected to thapsigargin, a strong ER stress stimulator. AdoX, an inhibitor of methyltransferase activities, produced similar effects than decreased B12 availability on SIRT1 and ER stress by a mechanism related to increased expression of hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1). Taken together, these data show that cellular vitamin B12 has a strong modulating influence on ER stress in N1E115 dopaminergic cells. The impaired cellular availability in

  16. Determination of pantothenic acid, biotin, and vitamin B12 in nutritional products.

    PubMed

    Hudson, T S; Subramanian, S; Allen, R J

    1984-01-01

    Until recently, liquid chromatographic (LC) methodology for pantothenic acid, biotin, and B12 (cyanocobalamin) has been only marginally successful. These vitamins are difficult to determine by conventional LC techniques and UV detection at 254 or 280 nm, because either the chromophore is inadequate for detection or interference from co-eluting vitamins is overwhelming. Biotin and B12 are usually present in pharmaceutical products at concentrations 100-1000 times lower than other commonly occurring water-soluble vitamins. Co-extraction of all water-soluble vitamins results in gross interferences, especially in LC when the interfering vitamins co-elute with biotin or B12. In addition, pantothenic acid and biotin are colorless in solution and do not exhibit strong UV absorption above 240 nm. As a result, they must be quantitated either by using a low UV wavelength for detection or by derivatizing the vitamin to obtain an adequate chromophore. A description of procedures for LC determination of pantothenic acid, panthenol, cyanocobalamin, and biotin in pharmaceutical products is presented. Pantothenic acid has been measured by using both a derivatization technique and low UV wavelength detection. Biotin has been quantitated by using low UV wavelength detection. The limitations of these techniques are also discussed. Chromatographic separation of cyanocobalamin is complicated by co-eluting vitamins such as riboflavin. It is detected by using the 546 nm wavelength where riboflavin does not interfere. PMID:6501166

  17. Studies on the spin Hamiltonian parameters of vitamin B 12r

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shao-Yi; Wei, Li-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The spin Hamiltonian parameters g factors gi ( i = x, y, z) and the hyperfine structure constants Ai of vitamin B 12r have been theoretically studied from the perturbation formulas of these parameters for a Co 2+(3d 7) ion with low spin ( S = 1/2) in rhombically distorted octahedra. The related crystal-field parameters are determined from the point-charge-dipole model and the local structure around Co 2+ in vitamin B 12r. The theoretical spin Hamiltonian parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Folic acid metabolism in vitamin B12-deficient sheep. Depletion of liver folates

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard M.; Osborne-White, William S.

    1973-01-01

    1. Metabolism of folate was studied in six ewes in an advanced state of vitamin B12 deficiency as judged by voluntary food intake and in their pair-fed controls receiving vitamin B12. A group of four animals that were maintained throughout the experiment at pasture was also studied. 2. After 34–40 weeks on the cobalt-deficient diet urinary excretion of formiminoglutamate by four deficient animals was about 3.2mmol/day and this was not significantly decreased by injection of three of them with about 4.5μg of [2-14C]folate/kg body weight per day for 5 days. Three days after the last injection retention of [2-14C]folate by the livers of the deficient animals (5.5% of the dose) was lower than that of their pair-fed controls (26% of the dose) but there was no evidence of net retention of injected folate in the livers of either group. Urinary excretion of 14C indicated that renal clearance of folate may have been impaired in very severe vitamin B12 deficiency. 3. As estimated by microbiological assays total folates in the livers of animals at pasture (12.9μg/g) included about 24% of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate as compared with about 72% of a total of 12.5μg/g in three further ewes fed on a stock diet of wheaten hay-chaff and lucerne-chaff. Liver folates of vitamin B12-deficient animals (0.5μg/g) included about 88% of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate as compared with about 51% of a total of 5.2μg/g in pair-fed animals treated with vitamin B12. 4. Chromatography of liver folates of the pair-fed animals permitted quantitative estimates of the pteroylglutamates present. The results showed that the vitamin B12-deficient livers were more severely depleted of tetrahydrofolates and formyltetrahydrofolates than of methyltetrahydrofolates and that as the deficiency developed they were more severely depleted of the higher polyglutamates than of the monoglutamate within each of these classes. Results from animals injected with [2-14C]folate indicated an impairment of the exchange

