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Sample records for humboldt county california

  1. 5. TUNNEL TREE AT DRIVETHROUGHTREE PARK. LEGGETT, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. TUNNEL TREE AT DRIVE-THROUGH-TREE PARK. LEGGETT, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING NE. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  2. Relative Tsunami Hazard Maps, Humboldt County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengler, L. A.; Ludy, B. R.; Patton, J. R.

    2003-12-01

    We present a series of maps depicting the relative tsunami hazard of coastal Humboldt County in Northern California. Unlike inundation maps that show a single line to show the inland extent of flooding, these maps use a four-color zonation to represent relative risk. The highest hazard area has experienced tsunami or storm wave inundation in historic times. These areas include beaches and low coastal bluffs on the open coast and low areas adjacent to Humboldt Bay and major river deltas. The high hazard zones are also mapped as zone A (100 year flooding) or zone V (100 year flood with wave action) on FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Maps. Moderate hazard zones are areas likely to be flooded by a major tsunami generated by the Cascadia subduction zone based on published paleotsunami studies, numerical modeling (Bernard and others, 1994) and observations of recent tsunamis elsewhere. Current estimates of major Cascadia earthquake recurrence averages about 500 years. Low hazard zones show no evidence of flooding in the paleotsunami record and are likely to provide refuge in all but the most extreme event. No hazard areas are too high in elevation and/or too far inland to be at risk. A continuous gradational color scale ranging from red (high hazard) through orange (medium), yellow (low) to gray (no hazard) depicts the zones. The blurred boundaries help convey the continuum of possible events and the uncertainty in delineating distinct inundation lines. The maps are GIS based to facilitate ready adaptation by planners and emergency managers. The maps are intended for educational purposes, to improve awareness of tsunami hazards and to encourage emergency planning efforts of local and regional organizations by illustrating the range of possible tsunami events.

  3. Geology of Tompkins Hill gas field, Humboldt County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.

    1988-03-01

    The Tompkins Hill gas field, located in Humboldt County, California, is the only producing field in the Eel River basin. The field is an anticlinal flexure on the north limb of the Eel River syncline in the central onshore portion of the basin. The Tompkins Hill anticline is doubly plunging and trends east-west. Stratigraphic units present in the field include the Yager, Eel River, and Rio Dell Formations and Scotia Bluffs Sandstone. The Yager occurs below a major unconformity, and forms economic basement. Strata overlying the Eel River, Rio Dell, and Scotia Bluffs represent a progradational basin-fill sequence, including submarine fan, slope, shelf, and littoral deposits. The primary productive interval in the field is within the middle of the Rio Dell and consists of interbedded fine sandstone and mudrock. Portions of the Eel River and upper Rio Dell Formations are also productive. The Tompkins Hill gas field was discovered by the Texas Company in 1937 with the drilling of Eureka 2 in Sec. 22, T3N, R1W. The play was probably based on outcrop mapping and the presence of gas seeps in the area. The primary trapping mechanism in the field is structural, although stratigraphy may have been a factor in constraining gas. To date, 39 producing wells have been drilled and 87.4 bcf of gas, consisting of 98% methane, has been produced. Very minor amounts of condensate are also produced. The source rocks for the gas are uncertain, but both the Yager Formation and strata of the lower Wildcat Group may have contributed.

  4. GIS based Relative Tsunami Hazard Maps for Northern California, Humboldt and Del Norte Counties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, J. R.; Dengler, L. A.

    2004-12-01

    Tsunami hazard maps are generated using a geographical information systems (GIS) approach to depict the relative tsunami hazard of coastal Humboldt and Del Norte Counties in northern California. Maps are composed for the Humboldt Bay, Eel River, and Crescent City regions and available online at http://www.humboldt.edu/~geodept/earthquakes/rctwg/toc.html . In contrast to previous mapping efforts that utilize a single line to represent inundation, hazard is displayed gradationally. A 2.5D surface is constructed to represent this hazard. Elevation, normally used for 2.5D surfaces, is substituted with hazard units. Criteria boundaries are used to separate regions of increasing hazard. Criteria boundaries are defined based on numerical modeling, paleoseismic studies, historical flooding, FEMA Q3 flood maps, and impacts of recent tsunamis elsewhere. Zones are constructed to further adjust the criteria with respect to a physically determined variable hazard (e.g. proximity to open ocean). A triangular irregular network (TIN) is constructed using hazard criteria boundaries as breaklines. Fabricated points are necessary to construct a hazard surface and are placed where criteria boundaries diverge or where hazard is nonlinear between criteria boundaries. Hazard is displayed as a continuous gradational color scale ranging from red (high hazard) through orange (medium), yellow (low) to gray (no hazard). The maps are GIS based to facilitate ready adaptation by planners and emergency managers. The maps are intended for educational purposes, to improve awareness of tsunami hazards and to encourage emergency planning efforts of local and regional organizations by illustrating the range of possible tsunami events.

  5. Humboldt County Employer Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Dave

    A project was undertaken in Humboldt County to collect information from large and small businesses in the areas of agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation, wholesale and retail, finance, services, and public information with respect to their employee requirements and needs. In all, 451 firms were surveyed to determine the size of the

  6. 15. 'Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. 'Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, California, A.J. Logan, County Surveyor, H.J. Brunnier, Consulting Engineer, March 7, 1919,' showing general plan, plan of top chord, elevation of main girder, transverse section, plan section at deck level. - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

  7. 17. "Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. "Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, California, A.J. Logan, County Surveyor, H.J. Brunnier, Consulting Engineer, March 7, 1919," showing plan of bars in top flange, elevation of girder reinforcement, plan of bars in bottom flange - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

  8. 18. "Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. "Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, California, A.J. Logan, County Surveyor, H.J. Brunnier, Consulting Engineer, March 7, 1919," showing elevation of center pier, elevation and plan of north and south abutments, sections of abutments, pier, and pier footings - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

  9. 51. Photographer unknown 1930 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photographer unknown 1930 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. 1-HUM-1-A #101, MEASURING BETWEEN TREES, 1930. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  10. 16. 'Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 'Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, California, A.J. Logan, County Surveyor, H.J. Brunnier, Consulting Engineer, March 7, 1919,' showing detail of floor beam at central pier, half section of cantilever slab at end of bridge, floor beam end panels, slab reinforcing, plan of slab reinforcing, diagram of slab bars, typical floor girder. - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

  11. 7. ABANDONED OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ABANDONED OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. NOTE CANTILEVERED DECKING. SOUTH FORK OF EEL RIVER AT LEFT. LOOKING SW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  12. 6. ABANDONED OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ABANDONED OLD HIGHWAY 101. NORTH OF LEGGETT, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. NOTE CANTILEVERED DECKING. NEW HIGHWAY 101 AND BRIDGE SEEN AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING N. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  13. 56. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-J #36, SINKS ALONG OCEAN SHORE, 2-25. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  14. 54. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-J #34, SINKS ALONG HIGH. NEAR OCEAN, 2-25. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  15. 53. Photographer unknown Date unknown VAN DUZEN BRIDGE, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photographer unknown Date unknown VAN DUZEN BRIDGE, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION F, HIGHWAY 1. 1. 1-HUM-1-F #24, VAN DUZEN BR. APPRAOCH/ST. 167+50. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  16. 50. Photographer unknown Date unknown HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photographer unknown Date unknown HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. ABANDONED PORTION OF HIGHWAY RECONSTRUCTED 1935 ACROSS RIVER CONNECTING WITH NEW SMITH PT. BR., 1-HUM-1A #203. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  17. Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) and Sediment Discharge in a Small, Timber Production Watershed, Humboldt County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubblefield, A.; Huggett, B.; Sullivan, K.; Dhakal, A.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment impacts to streams and rivers, either as suspended sediment concentration (SSC), or as aggradation, are well documented in the Pacific Northwest. Fishery stocks, estuarine, infrastructural and wildland resources can be negatively impacted. The causes and reasons for sedimentation of river resources are varied and diverse: tectonic setting - the relative rapid uplift of the study region produces a dominant erosional process of landsliding and mass wasting; regolithic setting - the relatively recent uplift of marine sediments has produced local formations of poorly and moderately consolidated soils, and lithic melanges that are naturally susceptible to erosion; climatic/geographic setting - coastal locations are subject to seasonal delivery of a relatively high average annual precipitation serving to transport available sediment; and finally, management setting - the activities that serve to make sediment available for transport to the river channel, forest road building and harvesting activities associated with timber production, agriculture, gravel mining, and fire management. The reduction of sediment loading can be accomplished through restoration activities like forest road decommissioning or riparian area revegetation. The need to prioritize restoration efforts is confounded by a lack of hydrographic and sediment discharge data, the complex terrain, and the inability to predict the effects of these activities on a dynamic scale. The Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) has been developed to model watersheds using spatially explicit geographical data coupled with physically based hydrologic equations. DHSVM simulates watershed processes across a grid on a cell-by-cell manner. The most recent development within the DHSVM includes a mass wasting / sediment production and channel routing module which allows prediction of total sediment loading in a forest basin. We are applying DHSVM to the McReady sub-basin of Freshwater Creek, Humboldt County, California, utilizing site specific precipitation, hydrographic, and sediment data. Hydrographic and sediment discharge data from 2002 to present are used to train and validate the model. A detailed sediment source inventory from both the road and stream courses further informs the model process and parameterization of sediment production and mobilization within the watershed. The availability of continuous discharge and sediment loading via turbidity threshold stations (TTS) allows validation of the model's performance on multiple levels: average annual, monthly, or weekly sediment loading, and on an event by event basis. Effective validation permits the use of the model to understand the effects of future management strategies, i.e. timber harvest, road construction or decommissioning on a site-specific basis, and to model landscape effects of wildfire and climate change scenarios on watershed functions.

  18. Erosional landform map of the Redwood Creek drainage basin, Humboldt County, California, 1947-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, K.M.; Harden, D.M.; Colman, Steven M.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides and actively eroding stream channels disrupt roads, damage valuable timberland, and increase stream sediment loads in northwestern California. This 1:62,500 photointerpretative map shows the distribution of ten common types of fluvial and mass-movement erosional landforms in the drainage basin of Redwood Creek in 1947 and 1974. The mapped landforms include slides, slumps, large compound earthflows, debris avalanches, unstable streambanks and adjacent hillslopes, small mass-movement features, questionable or inactive landslides, deeply incised amphitheater shaped drainage basins, small actively eroding water courses, and actively eroding main channel stream banks. The map legend describes these landforms and the techniques used in preparing the map. The amount and diversity of erosional activity increased greatly between 1947 and 1974. This increased activity apparently reflects major floods in 1953, 1955, 1964, and 1972, as well as the start of large scale, tractor-yarded clearcut timber harvest in the basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Geologic map of the Redwood Creek drainage basin, Humboldt County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Deborah Reid; Kelsey, H.M.; Morrison, S.D.; Stephens, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    A 1:62,500-scale geologic map with 14 rock stratigraphic units and an accompanying explanatory text are used to describe the geology of the Redwood Creek drainage basin of northwestern California. A large part of Redwood National Park is located in the downstream part of this actively eroding drainage basin. The bedrock consists primarily of Mesozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The structurally complex Franciscan assemblage of rocks underlies most of the basin, but rocks of the Klammath Mountain tectonic province occurs in a small eastern part of the basin. Most major boundaries between Mesozoic rock units are north-northwest trending faults parallel to the regional structural trend. Extensive areas of surficial coastal plain sediments, landslide deposits, stream terrace deposits and modern alluvium are also present; these areas help identify loci of vigorous recent erosion. (USGS)

  20. Demographic characteristics and infectious diseases of a population of American black bears in Humboldt County, California.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Nicole; Higley, J Mark; Sajecki, Jaime L; Chomel, Bruno B; Brown, Richard N; Foley, Janet E

    2015-02-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are common, widely distributed, and broad-ranging omnivorous mammals in northern California forests. Bears may be susceptible to pathogens infecting both domestic animals and humans. Monitoring bear populations, particularly in changing ecosystems, is important to understanding ecological features that could affect bear population health and influence the likelihood that bears may cause adverse impacts on humans. In all, 321 bears were captured between May, 2001, and October, 2003, and blood samples were collected and tested for multiple zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. We found a PCR prevalence of 10% for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and a seroprevalence of 28% for Toxoplasma gondii, 26% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 26% for A. phagocytophilum, 8% for Trichinella spiralis, 8% for Francisella tularensis and 1% for Yersinia pestis. In addition, we tested bears for pathogens of domestic dogs and found a seroprevalence of 15% for canine distemper virus and 0.6% for canine parvovirus. Our findings show that black bears can become infected with pathogens that are an important public health concern, as well as pathogens that can affect both domestic animals and other wildlife species. PMID:25700042

  1. 59. V.H.G., photographer October 27, 1948 EUREKA, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. V.H.G., photographer October 27, 1948 EUREKA, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-EUR #59, LOOKING NORTH BROADWAY & CEDAR, 10-27-48, V.H.G. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  2. 58. V.H.G., photographer October 27, 1948 EUREKA, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. V.H.G., photographer October 27, 1948 EUREKA, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-EUR #60, LOOKING SOUTH, BROADWAY & CLARK, 10-27-48, V.H.G. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  3. 57. G.M.W., photographer March 26, 1940 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION K, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. G.M.W., photographer March 26, 1940 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION K, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-K #93, STA. 255, 3-26-40, G.M.W. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  4. Aquatic biology of the Redwood Creek and Mill Creek drainage basins, Redwood National Park, Humboldt and Del Norte counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwatsubo, Rick T.; Averett, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    A 2-year study of the aquatic biota in the Redwood Creek and Mill Creek drainage basins of Redwood National Park indicated that the aquatic productivity is low. Densities of coliform bacteria were low except in Prairie Creek, a tributary to Redwood Creek, where a State park, county fish hatchery, grazing land, lumber mill, and scattered residential areas are potential sources of fecal coliform bacteria. Benthic invertebrate data indicated a diverse fauna which varied considerably between streams and among stream sections. Noteworthy findings include: (1) benthic invertebrates rapidly recolonized the streambed following a major storm, and (2) man-caused disruption or sedimentation of the streambed during low flow can result in drastic reductions of the benthic invertebrate community. Seven species of fish representing species typically found in northern California coastal streams were captured during the study. Nonparametric statistical tests indicate that condition factors of steelhead trout were significantly larger at sampling stations with more insolation, regardless of drainage basin land-use history. Periphyton and phytoplankton communities were diverse, variable in numbers, and dominated by diatoms. Seston concentrations were extremely variable between stations and at each station sampled. The seston is influenced seasonally by aquatic productivity at each station and amount of allochthonous material from the terrestrial ecosystem. Time-series analysis of some seston data indicated larger and sharper peak concentrations being flushed from the logged drainage basin than from the control drainage basin. (USGS)

  5. 13. View to northeast. View along centerline from Humboldt County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View to northeast. View along centerline from Humboldt County side of bridge. (90mm lens) - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  6. Digital Geologic Map of the Redding 1 x 2 Quadrangle, Shasta, Tehama, Humboldt, and Trinity Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraticelli, Luis A.; Albers, John P.; Irwin, William P.; Blake, Milton C., Jr.; Wentworth, Carl M.

    2012-01-01

    The Redding 1 x 2 quadrangle in northwestern California transects the Franciscan Complex and southern Klamath Mountains province as well as parts of the Great Valley Complex, northern Great Valley, and southernmost Cascades volcanic province. The tectonostratigraphic terranes of the Klamath province represent slices of oceanic crust, island arcs, and overlying sediment that range largely from Paleozoic to Jurassic in age. The Eastern Klamath terrane forms the nucleus to which the other terranes were added westward, primarily during Jurassic time, and that package was probably accreted to North America during earliest Cretaceous time. The younger Franciscan Complex consists of a sequence of westward younging tectonostratigraphic terranes of late Jurassic to Miocene age that were accreted to North America from mid-Cretaceous through Miocene time, with the easternmost being the most strongly metamorphosed. The marine Great Valley sequence, of late Jurassic and Cretaceous age, was deposited unconformably across the southernmost Klamath rocks, but in turn was underthrust at its western margin by Eastern belt Franciscan rocks. Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks and sediment of the Cascades province extend into the southeastern part of the quadrangle, abutting the northernmost part of the great central valley of California. This map and database represent a digital rendition of Open-File Report 87-257, 1987, by L.A. Fraticelli, J.P. Albers, W.P. Irwin, and M.C. Blake, Jr., with various improvements and additions.

  7. Mass movement and storms in the drainage basin of Redwood Creek, Humboldt County, California: a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Deborah Reid; Janda, Richard J.; Nolan, K. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Numerous active landslides are clearly significant contributors to high sediment loads in the Redwood Creek basin. Field and aerial-photograph inspections indicate that large mass-movement features, such as earthflows and massive streamside debris slides, occur primarily in terrain underlain by unmetamorphosed or slightly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. These features cannot account for stream sediment derived from schist. Observed lithologic heterogeneity of stream sediment therefore suggests that large-scale mass movement is only one part of a complex suite of processes supplying sediment to streams in this basin. Other significant sediment contributors include various forms of fluvial erosion and small-scale discrete mass failures, particularly on oversteepened hillslopes adjacent to perennial streams. Photo-interpretive studies of landslide and timber-harvest history adjacent to Redwood Creek, together with analysis of regional precipitation and runoff records for six flood-producing storms between 1953 and 1975, indicate that loci and times of significant streamside landsliding are influenced by both local storm intensity and streamside logging. Analysis of rainfall records and historic accounts indicates that the individual storms comprising a late-19th-century series of storms in northwestern California were similar in magnitude and spacing to those of the past 25 years. The recent storms apparently initiated more streamside landslides than comparable earlier storms, which occurred prior to extensive road construction and timber harvest. Field observations and repeated surveys of stake arrays at 10 sites in the basin indicate that earthflows are especially active during prolonged periods of moderate rainfall; but that during brief intense storms, fluvial processes are the dominant erosion mechanism. Stake movement occurs mostly during wet winter months. Spring and summer movement was detected at some moist streamside sites. Surveys of stake arrays in two recently logged areas did not indicate exceptionally rapid rates of movement in three years following timber harvest.

  8. 55. E.M.C., photographer July 3, 1936 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. E.M.C., photographer July 3, 1936 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY 1. 1-HUM-I-J #80, BITUMULS PORTION OF EXPERIMENTAL SECTION, E.M.C, 7-3-36. BACK READS: C/PROCESSING STABILIZING BITUMULS WITH BLADE AFTER BEING PROCESSED WITH SPRING TOOTH HARROW. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  9. Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Bauer, Herman L., Jr.

    1951-01-01

    The Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada, is near the Oregon-Nevada border in the Sheldon Game Refuge. Nineteen claims owned by Jack and Toni Crane were examined, sampled, and tested radiometrically for uranium. Numerous discontinuous layers of opal are interbedded with a gently-dipping series of vitric tuff and ash which is at least 300 ft thick. The tuff and ash are capped by a dark, vesicular basalt in the eastern part of the area and by a thin layer of terrace qravels in the area along the west side of Virgin Valley. Silicification of the ash and tuff has produced a rock that ranges from partly opalized rock that resembles silicified shale to completely altered rock that is entirely translucent, and consists of massive, brown and pale-green opal. Carnotite, the only identified uranium mineral, occurs as fracture coatings or fine layers in the opal; in places, no uranium minerals are visible in the radioactive opal. The opal layers are irregular in extent and thickness. The exposed length of the layers ranges from 8 to 1, 200 ft or more, and the thickness of the layers ranges from 0. 1 to 3. 9 ft. The uranium content of each opal layer, and of different parts of the same layer, differs widely. On the east side of Virgin Valley four of the seven observed opal layers, nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 002 to 0. 12 percent. Two samples, taken 5 ft apart across opal layer no. 7, contained 0. 003 and 0. -049 percent uranium. On the west side of the valley only four of the fifteen observed opal layers, nos; 9, , 10, 14, and 15, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 004 to 0. 047 percent. Material of the highest grade was found in a small discontinuous layer of pale-green opal (no. 4) on the east side of Virgin Valley. The grade of this layer ranged from 0. 027 to 0. 12 percent uranium.

  10. 78 FR 50025 - Humboldt County (CA) Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Forest Service Humboldt County (CA) Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding...: Lynn Wright, RAC Committee Coordinator, Six Rivers National Forest, 707-441-3562,...

  11. LiDAR-based landslide hazard modeling using PISA-m, SHALSTAB, and SMORPH, Freshwater Creek and Ryan Slough watershed, Humboldt County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weppner, E.; Hoyt, J.; Haneberg, W. C.

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the performance of three spatially distributed slope stability models implemented using a LiDAR digital elevation model (DEM) as part of a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) sediment source study in a steep forested watershed in northern California. The geologic setting consists primarily of deformed, deeply incised, and heavily weathered weak sedimentary rocks and highly sheared metamorphic melange (with small amounts of broken formation) covered by Quaternary surficial deposits and colluvium. Topographic input for all three models was a 1-m LiDAR DEM of the watershed that was re-sampled to 4 m to avoid computational problems with SHALSTAB and eliminate complications arising from both short wavelength features (such as fallen logs and tree stumps) and random topographic noise. We assessed the performance of each model by 1) comparison of model output with landslides identified on aerial photographs and 2) comparison of model results with each other. Each of the two sub-watersheds was analyzed separately because of different geology and inventory data sources. Both PISA-m and SHALSTAB identified 75% of the inventoried landslides. SMORPH correctly identified 99% of the inventoried landslides, but at the cost of predicting more than three times as much unstable ground as PISA-m and SHALSTAB (25% versus 8% of the watershed). The degree of overlap between unstable areas predicted by all three models ranged only from 4% to 25% of the area predicted to be unstable, reflecting differences in the mechanics and/or empirical relationships embodied by each model. PISA-m, the only one of the three models capable of doing so, was also used to simulate the effects of clear-cut logging by reducing the input root strength estimates in areas covered by mature forest.

  12. 76 FR 71935 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Carson Ranger District, Nevada and California, Bordertown to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    .... Potential effects to Dog Valley and Webber Ivesia, Forest Service sensitive plants, from potential... Forest Service Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Carson Ranger District, Nevada and California, Bordertown to California 120 kV Transmission Line AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent...

  13. Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010

    DOE Data Explorer

    Michael Lane

    2010-01-01

    Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010. ArcGIS map package containing topographic base map, Township and Range layer, Oski BLM and private leases at time of survey, and locations, with selected shot points, of the five seismic lines.

  14. Blue Mountain, Humboldt County, Nevada, U.S.A

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Fitzpatrick, Brian D. Fairbank

    2005-04-01

    The report documents the drilling of well Deep Blue No.2, the second deep geothermal test hole at the Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, Humboldt County, Nevada. The well was drilled by Noramex Corp, a Nevada company, with funding support from the US Department of Energy, under the DOE’s GRED II Program. Deep Blue No.2 was drilled as a ‘step-out’ hole from Deep Blue No.1, to further evaluate the commercial potential of the geothermal resource. Deep Blue No.2 was designed as a vertical, slim observation test hole to a nominal target depth of 1000 meters (nominal 3400 feet). The well tests an area of projected high temperatures at depth, from temperature gradients measured in a group of shallow drill holes located approximately one kilometer to the northeast of observation hole Deep Blue No.1. The well is not intended for, or designed as, a commercial well or a production well. Deep Blue No.2 was spudded on March 25, 2004 and completed to a total depth of 1127.76m (3700 ft) on April 28, 2004. The well was drilled using conventional rotary drilling techniques to a depth of 201.17 m (660 ft), and continuously cored from 201.17m (660 ft) to 1127.76m (3700 ft). A brief rig-on flow-test was conducted at completion to determine basic reservoir parameters and obtain fluid samples. A permeable fracture zone with measured temperatures of 150 to 167°C (302 to 333°F) occurs between 500 to 750m (1640 to 2461ft). The well was left un-lined in anticipation of the Phase III - Flow and Injection Testing. A further Kuster temperature survey was attempted after the well had been shut in for almost 3 weeks. The well appears to have bridged off at 439m (1440ft) as the Kuster tool was unable to descend past this point. Several attempts to dislodge the obstruction using tube jars were unsuccessful. Deep Blue No.2 encountered variably fractured and veined, fine-grained rocks of the Singas Formation, and intruded by minor strongly altered fine-grained felsic dikes, and less altered fineto medium-grained felsic to intermediate dikes. Widespread open fractures and extensive of quartz veining in many intervals of the core indicate a high degree of fracturing and flow of silica-bearing fluids, almost certainly hotter than 200°C (392°F), at some time, but these fractures are now partially sealed. Intervals of soft shaly mudstone, common clay gouge, and rocks with generally low permeability (few veins and fractures) may also form a seal or ‘cap’ above the main high temperature reservoir at Blue Mountain. The encouraging results from Deep Blue No.2 support further drilling at Blue Mountain. Higher temperature fluids can be expected where fractures providing channels for the circulation of hot water from depth have not been sealed extensively by silica deposition.

  15. Observed and modeled tsunami current velocities in Humboldt Bay and Crescent City Harbor, northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Admire, A. R.; Dengler, L.; Crawford, G. B.; uslu, B. U.; Montoya, J.

    2012-12-01

    A pilot project was initiated in 2009 in Humboldt Bay, about 370 kilometers (km) north of San Francisco, California, to measure the currents produced by tsunamis. Northern California is susceptible to both near- and far-field tsunamis and has a historic record of damaging events. Crescent City Harbor, located approximately 100 km north of Humboldt Bay, suffered US 20 million in damages from strong currents produced by the 2006 Kuril Islands tsunami and an additional US 20 million from the 2011 Japan tsunami. In order to better evaluate these currents in northern California, we deployed a Nortek Aquadopp 600kHz 2D Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) with a one-minute sampling interval in Humboldt Bay, near the existing National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) tide gauge station. The instrument recorded the tsunamis produced by the Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake on February 27, 2010 and the Mw 9.0 Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011. Currents from the 2010 tsunami persisted in Humboldt Bay for at least 30 hours with peak amplitudes of about 0.3 meters per second (m/s). The 2011 tsunami signal lasted for over 86 hours with peak amplitude of 0.95 m/s. Strongest currents corresponded to the maximum change in water level as recorded on the NOAA NOS tide gauge, and occurred 90 minutes after the initial wave arrival. No damage was observed in Humboldt Bay for either event. In Crescent City, currents for the first three and a half hours of the 2011 Japan tsunami were estimated using security camera video footage from the Harbor Master building across from the entrance to the small boat basin, approximately 70 meters away from the NOAA NOS tide gauge station. The largest amplitude tide gauge water-level oscillations and most of the damage occurred within this time window. The currents reached a velocity of approximately 4.5 m/s and six cycles exceeded 3 m/s during this period. Measured current velocities both in Humboldt Bay and in Crescent City were compared to calculated velocities from the Method of Splitting Tsunamis (MOST) numerical model. For Humboldt Bay, the 2010 model tsunami frequencies matched the actual values for the first two hours after the initial arrival however the amplitudes were underestimated by approximately 65%. MOST replicated the first four hours of the 2011 tsunami signal in Humboldt Bay quite well although the peak flood currents were underestimated by about 50%. MOST predicted attenuation of the signal after four hours but the actual signal persisted at a nearly constant level for more than 48 hours. In Crescent City, the model prediction of the 2011 frequency agreed quite well with the observed signal for the first two and a half hours after the initial arrival with a 50% underestimation of the peak amplitude. The results from this project demonstrate that ADCPs can effectively record tsunami currents for small to moderate events and can be used to calibrate and validate models (i.e. MOST) in order to better predict hazardous tsunami conditions and improve planned responses to protect lives and property, especially within harbors. An ADCP will be installed in Crescent City Harbor and four additional ADCPs are being deployed in Humboldt Bay during the fall of 2012.

  16. Humboldt Bay Vertical Reference System Working Group: unraveling tectonic and eustatic factors of sea level rise in northern California, Humboldt Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. B.; Anderson, J. K.; Burgette, R. J.; Gilkerson, W.; Hemphill-Haley, M.; Leroy, T. H.; Patton, J. R.; Southwick, E.; Stallman, J.; Weldon, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Sea-level rise is a critical factor in managing estuarine ecosystems, maintaining public infrastructure, and mitigating geologic hazards along north coastal California. The coastal region between Fort Bragg, California and Vancouver Island experiences ongoing land-level changes due to Cascadia subduction zone tectonics. These tectonic land-level changes sufficiently modify relative sea level such that sea-level rise cannot be accurately estimated without determining the tectonic contribution. We use tide gages and precise level-loop surveys to observe modern land and water surface elevations around Humboldt Bay. These modern data, combined with historic survey data, will be used to deconfound the various factors contributing to relative sea level change. Independent analysis of existing NOAA tide gages and EarthScope CGPS stations indicate 2.5 mm/yr of land subsidence near Humboldt Bay and 2 mm/yr of land uplift in Crescent City. Presuming the bulk of the strain accumulation is due to the southern portion of the Cascadia subduction zone, these data suggest Humboldt Bay is west of the locked zone, not to the east as previously reported by several researchers.

  17. Documentation of model input and output values for simulation of pumping effects in Paradise Valley, a basin tributary to the Humboldt River, Humboldt County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, A.E.; Prudic, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Documentation is provided of model input and sample output used in a previous report for analysis of ground-water flow and simulated pumping scenarios in Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, Nevada.Documentation includes files containing input values and listings of sample output. The files, in American International Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) or binary format, are compressed and put on a 3-1/2-inch diskette. The decompressed files require approximately 8.4 megabytes of disk space on an International Business Machine (IBM)- compatible microcomputer using the MicroSoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) operating system version 5.0 or greater.

  18. Material properties of Pacific hake, Humboldt squid, and two species of myctophids in the California Current.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kaylyn N; Warren, Joseph D

    2015-05-01

    Material properties of the flesh from three fish species (Merluccius productus, Symbolophorus californiensis, and Diaphus theta), and several body parts of the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) collected from the California Current ecosystem were measured. The density contrast relative to seawater varied within and among taxa for fish flesh (0.9919-1.036), squid soft body parts (mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes; 1.009-1.057), and squid hard body parts (beak and pen; 1.085-1.459). Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density contrast were investigated. The sound speed contrast relative to seawater varied within and among taxa for fish flesh (0.986-1.027) and Humboldt squid mantle and braincase (0.937-1.028). Material properties in this study are similar to values from previous studies on species with similar life histories. In general, the sound speed and density of soft body parts of fish and squid were 1%-3% and 1%-6%, respectively, greater than the surrounding seawater. Hard parts of the squid were significantly more dense (6%-46%) than seawater. The material properties reported here can be used to improve target strength estimates from acoustic scattering models, which could increase the accuracy of biomass estimates from acoustic surveys for these nekton. PMID:25994685

  19. Truancy in Yolo County, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Barbara; Tyburczy, Jason

    The problem of truancy in the elementary and junior high schools of California's Yolo County was investigated during the 1980-81 academic year by means of questionnaires completed by 16 school principals and interviews with 30 people representing schools, school district offices, law enforcement agencies, the Department of Social Services, and the

  20. Trees and herbs killed by an earthquake 300 yr ago at Humboldt Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Gordon; Carver, Gary; Wagner, Wendy

    1995-01-01

    Evidence of rapid seismic-induced subsidence at Humboldt Bay, California, is produced by analyses of annual growth rings of relict Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] roots and entombed herbaceous plants. These results add to previously reported evidence that an earthquake caused subsidence 300 yr ago at Mad River slough, California. Both types of remains are rooted in buried soils that stood at or above the high-tide level until the area subsided at least 0.5 m into the intertidal zone. Burial by intertidal muds took place quickly enough to preserve the herbs in the growth position. Analysis of the annual growth rings of the tree roots shows that all died within four growing seasons, but the time of root death varies even among roots of the same tree. With no central nervous system, tree cells do not die simultaneously throughout the organism. The 0.5 to 1.5 m of subsidence, as evidenced by stratigraphy and sedimentology, was not enough to kill all the trees even in one season. Although such gradual death could be due to rapid aseismic subsidence, the tree deaths and preserved herbs are much better explained by sudden coseismic subsidence.

  1. THE MISSING EARTHQUAKES OF HUMBOLDT COUNTY: RECONCILING RECURRENCE INTERVAL ESTIMATES, SOUTHERN CASCADIA SUBDUCTION ZONE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, J. R.; Leroy, T. H.

    2009-12-01

    Earthquake and tsunami hazard for northwestern California and southern Oregon is predominately based on estimates of recurrence for earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone and upper plate thrust faults, each with unique deformation and recurrence histories. Coastal northern California is uniquely located to enable us to distinguish these different sources of seismic hazard as the accretionary prism extends on land in this region. This region experiences ground deformation from rupture of upper plate thrust faults like the Little Salmon fault. Most of this region is thought to be above the locked zone of the megathrust, so is subject to vertical deformation during the earthquake cycle. Secondary evidence of earthquake history is found here in the form of marsh soils that coseismically subside and commonly are overlain by estuarine mud and rarely tsunami sand. It is not currently known what the source of the subsidence is for this region; it may be due to upper plate rupture, megathrust rupture, or a combination of the two. Given that many earlier investigations utilized bulk peat for 14C age determinations and that these early studies were largely reconnaissance work, these studies need to be reevaluated. Recurrence Interval estimates are inconsistent when comparing terrestrial (~500 years) and marine (~220 years) data sets. This inconsistency may be due to 1) different sources of archival bias in marine and terrestrial data sets and/or 2) different sources of deformation. Factors controlling successful archiving of paleoseismic data are considered as this relates to geologic setting and how that might change through time. We compile, evaluate, and rank existing paleoseismic data in order to prioritize future paleoseismic investigations. 14C ages are recalibrated and quality assessments are made for each age determination. We then evaluate geologic setting and prioritize important research locations and goals based on these existing data. Terrestrial core transects are located in each of eight archival domains in order to evaluate archival bias and potential deformation sources for the southern Cascadia subduction zone. These domains are located in the Eel River, Humboldt Bay, Humboldt Lagoons, and Crescent City regions. In any given domain, evidence of earthquakes can be regional, local, or both. Core transects are designed to capture archival bias due to 1) interseismic deformation in the upper plate or the megathrust, 2) rupture on upper plate thrust faults, 3) rupture on the megathrust, or 4) rupture on both. Modern biogeochemical transects are used to calibrate paleontologic estimates. Based on our assessment, we determine which sites need better age control, which sites need supplemental coring, and key new research areas that need to be investigated.

  2. Uranium occurrences at the Moonlight Mine and Granite Point claims, Humboldt County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Allen O.; Powers, James Farl

    1955-01-01

    The Moonlight mine and Granite Foint claims are on the western flank of the Double H Mountains between the Kings River and Quinn, River valleys in northern Humboldt County, Nev. Uranium minerals at the Moonlight mine occur in a vein in intensely altered Tertiary volcanic rocks. The knovm uranium mineralization is spotty and erratic, but ore-grade material is present in the vein. Samples of the vein taken along its outcrop and in the mine shaft contain from less than 0.02 percent to 0.40 percent U308. The uranium minerals change from autunite at the surface to torbernite, 'gummite(?)' and pitchblende below the 90-foot level of the shaft. The Granite Point claims are two miles north of the Moonlight mine at the base of a rhyolite cliff. Radioactivity traverses made along the base and slope of the rhyolite cliff indicate that a large part of the rhyolite is abnormally radioactive. Radioactivity ranges from 0.013 to 0.3 mr/hr and averaged 0.10 mr/hr. in the vicinity of the claims. A sample taken at the base of the rhyolite cliff, at the point of highest radioactivity c6ntains 0.02 percent U3O8.

  3. CONFIRMATORY SURVEY OF THE FUEL OIL TANK AREA HUMBOLDT BAY POWER PLANT EUREKA, CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    WADE C. ADAMS

    2012-04-09

    During the period of February 14 to 15, 2012, ORISE performed radiological confirmatory survey activities for the former Fuel Oil Tank Area (FOTA) and additional radiological surveys of portions of the Humboldt Bay Power Plant site in Eureka, California. The radiological survey results demonstrate that residual surface soil contamination was not present significantly above background levels within the FOTA. Therefore, it is ORISEs opinion that the radiological conditions for the FOTA surveyed by ORISE are commensurate with the site release criteria for final status surveys as specified in PG&Es Characterization Survey Planning Worksheet. In addition, the confirmatory results indicated that the ORISE FOTA survey unit Cs-137 mean concentrations results compared favorably with the PG&E FOTA Cs-137 mean concentration results, as determined by ORISE from the PG&E characterization data. The interlaboratory comparison analyses of the three soil samples analyzed by PG&Es onsite laboratory and the ORISE laboratory indicated good agreement for the sample results and provided confidence in the PG&E analytical procedures and final status survey soil sample data reporting.

  4. Interannual variability in chlorophyll concentrations in the Humboldt and California Current Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Andrew C.; Brickley, Peter; Weatherbee, Ryan

    2009-12-01

    SeaWiFS data provide the first systematic comparison of 10 years (1997-2007) of chlorophyll interannual variability over the California (CCS) and Humboldt (HCS) Current Systems. Dominant signals are adjacent to the coast in the wind-driven upwelling zone. Maximum anomalies in both systems are negative signals during the 1997-1998 El Nio that persist into 1999 at most latitudes. Thereafter, anomalies primarily appear to be associated with shifts in phenology, with those in the CCS stronger than those of the HSC. Prominent signals in the CCS are positive anomalies in 2001-2002 at latitudes >35N and <30N, and in 2005-2006 from ?30 to 45N that persist at latitudes >40N into 2007. In the HCS, latitudinally extensive positive events occur in austral summers of 2002-2003, 2003-2004. Relationships of chlorophyll anomalies to forcing are explored through correlations to local upwelling anomalies and three indices of Pacific Ocean basin-scale variability, the Multivariate El Nio Index (MEI), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). These show that each system has strong latitudinal regionality in linkage to forcing. At higher latitudes, correlations follow expected relationships of increased (decreased) chlorophyll with positive upwelling and NPGO (MEI and PDO). At specific latitudes, notably the Southern California Bight and off Peru, where circulation and/or chlorophyll phenology differ from canonical EBUS patterns, correlations weaken or oppose those expected. Correlations excluding the El Nio period remain similar in the CCS but substantially changed in the HCS, indicating much stronger domination of El Nio conditions on HCS anomaly relationships over this 10-year period.

  5. 78 FR 68135 - Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, California AGENCY... Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Los Angeles County, California... Podesta, California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), 100 S. Main Street, Los Angeles, CA...

  6. COUNTIES OF CALIFORNIA - WITH FARM STATISTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    County farming statistics polygon coverage of California. The statistics were taken from the 1997 Census of Agriculture and added to a coverage extracted from TIGER county boundaries. A farm is any place from which $1,000 or more of agricultural products were sold, or normally w...

  7. California County Data Book, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, Oakland, CA.

    This data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of California's children. California is the only state where the majority of the children (56%) come from African-American, Latino, Asian, and Native American families. The report begins with summary tables of general state facts, including: (1) California's children under 18; (2)

  8. Behaviour of wintering Tundra Swans Cygnus columbianus columbianus at the Eel River delta and Humboldt Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, Jeffrey M.; Gress, Carol; Byers, Jacob W.; Jennings, Emily; Ely, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus columbinanus phenology and behaviour at the Eel River delta and southern Humboldt Bay in northern California, USA, is described. Counts made each January from 1963 onwards peaked at 1,502 swans in 1988. Monthly counts recorded during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 winters peaked in February, at 1,033 and 772 swans respectively. Swans roosted on ephemeral ponds at the Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, on ephemeral ponds within grassland pastures in the vicinity of the Refuge, and perhaps also used the Eel River as a roost. Flights between Refuge roosts and the pastures and ponds occurred in the two hours after sunrise and before dark. In winters 2008/09 and 2009/10, the percentage of cygnets in the flocks was 10.6% and 21.4% respectively, and increased to =31% cygnets each year after most swans had departed from the area in March. Average brood size in 2009/10 was 2.1 cygnets. Daily activities consisted of foraging (44.9% of activities recorded), comfort behaviour (22.1%), locomotion (16.2%) and vigilance (15.5%). Eight neck-collared swans identified in the wintering flock were marked at four locations in different parts of Alaska, up to 1,300 km apart.

  9. GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. Pencil on paper, dated December 4, 1952. Also marked "PWC 103474." By J.Y. Long Company, Engineers, Oakland, California - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  10. 33 CFR 3.55-25 - Sector Humboldt Bay Search and Rescue Mission Coordinator Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Rescue Mission Coordinator Zone. 3.55-25 Section 3.55-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eleventh Coast Guard District 3.55-25 Sector Humboldt Bay Search and Rescue... inland Area of Responsibility (AOR) includes the entirety of the following California counties: Del...

  11. 33 CFR 3.55-25 - Sector Humboldt Bay Search and Rescue Mission Coordinator Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Rescue Mission Coordinator Zone. 3.55-25 Section 3.55-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eleventh Coast Guard District 3.55-25 Sector Humboldt Bay Search and Rescue... inland Area of Responsibility (AOR) includes the entirety of the following California counties: Del...

  12. 77 FR 66910 - Environmental Impact Statement, San Diego County, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement, San Diego County, California AGENCY... this notice to advise the public that the Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement... San Diego County, California (Federal Register Vol. 72, No 10; FR Doc E7-491) will be withdrawn....

  13. Evolution of a trench-slope basin within the Cascadia subduction margin: the Neogene Humboldt Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrory, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Neogene Humboldt (Eel River) Basin is located along the north-eastern margin of the Pacific Ocean within the Cascadia subduction zone. This sedimentary basin originated near the base of the accretionary prism in post-Eocene time. Subduction processes since that time have elevated strata in the south-eastern portion of the basin above sea level. High-resolution chronostratigraphic data from the onshore portion of the Humboldt Basin enable correlation of time-equivalent lithofacies across the palaeomargin, reconstruction of slope-basin evolution, and preliminary delineation of climatic and tectonic influence on lithological variation. -from Author

  14. The application of LANDSAT remote sensing technology to natural resources management. Section 1: Introduction to VICAR - Image classification module. Section 2: Forest resource assessment of Humboldt County.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, L., III (Principal Investigator); Mayer, K. E.

    1980-01-01

    A teaching module on image classification procedures using the VICAR computer software package was developed to optimize the training benefits for users of the VICAR programs. The field test of the module is discussed. An intensive forest land inventory strategy was developed for Humboldt County. The results indicate that LANDSAT data can be computer classified to yield site specific forest resource information with high accuracy (82%). The "Douglas-fir 80%" category was found to cover approximately 21% of the county and "Mixed Conifer 80%" covering about 13%. The "Redwood 80%" resource category, which represented dense old growth trees as well as large second growth, comprised 4.0% of the total vegetation mosaic. Furthermore, the "Brush" and "Brush-Regeneration" categories were found to be a significant part of the vegetative community, with area estimates of 9.4 and 10.0%.

  15. Space Radar Image of Ventura County, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Ventura County, California, shows the Santa Clara River valley and the surrounding mountains. The river valley is the linear feature that extends from the lower right to the upper left (east to west), where it empties into the Pacific Ocean (dark patches in upper and lower left). The cities of Ventura and Oxnard are seen along the left side of the image. Simi Valley is located in the lower center of the image, between the Santa Monica Mountains (purple area in lower left) and the Santa Susanna Mountains to the north. This area of California is known for its fruit; strawberry fields are shown in red and purple rectangular areas on the coastal plain, and citrus groves are the yellow green areas adjacent to the river. This image is centered at 34.33 degrees north latitude, 119 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 53 kilometers by 35 kilometers (33 miles by 22 miles). Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994.

  16. Travertine Hot Springs, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Chesterman, C.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.

    1991-08-01

    This article is an abridgement of Special Report 172, Travertine Hot Springs at Bridgeport, Mono County, California, in preparation at the California Division of Mines and Geology. The Travertine Hot Springs area is on the northern edge of what many consider to be one of the most tectonically active areas in the United States. There is abundant geothermal and seismic activity. The landscape is dotted with volcanic features- cones, craters, domes, flows, fumaroles and hot springs-indicators of unrest in the present as well as reminders of activity in the past. Travertine, also known as calcareous sinter, is limestone formed by chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) from ground or surface waters. It forms stalactites and stalagmites in caves, fills some veins and spring conduits and can also be found at the mouths of springs, especially hot springs. The less compact variety is called tufa and the dense, banded variety is known as Mexican onyx, or onyx marble. True onyx, however, is a banded silicate.

  17. El Niño and similar perturbation effects on the benthos of the Humboldt, California, and Benguela Current upwelling ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arntz, W. E.; Gallardo, V. A.; Gutiérrez, D.; Isla, E.; Levin, L. A.; Mendo, J.; Neira, C.; Rowe, G. T.; Tarazona, J.; Wolff, M.

    2006-03-01

    To a certain degree, Eastern Boundary Current (EBC) ecosystems are similar: Cold bottom water from moderate depths, rich in nutrients, is transported to the euphotic zone by a combination of trade winds, Coriolis force and Ekman transport. The resultant high primary production fuels a rich secondary production in the upper pelagic and nearshore zones, but where O2 exchange is restricted, it creates oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) at shelf and upper slope (Humboldt and Benguela Current) or slope depths (California Current). These hypoxic zones host a specifically adapted, small macro- and meiofauna together with giant sulphur bacteria that use nitrate to oxydise H2S. In all EBC, small polychaetes, large nematodes and other opportunistic benthic species have adapted to the hypoxic conditions and co-exist with sulphur bacteria, which seem to be particularly dominant off Peru and Chile. However, a massive reduction of macrobenthos occurs in the core of the OMZ. In the Humboldt Current area the OMZ ranges between <100 and about 600 m, with decreasing thickness in a poleward direction. The OMZ merges into better oxygenated zones towards the deep sea, where large cold-water mega- and macrofauna occupy a dominant role as in the nearshore strip. The Benguela Current OMZ has a similar upper limit but remains shallower. It also hosts giant sulphur bacteria but little is known about the benthic fauna. However, sulphur eruptions and intense hypoxia might preclude the coexistence of significant mega- und macrobenthos. Conversely, off North America the upper limit of the OMZ is considerably deeper (e.g., 500-600 m off California and Oregon), and the lower boundary may exceed 1000m. The properties described are valid for very cold and cold (La Niña and "normal") ENSO conditions with effective upwelling of nutrient-rich bottom water. During warm (El Niño) episodes, warm water masses of low oxygen concentration from oceanic and equatorial regions enter the upwelling zones, bringing a variety of (sub)tropical immigrants. The autochthonous benthic fauna emigrates to deeper water or poleward, or suffers mortality. However, some local macrofaunal species experience important population proliferations, presumably due to improved oxygenation (in the southern hemisphere), higher temperature tolerance, reduced competition or the capability to use different food. Both these negative and positive effects of El Niño influence local artisanal fisheries and the livelihood of coastal populations. In the Humboldt Current system the hypoxic seafloor at outer shelf depths receives important flushing from the equatorial zone, causing havoc on the sulphur bacteria mats and immediate recolonisation of the sediments by mega- and macrofauna. Conversely, off California, the intruding equatorial water masses appear to have lower oxygen than ambient waters, and may cause oxygen deficiency at upper slope depths. Effects of this change have not been studied in detail, although shrimp and other taxa appear to alter their distribution on the continental margin. Other properties and reactions of the two Pacific EBC benthic ecosystems to El Niño seem to differ, too, as does the overall impact of major episodes (e.g., 1982/1983(1984) vs. 1997/1998). The relation of the "Benguela Niño" to ENSO seems unclear although many Pacific-Atlantic ocean and atmosphere teleconnections have been described. Warm, low-oxygen equatorial water seems to be transported into the upwelling area by similar mechanisms as in the Pacific, but most major impacts on the eukaryotic biota obviously come from other, independent perturbations such as an extreme eutrophication of the sediments ensuing in sulphidic eruptions and toxic algal blooms. Similarities and differences of the Humboldt and California Current benthic ecosystems are discussed with particular reference to ENSO impacts since 1972/73. Where there are data available, the authors include the Benguela Current ecosystem as another important, non-Pacific EBC, which also suffers from the effects of hypoxia.

  18. CONFIRMATORY SURVEY RESULTS FOR PORTIONS OF THE MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT FROM UNITS 1 AND 2 AT THE HUMBOLDT BAY POWER PLANT, EUREKA, CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    W.C. Adams

    2011-04-01

    The Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E) operated the Humboldt Bay Power Plant (HBPP) Unit 3 nuclear reactor near Eureka, California under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) provisional license number DPR-7. HBPP Unit 3 achieved initial criticality in February 1963 and began commercial operations in August 1963. Unit 3 was a natural circulation boiling water reactor with a direct-cycle design. This design eliminated the need for heat transfer loops and large containment structures. Also, the pressure suppression containment design permitted below-ground construction. Stainless steel fuel claddings were used from startup until cladding failures resulted in plant system contamination—zircaloy-clad fuel was used exclusively starting in 1965 eliminating cladding-related contamination. A number of spills and gaseous releases were reported during operations resulting in a range of mitigative activities (see ESI 2008 for details).

  19. Taeniolite, an uncommon lithium-mica from Coyote Peak, Humboldt County, California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erd, Richard C.; Czamanske, G.K.; Meyer, C.E.

    1983-01-01

    Taeniolite has been found in a late pegmatitic clot in a mafic alkalic diatreme at Coyote Peak; associated species are natrolite, pectolite, aegirine, barytolamprophyllite, rasvumite and sphalerite. The taeniolite is green-brown with sp. gr. (meas.) 2.85(1) and H. 31/2. Optically it is biaxial (-) with alpha 1.541(2), beta = gamma 1.570(2), 2V approx 0o and moderate pleochroism with gamma = beta reddish-brown, alpha pale greenish brown. Single-crystal precession photographs show it to be of the 1M type, with a 5.254(2), b 9.110(4), c 10.187(2) A, beta 99.85(4)o and V = 480.4(1) A3. Combined microprobe and ion probe analyses gave SiO2 53.5, Al2O3 3.00, TiO2 1.06, FeO 3.35, MnO 0.21, MgO 18.3, Li2O 2.4, K2O 11.3, Na2O 0.27, F 6.3 = 99.69; SrO and BaO are both <0.04 wt.%; B, Be, Ca and Cl were not detected. Assuming (F + OH) = 2 and assigning 1.30 wt.% H2O gives 409(K1.01Na0.04)(Al0.01Ti0.06Fe2+0.20Mn0.01Mg1.92Li0.68)(Si3.76Al0.24)O10- (F1.40OH0.60).-G.W.R.

  20. Anza-Terwilliger hydrogeologic structures in Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morita, Andrew; Clark, Dennis A.; Morita, Andrew Y.; Martin, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This digital geospatial dataset documents the fault traces in the Anza and Terwilliger area of southwest Riverside County, California, that were modified from Moyle (1971) by Woolfenden and Bright (1988, figure 8). The fault information is used to help assess ground-water level changes in the area of Anza and Terwilliger between 2004 and 2005.

  1. The Hmong Resettlement Study Site Report: Orange County, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Mary; And Others

    This document describes the resettlement of Hmong refugees in Orange County, California: what their employment experience has been, which resettlement efforts have been successful, and how current efforts could be altered to improve the Hmong's long term adjustment. The report is part of a larger, national project on Hmong resettlement. Much of

  2. Outdoor residential water use trends in Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijoor, N. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Berg, J.; Baum-Haley, M.

    2012-12-01

    Irrigation is required to maintain outdoor landscapes in semi-arid climates, such as in Orange County, California. Landscape water use efficiency is a priority in Orange County, as nearly half the water supply is imported and the region is vulnerable to water shortages. The purpose of this research is to determine whether single family household residents adjust landscape irrigation based on climate or income in Orange County. Specifically, the goals were to (1) estimate the volume of single family residence (SFR) landscape irrigation applied (2) determine the depth (mm) of over- or under-irrigation compared to theoretical need (3) determine the climatic and socioeconomic controls on landscape irrigation. We plan to compare results from agencies with uniform vs. allocation-based rate structures. A research partnership was established between six water retail agencies in Orange County: Huntington Beach Water District, El Toro Water District, Irvine Ranch Water District, East Orange County Water District, City of San Juan Capistrano, and Laguna Beach County Water District. These agencies represent a wide range of climatic and economic conditions and contributed between 3 and 13 years of SFR water use data on a monthly/bimonthly basis. Household water use, climate, and socioeconomic factors were mapped using Arcview GIS. Air temperature (California Irrigation Management Information System), precipitation (Orange County Cooperative Observer System), landscape size, and income (US Census) were evaluated as possible controls on SFR water use. Findings indicate that landscape water use may constitute the majority of household water use. We found over-irrigation relative to plant water demand in areas of Orange County. Domestic landscape water use may depend on climate and/or income. Results suggest a high potential for residential water savings with improved landscape irrigation efficiency. This information would be useful for improving or developing water use efficiency policies and educational programs.

  3. Data on Streamflow and Quality of Water and Bottom Sediment in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to expand upon previous findings that indicated concentrations of dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, and uranium were either above geochemical background concentrations or were approaching or exceeding ecological criteria in the lower Humboldt River system. Data were collected from May 1998 to September 2000 to further characterize streamflow and surface-water and bottom-sediment quality in the lower Humboldt River, selected agricultural drains, Upper Humboldt Lake, and Lower Humboldt Drain (ephemeral outflow from Humboldt Sink). During this study, flow in the lower Humboldt River was either at or above average. Flows in Army and Toulon Drains generally were higher than reported in previous investigations. An unnamed agricultural drain contributed a small amount to the flow measured in Army Drain. In general, measured concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and uranium were higher in water from agricultural drains than in Humboldt River water during this study. Mercury concentrations in water samples collected during the study period typically were below the laboratory reporting level. However, low-level mercury analyses showed that samples collected in August 1999 from Army Drain had higher mercury concentrations than those collected from the river or Toulon Drain or the Lower Humboldt Drain. Ecological criteria and effect concentrations for sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, mercury, and molybdenum were exceeded in some water samples collected as part of this study. Although water samples from the agricultural drains typically contained higher concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, and uranium, greater instantaneous loads of these constituents were carried in the river near Lovelock than in agricultural drains during periods of high flow or non-irrigation. During this study, the high flows in the lower Humboldt River produced the maximum instantaneous loads of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and uranium at all river-sampling sites, except molybdenum near Imlay. Nevada Division of Environmental Protection monitoring reports on mine-dewatering discharge for permitted releases of treated effluent to the surface waters of the Humboldt River and its tributaries were reviewed for reported discharges and trace-element concentrations from June 1998 to September 1999. These data were compared with similar information for the river near Imlay. In all bottom sediments collected for this study, arsenic concentrations exceeded the Canadian Freshwater Interim Sediment-Quality Guideline for the protection of aquatic life and probable-effect level (concentration). Sediments collected near Imlay, Rye Patch Reservoir, Lovelock, and from Toulon Drain and Army Drain were found to contain cadmium and chromium concentrations that exceeded Canadian criteria. Chromium concentrations in sediments collected from these sites also exceeded the consensus-based threshold-effect concentration. The Canadian criterion for sediment copper concentration was exceeded in sediments collected from the Humboldt River near Lovelock and from Toulon, Army, and the unnamed agricultural drains. Mercury in sediments collected near Imlay and from Toulon Drain in August 1999 exceeded the U.S. Department of the Interior sediment probable-effect level. Nickel concentrations in sediments collected during this study were above the consensus-based threshold-effect concentration. All other river and drain sediments had constituent concentrations below protective criteria and toxicity thresholds. In Upper Humboldt Lake, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and uranium concentrations in surface-water samples collected near the mouth of the Humboldt River generally were higher than in samples collected near the mouth of Army Drain. Ecological criteria or effect con

  4. 77 FR 58352 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County, Antelope Valley and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County, Antelope... Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portions of the California State...

  5. 76 FR 30025 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution...

  6. Mineral resources and land use in Stanislaus County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.; Dupras, D.L.; Chapman, R.H.; Churchill, R.K. . Div. of Mines and Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Stanislaus County covers portions of 3 geologic provinces: Coast Ranges, Great Valley, and Sierra Nevada. Each has been exploited for a distinct set of mineral resources, which include sand and gravel, ball and fire clay, placer gold, manganese, chromite, magnesite, mercury, diatomite, building stone, and mineral pigment. Of these, sand and gravel, clay, and diatomite have been the most important commodities produced recently. Sand and gravel, particularly that along the Tuolumne River, is and will continue to be the county's main mineral product; other potentially important areas include alluvial fans along the west side of the Great Valley. Clay and diatomite could resume importance in the future. There is also potential for quartz-rich specialty sands. Although the county is largely rural, it is undergoing one of the highest growth rates in California. Several new residential communities are being proposed in the county, which would have two major effects on mineral resources: (1) large sources of aggregate will be required for construction, and (2) development of residential areas may preclude mining of resources in those areas. Maps of mineral resources produced by this study, will assist decisions on such potential conflicts in land use.

  7. Stable isotope tracers: natural and anthropogenic recharge, Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Alan E.

    1997-12-01

    Stable isotopic techniques have been utilized to locate occurrences and trace movements of a variety of naturally and anthropogenically recharged waters in aquifers of Orange County, California. This basin is of particular interest not only because it provides the dominant water supply for the two million residents of this well-populated county, but also because it is representative of a common arid environment where natural recharge is dominated by distant, high-elevation precipitation transported by a major river. Such arid basins are particularly sensitive to climatic and anthropogenic disturbance of their recharge and their subsurface hydrology. In order to identify distinctive waters, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios from Orange County wells have been compared with a regional database including an array of surface water samples representative of watershed runoff. Four distinctive subsurface water types can be resolved. Waters of "local" rainfall and imported, "Colorado" River aqueduct origins are easily distinguished from dominant, "native" Santa Ana river compositions by use of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis. Recent human interference with Santa Ana river flow and recharge is also marginally resolvable by isotopic techniques. Distinguishable isotopic signatures of "recent" Santa Ana recharge appear to be due to evaporative loss, perhaps during storage in the Prado Reservoir or in percolation ponds, prior to recharge into Orange County aquifers. Characterization of traceable isotopic signatures of distinct natural and anthropogenic recharge components provides a major advance towards use of such techniques for developing a well constrained, three-dimensional hydrologic model for this complex basin.

  8. Climate controls on valley fever incidence in Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, Charles S.; Talamantes, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Coccidiodomycosis (valley fever) is a systemic infection caused by inhalation of airborne spores from Coccidioides immitis, a soil-dwelling fungus found in the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico, and Central and South America. Dust storms help disperse C. immitis so risk factors for valley fever include conditions favorable for fungal growth (moist, warm soil) and for aeolian soil erosion (dry soil and strong winds). Here, we analyze and inter-compare the seasonal and inter-annual behavior of valley fever incidence and climate risk factors for the period 1980-2002 in Kern County, California, the US county with highest reported incidence. We find weak but statistically significant links between disease incidence and antecedent climate conditions. Precipitation anomalies 8 and 20 months antecedent explain only up to 4% of monthly variability in subsequent valley fever incidence during the 23 year period tested. This is consistent with previous studies suggesting that C. immitis tolerates hot, dry periods better than competing soil organisms and, as a result, thrives during wet periods following droughts. Furthermore, the relatively small correlation with climate suggests that the causes of valley fever in Kern County could be largely anthropogenic. Seasonal climate predictors of valley fever in Kern County are similar to, but much weaker than, those in Arizona, where previous studies find precipitation explains up to 75% of incidence. Causes for this discrepancy are not yet understood. Higher resolution temporal and spatial monitoring of soil conditions could improve our understanding of climatic antecedents of severe epidemics.

  9. Development of An Integrated Hydrologic Model in Yolo County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; Taghavi, A.; Stevenson, M.; Najmus, S.

    2006-12-01

    To more efficiently use the Cache Creek flows and the groundwater basin as the sources of water supply and to restore the riparian ecosystem along the Cache Creek, Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District (YCFCWCD) in Woodland, California plans to conduct the Cache Creek Groundwater Recharge and Recovery Program (CCGRRP). The concept of this program is to operate the groundwater basin to induce greater amounts of groundwater recharge from Cache Creek directly along the creek and to increase the recharge even further by diverting rainy season water at the District's Capay Diversion Dam into the West Adams Canal to a few recharge basins outside the active channel of Cache Creek. Besides the CCGRRP, cities of Woodland and Davis are in the process of conducting groundwater management plans, and the stakeholders in Yolo County developing a long-term integrated regional water management plan (IRWMP) for the entire county. To effectively evaluate the benefits and impacts of CCGRRP, local groundwater management plans, and the Yolo County IRWMP, the Integrated Groundwater and Surface water Model (IGSM) was applied to the Yolo groundwater basin. The IGSM is a comprehensive integrated hydrologic model that simulates both surface water and groundwater flow systems, including rainfall-runoff, soil moisture accounting and unsaturated flow, crop consumptive module, stream-aquifer interaction, and groundwater flow. The finite element code was originally developed in 1990 for the California Department of Water Resources and the State Water Resources Control Board. The IGSM code has subsequently been applied to more than 25 groundwater basins in California and other states. The model code has been peer reviewed and upgraded throughout its application to various projects, with the latest upgrade in 2004, as part of the application to the Stony Creek Fan area of Sacramento Valley. The Yolo County IGSM (YCIGSM) was calibrated against the historical (1970-2000) groundwater level records at 105 monitoring wells, and three streamflow gages along Cache Creek. Calibration results show that the YCIGSM is able to reasonably simulate the long-term groundwater level trends and short-term seasonal fluctuations. The YCIGSM will be used to develop operational guidelines to manage the groundwater basin, to determine the optimum yield of water projects, to identify benefits and impacts of projects on existing groundwater users, and to assess the environmental benefits and impacts during the development of projects, as well as during the environmental permitting process.

  10. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Ekechukwu, G.A.; Hallock, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation was begun in 1990 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage in and near the Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife or to impair beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and ground water, bottom sediment, and biota collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Lovelock agricultural area were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Also analyzed were radioactive substances, major dissolved constitu- ents, and nutrients in water, as well as pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In samples from areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents equaled or exceeded baseline concentrations or recommended standards for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife--in water: arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediment; arsenic and uranium; and in biota; arsenic, boron, and selenium. Selenium appears to be biomagnified in the Humboldt Sink wetlands. Biological effects observed during the reconnaissance included reduced insect diversity in sites receiving irrigation drainage and acute toxicity of drain water and sediment to test organisms. The current drought and upstream consumption of water for irrigation have reduced water deliveries to the wetlands and caused habitat degradation at Humboldt Wildlife Management Area. During this investigation. Humboldt and Toulon Lakes evaporated to dryness because of the reduced water deliveries.

  11. 78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... California as a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River...

  12. 76 FR 67396 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metro Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan...

  13. California County Data Book 1997 [and] Report Card 1997. Challenges Ahead: Can Counties Make the Grade? A Children Now Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Amy

    This Kids Count data book and report card examines statewide and county level trends in the well-being of California's children, with an additional focus on indicators of the new economic realities encountered by families as counties take on greater responsibility for local welfare programs. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the

  14. Service Integration in San Mateo County, California: Multiple Strategies with a Single Goal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Mark

    Over the past decade, the Human Services Agency (HSA) of San Mateo County, California, has implemented a series of management and staff processes designed to facilitate the delivery of services to county residents. Examples of these services are as follows: (1) regionalization (HSA offices are located throughout the county, and office staff and

  15. 33 CFR 334.1126 - Naval Base Ventura County, Point Mugu, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Naval Base Ventura County, Point....1126 Naval Base Ventura County, Point Mugu, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area at Naval Base Ventura County Point Mugu incorporates its shoreline and connects the...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1126 - Naval Base Ventura County, Point Mugu, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Naval Base Ventura County, Point....1126 Naval Base Ventura County, Point Mugu, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area at Naval Base Ventura County Point Mugu incorporates its shoreline and connects the...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1126 - Naval Base Ventura County, Point Mugu, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Base Ventura County, Point....1126 Naval Base Ventura County, Point Mugu, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area at Naval Base Ventura County Point Mugu incorporates its shoreline and connects the...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1126 - Naval Base Ventura County, Point Mugu, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Base Ventura County, Point....1126 Naval Base Ventura County, Point Mugu, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area at Naval Base Ventura County Point Mugu incorporates its shoreline and connects the...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1126 - Naval Base Ventura County, Point Mugu, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naval Base Ventura County, Point....1126 Naval Base Ventura County, Point Mugu, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The restricted area at Naval Base Ventura County Point Mugu incorporates its shoreline and connects the...

  20. 76 FR 30080 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion...

  1. Undocumented Latina immigrants in Orange County, California: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Chavez, L R; Hubbell, F A; Mishra, S I; Valdez, R B

    1997-01-01

    "This article examines a unique data set randomly collected from Latinas (including 160 undocumented immigrants) and non-Hispanic white women in Orange County, California, including undocumented and documented Latina immigrants, Latina citizens, and non-Hispanic white women. Our survey suggests that undocumented Latinas are younger than documented Latinas, and immigrant Latinas are generally younger than U.S.-citizen Latinas and Anglo women. Undocumented and documented Latinas work in menial service sector jobs, often in domestic services. Most do not have job-related benefits such as medical insurance.... Despite their immigration status, undocumented Latina immigrants often viewed themselves as part of a community in the United States, which significantly influenced their intentions to stay in the United States. Contrary to much of the recent public policy debate over immigration, we did not find that social services influenced Latina immigrants' intentions to stay in the United States." PMID:12320909

  2. Statistical modeling of valley fever data in Kern County, California.

    PubMed

    Talamantes, Jorge; Behseta, Sam; Zender, Charles S

    2007-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is a fungal infection found in the southwestern US, northern Mexico, and some places in Central and South America. The fungus that causes it (Coccidioides immitis) is normally soil-dwelling but, if disturbed, becomes air-borne and infects the host when its spores are inhaled. It is thus natural to surmise that weather conditions that foster the growth and dispersal of the fungus must have an effect on the number of cases in the endemic areas. We present here an attempt at the modeling of valley fever incidence in Kern County, California, by the implementation of a generalized auto regressive moving average (GARMA) model. We show that the number of valley fever cases can be predicted mainly by considering only the previous history of incidence rates in the county. The inclusion of weather-related time sequences improves the model only to a relatively minor extent. This suggests that fluctuations of incidence rates (about a seasonally varying background value) are related to biological and/or anthropogenic reasons, and not so much to weather anomalies. PMID:17120065

  3. Statistical modeling of valley fever data in Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talamantes, Jorge; Behseta, Sam; Zender, Charles S.

    2007-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is a fungal infection found in the southwestern US, northern Mexico, and some places in Central and South America. The fungus that causes it ( Coccidioides immitis) is normally soil-dwelling but, if disturbed, becomes air-borne and infects the host when its spores are inhaled. It is thus natural to surmise that weather conditions that foster the growth and dispersal of the fungus must have an effect on the number of cases in the endemic areas. We present here an attempt at the modeling of valley fever incidence in Kern County, California, by the implementation of a generalized auto regressive moving average (GARMA) model. We show that the number of valley fever cases can be predicted mainly by considering only the previous history of incidence rates in the county. The inclusion of weather-related time sequences improves the model only to a relatively minor extent. This suggests that fluctuations of incidence rates (about a seasonally varying background value) are related to biological and/or anthropogenic reasons, and not so much to weather anomalies.

  4. Residential Mobility and Breast Cancer in Marin County, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Barlow, Janice; Rommel, Robert; Kaufmann, Andy; Rienti, Michael; AvRuskin, Gillian; Rasul, Jawaid

    2013-01-01

    Marin County (California, USA) has among the highest incidences of breast cancer in the U.S. A previously conducted case-control study found eight significant risk factors in participants enrolled from 1997–1999. These included being premenopausal, never using birth control pills, lower highest lifetime body mass index, having four or more mammograms from 1990–1994, beginning drinking alcohol after age 21, drinking an average two or more alcoholic drinks per day, being in the highest quartile of pack-years of cigarette smoking, and being raised in an organized religion. Previously conducted surveys provided residential histories; while Ǫ statistic accounted for participants’ residential mobility, and assessed clustering of breast cancer cases relative to controls based on the known risk factors. These identified specific cases, places, and times of excess breast cancer risk. Analysis found significant global clustering of cases localized to specific residential histories and times. Much of the observed clustering occurred among participants who immigrated to Marin County. However, persistent case-clustering of greater than fifteen years duration was also detected. Significant case-clustering among long-term residents may indicate geographically localized risk factors not accounted for in the study design, as well as uncertainty and incompleteness in the acquired addresses. Other plausible explanations include environmental risk factors and cases tending to settle in specific areas. A biologically plausible exposure or risk factor has yet to be identified. PMID:24366047

  5. Humboldt River main stem, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.

    2001-01-01

    This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

  6. Water chemistry of the Redwood Creek and Mill Creek basins, Redwood National Park, Humboldt and Del Norte Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradford, Wesley L.; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1978-01-01

    A two-year study made in Redwood National Park, Calif., (September 1973-September 1975) determined existing chemical water-quality conditions and identified possible effects of logging on water quality in streams. Water quality was generally good, with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 25 to 139 milligrams per liter in the Redwood Creek basin and 21 to 49 milligrams per liter in the Mill Creek basin. Water type and pH tended to shift seasonally. Exposure of soils to the elements in areas logged or having naturally sparse vegetation accelerated chemical weathering and increased dissolved-solids concentrations. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were generally too low to support nuisance algae, but were higher in logged areas. Higher nitrogen concentrations in areas well exposed to sunlight could support modest algae populations. Trace-metal concentrations were low, typical of clean streams. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Metasomatism, titanian acmite, and alkali amphiboles in lithic- wacke inclusions within the Coyote Peak diatreme, Humboldt County, California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, S.A.; Atkin, G.K.

    1985-01-01

    Lithic-wacke inclusions within the alkali-ultramafic diatreme at Coyote Peak record a history of pronounced metasomatism and crystal growth. The dominant metasomatic changes were loss of Si from the inclusions and mass influx of K, due to an unusually high K activity in the ultramafic host. The reaction with K converted much of the clay, quartz and lithic fraction of the lithic wacke into microcline, and exchanged Na from abundant clastic albite. Probe analyses are tabulated for cores and rims of titanian acmites, augites and alkali amphiboles. -J.A.Z.

  8. 75 FR 17397 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, Kern County, CA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, Kern County, CA--Notice of... by Hydrogen Energy California LLC (HECA). DOE selected this project for an award of financial... produce synthesis gas (syngas), which would then be processed and purified to produce a hydrogen-rich...

  9. SPECIAL PROBLEM REPORT, IMPROVING EXTENSION PROGRAM PLANNING PROCEDURES IN SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CANNON, DALE CARTER

    A SURVEY WAS CONDUCTED BY MAIL QUESTIONNAIRE TO GATHER DATA ON THE FARM POPULATION OF SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, TO GET NAMES OF COMMUNITY LEADERS, AND PROVIDE MOTIVATION FOR EXTENSION PROGRAM PLANNING. THE MEAN AGE OF RESPONDENTS WAS 50, THE LARGE MAJORITY WITH CHILDREN AT HOME, THREE-FOURTHS NATIVE TO CALIFORNIA, ONE-HALF BEING BORN IN…

  10. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District...

  11. County Clustering for the California 4-H Youth Development Program: Impacts and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Aarti; Dasher, Harry Steve; Young, Jane Chin

    2012-01-01

    In response to budgetary constraints, a new staffing structure, the Pilot Leadership Plan, was proposed for California's 4-H Youth Development Program. County clusters were formed, each led by a coordinator. The plan was piloted for 2 years to provide insight into how county clustering could support Extension staff to increase and enhance

  12. 33 CFR 334.1127 - Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Naval Base Ventura County, Port....1127 Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters... area unless permission is obtained in advance from the Commanding Officer of Naval Base Ventura...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1127 - Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Base Ventura County, Port....1127 Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters... area unless permission is obtained in advance from the Commanding Officer of Naval Base Ventura...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1127 - Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Naval Base Ventura County, Port....1127 Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters... area unless permission is obtained in advance from the Commanding Officer of Naval Base Ventura...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1127 - Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naval Base Ventura County, Port....1127 Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters... area unless permission is obtained in advance from the Commanding Officer of Naval Base Ventura...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1127 - Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Base Ventura County, Port....1127 Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters... area unless permission is obtained in advance from the Commanding Officer of Naval Base Ventura...

  17. 76 FR 54993 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990''; 57 FR ] 13498 (April 16, 1992); 57 FR 18070 (April 28, 1992... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... proposing a limited approval and limited disapproval of ] revisions to the Placer County Air...

  18. 75 FR 1284 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Ventura County Air Pollution... finalizing approval of revisions to the Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion of the.... Proposed Action On November 19, 2008 (73 FR 69593), EPA proposed to approve the following rules into...

  19. 78 FR 6736 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District... earlier version of Rule 102 into the SIP on June 29, 1999 (64 FR 34558). PCAPCD adopted revisions to...

  20. 76 FR 75857 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the... local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or...

  1. 77 FR 2643 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... finalizing a limited approval and limited disapproval of revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control... FR 54993), EPA proposed a limited approval and limited disapproval of the following rule that...

  2. 76 FR 75795 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District... earlier version of PCAPCD Rule 218 into the SIP on July 18, 1996 (61 FR 37390). The PCAPCD...

  3. 78 FR 6784 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the... approve local rules to regulate this emission source under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act). DATES:...

  4. 77 FR 67322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... FR 2643). III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews Under the Clean Air Act, the Administrator is... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of...

  5. 78 FR 53249 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... finalizing approval of revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the... Action On November 9, 2012 (77 FR 67322), EPA proposed to approve the following rule into the...

  6. Silverthread oil field, Ventura County, California: a hydrodynamic trap

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, R.N.; Hester, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    Silverthread oil field is located in west-central Ventura County, California. An unusual combination of Miocene turbidite sand deposition, tight folding, faulting, and hydrodynamics have created an accumulation of over 6 million bbl of oil from 33 wells. This field is also unique in that it lies beneath the convergence of several opposing major thrust faults which effectively hide any surface indication of structure at depth. Though previously and often explored by majors and other operators, the remarkable deduction and perseverance by Harry Browne and Argo Petroleum Corporation geologists led to the main area discovery in 1971. Of exceptional interest is the interaction of classic hydrodynamic flow on the distribution of fluids within the reservoir. Thirteen contour maps and numerous structure and stratigraphic sections were required to unravel the sand sequence, faulting, structure, and hydrodynamics. Because of high surface relief, most wells were directionally drilled from islands, and subsequent electric logs had to be unstretched using the Dental Dam technique to facilitate their correlation. A large, lighted, three-dimensional model consisting of thirty-six 2 x 5-ft transparent plexiglas plates was constructed to show a simple resolution of the complexities of this area and will be part of the poster session. This display, they believe, will generate considerable interest in their presentation.

  7. Compliance with childhood immunizations in Kern County, California.

    PubMed

    Goodman, K J; Wu, J S; Frerichs, R R

    2000-10-01

    A rapid survey was conducted to describe the immunization status of the 0- to 2-year-old population in selected communities of Kern County, California, and identify reasons for noncompliance with immunization recommendations. Households were selected by two-stage cluster sampling. Among 860 children, 38% had received immunizations on schedule, while 44% had not received the recommended doses for their age. Compliance with the immunization schedule worsened dramatically after the first year of life. Among 2 year olds, the proportion that had the recommended number of vaccine doses was 81% for MMR, 82% for polio, 65% for DTP, and 47% for Hib. Parents' main reasons for noncompliance included child's illness, procrastination, and limited access to information and services. The low levels of compliance reflect lack of active follow-up in preventive health care across socioeconomic levels. The results show the importance of aiming immunization messages at parents and physicians of 12- to 18-month-old children. The rapid survey approach offers public health agencies an efficient means of assessing community health problems and targeting programs according to need. PMID:16228742

  8. Geologic map of southwestern Sequoia National Park, Tulare County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, Thomas W.; Moore, James G.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the geology of 675 km2 (260 mi2) on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, California, mainly in Sequoia National Park and Sequoia National Forest. It was produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the request of the National Park Service to complete the geologic map coverage of Kings Canyon and Sequoia National Parks. The area includes the Mineral King 15 topographic quadrangle (sheet 1) and strips along the east and northeast edges of the Kaweah 15 topographic quadrangle (sheet 2), both in Tulare County. Mapping was performed mainly on the 1:24,000-scale Mineral King, Silver City, Quinn Peak, Moses Mountain, Case Mountain, and Dennison Peak 7.5 topographic quadrangle bases. Rocks within the study area are chiefly Cretaceous granites and granodiorites of the Sierra Nevada batholith that intruded coherent masses of Mesozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. Quaternary till and talus are the principal surficial deposits, with the exception of a large bouldery alluvial apron near the southwest corner of the map area. The study area includes the headwaters of the Kaweah River (East and South Forks), Tule River (North Fork and North Fork of the Middle Fork), and the Little Kern River. Relief is considerable, with elevations spanning from 1,500 feet along the Middle Fork Kaweah River to 12,432 feet at the summit of Florence Peak along the crest of the Great Western Divide.

  9. 78 FR 22031 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-In Merced, Madera and Fresno Counties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ..., Madera and Fresno Counties, CA AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Adoption... following California communities: Atwater, Chowchilla, Fresno, Le Grand, Los Banos, Madera, and Merced....

  10. A water-resources data network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 1; South county

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showalter, P.K.; Hord, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation made of rainfall, surface water, groundwater, and water quality monitoring networks in Salinas River basin in southern Monterey County, California, proposed all long-term rain gages be continued for extending short-term records and suggested the installation of two additional recording gages. Eight new storage rain gages were suggested at midaltitudes of east and west sides of Salinas Valley where few data are available. The evaluation revealed some short-term gaging stations could be discontinued because of good regression relations between them and the long-term stations Arroyo Seco near Soledad. Of 16 stations selected for the proposed network, 4 are new recording stations, 6 are new nonrecording streamflow and water quality sampling sites, 5 are existing stations, and the last is a station operated from 1969 to 1976; also included are water quality sampling stations on Lakes Nacimiento and San Antonio. The proposed groundwater network was developed from information on geology, geohydrology, and groundwater quality, high priority objectives for groundwater network, and consideration for providing good areal coverage of levels and water quality. Of 145 sites selected, 86 are existing monitoring wells. (USGS)

  11. County-level analysis of the impact of temperature and population increases on California wildfire data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baltar, M.; Keeley, Jon E.; Schoenberg, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which the apparent increase in wildfire incidence and burn area in California from 1990 to 2006 is affected by population and temperature increases is examined. Using generalized linear models with random effects, we focus on the estimated impacts of increases in mean daily temperatures and populations in different counties on wildfire in those counties, after essentially controlling for the overall differences between counties in their overall mean temperatures and populations. We find that temperature increase appears to have a significant positive impact on both total burn area and number of observed wildfires. Population growth appears to have a much less pronounced impact on total burn area than do annual temperature increases, and population growth appears to be negatively correlated with the total number of observed wildfires. These effects are especially pronounced in the winter season and in Southern California counties.

  12. 33 CFR 334.866 - Pacific Ocean at Naval Base Coronado, in the City of Coronado, San Diego County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coronado, in the City of Coronado, San Diego County, California; naval danger zone. 334.866 Section 334.866 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE... Coronado, San Diego County, California; naval danger zone. (a) The area. A fan-shaped area...

  13. History of Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) Issues in California Beginning in El Dorado County in 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beall, R.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will provide a historical account when NOA emerged as a major issue in California beginning in El Dorado County (EDC) with front page news on March 29, 1998, resulting in public outcry and concern. What started in EDC resulted in major changes to rule making for all counties in California and stringent requirements for school projects. The overview includes a discussion of evolution of the rule making between 1998 and 2005 with EDC, CARB, DTSC, Department of Conservation, USGS, Cal OSHA, ATSDR, and EPA Superfund.

  14. Association of Access to Publicly Funded Family Planning Services With Adolescent Birthrates in California Counties

    PubMed Central

    Chabot, Marina J.; Navarro, Sandy; Swann, Diane; Darney, Philip; Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of adolescent birthrates (ABRs) with access to and receipt of publicly funded family planning services in California counties provided through 2 state programs: Medi-Cal, Californias Medicaid program, and the Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment (Family PACT) program. Methods. Our key data sources included the California Health Interview Survey and California Womens Health Survey, Medi-Cal and Family PACT claims data, and the Birth Statistical Master File. We constructed a linear regression analysis measuring the relationship of access to and receipt of family planning services with ABRs when controlling for counties select covariates. Results. The regression analysis indicated that a higher access rate to Family PACT in a county was associated with a lower ABR (B?=??0.19; P?counties that had persistently high rates are critical to achieving a healthy future for the state and the nation. Family PACT played a crucial role in helping adolescents avoid unintended and early childbearing. PMID:24354841

  15. Local energy initiatives: a second look. A survey of cities and counties, California 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, T.

    1981-01-01

    The survey results document momentum at the local level to reduce energy costs and boost reliance on alternative, renewable energy sources. California cities and counties have designed and implemented cost-effective, environmentally sound energy practices in internal management and resource development, and in the fields of planning, land use, transportation, and education. Examples are given of the use of alternative technologies to make future energy secure and protect the economic and environmetnal well-being of California communities.

  16. Geothermal direct-heat study: Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    Potential applications of geothermal energy which would be compatible with the agricultural activities in the county were identified and a plan to attract potential users to the area was developed. The intent of the first effort was to identify general classifications of industries which could utilize geothermal heat in production processes. Two levels of analyses were utilized for this effort. Initially, activities relying on previously developed engineering and industrial concepts were investigated to determine capital costs, employment, and potential energy savings. Second, innovative concepts not yet fully developed were investigated to determine their potential applicability to the agricultural base of the county. These investigations indicated that the major potential applications of geothermal heat would involve industries related to food processing or other direct agriculture-related uses of raw materials produced or imported to the county. An implementation plan which can be utilized by the county to market direct heat applications was developed. A socioeconomics analysis examined the potential effects on the county from development of direct heat projects. The county's planning and permitting requirements for dirct heat projects were also examined.

  17. Dental Screening and Education Among Cambodian, Lowland Lao, and Hmong Refugees in Fresno County, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Donald R.; Jackson, Sidney

    1988-01-01

    Ascertains the dental health needs of the following refugee groups in Fresno County, California: (1) Cambodians; (2) lowland Lao; and (3) Hmong. Discusses successful health marketing and educational strategies aimed at these groups. A Dental Screening program instructed community health specialists, provided dental health education, and performed

  18. 75 FR 39581 - Yosemite Valley Plan; Yosemite National Park; Mariposa, Madera, and Tuolumne Counties, California...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Yosemite Valley Plan; Yosemite National Park; Mariposa, Madera, and Tuolumne Counties, California; Notice of Revised Record of Decision SUMMARY: On December 29, 2000, the National Park...

  19. 78 FR 70005 - Naval Base Ventura County, San Nicolas Island, California; Restricted Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Naval Base Ventura County, San Nicolas Island, California; Restricted Area AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Corps of Engineers (Corps) is proposing to amend...

  20. Spatially explicit West Nile virus risk modeling in Santa Clara County, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previously created Geographic Information Systems model designed to identify regions of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission risk is tested and calibrated in Santa Clara County, California. American Crows that died from WNV infection in 2005 provide the spatial and temporal ground truth. Model param...

  1. 76 FR 28944 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...EPA is proposing a limited approval and limited disapproval of permitting rules submitted for the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). The districts are required under Part D of title I of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to adopt and implement a SIP-approved New Source......

  2. 78 FR 21582 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Butte County Air Quality Management District (BCAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from residential wood burning......

  3. BOUNDS ON SUBSURFACE MERCURY FLUX FROM THE SULPHUR BANK MERCURY MINE, LAKE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM) in Lake County, California has been identified as a significant source of mercury to Clear Lake. The mine was operated from the 1860s through the 1950's. Mining started with surface operations, progressed to shaft mining, and later to open p...

  4. 75 FR 56942 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District...

  5. 76 FR 26615 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    .... SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District... various air pollution sources. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the... February 9, 2011 (76 FR 7142), EPA proposed to approve the following rules into the California SIP....

  6. EVIDENCE FOR METAL ATTENUATION IN ACID MINE WATER BY SULFATE REDUCTION, PENN MINE, CALAVERAS COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Penn Mine in Calaveras County, California, produced Cu from massive sulfide ores from 1861 to 1953. Mine wastes were removed to a landfill during the late 1990s, improving surface-water quality, but deep mine workings were not remediated and contain metalliferous water with p...

  7. FARM WORKERS IN A SPECIALIZED SEASONAL CROP AREA, STANISLAUS COUNTY, CALIFORNIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    METZLER, WILLIAM H.

    SPECIALIZATION IN THE CROPS BEST ADAPTED TO THE LOCAL AREA IS SEEN AS A HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURE, BUT BY CREATING THE NEED FOR LARGE NUMBERS OF WORKERS FOR SHORT PERIODS OF TIME, IT CAUSES UNEMPLOYMENT AND MIGRATION. A SURVEY OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE WORKERS IN STANISLAUS COUNTY, CALIFORNIA IN 1962-63 REVEALS--(1) THEIR EARNINGS ARE…

  8. Childhood asthma along the United States/Mexico border: hospitalizations and air quality in two California counties.

    PubMed

    English, P B; Von Behren, J; Harnly, M; Neutra, R R

    1998-06-01

    Since the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement in 1993, there has been an increasing need to monitor environmental health trends that may be related to the rapid industrialization of the United States/Mexico border. We studied two counties on the California/Baja California border to obtain baseline data on trends in childhood asthma hospitalizations and two pollutants that aggravate asthma, ozone and particulate matter (less than 10 microns in diameter), from 1983 to 1994. Hospital discharge records of children 14 years and younger were analyzed, and rates by county, race, and sex were age-adjusted to the 1990 California population. Data on five ozone and particulate matter indices obtained from the California Environmental Protection Agency were used. Imperial County had the highest childhood asthma hospitalization rates in California for non-Hispanic whites and African-Americans, and the second highest for Hispanics. San Diego County had rates below the state average. Over the time period examined, rates in Imperial County increased 59%, while those in San Diego County decreased 9%. Maximum ozone levels increased 64% in Imperial County but decreased 46% in San Diego County. Particulate matter levels were four times higher in Imperial than in San Diego County. High rates of childhood asthma hospitalizations in Imperial County may be partially related to high levels of poverty and worsening air quality conditions produced by increased burdens on the local airshed. Asthma prevalence surveys and binational time-series analyses examining asthma-pollutant relationships are needed. PMID:9734219

  9. County Variation in Children's and Adolescent's Health Status and School District Performance in California

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sunyoung

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between county-level estimates of children's health status and school district performance in California. Methods. We used 3 data sources: the California Health Interview Survey, district archives from the California Department of Education, and census-based estimates of county demographic characteristics. We used logistic regression to estimate whether a school district's failure to meet adequate yearly progress goals in 2004 to 2005 was a function of child and adolescent's health status. Models included district- and county-level fixed effects and were adjusted for the clustering of districts within counties. Results. County-level changes in children's and adolescent's health status decreased the likelihood that a school district would fail to meet adequate yearly progress goals during the investigation period. Health status did not moderate the relatively poor performance of predominantly minority districts. Conclusions. We found empirical support that area variation in children's and adolescent's health status exerts a contextual effect on school district performance. Future research should explore the specific mechanisms through which area-level child health influences school and district achievement. PMID:18309137

  10. Sources of emergency water supplies in Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akers, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    Water distribution systems in Santa Clara County, Calif., may be damaged and rendered inoperable by a large earthquake or other disaster. In such an event, individual agencies may have to implement emergency measures to supply water for drinking, firefighting, decontamination, or other purposes. In Santa Clara County, 128 wells have been identified as potential water-supply sources in emergencies. The criteria used to select the wells are: yield of at least 3 liters per second (50 gallons per minute), good water quality, ready accessibility, and available emergency power. Purification methods of small water supplies are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. California County Data Book, 2001: Factors for School Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, Oakland, CA.

    This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of California's children, focusing on factors for school success. The statistical portrait is based on trends in 32 indicators of well-being in 4 areas: (1) education, including reading and mathematics achievement, high school dropout rates, and student-teacher ratios; (2) family

  12. Fire Prevention in California's Riverside County Headstart Project: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folkman, William S.; Taylor, Jean

    Results of evaluation are reported for a safety program devised by Head Start teachers and California Division of Forestry personnel to teach fire prevention education to Head Start children. Chapters describe the place of fire prevention in Head Start and causes of fire starting behavior in children. The Head Start Fire Prevention Kit is also…

  13. Beginnings of geothermal impact on county population and leadership, Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Pick, J.B.; Butler, E.W.

    1980-09-01

    A major geothermal energy development scenario is about to begin in Imperial County. Initial energy-socioeconomic interactions in the areas of population and county leadership structure are discussed. These include immigration of energy company workers, a sewage plant dispute, conflict over union affiliation of geothermal laborers, and a transmission corridor routing dispute.

  14. Reducing Seismic Hazards Through Local Geologic Review, San Luis Obispo County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, L. I.

    2005-12-01

    San Luis Obispo County is located on the California coastline midway between the large metropolitan areas of Los Angeles and San Francisco. Until the early 1990s, San Luis Obispo was mainly rural and believed to have a lower seismic hazard compared to Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay area. Economic growth in the middle 1990s caused the county to grow nearly 30 percent in 5 years, with new residents emigrating from Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay area. Local government had vague geologic report requirements. Hence, the quality of reports submitted to the County was poor. Two events changed this: first, the County established a new County Geologist position and program; second, the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon earthquake made the general public greatly aware of the seismic risks in their own backyard. Through stringent peer-review, the County Geologist program has reduced seismic losses by requiring detailed engineering geologic reports based on guidelines outlined in the California Geological Survey's Special Publication 117. In addition, in-depth liquefaction studies are required in the community of Oceano, where liquefaction was previously unknown, but revealed in the San Simeon earthquake. Other improvements in seismic hazard characterization include trenching late Quaternary faults, using probabilistic estimates of ground motion, and recognition of enhanced ground shaking in basins and along ridgetops. The success of the County Geologist program was based on several factors: hiring a local geologist with expertise in seismic hazards, support of the County's decision-makers, and cooperative technical studies with the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Geological Survey, CalTrans, and the California Coastal Commission. Some resistance was initially from the land development community, but was resolved by applying policy fairly and uniformly. Thus, standard-of-practice in seismic hazard characterization in San Luis Obispo County is closer to that of the urban parts of state. Local governments should consider creating their own geologic review program, but should be aware of the time and consensus-building involved to create a successful effort. Most importantly, the new program should enact and enforce the most detailed and current guidelines immediately. Subsequent efforts to "raise the bar" become increasing difficult. However, the payoff of increasing public safety and improved knowledge of local seismic hazards make geologic review programs worthwhile.

  15. The Changing Epidemiology of Coccidioidomycosis in Los Angeles (LA) County, California, 1973–2011

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley Fever, is often thought of as an endemic disease of central California exclusive of Los Angeles County. The fungus that causes Valley Fever, Coccidioides spp., grows in previously undisturbed soil of semi-arid and arid environments of certain areas of the Americas. LA County has a few large areas with such environments, particularly the Antelope Valley which has been having substantial land development. Coccidioidomycosis that is both clinically- and laboratory-confirmed is a mandated reportable disease in LA County. Population surveillance data for 1973–2011 reveals an annual rate increase from 0.87 to 3.2 cases per 100,000 population (n = 61 to 306 annual cases). In 2004, case frequency started substantially increasing with notable epidemiologic changes such as a rising 2.1 to 5.7 male-to-female case ratio stabilizing to 1.4–2.2. Additionally, new building construction in Antelope Valley greatly rose in 2003 and displayed a strong correlation (R = 0.92, Pearson p<0.0001) with overall LA County incidence rates for 1996–2007. Of the 24 LA County health districts, 19 had a 100%-1500% increase in cases when comparing 2000–2003 to 2008–2011. Case residents of endemic areas had stronger odds of local exposures, but cases from areas not known to be endemic had greater mortality (14% versus 9%) with notably more deaths during 2008–2011. Compared to the 57 other California counties during 2001–2011, LA County had the third highest average annual number of cases and Antelope Valley had a higher incidence rate than all but six counties. With the large number of reported coccidioidomycosis cases, multi-agency and community partnering is recommended to develop effective education and prevention strategies to protect residents and travelers. PMID:26313151

  16. Mineral resources of the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-360), Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.S.U.; Yeend, W.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; Gese, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-360), California Desert Conservation Area, Imperial County, California. The potential for undiscovered base and precious metals, and sand and gravel within the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area is low. The study area has a moderate potential for geothermal energy. One small sand-free area between the Coachella Canal and the west edge of the dune field would probably be the only feasible exploration site for geothermal energy. The study area has a moderate to high potential for the occurrence of undiscovered gas/condensate within the underlying rocks. 21 refs.

  17. 78 FR 36823 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-in Merced, Madera and Fresno Counties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board California High-Speed Rail Authority--Construction Exemption--in Merced, Madera and Fresno Counties, Cal AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  18. Reconnaissance of geothermal resources of Los Angeles County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal waters produced from large oil fields are currently the most important geothermal resources in Los Angeles County. Otherwise, the County does not appear to have any large, near-surface geothermal resources. The oil fields produce thermal water because of both the moderate depths of production and normal to above-normal geothermal gradients. Gradients are about 3.0-3.5/sup 0/C/100 meters in the Ventura Basin and range from that up to about 5.5-6.0/sup 0/C/100 meters in the Los Angeles Basin. The hottest fields in the County are west of the Newport-Inglewood Structural Zone. The Los Angeles Basin has substantially more potential for uses of heat from oil fields than does the Ventura Basin because of its large fields and dense urban development. Produced fluid temperatures there range from ambient air to boiling, but most are in the 100-150/sup 0/F range. Daily water production ranges from only a few barrels at some fields to over a million barrels at Wilmington Oil Field; nearly all fields produce less than 50,000 barrels/day. Water salinity generally ranges from about 15,000-35,000 mg/liter NaCl. Fields with the most promise as sources of heat for outside applications are Wilmington, Torrance, Venice Beach, and Lawndale. The centralized treatment facilities are the most favorable sites for extraction of heat within the oil fields. Because of the poor water quality heat exchangers will likely be required rather than direct circulation of the field water to users. The best sites for applications are commercial-industrial areas and possibly institutional structures occupied by large numbers of people.

  19. Implementing a mental health and primary care partnership program in Placer County, California.

    PubMed

    Nover, Cynthia Helen

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with serious mental illness are at an increased risk for developing co-morbid chronic physical illnesses, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This article is a descriptive piece about an intervention to decrease physical health risks in this population through a partnership effort between a primary care clinic and mental health agency in rural Placer County, California. The project was conducted as a part of the CalMEND Pilot Collaborative to Integrate Primary Care and Mental Health Services, which took place in five California counties in 2010-2011. A description of the program elements, conceptual models, key measures, and the process of program implementation is provided. Benefits were observed in areas of quality assurance, intra- and inter-agency teamwork, and access to adequate primary care for this population. PMID:24483334

  20. Geohydrology of the Escondido hydrologic subarea, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The San Diego region of California is undergoing rapid growth with a corresponding increase in the demand for water. To update the basin plan developed in 1975 by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, San Diego Region, water-level and water quality data for the 44-sq mi Escondido hydrologic subarea were collected and analyzed. Water-level measurements indicate that groundwater in most of the subarea was within 20 ft of land surface. Groundwater generally moves from the weathered crystalline rocks on hillsides into the alluvium. Groundwater moves from north to south in Reidy Canyon and from east to west in the alluvium along Escondido Creek. Water from all 20 wells sampled in 1987 had dissolved-solids concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended limit of 500 mg/L; concentrations ranged from 720 to 4,500 mg/L. Nitrate (as nitrogen) concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 86 mg/L. Water from 14 of the 20 wells had nitrate (as nitrogen) concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Agency recommended limit of 10 mg/L. (USGS)

  1. Geology and nickel mineralization of the Julian-Cuyamaca area, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creasey, S.C.

    1946-01-01

    The Julian-Cuyamaca area is in the San Diego Mountains, one of the Peninsular Ranges of southern California. It lies in San Diego County, about 3 miles south of Julian, and approximately 60 miles northeast of San Diego. The area was mapped, and its nickel mineralization studied, from March to June, 1944; the work was part of the U. S. Geological Survey's program of strategic mineral investigations.

  2. Geology and quicksilver deposits of the New Almaden district, Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Edgar Herbert; Everhart, Donald Lough

    1964-01-01

    The New Almaden district, situated a few miles south of San Jose in Santa Clara County, Calif., has yielded nearly 40 percent of the quicksilver produced in the United States. The area mapped as the district for this report includes about 80 square miles, extending south from the flat Santa Clara Valley across the moderately low foothills containing the mines to the more rugged crest of the California Coast Ranges.

  3. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  4. Loma Prieta earthquake, October 17, 1989, Santa Cruz County, California

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, S.

    1990-01-01

    On Tuesday, October 17, 1989 at 5:04 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred on the San Andreas fault 10 miles northeast of Santa Cruz. This earthquake was the largest earthquake to occur in the San Francisco Bay area since 1906, and the largest anywhere in California since 1952. The earthquake was responsible for 67 deaths and about 7 billion dollars worth of damage, making it the biggest dollar loss natural disaster in United States history. This article describes the seismological features of the earthquake, and briefly outlines a number of other geologic observations made during study of the earthquake, its aftershocks, and its effects. Much of the information in this article was provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  5. Magma energy exploratory well Long Valley caldera, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bender-Lamb, S.

    1991-04-01

    Intensive study of Long Valley over the past 15 years indicates evidence for magma at depths accessible to drilling. The Department of Energy's Magma Energy Extraction Program is currently drilling a 20,000 foot exploratory well into the Long Valley caldera. The purpose of this program is to determine the feasibility of producing electrical power from magma. If the magma energy experiment is successful, the Long Valley caldera could hypothetically supply the electrical power needs of California for 100 years at present power consumption rates. The paper describes calderas, the potential of geothermal energy, Long Valley geology, the Long Valley magma energy exploratory well, the four phases of the exploratory well drilling program, and Phase 1 results.

  6. Geohydrology and evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake playa, Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Czarnecki, J.B.

    1997-12-31

    Franklin Lake playa is one of the principal discharge areas of the Furnace Creek Ranch-Alkali Flat ground-water-flow system in southern Nevada and adjacent California. Yucca Mountain, Nevada, located within this flow system, is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy to determine its suitability as a potential site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository. To assist the U.S. Department of Energy with its evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site, the US Geological Survey developed a parameter-estimation model of the Furnace Creek Ranch-Alkali Flat ground-water-flow system. Results from sensitivity analyses made using the parameter-estimation model indicated that simulated rates of evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake playa had the largest effect on the calculation of transmissivity values at Yucca Mountain of all the model-boundary conditions and, therefore, that evapotranspiration required careful definition.

  7. Geohydrology and evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake Playa, Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-01

    Franklin Lake playa is one of the principal discharge areas of the Furnace Creek Ranch-Alkali Flat ground-water-flow system in southern Nevada and adjacent California. Yucca Mountain, Nevada, located within this flow system, is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy to determine its suitability as a potential site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository. To assist the US Department of Energy with its evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site, the US Geological Survey developed a parameter-estimation model of the Furnace Creek Ranch-Alkali Flat ground-water-flow system. Results from sensitivity analyses made using the parameter-estimation model indicated that simulated rates of evapotranspiration at Franklin Lake playa had the largest effect on the calculation of transmissivity values at Yucca Mountain of all the model-boundary conditions and, therefore, that evapotranspiration required careful definition. 72 refs., 59 figs., 26 tab.

  8. 78 FR 24309 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-in Merced, Madera and Fresno Counties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board California High-Speed Rail Authority--Construction Exemption--in Merced, Madera and Fresno Counties, Cal On March 27, 2013, California High-Speed Rail Authority (Authority),...

  9. Sources of emergency water supplies in San Mateo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, P.R.

    1975-01-01

    San Mateo County has several densely populated urban areas that get most of their water supplies from surface-water sources that could by damaged by a major earthquake or other general disaster. In the event of such a disaster, limited supplies of potable water may be obtained from selected wells, springs, and perennial streams. This report outlines the principal sources of existing water supplies, gives information on the need for emergency water-supply procedures, presents general criteria needed for selecting emergency water-supply wells, summarizes information for 60 selected water wells, numerous springs, and perennial streams that can be used as sources of water, and describes emergency water-purification procedures that can be used by individuals or small groups of people.

  10. Space Radar Image of Orange County, California (annotated version)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Orange County, Calif., shows the massive urbanization of this rapidly growing region located just south of Los Angeles. Orange County, sandwiched between rugged mountains and the Pacific Ocean, includes the communities of Anaheim, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach. Anaheim Stadium can be seen in the upper center of the image, as a small white ring to the right of a major freeway intersection. The large dark blue rectangular area in the upper left is the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station and adjacent wildlife refuge. Runways of the El Toro Marine Air Station appear as a black 'x' near the center of the image. The large purple area to the left of the the Air Station and extending to the coast is the scar left by the Laguna wildfire of October 1993. The sparse vegetation left in the wake of the fire provides a weak source of radar echoes, making the burn areas distinctively dark in the image. Another large burn area, from the Ortega fire of 1993, is seen in the mountains in the lower right of the image. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 3, 1994. The image is centered at 33.7 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The image shows an area 66.2 kilometers by 44.2 kilometers (41.0 miles by 27.4 miles). The colors are assigned todifferent frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  11. 78 FR 21580 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara and San Diego County Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) and San Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from surface coating of aerospace vehicles and components and from wood products coating operations.......

  12. Chemical analyses for selected wells in San Joaquin County and part of Contra Costa County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeter, Gail L.

    1980-01-01

    The study area of this report includes the eastern valley area of Contra Costa County and all of San Joaquin County, an area of approximately 1,600 square miles in the northern part of the San Joaquin Valley, Calif. Between December 1977 and December 1978, 1,489 wells were selectively canvassed. During May and June in 1978 and 1979, water samples were collected for chemical analysis from 321 of these wells. Field determinations of alkalinity, conductance, pH, and temperature were made, and individual constituents were analyzed. This report is the fourth in a series of baseline data reports on wells in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. (USGS)

  13. California Child Care Workforce Study: Family Child Care Providers and Assistants in Alameda County, Kern County, Monterey County, San Benito County, San Francisco County, San Mateo County, Santa Cruz County, and Santa Clara County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; Almaraz, Mirella; Jo-Yung, Joon; Sakai, Laura; Boots, Shelley Waters; Voisin, Irene; Young, Marci; Burton, Alice; Duff, Brian; Laverty, Kassin; Bellm, Dan; Jay, E. Deborah; Krishnaswamy, Nandini; Kipnis, Fran

    An important first step toward more effectively addressing the complexities of child care as a service for families and as an employment setting for workers in California is to develop a detailed picture of the child care workforce. On this premise, a study examined licensed family child care provider demographics, professional preparation, length…

  14. California Child Care Workforce Study: Family Child Care Providers and Assistants in Alameda County, Kern County, Monterey County, San Benito County, San Francisco County, San Mateo County, Santa Cruz County, and Santa Clara County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; Almaraz, Mirella; Jo-Yung, Joon; Sakai, Laura; Boots, Shelley Waters; Voisin, Irene; Young, Marci; Burton, Alice; Duff, Brian; Laverty, Kassin; Bellm, Dan; Jay, E. Deborah; Krishnaswamy, Nandini; Kipnis, Fran

    An important first step toward more effectively addressing the complexities of child care as a service for families and as an employment setting for workers in California is to develop a detailed picture of the child care workforce. On this premise, a study examined licensed family child care provider demographics, professional preparation, length

  15. Recently Exposed Fumarole Fields Near Mullet Island, Imperial County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. K.; Hudnut, K.; Adams, P.; Bernstein, L.