  19. Folic acid and vitamin B12 in vitiligo: a nutritional approach.

    PubMed

    Montes, L F; Diaz, M L; Lajous, J; Garcia, N J

    1992-07-01

    When compared with the normal population, patients with vitiligo often showed diminished blood levels of folic acid. In a group of fifteen patients with vitiligo, folic acid levels were below normal in the serum of eleven patients, in the whole blood of five patients, and in the erythrocytes of six patients. Vitamin B12 serum levels were below normal in five of the fifteen patients. Ascorbic acid plasma levels were also lowered in four of the patients. In eight patients prolonged oral administration of folic acid with simultaneous parenteral treatment with vitamin B12 and oral ascorbic acid was followed by definite repigmentation without side effects. PMID:1516378

  20. An appraisal of the value of vitamin B12 in the prevention of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Lacey, C. L.; Homick, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin B12 given by intramuscular injection can significantly reduce the occurrence of motion sickness in susceptible individuals (Banks, 1980). Since it is known that B12 influences the metabolism of histidine and choline, dietary precursors to neurotransmitters with established roles in motion sickness, an experimental evaluation has been undertaken of the efficacy of B12 in the prevention of motion sickness induced by controlled coriolis simulation. Subjects executed standardized head movements at successively higher rpm until a malaise III endpoint was reached. Following two baseline tests with this motion stressor, subjects received a B12 injection, a second injection two weeks later, and a final motion sickness test three weeks later. No significant differences in the susceptibility to motion sickness were noted after B12.

  1. A pediatric patient with recurrent pseudotumor cerebri and vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yetgin, Sevgi; Derman, Orhan; Dogan, Muhsin

    2006-01-01

    Pseudotumor cerebri is a syndrome of increased intracranial pressure, normal cerebrospinal fluid values, and a normal cerebral ventricles on brain imaging studies. A patient with a diagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri was admitted to the authors' hospital twice within a 2.5-year interval and treated with vitamin B12 (vit-B12). At the second admission she also presented with a cerebral venous thrombosis that might have been explained by vit-B12 deficiency, homocysteinemia, and an increased level of lipoprotein-a. PMID:16326411

  2. Pernicious anemia presenting as catatonia: correlating vitamin B12 levels and catatonic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bram, Damien; Bubrovszky, Maxime; Durand, Jean-Paul; Lefevre, Guillaume; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Vaiva, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Pernicious anemia has been associated with various psychiatric manifestations, such as depression, mania and psychosis. Psychiatric symptoms can sometimes occur without hematological and neurological abnormalities and can be prodromal of vitamin B12 deficiency. We report a case of autoimmune B12 deficiency presenting as catatonia without signs of anemia or macrocytosis, in which a correlation was found between the patient's B12 blood levels and catatonic symptoms over time. This catatonic episode was successfully treated with only lorazepam and adequate doses of cyanocobalamin. PMID:25774050

  3. Cellular folate vitamer distribution during and after correction of vitamin B12 deficiency: a case for the methylfolate trap.

    PubMed

    Smulders, Y M; Smith, D E C; Kok, R M; Teerlink, T; Swinkels, D W; Stehouwer, C D A; Jakobs, C

    2006-03-01

    Haematological sequellae of vitamin B12 deficiency are attributed to disturbed DNA synthesis, but vitamin B12 itself plays no role in DNA biosynthesis. A proposed explanation for this is the methylfolate trap hypothesis. This hypothesis states that B12 deficiency impairs overall folate metabolism because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) becomes metabolically trapped. This trap results from the fact that 5MTHF can neither be metabolised via the methionine synthase pathway, nor can it be reconverted to its precursor, methylenetetrahydrofolate. Other manifestations of the methylfolate trap include cellular folate loss because of shorter 5MTHF polyglutamate chains and global hypomethylation. The methylfolate trap has never been demonstrated in humans. We describe a patient with B12 deficiency who was homozygous for the common methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation. We analysed red blood cell (RBC) folate vitamers and global DNA methylation by liquid chromatography (LC) in combination with tandem mass spectrometry, and 5MTHF polyglutamate length by LC-electrochemical detection. Compared to post-B12 supplementation values, homocysteine was higher (52.9 micromol/l vs. 16.8 micromol/l), RBC folate was lower (268.92 nmol/l vs. 501.2 nmol/l), the 5MTHF fraction of RBC folate was much higher (94.5% vs. 67.4%), polyglutamate chain length was shorter (more tetra- and pentaglutamates), and global DNA methylation was 22% lower. This is the first time that virtually all features of the methylfolate trap hypothesis have been demonstrated in a human with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:16445837