    2011-12-01

    New field observations, lidar measurements, aerial imaging and preliminary laboratory measurements of mud samples are reported of three formerly submerged fumarole fields in the Salton Trough near Mullet Island in southeastern California, USA. The fumarole fields have recently been exposed as the Salton Sea level has dropped. The largest of the three fields visited in January 2011 is irregular in outline with a marked northeast elongation. It is roughly 400 meters long and 120 meters wide. The field consists of approximately one hundred warm to boiling hot (100 C) mud volcanoes (0.1 - 2 m in height), several hundred mud pots, and countless CO2 gas vents. Unusual shaped mud volcanoes in the form of vertical tubes with central vents were observed in many places. Lidar measurements were obtained in the time period Nov 9-13, 2010 using an Optech Orion 200M lidar from an elevation 800 m AGL. They reveal that the terrain immediately surrounding the two fields that are above water level reside on a low (~0.5 m high) gently sloping mound about 500 m across that shows no evidence of lineaments indicative of surface faulting. With other geothermal features, the fumaroles define a well-defined line marking the probable trace of the Calipatria fault. Although the precise locations is uncertain, it appears to define a straight line 4 km long between the Davis-Schrimpf mud volcanoes and Mullet Island. Mullet Island is one of five late Quaternary rhyolitic volcanic necks in the immediate area of the fumaroles. The Calipatria fault is subparallel to the San Andreas and Imperial faults and only one of many verified or suspected faults (including cross faults) in the complex tectonic setting of the Salton Trough. Mud from several volcanoes was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). One sample contained boussingaultite, (NH4)2Mg(SO4)2.6(H2O), a rare mineral that is known to sublime under fumarolic conditions, possibly by ammoniation of hydrated MgSO4. As the Salton Sea level continues to drop, the third fumarole field is expected to surface in the next couple of years. It is also likely that as more land emerges, many of the CO2 gas seeps currently under water will begin to for mud volcanoes and mud pots, most of them along the same NW trending axis as the others. At about the same time a land bridge will form to Mullet Island, the first in about 60 years.

  16. Clay mineralogy of Pleistocene Lake Tecopa, Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starkey, Harry C.; Blackmon, Paul D.

    1979-01-01

    Pleistocene Lake Tecopa in southeastern Inyo County, Calif., was formed when the Amargosa River was blocked at the southern end of its valley. The lake acted as a settling basin for detrital material being transported by the river. This detritus consisted of clays, quartz, feldspars, and micas which became mudstones and siltstones. These mudstones and siltstones, much eroded and dissected after the draining of the lake, extend over the entire basin and are interbedded with tuffs formed by the intermittent deposition of volcanic ashfalls in the former lake waters. These lightcolored mudstones and siltstones are tough and well indurated and break with a conchoidal fracture. The predominant clay mineral in these detrital beds is a lithiumbearing saponite, which is found not only in the lake beds but also in the area beyond the boundaries of the lake, especially in fluvial deposits in the drainage basin of the Amargosa River to the north. This saponite does not contain enough lithium to be classified as a hectorite, and we have observed no indications that this clay consists of a mixture of two phases, such as hectorite and a diluent. Some authigenic dioctahedral montmorillonite, found only in small quantities close to the tuffs, was formed by alteration of the volcanic glass of the tuffs and was then admixed with the overlying or underlying detrital clays. The only authigenic clay-type mineral found in any significant quantity is sepiolite, found near the edges of the lake basin and stratigraphically located mainly within a meter of the two uppermost tuffs. This sepiolite probably was precipitated when silica became available to the magnesium-bearing lake water through dissolution of the volcanic ash. Precipitation of sepiolite probably did not occur within the tuffs owing to the presence of alumina in solution. Zeolites were produced there and sepiolite formed outside the margins of the tuffs. Also formed by the high-pH lake waters were water-soluble minerals, which were found widely dispersed in crusts or streaks on the clays. Much of the calcite was likely precipitated from the lake waters, especially near the north end of the lake where calciumbearing fresh water came into contact with the C02-rich lake waters. Magadiite, a sodium silicate mineral reported only twice previously in the United States, was found in small quantities in the southern end of the basin. This mineral is indicative of a minimum pH of 8.5. The authigenic minerals formed in the lake reflect the presence of silica-rich tuffs and the high-pH, alkaline character of the lake waters.

  17. Digital Geologic Map of the Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slate, Janet L.; Berry, Margaret E.; Rowley, Peter D.; Fridrich, Christopher J.; Morgan, Karen S.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Young, Owen D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Williams, Van S.; McKee, Edwin H.; Ponce, David A.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Swadley, W.C.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Warren, Richard G.; Cole, James C.; Fleck, Robert J.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Sawyer, David A.; Minor, Scott A.; Grunwald, Daniel J.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Menges, Christopher M.; Yount, James C.; Jayko, Angela S.

    1999-01-01

    This digital geologic map of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity, as well as its accompanying digital geophysical maps, are compiled at 1:100,000 scale. The map compilation presents new polygon (geologic map unit contacts), line (fault, fold axis, metamorphic isograd, dike, and caldera wall) and point (structural attitude) vector data for the NTS and vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California. The map area covers two 30 x 60-minute quadrangles-the Pahute Mesa quadrangle to the north and the Beatty quadrangle to the south-plus a strip of 7.5-minute quadrangles on the east side-72 quadrangles in all. In addition to the NTS, the map area includes the rest of the southwest Nevada volcanic field, part of the Walker Lane, most of the Amargosa Desert, part of the Funeral and Grapevine Mountains, some of Death Valley, and the northern Spring Mountains. This geologic map improves on previous geologic mapping of the same area (Wahl and others, 1997) by providing new and updated Quaternary and bedrock geology, new geophysical interpretations of faults beneath the basins, and improved GIS coverages. Concurrent publications to this one include a new isostatic gravity map (Ponce and others, 1999) and a new aeromagnetic map (Ponce, 1999).

  18. Yuma District Resource Management Plan, Yuma, La Paz, and Mohave Counties, Arizona and San Bernardino, Riverside and Imperial Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    Implementation of a resource management plan is proposed for 1.2 million acres within the 2.7-million-acre Yuma District, located in Yuma, La Paz, and Mohave counties, Arizona and San Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial counties, California. Under the preferred alternative, wildlife habitat would be a priority consideration on approximately 247,740 acre, and nine special management areas would be designated. A portion of the Cactus Plain and the Chemehuevi/Needles wilderness study areas would be recommended for wilderness designation. Two areas totaling 31,360 acres would be designated as special management areas, and another six areas totaling 155,705 acres would be managed to protect their natural values. Livestock grazing would be authorized at 3998 animal unit months on four allotments. Approximately 55,490 acres of federal lands would be available for disposal and 31,220 acres would be acquired. Nine utility corridors and nine communication sites would be designated. Existing recreational facilities would be maintained, with additional facilities provided when warranted. Along Parker Strip, only floodproofed day-use facilities would be allowed within the 100-year flood plain. Off-road vehicle (ORV) use designations would be made on 640 acres and ORV use in the remainder of the district would be limited to existing roads and trails. Continuous occupancy of mobile home sites would be restricted to one five-month period in a single year. Permanent residential use would be phased out.

  19. Local energy initiatives: a second look. A survey of cities and counties, California 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The 1981 Local Energy Initiatives survey documents continued momentum at the local level to reduce energy costs and boost reliance on alternative, renewable energy sources. California Cities and Counties have designed and implemented cost-effective, environmentally sound energy practices in internal management and resource development, and in the fields of planning, land use, transportation, and education. In California, a clear shift has been made in energy use. Leadership has moved from the federal to state and local levels. Local officials deserve much of the credit for what California has accomplished so far; our energy initiatives are pacing similar activity nationwide. Recent projections by the California Energy Commission reaffirm the urgency of continued local government involvement in alternative energy development. The Energy Commission's biennial report, charts an overall decline in energy end-use consumption, and a primary energy supply mix that relies more heavily on wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, and hydroelectric power. CEC maintains that California's 0.3 percent annual decline in energy consumption corresponds to increased efficiency through conservation and not to deprivation. On the supply side, the Commission's report predicts that renewable energy sources will supply 22 percent of California's energy needs by 2000; today that share is only 5 percent. In electrical generation, the renewable share will grow from 23 percent of total generation in 1979 to 72 percent in 2000. The one certainty in the Energy Commission's 20-year energy projection is that the energy mix will be different in 2000. It is a question of whether we will control our energy problems or allow ourselves to be controlled by them. Described here are replicable examples of how we can make our future more secure and, in so doing, protect the economic and environmental well-being of our communities. This may be the hardest and most rewarding task facing local government.

  20. Data from a solute transport experiment in the Leviathan Mine drainage, Alpine County, California, October 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, M.R.; Bencala, K.E.; Zellweger, G.W.; Hammermeister, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    A twenty-four hour injection of chloride and sodium was made into Leviathan Creek, Alpine County, California to aid interpretation of the coupled interactions between physical transport processes and geochemical reactions. Leviathan Creek was chosen because it receives acid mine drainage from Leviathan Mine, an abandoned open-pit sulfur mine. Water samples were collected at 15 sites along a 4.39 kilometer reach and analyzed for chloride, sodium, sulfate and fluoride. Dissolved concentrations are presented in tabular format and time-series plots. Duplicate samples were analyzed by two laboratories: the Central Laboratory, Denver, Colorado and a research laboratory in Menlo Park, California. A tabular comparison of the analyses and plots of the differences between the two laboratories is presented. Hydrographs and instantaneous discharge measurements are included. (USGS)

  1. Digital database of microfossil localities in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, Kristin; Block, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The eastern San Francisco Bay region (Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, California) is a geologically complex area divided by faults into a suite of tectonic blocks. Each block contains a unique stratigraphic sequence of Tertiary sediments that in most blocks unconformably overlie Mesozoic sediments. Age and environmental interpretations based on analysis of microfossil assemblages are key factors in interpreting geologic history, structure, and correlation of each block. Much of this data, however, is distributed in unpublished internal reports and memos, and is generally unavailable to the geologic community. In this report the U.S. Geological Survey microfossil data from the Tertiary sediments of Alameda and Contra Costa counties are analyzed and presented in a digital database, which provides a user-friendly summary of the micropaleontologic data, locality information, and biostratigraphic and ecologic interpretations.

  2. Characterization of household hazardous waste from Marin County, California, and New Orleans, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Rathje, W.L.; Wilson, D.C.; Lambou, V.W.; Herndon, R.C.

    1987-09-01

    There is a growing concern that certain constituents of common household products, that are discarded in residential garbage, may be potentially harmful to human health and the environment by adversely affecting the quality of ground and surface water. A survey of hazardous wastes in residential garbage from Marin County, California, and New Orleans, Louisiana, was conducted in order to determine the amount and characteristics of such wastes that are entering municipal landfills. The results of the survey indicate that approximately 642 metric tons of hazardous waste are discarded per year for the New Orleans study area and approximately 259 metric tons are discarded per year for the Marin County study area. Even though the percent of hazardous household waste in the garbage discarded in both study areas was less than 1%, it represents a significant quantity of hazardous waste because of the large volume of garbage involved.

  3. Capacity and sedimentation of Loch Lomond Reservoir Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogelman, R.P.; Johnson, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    A sedimentation study of Loch Lomond Reservoir in Santa Cruz County, California, was begun in 1982 to determine reservoir storage capacity and to establish permanent ranges for future studies. Results of a reservoir survey indicated a total storage capacity of 8,824 acre-ft in 1982. Comparison of thalweg profiles from this survey and a survey done prior to dam construction in 1960 shows that deposition has occurred in the lower reach of the reservoir due to landsliding and in the upper reach due to sediment inflow from Newell Creek. (Author 's abstract)

  4. The potential for developing ground-water supplies in the Pescadero area, San Mateo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akers, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Adequate supplies of ground water for municipal use generally are not available within a 3-mile radius of Pescadero, San Mateo County, California. The required quantity of 100 gallons per minute probably could be obtained from one or more wells in the alluvium along Pescadero Creek; however, the quality of the water probably would deteriorate with time and might not be suitable for public supply for more than 20 or 30 years. Sand and gravel beds below 60 feet in the alluvium near the junction of Honsinger and Pescadero Creeks offer the best potential for developing domestic water supplies. (Kosco-USGS)

  5. Perspectives of Mobile Versus Fixed Mammography in Santa Clara County, California: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang-Halpenny, Christine; Kumarasamy, Narmadan A; Venegas, Angela; Braddock III, Clarence H

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to examine underserved women’s perceptions on mobile versus fixed mammography in Santa Clara, California through a focus group study. Background: Research has shown that medically underserved women have higher breast cancer mortality rates correlated with under-screening and a disproportional rate of late-stage diagnosis. The Community Health Partnership in Santa Clara County, California runs the Community Mammography Access Project (CMAP) that targets nearly 20,000 medically underserved women over the age of 40 in the county through the collaborative effort of an existing safety net of healthcare providers. However, little data exists on the advantages or disadvantages of mobile mammography units from the patient perspective.  Methods: We assessed underserved women’s perspectives on mammography services in Santa Clara County through two focus groups from women screened at mobile or fixed site programs. Patients were recruited from both CMAP clinics and a county hospital, and focus group data were analyzed using content analysis. Results: We found that women from both the mobile and fixed sites shared similar motivating factors for getting a mammogram. Both groups recognized that screening was uncomfortable but necessary for good health and had positive feedback about their personal physicians. However, mobile participants, in particular, appreciated the atmosphere of mobile screening, reported shorter wait times, and remarked on the good communication from the clinic staff and empathetic treatment they received. However, mobile participants also expressed concern about the quality of films at mobile sites due to delayed initial reading of the films.  Conclusions: Mobile mammography offers a unique opportunity for women of underserved populations to access high satisfaction screenings, and it encourages a model similar to CMAP in other underserved areas. However, emphasis should be placed on providing a warm and welcoming environment for patients and ensuring the quality of mammography images.  PMID:27014528

  6. From the Catbird Seat. A History of Women's Studies at Humboldt State University, 1971-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Kathryn L.; Preston, Kathleen

    This 25-year history of the women's studies program at Humboldt State University (California) is based on two surveys completed by former and current program leaders (n=10), faculty members (n=18), and students (n=201), as well as on the authors' personal recollections. After an introductory chapter, individual chapters address the following

  7. Ground-water resources of Honey Lake valley, Lassen County, California, and Washoe County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handman, E.H.; Londquist, C.J.; Maurer, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Honey Lake Valley is a 2,200 sq-mi, topographically closed basin about 35 miles northwest of Reno, Nevada. Unconsolidated basin-fill deposits on the valley floor and fractured volcanic rocks in northern and eastern uplands are the principal aquifers. In the study area, about 130,000 acre- ft of water recharges the aquifer system annually, about 40% by direct infiltration of precipitation and about 60% by infiltration of streamflow and irrigation water. Balancing this is an equal amount of groundwater discharge, of which about 65% evaporates from the water table or is transpired by phreatophytes, about 30 % is withdrawn from wells, and about 5% leaves the basin as subsurface outflow to the east. Results of a groundwater flow model of the eastern part of the basin, where withdrawals for public supply have been proposed, indicate that if 15,000 acre-ft of water were withdrawn annually, a new equilibrium would eventually be established by a reduction of about 60% in both evapotranspiration and subsurface outflow to the east. Hydrologic effects would be minimal at the western boundary of the flow-model area. Within the modeled area, the increased withdrawals cause an increase in the simulated net flow of groundwater eastward across the California-Nevada State line from about 670 acre-ft/yr to about 2,300 acre-ft/yr. (USGS)

  8. Geologic map of the Mound Spring quadrangle, Nye and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundstrom, Scott C.; Mahan, Shannon; Blakely, Richard J.; Paces, James B.; Young, Owen D.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Dixon, Gary L.

    2003-01-01

    The Mound Spring quadrangle, the southwestern-most 7.5' quadrangle of the area of the Las Vegas 1:100,000-scale quadrangle, is entirely within the Pahrump Valley, spanning the Nevada/California State line. New geologic mapping of the predominantly Quaternary materials is combined with new studies of gravity and geochronology in this quadrangle. Eleven predominantly fine-grained units are delineated, including playa sediment, dune sand, and deposits associated with several cycles of past groundwater discharge and distal fan sedimentation. These units are intercalated with 5 predominantly coarse-grained alluvial-fan and wash gravel units mainly derived from the Spring Mountains. The gravel units are distinguished on the basis of soil development and associated surficial characteristics. Thermoluminescence and U-series geochronology constrain most of the units to the Holocene and late and middle Pleistocene. Deposits of late Pleistocene groundwater discharge in the northeast part of the quadrangle are associated with a down-to-the-southwest fault zone that is expressed by surface fault scarps and a steep gravity gradient. The gravity field also defines a northwest-trending uplift along the State line, in which the oldest sediments are poorly exposed. About 2 km to the northeast a prominent southwest-facing erosional escarpment is formed by resistant beds in middle Pleistocene fine-grained sediments that dip northeast away from the uplift. These sediments include cycles of groundwater discharge that were probably caused by upwelling of southwesterly groundwater flow that encountered the horst.

  9. 76 FR 21329 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest; Nevada; Environmental Impact Statement for Geothermal Leasing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ...The Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest (HTNF) will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) to evaluate certain National Forest System (NFS) lands for geothermal leasing availability. The project area includes NFS lands on the HTNF in Douglas, Lyon, Mineral, Lander, Nye and White Pine County,...

  10. 78 FR 49723 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forests; Ely Ranger District; Ely Westside Rangeland Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Forest Service Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forests; Ely Ranger District; Ely Westside Rangeland Project... Project Area is located in White Pine, Lincoln, and Nye counties, Nevada. A Final Environmental Impact... additional information on the development of stocking rates on the allotments in the project area. DATES:...

  11. Neotectonics of the southern Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada and Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    A complex pattern of active faults occurs in the southern Amargosa Desert, southern Nye, County, Nevada. These faults can be grouped into three main fault systems: (1) a NE-striking zone of faults that forms the southwest extension of the left-lateral Rock Valley fault zone, in the much larger Spotted Range-Mine Mountain structural zone, (2) a N-striking fault zone coinciding with a NNW-trending alignment of springs that is either a northward continuation of a fault along the west side of the Resting Spring Range or a N-striking branch fault of the Pahrump fault system, and (3) a NW-striking fault zone which is parallel to the Pahrump fault system, but is offset approximately 5 km with a left step in southern Ash Meadows. These three fault zones suggest extension is occurring in an E-W direction, which is compatible with the {approximately}N10W structural grain prevalent in the Death Valley extensional region to the west.

  12. Repeated West Nile Virus Epidemic Transmission in Kern County, California, 2004–2007

    PubMed Central

    REISEN, WILLIAM K.; CARROLL, BRIAN D.; TAKAHASHI, RICHARD; FANG, YING; GARCIA, SANDRA; MARTINEZ, VINCENT M.; QUIRING, ROB

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has remained epidemic in Kern County, CA, since its introduction in 2004 through 2007 when the human case annual incidence increased from 6 – 8 to 17 per 100,000, respectively. The 2007 increase in human infection was associated with contradicting surveillance indicators, including severe drought, warm spring but cool summer temperature anomalies, decreased rural and urban mosquito abundance but increased early season infection in urban Culex quinquefasciatus Say, moderate avian “herd immunity,” and declines in the catch of competent (western scrub-jay and house finch) and noncompetent (California quail and mourning dove) avian species. The decline in these noncompetent avian hosts may have increased contact with competent avian hosts and perhaps humans. The marked increase in home foreclosures and associated neglected swimming pools increased urban mosquito production sites, most likely contributing to the urban mosquito population and the WNV outbreak within Bakersfield. Coalescing five surveillance indicators into a risk assessment score measured each half month provided 2- to 6-wk early warning for emergency planning and was followed consistently by the onset of human cases after reaching epidemic conditions. St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) antibody was detected rarely in wild birds but not mosquitoes or sentinel chickens, indicating that previously infected birds were detected in Kern County, but SLEV reintroduction was not successful. In contrast, western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) was detected during 3 of 5 yr in Culex tarsalis Coquillett, sentinel chickens, and wild birds, but failed to amplify to levels where tangential transmission was detected in Aedes mosquitoes or humans. A comparison of transmission patterns in Kern County to Coachella Valley in the southeastern desert of California showed the importance of mosquito phenology and spatial distribution, corvids, or other avian “super spreaders” and anthropogenic factors in WNV epidemiology. PMID:19198528

  13. Blood-feeding patterns of the Culex pipiens complex in Sacramento and Yolo Counties, California.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Matthew J; Thiemann, Tara; Macedo, Paula; Brown, David A; Scott, Thomas W

    2011-03-01

    Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex are competent vectors of West Nile virus (WNV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) in the laboratory, and field-collected mosquitoes have tested positive for the virus in California and elsewhere. A better understanding of Cx. pipiens complex blood-feeding patterns will help define the threat that these mosquitoes pose to human health and their role in WNV amplification in northern California. We collected blood-engorged Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes from resting sites near and away from human habitation in Sacramento and Yolo Counties. Cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene sequences were used to identify the vertebrate species from which blood meals were taken. Of 330 engorged mosquitoes collected at 28 sites from June through August 2007 and May through August 2008, >99% fed on an avian host. Three mosquitoes contained bovine blood and none had fed on a human. American Robins (Turdus migratorius) were bitten most often, and the proportion of American Robin blood meals increased significantly over the summer. Other important avian hosts included House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica), Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella neglecta), and Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura). In rural areas, Barn Swallows, Brewer's Blackbirds (Euphagus cyanocephalus), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) were frequent hosts. In settings near human habitation, Mourning Doves and Western Meadowlarks were common hosts. Our data indicate that in north central California mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex may be more important as epiornitic than epidemic vectors of WNV. PMID:21485380

  14. Mapping Episodic Stream Activity for the Ridgecrest Solar Power Project, Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibodeaux-Yost, S. N.; Brady, R. H., III; Vyverberg, K.; Weinman, B.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale renewable energy projects are being developed in the California desert region on large tracts of predominantly undeveloped land (total area of developed land for individual project sites vary from 327 acres to 8,230 acres). The absence of a standard method of identifying and accounting for episodic streams in arid and semi-arid (dryland) regions is an area of conflict between project developers and the government agencies responsible for protecting natural resources and permitting renewable energy projects. There is a need for an accurate dryland stream delineation protocol that is consistent, efficient, accessible, and accurately reflects the extent and distribution of streams on a site. Dryland stream delineation protocol based on a scientific, geomorphic and ecological understanding of dryland stream processes will help ensure dryland streams are accurately identified for the purposes of environmental impact assessments and project permitting. Such a method is currently being developed by the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW). This thesis work critically evaluates the stream delineation and stream impact assessment previously completed by the developer for the proposed renewable energy project in El Paso Fan, El Paso Mountains, Ridgecrest, Kern County, California. This evaluation is then compared and contrasted with the results achieved in the field using the MESA (Mapping Episodic Stream Activity) stream delineation methods and protocols and mobile GIS mapping technology.

  15. Mitigation action plan sale of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills) Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1, also called {open_quotes}Elk Hills{close_quotes}), a Federally-owned oil and gas production field in Kern County, California, was created by an Executive Order issued by President Taft on September 2, 1912. He signed another Executive Order on December 13, 1912, to establish Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2), located immediately south of NPR-1 and containing portions of the town of Taft, California. NPR-1 was not developed until the 1973-74 oil embargo demonstrated the nation`s vulnerability to oil supply interruptions. Following the embargo, Congress passed the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 which directed that the reserve be explored and developed to its fall economic potential at the {open_quotes}maximum efficient rate{close_quotes} (MER) of production. Since Elk Hills began full production in 1976, it has functioned as a commercial operation, with total revenues to the Federal government through FY 1996 of $16.4 billion, compared to total exploration, development and production costs of $3.1 billion. In February 1996, Title 34 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996 (P.L. 104-106), referred to as the Elk Hills Sales Statute, directed the Secretary of Energy to sell NPR-1 by February 10, 1998.The Secretary was also directed to study options for enhancing the value of the other Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserve properties such as NPR-2, located adjacent to NPR-1 in Kern County- Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) located in Natrona County, Wyoming; Naval Oil Shale Reserves No. 1 and No. 3 (NOSR-1 and NOSR-3) located in Garfield County, Colorado; and Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 2 (NOSR-2) located in Uintah and Carbon Counties, Utah. The purpose of these actions was to remove the Federal government from the inherently non-Federal function of operating commercial oil fields while making sure that the public would obtain the maximum value from the reserves.

  16. Resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California. Report of the second year, 1979 to 1980 of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for reservoir assessment and confirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, L.G.; Bacon, C.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Higgins, C.T.; Majmundar, H.H.; Taylor, G.C.

    1980-11-10

    Statewide assessment studies included updating and completing the USGS GEOTHERM File for California and compiling all data needed for a California Geothermal Resources Map. Site specific assessment studies included a program to assess the geothermal resource at Calistoga, Napa County, California. The Calistoga effort was comprised of a series of studies involving different disciplines, including geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and geophysical studies.

  17. Resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California. Report of the second year, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, L.G.; Bacon, C.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Higgins, C.T.; Majmundar, H.H.; Taylor, G.C.

    1980-11-10

    Phase I studies included updating and completing the USGS GEOTHERM file for California and compiling all data needed for a California Geothermal Resources Map. Phase II studies included a program to assess the geothermal resource at Calistoga, Napa County, California. The Calistoga effort was comprised of a series of studies involving different disciplines, including geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and geophysical studies.

  18. NAVEL BASE VENTURA COUNTY, PORT HUENEME, CALIFORNIA EPA CHARACTERIZATION TEST CELL REPORT ON ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS IN THE TEST CELL AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the geophysical surveys at the EPA Characterization Test Cell (CTC) area (Site) at Naval Base Ventura County, Port Hueneme, California is to locate geophysical anomalies indicative of metallic objects within the area of the cell. The goal was to provide backgroun...

  19. IDENTIFYING THE CAUSE OF HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF TBA IN GROUNDWATER AT GASOLINE SPIILL SITES IN ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring at gasoline spills in Orange County, California has revealed that TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) is often present at high concentrations in ground water. To manage the hazard associated with the presence of TBA, staff of the UST Local Oversight Program (LOP) of the Oran...

  20. ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES IN ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) has not been used as a fuel oxygenate in Orange County, California, the concentrations of TBA in ground water at gasoline spill sites are high compared to the concentrations of the conventional fuel oxygenate Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE). In t...

  1. HYDROGEOLOGICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING MERCURY FATE AND TRANSPORT AT THE SULPHUR BANK MERCURY MINE, LAKE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clear Lake, located approximately 150 km north of San Francisco in Lake County, is one of the largest fresh water lakes in the California. Elevated mercury levels were first identified in fish from Clear Lake in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Although naturally occurring mercury...

  2. 33 CFR 334.866 - Pacific Ocean at Naval Base Coronado, in the City of Coronado, San Diego County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Naval Base Coronado, in the City of Coronado, San Diego County, California; naval danger zone. 334.866 Section 334.866... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS 334.866 Pacific Ocean at Naval Base Coronado, in the City...

  3. 33 CFR 334.866 - Pacific Ocean at Naval Base Coronado, in the City of Coronado, San Diego County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Naval Base Coronado, in the City of Coronado, San Diego County, California; naval danger zone. 334.866 Section 334.866... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS 334.866 Pacific Ocean at Naval Base Coronado, in the City...

  4. 33 CFR 334.866 - Pacific Ocean at Naval Base Coronado, in the City of Coronado, San Diego County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Naval Base Coronado, in the City of Coronado, San Diego County, California; naval danger zone. 334.866 Section 334.866... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS 334.866 Pacific Ocean at Naval Base Coronado, in the City...

  5. 33 CFR 334.866 - Pacific Ocean at Naval Base Coronado, in the City of Coronado, San Diego County, California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Naval Base Coronado, in the City of Coronado, San Diego County, California; naval danger zone. 334.866 Section 334.866... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS 334.866 Pacific Ocean at Naval Base Coronado, in the City...

  6. Identification of environmental issues: Hybrid wood-geothermal power plant, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California: First phase report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-14

    The development of a 55 MWe power plant in Lassen County, California, has been proposed. The proposed power plant is unique in that it will utilize goethermal heat and wood fuel to generate electrical power. This report identifies environmental issues and constraints which may impact the proposed hybrid wood-geothermal power plant. (ACR)

  7. Late Pleistocene sediments and fossils near the mouth of Mad River, Humboldt County, California: Facies analysis, sequence development, and possible age correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, E.W. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-04-01

    Study of late Pleistocene-age sediments near the mouth of the Mad River revealed a sequence of nearshore marine and shallow bay deposits. This sequence, bounded by unconformities, is informally named the Mouth of Mad unit. The Mouth of mad unit can be divided into four distinct depositional facies at the study site. The lowest facies are the Nearshore Sand and Estuarine Mud, which lie unconformably on a paleosol. The sand facies grades upward into a high-energy, interbedded Nearshore Sand and Gravel facies containing storm and rip-channel deposits. Above the sand and gravel is a Strand-Plain Sand facies. This sand is overlain by a laterally variable sequence of shell-rich Bay facies. The bay deposits can be further divided into five subfacies: (1) a Bioturbated Sand; (2) a Lower Tidal Flat Mud; (3) a Mixed Sand and Mud; (4) an oyster-rich Bay Mud; and (5) an Upper Tidal Flat Mud. The bay sequence is overlain unconformably by younger late Pleistocene-age marine terrace deposits. The depositional environments represented by these facies progress from a shoreline estuary to nearshore deposits, above storm wave base, and slowly back to shoreline and finally shallow bay conditions. The Mouth of Mad unit represents a transgressive-regressive sequence, involving the development of a protective spit. The uppermost mud within the Mouth of Mad unit has been dated, using thermoluminescence age estimation, at 176 [+-] 33 ka, placing it in the late Pleistocene. The Mouth of Mad unit appears to be younger than the fossiliferous deposits at Elk Head, Crannell Junction, Trinidad Head, Moonstone Beach, and the Falor Formation near Maple Creek, and possibly time equivalent with gravel deposits exposed at the western end of School Road in McKinleyville.

  8. Map showing mineral-resource potential of the King Range and Chemise Mountain Instant Study Areas, Humboldt and Mendocino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Sorg, D.H.; Ohlin, H.N.; Beutner, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    Minor manganese resources occur adjacent to the southeast corner of the King Range Instant Study Area near Queen Peak. The manganese forms small stratabound deposits associated with radiolarian chert and pillow basalt. The known deposits are too small and the manganese too low in concentration for further economic exploitation. Similar manganese mineralization may be within the belt of melange in the southeast corner of the King Range area and within the Chemise Mountain Instant Study Area, but economic deposits are unlikely. Although there has been historical base- and precious-metal exploration activity north of the King Range in the Mattole River drainage, our geologic and geochemical field data indicate almost no gold potential and low potentials for lead, zinc, copper, and silver. During this investigation, one high-grade vein and several minor veins containing lead, zinc, copper, and silver were discovered at Point Delgada immediately south of the King Range Instant Study Area. The vein mineralization is Miocene and cuts Cretaceous basalt flows, dikes, flow breccia, and younger overlying sedimentary rocks of the King Range. The vein mineralization at Point Delgada could be remobilized from more extensive unexposed stratabound base-metal mineralization at depth. Traces of lead and zinc detected within the King Range Instant Study Area may have similar stratabound or vein origins, but no resource potential is indicated. Minor copper mineralization with associated lead, zinc, and manganese anomalies within the Chemise Mountain Instant Study Area is of low economic potential because of the shearing, isolation, and lenticularity of the basaltic and cherty rocks within the melange mineralization.

  9. A critical assessment of the Burning Index in Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenberg, F.P.; Chang, H.-C.; Keeley, J.E.; Pompa, J.; Woods, J.; Xu, H.

    2007-01-01

    The Burning Index (BI) is commonly used as a predictor of wildfire activity. An examination of data on the BI and wildfires in Los Angeles County, California, from January 1976 to December 2000 reveals that although the BI is positively associated with wildfire occurrence, its predictive value is quite limited. Wind speed alone has a higher correlation with burn area than BI, for instance, and a simple alternative point process model using wind speed, relative humidity, precipitation and temperature well outperforms the BI in terms of predictive power. The BI is generally far too high in winter and too low in fall, and may exaggerate the impact of individual variables such as wind speed or temperature during times when other variables, such as precipitation or relative humidity, render the environment ill suited for wildfires. ?? IAWF 2007.

  10. Occupational Behaviors and Farmworkers’ Pesticide Exposure: Findings From a Study in Monterey County, California

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Alicia L.; Bradman, Asa; Castorina, Rosemary; Camacho, José; López, Jesús; Barr, Dana B.; Snyder, John; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Background We studied the relationship between behaviors promoted through the US Environmental Protection Agency Worker Protection Standard (WPS) and other programs and agricultural pesticide exposures in 73 strawberry fieldworkers employed in Monterey County, California. Methods Farmworkers’ behaviors were assessed via self-report and organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposure was measured using dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP) and malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA) urinary metabolite levels. Results Wearing WPS-recommended clothing, wearing clean work clothes, and the combination of handwashing with soap and wearing gloves were associated with decreases in DMAP and MDA metabolite levels. Despite these protective behaviors, however, participants had significantly higher levels of exposure as compared with a national reference sample. Conclusions Interventions that facilitate compliance with these behaviors may be effective in decreasing fieldworkers’ pesticide exposures. However, further efforts are needed to reduce the exposure disparities experienced by farmworkers and decrease the potential for “take home” exposures to farmworkers’ families. PMID:18702096

  11. Chlorofluorocarbon dating of herbicide-containing well waters in Fresno and Tulare counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spurlock, F.; Burow, K.; Dubrovsky, N.

    2000-01-01

    Simazine, diuron, and bromacil are the most frequently detected currently registered pesticides in California groundwater. These herbicides have been used for several decades in Fresno and Tulare counties, California; however, previous data are inadequate to determine whether the detections are a result of recent or historical applications (i.e., within the last decade, or 20-30 yr ago). Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) groundwater age-dating was used in conjunction with one-dimensional transport modeling to address this question. The estimated times between herbicide application and subsequent detection in groundwater samples from 18 domestic wells ranged from 3 to 33 yr; the aggregate data indicate that more than half of the detections are associated with applications in the last decade. The data also suggest that changes in groundwater quality arising from modified management practices will probably not be discernible for at least a decade. A secondary objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of simazine degradates deethylsimazine (DES; 2-amino-4-chloro-6-ethylamino-s-triazine) and diaminochlorotriazine (DACT; 2,4-diamino-6-chloro-s-triazine) to total triazine concentrations (defined here as simazine + DES + DACT) in 30 domestic wells. The N-dealkylated s- chlorotriazine degradates DES and DACT substantially contribute to total triazine concentrations in Fresno and Tulare County groundwater, composing 24 to 100% of the total triazines, with a median of 82%. If s-chlorotriazines display a common mode of toxicological action, the prevalence of triazine degradates in water samples found in this and other studies indicate that drinking water standards based on total s-chlorotriazine concentrations may be most appropriate.

  12. Evidence of Mercurial Contamination and Denundation Downstream of New Idria Mercury Mine, San Benito County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letsinger, H. E.; Sharma, R. K.; Weinman, B.

    2014-12-01

    California's Central Valley water quality and soils are essential to the survival of the valley's communities and agriculture. Therefore, detection of possible contaminants within the valley streams and soils are paramount to the protection of this land and the people that depend upon it. Here we explore the impact of the contaminated stream beds near the New Idria Mercury Mine site, San Benito County, California. Previous work by Ganguli et al. (2000) has been done in this area to determine the mercury levels associated with the water that flows near the ghost town of New Idria. We performed geochemical analyses on the finer bed sediments from channels draining the area, as well as the coarser sediments taken from along the channel banks, to determine mercury transport downriver from the source. Using a novel application of tau, a mass transfer coefficient typically used in critical zone studies or soil production and weathering rates, we determine downstream weathering, accumulation, and transport of mercury. Our initial geochemical data showed higher tau values upstream as well as within the banks of the contaminated streambed and a greater accumulation of mercury near the pollution source (i.e., mine tailings, (τ ~ 103)). Tau results also show elevated mercurial levels existing downstream, with accumulations in mid- (τ ~ 102) and down-stream (τ ~ 10) reaches. Combining tau results with more traditional indices of chemical weathering (CIA) support consistent overall Hg-weathering processes with low levels of chemical weathering and higher dominance of coupled physical-anthropogenic weathering.

  13. Water-Quality Data for the Lower Russian River Basin, Sonoma County, California, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anders, Robert; Davidek, Karl; Koczot, Kathryn M.

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sonoma County Water Agency, began a study to determine the chemical, microbiological, and isotopic composition of the surface water and ground water in selected areas of the Lower Russian River Basin, Sonoma County, California. This report is a compilation of the hydrologic and water-quality data collected from 10 Russian River sites, 1 gravel-terrace pit site, 12 ground-water sites, 11 tributary sites including Mark West Creek, and 2 estuary sites between the city of Healdsburg and the Pacific Ocean, for the period August 2003 to September 2004. Field measurements made included streamflow, barometric pressure, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and turbidity. Water samples were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, total and dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, mercury, wastewater compounds, total coliform, Escherichia coli, Enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, and the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Discharge measurements and sampling techniques were modified to accommodate the very low summer flows at most of the tributaries, and discharge measurements were made with an acoustic Doppler velocity meter at the estuary river site to overcome the complexities associated with tidal influences.

  14. Analysis of VOC data in support of pollutant transport studies in Shasta County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Main, H.H.; Chinkin, L.R.; Roberts, P.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Shasta County Air Pollution Control District (California) has funded a study to investigate the origin and extent of ozone and ozone precursor concentrations that are due to upwind transport. As a part of the study, air quality measurements were made aloft during September 1995. Hydrocarbon measurements were made aloft for use as tracers of opportunity for analyzing the source of the air mass. Total nonmethane hydrocarbon, speciated hydrocarbons, and {open_quotes}exotics{close_quotes} including Freon 12, Freon 11, Freon 113, chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, and perchloroethylene were quantified. In earlier studies of transport in this region, a hydrocarbon and exotic species signature for the Sacramento metropolitan area was identified. This signature was compared to the signatures developed from samples collected in Shasta County to determine evidence of transport. The relative age of air parcels entering the area were also determined using the ratios of more reactive species to less reactive species concentrations; lower ratios correspond to more aged hydrocarbon mixtures. This paper discusses the analyses of the hydrocarbon and exotics data and the implications of the results to transport in the region. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Experimental Infection with Western Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus in Wild Rodents Indigenous to Kern County, California

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, J. L.; Reeves, W. C.; Rush, W. A.; Nir, Y. D.

    1974-01-01

    Six species of rodents from Kern County, California, were inoculated subcutaneously with western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus to determine their susceptibility to infection and their potential as natural hosts. Ammospermophilus nelsoni, Citellus beecheyi, Dipodomys heermanni, Dipodomys nitratoides, Peromyscus maniculatus, and Sciurus griseus were readily infected. Infection was usually fatal in Dipodomys species, C. beecheyi, and S. griseus, but was clinically inapparent in other species. Viremic responses varied greatly in magnitude and duration in different species and with different viral strains. Viremic animals that survived developed high titers of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody. Hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing antibodies persisted at high titers for at least 8 to 58 weeks after infection, except in P. maniculatus. If animals died during or shortly after the viremic phase of infection, the virus usually was recoverable from numerous organs. Long-term survival of virus could not be demonstrated in A. nelsoni and Dipodomys species. It is concluded that A. nelsoni and P. maniculatus are not important natural hosts of WEE virus; they are susceptible to infection and develop antibodies, but serological surveys of the same species rarely reveal evidence of infection. S. griseus, D. heermanni, D. nitratoides, and possibly C. beecheyi are aberrant hosts of WEE virus since most of them died when infected. Two species of ticks that are ectoparasitic on rodents in Kern County were evaluated as vectors of WEE virus. Dermacentor parumapertus failed to become infected after feeding on viremic hosts, and Ornithodorus parkeri became infected but failed to transmit virus. PMID:4426699

  16. Daily mortality and air pollution in Santa Clara County, California: 1989-1996.

    PubMed Central

    Fairley, D

    1999-01-01

    Since the last revision of the national particulate standards, there has been a profusion of epidemiologic research showing associations between particulates and health effects--mortality in particular. Supported by this research, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated a national standard for particulate matter [less than/equal to] 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)). Nevertheless, the San Francisco Bay Area of California may meet this new standard. This study investigates the relationship between daily mortality and air pollution in Santa Clara County (a Bay Area county) using techniques similar to those utilized in earlier epidemiologic studies. Statistically significant associations persist in the early 1990s, when the Bay Area met national air pollution standards for every criteria pollutant. Of the various pollutants, the strongest associations occur with particulates, especially ammonium nitrate and PM(2.5). The continuing presence of associations between mortality and air pollutants calls into question the adequacy of national standards for protecting public health. PMID:10417361

  17. Relative efficiency of chlamydia screening in non-clinical settings in two California counties.

    PubMed

    Morris, S R; Bauer, H M; Chartier, M; Howard, H; Watson, S; Yokotobi, J; Taylor, A F; Bolan, G

    2010-01-01

    We examined the relative efficiency of non-clinical sites to screen for chlamydia in youth and young adults. Chlamydia screening targeting youth (under 30 years of age) was performed at non-clinical sites in high-morbidity neighbourhoods of two California counties. Venues were subdivided into community outreach, schools, parenting centres and drug treatment/correctional facilities. Relative efficiency was estimated with multivariate Poisson regression using incidence of chlamydia per person-hours labour adjusting for strategy and county. Among the 1514 youths screened, the overall prevalence of chlamydia was 5.5%. By venue, the highest prevalence was in drug treatment/correction facilities at 11.1% followed by parenting centres at 6.3%, community outreach at 4.9% and schools at 4.6%. Drug treatment/correctional facilities were the most labour time efficient at 9.9 person-hours per chlamydia case. Schools and parenting centres had the lowest cost per screen at 0.9 person-hours per screen. Adjusted relative labour time efficiency (chlamydia cases per paid person-hour) was significantly higher in schools, 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-4.2), parenting centres, 3.2 (95% CI 1.6-6.6) and drug treatment/correctional facilities, 2.9 (95% CI 1.0-7.8), compared with community outreach. In conclusion, parenting centres and drug treatment centres and correctional facilities are the most efficient venues for chlamydia screening. PMID:20029065

  18. 76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution...

  19. 76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District...

  20. Distribution and Abundance of California Giant Salamander (Dicamptodon ensatus) and Signal Crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) in the Upper Redwood Creek Watershed, Marin County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fong, Darren; Howell, Judd A.

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted in 1997-1998 to identify the distribution of non-native signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) and larval California giant salamanders (Dicamptodon ensatus) within the upper Redwood Creek watershed (Marin County, California). The crayfish is widely distributed along the mainstem Redwood Creek. It was found in lower Fern Creek but not in any first order tributaries or above fish barriers. While present throughout the study area, larval California giant salamanders were found mainly in small headwater tributaries. Larval salamanders appear to use habitats in accordance to their availability, while signal crayfish were rarely found in shallow water habitats and appeared to prefer scour pools. Evidence of predation by signal crayfish on larval giant salamanders was found under confined conditions. Controlled laboratory and field experiments would be needed to determine whether competitive exclusion is occurring. Because of its widespread occurrence in the headwater streams surveyed in this project, California giant salamanders would be an appropriate indicator species for those interested in monitoring the health of small headwater streams. Future long-term monitoring using California giant salamanders should be based on permanent monitoring reaches with periodic basinwide habitat and animal surveys to determine if reaches are representative of basinwide conditions.

  1. Mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the Panamint Dunes Wilderness Study Area, Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, G.L.; Kilburn, J.E.; Conrad, J.E.; Leszcykowski, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Panamint Dunes Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-127), California Desert Conservation Area, Inyo County, California. The Panamint Dunes Wilderness Study Area has an identified volcanic cinder resource and few areas with mineral resource potential. Hydrothermal deposits of lead-zinc-silver occur in veins and small replacement bodies along and near the Lemoigne thrust fault on the eastern side of the wilderness study area. Two workings, the Big Four mine with 35,000 tons of inferred subeconomic lead-zinc-silver resources and a moderate potential for additional resources, and the Apple 1 claim with low potential for lead-zinc-silver resources, are surrounded by the study area but are specifically excluded from it. A low resource potential for lead-zinc-silver is assigned to other exposures along the Lemoigne thrust, although metallic minerals were not detected at these places. The Green Quartz prospect, located near the northern tip of the study area, has low resource potential for copper in quartz pegmatities in quartz monzonite of the Hunter Mountain batholith. Nonmetallic mineral resources consist of volcanic cinders and quartz sand. An estimated 900,000 tons of inferred cinder reserves are present at Cal Trans borrow pit MS 242, on the southern margin of the study area. The Panamint Valley dune field, encompassing 480 acres in the north-central part of the study area, has only low resource potential for silica because of impurities. Other sources of silica and outside the study area are of both higher purity and closer to possible markets. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Geologic map database of the El Mirage Lake area, San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.

    2000-01-01

    This geologic map database for the El Mirage Lake area describes geologic materials for the dry lake, parts of the adjacent Shadow Mountains and Adobe Mountain, and much of the piedmont extending south from the lake upward toward the San Gabriel Mountains. This area lies within the western Mojave Desert of San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, southeastern California. The area is traversed by a few paved highways that service the community of El Mirage, and by numerous dirt roads that lead to outlying properties. An off-highway vehicle area established by the Bureau of Land Management encompasses the dry lake and much of the land north and east of the lake. The physiography of the area consists of the dry lake, flanking mud and sand flats and alluvial piedmonts, and a few sharp craggy mountains. This digital geologic map database, intended for use at 1:24,000-scale, describes and portrays the rock units and surficial deposits of the El Mirage Lake area. The map database was prepared to aid in a water-resource assessment of the area by providing surface geologic information with which deepergroundwater-bearing units may be understood. The area mapped covers the Shadow Mountains SE and parts of the Shadow Mountains, Adobe Mountain, and El Mirage 7.5-minute quadrangles. The map includes detailed geology of surface and bedrock deposits, which represent a significant update from previous bedrock geologic maps by Dibblee (1960) and Troxel and Gunderson (1970), and the surficial geologic map of Ponti and Burke (1980); it incorporates a fringe of the detailed bedrock mapping in the Shadow Mountains by Martin (1992). The map data were assembled as a digital database using ARC/INFO to enable wider applications than traditional paper-product geologic maps and to provide for efficient meshing with other digital data bases prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project.

  3. Demography of the San Francisco gartersnake in coastal San Mateo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Jeffrey J.; Thompson, Michelle E.; Routman, Eric J.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The San Francisco gartersnake Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia has been federally listed as endangered since 1967, but little demographic information exists for this species. We examined the demography of a San Francisco gartersnake population on approximately 213 ha of California coastal prairie in San Mateo County, California, from 2007 to 2010. The best-supported mark-recapture model indicated annual variation in daily capture probabilities and annual survival rates. Abundance increased throughout the study period, with a mean total population from 2008 to 2010 of 443 (95% CI = 313-646) individuals. Annual survival was slightly greater than that of most other gartersnakes, with an annual probability of survival of 0.78 (0.55-0.95) in 2008-2009 and 0.75 (0.49-0.93) in 2009-2010. Mean annual per capita recruitment rates were 0.73 (0.02-2.50) in 2008-2009 and 0.47 (0.02-1.42) in 2009-2010. From 2008 to 2010, the probability of an increase in abundance at this site was 0.873, with an estimated increase of 115 (-82 to 326) individuals. The estimated population growth rate in 2008-2009 was 1.52 (0.73-3.29) and in 2009-2010 was 1.21 (0.70-2.17). Although this population is probably stable or increasing in the short term, long-term studies of the status of the San Francisco gartersnake at other sites are required to estimate population trends and to elucidate mechanisms that promote the recovery of this charismatic member of our native herpetofauna.

  4. California GAMA Program: Sources and transport of nitrate in shallow groundwater in the Llagas Basin of Santa Clara County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J E; McNab, W; Esser, B; Hudson, G; Carle, S; Beller, H; Kane, S; Tompson, A B; Letain, T; Moore, K; Eaton, G; Leif, R; Moody-Bartel, C; Singleton, M

    2005-06-29

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate is the most pervasive and intractable contaminant in California groundwater and is the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the cities of Morgan Hill and Gilroy, CA, in the Llagas Subbasin of Santa Clara County, where high nitrate levels affect several hundred private domestic wells. The main objectives of the study are: (1) to identify the main source(s) of nitrate that issue a flux to the shallow regional aquifer (2) to determine whether denitrification plays a role in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin and (3) to assess the impact that a nitrate management plan implemented by the local water agency has had on the flux of nitrate to the regional aquifer. Analyses of 56 well water samples for major anions and cations, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, dissolved excess nitrogen, tritium and groundwater age, and trace organic compounds, show that synthetic fertilizer is the most likely source of nitrate in highly contaminated wells, and that denitrification is not a significant process in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin except in the area of recycled water application. In addition to identifying contaminant sources, these methods offer a deeper understanding of how the severity and extent of contamination are affected by hydrogeology and groundwater management practices. In the Llagas subbasin, the nitrate problem is amplified in the shallow aquifer because it is highly vulnerable with high vertical recharge rates and rapid lateral transport, but the deeper aquifers are relatively more protected by laterally extensive aquitards. Artificial recharge delivers low-nitrate water and provides a means of long-term remediation. Examination of nitrate concentration in relation to groundwater age indicates that the nitrate management plan has not yet resulted in a decrease in the flux of nitrate to the shallow aquifer in the areas tested.

  5. Rice burning and asthma hospitalizations, Butte County, California, 1983-1992.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, J; Kreutzer, R; Smith, D

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the association between rice burning and daily asthma hospitalizations in Butte County, California, from 1983 to 1992. Eighty-two percent of planted rice was burned, with a mean of 555 acres burned on days when burning was permitted. For 60% of the days during this period, no rice burning occurred. Peak burning occurred in fall and spring but was not correlated with criteria pollutants. Asthma admissions averaged 0.65/day and peaked in March. In the basic Poisson model with daily asthma hospitalizations as the outcome of interest, burn acreage showed a small but statistically significant elevation of risk for hospitalization per acre of rice burned [relative risk (RR) = 1.0001; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1. 00004-1.0002], after adjusting for maximum daily temperature, seasonal factors, and yearly population. In this model, burn acreage showed a dose-response effect as acreage burned increased. Days with the greatest acreage burned (>499 acres) had the largest risk of hospitalization (RR = 1.23; CI, 1.09-1.39), and days with moderate burning (between 100 and 499 acres) had a slightly lower risk of admission (RR = 1.2; CI, 1.05-1.37). Elevations of air pollutants were not associated with days of increased rice burning; however, rice burn acreage was shown to have a small but statistically significant effect on asthma morbidity in Butte County. This evidence suggests that further limitations on the daily amount of rice straw permitted to be burned should be considered to reduce pulmonary morbidity related to asthma. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9300924

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING: Indicators Assessment for Habitat Conservation Plan of Yolo County, California, USA.

    PubMed

    SMALLWOOD; WILCOX; LEIDY; YARRIS

    1998-11-01

    / Whereas habitat conservation plans (HCPs) have been intended to provide comprehensive environmental mitigation for multiple species, they often narrow in focus to one species and either one mitigation site or unspecified sites. We developed an indicators framework from which to rate land units for their ecological integrity, collateral values (nonbiological qualities that can improve conservation), and restoration and conservation opportunities. The ratings of land units were guided by the tenets of conservation biology and principles of landscape and ecosystem ecology, and they were made using existing physical and floral information managed on a GIS. As an example of how the indicators approach can be used for HCPs, the 29 legally rare species targeted by the Yolo County HCP were each associated with vegetation complexes and agricultural crops, the maps of which were used for rating some of the landscape indices. The ratings were mapped so that mitigation can be directed to the places on the landscape where the legally rare species should benefit most from conservation practices. The most highly rated land units for conservation opportunity occurred along streams and sloughs, especially where they emerged from the foothills and entered the Central Valley and where the two largest creeks intersected the Sacramento River flood basin. We recommend that priority be given to mitigation or conservation at the most highly rated land units. The indices were easy to measure and can be used with other tools to monitor the mitigation success. The indicators framework can be applied to other large-area planning efforts with some modifications.KEY WORDS: Ecosystem; Indicators; Landscape; Mitigation; Planning; Yolo County; California PMID:9732523

  7. Cooling rates and crystallization dynamics of shallow level pegmatite-aplite dikes, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webber, Karen L.; Simmons, William B.; Falster, Alexander U.; Foord, Eugene E.