  4. Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6). Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2). Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8) and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study. PMID:25436187

  5. Monitoring of vitamin B-12 nutritional status in the United States by using plasma methylmalonic acid and serum vitamin B-121234

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L; Carmel, Ralph; Green, Ralph; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Cogswell, Mary E; Osterloh, John D; Sempos, Christopher T; Yetley, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Various definitions, criteria, tests, and cutoffs have been used to define vitamin B-12 status; however, a need exists for the systematic study of vitamin B-12 status in the United States because of concerns about high folic acid intakes and the potential for associated adverse effects. Objective: The objective was to determine the effect of different cutoff choices on outcomes and of the different degrees of serum vitamin B-12 status, definable by the concurrent use of a functional and circulating marker as the first steps to developing a data-based consensus on the biochemical diagnosis of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Design: Data from NHANES, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey, were examined for adults aged >19 y (mean ± SD age: 45 ± 1 y) from 1999 to 2004 (n = 12,612). Results: Commonly used cutoffs had a greater effect on prevalence estimates of low vitamin B-12 status with the use of vitamin B-12 than with the use of methylmalonic acid (MMA; 3–26% and 2–6%, respectively). A cutoff of >148 pmol/L for vitamin B-12 and of ≤210 nmol/L for MMA resulted in significant misclassifications. Approximately 1% of adults had a clear vitamin B-12 deficiency (low vitamin B-12 and elevated MMA); 92% of adults had adequate vitamin B-12 status. A high percentage of younger women characterized the group with low vitamin B-12 and normal MMA (2% of adults) and may have falsely reflected low vitamin B-12. Adults with elevated MMA (5%) only were demographically similar (ie, by age and race) to the deficient group and may have included some individuals with early vitamin B-12 deficiency. Conclusions: These analyses indicate the challenges of assessing vitamin B-12 status when uncertainties exist about the appropriate cutoffs. Future studies should determine definable endpoints to achieve this goal. PMID:21677051

  6. Low Vitamin B12 Levels among Newly-Arrived Refugees from Bhutan, Iran and Afghanistan: A Multicentre Australian Study

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Jill; Phillips, Christine; Kay, Margaret; Webber, Murray T.; Ratcliff, Alison J.; Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Lorimer, Michelle F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin B12 deficiency is prevalent in many countries of origin of refugees. Using a threshold of 5% above which a prevalence of low Vitamin B12 is indicative of a population health problem, we hypothesised that Vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds this threshold among newly-arrived refugees resettling in Australia, and is higher among women due to their increased risk of food insecurity. This paper reports Vitamin B12 levels in a large cohort of newly arrived refugees in five Australian states and territories. Methods In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we collected Vitamin B12, folate and haematological indices on all refugees (n = 916; response rate 94% of eligible population) who had been in Australia for less than one year, and attended one of the collaborating health services between July 2010 and July 2011. Results 16.5% of participants had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<150 pmol/L). One-third of participants from Iran and Bhutan, and one-quarter of participants from Afghanistan had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Contrary to our hypothesis, low Vitamin B12 levels were more prevalent in males than females. A higher prevalence of low Vitamin B12 was also reported in older age groups in some countries. The sensitivity of macrocytosis in detecting Vitamin B12 deficiency was only 4.6%. Conclusion Vitamin B12 deficiency is an important population health issue in newly-arrived refugees from many countries. All newly-arrived refugees should be tested for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Ongoing research should investigate causes, treatment, and ways to mitigate food insecurity, and the contribution of such measures to enhancing the health of the refugee communities. PMID:23469126

  7. Profound Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a 1-Year-Old Child in Botswana: A Call to Initiate Early Empiric Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gajudhur, Juyotee; Slone, Jeremy S; Mehta, Parth S; Mahoney, Donald

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a rare diagnosis in young children. We present the case of a 1-year-old Zimbabwean child with profound anemia. Further testing revealed undetectable levels of vitamin B12 and positive intrinsic factor antibodies that were drawn after the initiation of empiric treatment with parenteral vitamin B12. We report the evaluation and management of vitamin B12 deficiency in a resource-limited setting. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in children presenting with unexplained cytopenias with consideration of empiric treatment with parenteral vitamin B12, as developmental and neurological complications of vitamin B12 deficiency can be devastating and permanent. PMID:27306229