    1999-01-01

    Pegmatites of the Pala and Mesa Grande Pegmatite Districts, San Diego County, California are typically thin, sheet-like composite pegmatite-aplite dikes. Aplitic portions of many dikes display pronounced mineralogical layering referred to as "line rock," characterized by fine-grained, garnet-rich bands alternating with albite- and quartz-rich bands. Thermal modeling was performed for four dikes in San Diego County including the 1 m thick Himalaya dike, the 2 m thick Mission dike, the 8 m thick George Ashley dike, and the 25 m thick Stewart dike. Calculations were based on conductive cooling equations accounting for latent heat of crystallization, a melt emplacement temperature of 650 °C into 150 °C fractured, gabbroic country rock at a depth of 5 km, and an estimated 3 wt% initial H2O content in the melt. Cooling to -5 cm/s. Crystal size distribution (CSD) studies of garnet from layered aplites suggest growth rates of about 10-6 cm/s. These results indicate that the dikes cooled and crystallized rapidly, with variable nucleation rates but high overall crystal-growth rates. Initial high nucleation rates coincident with emplacement and strong undercooling can account for the millimeter-size aplite grains. Lower nucleation rates coupled with high growth rates can explain the decimeter-size minerals in the hanging walls, cores, and miarolitic cavities of the pegmatites. The presence of tourmaline and/or lepidolite throughout these dikes suggests that although the melts were initially H2O-undersaturated, high melt concentrations of incompatible (or fluxing) components such as B, F, and Li (±H2O), aided in the development of large pegmatitic crystals that grew rapidly in the short times suggested by the conductive cooling models.

  8. A Digital Map of Susceptibility to Large Landslides in Santa Clara County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, R. J.; Sobieszczyk, S.

    2002-12-01

    Hillsides bordering the Santa Clara ("Silicon") Valley are prone to earthquake- and rainfall-triggered landslides. To narrow the uncertainty surrounding the location of future slope movement, we estimate the relative likelihood of landsliding at 30-m resolution from regional data sets. While small areas are evaluated accurately from detailed observations on material properties, topography, and hydrology, resource limitations force a regional, statistical, approach to mapping large areas. This is the first county-size susceptibility map prepared from the Arc/Info GIS model developed by Pike and others (2001) in the Oakland, CA, area (USGS MF-2385). Their index of susceptibility is the spatial frequency of prior slope failure for each one-degree slope interval in each geologic-map unit, obtained by combining a geologic map (a proxy for rock or soil strength) with a landslide-inventory map and a map of slope gradient. Areas in existing landslides are multiplied by an observationally derived constant, 1.33, to reflect their higher susceptibility. Santa Clara County's 170 geologic units occupy about 3,440,000 30-m grid cells. The geology is from three digital USGS maps (OF 97-710, 98-348, 98-795). The thousands of existing landslides were digitized from 13 inventories--six by the California Geological Survey, five by USGS, two by private consultants. These source maps vary in scale (mostly 1:24,000 or 1:12,000), date (1970-98), attribution of failures (most are large rock and debris slides, rock slumps, and earth flows; few are debris flows), completeness, and detail. The map of slope gradient (OF 98-766) was computed from a 30-m digital elevation model (OF 98-625). Severity of prior landsliding throughout the county strongly reflects geology--from a mean spatial frequency of zero, e.g. flat-lying Pleistocene alluvial fan and fluvial deposits, to 100%, e.g. a mudstone member of the Oligocene-Eocene San Lorenzo Formation. Values of the susceptibility index, ranging from zero (1,000,000 cells largely on the valley floor) to 1.33 (4200 cells in the most hazardous terrain), are not randomly distributed. Among large areas of highest susceptibility (>0.60) are the hills flanking Santa Clara Valley just E of the cities of San Jose, Milpitas, and Morgan Hill, as well as some terrain in the Santa Cruz Mountains.

  9. 76 FR 53880 - Glenn/Colusa County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Willows, California. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self... Supervisor's Office, 825 North Humboldt Ave., Willows, CA. Written comments may be submitted as described... received at 825 N. Humboldt Ave., Willows, CA 95988. Please call ahead to (530) 934-1269 to...

  10. 76 FR 45771 - Glenn/Colusa County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Willows, California. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self... Supervisor's Office, 825 North Humboldt Ave., Willows, CA. Written comments may be submitted as described... received at 825 N. Humboldt Ave., Willows, CA 95988. Please call ahead to (530) 934-1269 to...

  11. 76 FR 39376 - Glenn/Colusa County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Willows, California. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self... monitoring trip beginning at the Mendocino NF Supervisor's Office, 825 North Humboldt Ave., Willows, CA... copying. The public may inspect comments received at 825 N. Humboldt Ave., Willows, CA 95988. Please...

  12. 77 FR 48125 - Glenn/Colusa County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Willows, California. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self... Conference Room, 825 North Humboldt Ave., Willows, CA. Written comments may be submitted as described under.... Humboldt Ave., Willows, CA 95988. Please call ahead to (530) 934-3316 to facilitate entry into the...

  13. 77 FR 56606 - Glenn/Colusa County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... (RAC) will meet in Willows, California. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and... Supervisor's Office, Snow Mountain Conference Room, 825 North Humboldt Ave., Willows, CA. Written comments... public may inspect comments received at 825 N. Humboldt Ave., Willows, CA 95988. Please call ahead...

  14. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Biorecycling Technologies, Inc., Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant, Fresno County, California

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a proposal from the California Energy Commission for partial funding up to $1,500,000 of the construction of the biorecycling Technologies, Inc., (BTI) Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant in Fresno County, California. BTI along with its contractors and business partners would develop the plant, which would use manure and green waste to produce biogas and a variety of organic fertilizer products. The California Energy Commission has requested funding from the DOE Commercialization Ventures program to assist in the construction of the plant, which would produce up to one megawatt of electricity by burning biogas in a cogeneration unit. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with funding development of the proposed project.

  15. Limited Life Opportunities for Black and Latino Youth. Report on a Public Hearing by the Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations (Compton, California, April 26, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, CA.

    The Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations held a public hearing to examine the effects of poverty on the hundreds of thousands of low income Blacks and Latinos under the age of 18 residing in Los Angeles County (California). The Commission's findings, recommendations, and concerns are presented. The following findings are presented: (1)

  16. Limited Life Opportunities for Black and Latino Youth. Report on a Public Hearing by the Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations (Compton, California, April 26, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, CA.

    The Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations held a public hearing to examine the effects of poverty on the hundreds of thousands of low income Blacks and Latinos under the age of 18 residing in Los Angeles County (California). The Commission's findings, recommendations, and concerns are presented. The following findings are presented: (1)…

  17. Study of the influential leaders, power structure, community decisions, and geothermal energy development in Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, E.W.; Hall, C.H.; Pick, J.B.

    1980-04-01

    The economy of Imperial County, California, is now dominated by agriculture, but economic studies indicate that the emerging geothermal sector could grow to a size comparable to that of agriculture. The purpose of this study is to discover the kind of power structure operating in Imperial County, the influential leaders, the source of their power, their probable reactions to geothermal development, and the possible effects geothermal development will have on the power structure. Several social science research methods are used to identify the influential leaders and to describe the power structure in Imperial County. An analysis of the opinions of leadership and the public shows the likely response to geothermal development. The power structure analysis, combined with forecasts of the economic effects of geothermal development, indicates the ways in which the power structure itself may change.

  18. Racial Disparities in Use of Chiropractic Services by Medicare Beneficiaries Aged 65 to 99 in Los Angeles County, California.

    PubMed

    Whedon, James M; Kimura, Melissa N; Phillips, Reed B

    2016-04-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in utilization of chiropractic services have been described at the state level, but little is known about such local disparities. We analyzed Medicare data for the year 2008 to evaluate by ZIP code for utilization of chiropractic services among older adults in Los Angeles County, California. We evaluated for availability and use of chiropractic services by racial/ethnic category, quantified geographic variations by coefficient of variation, and mapped utilization by selected racial/ethnic categories. Among 7502 beneficiaries who used chiropractic services, 72% were white, 12% Asian, 1% black, 1% Hispanic, and 14% other/unknown. Variation in the number of beneficiaries per ZIP code who used chiropractic services was highest among Hispanics, blacks, and Asians. We found evidence of racial disparities in use of chiropractic services at the local level in Los Angeles County. Older blacks and Hispanics in Los Angeles County may be underserved with regard to chiropractic care. PMID:26350244

  19. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in relation to water contamination, Santa Clara County, California, 1980-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Deane, M.; Swan, S.H.; Harris, J.A.; Epstein, D.M.; Neutra, R.R.

    1989-05-01

    An epidemiologic study was conducted to investigate a suspected cluster of adverse outcomes of pregnancies conceived in 1980-1981 among women who resided in a census tract in Santa Clara County, California that was thought to be exposed to drinking water from a well contaminated by an organic solvent, trichloroethane. A comparison census tract that received water from a different source was selected on the basis of demographic comparability. The cluster was confirmed; the odds ratio for spontaneous abortion was 2.3 (95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.3-4.2) after adjustment by multiple logistic regression for maternal risk factors, including maternal age, alcohol consumption, smoking, and prior fetal loss. The relative risk for congenital malformations was 3.1 (95% Cl 1.1-10.4). Because of the lack of precise information on the timing and extent of contamination, the pattern of spontaneous abortion rates throughout the study period cannot be used to either support or refute a causal inference.

  20. Seastacks buried beneath newly reported Lower Miocene sandstone, northern Santa Barbara County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsche, A.E.; Hanna, F.M.

    1985-04-01

    Three large, isolated exposures of a light-gray, coarse-grained, thick-bedded sandstone unit occur in the northern San Rafael Mountains of Santa Barbara County, California. These rocks are moderately fossiliferous and contain Vertipecten bowersi, Amussiopecten vanvlecki, Aequipecten andersoni, Otrea howelli, shark teeth, whale bones, and regular echinoid spines. The fossils indicate that the sandstone unit, although previously reported as upper(.) Miocene, correlates best with the lower Miocene Vaqueros Formation. This unit was deposited in angular unconformity on a Cretaceous, greenish-gray turbidite sequence of interbedded sandstone and shale, and onlaps the unconformity erosion surface from west to east, the unit being thicker in the west and older at its base. The underlying Cretaceous sandstone beds are well indurated, and during the eastward transgression of the early Miocene sea, they resisted wave erosion and stood as seastacks offshore of the advancing coastline, thus creating a very irregular topographic surface upon which the Vaqueros Formation was deposited. Some seastacks were as much as 4 m tall, as indicated by inliers of Cretaceous rock surrounded by 4-m thick sections of the Vaqueros Formation.

  1. Biological survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (Buena Vista), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Sauls, M.L.

    1987-06-01

    A field survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2, Kern County, California, was conducted to determine the distribution and relative abundance of endangered species and other wildlife. Of the 343 San Joaquin kit fox dens found in 40 sections, 33 were observed by surveyors in transit and 310 were found along transects. Of the latter, 264 were typical subterranean dens and 46 were atypical dens in man-made structures. Estimated density of dens was 28.8 +- 4.4 per square mile; relative density was 9.2/1000 acres. The number of typical dens observed per section was inversely correlated with the number of petroleum wells per section (intensity of development). Atypical dens were usually found to be in pipes or pipe culverts and were positively correlated with density of wells. Relative densities of black-tailed jackrabbits (41.9/1000 acres) and desert cottontails (17.1/1000 acres), preferred prey for foxes, were high compared with densities reported on other public lands. Most (81%) of the 19 blunt-nosed leopard lizards were observed in six adjacent sections located in the gentle foothills near Buena Vista Lake playa. Most (86%) of the 275 giant kangaroo rat burrow systems were observed in ten sections containing flat, relatively undeveloped terrain in and around upper Buena Vista Valley. San Joaquin antelope ground squirrels were the second most commonly observed diurnal vertebrate: 761 observations in 45 sections. A total of 6740 observations of 61 species of wildlife were made.

  2. Mineral resource potential map of the John Muir Wilderness, Fresno, Inyo, Madera, and Mono counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du Bray, E.A.; Dellinger, D.A.; Diggles, M.F.; Oliver, H.W.; Johnson, F.L.; Thurber, H.K.; Morris, R.W.; Perers, T.J.; Lindsey, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Under the provisions of the Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and the Joint Conference Report on Senate Bill 4, 88th Congress, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been conducting mineral surveys of wilderness and primitive areas. Areas officially designated as "wilderness," "wild," or "canoe" when the act was passed were incorporated into the National Wilderness Preservation System, and some of them are presently being studied. The act provided that areas under consideration for wilderness designation should be studied for suitability for incorporation into the Wilderness System. The mineral surveys constitute one aspect of the suitability studies. The act directs that the results of such surveys are to be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This report discusses the results of a mineral survey of the John Muir Wilderness, Inyo and Sierra National Forests, Fresno, lnyo, Madera, and Mono Counties, California. The area was established as a wilderness by Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964.

  3. Acid mine drainage on public and private lands, the Walker Mine experience, Plumas County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Croyle, W.A.; Rosenbaum, S.E.

    1996-11-01

    A widespread environmental problem associated with abandoned mines and their tailings is acid mine drainage (AMD). AMID typically has low pH and elevated metal concentrations that are toxic to aquatic life. In Northern California, Iron Mountain and other mines in the Shasta mining districts are the largest sources of AMD. Additional sources lie to the south along a discontinuous belt of copper and zinc mineralization in the western Sierra foothills. Between these areas lies a remote group of copper mines in northeastern Plumas County including the Walker, Engels and Superior mines. Of this group, AMD from Walker Mine has caused the most severe water quality impairment. This paper describes the history and environmental setting of Walker Mine and the approaches used by the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board, a state regulatory agency, to improve water quality at the site. Both the mine and its tailings contribute pollutants to the watershed. The mine has a portal discharge with depressed pH and high copper concentrations. The tailings add fine grained sediment to the creek and generate low but significant concentrations of dissolved copper. The mine is on private property and the tailings are on land managed by the U. S. Forest Service. Because of these differences in pollution problems and ownership, the methods employed by the Regional Board to improve conditions at the mine and tailings have been on different, but parallel tracks. Monitoring shows these efforts have significantly improved water quality in the watershed over the last 10 years.

  4. A geophysical study of the hydrogeology of the Carrizo plain area, San Luis Obispo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.W. )

    1991-02-01

    This investigation was conducted to attempt to locate structural geologic features and variations in aquifer characteristics in an area within the Carrizo plain, San Luis Obispo County, California. The investigation included a review of the established geologic knowledge for the region, followed by field studies. The field studies included surface magnetometer surveys, thermal borehole logging, and a piezometric level survey. Existing borehole electric logs were obtained. The conclusions of the investigation were then derived from a collective interpretation. The investigation concluded that a fault appears to extend beneath the valley fill in the northwestern part of the area, and that a subsurface basaltic dike is apparently located in the southeastern part of the area. Evaluations indicate that the valley has a deep aquifer overlain by a confining clay-rich layer in the central part of the area. Areal and depth-related variations in water quality are probably influenced by the presence of evaporites near Soda Lake and in the region near the San Andreas fault.

  5. Sexual behavior and AIDS-related knowledge among community college students in Orange County, California.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, J; Radecki, S; Charchian, A S; Josephson, V

    1999-02-01

    Whereas college students are not identified as a high-risk group for acquiring the HIV infection, they exhibit high-risk behaviors consistent with their age group, including multiple sexual partners and high rates of unprotected intercourse. This study was conducted to determine levels of HIV-related sexual behavior, along with knowledge and attitudes among students attending community colleges in a relatively affluent multiethnic community. This study used a random sample survey (N = 319) of students attending selected classes at four community colleges in Orange County, California, to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and patterns of past and present sexual behavior. The level of student knowledge concerning HIV disease was found to be relatively high, and pronounced differences in knowledge and sexual permissiveness were identified as a function of ethnicity and religion, with Asians showing lower knowledge and lower concern about HIV, and religion/religiosity related to these variables and also to levels of sexual permissiveness. Respondents' comfort in asking a partner about his/her sexual history was positively associated with their level of self-esteem, and negatively related to peer pressure in this population. As in previous studies of college populations, HIV knowledge per se does not confer a protective effect against high-risk behavior. However, knowledge was found to be an enabling factor with regard to students' comfort levels in asking about their partner's sexual histories, and in requesting that partners take an AIDS test. PMID:10036646

  6. Gene Flow Patterns of the Mayfly Fallceon quilleri in San Diego County, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zickovich, J.; Bohonak, A. J.

    2005-05-01

    Management decisions and conservation strategies for freshwater invertebrates critically depend on an understanding of gene flow and genetic structure. We collected the mayfly Fallceon quilleri (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from 15 streams across three geographically distinct watersheds in San Diego County, California (San Dieguito, Santa Margarita, and Tijuana) and one site in Anza-Borrego desert. We sequenced a 667 base pair region of the mitochondrial DNA (COI) to assess genetic structure and gene flow. We found eight haplotypes across all populations. San Dieguito and Santa Margarita each contained six haplotypes. Tijuana and Anza Borrego each contained four haplotypes. The expected heterozygosity for San Dieguito, Santa Margarita, Tijuana, and Anza Borrego was 0.81, 0.83, 0.75, and 1.0, respectively. A hierarchical AMOVA analysis indicated restricted gene flow and a pairwise comparison indicated that Tijuana watershed differs significantly from San Dieguito and Anza Borrego. A haplotype cladogram revealed two internal ancestral haplotypes and six derived tip haplotypes that are unique to particular watersheds. These results suggest that Tijuana (the southernmost and the most impacted watershed) is more genetically distinct and isolated than the other watersheds sampled.

  7. Geology of epithermal silver-gold bulk-mining targets, bodie district, Mono County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollister, V.F.; Silberman, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Bodie mining district in Mono County, California, is zoned with a core polymetallic-quartz vein system and silver- and gold-bearing quartz-adularia veins north and south of the core. The veins formed as a result of repeated normal faulting during doming shortly after extrusion of felsic flows and tuffs, and the magmatic-hydrothermal event seems to span at least 2 Ma. Epithermal mineralization accompanied repeated movement of the normal faults, resulting in vein development in the planes of the faults. The veins occur in a very large area of argillic alteration. Individual mineralized structures commonly formed new fracture planes during separate fault movements, with resulting broad zones of veinlets growing in the walls of the major vein-faults. The veinlet swarms have been found to constitute a target estimated at 75,000,000 tons, averaging 0.037 ounce gold per ton. The target is amenable to bulkmining exploitation. The epithermal mineralogy is simple, with electrum being the most important precious metal mineral. The host veins are typical low-sulfide banded epithermal quartz and adularia structures that filled voids created by the faulting. Historical data show that beneficiation of the simple vein mineralogy is very efficient. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

  8. L-band radar sensing of soil moisture. [Kern County, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Atwater, S.; Salomonson, V. V.; Estes, J. E.; Simonett, D. S.; Bryan, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of an L-band, 25 cm wavelength imaging synthetic aperture radar was assessed for soil moisture determination, and the temporal variability of radar returns from a number of agricultural fields was studied. A series of three overflights was accomplished over an agricultural test site in Kern County, California. Soil moisture samples were collected from bare fields at nine sites at depths of 0-2, 2-5, 5-15, and 15-30 cm. These gravimetric measurements were converted to percent of field capacity for correlation to the radar return signal. The initial signal film was optically correlated and scanned to produce image data numbers. These numbers were then converted to relative return power by linear interpolation of the noise power wedge which was introduced in 5 dB steps into the original signal film before and after each data run. Results of correlations between the relative return power and percent of field capacity (FC) demonstrate that the relative return power from this imaging radar system is responsive to the amount of soil moisture in bare fields. The signal returned from dry (15% FC) and wet (130% FC) fields where furrowing is parallel to the radar beam differs by about 10 dB.

  9. Evaluation of ground-water monitoring network, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenbaker, G.G.; Farrar, Christopher D.

    1981-01-01

    The Santa Cruz County Flood Control and Water Conservation District seeks to improve the existing network of observation wells to monitor water levels and ground-water quality in the Pajaro Valley subarea and the Aptos-Soquel, San Lorenzo, and Santa Cruz Coastal subbasins in California. The proposed network , consisting of 92 wells, is designed to monitor changes in storage and quality of ground water resulting from climatic changes and management-induced stresses. In the proposed network , water levels in all wells would be measured semiannually, in April and September, and monthly in a few key wells. The water-level measurements would provide data that could be used to determine changes in ground-water storage. In addition to the currently monitored characteristics--temperature, specific conductance, pH, and chloride ion concentration--inclusion of annual sampling and analysis for major ions and nutrients is proposed. The network would also include sampling and analysis for trace elements once every 4 years. More frequent analyses are proposed in areas where water-quality problems are known to exist or where potential water-quality problems are recognized. Analyses for major ions, nutrients, and trace elements are included in the proposed network to provide baseline data for monitoring long-term changes in water quality and to detect any unexpected changes in quality. (USGS)

  10. Comments on potential geologic and seismic hazards affecting coastal Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Boore, David M.; Fisher, Michael A.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Geist, Eric L.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Kayen, Robert E.; Lee, Homa J.; Normark, William R.; Wong, Florence L.

    2004-01-01

    This report examines the regional seismic and geologic hazards that could affect proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in coastal Ventura County, California. Faults throughout this area are thought to be capable of producing earthquakes of magnitude 6.5 to 7.5, which could produce surface fault offsets of as much as 15 feet. Many of these faults are sufficiently well understood to be included in the current generation of the National Seismic Hazard Maps; others may become candidates for inclusion in future revisions as research proceeds. Strong shaking is the primary hazard that causes damage from earthquakes and this area is zoned with a high level of shaking hazard. The estimated probability of a magnitude 6.5 or larger earthquake (comparable in size to the 2003 San Simeon quake) occurring in the next 30 years within 30 miles of Platform Grace is 50-60%; for Cabrillo Port, the estimate is a 35% likelihood. Combining these probabilities of earthquake occurrence with relationships that give expected ground motions yields the estimated seismic-shaking hazard. In parts of the project area, the estimated shaking hazard is as high as along the San Andreas Fault. The combination of long-period basin waves and LNG installations with large long-period resonances potentially increases this hazard.

  11. Field efficacy of deltamethrin for rodent flea control in San Bernardino County, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Mian, Lal S; Hitchcock, James C; Madon, Minoo B; Myers, Charles M

    2004-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the initial and residual activity of deltamethrin (0.05% dust) applied to rodent burrows (at approximately 14 g/burrow) against fleas in the Silverwood Lake area of San Bernardino County. In initial toxicity (2-d post-treatment), deltamethrin provided 97% flea control and in residual toxicity it resulted in 68% control of the rodent fleas at 15-d post-treatment. The flea fauna consisted of Oropsylla montana (89.9%) and Hoplopsylls anomalus (10.1%). All rodents captured in this study were California ground squirrels, Spermophilus beecheyi. In mark-release-recapture trials, using the microchip identification implant method at the treatment site, the recapture rate of rodents was 29% from 2- to 58-d post-treatment, declining to 21% after 98 d. In the tail-clip method at the treatment site, the recapture rate of 40% at 15-d post-treatment rose to 87% and 73% at 56- and 58-d post-treatment, respectively. At the control site, the recapture rate of 100% at 15-d post-post-treatment dropped to 20% after 98 d. In another trial at Camp Cedar Crest in the Running Springs area, deltamethrin applied to rodent burrows resulted in 70% control of fleas infesting S. beecheyi. Based on the two trials, deltamethrin showed a good initial control of rodent fleas in enzootic or epizootic plague control. PMID:15707280

  12. Problems related to water quality and algal control in Lopez Reservoir, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Richard H.; Averett, Robert C.; Hines, Walter G.

    1975-01-01

    A study to determine the present enrichment status of Liopez Reservoir in San Luis Obispo county, California, and to evaluate copper sulfate algal treatment found that stratification in the reservoir regulates nutrient release and that algal control has been ineffective. Nuisance algal blooms, particularly from March to June, have been a problem in the warm multipurpose reservoir since it was initially filled following intense storms in 1968-69. The cyanophyte Anabaena unispora has been dominant; cospecies are the diatoms Stephanodiscus astraea and Cyclotella operculata, and the chlorophytes Pediastrum deplex and Sphaerocystis schroeteri. During an A. unispora bloom in May 1972 the total lake surface cell count was nearly 100,000 cells/ml. Thermal stratification from late spring through autumn results in oxygen deficiency in the hypolimnion and metalimnion caused by bacterial oxidation of organic detritus. The anaerobic conditions favor chemical reduction of organic matter, which constitute 10-14% of the sediment. As algae die, sink to the bottom, and decompose, nutrients are released to the hypolimnion , and with the autumn overturn are spread to the epilimnion. Algal blooms not only hamper recreation, but through depletion of dissolved oxygen in the epilimnion may have caused periodic fishkills. Copper sulfate mixed with sodium citrate and applied at 1.10-1.73 lbs/acre has not significantly reduced algal growth; a method for determining correct dosage is presented. (Lynch-Wisconsin)

  13. Dietary and other lifestyle factors of women with brain gliomas in Los Angeles County (California, USA)

    PubMed

    Blowers, L; Preston-Martin, S; Mack, W J

    1997-01-01

    A population-based interview study in Los Angeles County (California, USA) of 94 women with intracranial gliomas and 94 individually matched neighborhood controls investigated the relationship to various sources of exposure to N-nitroso compounds and their precursors and to vitamins which inhibit the endogenous formation of these compounds. The study offers some support for the hypothesis that dietary sources of nitroso exposure relate to risk. Risk increased with increasing consumption of cured meats, most notably of bacon (odds ratio [OR] for the third tertile of intake = 6.6, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.9-22.5, P trend < 0.001). Risk was reduced with increasing intake of vegetables such as bell peppers (OR for third tertile = 0.2, CI = 0.1-0.7, P trend < 0.01). In addition, use of vitamin supplements appeared protective, and there was some suggestion that eating cured meats in combination with foods which inhibit endogenous nitrosation mitigates risk. Other potential sources of nitroso exposure such as smoking, cosmetics, and drinking water did not relate to risk. Despite the limitations of data on usual adult diet, it appears that dietary sources of nitroso compounds may be important in the development of gliomas. PMID:9051317

  14. 78 FR 41390 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered...: Pershing County Water Conservation District. e. Name of Project: Humboldt River Hydro Power Project....

  15. Documentation and description of the digital spatial data base for southern California Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program, Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predmore, Steven K.; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the geographic information system map layers and data files generated for the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura County, as part of a Regional Aquifer- System Analysis of southern California from 1989 to 1995. Thirty-six map layers and four data files are maintained in this geographic information system data base. The map layers cover the Santa Clara-Calleguas drainage basin and are stored in a common map projection. Attributes of the map layers and data files are described and referenced. The map layers are grouped by geography, geology, and hydrology.

  16. Alexander von Humboldt and the Origins of Landscape Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathewson, Kent

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the life, theories, and influence of Alexander von Humboldt, the early nineteenth century founder of modern geography. Maintains that Humboldt's novel approaches to the study of landscape antiquities have value for contemporary students in cultural and historical geography. (JDH)

  17. Interactions of solutes and streambed sediment. 1. An experimental analysis of cation and anion transport in a mountain stream ( California).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bencala, K.E.; Kennedy, V.C.; Zellweger, G.W.; Jackman, A.P.; Avanzino, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental injection was performed to study the transport of stream water solutes under conditions of significant interaction with streambed sediments in a mountain pool-and-riffle stream. Experiments were conducted in Little Lost Man Creek, Humboldt County, California, in a period of low flow during which only a part of the bank-full channel held active surface flow. The injection of chloride and several trace cations lasted 20 days. In this report we discuss the results of the first 24 hours of the injection and survey the results of the first 10 days. -from Authors

  18. 76 FR 26192 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) AGENCY... approve revisions to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference,...

  19. 76 FR 71886 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental... Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products,'' amended October 28, 2010. (E) Placer County Air Pollution...

  20. Habitat restoration plan for Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Mitchell, D.L.

    1985-10-01

    In 1976 Congress directed that production on the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) in Kern County, California, be increased to the maximum efficient rate to fulfill some United States needs for domestic oil and gas. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) issued a Biological Opinion, required under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, that proposed construction activities on NPR-1 would jeopardize the continued existence of the endangered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus) and damage their critical habitats. One of the reasonable and prudent alternatives that the FWS required if the project were to proceed was that DOE prepare this plan to restore disturbed habitats. The plan was based on published information and the results of habitat restoration studies conducted on NPR-1 between 1981 and 1983. Preconstruction surveys will be used to insure that new disturbances are the minimum size necessary, topsoil is salvaged, and engineering practices are implemented to control soil erosion and enhance revegetation. Existing disturbances will be located, inventoried, classified, and restored using existing guidelines. Native and naturalized plant seeds will be harvested and cultivated; shrub seedlings will be grown in containers suitable for transplantation. An inventory of disturbances, results of preconstruction activities, inventory of topsoil reserves, changes in habitat quality, uses of herbicides and toxic substances, and program costs will be monitored and used to document progress and evaluate the success of the program. Results of the program will be documented in an annual report, at technical information meetings and published in DOE topical reports and scientific journals. 46 refs., 1 fig. 4 tabs.

  1. Report of endangered species studies on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Warrick, G.D.; Mathews, N.E.; Kato, T.T.

    1987-09-01

    Between 1983 and 1986 the size of the population of San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2), Kern County, California, was estimated semiannually using capture-recapture techniques. Although summer population estimates varied between 222 in 1983 and 121 in 1986, and winter estimates varies between 258 in 1984 and 91 in 1983, the population appeared to remain relatively stable at an apparent norm of 165. Kit foxes were abundant even in the intensely developed areas, and numbers and densities (1.12 to 2.49/sq mile) were consistently higher on NPR-2 than on neighboring NPR-1. The percentage of adult vixens that successfully raised pups was 55%, average litter size was 4.0 +- 0.0, and the sex ratio (M:F) of 25 pups was 1:1.5. Most (45.2%) foxes were killed by coyotes (Canis latrans), vehicles killed 6.4%, and 6.5% died of other causes. A cause could not be determined for 41.9% of the deaths. There was a general increase in coyote visitation rates at scent stations, but kit fox visitation rates generally decreased. Kit fox indices were consistently higher on NPR-2 than on NPR-1. Approximately 15% of the kit foxes on NPR-2 dispersed an average of 2.2 +- 0.2 miles. Average dispersal distance did not differ between the sexes. The longest dispersal was 6.9 miles. Proportionately more male than female pups dispersed. Remains of lagomorphs (jackrabbits and cottontails) and kangaroo rats had the highest frequency of occurrence in scats. Frequency of occurrence of lagomorph remains was greater in developed than in undeveloped habitats. Proportions of lagomorph remains increased and kangaroo rat remains decreased between 1983 and 1984. 62 refs., 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Wildlife management plan, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Scrivner, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Under the Naval Petroleum Act of 1976, Congress directed the Secretary of the Navy and subsequently the Secretary of Energy, to produce petroleum products from Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) in Kern County, California, at the maximum efficient rate consistent with sound engineering practices. Because of the presence of two endangered species and the quality, quantity, and contiguous nature of habitat on NPR-1, the area is unique and management of its resources deserves special attention. The purpose of this wildlife management plan is to: (1) draw together specific information on NPR-1 wildlife resources; (2) suggest management goals that could be implemented, which if achieved, would result in diverse, healthy wildlife populations; and (3) reinitiate cooperative agreements between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other conservation organizations regarding the management of wildlife on NPR-1. NPR-1 supports an abundant and diverse vertebrate fauna. Twenty-five mammalian, 92 avian, eight reptilian, and two amphibian species have been observed on Elk Hills. Of these, three are endangered (San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica; giant kangaroo rat, Dipodomys ingens; blunt-nosed leopard lizard, Gambelia silus). Nine vertebrates, six invertebrates, and four plant species known to occur or suspected of occurring on Elk Hills are potential candidates for listing. A major objective of this management plan is to minimize the impact of petroleum development activities on the San Joaquin kit fox, giant kangaroo rat, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, and their essential habitats. This will mainly be achieved by monitoring the status of these species and their habitat and by restoring disturbed habitats. In general, management policies designed to benefit the above three species and other species of concern will also benefit other wildlife inhabiting NPR-1.

  3. Geologic map of the Lakeview 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Matti, Jonathan C.

    2001-01-01

    This Open-File Report contains a digital geologic map and map database of the Lakeview 7.5' quadrangle, Riverside County, California, that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute) version 7.2.1 double-precision coverages of the various elements of the geologic map 2. A Postscript file to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram and a Description of Map Units 3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. This Readme; includes, in Appendix I, data contained in lkvw_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots from this .pdf do not produce 1:24,000-scale maps. Adobe Acrobat page size settings control map scale.) This release includes features not found in most other digital geologic maps, in that all polygons, lines, and points in the coverage are encoded with detailed, comprehensive, contained in five INFO data tables (.rel) (see Matti and others, 1998a, 1998b, and 1998c for information on how the encoding may be accessed and utilized). No paper map is included in this report, but a PostScript plot file containing an image of the geologic map sheet, topographic base, Correlation of Map Units (CMU), and detailed Description of Map Units (DMU) is. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Lakeview 7.5' topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  4. Geologic map of the Devore 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Matti, Jonathan C.

    2001-01-01

    This Open-File Report contains a digital geologic map database of the Devore 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California, that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute) version 7.2.1 coverages of the various components of the geologic map 2. A PostScript (.ps) file to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram, a Description of Map Units, an index map, and a regional structure map 3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. This Readme; includes an Appendix, containing metadata details found in devre_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots from this .pdf do not produce 1:24,000-scale maps. Adobe Acrobat page-size settings control map scale.) The Correlation of Map Units and Description of Map Units are in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series maps (I-maps) but have not been edited to comply with I-map standards. Within the geologic-map data package, map units are identified by such standard geologic-map criteria as formation name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially forest roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Devore 7.5 topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  5. Geologic map of the Fifteenmile Valley 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, F.K.; Matti, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Open-File Report OF 01-132 contains a digital geologic map database of the Fifteenmile Valley 7.5 quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California that includes: 1. ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute, http://www.esri.com) version 7.2.1 coverages of the various elements of the geologic map. 2. A PostScript file to plot the geologic map on a topographic base, and containing a Correlation of Map Units diagram, a Description of Map Units, an index map, and a regional structure map. 3. Portable Document Format (.pdf) files of: a. This Readme; includes in Appendix I, data contained in fif_met.txt b. The same graphic as plotted in 2 above. (Test plots have not produced 1:24,000-scale map sheets. Adobe Acrobat pagesize setting influences map scale.) The Correlation of Map Units (CMU) and Description of Map Units (DMU) is in the editorial format of USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series (I-series) maps. Within the geologic map data package, map units are identified by standard geologic map criteria such as formation-name, age, and lithology. Even though this is an author-prepared report, every attempt has been made to closely adhere to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U. S. Geological Survey. Descriptions of units can be obtained by viewing or plotting the .pdf file (3b above) or plotting the postscript file (2 above). If roads in some areas, especially forest roads that parallel topographic contours, do not show well on plots of the geologic map, we recommend use of the USGS Fifteenmile Valley 7.5 topographic quadrangle in conjunction with the geologic map.

  6. A vapor-dominated reservoir exceeding 600{degrees}F at the Geysers, Sonoma County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, M.A.; Sternfeld, J.N.; Haizlip, J.R.; Drenick, A.F.; Combs, Jim

    1988-01-01

    A high-temperature vapor-dominated reservoir underlies a portion of the Northwest Geysers area, Sonoma County, California. The high-temperature reservoir (HTR) is defined by flowing fluid temperatures exceeding 500º F, rock temperatures apparently exceeding 600º F and steam enthalpies of about 1320 BTU/lb. Steam from existing wells drilled in the Northwest Geysers is produced from both a “typical” Geysers reservoir and the HTR. In all cases, the HTR is in the lower portion of the wells and is overlain by a “typical” Geysers reservoir. Depth to the high-temperature reservoir is relatively uniform at about -5900 ft subsea. There are no identified lithologic or mineralogic conditions that separate the HTR from the “typical” reservoir, although the two reservoirs are vertically distinct and can be located in most wells to within about 200 ft by the use of downhole temperature-depth measurements. Gas concentrations in steam from the HTR are higher (6 to 9 wt %) than from the “typical” Geysers reservoir (0.85 to 2.6 wt %). Steam from the HTR is enriched in chloride and the heavy isotopes of water relative to the “typical” reservoir. Available static and dynamic measurements show pressures are subhydrostatic in both reservoirs with no anomalous differences between the two: the HTR pressure being near 520 psia at sea level datum. The small observed differences in pressure between the reservoirs appear to vary along a steam density gradient. It is postulated that the Northwest Geysers area evolved more slowly toward vapor-dominated conditions than other parts of The Geysers field because of its poor connection with the surface. In this paper, a model is presented in which the boundary between the HTR and “typical” reservoir is a thermodynamic feature only, resulting from recent deep venting of a liquid-dominated system in which conduction is still an important component of heat transfer.

  7. Preliminary isostatic gravity map of the Sonoma volcanic field and vicinity, Sonoma and Napa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Roberts, C.W.; McCabe, C.A.; McPhee, D.K.; Tilden, J.E.; Jachens, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    This isostatic residual gravity map is part of a three-dimensional mapping effort focused on the subsurface distribution of rocks of the Sonoma volcanic field in Napa and Sonoma counties, northern California. This map will serve as a basis for modeling the shapes of basins beneath the Santa Rosa Plain and Napa and Sonoma Valleys, and for determining the location and geometry of faults within the area. Local spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field (after accounting for variations caused by elevation, terrain, and deep crustal structure explained below) reflect the distribution of densities in the mid to upper crust. Densities often can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in density commonly mark lithologic boundaries. High-density basement rocks exposed within the northern San Francisco Bay area include those of the Mesozoic Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence present in the mountainous areas of the quadrangle. Alluvial sediment and Tertiary sedimentary rocks are characterized by low densities. However, with increasing depth of burial and age, the densities of these rocks may become indistinguishable from those of basement rocks. Tertiary volcanic rocks are characterized by a wide range in densities, but, on average, are less dense than the Mesozoic basement rocks. Isostatic residual gravity values within the map area range from about -41 mGal over San Pablo Bay to about 11 mGal near Greeg Mountain 10 km east of St. Helena. Steep linear gravity gradients are coincident with the traces of several Quaternary strike-slip faults, most notably along the West Napa fault bounding the west side of Napa Valley, the projection of the Hayward fault in San Pablo Bay, the Maacama Fault, and the Rodgers Creek fault in the vicinity of Santa Rosa. These gradients result from juxtaposing dense basement rocks against thick Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks.

  8. Evaluating Channel Head Conditions for Environmental Impact Assessment in Northwestern Sonoma County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, M. N.; O'Connor, M.; Pennington, R.

    2007-12-01

    Erosion and sedimentation have been identified as processes significantly affecting water quality in northern California Coast Range watersheds. These watersheds, including the Gualala River watershed in northwestern Sonoma County, have been designated as having water quality impaired by sediment under provisions of the Clean Water Act Section 303(d). A study was performed to estimate potential increases in erosion rates resulting from proposed vineyard development of ridge top forestland in the Gualala River watershed. The study area has an extensive history of logging, with substantial ground disturbance from tractors. The study area is characterized by flat ridge tops with steeply incised drainages shaped by debris slides, rock slides and earth flows. Jurassic age sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks of the coastal and central belt Franciscan formation comprise the underlying bedrock. Channel head development and advancement has long been understood to play a key role in sediment delivery and is possibly the most sensitive to changes in the external factors such as changes in climate or land use (Dietrich and Dunne 1993). Quantifying the amount of sediment contributed by potential channel head incision and/or initiation is an objective of environmental analysis for the project. Field surveys were performed during the field seasons of 2005 and 2006 to acquire measurements of channel head locations and slope, channel dimensions and substrate associated with the proposed development sites. Analysis of this field data, including the use of ArcGIS, allowed us to examine the local relationships between variables that influence channel initiation. Variables considered include drainage area, slope, soil type, geology and vegetation. An initial analysis of a selection of area-slope data failed to produce an inverse area-slope relationship as has been found in previous studies by Montgomery and Dietrich (1988). A more complete evaluation of the entire data set is presented here.

  9. Diatom biostratigraphy from dolomites in Monterey Formation, Rodeo Canyon to Point Pedernales, southwestern Santa Barbara County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wornardt, W.W.

    1986-04-01

    Eight-six samples were collected from three stratigraphic sections in southwestern Santa Barbara County, California: Rodeo Canyon, Lyons Head, and Point Pedernales. In this area, the Monterey Formation is exposed in prominent cliffs along the coast from Rodeo Canyon on the south, to Lyons Head and Point Pedernales on the west. Because most of the opal-A in the Monterey diatomaceous shale in this area was converted to opal-CT and/or microcrystalline quartz, the diatoms are poorly preserved or obliterated. Therefore, the age of these rocks has been in question for a long time. Twenty-five 86 samples yielded age diagnostic diatoms that range from the early Miocene, late Relizian, Annellus californicus zone, to the early Pliocene, late Delmontian, Thalassiosira oestrupii zone. These ages can be directly related to those of diatomaceous shales, mudstones, and dolomites in the California offshore.

  10. Carbonate-cemented hardgrounds: a subtle indicator for seep activity offshore Humboldt Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, R. S.; Bazard, D.

    2007-12-01

    Active hydrocarbon seeps are common in the accretionary prism of the Cascadia subduction zone. In Humboldt County, California, the prism is exposed at the surface as a series of fault-propagated anticlines trending NW-SE. Offshore of the town of Samoa, a northwest-plunging anticline is breached at approximately 40 meters water depth, allowing hydrocarbons to seep out to the seafloor (40.8° N, 124.25° W). The assumed microbial activity at the seep leads to the production of interstitial carbonate cements forming hardgrounds. Cementation is pervasive and blocks eroded from the seep area of the seabed are transported onshore during storm events. Blocks collected from the beach range from 3--40 centimeters across. The sediments of the blocks are palimpsest transgressive deposits composed mostly of immature fine sand, but ranging from very fine to rounded gravels 4 cm diameter. Cementation is not dependent on grain size as all of the sediment sizes are cemented. In rare void spaces, a concentric banding of cements is obvious. The interstitial cements preserve original sedimentary structures including graded beds and high-angle cross-beds. Centimeter-scale subspherical concretions occur on the undersides of some blocks. There is no disruption of bedding in contrast to other seeps where the expulsion of gas can create pockmarks, brecciation, and other disturbances. Unlike the better studied seeps farther south in the Eel River basin, the Samoa seeps do not seem to host a rich chemosynthetic fauna. Whole and (mostly) fragmented shells preserved by the cemented sands represent a typical benthic inner shelf community including Dendraster, Macoma, and Olivella. Burrows preserved in the sands are largely horizontal and 1--2 mm diameter. Seep carbonate-cemented hardgrounds are less well studied then the more obvious meter-scale 'chemoherm' deposits. However, they may be more prevalent in the rock record and provide a new proxy for locating ancient seeps and hydrocarbon conduits.

  11. Evaluation of the Mission, Santee, and Tijuana hydrologic subareas for reclaimed-water use, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made to determine the suitability of three small hydrologic subareas in San Diego County, California, for reuse of treated municipal wastewater (reclaimed water). Groundwater quality has been impacted by agricultural water use, changes in natural recharge patterns, seawater intrusion, and groundwater movement from surrounding marine sediments. Groundwater levels near land surface may limit artificial recharge of reclaimed water or may require pumping of groundwater from the aquifer prior to recharge with reclaimed water. Reclaimed water may be used for irrigated water in upland areas. (USGS)

  12. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substances listed in 46 CFR 153.40. Humboldt Bay Area means the area described in the location section of... requirements listed in title 33 CFR, part 160, Ports and Waterways Safety—General, subpart C—Notifications of... and type of vessel or tow, wave period, time of day/night, and tidal currents. The final decision...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substances listed in 46 CFR 153.40. Humboldt Bay Area means the area described in the location section of... requirements listed in title 33 CFR, part 160, Ports and Waterways Safety—General, subpart C—Notifications of... and type of vessel or tow, wave period, time of day/night, and tidal currents. The final decision...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substances listed in 46 CFR 153.40. Humboldt Bay Area means the area described in the location section of... requirements listed in title 33 CFR, part 160, Ports and Waterways Safety—General, subpart C—Notifications of... and type of vessel or tow, wave period, time of day/night, and tidal currents. The final decision...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substances listed in 46 CFR 153.40. Humboldt Bay Area means the area described in the location section of... requirements listed in title 33 CFR, part 160, Ports and Waterways Safety—General, subpart C—Notifications of... and type of vessel or tow, wave period, time of day/night, and tidal currents. The final decision...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substances listed in 46 CFR 153.40. Humboldt Bay Area means the area described in the location section of... requirements listed in title 33 CFR, part 160, Ports and Waterways Safety—General, subpart C—Notifications of... and type of vessel or tow, wave period, time of day/night, and tidal currents. The final decision...

  17. Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region, Kern, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1952-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region Kern, Riverside, and Bernardino counties were made in five areas recommended as favorable for the occurrence of radioactive raw materials: (1) Rock Corral area, San Bernardino County. (2) Searles Station area, Kern county. (3) Soledad area, Kern County. (4) White Tank area, Riverside and San Bernardino counties. (5) Harvard Hills area, San Bernardino County. Anomalous radiation was detected in all but the Harvard Hills area. The radioactivity anomalies detected in the Rock Corral area are of the greatest amplitude yet recorded by the airborne equipment over natural sources. The activity is apparently attributable to the thorium-beating mineral associated with roof pendants of crystalline metamorphic rocks in a granitic intrusive. In the Searles Station, Soledad, and White Tank area, several radioactivity anomalies of medium amplitude were recorded, suggesting possible local concentrations of radioactive minerals.

  18. Late Cenozoic geology and lacustrine history of Searles Valley, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathenson, M.; Smith, G. I.; Robinson, J. E.; Stauffer, P. H.; Zigler, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    George Smith’s career-long study of the surface geology of the Searles Valley was recently published by the USGS (Smith, 2009, online and printed). The co-authors of this abstract are the team responsible for completing the publication from the original materials. Searles Valley is an arid, closed basin lying 70 km east of the south end of the Sierra Nevada, California. During those parts of late Pliocene and Pleistocene time when precipitation and runoff from the east side of the Sierra Nevada into the Owens River were much greater than at present, a chain of as many as five large lakes was created, of which Searles Lake was third. The stratigraphic record left in Searles Valley when that lake expanded, contracted, or desiccated is fully revealed by cores taken from beneath the surface of Searles (dry) Lake and partly recorded by sediments cropping out around the edge of the valley. Although this outcrop record is discontinuous, it provides direct evidence of the lake’s water depths during each expansion, which the subsurface record does not. Maximum-depth lakes rose to the 2,280-ft (695 m) contour, the level of the spillway that led overflowing waters to Panamint Valley; that spillway is about 660 ft (200 m) above the present dry-lake surface. Most of this study concerns sediments of the newly described Searles Lake Formation, whose deposition spanned the period between about 150 ka and 2 ka. The outcrop record is documented in six geologic maps (scales: 1:50,000 and 1:10,000). The Searles Lake Formation is divided into seven main units. The depositional intervals of the units that make up the Searles Lake Formation are determined primarily by correlation with subsurface deposits that are dated by radiocarbon ages on organic carbon and U-series dates on salts. Shorelines, the most obvious geologic expressions of former lakes, are abundant around Searles Valley. Erosional shorelines have cut as much as 100 m into brecciated bedrock; depositional shorelines (beaches or tufa benches) are common, but their deposits tend to be thin. Combining the subsurface evidence of lake history with the outcrop record allows the history of lake fluctuations to be reconstructed for the period between about 150 ka and the present. Translating this record of lake fluctuations into paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic histories is complicated by uncertainties as to which of the several components of climate affected runoff volumes and lake-surface evaporation. A simplified model, however, suggests that the flow of the Owens River stayed between 2.5 and 4.5 times its present flow volume for most of the past 150 ky. Its flow exceeded this range only about 14 percent of the time, and it fell below this range only 4 percent of the time—which includes the present. In fact, the past 10 ky is clearly the driest period during the past 150 ky in the Owens River drainage. Smith, G.I., 2009, Late Cenozoic geology and lacustrine history of Searles Valley, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1727, 115 p., 4 plates.

  19. Geology, water resources and usable ground-water storage capacity of part of Solano County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomasson, H.G., Jr.; Olmsted, F.H.; LeRoux, E.F.

    1960-01-01

    The area described is confined largely to the valley-floor and foothill lands of Solano County, which lies directly between Sacramento, the State capital, and San Francisco. The area is considered in two subareas: The Putah area, which extends from Putah Creek southward to the Montezuma Hills and from the foothills of the Coast Ranges eastward to the west edge of the Yolo Bypass; and the Suisun-Fairfield area, which is to the southwest in the notch in the Coast Ranges through which the waters of the Great Central Valley of California reach San Francisco Bay. There are no known hydrologic interconnections between the two subareas, through either surface streams or underground aquifers. The climate of the area is characterized by warm, rainless summers and by cool winters in which temperatures seldom drop much below freezing. The rainfall ranges from about 17 inches per year along the east side to perhaps 24 inches in the foothills to the west, and irrigation is necessary for all crops except dry-farmed grains, pastures, and some orchards. PUTAH AREA The Putah area occupies the southwestern corner of the Sacramento Valley, a topographic and structural basin underlain by a thick accumulation of sediments eroded from the surrounding hills and mountains by the Sacramento River and its tributaries. The eastern Coast Ranges and foothills lying west of the Sacramento Valley are a generally northward-trending belt of eastward-dipping sedimentary rocks that range in age from Cretaceous to Pleistocene. Successively younger strata are exposed eastward, and the essentially undeformed deposits of late Pleistocene and Recent age that immediately underlie the valley lap onto the tilted sediments of the foothills. Most of the streams of the Putah area rise east of the high ridge of Cretaceous rocks marking the western boundaries of Solano and Yolo Counties, but Putah Creek, the largest stream in the area, rises far west of that ridge and flows across it in a deep, narrow canyon. Putah Creek and the smaller streams have constructed an alluvial plain, herein designated the Putah plain, which slopes eastward and southeastward from the foothills toward the Sacramento River. A large part of the Putah plain is traversed by a branching set of distributary channel ridges or natural levees formed at times of overflow of Putah Creek. The rocks in the Putah area range in age from Cretaceous to Recent. For the purposes of this investigation they are divided into eight geologic or stratigraphic units, from youngest to oldest: (1) Stream-channel deposits, (2) younger alluvium, (3) older alluvium, (4) Tehama formation and related continental sediments, (5) volcanic sedimentary rocks, (6) basalt, (7) undifferentiated sedimentary rocks of Paleocene(?) and Eocene age, and (8) undifferentiated rocks of Cretaceous age. The stream-channel deposits are predominantly loose sand and gravel along the channel of Putah Creek. In part they are actively moving downstream and shifting. The younger alluvium, of Recent age, consists of flood-plain deposits underlying the Putah plain, Vaca Valley, Pleasants Valley, and the small valleys in the foothills north of Putah Creek and in the English Hills. Exposures of younger alluvium are characterized by soils lacking significant profile development and in many places by channel-ridge topography. The older alluvium occupies the stratigraphic interval between the younger alluvium and the Tehama formation and related continental sediments and is probably of late Pleistocene age. Its contact with the underlying Tehama formation and related continental sediments is unconformable near the foothills, but it may be gradational beneath much of the Putah plain. The base of the older alluvium is not well defined at many places but is inferred to be at the bottom of an irregular and ill-defined zone of coarse deposits, which ranges from about 50 feet to more than 150 feet below the land surface. Exposures of the older

  20. Location of odor sources and the affected population in Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, J.L.

    1981-08-01

    This report is divided into four sections. The first two sections contain general background information on Imperial County. The third section is a general discussion of odor sources in Imperial County, and the fourth maps the specific odor sources, the expected areas of perception, and the affected populations. this mapping is done for the Imperial Valley and each of the four Imperial County KGRA's (Known Geothermal Resource Areas) where odor from the development of the geothermal energy may affect population.

  1. Preliminary geologic map of the Big Bear City 7.5' Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Fred K.; digital preparation by Cossette, Pamela M.

    2004-01-01

    This data set maps and describes the geology of the Big Bear City 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California. Created using Environmental Systems Research Institute's ARC/INFO software, the data base consists of the following items: (1) a rock-unit coverage and attribute tables (polygon and arc) containing geologic contacts, units and rock-unit labels as annotation which are also included in a separate annotation coverage, bbc_anno (2) a point coverage containing structural point data and (3) a coverage containing fold axes. In addition, the data set includes the following graphic and text products: (1) A PostScript graphic plot-file containing the geologic map, topography, cultural data, a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram, a Description of Map Units (DMU), an index map, a regional geologic and structure map, and an explanation for point and line symbols; (2) PDF files of the Readme (including the metadata file as an appendix), and a screen graphic of the plot produced by the PostScript plot file. The geologic map describes a geologically complex area on the north side of the San Bernardino Mountains. Bedrock units in the Big Bear City quadrangle are dominated by (1) large Cretaceous granitic bodies ranging in composition from monzogranite to gabbro, (2) metamorphosed sedimentary rocks ranging in age from late Paleozoic to late Proterozoic, and (3) Middle Proterozoic gneiss. These rocks are complexly deformed by normal, reverse, and thrust faults, and in places are tightly folded. The geologic map database contains original U.S. Geological Survey data generated by detailed field observation and by interpretation of aerial photographs. The map data was compiled on base-stable cronoflex copies of the Big Bear City 7.5' topographic map, transferred to a scribe-guide and subsequently digitized. Lines, points, and polygons were edited at the USGS using standard ARC/INFO commands. Digitizing and editing artifacts significant enough to display at a scale of 1:24,000 were corrected. Within the database, geologic contacts are represented as lines (arcs), geologic units as polygons, and site-specific data as points. Polygon, arc, and point attribute tables (.pat, .aat, and .pat, respectively) uniquely identify each geologic datum.

  2. Sequential Sediment Budgets in an Ungauged Watershed: Redwood Creek, Marin County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, P. W.; Stallman, J.

    2005-12-01

    Sediment budgets provide an organizing framework in fluvial geomorphology and have enormous potential in environmental management. A sediment budget approach assisted in developing strategies for restoring Big Lagoon, the wetland ecosystem at the terminus of the 22.7 km2 Redwood Creek watershed in Marin County, California. Persistence of a restored lagoon largely depends on the current sediment yield relative to the reference yield prior to European settlement. Process-based, distributed sediment budgets were constructed for several historical time periods to account for accelerated sediment production from contemporary land management practices and legacy factors stemming from past resource exploitation. Sediment production, storage, and transfer were investigated using digital terrain modeling, field reconnaissance to ascertain and validate hillslope processes, mainstem channel surveys and dendrochronology to assess trends in alluvial sediment storage, application of published process rate estimates, use of short-term and prorated stream gauging records, and sediment transport modeling to validate sediment yields into Big Lagoon. Evidence suggests that the Redwood Creek valley bottom aggraded from at least 3,500 B.P., with floodplain wetlands acting as sediment sinks (average annual sediment yield of 34 t km2 yr-1). Channel incision rapidly followed European settlement and intensive hillslope disturbances beginning around 1840 (peak yield 1921-1982 of 324 t km2 yr-1). Mainstem and large tributary valley bottoms became major sediment sources during this time and remain sources despite progressive retirement of most agricultural land use (yield 1981-2000 of 198 t km2 yr-1). Numerous issues related to data availability and resolution limited quantification of some sediment sources and resulted in potential uncertainties in estimates of yield to Big Lagoon. Historical sediment budgets, however, require more than adequate data sources, they require accurate conceptual models of geomorphic processes operating over historical time periods as the basis for correctly interpreting results, while the applicability of sediment budgets over decadal timescales may depend on climate factors influencing the frequency and magnitude of large storm events during the period. Further, legacy factors affecting sediment storage and transfer are critical yet difficult to resolve and often overlooked in sediment budgeting. `Rapid' sediment budgets are desirable components of historically-informed environmental management but are subject to uncertainties relating to data availability, accuracy, resolution, interpretation, and applicability. Future work is focusing on data acquisition necessary for a transparent realization of this potential.

  3. Final Scientific / Technical Report, Geothermal Resource Exploration Program, Truckhaven Area, Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Layman Energy Associates, Inc.

    2006-08-15

    With financial support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Layman Energy Associates, Inc. (LEA) has completed a program of geothermal exploration at the Truckhaven area in Imperial County, California. The exploratory work conducted by LEA included the following activities: compilation of public domain resource data (wells, seismic data, geologic maps); detailed field geologic mapping at the project site; acquisition and interpretation of remote sensing imagery such as aerial and satellite photographs; acquisition, quality control and interpretation of gravity data; and acquisition, quality control and interpretation of resistivity data using state of the art magnetotelluric (MT) methods. The results of this exploratory program have allowed LEA to develop a structural and hydrologic interpretation of the Truckhaven geothermal resource which can be used to guide subsequent exploratory drilling and resource development. Of primary significance, is the identification of an 8 kilometer-long, WNW-trending zone of low resistivity associated with geothermal activity in nearby wells. The long axis of this low resistivity zone is inferred to mark a zone of faulting which likely provides the primary control on the distribution of geothermal resources in the Truckhaven area. Abundant cross-faults cutting the main WNW-trending zone in its western half may indicate elevated fracture permeability in this region, possibly associated with thermal upwelling and higher resource temperatures. Regional groundwater flow is inferred to push thermal fluids from west to east along the trend of the main low resistivity zone, with resource temperatures likely declining from west to east away from the inferred upwelling zone. Resistivity mapping and well data have also shown that within the WNW-trending low resistivity zone, the thickness of the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary section above granite basement ranges from 1,9002,600 meters. Well data indicates the lower part of this sedimentary section is sand-rich, suggesting good potential for a sediment-hosted geothermal reservoir in porous sands, similar to other fields in the region such as Heber and East Mesa. Sand porosity may remain higher in the eastern portion of the low resistivity zone. This is based on its location hydrologically downstream of the probable area of thermal upwelling, intense fracture development, and associated pore-filling hydrothermal mineral deposition to the west.

  4. Data from a thick unsaturated zone in Joshua Tree, San Bernardino County, California, 2007--09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burgess, Matthew; Izbicki, John; Teague, Nicholas; O'Leary, David R.; Clark, Dennis; Land, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Data were collected on the physical properties of unsaturated alluvial deposits, the chemical composition of leachate extracted from unsaturated alluvial deposits, the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater and unsaturated-zone water, and the chemical composition of unsaturated-zone gas at four monitoring sites in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in the town of Joshua Tree, San Bernardino County, California. The presence of denitrifying and nitrate-reducing bacteria from unsaturated alluvial deposits was evaluated for two of these monitoring sites that underlie unsewered residential development. Four unsaturated-zone monitoring sites were installed in the Joshua Tree area—two in an unsewered residential development and two adjacent to a proposed artificial-recharge site in an undeveloped area. The two boreholes in residential development areas were installed by using the ODEX air-hammer method. One borehole was drilled through the unsaturated zone to a depth of 541 ft (feet) below land surface; a well screened across the water table was installed. Groundwater was sampled from this well. The second borehole was drilled to a depth of 81 ft below land surface. Drilling procedures, lithologic and geophysical data, construction details, and instrumentation placed in these boreholes are described. Core material was analyzed for water content, bulk density, matric potential, particle size, and water retention. The leachate from over 500 subsamples of cores and cuttings was analyzed for soluble anions, including fluoride, sulfate, bromide, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, and orthophosphate. Groundwater was analyzed for major ions, inorganic compounds, select trace elements, and isotopic composition. Unsaturated-zone water from suction-cup lysimeters was analyzed for major ions, inorganic compounds, select trace elements, and isotopic composition. Unsaturated-zone gas samples were analyzed for argon, oxygen, nitrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, ethane, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide. Drill cuttings were analyzed for denitrifying and nitrate-reducing bacteria. One of the boreholes installed adjacent to the Joshua Basin Water District proposed groundwater-recharge facility was installed by using the ODEX air-hammer method and the other was installed by using a 7.875-inch hollow-stem auger. Drilling procedures, lithologic and geophysical data, construction details, and instrumentation placed in these boreholes are described; however, geochemical data were not available at the time of publication.

  5. Humboldt's Legacy and the Restoration of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Aaron

    1995-01-01

    Examines issues related to specialization in science in the context of the work of Alexander Von Humboldt, one of the first popular scientists in the 19th century and Charles Darwin's mentor. Chronicles the impacts of a science dominated by specialization and argues for increased emphasis on interdisciplinary environmental study. (LZ)

  6. Genetic Analysis of Invasive Aedes albopictus Populations in Los Angeles County, California and Its Potential Public Health Impact

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Daibin; Lo, Eugenia; Hu, Renjie; Metzger, Marco E.; Cummings, Robert; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Fujioka, Kenn K.; Sorvillo, Teresa E.; Kluh, Susanne; Healy, Sean P.; Fredregill, Chris; Kramer, Vicki L.; Chen, Xiaoguang; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an anthropophilic aggressive daytime-biting nuisance and an efficient vector of certain arboviruses and filarial nematodes. Over the last 30 years, this species has spread rapidly through human travel and commerce from its native tropical forests of Asia to every continent except Antarctica. In 2011, a population of Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) was discovered in Los Angeles (LA) County, California. To determine the probable origin of this invasive species, the genetic structure of the population was compared against 11 populations from the United States and abroad, as well as preserved specimens from a 2001 introduction into California using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene. A total of 66 haplotypes were detected among samples and were divided into three main groups. Aedes albopictus collected in 2001 and 2011 from LA County were genetically related and similar to those from Asia but distinct from those collected in the eastern and southeastern United States. In view of the high genetic similarities between the 2001 and 2011 LA samples, it is possible that the 2011 population represents in part the descendants of the 2001 introduction. There remains an imperative need for improved surveillance and control strategies for this species. PMID:23861921

  7. 75 FR 27975 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ...: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... previous version of Rule 420 (see 68 FR 8839). CARB has made no subsequent submittals of the rule. C. What..., Imperial County was reclassified as a serious PM nonattainment area (see 69 FR 48792 and 40 CFR part...

  8. Drilling Addendum to Resource Assessment of Low- and Moderate-Temperature Geothermal Waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Gary C.; Bacon, C. Forrest; Chapman, Rodger H.; Chase, Gordon W.; Majmundar, Hasmukhrai H.

    1981-05-01

    This addendum report presents the results of the California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) drilling program at Calistoga, California, which was the final geothermal-resource assessment investigation performed under terms of the second year contract (1979-80) between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CDMG under the State Coupled Program. This report is intended to supplement information presented in CDMG's technical report for the project year, ''Resource Assessment of Low- and Moderate-Temperature Geothermal Waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California''. During the investigative phase of the CDMG's Geothermal Project, over 200 well-driller's reports were obtained from the Department of Water Resources (DWR). It was hoped that the interpretation and correlation of these logs would reveal the subsurface geology of the Upper Napa Valley and also provide a check for the various geophysical surveys that were performed in the course of the study. However, these DWR driller logs proved to be inadequate due to the brief, non-technical, and erroneous descriptions contained on the logs. As a result of the lack of useable drill-hole data, and because information was desired from,deeper horizons, it became evident that drilling some exploratory holes would be necessary in order to obtain physical evidence of the stratigraphy and aquifers in the immediate Calistoga area. Pursuant to this objective, a total of twelve sites were selected--four under jurisdiction of Napa County and eight under jurisdiction of the City of Calistoga. A moratorium is currently in existence within Napa County on most geothermal drilling, and environmental and time constraints precluded CDMG from obtaining the necessary site permits within the county. However, a variance was applied for and obtained from the City of Calistoga to allow CDMG to drill within the city limits. With this areal constraint and also funding limits in mind, six drilling sites were selected on the basis of (1) proximity to areas where geophysical surveys had been performed, (2) accessibility of the site for drill rig setup, and (3) favorability for obtaining the maximum information possible concerning the geology and the resources. Necessary landowner permission and permits were secured for these sites, and actual drilling began on December 17, 1980. Drilling was terminated on February 4, 1981, with the completion of three holes that ranged in depth from 205 to 885 feet. Use of a relatively new drilling technique called the Dual Tube Method enabled the collection of precise subsurface data of a level of detail never before obtained in the Calistoga area. As a result, a totally new and unexpected picture of the geothermal reservoir conditions there has been obtained, and is outlined in this addendum report.

  9. Habitat requirements of the endangered California freshwater shrimp (Syncaris pacifica) in lagunitas and olema creeks, Marin County, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, B.A.; Saiki, M.K.; Fong, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to better understand the habitat requirements and environmental limiting factors of Syncaris pacifica, the California freshwater shrimp. This federally listed endangered species is native to perennial lowland streams in a few watersheds in northern California. Field sampling occurred in Lagunitas and Olema creeks at seasonal intervals from February 2003 to November 2004. Ten glides, five pools, and five riffles served as fixed sampling reaches, with eight glides, four pools, and four riffles located in Lagunitas Creek and the remainder in Olema Creek. A total of 1773 S. pacifica was counted during this study, all of which were captured along vegetated banks in Lagunitas Creek. Syncaris pacifica was most numerous in glides (64), then in pools (31), and lastly in riffles (5). According to logistic regression analysis, S. pacifica was mostly associated with submerged portions of streambank vegetation (especially overhanging vegetation such as ferns and blackberries, emergent vegetation such as sedge and brooklime, and fine roots associated with water hemlock, willow, sedge, and blackberries) along with low water current velocity and a sandy substrate. These seemingly favorable habitat conditions for S. pacifica were present in glides and pools in Lagunitas Creek, but not in Olema Creek. ?? 2009 The Crustacean Society.

  10. Diversity of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Strains Isolated from Inpatients of 30 Hospitals in Orange County, California

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Lyndsey O.; Murphy, Courtney R.; Spratt, Brian G.; Enright, Mark C.; Elkins, Kristen; Nguyen, Christopher; Terpstra, Leah; Gombosev, Adrijana; Kim, Diane; Hannah, Paul; Mikhail, Lydia; Alexander, Richard; Moore, Douglas F.; Huang, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for a regional assessment of the frequency and diversity of MRSA to determine major circulating clones and the extent to which community and healthcare MRSA reservoirs have mixed. We conducted a prospective cohort study of inpatients in Orange County, California, systematically collecting clinical MRSA isolates from 30 hospitals, to assess MRSA diversity and distribution. All isolates were characterized by spa typing, with selective PFGE and MLST to relate spa types with major MRSA clones. We collected 2,246 MRSA isolates from hospital inpatients. This translated to 91/10,000 inpatients with MRSA and an Orange County population estimate of MRSA inpatient clinical cultures of 86/100,000 people. spa type genetic diversity was heterogeneous between hospitals, and relatively high overall (72%). USA300 (t008/ST8), USA100 (t002/ST5) and a previously reported USA100 variant (t242/ST5) were the dominant clones across all Orange County hospitals, representing 83% of isolates. Fifteen hospitals isolated more t008 (USA300) isolates than t002/242 (USA100) isolates, and 12 hospitals isolated more t242 isolates than t002 isolates. The majority of isolates were imported into hospitals. Community-based infection control strategies may still be helpful in stemming the influx of traditionally community-associated strains, particularly USA300, into the healthcare setting. PMID:23637976

  11. Report of the Preliminary Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Site 300, San Joaquin County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, C

    2009-11-24

    The area subject to this investigation is the existing Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Site 300, located in the region north of Corral Hollow; approximately eight and one half miles southwest of Tracy, San Joaquin County, California. Cartographic location can be determined from the Tracy and Midway USGS 7.5 minute topographic quadrangles, the appropriate portions of which are herein reproduced as Maps 1 and 2. The majority of the approximate 7000 acres of the location lies within San Joaquin County. This includes all of the area arbitrarily designated the 'Eastern Portion' on Map 2 and the majority of the area designated the 'Western Portion' on Map 1. The remaining acreage, along the western boundary of the location, lies within Alameda County. The area is located in the region of open rolling hills immediately north of Corral Hollow, and ranges in elevation from approximately 600 feet, on the flood plain of Corral Hollow Creek, to approximately 1700 feet in the northwest portion of the project location. Proposed for the area under investigation are various, unspecified improvements or modifications to the existing Site 300 facilities. Present facilities consist of scattered buildings, bunkers and magazines, utilized for testing and research purposes, including the necessary water, power, and transportation improvements to support them. The vast majority of the 7000 acres location is presently open space, utilized as buffer zones between test locations and as firing ranges.

  12. BENEFITS OF VEGETATED AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE DITCHES (VADD) AS A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE IN YOLO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Widespread contamination of California water bodies by the orthophosphate insecticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos is well documented. While their usage has decreased over the last few years, a concomitant increase in pyrethroid usage (replacement insecticides) has occurred. Researchers have also do...

  13. BENEFITS OF VEGETATED AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE DITCHES (VADD) AS A BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE IN YOLO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Widespread contamination of California water bodies by the orthophosphate insecticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos is well documented. While their usage has decreased over the last few years, a concomitant increase in pyrethroid usage (replacement insecticides) has occurred. Researchers have also docu...

  14. 75 FR 24406 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Control District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection... to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air...

  15. Characterization and seroepidemiology of a type 5 astrovirus associated with an outbreak of gastroenteritis in Marin County, California.

    PubMed Central

    Midthun, K; Greenberg, H B; Kurtz, J B; Gary, G W; Lin, F Y; Kapikian, A Z

    1993-01-01

    The Marin County strain of type 5 astrovirus was associated with two separate outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in California in 1978. A safety-tested, bacterium-free filtrate prepared from a stool specimen of an individual who was ill during the original outbreak was given orally to 19 adult volunteers. One volunteer developed a gastrointestinal illness, and nine had serologic responses. Several diarrheal stool specimens from the ill volunteer contained a large number of 27-nm particles. By using immune electron microscopy with acute- and convalescent-phase sera from the original outbreak, these 27-nm particles were shown to be identical to the viral inoculum. The Marin County virus, purified from the stool of the ill volunteer, was shown by immunoprecipitation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to contain a single structural protein with a molecular weight of 30,000. The buoyant density of the virion was 1.39 g/cm3 in cesium chloride. By electron microscopy, approximately 5% of the particles had the characteristic stellate configuration of astrovirus, and serologic studies by immunofluorescence technique confirmed previous classification of the Marin County virus as a type 5 astrovirus. Radioimmunoassay and biotin-avidin immunoassay were used to detect antibody to the Marin County virus in paired acute- and convalescent-phase sera from 32 outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis, but none of these outbreaks could be attributed to this virus. Prevalence of antibody to this strain of astrovirus was approximately 13% in children 6 months to 3 years of age and increased to 41% in older children and young adults. Images PMID:8385155

  16. [The journal of A.V. Humboldt in Spain].

    PubMed

    Leitner, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish diary can surprisingly not be found in his bounded diaries from his American travels, but in a separate folder of his legacy in Berlin, where Humboldt collected material which he wanted to use for his publication about Spain. So it remained undiscovered until recently. Humboldt's notes contain geognostic descriptions as well as his observations about climate, vegetation, electricity of the atmosphere, etc. The comparison with Humboldt's publication of 1825 facilitates to gain insight into his scientific methods. PMID:22375303

  17. Digital Compilation of "Preliminary Map of Landslide Deposits in Santa Cruz County, California, By Cooper-Clark and Associates, 1975": A Digital Map Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Report by Roberts, Sebastian; Barron, Andrew D.; Preface by Brabb, Earl E.; Pike, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    A 1:62,500-scale black-and-white map identifying some 2,000 landslides of various types in Santa Cruz County, California, has been converted to a digital-map database that can be acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey over the Internet or on magnetic tape.

  18. Treating Drug-Abusing Offenders: Initial Findings from a Five-County Study on the Impact of California's Proposition 36 on the Treatment System and Patient Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Teruya, Cheryl; Evans, Elizabeth A.; Longshore, Douglas; Grella, Christine; Farabee, David

    2003-01-01

    Five counties (Kern, Riverside, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco) that demonstrate both variations and similarities in their implementation of Proposition 36 (e.g., treatment approaches, urine testing) and patient mix have been selected to participate in a study assessing how California's Proposition 36 is affecting the drug treatment system…

  19. Treating Drug-Abusing Offenders: Initial Findings from a Five-County Study on the Impact of California's Proposition 36 on the Treatment System and Patient Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Teruya, Cheryl; Evans, Elizabeth A.; Longshore, Douglas; Grella, Christine; Farabee, David

    2003-01-01

    Five counties (Kern, Riverside, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco) that demonstrate both variations and similarities in their implementation of Proposition 36 (e.g., treatment approaches, urine testing) and patient mix have been selected to participate in a study assessing how California's Proposition 36 is affecting the drug treatment system

  20. Documentation of model input and output values for the geohydrology and mathematical simulation of the Pajaro Valley aquifer system, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitten, H.T.; Londquist, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains listings of the model input and sample output for simulation of the Pajaro Valley aquifer system, Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties, California. The files are contained on a 5 1/4-inch diskette. The decompressed files require approximately 5.3 megabytes of disk space on an IBM-compatible microcomputer. (USGS)

  1. Cascadia Earthquake and Tsunami Scenario for California's North Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengler, L.

    2006-12-01

    In 1995 the California Division of Mines and Geology (now the California Geological Survey) released a planning scenario for an earthquake on the southern portion of the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ). This scenario was the 8th and last of the Earthquake Planning Scenarios published by CDMG. It was the largest magnitude CDMG scenario, an 8.4 earthquake rupturing the southern 200 km of the CSZ, and it was the only scenario to include tsunami impacts. This scenario event has not occurred in historic times and depicts impacts far more severe than any recent earthquake. The local tsunami hazard is new; there is no written record of significant local tsunami impact in the region. The north coast scenario received considerable attention in Humboldt and Del Norte Counties and contributed to a number of mitigation efforts. The Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group (RCTWG), an organization of scientists, emergency managers, government agencies, and businesses from Humboldt, Mendocino, and Del Norte Counties, was formed in 1996 to assist local jurisdictions in understanding the implications of the scenario and to promote a coordinated, consistent mitigation program. The group has produced print and video materials and promoted response and evacuation planning. Since 1997 the RCTWG has sponsored an Earthquake Tsunami Education Room at county fairs featuring preparedness information, hands-on exhibits and regional tsunami hazard maps. Since the development of the TsunamiReady Program in 2001, the RCTWG facilitates community TsunamiReady certification. To assess the effectiveness of mitigation efforts, five telephone surveys between 1993 and 2001 were conducted by the Humboldt Earthquake Education Center. A sixth survey is planned for this fall. Each survey includes between 400 and 600 respondents. Over the nine year period covered by the surveys, the percent with houses secured to foundations has increased from 58 to 80 percent, respondents aware of a local tsunami hazard increased from 51 to 73 percent and knowing what the Cascadia subduction zone is from 16 to 42 percent. It is not surprising that the earlier surveys showed increases as several strong earthquakes occurred in the area between 1992 and 1995 and there was considerable media attention. But the 2001 survey, seven years after the last widely felt event, still shows significant increases in almost all preparedness indicators. The 1995 CDMG scenario was not the sole reason for the increased interest in earthquake and tsunami hazards in the area, but the scenario gave government recognition to an event that was previously only considered seriously in the scientific community and has acted as a catalyst for mitigation and planning efforts.

  2. Determination of channel capacity of the Sacramento River between Ordbend and Glenn, Butte and Glenn counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The adequacy of an 8.5-mi reach of the Sacramento River to carry flood flows is evaluated. The reach studied is in Butte and Glenn Counties, California, and extends northward from the present east-bank Sacramento River Flood Control Project levee near Glenn upstream to the Ord Ferry gaging station near Ordbend. There is a west-bank levee throughout the study reach. Flows analyzed range from 11,500 to 265,000 cfs. Computed water-surface elevations are based on topography obtained during September through November 1974. The present Sacramento River Flood Control Project levees at the downstream end of the study reach near Glenn are designed to contain flows up to 150,000 cfs. Water-surface elevations computed for flows of this magnitude are about 6 to 8 ft below the top of the existing west-bank levee throughout the study reach. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Oiled seabird rescue at the J.V. Fitzgerald Marine Reserve, San Mateo County, California, 1968-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Records of oiled and injured seabirds at the J.V. Fitzgerald Marine Reserve, San Mateo County, California, were collated from the daily log at the Reserve for the period 1968-1995. These records serve to demonstrate that oil spills and chronic oiling have occurred frequently in this area, just south of San Francisco. Common Murres (Uria aalge) were the most frequently-oiled species rescued at the Reserve. Greater efforts should be made by wildlife rehabilitators to collate large volumes of past data (prior to the early 1990s) on oiled and injured seabirds for similar documentation of large or moderate oil spills (including undocumented or poorly-known spills), chronic oiling from small spills, and injuries from other sources.

  4. Data for ground-water test holes in Fresno County, western San Joaquin Valley, California, June to August 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, Sherrill; Laudon, Julie

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four test holes were drilled from June 3 to August 29, 1985, in the western San Joaquin Valley, California, to provide information about groundwater hydraulics and geochemistry. The study area is in western Fresno County, west of the San Joaquin River, and east of the Coast Range. Lithologic, hydrologic, and geophysical data were collected from test holes drilled at two cluster sites and at 13 additional sites. Both cluster sites have five cased test holes. A sixth test hole was drilled at one of the cluster sites but was destroyed. Each of the 10 cased test holes is perforated at a different 10-ft depth interval. Six of the 13 additional test holes were also cased. Lithology logs were constructed from descriptions of cuttings and cores recovered during drilling. Geophysical logs were made of the deepest hole at each cluster site. Initial water level measurements were made at most sites. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Health Care–Associated Infection Outbreak Investigations in Outpatient Settings, Los Angeles County, California, USA, 2000−2012

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Laura; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Terashita, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Health care services are increasingly delivered in outpatient settings. However, infection control oversight in outpatient settings to ensure patient safety has not improved and literature quantifying reported health care–associated infection outbreaks in outpatient settings is scarce. The objective of this analysis was to characterize investigations of suspected and confirmed outbreaks in outpatient settings in Los Angeles County, California, USA, reported during 2000–2012, by using internal logs; publications; records; and correspondence of outbreak investigations by characteristics of the setting, number, and type of infection control breaches found during investigations, outcomes of cases, and public health responses. Twenty-eight investigations met the inclusion criteria. Investigations occurred frequently, in diverse settings, and required substantial public health resources. Most outpatient settings investigated had >1 infection control breach. Lapses in infection control were suspected to be the outbreak source for 16 of the reviewed investigations. PMID:26196293

  6. Cone penetration tests and soil borings at the Mason Road site in Green Valley, Solano County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Michael J.; Noce, Thomas E.; Lienkaemper, James J.

    2011-01-01

    In support of a study to investigate the history of the Green Valley Fault, 13 cone penetration test soundings and 3 auger borings were made at the Mason Road site in Green Valley, Solano County, California. Three borings were made at or near two of the cone penetration test soundings. The soils are mostly clayey with a few sandy layers or lenses. Fine-grained soils range from low plasticity sandy lean clay to very plastic fat clay. Lack of stratigraphic correlation in the subsurface prevented us from determining whether any channels had been offset at this site. Because the soils are generally very clayey and few sand layers or lenses are loose, the liquefaction potential at the site is very low.

  7. Health assessment for Sharpe Army Depot, Lathrop, San Joaquin County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CA8210020832. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-14

    The Sharpe Army Depot (SHAD), consisting of 720 acres located in San Joaquin County, California, is on the National Priorities List. The site has served as a storage, receiving, packaging, and shipping facility since 1941. In the late 1940s the Depot also served as a maintenance facility for heavy equipment. Available data indicate that the primary contaminant sources are associated with past heavy equipment and aircraft-maintenance operations. Contaminants associated with SHAD include trichloroethene, arsenic, selenium, and bromacil (a herbicide). The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via ingestion, dermal contact, or inhalation of contaminants in ground water, subsurface soil, soil-gas, and food-chain entities.

  8. Public health assessment for Frontier Fertilizer, Davis, Yolo County, California, Region 9. Cerclis No. CAD071530380. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-27

    The Frontier Fertilizer site is located near the eastern boundary of the City of Davis, in Yolo County, California. Two separate pesticide sales companies operated at the site from 1971 and 1987. Disposal of waste water and unused agricultural chemicals by these companies into an unlined basin on the property from approximately 1972 until 1983 have caused soils and groundwater contamination. In the area beneath the unlined basin, the principal contaminants of concern include dibromochloropropane (DBCP), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and ethylene dibromide (EDB). Another contaminant of concern is carbon tetrahchloride, however, the source of contamination is unknown. Although much of the soil contamination was removed from the site in 1985, sampling since then indicates that substantial subsurface soil contamination still exists. An interim groundwater extraction and treatment system has been in operation at the site since January 1994.

  9. Remote sensing research for agricultural applications. [San Joaquin County, California and Snake River Plain and Twin Falls area, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator); Wall, S. L.; Beck, L. H.; Degloria, S. D.; Ritter, P. R.; Thomas, R. W.; Travlos, A. J.; Fakhoury, E.

    1984-01-01

    Materials and methods used to characterize selected soil properties and agricultural crops in San Joaquin County, California are described. Results show that: (1) the location and widths of TM bands are suitable for detecting differences in selected soil properties; (2) the number of TM spectral bands allows the quantification of soil spectral curve form and magnitude; and (3) the spatial and geometric quality of TM data allows for the discrimination and quantification of within field variability of soil properties. The design of the LANDSAT based multiple crop acreage estimation experiment for the Idaho Department of Water Resources is described including the use of U.C. Berkeley's Survey Modeling Planning Model. Progress made on Peditor software development on MIDAS, and cooperative computing using local and remote systems is reported as well as development of MIDAS microcomputer systems.

  10. 77 FR 55496 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Public Lands in Eastern Lassen County, California, and Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ..., (combined Lassen County Road 522), the Stage Road (Lassen County Road 504), Marr Road (Lassen County Road... Lassen County Road 526 (the Marr Road) to the junction with Nevada State Highway 447. The Ramhorn...

  11. The impact of Medicaid managed care on community clinics in Sacramento County, California.

    PubMed Central

    Korenbrot, C C; Miller, G; Greene, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of countywide Medicaid managed care on service use at community clinics. METHODS: Clinic use before and after introduction of Medicaid plans in one county was compared with that in a group of comparable counties without such plans. RESULTS: There were significant declines of 40% to 45% in the volumes of Medicaid clients, encounters, and revenues at clinics with the introduction of Medicaid plans. Declines of 23% in uninsured clients and encounters did not differ significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of Medicaid managed care with multiple commercial plans can have significant negative effects on nonprofit community clinics. PMID:10358686

  12. Survey for least bell's vireo in riparian habitat on Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1988-01-01

    The least bell's vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) was listed in 1986 as an endangered species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Because of the possibility of the species existing on Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), this survey was conducted to determine if they exist, and if so to prepare a distribution map of the species on the base. Major riparian areas were surveyed on foot for 17 days in April, May, and July 1987. No least bell's vireo were sighted; based on past studies, it is unlikely that there is a significant population on VAFB. There are, however, at least 13 other species of special concern that inhabit VAFB riparian woodlands. Most of these species have declined along the south coast of Santa Barbara County, and many have declined in much of the southern half of California. Riparian areas on VAFB are an important environmental resource for the southern half of California; many of these areas, however, show signs of degradation.

  13. 76 FR 26224 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Agency Region IX, 75 Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, CA 94105-3901. Instructions: All comments will be... copy at EPA Region IX, 75 Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, California. While all documents in the... not plan to open a second comment period, so anyone interested in commenting should do so at this...

  14. California County Data Book, 1999: How Our Youngest Children Are Faring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, Oakland, CA.

    This Kids Count Data Book examines trends in the well-being of California's children, focusing on factors influencing young children. This statistical portrait is based on trends in 19 indicators of child well-being in four areas: (1) family economics, including child poverty rate, children receiving TANF, children receiving WIC, fair market rent,

  15. Perinatal Alcohol and Drug Use: Access to Essential Services in 12 California Counties. CPS Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soman, Laurie A.; And Others

    A research project acquired and compiled information on the services (from state and federally funded programs in California) available for chemically dependent pregnant and parenting women and young drug-exposed children from birth to age 3. The research methods consisted of a literature review and a survey of 13 key state and federally funded…

  16. 75 FR 45082 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Preamble for the Implementation of Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990'', 57 FR 13498, April 16... Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... proposed a limited approval and a limited disapproval (60 FR 6049) but did not finalize the action....

  17. GIS-BASED RISK ASSESSMENT OF PESTICIDE DRIFT CASE STUDY: FRESNO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the potential risk of herbicide drift and accidentally damaging neighboring crops or surrounding native vegetation. This study is the first to use the California Pesticide Use Reporting database within a mapping framework (known as a Geographic Information S...

  18. West Nile virus cluster analysis and vertical transmission in Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes in Sacramento and Yolo Counties, California, 2011.

    PubMed

    Fechter-Leggett, Ethan; Nelms, Brittany M; Barker, Christopher M; Reisen, William K

    2012-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is now endemic in California, with annual transmission documented by the statewide surveillance system. Although much is known about the horizontal avian-mosquito transmission cycle, less is known about vertical transmission under field conditions, which may supplement virus amplification during summer and provide a mechanism to infect overwintering female mosquitoes during fall. The current study identified clusters of WNV-infected mosquitoes in Sacramento and Yolo Counties, CA, during late summer 2011 and tested field-captured ovipositing female mosquitoes and their progeny for WNV RNA to estimate the frequency of vertical transmission. Space-time clustering of WNV-positive Culex pipiens complex pools was detected in the northern Elk Grove area of Sacramento County between July 18 and September 18, 2011 (5.22 km radius; p<0.001 and RR=7.80). Vertical transmission by WNV-infected females to egg rafts was 50% and to larvae was 40%. The estimated minimal filial infection rate from WNV-positive, ovipositing females was 2.0 infected females/1,000. The potential contribution of vertical transmission to WNV maintenance and amplification are discussed. PMID:23181869

  19. Geohydrology and water chemistry in the Rialto-Colton Basin, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Kadhim, Dina

    1997-01-01

    The 40-square-mile Rialto-Colton ground- water basin is in western San Bernardino County, California, about 60 miles east of Los Angeles.This basin was chosen for storage of imported water because of the good quality of native ground water, the known capacity for additional ground-water storage in the basin, and the availability of imported water. Because the movement and mixing of imported water needed to be determined, the San Bernardino Valley Municipal Water District entered into a cooperative program with the U.S.Geological Survey in 1991 to study the geohydrology and water chemistry in the Rialto- Colton basin. Ground-water flow and chemistry were investigated using existing data, borehole- geophysical and lithologic logs from newly drilled test holes, measurement of water levels, and chemical analyses of water samples. The Rialto-Colton basin is bounded on the northwest and southeast by the San Gabriel Mountains and the Badlands, respectively. The San Jacinto Fault and Barrier E form the northeastern boundary, and the Rialto-Colton Fault forms the southwestern boundary. Except in the southeastern part of the basin, the San Jacinto and Rialto-Colton Faults act as groundwater barriers that impede ground- water flow into and out of the basin.Barrier E generally does not impede ground- water flow into the basin. The ground-water system consists primarily of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. The maximum thickness is greater than 1,000 feet. The ground- water system is divided into four water-bearing units: river-channel deposits, and upper, middle, and lower water-bearing units. Relatively impermeable consolidated deposits underlie the lower water- bearing unit and form the lower boundary of the ground- water system. Ground water moves from east to west in the river-channel deposits and upper water-bearing unit in the southeastern part of the basin, and from northwest to southeast in the middle and lower water-bearing units. Two major internal faults, Barrier J and an unnamed fault, affect ground-water movement. Ground water moves across Barrier J in the unfaulted part of the ground-water system. The unnamed fault is a partial barrier to ground-water movement in the middle water- bearing unit and an effective barrier in the lower water-bearing unit.Imported water flows laterally across the unnamed fault above the saturated zone. Major sources of recharge to the ground- water system are underflow; precipitation that collects in small streams that drain the San Gabriel Mountains and the Badlands or runs off the mountain front as sheet flow, and sub-surface inflow; imported water; seepage loss from the Santa Ana River and Warm Creek; infiltration of rainfall; and irrigation return flow. The main component of discharge is pumpage. Long-term water levels in production wells reflect precipitation cycles. During a 194777 dry period, water levels in three wells declined almost continuously?as much as 100 feet in one well.Water levels in a well north of Barrier J are not affected by stresses on the groundwater system south of the barrier, indicating that these two parts of the ground-water system are not well connected. Water levels in cluster wells east of the unnamed fault north and south of the Linden Ponds artificial-recharge site rose as much as 70 feet during 1992-95. The rise in water levels in wells near the recharge ponds was observed within 2 months after the beginning of recharge. Water levels in most wells west of the unnamed fault changed very little during 1992-95. Water-chemistry data indicate that chemical characteristics vary within the groundwater system, and that dissolvedsolids concentrations are generally higher in the river-channel deposits, upper water- bearing unit, and the consolidated deposits than in the middle and lower water-bearing units. The chemical characteristics in water from the middle water-bearing unit were similar for most wells sampled west of the unnamed fault. In water from well

  20. Effectiveness of Vegetated Buffer Strips in Reducing Dormant Season Orthophosphate Pesticide Loading to Surface Waters in Glenn County, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, K. D.; Brown, D. L.; Altier, L.; Oliver, M. N.

    2003-12-01

    Riparian buffer strips are used in preventing nonpoint source contamination of agricultural runoff. The design and effectiveness of buffers varies widely under differing environmental conditions. Over the past two years, a project was implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of certain Best Management Practices in reducing organophosphate (OP) pesticide transport from almond orchards to local surface waters in Glenn County, northern California. Diazinon is a commonly-used OP pesticide applied during the dormant season in almond and stone-fruit orchards throughout the California Central Valley. Dormant season diazinon application coincides with the months of greatest rainfall and surface runoff in California. Three filter strip treatments were established: one planted with native vegetation, one with weedy resident vegetation, and the third with a bare soil surface. As a demonstration and reconnaissance project, replication of the treatments in this study was lacking (one plot of each vegetation type and two bare ground plots). Diazinon was applied in test orchard cells in January 2003. Surface runoff, shallow groundwater in the root zone, and deeper groundwater were monitored for the transport of diazinon during the three subsequent storm events. Composite surface water samples and flow volumes were obtained for each storm event using automated surface water collectors. Runoff and infiltration results indicate greater infiltration occurred in the vegetated plots as would be expected. Infiltration on bare ground plots was approximately 25%-50% less than on the vegetated plots. However, differences between the two vegetated plot treatments were less than 5%. Diazinon concentrations were reduced as surface runoff crossed the buffer strips for all three treatments. Detectable levels of diazinon were still present in runoff following the third storm, seven weeks after the pesticide application. Further replicated studies are currently being prepared for the coming dormant season and this study will continue over the next three years.

  1. 75 FR 39365 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... minimis level. Id. at 42011. \\19\\ 75 FR 8008, 8010, and proposal TSD, pp. 5-7. Open areas: --Windblown... Order Reviews I. Summary of Proposed Action On February 23, 2010 (75 FR 8008), EPA proposed a limited... section E.6 for recreational use of public lands in Imperial County. \\6\\ 75 FR 8008, 8010-8011 and...

  2. 78 FR 21540 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not... Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... revisions to the Butte County Air Quality Management District (BCAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan...

  3. Sediment transport and deposition, Walnut and Pacheco Creeks, Contra Costa County, California, August 1965-April 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porterfield, George

    1972-01-01

    Average annual sediment discharge in Pacheco Creek basin, Contra Costa County, Calif., was larger during August 1965-April 1970 than the historical annual sediment discharge (1909-62) by a factor of about 1.3. This increas in sediment discharge is attributed primarily to an increased frequency of peak streamflows and to a larger average annual streamflow during the 1965-70 period.

  4. 77 FR 25109 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Implementation of Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990,'' 59 FR 41998 (August 16, 1994). 5. ``PM-10...: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD...-2008 monitoring period (74 FR 63309). This determination suspended some of the planning...

  5. 78 FR 23677 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... III. EPA Action IV. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews I. Proposed Action On January 7, 2013 (78 FR... not acting on Rule 802 at this time. \\2\\ See, e.g., 75 FR 8010 (February 23, 2010). Comment...

  6. 76 FR 7142 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ...: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... versions of these rules? We approved an earlier version of Rule 201 into the SIP on January 3, 2007 (72 FR... permit exemptions. Rule 103 was approved into the SIP on May 31, 1972 (37 FR 10842). The...

  7. 78 FR 896 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... IV. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews I. Proposed Action On April 27, 2012 (77 FR 25109), EPA... and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); does not impose an...

  8. 75 FR 56889 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ...: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control... earlier version of Rule 2 into the SIP on February 3, 2000 (65 FR 5262). C. What is the purpose of the... Federalism (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999) revokes and replaces Executive Orders 12612 (Federalism) and...

  9. 78 FR 922 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... for the Implementation of Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990,'' 57 FR 13498 (April 16... Preamble for the Implementation of Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990,'' 59 FR 41998 (August...: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District...

  10. Health assessment for Del Norte County Pesticide Storage Area, Cresent City, Del Norte County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD000626176. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-18

    The Del Norte County Pesticide Storage Area is located northwest of Cresent City, California. The site soils and ground water were contaminated with a myriad of pesticides and herbicides. The data also indicated an elevated concentration of chromium was present on-site and off-site; however, it does not appear to be related to the activities involving the use of the site as a pesticide storage area. The site was included on the National Priorities List in 1983. The storage area operated from 1970 until 1981, accepting containers from local agricultural and forestry-related industries. The intended use of the site was as an interim or emergency storage area for pesticide containers which had been triple rinsed and punctured prior to coming to the site. There were 9 private wells monitored within 0.50 miles of the site and the results indicated these wells were not contaminated by site contaminants. This site is of public health concern because of the potential for exposure to pesticides, herbicides, and chromium at concentrations of health concern.

  11. Wilhelm von Humboldt and the "Orient": On Edward W. Said's Remarks on Humboldt's Orientalist Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messling, Markus

    2008-01-01

    From an epistemological perspective, Wilhelm von Humboldt's studies on the Oriental and East Asian languages and writing systems (Egyptian hieroglyphs, Sanskrit, Chinese, Polynesian) raise the question of his position in the Orientalist discourse of his time. Said [Said, E.W., 1978. "Orientalism. Western Conceptions of the Orient, fourth ed."…

  12. Wilhelm von Humboldt and the "Orient": On Edward W. Said's Remarks on Humboldt's Orientalist Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messling, Markus

    2008-01-01

    From an epistemological perspective, Wilhelm von Humboldt's studies on the Oriental and East Asian languages and writing systems (Egyptian hieroglyphs, Sanskrit, Chinese, Polynesian) raise the question of his position in the Orientalist discourse of his time. Said [Said, E.W., 1978. "Orientalism. Western Conceptions of the Orient, fourth ed."

  13. Final record of decision/remedial action plan, nine sites, Sierra Army Depot, Lassen County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Arroyo, S.L.; Larson, A.M.; Parent, M.M.; Silvers, J.M.; Weaverling, P.H.

    1996-10-01

    This ROD/RAP presents the selected response actions for nine sites at SIAD. The response actions were selected by the US Department of the Army (Army) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA)(collectively referred to as CERCLA), the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), and Section 6.8 of the California Health and Safety Code. This ROD/RAP includes the factual and legal basis for selecting the response action at each of the nine sites listed above. The data used to support the selected response action are contained in the Administrative Record for each site. The State of California as represented by the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), and the Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB) concur with the selected response action at each site.

  14. Mineral resources of the Santa Rose Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Riverside County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Calzia, J.P.; Madden-McGuire, D.J.; Oliver, H.W.; Schreiner, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Santa Rosa Mountains Wilderness Study Area covers 68,051 acres in the Santa Rose Mountains, California. An appraisal of the mineral resources (known) and an assessment of mineral resource potential (undiscovered) of this wilderness study area were made at the request of the US Bureau of Land Management. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral surveys indicate that the study area has high potential for tungsten and marble resources, moderate potential for gold, and no potential for oil, natural gas, and geothermal resources.

  15. Chemical quality of ground water in San Joaquin and part of Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Stephen K.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical water-quality conditions were investigated in San Joaquin and part of Contra Costa Counties by canvassing available wells and sampling water from 324 representative wells. Chemical water types varied, with 73 percent of the wells sampled containing either calcium-magnesium bicarbonate, or calcium-sodium bicarbonate type water. Substantial areas contain ground water exceeding water-quality standards for boron, manganese, and nitrate. Trace elements, with the exception of boron and manganese, were present in negligible amounts. (USGS)

  16. Potential for Induced Seismicity Related to the Northern California CO2 Reduction Project Pilot Test, Solano County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, L.; Chiaramonte, L.; Daley, T.M.; Wilson, D.; Foxall, W.; Beyer, J.H.

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this technical report is to analyze the potential for induced seismicity due to a proposed small-scale CO{sub 2} injection project in the Montezuma Hills. We reviewed currently available public information, including 32 years of recorded seismic events, locations of mapped faults, and estimates of the stress state of the region. We also reviewed proprietary geological information acquired by Shell, including seismic reflection imaging in the area, and found that the data and interpretations used by Shell are appropriate and satisfactory for the purpose of this report. The closest known fault to the proposed injection site is the Kirby Hills Fault. It appears to be active, and microearthquakes as large as magnitude 3.7 have been associated with the fault near the site over the past 32 years. Most of these small events occurred 9-17 miles (15-28 km) below the surface, which is deep for this part of California. However, the geographic locations of the many events in the standard seismicity catalog for the area are subject to considerable uncertainty because of the lack of nearby seismic stations; so attributing the recorded earthquakes to motion along any specific fault is also uncertain. Nonetheless, the Kirby Hills Fault is the closest to the proposed injection site and is therefore our primary consideration for evaluating the potential seismic impacts, if any, from injection. Our planned installation of seismic monitoring stations near the site will greatly improve earthquake location accuracy. Shell seismic data also indicate two unnamed faults more than 3 miles east of the project site. These faults do not reach the surface as they are truncated by an unconformity at a depth of about 2,000 feet (610 m). The unconformity is identified as occurring during the Oligocene Epoch, 33.9-23.03 million years ago, which indicates that these faults are not currently active. Farther east are the Rio Vista Fault and Midland Fault at distances of about 6 miles (10 km) and 10 miles (16 km), respectively. These faults have been identified as active during the Quaternary (last 1.6 million years), but without evidence of displacement during the Holocene (the last 11,700 years). The stress state (both magnitude and direction) in the region is an important parameter in assessing earthquake potential. Although the available information regarding the stress state is limited in the area surrounding the injection well, the azimuth of the mean maximum horizontal stress is estimated at 41{sup o} and it is consistent with strike-slip faulting on the Kirby Hills Fault, unnamed fault segments to the south, and the Rio Vista Fault. However, there are large variations (uncertainty) in stress estimates, leading to low confidence in these conclusions regarding which fault segments are optimally oriented for potential slip induced by pressure changes. Uncertainty in the stress state can be substantially reduced by measurements planned when wells are drilled at the site. Injection of CO{sub 2} at about two miles depth will result in a reservoir fluid pressure increase, which is greatest at the well and decreases with distance from the well. After the injection stops, reservoir fluid pressures will decrease rapidly. Pressure changes have been predicted quantitatively by numerical simulation models of the injection. Based on these models, the pressure increase on the Kirby Hills Fault at its closest approach to the well due to the injection of 6,000 metric tons of CO{sub 2} would be a few pounds per square inch (psi), which is a tiny fraction of the natural pressure of approximately 5,000 psi at that depth. The likelihood of such a small pressure increase triggering a slip event is very small. It is even more unlikely that events would be induced at the significantly greater depths where most of the recorded earthquakes are concentrated, because it is unlikely that such a small pressure pulse would propagate downwards any appreciable distance. Therefore, in response to the specific question of the likelihood of the CO{sub 2} injection causing a magnitude 3.0 (or larger) event, this preliminary analysis suggests that no such induced or triggered events would be expected. However, it is possible that a fault, too small to be detected by the existing seismic data, yet sufficiently large to cause a magnitude 3 event, could exist in close proximity to the injection point where the pressure increase could cause slippage. However, the existence of such a fault would be detectable in the data planned for collection from the well prior to injection. We do note that natural earthquake events of up to 3.7 in magnitude have occurred in this area and would be expected to occur again regardless of the proposed CO{sub 2} injection.

  17. Effect of urban growth on streamflow regimen of Permanente Creek, Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, E.E.; Rantz, S.E.

    1964-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of the effect of urban growth on the streamflow regimen of Permanente Creek in Mountain View, Santa Clara County, Calif. The data available did not permit a complete study of all hydrologic aspects, but there is conclusive evidence that the volume of storm runoff produced by rainfall on the valley floor has increased substantially as a result of urbanization. In 1945, storm runoff from the 5.12-square mile project area was insufficient to balance channel losses, and the streamflow entering the project area in the Permanente Creek channel was greater than that leaving the area. If, however, total outflow from the project area is considered to be the sum of the streamflow leaving the area plus channel seepage in the area, the ratio of total outflow to inflow was 1:18. By 1958, storm runoff from the project area was far in excess of channel losses and the ratio of total outflow to inflow was 1:70. This increase in outflow is attributed to the fact that urban development during the period 1945 to 1958 increased the extent of impervious surface in the project area from about 4 percent to 19 percent. The effect of urban growth in other basins in Santa Clara County should be investigated before any attempt is made to project the quantitative results of this study to other areas in the county.

  18. Humboldt slide - A large shear-dominated retrogressive slope failure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, J.V.; Prior, D.B.; Field, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Humboldt Slide is a large, complex slide zone located on the northern California continental margin. Its three-dimensional architecture has been imaged by a combination of multibeam bathymetry, Huntec Deep-Tow seismic profiling, and sidescan sonar. The slide is interpreted to be Late Pleistocene to early Holocene in age and was caused by a combination of factors. The area of the slide is a local depocenter with high accumulation rates of organic-rich sediment; there has been local steepening of slopes by tectonic uplifts; and the entire area is one of high seismicity. Overall, the failure occurred by retrogressive, shear-dominated, minimum movement apparently as a sequence of events. Failure initially occurred by subsidence extension at the middle of the feature, followed by upslope retrogressive failure and downslope compression, and finally by translational sliding at the top of the slide. Degassing, as evidenced by abundant pockmarks, may have inhibited downslope translation. The slide may still be active, as suggested by offsets in Holocene hemipelagic sediment draped over some of the shear surfaces. Crown cracks occur above the present head of the failure and may represent the next generation of failure.