  8. [Homocysteine, vitamin B-12, folic acid and the cognitive decline in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Smach, M A; Naffeti, S; Charfeddine, B; Ben Abdallah, J; Othmen, L B; Letaef, A; Limem, K

    2013-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for neurological diseases, but the underlying pathophysiology has not been adequately explained. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia, which is sometimes associated with a low plasma level of vitamin B9, B12 and folic acid, is responsible in the toxicity in neural cell by activating NMDA receptor. Indeed, even if vitamin supplementation has clearly proven its efficiency on lowering plasma levels of homocysteine, recent studies do not show any positive effect of vitamin therapy on cognitive function. The hypothesis that this therapy is inefficient has been recently reinforced by two randomized trials on the effects of vitamin supplementation. Several hypotheses still need to be explored: Mechanisms of homocysteine toxicity and that of total uselessness of vitamin supplementation; the possible need to complete the actual data with further, more powerful studies in order to prove the role of homocysteine in the development of neurodegenerative diseases and a clinical effect of vitamin therapy. PMID:22647793

  9. STM investigations of Au(1 1 1) electrodes coated with vitamin B 12 derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szőcs, E.; Durrer, L.; Luginbühl, R.; Simic, N.; Viana, A. S.; Abrantes, L. M.; Keese, R.; Siegenthaler, H.

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 derivatives immobilized at flame-annealed Au(1 1 1) electrode surfaces have been investigated in close correlation with their structural properties and spatial arrangement at the electrode substrate by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in air and in aqueous 0.1 M NaClO 4 solution. The investigated compounds were symmetrical (B 12C 10S-SC 10B 12) and nonsymmetrical (B 12C 10S-SC 10) dialkyl disulfide derivatives of vitamin B 12, attached to the electrode surfaces by the S-Au bond. The ex situ and in situ STM experiments show the formation of a surface layer, whose packing density and structure is presumably controlled by the spatial arrangement of the large cobyrinate head groups. In presence of the symmetrical B 12 compound, a disordered surface layer is observed. Voltammetric investigations show that, in 0.1 M NaClO 4, this layer becomes unstable at potentials approximately ⩽ -1000 mV vs. MSE and is almost completely removed at more negative potentials. The STM imaging properties of the nonsymmetrical B 12 surface layer show a significant dependence on the tunneling distance. In particular, at small tunneling distances, a highly regular hexagonal surface pattern is observed that suggests strongly the presence of an ordered surface assembly. Modeling of the B 12 head group has been performed to provide information for a structure-related interpretation of the high-resolution STM images. The investigations are first STM results obtained at such B 12 modified electrodes.

  10. Application of the SPE reversed phase HPLC/MS technique to determine vitamin B12 bio-active forms in beef.

    PubMed

    Szterk, Arkadiusz; Roszko, Marek; Małek, Krystian; Czerwonka, Małgorzata; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena

    2012-08-01

    Vitamin B12 is an animal origin nutrient of a substantial importance in human diet. Its concentration in foodstuffs is low and its chemical forms are diverse, which significantly hampers its precise determination. The determination method of choice is HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) coupled with inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The main disadvantage of this method is high instrumentation cost and complexity of handling. The aim of this work was to develop a novel approach for determination of vitamin B12 bio-active forms in beef and beef liver. The proposed method comprises the following steps: (i) vitamin B12 is cleaved off from peptides using thermal denaturation in a weakly acidic environment; (ii) sample is cleaned-up using liquid-liquid extraction and reversed phase solid phase extraction; and finally (iii) vitamin B12 is determined using HPLC and single-quadrupole mass spectrometer with ESI source. Vitamin B12 concentrations in various beef meats were in the 2.84-3.95 μg 100g(-1) range. Average B12 concentration in beef liver was 153,60 μg 100g(-1) (n = 15). Major forms of B12 present in beef meat include adenosine cobalamin (AdoCbl) and in smaller quantities hydroxycobalamin (OHCbl). Major forms of vitamin B12 present in beef liver include OHCbl (48.2%), AdoCbl (33.8%), methylocobalamin (MeCbl, 16.3%), and cyanocobalamin (CNCbl, 1.7%). Thermal treatment noticeably decreases B12 the content in meat. Depending on conditions of treatment, B12 concentrations in the 1.04-2.20 μg 100g(-1) range were found in processed meats. PMID:22429804