  19. Ectoparasites of Microtus californicus and Possible Emergence of an Exotic Ixodes Species Tick in California.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Amanda; Conroy, Chris; Foley, Patrick; Ott-Conn, Caitlin; Roy, Austin; Brown, Richard; Foley, Janet

    2015-09-01

    California voles (Microtus californicus Peale) harbor fleas and ticks, may be infected with vector-borne pathogens, and could themselves suffer from disease and serve as a source of infection for people and other animals. Here we summarize publications, museum archives, and recent records of ticks and fleas from California voles. There have been 18 flea species reported on California voles with geographic locations reported for 13. During recent statewide surveys, we found six flea species, with the highest species richness in Humboldt County. We found three of five previously reported tick species as well as a tick resembling the eastern North American tick Ixodes minor Neumann (which we here designate Ixodes "Mojave morphotype") on isolated Amargosa voles and Owens Valley voles (Microtus californicus vallicola Bailey) in Inyo County in 2012 and 2014. Additional incidental observations of this Mojave morphotype tick were on a western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis Baird) at the Mojave site and a montane vole (Microtus montanus Peale) in the Owens Valley, both in March, 2014. We cannot rule out that this tick species has been present in remote areas of California but gone unrecognized, but these data are consistent with recent introduction of this tick, possibly from migrating birds. Changes in the ectoparasite fauna suggest changing ecologies of vectors and vector-borne pathogens that could influence animals and people as well. PMID:26336217

  20. Preliminary maps of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility, nine-county San Francisco Bay region, California: a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Witter, Robert C.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Helley, Edward J.; Nicholson, Robert S.; Wright, Heather M.; Brown, Katherine H.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the nine-county San Francisco Bay region, together with a digital compendium of ground effects associated with past earthquakes in the region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database of fivedata layers (Quaternary deposits, quadrangle index, and three ground effects layers) and two text layers (a labels and leaders layer for Quaternary deposits and for ground effects), (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map, liquefaction interpretation, and the ground effects compendium, and (4) the databse description pamphlet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a modern and regionally consistent treatment of Quaternary surficial deposits that builds on the pioneering mapping of Helley and Lajoie (Helley and others, 1979) and such intervening work as Atwater (1982), Helley and others (1994), and Helley and Graymer (1997a and b). Like these earlier studies, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, and inferred depositional environments to define and distinguish the map units. In contrast to the twelve map units of Helley and Lajoie, however, this new map uses a complex stratigraphy of some forty units, which permits a more realistic portrayal of the Quaternary depositional system. The two colored maps provide a regional summary of the new mapping at a scale of 1:275,000, a scale that is sufficient to show the general distribution and relationships of the map units but cannot distinguish the more detailed elements that are present in the database. The report is the product of years of cooperative work by the USGS National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program, William Lettis and & Associates, Inc. (WLA) and, more recently, by the California Division of Mines and Geology as well. An earlier version was submitted to the Geological Survey by WLA as a final report for a NEHRP grant (Knudsen and others, 2000). The mapping has been carried out by WLA geologists under contract to the NEHRP Earthquake Program (Grants #14-08-0001-G2129, 1434-94-G-2499, 1434-HQ-97-GR-03121, and 99-HQ-GR-0095) and with other limited support from the County of Napa, and recently also by the California Division of Mines and Geology. The current map consists of this new mapping and revisions of previous USGS mapping.

  1. Arc-rift transition volcanism in the Volcanic Hills, Jacumba and Coyote Mountains, San Diego and Imperial Counties, california

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisch, Gregory Zane

    Neogene volcanism associated with the subduction of the Farallon-Pacific spreading center and the transition from a subduction zone to a rift zone has been studied extensively in Baja, California, Mexico. One of the main goals of these studies was to find a geochemical correlation with slab windows that may have formed during that complicated transition. While workers have been able to find distinct geochemical signatures in samples from Baja California, none have shown statistically significant correlation with samples from southern California that are thought to be related to the same arc-rift transition events. All of the basaltic samples from this study of southern California rocks have prominent Nb depletions typical of island-arc subduction-related volcanism, in contrast to the chemistry of Baja California volcanics that have trace element patterns typical of synrift related volcanism. The work done by previous investigators has been additionally complicated due to each investigator's choice of important ratios or patterns, which bears little, if any, correlation with work done by others working in the same area. For example, Martin-Barajas et al. (1995) use K/Rb ratios in their study of the Puertocitos Volcanic Province, while Castillo (2008) argues that Sr/Y vs. Y is a better indicator of petrogenetic processes. Little petrologic work has been done on Neogene volcanic rocks in the Imperial Valley and eastern San Diego County region of Southern California. This thesis combines new research with that of previous workers and attempts to establish a better understanding of the processes involved with the transition volcanism. Prior work documents significant differences in the geochemistry between some of these areas, especially those in close proximity to each other (e.g. the Volcanic Hills and Coyote Mountains). These differences were thought to be largely the result different magmatic sources. The potential of finding two differing magma types in close proximity could possibly reflect the opening of a slab window produced by the collision of the spreading center and continued subduction of the Farallon plate beneath the North American continent. However, evidence presented here suggests that crustal contamination and metasomatic processes in the Coyote Mountains are the primary source of the geochemical variations. Trace-element signatures are similar in samples from all of the study regions, with pronounced Nb depletion typical of island-arc volcanism. The distinguishing features of samples from the Coyote Mountains are the high amount of alteration and their high levels of K2O (4-5 wt%). This study will examine the possibility that these characteristics result from the interaction of the basalt with a highly alkaline body of water and/or sediments. Supporting data for such a model include pillow structures and spiracle formations within the basalt flows exposed in the Fossil Canyon and Butaca Canyon regions of the Coyote Mountains. Future studies of the olivine-basalt samples within the central region of the Coyote Mountains, away from the altered exposures, would provide a more complete understanding of their genesis. While the geochemical data were initially analyzed using standard geochemical techniques, the data are also analyzed statistically using a relatively new multivariate analysis technique known as Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA). Using the CoDA techniques, a clearer insight into the actual changes of the chemical composition can be seen. It also provides statistically valid correlation between the various regions in the study area. The CoDA processes, CLR BiPlots in particular, show which elements vary from one region to the next. It also differentiates elemental groups that correlate with typical rock-forming processes (e.g., fractional crystallization) from those that result from contamination from other sources or processes. Two examples illustrate the application: 1) In the Volcanic Hills, a pronounced negative correlation between MgO and K2O is clearly observed. However, in the Table Mountai

  2. AB 327 A Look At Renewable Energy in Los Angeles County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schevker, Marla

    AB 327 was passed in the California State Assembly in October of 2013. This affected not only the way that investor-owned utility companies but also consumers who are interested in or have already invested in solar or other electricity efficiency efforts. This project looks at the way that AB 327 affects consumers and power companies, who supported it and who is against it and what consumers are doing to make their homes more environmentally friendly. Please note this project is intended to be viewed on the web and can be seen at: http://marla.schevker.com/marla/USC_Thesis/index.html.

  3. Mineral resources of the Tunnison Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Lassen County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.; Friskin, J.G.; Plouff, D.; Goeldner, C.A. ); Munts, S.R. )

    1988-01-01

    The part of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area requested for mineral surveys encompasses 8,445 acres in northeastern California. The area contains Tertiary pyroclastic rocks, basaltic andesite flows, and basalt flows. There are no identified resources and it is unlikely that metallic minerals or oil and gas are present. Geothermal areas south and southwest of the study area suggest that the area may have potential for geothermal energy sources. Therefore, it has been assigned low potential for such resources; however, the mountainous geologic terrane differs from the sediment-filled valleys where the known resources are located.

  4. Mineral resources of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Lassen County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.; Frisken, J.G.; Plouff, D.; Goeldner, C.A.; Munts, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The part of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area requested for mineral surveys encompasses 8,445 acres in northeastern California. The area contains Tertiary pyroclastic rocks, basaltic andesite flows, and basalt flows. There are no identified resources and it is unlikely that metallic minerals or oil and gas are present. Geothermal areas south and southwest of the study area suggest that the area may have potential for geothermal energy resources. Therefore, it has been assigned low potential for such resources; however, the mountainous geologic terrane differs from the sediment-filled valleys where the known resources are located.

  5. Failure of coastal protection at Seacliff State Beach, Santa Cruz County, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, Gary B.; Fulton-Bennett, Kim W.

    1987-03-01

    Seacliff State Beach, along the shoreline of northern Monterey Bay, California, has a well-documented history of repeated destruction and reconstruction of seawalls and park facilities. Seven times in 60 years the timber seawall has been destroyed by winter storm waves and subsequently rebuilt. The deficiencies of the wall, including (a) inadequate attachment of timber lagging to pilings, (b) inability of pilings or lagging to withstand repeated impact of waves and logs, and (c) inadequate height and internal drainage system have never been adequately addressed and each successive wall has essentially been identical to the previously destroyed wall.

  6. Chemical quality of ground water in Sacramento and Western Placer counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical quality of groundwater was investigated in Sacramento and western Placer Counties during the summer of 1982. Chemical analyses of water samples from 209 wells indicate that the groundwater is suitable for domestic and most agricultural uses. Water from wells near the Sacramento River and a few wells near Lincoln had high concentrations of dissolved solids and some trace elements. Although chemical water types varied, 53% of the wells had a combination of calcium magnesium bicarbonate water. More than 90% of the wells sampled had water with a low to medium sodium-salinity hazard when used for irrigation. (Author 's abstract)

  7. Classification of ground-water recharge potential in three parts of Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, K.S.; Johnson, Michael J.

    1979-01-01

    Ground-water recharge potential was classified in the Santa Cruz coastal area, North-central area, and Soquel-Aptos area in Santa Cruz County, Calif., for three data elements that affect recharge; slope, soils, and geology. Separate numerical maps for each element were composited into a single numerical map using a classification system that ranked the numbers into areas of good , fair, and poor recharge potential. Most of the Santa Cruz coastal area and the Norht-central area have a poor recharge potential, and much of the Soquel-Aptos area has a good to fair recharge potential. (Kosco-USGS)

  8. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Valley Center Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  9. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Poomacha Fire Perimeter, Pala Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  10. Bathymetric and geophysical surveys of Englebright Lake, Yuba-Nevada Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childs, Jonathan R.; Snyder, Noah P.; Hampton, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    Harry L. Englebright Lake is a 9-mile-long (14-kilometer) reservoir located in the Sierra Nevada foothills of northern California on the Yuba River gorge known as The Narrows. The reservoir is impounded by Englebright Dam (Photo 1), a concrete arch structure spanning 348 meters (1,142 feet) across and 79 meters (260 feet) high. The dam was constructed in 1941 for the primary purpose of trapping sediment derived from anticipated hydraulic mining operations in the Yuba River watershed. Hydraulic mining in the Sierra Nevada was halted in 1884 but resumed on a limited basis until the 1930's under the regulation of the California Debris Commission. Although no hydraulic mining in the upper Yuba River watershed resumed after the construction of the dam, the historical mine sites continued to contribute sediment to the river. Today, Englebright Lake is used primarily for recreation and hydropower. In 2001 and 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted bathymetric, geophysical, and geological studies of the reservoir under the auspices of the Upper Yuba River Studies Program (UYRSP), a multi-disciplinary investigation into the feasibility of introducing anadromous fish species to the Yuba River system upstream of Englebright Dam. A primary purpose of these studies was to assess the quantity and nature of the sediment that has accumulated behind the dam over the past 60 years. This report presents the results of those surveys, including a new bathymetric map of the reservoir and estimates of the total accumulated sediment volume.

  11. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Poomacha Fire Perimeter, Boucher Hill Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  12. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Ranch Fire Perimeter, Fillmore Quadrangle, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  13. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Santiago Fire Perimeter, Lake Forest Quadrangle, Orange County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  14. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Dulzura Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  15. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Ammo Fire Perimeter, Margarita Peak Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  16. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Slide Fire Perimeter, Harrison Mountain Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  17. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Santiago Fire Perimeter, Tustin Quadrangle, Orange County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  18. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Poomacha Fire Perimeter, Palomar Observatory Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  19. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Potrero Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  20. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Cajon Fire Perimeter, Devore Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  1. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Rice Fire Perimeter, Bonsall Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  2. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Slide Fire Perimeter, Butler Peak Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  3. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Canyon Fire Perimeter, Malibu Beach Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  4. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Ramona Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  5. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, San Pasqual Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  6. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Santa Ysabel Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  7. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Barrett Lake Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  8. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Escondido Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  9. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Tecate Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  10. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Tule Springs Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  11. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Buckweed Fire Perimeter, Green Valley Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  12. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Buckweed Fire Perimeter, Agua Dulce Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  13. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Ranch Fire Perimeter, Piru Quadrangle, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  14. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Jamul Mountains Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  15. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Warners Ranch Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  16. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Slide Fire Perimeter, Keller Peak Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  17. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Otay Mountain Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  18. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Otay Mesa Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  19. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Santiago Fire Perimeter, Orange Quadrangle, Orange County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  20. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Witch Fire Perimeter, Poway Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  1. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Buckweed Fire Perimeter, Sleepy Valley Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  2. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Harris Fire Perimeter, Morena Reservoir Quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  3. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Buckweed Fire Perimeter, Mint Canyon Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  4. Internal architecture of the proto-Kern Canyon Fault at Engineer's Point, Lake Isabella Dam site, Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martindale, Z. S.; Andrews, G. D.; Brown, S. R.; Krugh, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    The core of the Cretaceous (?) proto-Kern Canyon Fault (KCF) is exposed continuously for 1.25 km along Engineer's Point at Lake Isabella, Kern County, California. The proto-KCF is notable for (1) its long and complex history within, and perhaps preceding the Sierra Nevada batholith, and (2) hosting the Quaternary Kern Canyon Fault, an active fault that threatens the integrity of the Lake Isabella auxiliary dam and surrounding communities. We are investigating the internal architecture of the proto-KCF to explore its control on the likely behavior of the modern KCF. The proto-KCF is developed in the Alta Sierra biotite-granodiorite pluton. A traverse across Engineer's Point, perpendicular to the proto-KCF trace, reveals gradational increases in fracture density, fracture length, bulk alteration, and decreases in fracture spacing and grain size toward the fault core. Mapping of the fault core reveals two prominent and laterally extensive zones: (1) continuous foliated blastomylonitic granodiorite with steeply-dipping, anastomosing shear bands and minor mylonite planes, and (2) foliated orange and green fault breccia with intergranular gouge, strong C/S fabric, and a central gouge plane. The fault breccia zone is intruded by a lensoidal, post-deformation dacite dike, probably ca. 105 - 102 Ma (Nadin & Saleeby, 2008) and is weakly overprinted by a set of cross-cutting spaced, short, brittle fractures, often coated in calcite, which we infer to be genetically related to the modern KCF. We present our structural and lithological data that will be supported by mineralogical and geochemical analyses. E. Nadin & J. Saleeby (2008) Disruption of regional primary structure of the Sierra Nevada batholith by the Kern Canyon fault system, California: Geological Society of America Special Paper 438, p. 429-454.

  5. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Santiago Fire, Orange County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Santiago Fire in Orange County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  6. Use of density equalizing map projections (DEMP) in the analysis of childhood cancer in four California counties

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W. Selvin, S.; Close, E.R.; Holmes, H.H.

    1995-04-01

    In studying geographic disease distributions, one normally compares rates of arbitrarily defined geographic subareas (e.g. census tracts), thereby sacrificing the geographic detail of the original data. The sparser the data, the larger the subareas must be in order to calculate stable rates. This dilemma is avoided with the technique of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP). Boundaries of geographic subregions are adjusted to equalize population density over the entire study area. Case locations plotted on the transformed map should have a uniform distribution if the underlying disease rates are constant. The density equalized map portrays both individual cases and rates, and can be understood by untrained observers. Simple statistical techniques can be used to test the uniformity of the transformed map. This report describes application of the DEMP technique to a sizeable `real-world` data set: 401 childhood cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 1988 in four California counties. In an earlier analysis of the same data, the California Department of Health Services (DHS) calculated rates for 101 communities and found no significant geographic variability. The DDS 1980--88 population estimates are no longer available, so in this analysis 1980 Census data were used; geographic units were 262 census tracts. A k`th nearest neighbor analysis, corrected for boundary effects and for within-tract variability, provides strong evidence for geographic nonuniformity in tract rates ({rho} < l0{sup {minus}4}). No such effect is observed for artificial cases generated under the assumption of constant rates. Pending reanalysis with 1980-88 population estimates, no epidemiologic conclusions can be drawn at this time.

  7. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Rice Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Rice Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  8. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Harris Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Harris Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  9. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Ammo Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Ammo Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  10. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Witch Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Witch Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  11. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Canyon Fire, Los Angeles County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Canyon Fire in Los Angeles County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  12. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Buckweed Fire, Los Angeles County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Buckweed Fire in Los Angeles County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  13. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Poomacha Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Poomacha Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  14. Faulting apparently related to the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake and possible co-seismic origin of surface cracks in Potrero Canyon, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.; Lee, W.H.K.; Rymer, M.J.; Ponti, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Apparent southward-dipping, reverse-fault zones are imaged to depths of about 1.5 km beneath Potrero Canyon, Los Angeles County, California. Based on their orientation and projection to the surface, we suggest that the imaged fault zones are extensions of the Oak Ridge fault. Geologic mapping by others and correlations with seismicity studies suggest that the Oak Ridge fault is the causative fault of the 17 January 1994 Northridge earthquake (Northridge fault). Our seismically imaged faults may be among several faults that collectively comprise the Northridge thrust fault system. Unusually strong shaking in Potrero Canyon during the Northridge earthquake may have resulted from focusing of seismic energy or co-seismic movement along existing, related shallow-depth faults. The strong shaking produced ground-surface cracks and sand blows distributed along the length of the canyon. Seismic reflection and refraction images show that shallow-depth faults may underlie some of the observed surface cracks. The relationship between observed surface cracks and imaged faults indicates that some of the surface cracks may have developed from nontectonic alluvial movement, but others may be fault related. Immediately beneath the surface cracks, P-wave velocities are unusually low (<400 m/sec), and there are velocity anomalies consistent with a seismic reflection image of shallow faulting to depths of at least 100 m. On the basis of velocity data, we suggest that unconsolidated soils (<800 m/sec) extend to depths of about 15 to 20 m beneath our datum (<25 m below ground surface). The underlying rocks range in velocity from about 1000 to 5000 m/sec in the upper 100 m. This study illustrates the utility of high-resolution seismic imaging in assessing local and regional seismic hazards.

  15. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Seacliff State Beach, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The coastal cliffs along much of the central California coast are actively retreating. Large storms and periodic earthquakes are responsible for most of the documented seacliff slope failures. Long-term average erosion rates calculated for this section of coast (Moore and others, 1999) do not provide the spatial or temporal data resolution necessary to identify the processes responsible for retreat of the seacliffs, where episodic retreat threatens homes and community infrastructure. Research suggests that more erosion occurs along the California coast over a short time scale, during periods of severe storms or seismic activity, than occurs during decades of normal weather or seismic quiescence (Griggs and Scholar, 1998; Griggs, 1994; Plant and Griggs, 1990; Griggs and Johnson, 1979 and 1983; Kuhn and Shepard, 1979). This is the second map in a series of maps documenting the processes of short-term seacliff retreat through the identification of slope failure styles, spatial variability of failures, and temporal variation in retreat amounts in an area that has been identified as an erosion hotspot (Moore and others, 1999; Griggs and Savoy, 1985). This map presents seacliff failure and retreat data from Seacliff State Beach, California, which is located seven kilometers east of Santa Cruz (fig. 1) along the northern Monterey Bay coast. The data presented in this map series provide high-resolution spatial and temporal information on the location, amount, and processes of seacliff retreat in Santa Cruz, California. These data show the response of the seacliffs to both large magnitude earthquakes and severe climatic events such as El Ni?os; this information may prove useful in predicting the future response of the cliffs to events of similar magnitude. The map data can also be incorporated into Global Information System (GIS) for use by researchers and community planners. Four sets of vertical aerial photographs (Oct. 18, 1989; Jan. 27, 1998; Feb. 9, 1998; and March 6, 1998) were orthorectified and digital terrain models (DTMs) were generated and edited for this study (see Hapke and Richmond, 2000, for description of techniques). The earliest set of photography is from 1989, taken immediately following the Loma Prieta earthquake. These photographs are used to document the response of the seacliffs to seismic shaking, as well as to establish a baseline cliff-edge position to measure the amount of retreat of the cliff edge over the following decade. The remaining three sets of photographs were collected using the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal Aerial Mapping System (CAMS) during the 1997-98 El Ni?o (see Hapke and Richmond, 1999; 2000). The CAMS photographs were taken before, during, and after severe storms and are used to examine seacliff response to these storms. In addition to the analyses of photogrammetrically processed data, field mapping identified joints, faults, and lithologic variations along this section of seacliff.

  16. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Depot Hill, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The coastal cliffs along much of the central California coast are actively retreating. Large storms and periodic earthquakes are responsible for most of the documented seacliff slope failures. Long-term average erosion rates calculated for this section of coast (Moore and others, 1999) do not provide the spatial or temporal data resolution necessary to identify the processes responsible for retreat of the seacliffs, where episodic retreat threatens homes and community infrastructure. Research suggests that more erosion occurs along the California coast over a short time scale, during periods of severe storms or seismic activity, than occurs during decades of normal weather or seismic quiescence (Griggs and Scholar, 1998; Griggs, 1994; Plant and Griggs, 1990; Griggs and Johnson, 1979 and 1983; Kuhn and Shepard, 1979). This is the first map in a series of maps documenting the processes of short-term seacliff retreat through the identification of slope failure styles, spatial variability of failures, and temporal variation in retreat amounts in an area that has been identified as an erosion hotspot (Moore and others, 1999; Griggs and Savoy, 1985). This map presents seacliff failure and retreat data from Depot Hill, California, which is located five kilometers east of Santa Cruz (fig.1) near the town of Capitola, along the northern Monterey Bay coast. The data presented in this map series provide high-resolution spatial and temporal information on the location, amount, and processes of seacliff retreat in Santa Cruz, California. These data show the response of the seacliffs to both large magnitude earthquakes and severe climatic events such as El NiOos; this information may prove useful in predicting the future response of the cliffs to events of similar magnitude. The map data can also be incorporated into Global Information System (GIS) for use by researchers and community planners. Four sets of vertical aerial photographs (Oct. 18, 1989; Jan. 27, 1998; Feb. 9, 1998; and March 6, 1998) were orthorectified and digital terrain models (DTMs) were generated and edited for this study (see Hapke and Richmond, 2000, for description of techniques). The earliest set of photography is from 1989, taken immediately following the Loma Prieta earthquake. These photographs are used to document the response of the seacliffs to seismic shaking, as well as to establish an initial cliff-edge position to measure the amount of retreat of the cliff edge over the following decade. The remaining three sets of photographs were collected using the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal Aerial Mapping System (CAMS) during the 1997-98 El NiOo (see Hapke and Richmond, 1999, 2000). The CAMS photographs were taken before, during, and after severe storms and are used to examine seacliff response to these storms. In addition to the analyses of photogrammetrically processed data, field mapping identified joints, faults, and lithologic variations along this section of seacliff.

  17. An analysis of stimulation treatments of the Randolph Sand in the Semitropic field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.D.; Chamberlain, C.R.

    1983-03-01

    The Semitropic field is located approximately ten miles west of Wasco in the San Joaquin Valley of California. The original productive zones in the field were the Mya and the Mulinia gas sands occuring at depths of 2,200' to 4,400'. In the last six years, the Randolph Oil Sand at 7,800' has been actively developed and is now the major productive interval. Recently, several of the Randolph wells have been stimulated with hydraulic fracturing treatments. A majority of these wells have shown productive increases of varying degrees depending upon field location, job volume and proppant size. This paper discusses the geologic production history of the Randolph Zone, completion techniques, reservoir characteristics and stimulation design and treatments.

  18. Geochemistry of Birch Creek, Inyo County, California a travertine depositing creek in an arid climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, I.

    1965-01-01

    A small stream in eastern California was studied in detail to determine the causes of travertine deposition from the stream. Although the ground water feeding the stream is slightly supersaturated to just saturated with calcite, the ground water is supersaturated with CO2 with respect to the overlying air. The water becomes increasingly supersaturated with calcite in a downstream direction as CO2 loss to the air and by photosynthesis exceeds the rate of precipitation of calcite. Water loss by evaporation was below detection and does not play an important role in calcite deposition in this case. The water loss is by seepage through the stream bed. Observations showed variations in HCO-3, pH, discharge, Ca+2, relative humidity, water and air temperatures, and dissolved CO2. Comparisons of observed and equilibrium states are given for five sampling stations along the stream. ?? 1965.

  19. Tick-borne Relapsing Fever and Borrelia hermsii, Los Angeles County, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Raffel, Sandra J.; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Webster, Larry S.; Marques, Adriana R.; Spano, Robyn; Rood, Michael; Burns, Joe; Hu, Renjie

    2009-01-01

    The primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America is Borrelia hermsii, a rodent-associated spirochete transmitted by the fast-feeding soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi. We describe a patient who had an illness consistent with relapsing fever after exposure in the mountains near Los Angeles, California, USA. The patients convalescent-phase serum was seropositive for B. hermsii but negative for several other vector-borne bacterial pathogens. Investigations at the exposure site showed the presence of O. hermsi ticks infected with B. hermsii and the presence of rodents that were seropositive for the spirochete. We determined that this tick-borne disease is endemic to the San Gabriel Mountains near the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area. PMID:19624916

  20. Electrical methods of detecting contaminated groundwater at the stringfellow waste disposal site, riverside county, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stierman, Donald J.

    1984-03-01

    At the Stringfellow Class I waste-disposal site near Riverside, California, the influence of variations in groundwater chemistry and saturation on electrical measurements made from the surface was tested Spontaneous potential, D C electrical sounding, dipole-dipole resistivity profiles, and mise-a-la-masse measurements were employed to investigate the sub-surface migration of the acidic fluids deposited in this site between 1956 and 1972 Mise-a-la-masse exploration conducted at the downstream edge of the site detected a major anomaly which, on excavation, proved to be the signature of a previously unsuspected leak from the surface disposal ponds on the site Downstream from the site, a dipole-dipole profile and electrical soundings correlate well with electrical conductivity of groundwater obtained from monitoring wells This study demonstrates that geophysical methods may be used to search for and map leaks from toxic chemical waste dumps

  1. Water resources of the Barona, Capitan Grande, and Sycuan Indian Reservations, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, W.R.; Blazs, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Barona and Capitan Grande Indian Reservations, California, have sufficient water to satisfy present (1976) domestic and stock needs; however, the Sycuan Indian Reservation is experiencing a shortage of water for domestic supply because of the decline of the water table beneath the reservation well field and a general decline of the water table surrounding the reservation. The water quality on the three reservations is generally good; however, the water is at or near land surface in several areas. This shallow water could be subject to contamination by animal waste, septic tanks, or farming operations. Historical hydrologic data were obtained from government agencies and private individuals, and all wells and springs on the reservations were visited. This report summarizes the data collected and the findings of the study. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Mammoth Lakes earthquakes, May 25-27, 1980, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    McJunkin, R.D.; Bedrossian, T.L.

    1980-09-01

    A summary of California Division of Mines and Geology activities in the Mammoth Lakes region during and following the earthquakes of May 25 to 27, 1980 is presented. The first earthquake occurred on May 25th a it had a magnitude of 6.0. During the next 16 minutes, four magnitude 4.1 to 5.0 shock and one 5.5 shock occurred. The seismic activity was the beginning of an earthquake sequence that produced 72 magnitude 4.0 to 4.9 events, six 5.0 to 5.5 events, and three events of magnitude 6.0 to 6.3 during the next 48 hours; thousands of magnitude less than or equal to 3.9 earthquakes were generated during the same time period. The regional geology of the earthquake area is discussed, including rock types, structural setting, and seismic history. Ground rupture in the area is also detailed. (JMT)

  3. Ground-water conditions and potential for artificial recharge in Lucerne Valley, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, Donald H.

    1979-01-01

    The water level in two areas of Lucerne Valley in California has declined more than 100 feet since 1917, including 60 feet from 1954 to 1976. These declines are the result of pumping for the irrigation of alfalfa. The lowering of water levels has caused many shallow domestic wells to go dry. Well yields in the valley generally are between 10 and 1,000 gallons per minute. About 240 ,000 acre-feet of ground water was withdrawn between 1950 and 1976. About 1,750,000 acre-feet remains in storage. Water of poor quality underlies the valley around Lucerne Lake. There was no definable movement of this water from 1954 to 1976, but the possibility exists for future movement toward centers of pumping. Lucerne Valley may be hydrologically suitable for artificial-recharge operations. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Mathematical model of the West Bolsa Ground-water Basin, San Benito County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faye, Robert E.

    1976-01-01

    Simulation of the West Bolsa ground-water basin hydrology in California had provided values of basin recharge and discharge and nodally distributed values of transmissivity and storage coefficient. Average net recharge from April 1945 to March 1969 was 6.2 cubic feet per second and occurred as subsurace recharge and infiltration of rain and minor streamflow. Discharge from the basin during the same period was 8.1 cubic feet per second and occurred as pumping and leakage from confined parts of the basin. Values of transmissivity used in the model generally range from 3,300 to 20,000 feet squared per day. Values of storage coefficient used in the model range from 0.0005 to 0.10. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Intensive early season adulticide applications decrease arbovirus transmission throughout the Coachella Valley, Riverside County, California.

    PubMed

    Lothrop, Hugh D; Lothrop, Branka B; Gomsi, Donald E; Reisen, William K

    2008-08-01

    In the Coachella Valley of California the seasonal onset of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected consistently at the shoreline of the Salton Sea near the community of North Shore. The timing and intensity of initial amplification in the Culex tarsalis Coquillett/wild bird cycle at this focus seemed closely linked to the subsequent dispersal of virus to the rest of the Coachella Valley and perhaps southern California. In 2004, an attempt was made to interrupt the amplification and dispersal of WNV using ground ultra-low volume (ULV) applications of Pyrenone 25-5. Although these localized treatments were started 1 month after the initial detection in April, surveillance indicated no dispersal from this focus at this time. However, these treatments appeared to have little effect, and WNV eventually was detected throughout the valley, with seven human cases reported in the urbanized upper valley near Palm Springs. In 2005, the initial detection of WNV at North Shore at the end of May was followed rapidly by dispersal throughout the valley precluding efforts at containment. Evaluation of ground and aerial applications at North Shore during May and June 2005, respectively, indicated variable kill of sentinel mosquitoes (overall mortality: ground, 43%; air, 34%) and limited control of the target Cx. tarsalis population. In 2006, aerial ULV applications with the same chemical were begun immediately following the first detection of virus in mid-April, resulting in an apparent reduction of Cx. tarsalis abundance and delay of WNV activity in the rural lower valley and a marked decline in transmission by Culex quinquefasciatus Say populations in the densely populated upper northwestern valley with no human cases reported. PMID:18494603

  6. Proposed Construction of the Madera County Educational Center in the State Center Community College District. A Report to the Governor and Legislature in Response to a Request from the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    In this report, the California Postsecondary Education Commission responds to a request by the Chancellor of the California Community Colleges to review the need for and location of a new educational center, the Madera County Educational Center, north of Fresno within the State Center Community College District. The report contains nine…

  7. Birth of a fault: Connecting the Kern County and Walker Pass, California, earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawden, G.W.; Michael, A.J.; Kellogg, L.H.

    1999-01-01

    A band of seismicity transects the southern Sierra Nevada range between the northeastern end of the site of the 1952 MW (moment magnitude) 7.3 Kern County earthquake and the site of the 1946 MW 6.1 Walker Pass earthquake. Relocated earthquakes in this band, which lacks a surface expression, better delineate the northeast-trending seismic lineament and resolve complex structure near the Walker Pass mainshock. Left-lateral earthquake focal planes are rotated counterclockwise from the strike of the seismic lineament, consistent with slip on shear fractures such as those observed in the early stages of fault development in laboratory experiments. We interpret this seismic lineament as a previously unrecognized, incipient, currently blind, strike-slip fault, a unique example of a newly forming structure.

  8. Plan that failed: a solar retirement housing development in Marin County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Symbolic landmines surround our everyday lives. This dissertation weaves through housing, political, and management landmines that often blow needed housing projects out of developers, architects, and builders minds. Some of the reasons homeseekers scream for affordable housing are examined in this study of Posada de Sol (PDS). Technically, financially, and environmentally PDS, a 280-unit model solar-energy retirement community, addresses national housing needs. It would turn an ugly six-acre rock quarry scar into an architectural delight and leave deer roaming and trees growing on the remaining 26 acres. Proposed for San Rafael, the largest city in affluent and environmentally concerned Marin County, the author describes PDS as tumbling instead into another pit whose walls were greased by high interest rates and guarded from above by local political ostriches and parochial neighbors. Personally involved in PDS, he uses these experiences and observations along with the testimony of state officials, builders, and developers to recount it's demise.

  9. Geohydrology and artificial-recharge potential of the Irvine area, Orange County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, John A.

    1973-01-01

    The Irvine area is in hydraulic continuity with the rest of the coastal plain in Orange County. Factors that distinguish the aquifer section of the Irvine area from that in other parts of the coastal plain are a low permeability, a high clay and silt content, and a thin alluvial sequence. Rapid facies change and the large percentage of silt and clay in the section locally result in confining conditions. The aquifer, most of which is included in the Fernando Formation, is as much as 1,300 feet thick beneath parts of the plain. The alluvium overlying the Fernando Formation averages about 200-250 feet in thickness and also contains significant amounts of silt and clay. Transmissivities range from 25,000 to 100,000 gallons per day per foot in the Irvine area, values which are much lower than those in the rest of the coastal plain in Orange County. Water levels have recovered as much as 60 feet from the low levels of the early 1950's. Water-level maps indicate that in the winter non-pumping season water tends to move toward upper Newport Bay and the rest of the coastal plain. During the summer pumping season a cone of depression develops, reversing the winter gradient. The average dissolved-solids content of the ground water is about 800 milligrams per liter. The most prevalent cations are sodium and calcium; the most prevalent anions are bicarbonate and sulfate. No long-term degradation of water quality has occurred, with the exception of a slight increase in dissolved solids. No areas in the Irvine area are suitable for the large-scale spreading of water for artificial recharge. Clay and silt predominate in the section beneath the Tustin plain, and in the foothill areas either bedrock is close to the surface or the alluvium is fine grained.

  10. Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in two Southern California counties.

    PubMed

    Ostro, B

    1995-08-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have reported associations between respiratory disease and particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) or fine particles. However, since daily fine particulate data from ambient monitors are seldom available, many studies have used estimates of PM2.5 based on visual range observed at local airports. This paper examines the impact of visibility-based estimates of PM2.5 on mortality from 1980 through 1986 in San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Multiple regression analysis was used to isolate the effects of estimated fine particles on mortality while controlling for covariates, including season, day of week, maximum temperature, and dew point. The results are dependent on season. During the summer quarters, there was a small but statistically significant association of estimated fine particles with both total mortality (RR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.00-1.05, evaluated at the mean PM2.5 value of 32.5 microg/m3) and respiratory-specific mortality. However, for the year taken as a whole, estimated fine particles were not associated with mortality (RR = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.99-1.02). The use of estimated fine particles introduces additional measurement error into the analysis. During the summer quarters, an effect of ozone on mortality was also detected, but this association could be due to confounding with temperature. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the fine particulate association found during the summer quarters was robust to alternative estimates deriving fine particles from visual range, alternative regression specifications, functional forms, and exposure averaging times. These findings are consistent with another recent study of mortality in Los Angeles County and add to the other findings of associations between particulate matter and various respiratory diseases outcomes. PMID:8674485

  11. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Springs Fire, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire can significantly alter the hydrologic response of a watershed to the extent that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. In this report, empirical models are used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Springs fire in Ventura County, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (60–80 percent) of debris flow for 9 of the 99 drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Predictions of debris-flow volume suggest that debris flows may entrain a significant volume of material, with 28 of the 99 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 10,000 cubic meters. These results of the relative combined hazard analysis suggest there is a moderate likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, wildlife, and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National Weather Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches, and Warnings, and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  12. Rapid large-scale deployment of tuberculosis testing in a high school - Riverside County, California, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Cameron; Cole, Barbara; Saruwatari, Kimberly; Leon, Ramon

    2015-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), can spread from person to person through the air, which can make contact investigations particularly complex in heavily populated settings such as schools. In November 2013, a student (the index patient) at a southern California high school with approximately 2,000 students and staff members was diagnosed with active pulmonary TB. Because of an unexpectedly high number of positive tuberculin skin test results in the initial contact investigation, testing was extended to the entire school population, which had to be completed before the end of the school term. A total of 1,806 persons were tested in 24 hours. The rapid testing of the entire population of a high school is unusual and led to widespread media attention and community concern, requiring close coordination among branches of the County of Riverside Department of Public Health, local governments, and the school district. The testing resulted in identification of two additional cases of TB; in addition, 72 persons underwent treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI). This incident demonstrates the importance of a coordinated emergency response in a large-scale deployment of rapid testing, including efficiently focused resources, organized testing operations, and effective media relations. PMID:26042648

  13. Case study of the Wendel-Amedee Exploration Drilling Project, Lassen County, California, User Coupled Confirmation Drilling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Zeisloft, J.; Sibbett, B.S.; Adams, M.C.

    1984-09-01

    The Wendel-Amedee KGRA is located in Honey Lake basin in Lassen County, California, on the boundary between the Modoc Plateau and the Basin and Range geologic provinces. A variety of geophysical surveys was performed over the project property. Geophysical data helped in establishing the regional structural framework, however, none of the geophysical data is sufficiently refined to be considered suitable for the purpose of siting an exploration drill hole. Drilling of reservoir confirmation well WEN-1 took place from August 1 to September 22, 1981. Pulse and long-term flow testing subjected the reservoir to a maximum flow of 680 gpm for 75 hours. At that rate, the well exhibited a productivity index of 21.6 gpm/psi; the reservoir transmissivity was 3.5 x 10/sup 6/ md-ft/cp. The maximum bottom-hole temperature recorded during testing was 251/sup 0/F. The conceptual model of the geothermal resource at Wendel Hot Springs calls on ground water, originating in the neighboring volcanic highlands, descending through jointed and otherwise permeable rocks into the granitic basement. Once in the basement, the fluid is heated as it continues its descent, and lateral movement as dictated by the hydrologic gradient. It then rises to the discharge point along transmissive faults. 45 refs., 28 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Analysis of impacts to groundwater and the vadose zone at an arid-region landfill in San Bernardino County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Finegan, J.M.; Campbell, A.M.; Keenan, R.J.

    1999-07-01

    Ten years of vadose zone gas and groundwater monitoring data for the Apple Valley Sanitary Landfill (AVSL), an arid-region municipal solid waste landfill in San Bernardino County, California, were examined to evaluate the nature, extent, and source of releases from this landfill. Landfill gas (LFG) was found to be the primary impact mechanism where groundwater degradation was demonstrated, and LFG contributions can be differentiated from other impact mechanisms. Because volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the main groundwater contaminant at the AVSL, they were the main focus of this investigation, although inorganic compounds are also of significant interest. Groundwater impacts by liquid releases from seepage waste impoundments were also confirmed at the AVSL, while indications of impact by landfill leachate were not strongly supported. Monitoring data at this and other arid-region landfills, where rainfall is generally less than 255 mm per year and groundwater is relatively deep, show a lack of impact to groundwater from landfill leachate. The methods used to distinguish impact mechanisms at the AVSL are readily applicable to other sites as well.

  15. Concentrations of mercury and other metals in black bass (Micropterus spp.) from Whiskeytown Lake, Shasta County, California, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Jason T.; Hothem, Roger L.; Bauer, Marissa L.; Brown, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the results of a reconnaissance study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to determine mercury (Hg) and other selected metal concentrations in Black bass (Micropterus spp.) from Whiskeytown Lake, Shasta County, California. Total mercury concentrations were determined by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CVAAS) in fillets and whole bodies of each sampled fish. Selected metals scans were performed on whole bodies (less the fillets) by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Mercury concentrations in fillet samples ranged from 0.06 to 0.52 micrograms per gram (μg/g) wet weight (ww). Total mercury (HgT) in the same fish whole-body samples ranged from 0.04 to 0.37 (μg/g, ww). Mercury concentrations in 17 percent of "legal catch size" (≥305 millimeters in length) were above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criterion for the protection of human health of 0.30 μg/g (ww). These data will serve as a baseline for future monitoring efforts within Whiskeytown Lake.

  16. Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Atlas Asbestos Mine, Fresno County, California (First remedial action), July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-19

    The Atlas Asbestos Mine site is in Fresno County, California, and is being remediated concurrently with the Coalinga Asbestos Mine site. The Record of Decision (ROD) does not address the mines, but rather a separate area in the city of Coalinga, where asbestos, from the Atlas-Coalinga mines, was deposited to await handling and shipment. The site consists of four distinct areas: the warehouse which was once a mining waste distribution center and which currently houses 1,600 cubic yards of mining waste; a storage yard which contains asbestos-contaminated stacked pipes; a shipping yard which was used as an asbestos distribution center by the Atlas Asbestos Company; and the U.S. Asbestos Company which currently stores piles of asbestos-contaminated mining waste. Subsequent sampling programs, conducted between 1983 and 1987, revealed that surface water and air also contained elevated levels of asbestos. As a result of these finding, EPA issued an Administrative Order to a major landowner, Southern Pacific Transportation Company (SPTC), requiring SPTC to conduct an additional remedial investigation and a feasibility study and to perform interim measures to stabilize the site. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and debris are metals including nickel, and other inorganics including asbestos and mining wastes. The selected remedial action for this site are included.

  18. Upper Clear Creek watershed aquatic chemistry and biota surveys, 2004-5, Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, Shasta County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulff, Marissa L.; May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service and Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, performed a comprehensive aquatic biota survey of the upper Clear Creek watershed, Shasta County, California, during 2004-5. Data collected in this study can provide resource managers with information regarding aquatic resources, watershed degradation, and regional biodiversity within Whiskeytown National Recreation Area. Surveys of water chemistry, bed-sediment chemistry, algae assemblages, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, aquatic vertebrate assemblages, in-stream habitat characteristics, and sediment heterogeneity were conducted at 17 stream sites during both 2004 and 2005, with an additional 4 sites surveyed in 2005. A total of 67 bed-sediment samples were analyzed for major and trace inorganic element concentrations. Forty-six water samples were analyzed for trace metals and nutrients. A total of 224 taxa of invertebrates were collected during these surveys. Eleven fish species, seven of which were native, and two species of larval amphibians, were collected. A total of 24 genera of soft algae and 159 taxa of diatoms were identified. To date, this survey represents the most comprehensive inventory of aquatic resources within Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, and this information can serve as a baseline for future monitoring efforts and to inform management decisions.

  19. Ox Mountain sanitary landfill: Apanolio Canyon expansion site, San Mateo County, California. Volume 2. Appendix. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    Further studies include: plants Observed in Apanolio Canyon; Animals Expected or Observed in Apanolio Canyon; Marbled Murrelet Survey; Review of Available Scientific Information on Six Candidate Insects; Update on Status of Candidate Insects; Apanolio Canyon Sensitive Plant Investigation; Fisheries Resources of Upper Apanolio, Benthic Invertebrate Survey of Apanolio, Corinda Los Trancos, and Pilarcitos Creeks, San Mateo County, California; Streamflows and Velocity of Flows at the Bongard diversion Dam in Apanolio Canyon; A Spring Survey to Determine the Presence or Absence of the San Francisco Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenis) in Two Tributaries of Pilarcitos Creek, Half Moon Bay, CA; Wildlife and Fisheries Mitigation Plan, Ox Mountain Sanitary Landfill, Apanolio Canyon Expansion Site; Correspondence Site Selection Criteria Information; Draft Contingency Remedial Action Plan; Leachate Collection and Removal System (LCRS) and Leachate/Contaminated Groundwater Treatment Systems; Apanolio Creek Streamflow Augmentation Plan; Apanolio Canyon Lower Aquifer Recharge Plan; Application for Exemptions - Technical Informations; Geotechnical Study and Specifications, Subgrade Barrier and Clay Liner System; Apanolio Canyon Boring Logs; Potentiometric Surface Maps, Apanolio Canyon; Geologic Cross Sections - Apanolio Canyon; Interim Report on Leachate Exposure Test Program, Apanolio Canyon Landfill Expansion.

  20. Health assessment for Crazy Horse Sanitary Landfill, Salinas, Monterey County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD980498455. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-18

    The Crazy Horse Sanitary Landfill was proposed for the National Priorities List by Update 7. The landfill is located in Salinas, Monterey County, California. The landfill is currently active and has been in operation since 1934. Currently, only nonhazardous materials are disposed of in the landfill, but during the 1970s, there was documented disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Groundwater contamination with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been detected in on-site and off-site wells. Off-site properties with contaminated wells were purchased by the city of Salinas in 1987. The city of Salinas is currently operating a groundwater extraction and aeration treatment system to mitigate the groundwater contamination. There is currently no known off-site use of contaminated groundwater for potable or nonpotable purposes. The reported ambient air concentrations of VOCs at the landfill do not pose a health concern. There is currently no evidence that off-site residents or on-site workers are being exposed to site-related contaminants at levels of health concern. Remedial activities and periodic monitoring of groundwater and soil gases should be continued to protect public health.

  1. Reservoir description is key to steamflood planning and implementation, Webster Reservoir, Midway-Sunset Field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.R.; Link, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Webster reservoir at Midway-Sunset field, Kern County, California, is an unconsolidated sand reservoir of Miocene age (''Stevens equivalent,'' Monterey Formation). The Webster was discovered in 1910 but, due to poor heavy oil (14/sup 0/ API) economics, development for primary production and subsequent enhanced recovery were sporadic. Currently, the reservoir produces by cyclic steam stimulation in approximately 35 wells. Cumulative oil production for the Webster since 1910 is about 13 million bbl. The Webster is subdivided into two reservoirs - the Webster Intermediate and Webster Main. The Webster Intermediate directly overlies the Webster Main in one area but it is separated by up to 300 ft of shale elsewhere. The combined thickness of both Webster reservoirs averages 250 ft and is located at a drilling depth of 1,100-1,800 ft. From evaluation of modern core data and sand distribution maps, the Webster sands are interpreted to have been deposited by turbidity currents that flowed from southwest to northeast in this area. Oil is trapped in the Webster reservoir where these turbidites were subsequently folded on a northwest-southeast-trending anticline. Detailed recorrelation on wireline logs, stratigraphic zonation, detailed reservoir description by zone, and sedimentary facies identification in modern cores has led to development of a geologic model for the Webster. This model indicates that the Webster Intermediate was deposited predominately by strongly channelized turbidity currents, resulting in channel-fill sands, and that the Webster Main was deposited by less restricted flows, resulting in more lobate deposits.

  2. Use of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP) in the analysis of childhood cancer in four California counties. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Close, E.R.; Holmes, H.H.; Selvin, S. |

    1995-10-01

    In studying geographic disease distributions, one normally compares rates among arbitrarily defined geographic subareas (e.g. census tracts), thereby sacrificing the geographic detail of the original data. The sparser the data, the larger the subareas must be in order to calculate stable rates. This dilemma is avoided with the technique of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP). Boundaries of geographic subregions are adjusted to equalize population density over the entire study area. Case locations plotted on the transformed map should have a uniform distribution if the underlying disease rates are constant. The present report describes the application of the DEMP technique to 401 childhood cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 1988 in four California counties, with the use of map files and population data for the 262 tracts of the 1980 Census. A k`th nearest neighbor analysis provides strong evidence for geographic non-uniformity in tract rates (p < 10{sup {minus}4}). No such effect is observed for artificial cases generated under the assumption of constant rates. Work is in progress to repeat the analysis with improved population estimates derived from both 1980 and 1990 Census data. Final epidemiologic conclusions will be reported when that analysis is complete.

  3. The effect of selenium on reproduction of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in Shasta County California

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    This study was to determine if nutritional inadequacy of selenium may be responsible for a declining reproductive rate of a migratory herd of black-tailed deer. Selenium is an essential trace mineral for mammalian herbivores. Deficiency affects primarily neonates resulting in increased mortality rates. Shasta County, California is indigenously low in selenium due to soil characteristics. Local livestock enterprises have experienced reproductive problems, which were responsive to selenium treatment. The low recruitment rate in the deer herd suggested a physiological link between low selenium status and reproductive problems, and an experimental trial was initiated. Free ranging adult females were supplemented with selenium rumen pellets and marked with radio transmitters. From 1985 to 1987, the selenium dose was doubled as compared to 1984. It was established that evaluation of selenium status by determining whole blood selenium levels adequately describes the major bioactive form of selenium, glutathione peroxidase. To evaluate the experimental trial, the pre-weaning survival rate of progeny of supplemented females was compared with the rate in the untreated herd.

  4. Application of advanced geophysical logging methods in the characterization of a fractured-sedimentary bedrock aquifer, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Lane, John W.; Singha, Kamini; Haeni, F. Peter

    2002-01-01

    An integrated suite of advanced geophysical logging methods was used to characterize the geology and hydrology of three boreholes completed in fractured-sedimentary bedrock in Ventura County, California. The geophysical methods included caliper, gamma, electromagnetic induction, borehole deviation, optical and acoustic televiewer, borehole radar, fluid resistivity, temperature, and electromagnetic flowmeter. The geophysical logging 1) provided insights useful for the overall geohydrologic characterization of the bedrock and 2) enhanced the value of information collected by other methods from the boreholes including core-sample analysis, multiple-level monitoring, and packer testing. The logged boreholes, which have open intervals of 100 to 200 feet, penetrate a sequence of interbedded sandstone and mudstone with bedding striking 220 to 250 degrees and dipping 15 to 40 degrees to the northwest. Fractures intersected by the boreholes include fractures parallel to bedding and fractures with variable strike that dip moderately to steeply. Two to three flow zones were detected in each borehole. The flow zones consist of bedding-parallel or steeply dipping fractures or a combination of bedding-parallel fractures and moderately to steeply dipping fractures. About 75 to more than 90 percent of the measured flow under pumped conditions was produced by only one of the flow zones in each borehole.

  5. Contaminants in sediment, food-chain biota, and bird eggs from the Newport Bay watershed, Orange County, California.

    PubMed

    Santolo, Gary M; Byron, Earl R; Ohlendorf, Harry M

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater-related discharges in the San Diego Creek/Newport Bay watershed in Orange County, California have the potential to adversely affect the surface waters within the watershed and would likely not comply with the established total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for the watershed. In 2004 and 2005, we studied the concentrations of contaminants of TMDL concern (particularly selenium [Se]) in birds that are at risk of exposure to contaminated food items because they feed and nest in the Newport Bay watershed. Most bioaccumulation is from elevated Se in groundwater downstream of a historic terminal swamp. Se bioaccumulation was observed in all biota tested, and DDE was found in fish and bird egg samples. Effects of contaminants on fish and birds are inconclusive due to the management disturbances in the watershed (e.g., flood control) and lack of bird nesting habitat. Although a significant relationship was observed between DDE concentrations and eggshell thinning in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) eggs, the shell thinning in avocet and other species examined was not enough to result in hatching failure. Further focused monitoring efforts will be needed to characterize the exposure and risk levels. PMID:26803663

  6. Movements and home range of San Joaquin kit foxes on the Naval Petroleum Reserves, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Zoellick, B.W.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.T.

    1987-09-01

    Movements and home range use of San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) were studied on and adjacent to the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR-1 and NPR-2), Kern County, California, between June 1984 and September 1985. Foxes were studied in an undeveloped area of Buena Vista Valley centered on the border between the Reserves, and in an area of intensive petroleum development in NPR-2 adjacent to the city of Taft. Distances moved nightly did not differ between sexes or between level of petroleum development. Nightly movements averaged 9.4 miles in length during the breeding season, and were significantly longer than the average nightly movements for the pup-rearing (6.4 miles) and pup-dispersal (6.5 miles) seasons. Convex polygon home ranges averaged 1144 acres in size and did not differ between sexes or level of petroleum development. Home ranges of paired males and females overlapped an average of 78%. Home ranges of nonpaired males and females, adjacent males, and adjacent females overlapped an average of 31 to 48%. Although kit foxes were not strongly territorial, home range overlap of paired males and females was significantly greater than that of either nonpaired males and females and males with adjacent home ranges. Home range overlap did not differ between foxes inhabiting developed and undeveloped areas. 42 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Coalinga Asbestos Mine, Fresno County, California (First remedial action), July 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-19

    The Coalinga Asbestos Mine site is in Fresno County, California, and is being remediated concurrently with the Atlas Asbestos Mine site. The Record of Decision (ROD) does not address the mines, but rather a separate area in the city of Coalinga, where asbestos, from the Atlas-Coalinga mines, was deposited to await handling and shipment. The site consists of four distinct areas: (1) the warehouse which was once a mining waste distribution center and which currently houses 1,600 cubic yards of mining waste; (2) a storage yard which contains asbestos-contaminated stacked pipes; (3) a shipping yard which was used as an asbestos distribution center by the Coalinga Asbestos Company; and (4) the U.S. Coalinga Company which currently stores piles of asbestos-contaminated mining waste. Subsequent sampling programs, conducted between 1983 and 1987, revealed that surface water and air also contained elevated levels of asbestos. As a result of these findings, EPA issued an Administrative Order to a major landowner, Southern Pacific Transportation Company (SPTC), requiring SPTC to conduct an additional remedial investigation and a feasibility study and to perform interim measures to stabilize the site. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and debris are metals including nickel, and other inorganics including asbestos and mining wastes. The selected remedial action for this site are included.

  8. Patterns of vitamin C intake from food and supplements: survey of an adult population in Alameda County, California.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, L R; Samuels, S; Breslow, L; Camacho, T

    1983-01-01

    Use of vitamin C in food and pills and its association with health habits and health status were investigated in a random sample of 3,119 adults in Alameda County, California. Vitamin C intakes of nearly 80 per cent of respondents met or exceeded Recommended Daily Dietary Allowances. Fourteen per cent or fewer appeared to have inadequate vitamin C intake. Vitamin C supplements were taken daily by 29 per cent, occasionally by 21 per cent. Most respondents obtained 100 mg or less of vitamin C daily; 2 per cent had more than 2000 mg. Proportionately, more women than men took vitamin C pills daily. Men aged 16 to 44 were the most likely to have neither vitamin C foods nor pills. Persons 45 years and older tended to take vitamin C pills daily, younger persons to take them occasionally. Respondents who did not eat breakfast or who smoked cigarettes had lower vitamin C intakes. People in poor health took more vitamin C than those in good health. Health status may have influenced vitamin C intake rather than vitamin C intake influencing health status. PMID:6859362

  9. Properties of basin-fill deposits, a 19712000 water budget, and surface-water-groundwater interactions in the upper Humboldt River basin, northeastern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plume, Russell W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2013-01-01

    This study was done in cooperation with Elko County, Nevada in response to concerns over growing demand for water within the county and increasing external demands that are occurring statewide. The upper Humboldt River basin encompasses 4,360 square miles in northeastern Nevada and includes the headwaters area of the Humboldt River. Nearly all of the mean annual flow of the Humboldt River originates in this area. Basin-fill deposits function as the principal aquifers in the upper Humboldt River basin. Over much of the basin lowlands, the upper 200 feet of basin fill consists of clay, silt, sand, and gravel deposited in a lake of middle to late Pliocene age. Fine-grained lacustrine sediments compose from 30 to more than 70 percent of the deposits. Mean values of transmissivity are less than 1,000 feet squared per day. Total inflow to the upper Humboldt River basin, about 3,330,000 acre-feet per year, is entirely from annual precipitation. Total outflow from the basin, about 3,330,000 acre-feet per year, occurs as evapotranspiration, streamflow, subsurface flow, and pumpage. The uncertainty of these values of inflow and outflow is estimated to be 25 percent. Baseflow of the Humboldt River is minimal upstream of the Elko Hills and in downstream reaches almost all baseflow comes from tributary inflow of the North Fork and South Fork Humboldt Rivers. However, the baseflow of these two tributaries comes from groundwater discharge to their respective channels in canyons incised in volcanic rocks along the North Fork and in carbonate rocks along the South Fork. Water levels in the shallow water-table aquifer along the Humboldt River flood plain fluctuate with changes in stage of the river. During high rising river stage in spring and early summer, streamflow enters the aquifer as bank storage. As stage begins to decline in early to mid-summer groundwater in bank storage begins discharging back into the river channel and this continues through late summer. In years of below average flow some reaches of the river are dry in late summer. Flood plain deposits are more permeable than adjacent and underlying fine-grained sediments of the Pliocene lake and the two aquifers are poorly connected.

  10. Surficial geology and stratigraphy of Pleistocene Lake Manix, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, Marith C.; Redwine, Joanna R.; Wan, Elmira; McGeehin, John P.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2014-01-01

    Pluvial Lake Manix and its surrounding drainage basin, in the central Mojave Desert of California, has been a focus of paleoclimate, surficial processes, and neotectonic studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since about 2004. The USGS initiated studies of Lake Manix deposits to improve understanding of the paleoclimatic record and the shifts in atmospheric circulation that controlled precipitation in the Mojave Desert. Until approximately 25,000 years ago, Lake Manix was the terminus of the Mojave River, which drains northeasterly from the San Bernardino Mountains; the river currently terminates in the Soda Lake and Silver Lake playas. Pleistocene Lake Manix occupied several subbasins at its maximum extent. This map focuses on the extensive exposures created by incision of the Mojave River and its tributaries into the interbedded lacustrine and alluvial deposits within the central (Cady) and northeastern (Afton) subbasins of Lake Manix, and extends from the head of Afton Canyon to Manix Wash. The map illuminates the geomorphic development and depositional history of the lake and alluvial fans within the active tectonic setting of the eastern California shear zone, especially interactions with the left-lateral Manix fault. Lake Manix left an extraordinarily detailed but complex record of numerous transgressive-regressive sequences separated by desiccation and deposition of fan, eolian, and fluvial deposits, and punctuated by tectonic movements and a catastrophic flood that reconfigured the lake basin. Through careful observation of the intercalated lacustrine and fan sequences and by determining the precise elevations of unit contacts, this record was decoded to understand the response of the lake and river system to the interplay of climatic, geomorphic, and tectonic forces. These deposits are exposed in steep badland topography. Mapping was carried out mostly at scales of 1:12,000, although the map is presented at 1:24,000 scale, and employs custom unit nomenclature, with multiple subdivided lacustrine and alluvial fan units. In addition, many important units are very thin and cannot be mapped separately, or are covered by thin eolian sand, so these are commonly portrayed as stacks of units or combined units. These details are more accurately portrayed in the measured sections that accompany the map. Altitudes of many contacts were obtained using differentially corrected Global Positioning System (GPS) or, in some cases, lidar (light detection and ranging) data.

  11. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Seabright Beach, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction The coastal cliffs along much of the central California coast are actively retreating. Large storms and periodic earthquakes are responsible for most of the documented sea cliff slope failures. Long-term average erosion rates calculated for this section of coast do not provide the spatial or temporal data resolution necessary to identify the processes responsible for retreat of the sea cliffs where episodic retreat threatens homes and community infrastructure. Research suggests that more erosion occurs along the California coast over a short time scale, during periods of severe storms or seismic activity, than occurs during decades of normal weather or seismic quiescence. This is the third map in a series of maps prepared to document the processes of short-term sea cliff retreat through the identification of slope failure styles, spatial variability of failures, and temporal variation in retreat amounts in an area that has been identified as an erosion hotspot. This map presents sea cliff failure and retreat data from the Seabright Beach section, California, which is located on the east side of Santa Cruz along the northern Monterey Bay coast. The data presented in this map series provide high-resolution spatial and temporal information on the location, amount, and processes of sea cliff retreat in Santa Cruz, California. These data show the response of the sea cliffs to both large magnitude earthquakes and severe climatic events such as El Ni?os; this information may prove useful in predicting the future response of the cliffs to events of similar magnitude. The map data can also be incorporated into Global Information System (GIS) for use by researchers and community planners. During this study we developed a method for investigating short-term processes of sea cliff evolution using rectified photographic stereo models. This method allows us to document the linear extent of cliff failures, the spatial and temporal relationship between failures, and the type or style of slope failure. Seabright Beach extends 0.9 km from San Lorenzo Point on the west to the Santa Cruz Yacht Harbor on the east. The cliffs at Seabright Beach are completely protected from wave attack by a wide beach. The protective beach is a relatively recent feature that formed after the emplacement of the Santa Cruz Yacht Harbor jetty in 1963-1964. Prior to the completion of the jetty, the cliffs at Seabright Beach were subject to daily wave attack. The data in this study are post-jetty construction; therefore, the sea cliff failures and cliff retreat are the result of nonmarine processes (rainfall, groundwater and seismic shaking). The 8 to 15 m high cliffs at Seabright Beach are composed of the Miocene to Pliocene Purisima Formation, which is overlain by unconsolidated Pleistocene terrace deposits. The relative thickness of these units varies along the length of the cliff. At the west end of Seabright Beach, including San Lorenzo Point, nearly the entire cliff section is composed of Purisima Formation and is capped by less than 2 m of terrace deposits. In this exposure, the Purisima Formation is a moderately weathered, moderately indurated massive sandstone. The height of the cliffs and the thickness of the Purisima Formation decrease to the east. In the cliffs immediately adjacent to the harbor, the entire exposure is composed of terrace deposits. Toe-slope debris and wind-blown sand form a nearly continuous fan along the cliff base that obscure the lower portion of the cliff. This study documents the impacts of earthquakes and large storms to the sea cliffs in the Seabright Beach section. The first event is the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, a M7.1 earthquake that caused widespread damage to the area stretching from Santa Cruz to the San Francisco Bay. The epicenter of the earthquake was located in the Santa Cruz Mountains, approximately 9 km inland from the coast. Extensive block and debris falls, induced by the seismic shaking, occ

  12. Honey Lake hybrid geothermal wood residue power plant, Lassen County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The feasibility of a proposed 50 MW (gross) electric power project located near Wendel, California about 25 miles east of Susanville was studied. The project would be the first commercial power plant to combine the use of geothermal energy and wood fuel for power production. Wood fuel consisting primarily of various forms of forest management residues would be processed and partially dehydrated with geothermal energy prior to combustion. Geothermal energy would also be used for boiler feedwater heating and combustion air preheating. The study defines the range of site-specific benefits and economics of using wood fuel and moderate temperature geothermal energy, both of which are abundant and often located in proximity at many locations in the western United States. The study results document conclusively that overall project economics can be very favorable and that in addition to providing an important source of electric power, many benefits to forest land managers, local communities, project developers and the state of the environment can be derived from the combined use of moderate temperature geothermal energy and wood fuel.

  13. Geologic map of the Lead Mountain 15 quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Keith A.; Jagiello, Keith J.; Fitzgibbon, Todd T.; John, Barbara E.

    2013-01-01

    The Lead Mountain 15 quadrangle in the Mojave Desert contains a record of Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary magmatism. Small amounts of Mesoproterozoic(?) augen gneiss and Paleozoic and Mesozoic(?) metasedimentary rocks are preserved in small patches; they are intruded by voluminous Jurassic plutons of quartz diorite to granite composition and by Late Cretaceous granite of the Cadiz Valley batholith. Jurassic intrusive rocks include part of the Bullion Mountain Intrusive Suite and also younger dikes inferred to be part of the Jurassic Independence dike swarm. A contact-metamorphosed aureole 2 km wide in the Jurassic plutonic rocks fringes the Cadiz Valley batholith. Early Miocene dacitic magmatism produced a dense swarm of dikes in the eastern Bullion Mountains and the volcanic-intrusive remnant of a volcano at Lead Mountain. Tilting of the dike swarm from inferred vertical orientations may have resulted from Miocene tectonic extension. Conglomerate of Pliocene and (or) Miocene age is also tilted. Younger volcanism is recorded by Pliocene basalt of the Deadman Lake volcanic field, basalt of Lead Mountain (approximately 0.36 Ma), and the even younger basalt of Amboy. Quaternary sedimentation built alluvial fans and filled playas in the map area. Faulting in the dextral eastern California shear zone produced several northwest-striking faults in the quadrangle, some of them active into the Pleistocene and some that may have many kilometers of right-lateral offset.

  14. Final Report: Natural State Models of The Geysers Geothermal System, Sonoma County, California

    SciTech Connect

    T. H. Brikowski; D. L. Norton; D. D. Blackwell

    2001-12-31

    Final project report of natural state modeling effort for The Geysers geothermal field, California. Initial models examined the liquid-dominated state of the system, based on geologic constraints and calibrated to match observed whole rock delta-O18 isotope alteration. These models demonstrated that the early system was of generally low permeability (around 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}), with good hydraulic connectivity at depth (along the intrusive contact) and an intact caprock. Later effort in the project was directed at development of a two-phase, supercritical flow simulation package (EOS1sc) to accompany the Tough2 flow simulator. Geysers models made using this package show that ''simmering'', or the transient migration of vapor bubbles through the hydrothermal system, is the dominant transition state as the system progresses to vapor-dominated. Such a system is highly variable in space and time, making the rock record more difficult to interpret, since pressure-temperature indicators likely reflect only local, short duration conditions.

  15. Hydrologic data, 1974-77, Stovepipe Wells Hotel area, Death Valley National Monument, Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, Charles Edwin; Downing, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Ground-water levels in most wells did not change significantly from 1974 to 1977 in the Stovepipe Wells Hotel area, California. The average water-level decline was less than 0.10 foot between August 1974 and August 1977 in 10 observation wells. Water-level contours show a depression centered on the two pumping wells, but this depression existed before the National Park Service started pumping its well. The chemical quality of the ground water is poor. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water samples ranged from 2,730 to 6,490 milligrams per liter. Analyses of water samples from two wells showed large changes in some constituents from 1976 to 1977. Streamflow in Salt Creek has been monitored since February 1974. Base flow is seasonal, being 0.10 to 0.20 cubic foot per second during the summer and as much as three times that amount during the winter. Two chemical analyses of water from Salt Creek, representing summer and winter flow conditions, show large differences for many constituents. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Geohydrology and mathematical simulation of the Pajaro Valley aquifer system, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.J.; Londquist, C.J.; Laudon, Julie; Mitten, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater development has resulted in lowered water levels and seawater intrusion in the Pajaro Valley, California. An investigation was undertaken to describe the geohydrology of the groundwater flow system and to evaluate the response of the system to pumping stresses by using a mathematical model. The aquifer system consists of three aquifers. The lower aquifer is in fluvial sequences of Quaternary Aromas Sand below interbedded clay layers. The middle aquifer is in upper fluvial and lower eolian sequence of Aromas Sand, and in overlying basal gravels in terrace deposits and alluvium. Weathered soil zones in the Aromas Sand, and clay layers in the terrace deposits and alluvium overlie the middle aquifer. The upper aquifer is actually many discontinuous water bearing zones in the Aromas Sand, terrace deposits, alluvium, and dune sand. The three aquifers are represented in the mathematical model by three model layers separated by two confining layers. Model-generated water budgets for the 11-year simulation period show that storage decreased by 23,000 acre-ft, mostly during the 1976-77 drought. The calibrated model can simulate, with acceptable accuracy, both semiannual and long-term trends of potentiometric heads in parts of the lower and middle layers. (USGS)

  17. Deep Springs fault, Inyo County, California: An example of the use of relative-dating techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, W.A.

    1989-11-01

    This article summarizes faulting in the Deep Springs Valley area, which was studied as part of a systematic evaluation of potentially active faults throughout California by the Division of Mines and Geology. Evaluation of surface fault-rupture hazard is authorized by the Alquist-Priolo Special Studies Zones Act of 1972. This act requires the State Geologist to delineate regulatory zones for faults that are well defined and show that displacement occurred during the last 11,000 years. Fault evaluations for the Division of Mines and Geology Fault Evaluation and Zoning Project are conducted at a detailed reconnaissance level. Evaluations are mainly based on aerial photographic interpretation in which ephemeral fault-produced landforms are identified and mapped. Young alluvial deposits and geomorphic surfaces are identified as either offset or not offset by faults. Field mapping is conducted to verify fault-related geomorphic features and to estimate ages of faulted and unfaulted deposits. The section on scarp degradation and relative dating techniques provides a brief survey of methods used in studies of the Basin and Range province. In these investigations geomorphic evidence is applied to determine the recency of faulting.

  18. A debris avalanche at Forest Falls, San Bernardino County, California, July 11, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Hauser, Rachel M.

    2001-01-01

    The community of Forest Falls, California, is frequently subject to relatively slow moving debris flows. Some 11 debris flow events that were destructive to property have been recorded between 1955 and 1998. On July 11 and 13, 1999, debris flows again occurred, produced by high-intensity, short-duration monsoon rains. Unlike previous debris flow events, the July 11 rainfall generated a high-velocity debris avalanche in Snow Creek, one of the several creeks crossing the composite, debris flow dominated, alluvial fan on which Forest Falls is located. This debris avalanche overshot the bank of the active debris flow channel of Snow Creek, destroying property in the near vicinity and taking a life. The minimum velocity of this avalanche is calculated to have been in the range of 40 to 55 miles per hour. Impact from high-velocity boulders removed trees where the avalanche overshot the channel bank. Further down the fan, the rapidly moving debris fragmented the outer parts of the upslope side of large pine trees and embedded rock fragments into the tree trunks. Unlike the characteristic deposits formed by debris flows, the avalanche spread out down-slope and left no deposit suggestive of a debris avalanche. This summer monsoon-generated debris avalanche is apparently the first recorded for Forest Falls. The best indications of past debris avalanches may be the degree of permanent scars produced by extensive abrasion and splintering of the outer parts of pine trees that were in the path of an avalanche.

  19. Comments on potential geologic and seismic hazards affecting Mare Island, Solano County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Wentworth, C.M.; Bakun, W.H.; Boatwright, J.; Brocher, T.E.; Çelebi, M.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Fletcher, J.P.B.; Geist, E.L.; Graymer, R.W.; Kayen, R.E.; Keefer, D.K.; Oppenheimer, D.H.; Savage, W.U.; Schwartz, D.P.; Simpson, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    This report was prepared in response to a written request from the City of Vallejo, California, to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). By letter of October 4, 2002, the City requested that the USGS "provide advice to the City’s LNG Health and Safety Committee on its review of a potential liquid natural gas project" on the southern portion of Mare Island. The City specifically requested that the USGS advise the committee on potential hazards including fault rupture, earthquake ground motion, soil failure during earthquakes, tsunami and seiche, and landslides. The City requested that the USGS: (1) comment on these hazards, (2) describe its degree of confidence in its opinions, and (3) describe the scope of additional studies that will be needed if the City enters into an agreement with project sponsors. Advice was also requested on the selection of the safe shutdown and operating basis earthquakes as specified in the NFPA 59A standard (NFPA, 2001). This review of published reports and other publicly available information indicates that all of the hazards on which the USGS was asked to comment should be considered for the proposed project on the southern portion of Mare Island. Available information differs greatly for each of these potential hazards, and adequate understanding for design will require detailed site-specific investigations.

  20. Preliminary report on part of the Oat Hill quicksilver mine, Mayacmas district, Napa County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fix, Philip Forsyth

    1955-01-01

    Oat Hill quicksilver mine, located in the Mayacmas district of northern California, and credited with having produced more than 160,000 flasks of quicksilver, was sampled cooperatively by the Buray of Mines and Geological Survey during 1944. 28 diamond drill holes totaling 8,120 feet were drilled by the Bureau of Mines in four of the six principal veins to sample virgin low-grade reserves and stope fill, and reserves in the other two veins were estimated from existing underground workings and by inferences from drill holes in nearby veins. The writer estimates a total of 10,220 flasks of quicksilver in indicated and inferred reserves totaling 320,000 tons. Indicated reserves minable under 1943 conditions are estimated at 1,960 flasks of quicksilver in 75,000 tons averaging 3.0 lbs Hg per ton. Inferred reserves minable under 1943 conditions are estimated at 4,640 flasks of quicksilver in 109,920 tons averaging about 3.2 lbs Hg per ton. Inferred reserves believed minable only under economic conditions much more favorable than even those of 1943 are estimated at 2,620 flasks of quicksilver in 135,080 tons averaging a little less than 1.5 lbs Hg per ton. About two-thirds of the indicated reserves are accessible in underground workings. All other reserves are estimated approximately without access underground. Several areas not sampled may possibly contain reserves.

  1. Artificial recharge in the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, J.W.; Moreland, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    This is a study of the feasibility of recharging, in the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area, imported water from northern California by way of the State Water Project beginning in 1972. The feasibility of recharging 30,000 acre-feet of water a year in the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area will depend on the effectiveness of fault K as a barrier to ground-water movement near the land surface. The results of test drilling and an infiltration test indicate that the subsurface material at the spreading grounds is permeable enough to allow recharged water to percolate to the water table. The data indicate that fault K extends into the Waterman Canyon-East Twin Creek area and may impede the lateral movement of recharged water. Fault K has no known surface expression and therefore probably does not affect the highly permeable younger alluvium. If that is so, fault K will be less effective as a barrier to ground-water movement as the recharge mound rises. Monitoring of the observation wells near the spreading grounds as the planned recharge operation proceeds should provide data about the hydrologic effects of fault K near the land surface.

  2. A water-quality monitoring network for Vallecitos Valley, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    A water-quality monitoring network is proposed to detect the presence of and trace the movement of radioisotopes in the hydrologic system in the vicinity of the Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Alameda County, Calif. The source of the radioisotopes is treated industrial wastewater from the Vallecitos Nuclear Center that is discharged into an unnamed tributary of Vallecitos Creek. The effluent infiltrates the alluvium along the stream course, percolates downward to the water table, and mixes with the native ground water in the subsurface. The average daily discharge of effluent to the hydrologic system in 1978 was about 100,000 gallons. In Vallecitos Valley, the Livermore Gravel and the overlying alluvium constitute the groundwater reservoir. There is no subsurface inflow from adjacent groundwater basins. Groundwater flow in the Vallecitos subbasin is toward the southwest. The proposed network consists of four surface-water sampling sites and six wells to sample the groundwater system. Samples collected monthly at each site and analyzed for tritium and for alpha, beta, and gamma radiation would provide adequate data for monitoring. (USGS)

  3. Indicators assessment for habitat conservation plan of Yolo County, California, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, K.S.; Wilcox, B.; Leidy, R.; Yarris, K.

    1998-11-01

    Whereas habitat conservation plans (HCPs) have been intended to provide comprehensive environmental mitigation for multiple species, they often narrow in focus to one species and either one mitigation site or unspecified sites. The authors developed an indicators framework from which to rate land units for their ecological integrity, collateral values (nonbiological qualities that can improve conservation), and restoration and conservation opportunities. The ratings of land units were guided by the tenets of conservation biology and principles of landscape and ecosystem ecology, and they were made using existing physical and floral information managed on a GIS. As an example of how the indicators approach can be used for HCPs, the 29 legally rare species targeted by the Yolo County HCP were each associated with vegetation complexes and agricultural crops, the maps of which were used for rating some of the landscape indices. The ratings were mapped so that mitigation can be directed to the places on the landscape where the legally rare species should benefit most from conservation practices. The most highly rated land units for conservation opportunity occurred along streams and sloughs, especially where they emerged from the foothills and entered the Central Valley and where the two largest creeks intersected the Sacramento River flood basin.

  4. Chromium geochemistry of serpentinous sediment in the Willow core, Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oze, Christopher J.; LaForce, Matthew J.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Hanson, Randall T.; Bird, Dennis K.; Coleman, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of Cr geochemistry in serpentinous sediment completed for a multiple-aquifer ground-water monitoring well (Willow core of Santa Clara County, CA) determined sediment at depths >225 meters contains Cr concentrations ranging from 195 to 1155 mg/kg. Serpentinous sediment from this site is a potential source of non-anthropogenic Cr contamination. Chromium-bearing minerals such as Cr-spinel appear to be the main source of Cr in the sediment; however, Cr-bearing silicates and clay minerals are additional Cr sources. Aqueous Cr concentrations in the sediment are <4.6 mg/L; however, the valence of Cr was not identified in the solutions or in the sediment. Although there is no indication of Cr(VI) contamination derived from the serpentinous sediment, elevated Cr concentrations in the sediment, the observed ‘dissolution’ textures of the Cr-bearing minerals, the estimated redox environment, and water chemistry indicate the formation of Cr(VI) is potentially favorable.

  5. Scenic drive landslide of January-March 1998, La Honda, San Mateo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, Angela S.; Rymer, Michael J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Wilson, Ray C.; Wells, Ray E.

    1998-01-01

    The small rural town of La Honda, Calif., is an unincorporated region of San Mateo County situated in the Santa Cruz Mountains in the western part of the San Francisco peninsula. Much of the town is underlain by a previously recognized ancient landslide complex. The ancient slide complex covers about 1.0 to 1.25 km2, parts of which have been historically active. This report describes a recent landslide involving part of Scenic Drive, La Honda, that became active in January 1998. This report does not describe other currently active landslides in La Honda, such as the January 1998 slide on lower Recreation Drive, or the history of sliding in the area. This report concerns the principal morphological features we observed and mapped between 11 February and 21 March 1998 on an enlargement of a 1:7500-scale air photo acquired 6 March 1998 and prior to that on a town property-line map, and by laser survey carried out between 26 February and 8 March. The principal objective of this report is to make available the detailed photographic and topographic base maps and associated description of surface morphological features.

  6. Hydrologic and Geologic Reconnaissance of Pinto Basin, Joshua Tree National Monument, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunkel, Fred

    1963-01-01

    Pinto basin, in the north-central part of Riverside County, Calif., is a typical desert valley formed by downfaulting along several major fault zones. The valley is filled with alluvium, and ground water in the alluvium discharges as subsurface outflow through an alluvium-filled gap at the east end of the valley. Occasionally surface water from cloudburst floods also discharges in a wash through the gap at the east end of the valley. A northeastward extension of the major fault along the south side of the valley acts as a barrier to the discharge of ground water from the valley. The average ground-water gradient is less than 1 foot per mile across the main part of the valley above this barrier, but the water level drops abruptly across the fault. The ground-water storage capacity of the uppermost 100 feet of saturated alluvium beneath the central valley area is estimated to be about 230,000 acre-feet. All this water in storage occurs at depths greater than 95 feet below the land surface and cannot be reached by plants or animals. During 1959 virtually all the water pumped in the area was withdrawn from storage. However, the quantity of water pumped is small in relation to the total quantity in storage. Except for a small decline in head, no evidence indicates that the pumping will greatly impair the yield for many years or cause the water to deteriorate in quality.

  7. Nature and chlorine reactivity of organic constituents from reclaimed water in groundwater, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Rostad, C.E.; Barber, L.B.; Schroeder, R.A.; Anders, R.; Davisson, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The nature and chlorine reactivity of organic constituents in reclaimed water (tertiary-treated municipal wastewater) before, during, and after recharge into groundwater at the Montebello Forebay in Los Angeles County, CA, was the focus of this study. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in reclaimed water from this site is primarily a mixture of aromatic sulfonates from anionic surfactant degradation, N-acetyl amino sugars and proteins from bacterial activity, and natural fulvic acid, whereas DOM from native groundwaters in the aquifer to which reclaimed water was recharged consists of natural fulvic acids. The hydrophilic neutral N-acetyl amino sugars that constitute 40% of the DOM in reclaimed water are removed during the first 3 m of vertical infiltration in the recharge basin. Groundwater age dating with 3H and 3He isotopes, and determinations of organic and inorganic C isotopes, enabled clear differentiation of recent recharged water from older native groundwater. Phenol structures in natural fulvic acids in DOM isolated from groundwater produced significant trihalomethanes (THM) and total organic halogen (TOX) yields upon chlorination, and these structures also were responsible for the enhanced SUVA and specific fluorescence characteristics relative to DOM in reclaimed water. Aromatic sulfonates and fulvic acids in reclaimed water DOM produced minimal THM and TOX yields.

  8. Geologic Map of the southern Inyo Mountains and vicinity, Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Swanson, Brian J.; Stevens, Calvin H.; Dunne, George C.; Priest, Susan S.

    2009-01-01

    The Inyo Mountains are located in east-central California between Owens Valley on the west and Saline Valley on the east. This map encompasses the southernmost part of the Inyo Mountains and vicinity, which is centered on the high plateau of Conglomerate Mesa and extends from Owens Valley on the west to the Santa Rosa Hills, Lee Flat, and the Nelson Range on the east. The area includes parts of the Cerro Gordo Peak, Nelson Range, Keeler, and Santa Rosa Flat 7.5' quadrangles. Sedimentary and volcanic rocks, unconformities, and structural features exposed in the southern Inyo Mountains region provide information critical for reconstructing the complex Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the southwestern United States. Ordovician to Cretaceous rocks in the map area record a long geologic history during which the continental margin of the western United States gradually changed from a passive tectonic setting in the early and middle Paleozoic to an active tectonic setting in the Jurassic and Cretaceous. A major highlight of the map area is the unusually complete record of late Paleozoic to earliest Mesozoic (Pennsylvanian to Triassic) deformation and sedimentation that marked the transition between the passive and active margin settings. The area also provides an excellent record of Jurassic to Cretaceous deformation and igneous activity that characterized the middle to late Mesozoic active margin. This map provides a detailed depiction of all the Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks and structural features known in the area. The area also contains important exposures of upper Cenozoic rocks related to the evolution of the Basin and Range province, although detailed mapping of these rocks was beyond the scope of this study.

  9. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of the Soquel-Aptos are, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akers, J.P.; Hickey, J.J.

    1967-01-01

    This report summarizes existing knowledge on the geohydrology of the Soquel-Aptos area, near, and including the eastern part, of Santa Cruz, California, and outlines work necessary for making a complete appraisal of the water resources of the area. The area is underlain mostly by marine and continental sedimentary deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age. A small section in the northeastern part of the area on the eastern side of the San Andreas fault is underlain by sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of Cretaceous or older age. Quartz diorite, probably of Cretaceous age, underlies a considerable part of the area, but crops out only in small exposures along canyon bottom south of the Zayante fault. The Soquel-Aptos area consists of two main structural blocks?one, downthrown on the northeast side of the Zayante fault; the other, upthrown on the southwest side of the fault. The main water-bearing formations in the southwestern structural block are the Santa Margarita and Purisima Formations. The Purisima, the most widespread of these units in this area, contains water under water-table and artesian conditions and furnishes water to most wells. The water-bearing character of the rocks in the northern structural block is unknown. Presently available geohydrologic data are too limited for detailed evaluation of the ground-water potential in the Soquel-Aptos area. Work needed for a detailed evaluation includes: (1) Geophysical exploration and test drilling at selected locations, (2) pumping tests of selected existing wells and possibly of specially drilled test wells, (3) study and reconnaissance measurements of spring and streamflow, (4) chemical analysis of water samples from selected wells, and (5) establishment of a program for monitoring water quality and water levels in key wells.

  10. GLORIA Alpine Plant Monitoring in the White Mountains, Inyo County, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayko, A.; Powell, F. L.; Smiley, J. T.; Pritchett, D.; Dennis, A.; Millar, C. I.; Murrell, K. E.

    2004-12-01

    The GLORIA project (Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments: www.gloria.ac.at) is a worldwide effort coordinated by the University of Vienna Institute of Ecology and Conservation Biology, to monitor climate effects on alpine peaks around the world. In the summer of 2004 the University of California, White Mountain Research Station teamed up with the U.S. Forest Service to initiate GLORIA monitoring sites on 4 summits in the White Mountains. The lower three summits consist of granitic rock, and range from 3240m to 3975m in elevation, while the upper summit is on metavolcanic rock on the shoulder of White Mountain Peak at 4285m. For each summit we followed the rigorous GLORIA sampling design and recorded baseline data on plant species composition, cover, and frequency. Permanent monitoring plots were set up, and dataloggers installed to measure soil temperature. In addition, we are discussing ways to augment the standard GLORIA sampling protocol by setting up a White Mountain "GLORIA master site." This would involve (1) remeasurement of the GLORIA summits using alternative sampling procedures, for example random quadrat sampling, to facilitate cross-comparison with other monitoring efforts by agency and university scientists, (2) a parallel summit transect on a chemically contrasting bedrock lithology, formally known as the Reed Dolomite, which produces magnesium-rich carbonate soils, and is the principle host rock to the ancient Bristlecone forest, .and (3) expanding sampling to include animal taxa. We also plan to complete a detailed geomorphic and geologic description of each site to include in the monitoring database. project/default.htm

  11. Residential proximity to traffic and adverse birth outcomes in Los Angeles county, California, 1994-1996.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Michelle; Ritz, Beate

    2003-01-01

    We reported previously that increases in ambient air pollution in the Los Angeles basin increased the risk of low weight and premature birth. However, ambient concentrations measured at monitoring stations may not take into account differential exposure to pollutants found in elevated concentrations near heavy-traffic roadways. Therefore, we used an epidemiologic case-control study design to examine whether residential proximity to heavy-traffic roadways influenced the occurrence of low birth weight (LBW) and/or preterm birth in Los Angeles County between 1994 and 1996. We mapped subject home locations at birth and estimated exposure to traffic-related air pollution using a distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD) measure. This measure takes into account residential proximity to and level of traffic on roadways surrounding homes. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and risk ratios (RRs) for being LBW and/or preterm per quintile of DWTD. The clearest exposure-response pattern was observed for preterm birth, with an RR of 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.15] for infants in the highest DWTD quintile. Although higher risks were observed for LBW infants, exposure-response relations were less consistent. Examining the influence of season, we found elevated risks primarily for women whose third trimester fell during fall/winter months (OR(term LBW) = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.16-1.67; OR(preterm and LBW) = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.03-1.48; RR(all preterm) = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.26), and exposure-response relations were stronger for all outcomes. This result is consistent with elevated pollution in proximity to sources during more stagnant air conditions present in winter months. Our previous research and these latest results suggest exposure to traffic-related pollutants may be important. PMID:12573907

  12. Controlled Landfill Project in Yolo County, California for Environmental Benefits of Waste Stabilization and Minimization of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, R.; Augenstein, D.; Kieffer, J.; Cohen, K.

    2003-12-01

    The Department of Public Works of Yolo County, California, USA has been testing an advanced approach to landfill bioreactors, controlled (or "enhanced") landfilling, at its Yolo County Central Landfill site near Davis, CA, since 1994. Overall objectives have been the management of waste landfilling for: (1) rapid completion of total gas generation; (2) maximum, high-efficiency gas capture; (3) waste volume reduction; and (4) maximum greenhouse gas and carbon sequestration benefits. Methane generation is controlled and enhanced through carefully managed moisture additions, and by taking advantage of landfill temperature elevation. The generated landfill methane, an important greenhouse gas, is recovered with high efficiency through extraction from a porous recovery layer beneath a surface geomembrane cover. Instrumentation included a total of 56 moisture and 15 temperature sensors in the two cells, gas flow monitoring by positive displacement gas meters, and accurate quantification of liquid inputs and outputs. Gas composition, waste volume reduction, base hydrostatic head, and a range of environmental compliance parameters has been monitored since 1995. Partitioning gas tracer tests using the injection of two gases at dilute concentrations in the landfill have also been initiated to compute the fraction of pore space occupied by water between the points of tracer injection and tracer measurement. There has been rapid waste volume reduction in the enhanced cell that corresponds to the solids' reduction to gas. Monitoring is planned for the next several years, until stabilization parameters are determined complete. Encouraging performance is indicated by: (1) sensor data; (2) gas generation results; (3) data from landfill cores; and (4) decomposition-related indicators including rapid volume reduction. When data are synthesized, project results have attractive implications for new approaches to landfill management. Over seven-years, methane recoveries have averaged over fivefold the "typical" values for comparable landfill waste. In terms of "greenhouse benefit," fractional VOC and methane energy recovery are estimated to exceed 90%, with corresponding methane and VOC emission reductions. Analyses done for the greenhouse gas mitigation program of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory indicate favorable economics justified on landfill life extension, as well as environmental benefits. The "controlled landfill" project findings suggest potential for low-cost mitigation of waste greenhouse methane emissions, maximum landfill carbon sequestration, and maximization of beneficial energy capture from landfills. Details and results obtained since 1994 will be presented.

  13. Environmental assessment of water, sediment, and biota collected from the Bear Creek watershed, Colusa County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Goldstein, Daniel; May, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    The Cache Creek watershed lies within California's North Coast Range, an area with abundant geologic sources of mercury (Hg) and a long history of Hg contamination (Rytuba, 2000). Bear Creek, Cache Creek, and the North Fork of Cache Creek are the major streams of the Cache Creek watershed, encompassing 2978 km2. The Cache Creek watershed contains soils naturally enriched in Hg as well as natural springs (both hot and cold) with varying levels of aqueous Hg (Domagalski and others, 2004, Suchanek and others, 2004, Holloway and others 2009). All three tributaries are known to be significant sources of anthropogenically derived Hg from historic mines, both Hg and gold (Au), and associated ore storage/processing sites and facilities (Slotton and others, 1995, 2004; CVRWQCB, 2003; Schwarzbach and others, 2001; Gassel and others, 2005; Suchanek and others., 2004, 2008a, 2009). Historically, two of the primary sources of mercury contamination in the upper part of Bear Creek have been the Rathburn and Petray Hg Mines. The Rathburn Hg mine was discovered and initially mined in the early 1890s. The Rathburn and the more recently developed Petray open pit mines are localized along fault zones in serpentinite that has been altered and cut by quartz and chalcedony veins. Cold saline-carbonate springs are located perepheral to the Hg deposits and effluent from the springs locally has high concentrations of Hg (Slowey and Rytuba, 2008). Several ephemeral tributaries to Bear Creek drain the mine area which is located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in sediment, water, and biota to establish baseline information prior to remediation of the Rathburn and Petray mines. Samples sites were established in Bear Creek upstream and downstream from the mine area. This report is made in response to the USBLM request, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the possible removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from Bear Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of water, sediment, and biota in Bear Creek, above input from the mine area and downstream from the Rathburn-Petray mine area to the confluence with Cache Creek. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in Bear Creek and its uptake by biota and provide baseline information for comparison to conditions after mine remediation is completed.

  14. Arsenic speciation in pyrite and secondary weathering phases, Mother Lode gold district, Tuolumne County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, K.S.; Tingle, Tracy N.; O'Day, Peggy A.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Bird, Dennis K.

    2004-10-27

    Arsenian pyrite, formed during Cretaceous gold mineralization, is the primary source of As along the Melones fault zone in the southern Mother Lode Gold District of California. Mine tailings and associated weathering products from partially submerged inactive gold mines at Don Pedro Reservoir, on the Tuolumne River, contain approx. 20-1300 ppm As. The highest concentrations are in weathering crusts from the Clio mine and nearby outcrops which contain goethite or jarosite. As is concentrated up to 2150 ppm in the fine-grained (<63 mu-m) fraction of these Fe-rich weathering products. Individual pyrite grains in albite-chlorite schists of the Clio mine tailings contain an average of 1.2 wt. percent As. Pyrite grains are coarsely zoned, with local As concentrations ranging from approx. 0 to 5 wt. percent. Electron microprobe, transmission electron microscope, and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) analyses indicate that As substitutes for S in pyrite and is not p resent as inclusions of arsenopyrite or other As-bearing phases. Comparison with simulated EXAFS spectra demonstrates that As atoms are locally clustered in the pyrite lattice and that the unit cell of arsenian pyrite is expanded by approx. 2.6 percent relative to pure pyrite. During weathering, clustered substitution of As into pyrite may be responsible for accelerating oxidation, hydrolysis, and dissolution of arsenian pyrite relative to pure pyrite in weathered tailings. Arsenic K-edge EXAFS analysis of the fine-grained Fe-rich weathering products are consistent with corner-sharing between As(V) tetrahedra and Fe(III)-octahedra. Determinations of nearest-neighbor distances and atomic identities, generated from least-squares fitting algorithms to spectral data, indicate that arsenate tetrahedra are sorbed on goethite mineral surfaces but substitute for SO4 in jarosite. Erosional transport of As-bearing goethite and jarosite to Don Pedro Reservoir increases the potential for As mobility and bioavailability by desorption or dissolution. Both the substrate minerals and dissolved As species are expected to respond to seasonal changes in lake chemistry caused by thermal stratification and turnover within the monomictic Don Pedro Reservoir. Arsenic is predicted to be most bioavailable and toxic in the reservoir's summer hypolimnion.

  15. Arsenic speciation in pyrite and secondary weathering phases, Mother Lode gold district, Tuolumne County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, K.S.; Tingle, Tracy N.; O'Day, Peggy A.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Bird, Dennis K.

    2004-10-27

    Arsenian pyrite, formed during Cretaceous gold mineralization, is the primary source of As along the Melones fault zone in the southern Mother Lode Gold District of California. Mine tailings and associated weathering products from partially submerged inactive gold mines at Don Pedro Reservoir, on the Tuolumne River, contain approx. 20-1300 ppm As. The highest concentrations are in weathering crusts from the Clio mine and nearby outcrops which contain goethite or jarosite. As is concentrated up to 2150 ppm in the fine-grained (<63 mu-m) fraction of these Fe-rich weathering products. Individual pyrite grains in albite-chlorite schists of the Clio mine tailings contain an average of 1.2 wt. percent As. Pyrite grains are coarsely zoned, with local As concentrations ranging from approx. 0 to 5 wt. percent. Electron microprobe, transmission electron microscope, and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) analyses indicate that As substitutes for S in pyrite and is not present as inclusions of arsenopyrite or other As-bearing phases. Comparison with simulated EXAFS spectra demonstrates that As atoms are locally clustered in the pyrite lattice and that the unit cell of arsenian pyrite is expanded by approx. 2.6 percent relative to pure pyrite. During weathering, clustered substitution of As into pyrite may be responsible for accelerating oxidation, hydrolysis, and dissolution of arsenian pyrite relative to pure pyrite in weathered tailings. Arsenic K-edge EXAFS analysis of the fine-grained Fe-rich weathering products are consistent with corner-sharing between As(V) tetrahedra and Fe(III)-octahedra. Determinations of nearest-neighbor distances and atomic identities, generated from least-squares fitting algorithms to spectral data, indicate that arsenate tetrahedra are sorbed on goethite mineral surfaces but substitute for SO4 in jarosite. Erosional transport of As-bearing goethite and jarosite to Don Pedro Reservoir increases the potential for As mobility and bioavailability by desorption or dissolution. Both the substrate minerals and dissolved As species are expected to respond to seasonal changes in lake chemistry caused by thermal stratification and turnover within the monomictic Don Pedro Reservoir. Arsenic is predicted to be most bioavailable and toxic in the reservoir's summer hypolimnion.

  16. Ground-water resources of the Yucca Valley-Joshua Tree area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, R.E.

    1972-01-01

    The southeastern part of the Mojave Water Agency area included in this report comprises about 600 square miles. Recharge into the area is almost exclusively from precipitation in the San Bernardino and Little San Bernardino Mountains. About 500 acre-feet per year of recharge enters the western part of the area as underflow through Pipes Wash. Little direct recharge occurs as a result of precipitation directly on the unconsolidated deposits. Presently about 11,000 persons reside in the area and current gross pumpage is about 1,600 acre-feet annually. By the year 2000 the population is estimated to be 62,000 and annual gross pumpage is expected to be nearly 11,000 acre-feet. Although over 1,200,000 acre-feet of ground water are presently in storage, most of the population is centered in the southern part of the area around the towns of Yucca Valley and Joshua Tree. About 70 percent of the population resides in the vicinity of Yucca Valley and is supplied by ground water pumped from the Warren Valley basin. Of the 96,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage in that basin in 1969, about 80,000 acre-feet will be necessary to sustain projected growth there until 2000. Assuming negligible recharge and only about 50 percent recovery of the ground water in storage, if imported water from northern California is not available before about 1990, additional local supplies will have to be developed, possibly in the adjacent Pipes subbasin to the north. Ground water in the southern part of the study area generally contains less than 250 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids and 1.0 mg/l fluoride. A general degradation of ground-water quality occurs northward toward the dry lakes where the concentrations of dissolved solids and fluoride approach 2,000 and 5.0 mg/l, respectively. In Reche subbasin some isolated occurrences of fluoride exceeding 1.5 mg/l were noted. The chemical character of ground water in Johnson Valley and Morongo Valley basins differs from well to well and, in general, water from these basins is less desirable for use.

  17. Appraisal of ground-water resources in the San Antonio Creek Valley, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    1980-01-01

    A nearly threefold increase in demand for water in the 154-square-mile San Antonio Creek valley in California during the period 1958-77 has increased the potential for overdraft on the ground-water basin. The hydrologic budget for this period showed a perennial yield of about 9,800 acre-feet per year and an annual ground-water discharge of about 11,400 acre-feet per year, comprising net pumpage of 7,100 acre-feet, phreatophyte evapotranspiration of 3,000 acre-feet, and base streamflow of 1 ,300 acre-feet. The base flow in San Antonio Creek could diminish to zero when net pumpage reaches 13,500 acre-feet per year. The environmentally sensitive marshland area of Barka Slough may then become stressed as water normally lost through evapotranspiration is captured by pumpage. The aquifer consists of alluvial valley fill that ranges in thickness from 0 to 3,500 feet. Ground water moves seaward from recharge areas along mountain fronts to a consolidated rock barrier about 5 miles east of the Pacific coast. Upwelling of ground water just east of the barrier has resulted in the 550-acre Barka Slough. Transmissivity of the aquifer ranges from 2,600 to 34,000 feet squared per day, with the lowest values occurring in the central part of the valley where the aquifer is thickest but probably finer grained. The salinity problems are increasing in the agricultural parts of the valley, which is east of the barrier. West of the barrier, stream and ground-water quality is poor, owing to seepage of saline water from the marine shale that underlies the area at shallow depths. A proposed basinwide monitoring program includes 17 water-level sites, 12 water-quality sampling sites, 3 streamflow measuring sites, and periodic infrared aerial photography of Barka Slough. A computer model of the ground-water flow system could be developed to assess the impact of various water-management alternatives. (USGS)

  18. A Potential Paleotsunami Shell-Hash layer from the Los Penasquitos Marsh, San Diego County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, B. P.; Cordova, J.; Kirby, M. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Bonuso, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Los Penasquitos Marsh is one of a series of coastal wetlands between San Diego and Orange County that formed within stream valleys that were flooded and filled with sediment during early Holocene sea-level rise. In order to test the hypothesis that these wetlands contain a record of prehistoric tsunamis, 21 reconnaissance gouge cores between 48 and 321 cm in length were collected and described in the field. Nearly all of the cores contained a single peaty layer in the top 20-40 cm, underlain by interbedded fine-medium gray sand and mud. The stratigraphy in the cores is generally consistent with the complete infilling of a lagoon behind a baymouth bar during the mid-late Holocene. Five of the cores, ranging from 1.0-1.4 km inland from the present beach, intersect a distinctive 0.5 - 12.0 cm-thick shell-hash layer at a depth of between 233 and 280 cm beneath the modern surface. Based on this discovery, we collected a 285 cm long 5-cm diameter core using a Livingstone Piston corer. In this core the 10 cm-thick shell hash layer consists of angular fragments up to 1 cm of broken shells in a coarse sandy matrix that include the following genera: Mitrella, Venus, Spirotropis, Pecten, and Nassarius. This assemblage suggests a quiet water, marine source - from the lagoon and/or offshore. The core was also analyzed for loss on ignition (LOI) at both 550° and 950°C and magnetic susceptibility (ms). The LOI550 data are unremarkable throughout the core, and the LOI950 data show an expected spike within the shell-hash layer. The ms data show very low values for the lagoonal muds and sands, but a pronounced spike within the shell hash layer. We hypothesize that the anomalously high ms value for the shell hash layer indicates a substantial component from an offshore source, where heavier magnetic minerals may have accumulated seaward of the baymouth bar. If correct, this layer may represent a large-wave event, either a storm or tsunami. Three C-14 dates (uncorrected for the marine reservoir) on shell fragments cluster between 1720-1850 cal yrs BP.

  19. Review of samples of tailings, soils and stream sediment adjacent to and downstream from the Ruth Mine, Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Ruth Mine and mill are located in the western Mojave Desert in Inyo County, California (fig. 1). The mill processed gold-silver (Au-Ag) ores mined from the Ruth Au-Ag deposit, which is adjacent to the mill site. The Ruth Au-Ag deposit is hosted in Mesozoic intrusive rocks and is similar to other Au-Ag deposits in the western Mojave Desert that are associated with Miocene volcanic centers that formed on a basement of Mesozoic granitic rocks (Bateman, 1907; Gardner, 1954; Rytuba, 1996). The volcanic rocks consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions (fig. 2) that were emplaced into Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks (Troxel and Morton, 1962). The Ruth Mine is on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Tailings from the mine have been eroded and transported downstream into Homewood Canyon and then into Searles Valley (figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6). The BLM provided recreational facilities at the mine site for day-use hikers and restored and maintained the original mine buildings in collaboration with local citizen groups for use by visitors (fig. 7). The BLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure arsenic (As) and other geochemical constituents in soils and tailings at the mine site and in stream sediments downstream from the mine in Homewood Canyon and in Searles Valley (fig. 3). The request was made because initial sampling of the site by BLM staff indicated high concentrations of As in tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine and stream sediments downstream from the mine on June 7, 2009. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  20. Statistical analysis and mathematical modeling of a tracer test on the Santa Clara River, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Izbicki, John A.; Reichard, Eric G.

    1998-01-01

    To better understand flow processes, solute-transport processes, and ground-water/surface-water interactions on the Santa Clara River in Ventura County, California, a 24-hour fluorescent-dye tracer study was performed under steady-state flow conditions on a 28-mile reach of the river. The study reach includes perennial (uppermost and lowermost) subreaches and ephemeral subreaches of the lower Piru Creek and the middle Santa Clara River. Dye was injected at a site on Piru Creek, and fluorescence of river water was measured continuously at four sites and intermittently at two sites. Discharge measurements were also made at the six sites. The time of travel of the dye, peak dye concentration, and time-variance of time-concentration curves were obtained at each site. The long tails of the time-concentration curves are indicative of sources/sinks within the river, such as riffles and pools, or transient bank storage. A statistical analysis of the data indicates that, in general, the transport characteristics follow Fickian theory. These data and previously collected discharge data were used to calibrate a one-dimensional flow model (DAFLOW) and a solute-transport model (BLTM). DAFLOW solves a simplified form of the diffusion-wave equation and uses empirical relations between flow rate and cross-sectional area, and flow rate and channel width. BLTM uses the velocity data from DAFLOW and solves the advection-dispersion transport equation, including first-order decay. The simulations of dye transport indicated that (1) ground-water recharge explains the loss of dye mass in the middle, ephemeral, subreaches, and (2) ground-water recharge does not explain the loss of dye mass in the uppermost and lowermost, perennial, subreaches. This loss of mass was simulated using a linear decay term. The loss of mass in the perennial subreaches may be caused by a combination of photodecay or adsorption/desorption.

  1. Distribution of the endangered giant kangaroo rat, Dipodomys ingens, on the Naval Petroleum Reserves, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Mathews, N.E.; Kato, T.T.; McCue, P.M.; McManus, J.S.; Sauls, M.L.

    1987-07-01

    Field surveys were conducted to determine the distribution and relative abundance of burrow systems of the endangered giant kangaroo rat, Dipodomys ingens, on the US Department of Energy's Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR-1, NPR-2) in Kern County, California. A total of 1080 burrow systems were observed on 30 sections of NPR-1, 22 sections of NPR-2, and six adjoining sections. Most burrow systems were found in clusters on deep sandy loams in Buena Vista Valley, but isolated burrows were found in similar soils on the upper slopes or crests of ridges in 30 other sections of the reserves. Burrow systems had an average of 3.3 horizontal entrances measuring 2.7 in. high and 3.4 in. wide, and an average of 1.4 vertical entrances 2.0 in. in diameter. In the valleys burrows occurred in a density of 28.2 per acre; had an average slope angle of 4.3/sup 0/; were within 3.3 yd of a perennial shrub, usually a cheese-bush, Hymenoclea salsola; had a predominantly southern aspect; and were grazed by sheep, but were remote from petroleum production activities. In the uplands burrows occurred in a density of 0.1 per acre; had an average slope angle of 6.4/sup 0/; were within 5.1 yd of a perennial shrub, usually a desert saltbush, Atriplex polycarpa; had no particular aspect; and were not grazed by sheep, but were close to petroleum production activities. Since 1980, preconstruction surveys have helped conserve giant kangaroo rat burrows that may have been inadvertently threatened by construction projects on the reserves.

  2. Evaluation of the potential for artificial ground-water recharge in eastern San Joaquin County, California; Phase 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1987-01-01

    Infiltration tests were used to evaluate the potential of basin spreading surface water as a means of artificially recharging the aquifer system in eastern San Joaquin County, California. Two infiltration sites near Lockeford and Linden were selected on the basis of information collected during the first two phases of the study. Data from the infiltration tests indicate that the two sites are acceptable for recharge by the basin-spreading method. Infiltration rates ranged between 6.7 and 10.5 ft/day near Lockeford and between 2.6 and 11.2 ft/day near Linden. Interpretation of these data is limited by lack of information on the response of the saturated zone during testing and by the inherent difficulty in extrapolating the results of small-scale tests to larger long-term operations. Lithology is a major factor that controls infiltration rates at the test sites. The unsaturated zone is characterized by heterogeneous layers of coarse- and fine- grained materials. Clay layers of low hydraulic conductivity commonly form discontinuous lenses that may cause a transient perched water table to develop during recharge. Water level measurements from wells screened in the unsaturated zone indicate that the perched water table could reach the land surface after 2 and 5 months of recharge near Lockeford and Linden, respectively. These figures probably represent the minimum time necessary for saturation of the land. Another major factor that affects infiltration rates is the quality of the recharge water, particularly the suspended sediment content. The clogging action of suspended sediment may be minimized by: (1) pretreatment of recharge water in a settling pond, (2) adherence to a routine program of monitoring and maintenance, and (3) proper design of the recharge facility. Other factors that affect infiltration rates include basin excavation technique, basin shape, and maintenance procedures. Efficient operation of the recharge facility requires careful attention to the relation between subsurface water levels and infiltration rates. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century : a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, K.M.; Fuller, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Opening of the Oakland tidal channel and removal of 97% of the marshlands formerly surrounding the Bay have decreased tidal velocities and volumes. Marshland removal has decreased the tidal prism by about 25%. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would required measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1 ,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Surficial Geologic Map and Geodatabase of the Cuddeback Lake 30' x 60' Quadrangle, San Bernardino and Kern Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amoroso, Lee; Miller, David M.

    2006-01-01

    A USGS surficial geologic mapping project, focused on the arid Southwest USA, conducted mapping and process studies to investigate landscape development and tectonic evolution. This project included the Cuddeback Lake 1:100,000-scale quadrangle located in the western Mojave Desert north-northeast of Los Angeles, between the southern Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino Mountains, in Kern and San Bernardino Counties, California. Geomorphic features include high-relief mountains, small hills, volcanic domes, pediments, broad alluvial valleys, and dry lakes. The mapped area includes pre-Tertiary plutonic, metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and other metamorphic rocks; Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks; and Quaternary sediments and basalts. Included in the area are the El Paso, Lockhart, Blackwater, and Muroc faults as well as the central segment of the Garlock fault zone. The tectonically active western Mojave Desert and the variety of surficial materials have resulted in distinctive geomorphic features and terrains. Mapping has shown that the tectonically active area near the Garlock fault zone and El Paso Fault influenced development of drainage networks; base level is controlled by fault offset. There is evidence of a late Tertiary drainage network preserved in remnants of alluvial fans and paleo-drainage deposits north of the El Paso Mountains, west of the Lava Mountains, and south and west of the Rand Mountains. Faults identified as being active in the Holocene based on displaced stream channels, scarps, and shutter ridges include the Cantil Valley, Lockhart, Garlock, and Rand Mountain faults. Previously unmapped Holocene and late Pleistocene fault strands identified near the Rand Mountains may represent a splay at the northwest termination of the Lockhart Fault. The informally named Grass Valley fault, NW of Black Mountain, is a right-lateral strike-slip fault that may be a splay of the Blackwater Fault. Holocene activity on the Grass Valley fault is indicated by one displaced early Holocene stream terrace. Mapped faults in Fremont Valley are tentatively identified as surficial expressions of the buried Cantil Valley fault.

  5. Surficial geologic map of the Cuddeback Lake 30' x 60' quadrangle, San Bernardino and Kern counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amoroso, Lee; Miller, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The 1:100,000-scale Cuddeback Lake quadrangle is located in the western Mojave Desert north-northeast of Los Angeles, between the southern Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino Mountains, in Kern and San Bernardino Counties, California. Geomorphic features include high-relief mountains, small hills, volcanic domes, pediments, broad alluvial valleys, and dry lakes. It is one in a series of surficial geologic maps created to investigate landscape development and tectonic evolution of the northern Mojave Desert. The mapped area includes pre-Tertiary plutonic, metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and igneous rocks; Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks; and Quaternary sediments and basalts. The map area includes the El Paso, Lockhart, Blackwater, and Muroc Faults, as well as the central segment of the Garlock Fault Zone. The tectonically active western Mojave Desert and the variety of surficial materials have resulted in distinctive geomorphic features and terrains. Geologic mapping shows that active faults are widespread and have diverted drainage patterns. The tectonically active area near the Garlock Fault Zone and the nearby El Paso Fault influenced development of drainage networks; base level is controlled by fault offset. Evidence of a late Tertiary drainage network is preserved in remnants of alluvial fans and paleodrainage deposits north of the El Paso Mountains, west of the Lava Mountains, and south and west of the Rand Mountains. Holocene fault activity for the Cantil Valley, Lockhart, Garlock, and Rand Mountain Faults is indicated by displaced stream channels, playa-filled depressions, scarps, and shutter ridges. Previously unmapped Holocene and Late Pleistocene fault strands identified near the Rand Mountains may represent a splay at the northwest termination of the Lockhart Fault. The Grass Valley Fault, northwest of Black Mountain, is a right-lateral, strike-slip fault that may be a splay of the Blackwater Fault. Holocene activity on the Grass Valley Fault is indicated by one displaced early Holocene stream terrace. Mapped faults in Fremont Valley are tentatively identified as surficial expressions of the buried Cantil Valley Fault.

  6. Our Choice/Nuestra Opción: The Imperial County, California, Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Study (CA-CORD)

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Leticia; Binggeli-Vallarta, Amy; Moody, Jamie; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Angulo, Janette; Hoyt, Helina; Chuang, Emmeline; Ganiats, Theodore G.; Gahagan, Sheila; Ji, Ming; Zive, Michelle; Schmied, Emily; Arredondo, Elva M.; Elder, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Despite recent declines among young children, obesity remains a public health burden in the United States, including among Latino/Hispanic children. The determining factors are many and are too complex to fully address with interventions that focus on single factors, such as parenting behaviors or school policies. In this article, we describe a multisector, multilevel intervention to prevent and control childhood obesity in predominantly Mexican-origin communities in Southern California, one of three sites of the CDC-funded Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CA-CORD) study. Methods: CA-CORD is a partnership between a university-affiliated research institute, a federally qualified health center, and a county public health department. We used formative research, advisory committee members' recommendations, and previous research to inform the development of the CA-CORD project. Our theory-informed multisector, multilevel intervention targets improvements in four health behaviors: fruit, vegetable, and water consumption; physical activity; and quality sleep. Intervention partners include 1200 families, a federally qualified health center (including three clinics), 26 early care and education centers, two elementary school districts (and 20 elementary schools), three community recreation centers, and three restaurants. Intervention components in these sectors target changes in behaviors, policies, systems, and the social and physical environment. Evaluation activities include assessment of the primary outcome, BMI z-score, at baseline, 12-, and 18-months post-baseline, and sector evaluations at baseline, 12, and 24 months. Conclusions: Identifying feasible and effective strategies to prevent and control childhood obesity has the potential to effect real changes in children's current and future health status. PMID:25584664

  7. Evolution of regional stresses based on faulting and folding near the Pit River, Shasta County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, L. J.; Weldon, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the evolution of the regional stress state near the Pit River, northeastern California, by analyzing faults and folds preserved in and adjacent to a diatomite mine north of the Pit River near Burney. By measuring the orientation of 250 faults and 140 kinematic indicators on fault planes, we have determined principal stress directions preserved during the past million years. We observe the best exposures of faults in the diatomite mine, a paleolake deposit with an age tightly constrained by 1045 ka volcanic rocks below and the 973 ka Pole Creek basalt above (Muffler et al, 2012). To ensure a regionally representative analysis, we also include faults from the surrounding area, which are sparse but show consistent results. If we analyze all of the high angle faults as a single heterogeneous set, we find a stress state that would produce right-lateral strike-slip faulting on a moderately dipping southeast-striking fault plane. When we break the faults into groups based on orientation and include very low angle faults, we see an evolution of the stress state through time. The maximum principal stress directions (sigma 1) for the groups cluster along a north-south axis, and the lesser principal stresses (sigma 2 and sigma 3) are distributed along an east-west axis. Because moderately-dipping faults have strikes subparallel to regional normal faults and have kinematic indicators that are both down dip and parallel to strike, we infer that normal faulting occurred first and that some normal faults have been reactivated as strike slip faults. Because low angle faults form a distinct conjugate set and cut or deform high angle faults, we infer that they are the youngest. Low angle faults cluster into two groups that dip shallowly to the northwest and southwest. Analysis of the two groups as a conjugate set is consistent with individual analysis of each, and the slip vectors for the two groups cluster around the intersection with the sigma 1-3 plane. This would be very unlikely if low angle faults were simply accommodation structures or due to landsliding or compaction. High precision survey data along marker beds in the diatomite mine show at least two generations of subtle folding, which is distinct from the pre-paleolake basement topography. On a stereonet, poles to bedding planes in the diatomite cluster neatly along two great circles that define two fold axes. Folds are roughly orthogonal and trend southeast and southwest, plunging gently 2-4 degrees. We infer that the southeast generation of folds formed with other fault-parallel folds associated with normal faults in the region, such as the nearby Five Corners monocline. Evolution at this site through time is consistent with the spatial distribution of stress states at the northwest end of Walker Lane. We observe domains of normal faulting generally to the west, strike-slip faulting to the southeast, and reverse faulting to the northwest.

  8. Geohydrology and water-chemistry of the Alexander Valley, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, Loren F.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2006-01-01

    This study of the geohydrology and water chemistry of the Alexander Valley, California, was done to provide an improved scientific basis for addressing emerging water-management issues, including potential increases in water demand and changes in flows in the Russian River. The study tasks included (1) evaluation of existing geohydrological, geophysical, and geochemical data; (2) collection and analysis of new geohydrologic data, including subsurface lithologic data, ground-water levels, and streamflow records; and (3) collection and analysis of new water-chemistry data. The estimated total water use for the Alexander Valley for 1999 was approximately 15,800 acre-feet. About 13,500 acre-feet of this amount was for agricultural use, primarily vineyards, and about 2,300 acre-feet was for municipal/industrial use. Ground water is the main source of water supply for this area. The main sources of ground water in the Alexander Valley are the Quaternary alluvial deposits, the Glen Ellen Formation, and the Sonoma Volcanics. The alluvial units, where sufficiently thick and saturated, comprise the best aquifer in the study area. Average recharge to the Alexander Valley is estimated from a simple, basinwide water budget. On the basis of an estimated annual average of 298,000 acre-feet of precipitation, 160,000 acre-feet of runoff, and 113,000 to 133,000 acre-feet of evapotranspiration, about 5,000 to 25,000 acre-feet per year is available for ground-water recharge. Because this estimate is based on differences between large numbers, there is significant uncertainty in this recharge estimate. Long-term changes in ground-water levels are evident in parts of the study area, but because of the sparse network and lack of data on well construction and lithology, it is uncertain if any significant changes have occurred in the northern part of the study area since 1980. In the southern half of the study area, ground-water levels generally were lower at the end of the 2002 irrigation season than at the end of the 1980 season, which suggests that a greater amount of ground water is being pumped in the southern half of the study area in recent years compared with that pumped in the early 1980s. Water-chemistry data for samples collected from 11 wells during 2002-04 indicate that water quality in the study area generally is acceptable for potable use. Two wells, however, each contained one constituent (241 ?g/L of manganese and 1,350 ?g/L of boron) in excess of the recommended standards for drinking water (50 ?g/L and 1,000 ?g/L, respectively). The chemical composition of water from most of the wells sampled for major ions plot as a mixed cation-bicarbonate, magnesium-bicarbonate, or calcium-bicarbonate type water. The ionic composition of the historical and recent samples from wells in the Alexander Valley is similar to that of the historical surface-water samples collected from the Russian River near Healdsburg. This suggests a similar source of water, particularly for wells that are less than 200 feet total depth and perforated in Quaternary alluvial deposits. Water from deeper, non-alluvial wells may contain slightly higher concentrations of sodium as a result of cation exchange. Water samples collected from several wells over an approximately 30-year period suggest a progressive change in water chemistry over time. Samples from the southern part of the valley show a trend towards higher ionic concentrations and increasing concentrations of particular constituents such as sulfate.

  9. Geologic Map of the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain Area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Keller, Edward A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a newly revised and expanded digital geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map to 2,000 feet on the ground)1 and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. The map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Dos Pueblos Canyon, Goleta, Santa Barbara, and Carpinteria 7.5' quadrangles. The new map supersedes an earlier preliminary geologic map of the central part of the coastal plain (Minor and others, 2002; revised 2006) that provided coastal coverage only within the Goleta and Santa Barbara quadrangles. In addition to new mapping to the west and east, geologic mapping in parts of the central map area has been significantly revised from the preliminary map compilation - especially north of downtown Santa Barbara in the Mission Ridge area - based on new structural interpretations supplemented by new biostratigraphic data. All surficial and bedrock map units, including several new units recognized in the areas of expanded mapping, are described in detail in the accompanying pamphlet. Abundant new biostratigraphic and biochronologic data based on microfossil identifications are presented in expanded unit descriptions of the marine Neogene Monterey and Sisquoc Formations. Site-specific fault kinematic observations embedded in the digital map database are more complete owing to the addition of slip-sense determinations. Finally, the pamphlet accompanying the present report includes an expanded and refined summary of stratigraphic and structural observations and interpretations that are based on the composite geologic data contained in the new map compilation. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along an east-west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest of Los Angeles. The coastal plain surface includes several mesas and hills that are geomorphic expressions of potentially active folds and partly buried oblique and reverse faults of the Santa Barbara fold and fault belt (SBFFB) that transects the coastal plain. Strong earthquakes have occurred offshore within 10 km of the Santa Barbara coastal plain in 1925 (6.3 magnitude), 1941 (5.5 magnitude), and 1978 (5.1 magnitude). These and numerous smaller seismic events located beneath and offshore of the coastal plain, likely occurred on reverse-oblique-slip faults that are similar to, or continuous with, Quaternary reverse faults crossing the coastal plain. Thus, faults of the SBFFB pose a significant earthquake hazard to the approximately 200,000 people living within the major coastal population centers of Santa Barbara, Goleta, and Carpinteria. In addition, numerous Quaternary landslide deposits along the steep southern flank of the Santa Ynez Mountains indicate the potential for continued slope failures and mass movements in developed areas. Folded, faulted, and fractured sedimentary rocks in the subsurface of the coastal plain and adjacent Santa Barbara Channel are sources and form reservoirs for economic deposits of oil and gas, some of which are currently being extracted offshore. Shallow, localized sedimentary aquifers underlying the coastal plain provide limited amounts of water for the urban areas, but the quality of some of this groundwater is compromised by coastal salt-water contamination. The present map compilation provides a set of uniform geologic digital coverages that can be used for analysis and interpretation of these and other geologic hazards and resources in the coastal plain region.

  10. A data viewer for stream-sediment and surface-water chemistry, geology, and geography of the Humboldt River basin, northern Nevada. Chapter F.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Folger, Helen W.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2006-01-01

    The data and software utilized in this product permit the user to view and analyze the geographic relationships among chemistry of stream sediments and surface waters, geology, and various cartographic base information such as but not limited to cities, county boundaries, and land ownership. Data for this product were compiled and or produced as part of a mineral and environmental assessment of the Humboldt River basin conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1995 - 2000.

  11. Late Cenozoic geology and lacustrine history of Searles Valley, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George I.

    2009-01-01

    Searles Valley is an arid, closed basin lying 70 km east of the south end of the Sierra Nevada, California. It is bounded on the east and northeast by the Slate Range, on the west by the Argus Range and Spangler Hills, and on the south by the Lava Mountains; Searles (dry) Lake occupies the north-central part of the valley. During those parts of late Pliocene and Pleistocene time when precipitation and runoff from the east side of the Sierra Nevada into the Owens River were much greater than at present, a chain of as many as five large lakes was created, of which Searles Lake was third. The stratigraphic record left in Searles Valley when that lake expanded, contracted, or desiccated, is fully revealed by cores from beneath the surface of Searles (dry) Lake and partly recorded by sediments cropping out around the edge of the valley. The subsurface record is described elsewhere. This volume includes six geologic maps (scales: 1:50,000 and 1:10,000) and a text that describes the outcrop record, most of which represents sedimentation since 150 ka. Although this outcrop record is discontinuous, it provides evidence indicating the lake's water depths during each expansion, which the subsurface record does not. Maximum-depth lakes rose to the 2,280-ft (695 m) contour, the level of the spillway that led overflowing waters to Panamint Valley; that spillway is about 660 ft (200 m) above the present dry-lake surface. Several rock units of Tertiary and early Quaternary ages crop out in Searles Valley. Siltstone and sandstone of Tertiary age, mostly lacustrine in nature and locally deformed to near-vertical dips, are exposed in the southern part of the valley, as is the younger(?) upper Miocene Bedrock Spring Formation. Unnamed, mostly mafic volcanic rocks of probable Miocene or Pliocene age are exposed along the north and south edges of the basin. Slightly deformed lacustrine sandstones are mapped in the central-southwestern and southern parts of the study area. The Christmas Canyon Formation and deposits mapped as older gravel and older tufa are extensively exposed over much of the basin floor. The older gravel unit and the gravel facies of the Christmas Canyon Formation are boulder alluvial gravels; parts of these units are probably correlative. The lacustrine facies of the Christmas Canyon Formation includes the Lava Creek ash, which is dated at 0.64 Ma; the older tufa deposits may be equivalent in age to those sediments. Most of this study concerns sediments of the newly described Searles Lake Formation, whose deposition spanned the period between about 150 ka and 2 ka. Most of this formation is lacustrine in origin, but it includes interbedded alluvium. To extract as much geologic detail as possible, criteria were developed that permitted (1) intrabasin correlation of some thin outcrop units representative of only a few thousand years (or less), (2) identification of unconformities produced by subaerial erosion, (3) identification of unconformities produced by sublacustrine erosion, and (4) correlation of outcrop units with subsurface units. The Searles Lake Formation is divided into seven main units, many of which are subdivided on the five larger scale geologic maps. Units A (oldest), B, C, and D are dominantly lacustrine in origin. The Pleistocene-Holocene boundary is placed at the top of unit C. In areas that were a kilometer or more from shore at the time of deposition, deposits of units A,B, and C consist of fine, highly calcareous sand, silt, or clay; nearer to shore they consist of well-sorted coarse sand and gravel. Unit A has been locally subdivided into as many as four subunits, unit B into six subunits, and unit C into six subunits. The finer facies of units A, B, and C contain such high percentages of Caco3 that they are best described as marl. Sediments of unit C, and to a lesser extent those of unit B, are laminated with light- to white-colored layers of aragonite, calcite, or dolomite(?) that may repre

  12. Geohydrology of deep-aquifer system monitoring-well site at Marina, Monterey County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Everett, Rhett; Newhouse, Mark W.; Crawford, Steven M.; Pimentel, M. Isabel; Smith, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    In 2000, a deep-aquifer system monitoring-well site (DMW1) was completed at Marina, California to provide basic geologic and hydrologic information about the deep-aquifer system in the coastal region of the Salinas Valley. The monitoring-well site contains four wells in a single borehole; one completed from 930 to 950 feet below land surface (bls) in the Paso Robles Formation (DMW1-4); one 1,040 to 1,060 feet below land surface in the upper Purisima Formation (DMW1-3); one from 1,410 to 1,430 feet below land surface in the middle Purisima Formation (DMW1-2); and one from 1,820 to 1,860 feet below land surface in the lower Purisima Formation (DMW1-1). The monitoring site is installed between the coast and several deep-aquifer system supply wells in the Marina Coast Water District, and the completion depths are within the zones screened in those supply wells. Sediments below a depth of 955 feet at DMW1 are Pliocene age, whereas the sediments encountered at the water-supply wells are Pleistocene age at an equivalent depth. Water levels are below sea level in DMW1 and the Marina Water District deep-aquifer system supply wells, which indicate that the potential for seawater intrusion exists in the deep-aquifer system. If the aquifers at DMW1 are hydraulically connected with the submarine outcrops in Monterey Bay, then the water levels at the DMW1 site are 8 to 27 feet below the level necessary to prevent seawater intrusion. Numerous thick fine-grained interbeds and confining units in the aquifer systems retard the vertical movement of fresh and saline ground water between aquifers and restrict the movement of seawater to narrow water-bearing zones in the upper-aquifer system.Hydraulic testing of the DMW1 and the Marina Water District supply wells indicates that the tested zones within the deep-aquifer system are transmissive water-bearing units with hydraulic conductivities ranging from 2 to 14.5 feet per day. The hydraulic properties of the supply wells and monitoring wells are similar, even though the wells are completed in different geologic formations.Geophysical logs collected at the DMW1 site indicate saline water in most water-bearing zones shallower than 720 feet below land surface and from about 1,025 to 1,130 feet below land surface, and indicate fresher water from about 910 to 950 feet below land surface (DMW1-4), 1,130 to 1,550 feet below land surface, and below 1,650 feet below land surface. Temporal differences between electromagnetic induction logs indicate possible seasonal seawater intrusion in five water-bearing zones from 350 to 675 feet below land surface in the upper-aquifer system.The water-chemistry analyses from the deep-aquifer system monitoring and supply wells indicate that these deep aquifers in the Marina area contain potable water with the exception of the saline water in well DMW1-3. The saline water from well DMW1-3 has a chloride concentration of 10,800 milligrams per liter and dissolved solids concentration of 23,800 milligrams per liter. The source of this water was determined not to be recent seawater based on geochemical indicators and the age of the ground water. The high salinity of this ground water may be related to the dissolution of salts from the saline marine clays that surround the water-bearing zone screened by DMW1-3. The major ion water chemistry of the monitoring wells and the nearby MCWD water-supply wells are similar, which may indicate they are in hydraulic connection, even though the stratigraphic layers differ below 955 feet below land surface.No tritium was detected in samples from the deep monitoring wells. The lack of tritium suggest that there is no recent recharge water (less than 50 years old) in the deep-aquifer system at the DMW1 site. The carbon-14 analyses of these samples indicate ground water from the monitoring site was recharged thousands of years ago.

  13. Seismic environment of the Burro Flats site, Ventura County, California: a brief, limited literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentworth, Carl M.; Bonilla, Manuel G.; Buchanan, Jane M.

    1969-01-01

    A limited review of available literature suggests that the maximum horizontal ground acceleration at the Burro Flats site from earthquakes in the region could range from less than 0.1 to 0.49 g. A magnitude 8 earthquake on the nearby San Andreas fault could produce ground acceleration in the range 0.18 to 0.31 g, and an expectable larger earthquake on that fault could produce larger accelerations. Ground motion from possible smaller but closer earthquakes ranges up to 0.49 g for an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 on the adjacent "Burro Flats fault". Estimation of these accelerations is dependent on determining the geologic environment of the site, the appropriate earthquake magnitudes to be assigned significant faults in that environment, and the attenuation of shaking between the earthquake epicenters and the site. The site lies within a tectonically active region--the historically active San Andreas fault is only 34 miles to the northeast, and lesser faults showing evidence of late Quaternary displacement are located closer to the site. Evidence for youthfulness of these lesser faults varies, and except for the active Newport-Inglewood zone and the Santa Ynez fault, they qualify as possible but as yet-unproven active faults. All known faults with appropriate length to site-distance ratios that are reasonably classed as late Quaternary faults are discussed, and are included as potential earthquake generators. Earthquakes of appropriate magnitude to be assigned to each fault are determined by assuming rupture in one event of half the map length of the fault, and applying relations (determined by several authors) between earthquake magnitude and rupture length in historic events to determine magnitudes. These magnitudes are, for the purposes of this brief review, probably reasonable estimates of the capabilities of each fault, although earthquakes of larger magnitude are possible. Accelerations are then determined by assuming earthquakes of the above determined magnitude placed at the closest point to the site on the fault trace, and applying attenuation curves of three different authors. Considerable uncertainty is inherent in the rough estimates of seismic accelerations made herein, for they are dependent on a chain of judgments, each of which, in itself, is uncertain. Present knowledge of the geology of the region is incomplete, so that geometry and structural relations of the faults are in part uncertain, and much evidence bearing on the youth of the faults has yet to be gathered and evaluated. Estimation of earthquake magnitude is also uncertain, and even assuming that approximate magnitude is known rather than estimated from fault length, estimates of maximum ground acceleration may differ greatly depending on the authority used. Further consideration of ground acceleration at the site might refine the estimates made herein and resolve the apparent contradictions between the authorities cited. Attention to frequency and duration of strong shaking would also be appropriate. This study was undertaken at the request of A. J. Pressesky, Assistant Director for Nuclear Safety, Division of Reactor-Development and Technology, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, in March, 1969. It is based on a brief review of pertinent literature to which the authors had immediate access during the few weeks (April-May, 1969) available for report preparation. Because the report is limited both in scope and thoroughness, it must be considered no more than a first estimate of the tectonic and seismic environment of the Burro Flats site, and should not be considered sufficient, in itself, as a basis for design. The report is intended, however, to indicate the breadth of inquiry that is necessary in the consideration of ground acceleration at sites in California, and to indicate the incomplete status of geologic mapping and other geologic studies in the region. The report describes the tectonic environment of the Burro Flats site, discusses 10 pertinent faults individually, and presents possible earthquake magnitudes for those faults and resultant potential ground accelerations at the site.

  14. California coastal processes study, LANDSAT 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The authors have identified the following significant results. By using suspended sediments as tracers, objectives were met by qualitative definition of the nearshore circulation along the entire coast of California with special study sites at Humboldt Bay, the mouth of the Russian River, San Francisco Bay, Monterey Bay, and the Santa Barbara Channel. Although LANDSAT primarily imaged fines and silts in the surface waters, the distribution of sediments allowed an examination of upwelling, convergences and coastal erosion and deposition. In Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay, these coastal phenomena were used to trace seasonal trends in surface currents.

  15. Review of mineral estate of the United States at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2, Buena Vista Hills Field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-09

    The purpose of this report is to present this Consultant`s findings regarding the nature and extent of the mineral estate of the United States at National Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2), Buena Vista Hills Field, Kern County, California. Determination of the mineral estate is a necessary prerequisite to this Consultant`s calculation of estimated future cash flows attributable to said estate, which calculations are presented in the accompanying report entitled ``Phase II Final Report, Study of Alternatives for Future Operations of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, NPR-2, California.`` This Report contains a discussion of the leases in effect at NPR-2 and subsequent contracts affecting such leases. This Report also summarizes discrepancies found between the current royalty calculation procedures utilized at NPR-2 and those procedures required under applicable agreements and regulations. Recommendations for maximizing the government`s income stream at NPR-2 are discussed in the concluding section of this Report.

  16. Compilation and interpretation of water-quality and discharge data for acidic mine waters at Iron Mountain, Shasta County, California, 1940-1991. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Alpers, C.N.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Burchard, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains a compilation and interpretation of the historical records of water quality and discharge for the period 1940-91 from the two most significant discharge points for acid mine drainage at Iron Mountain, Shasta County, California--the Richmond and Lawson portals. The primary objectives are (1) to clarify whether or not there is a hydrologic connection between the Richmond and Lawson Tunnels, and (2) to formulate a conceptual model of subsurface processes that accounts for water-quality and discharge trends with time.

  17. Edoylerite, Hg32+Cr6+O4S2 a new mineral from the Clear Creek claim, San Benito County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erd, Richard C.; Roberts, Andrew C.; Bonardi, M.; Criddle, A.J.; Le, Page Y.; Gabe, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    Edoylerite is a rare constituent of a small prospect near the long-abandoned Clear Creek mercury mine, New Idria district, San Benito County, California. It is most closely associated with cinnabar, from which it is a primary alteration product, in a host rock composed predominantly of quartz, chalcedony and ferroan magnesite. Edoylerite typically occurs as acicular to stellate crystal groups on and around corroded masses of cinnabar. The mineral is canary yellow to orangish yellow, and possesses a yellow streak and an adamantine luster. The crystallographic, physical and optical properties of edoylerite are described. -after Authors

  18. Debris flows triggered by the El Nino rainstorm of February 2-3, 1998, Walpert Ridge and vicinity, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, J.A.; Godt, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    On February 2 and 3, 1998, a rainstorm generated by the 1997-98 El Nino moved through the San Francisco Bay region of California triggering widespread slope failures. In the Walpert Ridge area of Alameda County 531 debris flows were triggered by the storm. These data depict the debris flows and landslides as polygons. The landslide polygons were mapped from 1:30,000 aerial photography using a PG2 photogrammetric plotter. The mapped debris flows and landslides were digitized manually in ArcInfo.

  19. Evaluation of surface-water/ground-water interactions in the Santa Clara River Valley, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, Eric George; Crawford, Steven M.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Martin, Peter; Land, Michael; Nishikawa, Tracy

    1999-01-01

    The interactions of surface water and ground water along the Santa Clara River in Ventura County, California, were evaluated by analyzing river-discharge and water-quality data and geohydrologic information collected by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1993 and 1995 for the Piru, Fillmore, and Santa Paula subbasins. Measurements of discharge and water quality were made at multiple locations along the Santa Clara River and its tributaries at eight different time periods during different releases from Lake Piru. Geologic, hydraulic, and water-quality data were collected from three new multiple-completion ground-water monitoring wells. These data, together with data collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Southern California Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study, were analyzed in order to quantify rates and locations of ground-water recharge and discharge within the river, characterize the correlation of recharge and discharge rates with ground-water conditions and reservoir releases, and better characterize the three-dimensional ground-water flow system. Analysis of the data indicates that the largest amount of ground-water recharge from the river consistently occurs in the Piru subbasin. Some ground-water recharge from the river may occur in the upper part of the Fillmore subbasin. Increases in sulfate concentrations indicate that increases in flow at the lower ends of the Piru and Fillmore subbasins result from high-sulfate ground-water discharge. Increases in flow in the lower part of the Santa Paula subbasin are not accompanied by significant sulfate increases. Several sets of regressions indicate possible correlation between net flow changes in the river and depths to ground water and release rates from Lake Piru. These statistical relations may be of use for evaluating alternative Lake Piru release strategies. Data on the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen from the ground-water monitoring wells that were installed as part of this investigation were used to distinguish between zones affected by recharge from the Santa Clara River and zones affected by recharge from local precipitation. Tritium data from a new multiple-completion monitoring site indicate that near the river in the upper Santa Paula subbasin, recent (post-1950) recharge water is not present at depths greater than about 350 feet below land surface. Water-level and lithologic data from the monitoring site indicate that the river and the Shallow aquifer have only limited hydraulic connection to the underlying aquifers at this location. Water-level data from the Shallow aquifer and from an in-stream drive point were used in an analytic model to estimate hydraulic properties governing stream?aquifer interactions in the upper Santa Paula subbasin. Hydraulic conductivities in all the USGS monitoring wells were estimated on the basis of slug tests.

  20. Users' guide to system dynamics model describing Coho salmon survival in Olema Creek, Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Torregrosa, Alicia; Madej, Mary Ann; Reichmuth, Michael; Fong, Darren

    2014-01-01

    The system dynamics model described in this report is the result of a collaboration between U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and National Park Service (NPS) San Francisco Bay Area Network (SFAN) staff, whose goal was to develop a methodology to integrate inventory and monitoring data to better understand ecosystem dynamics and trends using salmon in Olema Creek, Marin County, California, as an example case. The SFAN began monitoring multiple life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Olema Creek during 2003 (Carlisle and others, 2013), building on previous monitoring of spawning fish and redds. They initiated water-quality and habitat monitoring, and had access to flow and weather data from other sources. This system dynamics model of the freshwater portion of the coho salmon life cycle in Olema Creek integrated 8 years of existing monitoring data, literature values, and expert opinion to investigate potential factors limiting survival and production, identify data gaps, and improve monitoring and restoration prescriptions. A system dynamics model is particularly effective when (1) data are insufficient in time series length and/or measured parameters for a statistical or mechanistic model, and (2) the model must be easily accessible by users who are not modelers. These characteristics helped us meet the following overarching goals for this model: Summarize and synthesize NPS monitoring data with data and information from other sources to describe factors and processes affecting freshwater survival of coho salmon in Olema Creek. Provide a model that can be easily manipulated to experiment with alternative values of model parameters and novel scenarios of environmental drivers. Although the model describes the ecological dynamics of Olema Creek, these dynamics are structurally similar to numerous other coastal streams along the California coast that also contain anadromous fish populations. The model developed for Olema can be used, at least as a starting point, for other watersheds. This report describes each of the model elements with sufficient detail to guide the primary target audience, the NPS resource specialist, to run the model, interpret the results, change the input data to explore hypotheses, and ultimately modify and improve the model. Running the model and interpreting the results does not require modeling expertise on the part of the user. Additional companion publications will highlight other aspects of the model, such as its development, the rationale behind the methodological approach, scenario testing, and discussions of its use. System dynamics models consist of three basic elements: stocks, flows, and converters. Stocks are measurable quantities that can change over time, such as animal populations. Flows are any processes or conditions that change the quantity in a stock over time (Ford, 1999), are expressed in the model as a rate of change, and are diagrammed as arrows to or from stocks. Converters are processes or conditions that change the rate of flows. A converter is connected to a flow with an arrow indicating that it alters the rate of change. Anything that influences the rate of change (such as different environmental conditions, other external factors, or feedbacks from other stocks or flows) is modeled as a converter. For example, the number of fish in a population is appropriately modeled as a stock. Mortality is modeled as a flow because it is a rate of change over time used to determine the number of fish in the population. The density-dependent effect on mortality is modeled as a converter because it influences the rate of morality. Together, the flow and converter change the number, or stock, of juvenile coho. The instructions embedded in the stocks, flows, converters, and the sequence in which they are linked are processed by the simulation software with each completed sequence composing a model run. At each modeled time step within the model run, the stock counts will go up, down, or stay the same based on the modeled flows and the influence of converters on those f

  1. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with abundant tritium (greater than 8 tritium units) is found in and downgradient from the Montebello Forebay and near the seawater barrier projects, indicating recent recharge. Water with less than measurable tritium is present in, and downgradient from, the Los Angeles Forebay and in most wells in the West Coast Basin. Water from several deep wells was analyzed for carbon-14. Uncorrected estimates of age for these samples range from 600 to more than 20,000 years before present. Chemical and isotopic data are combined to evaluate changes in chemical character along flow paths emanating from the Montebello and Los Angeles Forebays. A four-layer ground-water flow model was developed to simulate steady-state ground-water conditions representative of those in 1971 and transient conditions for the period 1971?2000. Model results indicate increases in ground-water storage in all parts of the study area over the simulated thirty-year period. The model was used to develop a three-dimensional ground-water budget and to assess impacts of two alternative future (2001?25) ground-water development scenarios?one that assumes continued pumping at average current rates and a second that assumes increasing pumping from most wells in the Central Basin. The model simulates stable or slightly increasing water levels for the first scenario and declining water levels (25 to 50 ft in the Central Basin) in the second scenario. Model sensitivity to parameter values and to the assumed Orange County boundary condition was evaluated. Particle tracking was applied to simulate advective transport of water from the spreading ponds, the coastline, and the seawater injection barriers. Particle tracking results indicate that most flow within the Upper San Pedro aquifer system occurs within about 20 percent of the total aquifer system thickness and that virtually all water injected into the seawater barrier projects has flowed inland. The simulation model was linked with optimizatio

  2. Geohydrological characterization, water-chemistry, and ground-water flow simulation model of the Sonoma Valley area, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Metzger, Loren F.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Reichard, Eric G.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    The Sonoma Valley, located about 30 miles north of San Francisco, is one of several basins in Sonoma County that use a combination of ground water and water delivered from the Russian River for supply. Over the past 30 years, Sonoma Valley has experienced rapid population growth and land-use changes. In particular, there has been a significant increase in irrigated agriculture, predominantly vineyards. To provide a better understanding of the ground-water/surface-water system in Sonoma Valley, the U.S. Geological Survey compiled and evaluated existing data, collected and analyzed new data, and developed a ground-water flow model to better understand and manage the ground-water system. The new data collected include subsurface lithology, gravity measurements, groundwater levels, streamflow gains and losses, temperature, water chemistry, and stable isotopes. Sonoma Valley is drained by Sonoma Creek, which discharges into San Pablo Bay. The long-term average annual volume of precipitation in the watershed is estimated to be 269,000 acre-feet. Recharge to the ground-water system is primarily from direct precipitation and Sonoma Creek. Discharge from the ground-water system is predominantly outflow to Sonoma Creek, pumpage, and outflow to marshlands and to San Pablo Bay. Geologic units of most importance for groundwater supply are the Quaternary alluvial deposits, the Glen Ellen Formation, the Huichica Formation, and the Sonoma Volcanics. In this report, the ground-water system is divided into three depth-based geohydrologic units: upper (less than 200 feet below land surface), middle (between 200 and 500 feet), and lower (greater than 500 feet). Synoptic streamflow measurements were made along Sonoma Creek and indicate those reaches with statistically significant gains or losses. Changes in ground-water levels in wells were analyzed by comparing historical contour maps with the contour map for 2003. In addition, individual hydrographs were evaluated to assess temporal changes by region. In recent years, pumping depressions have developed southeast of Sonoma and southwest of El Verano. Water-chemistry data for samples collected from 75 wells during 2002-04 indicate that the ground-water quality in the study area generally is acceptable for potable use. The water from some wells, however, contains one or more constituents in excess of the recommended standards for drinking water. The chemical composition of water from creeks, springs, and wells sampled for major ions plot within three groups on a trilinear diagram: mixed-bicarbonate, sodium-mixed anion, and sodium-bicarbonate. An area of saline ground water in the southern part of the Sonoma Valley appears to have shifted since the late 1940s and early 1950s, expanding in one area, but receding in another. Sparse temperature data from wells southwest of the known occurrence of thermal water suggest that thermal water may be present beneath a larger part of the valley than previously thought. Thermal water contains higher concentrations of dissolved minerals than nonthermal waters because mineral solubilities generally increase with temperature. Geohydrologic Characterization, Water-Chemistry, and Ground-Water Flow Simulation Model of the Sonoma Valley Area, Sonoma County, California Oxygen-18 (d18 O) and deuterium (dD) values for water from most wells plot along the global meteoric water line, indicating that recharge primarily is derived from the direct infiltration of precipitation or the infiltration of seepage from creeks. Samples from shallow- and intermediate-depth wells located near Sonoma Creek and (or) in the vicinity of Shellville plot to the right of the global meteoric water line, indicating that these waters are partly evaporated. The d18 O and dD composition of water from sampled wells indicates that water from wells deeper than 200 feet is isotopically lighter (more negative) than water from wells less than 200 feet deep, possibly indicating that older ground wate

  3. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in San Mateo County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, Angela S.; De Mouthe, Jean; Lajoie, Kenneth R.; Ramsey, David W.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $55 million in damages were assessed in San Mateo County. The only fatality attributed to landsliding in the region during the period occurred in San Mateo County near Loma Mar.

  4. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Alameda County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, J.A.; Godt, J.W.; Brian, Dianne; Houdre, Nicolas

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. In Alameda County more than $20 million in damages were assessed. Debris flows occurred in rural portions of the county, but were only responsible for $400 thousand in damages.

  5. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Napa County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godt, Jonathan W.; Savage, William Z.; Wilson, Raymond C.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. Napa County was relatively unaffected in comparison to other counties in the region with approximately $1.1 million in damages assessed.

  6. Determination of channel capacity of the Mokelumne River downstream from Camanche Dam, San Joaquin and Sacramento Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, R.G.

    1972-01-01

    This study evaluates the adequacy of a 39-mile reach of the Mokelumne River in San Joaquin and Sacramento Counties, California, to carry planned flood releases between Camanche Reservoir and the Bensons Ferry Bridge near Thornton. The flood releases from Camanche Reservoir are to be restricted, insofar as possible, so that the flows in the Mokelumne River will not exceed 5,000 cfs (cubic feet per second) as measured at the gaging station below Camanche Dam. Areas of inundation and computed floodwater profiles are based on channel conditions in late 1970 and on observed water-surface profiles during flood releases of about 5,000 cfs in January 1969 and January 1970. The inundated area shown on the maps (appendix A) and the water-surface elevations indicated on the cross sections (appendix G) are for the flood releases of those dates. The following conclusions are contingent on there being no levee failures during periods of high flow and no significant channel changes since the flood release of January 1970. 1. High tides in San Francisco Bay and, to a greater degree, flood stages on the Cosumnes River, cause backwater in the study reach. Severe backwater conditions occurring simultaneously with a flow of 5,000 cfs in the Mokelumne River can increase the flood stage 4 to 6 feet at Bensons Ferry Bridge (cross section 1). Backwater effects decrease in an upstream direction and are less than 0.5 foot at cross section 35, a river distance of 8.6 miles upstream from cross section 1, and 1.5 miles downstream from the Peltier Road bridge. 2. In the reach between cross sections 1 and 35, a 5,000 cfs release from Camanche Reservoir with maximum backwater effect (measured at cross section 1 at the mouth of the Cosumnes River) is confined within the natural or leveed banks except on the right bank flood plain between cross sections 12 and 19. 3. Upstream from cross section 35, there is overbank flooding at a flow of 5,000 cfs between cross sections 48 and 51, and 62 and 67.5. An increase in flow from 5,000 to 6,000 cfs will cause flooding between cross sections 43 and 47, 52 and 56, and 73 and 85. 4. A discharge of 5,000 cfs will pass through all bridge openings in the study reach except that of the Western Pacific Railroad Co. bridge at cross section 4. If large amounts of debris lodge on the railroad bridge when backwater from the Cosumnes River occurs, the debris could cause higher stages and flooding along the right bank between cross sections 5 and 12.

  7. Studies on avian malaria in vectors and hosts of encephalitis in Kern County, California. I. Infections in avian hosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reeves, W.C.; McClure, H.E.; French, E.M.; Hammon, W.M.

    1954-01-01

    An epizoological study of Plasmodium infections in wild birds of Kern County, California, in the years 1946 through 1951 greatly extended knowledge of the occurrence of these parasites and their behavior in nature. Examination of 10,459 blood smears from 8,674 birds representing 73 species resulted in the observation of Plasmodium spp. in 1,094 smears representing 888 individual birds of 27 species. Seven species of Plasmodium were found: relictum, elongatum, hexamerium, nucleophilum, polare, rouxi and vaughani. Plasmodium relictum was by far the most frequently observed species, occurring in at least 79 per cent of the infected birds. Twelve new host species are recorded for this parasite. Sufficient morphological variation was observed to indicate that two strains of this species probably exist in nature. Numerous new host records were made of plasmodia with elongate gametocytes. The finding of parasites believed to be P. rouxi in two new host species represents the first record of the occurrence of this Plasmodium outside of Algeria. Multiple smears were obtained from a number of individual birds over varying time periods. Evidence of prolonged parasitemia was unusual, but some individuals had parasitemia on consecutive months and even for three successive years. In most individuals, parasitemias were of short duration. The inoculation of blood from wild birds into canaries led to the demonstration of many infections not observed on blood smear examination of donors. Use of these two complementary techniques led to more complete host records and a truer picture of the prevalence of infection. Three age classes of birds were studied--nestling, immature (less than 1 year of age) and adult. Parasites were observed in all three groups but infections in the younger individuals were most susceptible to interpretation. As to time of onset, numerous records were obtained of infection in nestling birds. Prevalence rates in immature birds after a single season's exposure ranged from 64 to 100 per cent in the house finch and 17 to 68 per cent in the English sparrow in different areas and years. Marked differences were found in the prevalence rates in different summer months, years and areas. It is believed these differences reflect variation in a number of environmental factors. This study indicates the extensive distribution of Plasmodium infection in a wide range of wild avian hosts. The observations are of possible importance in epidemiological studies of other arthropod-borne diseases such as the viral encephalitides for which these birds serve as hosts.

  8. A Larger Volcanic Field About Yucca Mountain: New Geochemical Data From the Death Valley Volcanic Field, Inyo County California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbetts, A. K.; Smith, E. I.

    2008-12-01

    Volcanism is an important issue for the characterization of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Due to recent legal decisions that now require DOE to evaluate hazards over both 10,000 year and 1,000,000 year compliance periods, the definition of the area of interest for calculation of disruption probability and a knowledge of the volcanic process have become more important. New geochemical data for the Death Valley volcanic field in the Greenwater Range in Inyo County, California indicate that the Death Valley field and the volcanoes about Yucca Mountain are parts of the same volcanic field. The Death Valley field is just 35 km south of Yucca Mountain and only 20 km south of buried volcanoes in the Amargosa Valley. Trace elements for both areas show a negative Nb anomaly, but differ in that Death Valley basalt has lower La (70 vs. 130 ppm). Isotopic ratios are remarkably similar and strongly support a link between the Death Valley and Yucca Mountain areas. The isotope ranges for Death Valley are -11.88 to -3.26, 0.706322 to 0.707600, 17.725 to 18.509, 15.512 to 15.587, and 38.237 to 38.854 for epsilon Nd, 87Sr/86Sr, 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb respectively. Crater Flat isotope ranges are -13.17 to -5.48, 0.706221 to 0.707851, 18.066 to 18.706, 15.488 to 15.564, and 38.143 to 38.709 for epsilon Nd, 87Sr/86Sr, 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb respectively. Depth of melting calculated using the Fe-Na geobarometer indicates that basalt magma was generated at depths of 135-138 km beneath Death Valley and 115-133 km for Crater Flat indicating asthenospheric melting for both areas. Combining the Death Valley and Yucca Mountain areas into a single volcanic field increases the area of interest for probability calculations by over 1/3 and increases the number of volcanic events by 23. The increased size of the volcanic field and number of volcanoes may result in an increase in the probability of disruption of the repository by an igneous event by as much as two orders of magnitude.

  9. Pesticide and Nitrate Trends in Domestic Wells where Pesticide Use Is Regulated in Fresno and Tulare Counties, California.

    PubMed

    Troiano, John; Garretson, Cindy; Dasilva, Alfredo; Marade, Joe; Barry, Terrell

    2013-11-01

    The California Department of Pesticide Regulation initiated regulations on pesticide use in 1989 to mitigate groundwater contamination by atrazine [6-chloro--ethyl-'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] and subsequently for simazine (6-chloro-,'-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), diuron ['-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-,-dimethylurea], bromacil [5-bromo-6-methyl-3-(1-methylpropyl)-2,4(1,3)-pyrimidinedione], and norflurazon [4-chloro-5-(methylamino)-2-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3(2)-pyridazinone]. Annual water samples from 2000 to 2012 were obtained from domestic wells in Fresno and Tulare counties in regulated areas designated either as leaching groundwater protection areas (GWPAs), where residues move downward in percolating water, or runoff GWPAs, where residues move offsite in rain or irrigation runoff water to sensitive sites such drainage wells. Concentrations decreased below the reporting limit, so maximum likelihood estimation methodology for left-censored data was used. Decreasing trends in concentration were measured in both GWPA designations for simazine, its breakdown products desisopropyl atrazine (ACET, 2-amino-4-chloro-6-ethylamino--triazine) and diamino chlorotriazine (DACT, 2,4-diamino-6-chloro--triazine), and diuron. Bromacil crop use was predominant in runoff GWPAs, where decreases over time were also measured. In contrast, increased trends were observed for norflurazon and its breakdown product desmethyl norflurazon [DMN, 4-chloro-5(amino)-2-(?,?,? trifluorometa-tolyl] in runoff GWPAs. Use of simazine, diuron, and bromacil was regulated before norflurazon, so patterns of detection represent a shift to use of unregulated products. For NO, 22 of 67 wells indicated linear decreases in concentration coinciding with decreases in pesticide residues in those wells. Concentration of ACET, DACT, diuron, and NO in well water was two to five times greater when located in runoff GWPAs. Greater amounts of herbicide were applied to crops grown in runoff GWPAs, but high concentrations in runoff water entering ponds or drainage wells could also be a factor for increased well water concentration. Initial regulatory measures appear to have been effective in reducing groundwater concentrations, but continued monitoring is needed to evaluate changes made to the regulatory approach in 2004. PMID:25602411

  10. Five-year resurvey for endangered species on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Otten, M.R.M.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Briden, L.E.

    1992-06-01

    A transect survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1), Kern County, California, was conducted between July 3 and August 5, 1989 to determine the distribution and relative density of endangered species and other wildlife. Results were compared with other reported results, particularly the 1979 and 1984 surveys of NPR-1. A total of 589.8 miles of transects were walked through approximately 47,235 acres in all or parts of 81 sections. Of the 516 San Joaquin kit fox dens observed, 496 were typical subterranean dens and 20 were atypical dens in man-made structures. Estimated den density was 36.7 [plus minus] 4.1 per square mile; and relative den density was 10.5/1,000 acres for all of NPR-1. Characteristics of typical kit fox dens were comparable to characteristics reported for other studies, except mean number of entrances per den, which was lower. Observers counted a total of 300 dens previously marked with an identification sign, 191 of which contained at least one complete entrance and would have been observed without a sign. Relative densities of preferred kit fox prey, black-toiled jackrabbits (40.1/1,000 acres) and desert cottontails (14.1/1,000 acres), were lower than previously recorded. Five blunt-nosed leopard lizards were observed along the southwest and northeast perimeter of the Reserve. Most of the 59 giant kangaroo rat burrow systems were observed in the flat terrain along the northeast and south perimeters of the Reserve. San Joaquin antelope squirrels were observed in the central and western parts of NPR- 1. A total of 73 antelope squirrels were observed, and the relative density was 1.511,000 acres. A total.of 30 possible environmental hazards were observed during transect surveys. Most of these were oil and water leaks of small size and appeared to pose little risk to endangered species. Results of this survey indicate that NPR-1 is supporting less wildlife than it did during either the 1979 or 1984 surveys.

  11. Five-year resurvey for endangered species on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Otten, M.R.M.; O`Farrell, T.P.; Briden, L.E.

    1992-06-01

    A transect survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1), Kern County, California, was conducted between July 3 and August 5, 1989 to determine the distribution and relative density of endangered species and other wildlife. Results were compared with other reported results, particularly the 1979 and 1984 surveys of NPR-1. A total of 589.8 miles of transects were walked through approximately 47,235 acres in all or parts of 81 sections. Of the 516 San Joaquin kit fox dens observed, 496 were typical subterranean dens and 20 were atypical dens in man-made structures. Estimated den density was 36.7 {plus_minus} 4.1 per square mile; and relative den density was 10.5/1,000 acres for all of NPR-1. Characteristics of typical kit fox dens were comparable to characteristics reported for other studies, except mean number of entrances per den, which was lower. Observers counted a total of 300 dens previously marked with an identification sign, 191 of which contained at least one complete entrance and would have been observed without a sign. Relative densities of preferred kit fox prey, black-toiled jackrabbits (40.1/1,000 acres) and desert cottontails (14.1/1,000 acres), were lower than previously recorded. Five blunt-nosed leopard lizards were observed along the southwest and northeast perimeter of the Reserve. Most of the 59 giant kangaroo rat burrow systems were observed in the flat terrain along the northeast and south perimeters of the Reserve. San Joaquin antelope squirrels were observed in the central and western parts of NPR- 1. A total of 73 antelope squirrels were observed, and the relative density was 1.511,000 acres. A total.of 30 possible environmental hazards were observed during transect surveys. Most of these were oil and water leaks of small size and appeared to pose little risk to endangered species. Results of this survey indicate that NPR-1 is supporting less wildlife than it did during either the 1979 or 1984 surveys.

  12. Physical, chemical, and isotopic data for samples from the Anderson Springs area, Lake County, California, 1998-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janik, C.J.; Goff, F.; Sorey, M.L.; Rytuba, J.J.; Counce, D.; Colvard, E.M.; Huebner, M.; White, L.D.; Foster, A.

    1999-01-01

    Anderson Springs is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. In the rugged hills to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. In the 1970s, the high-elevation areas surrounding Anderson Springs became part of The Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric powerplants are located on the ridges above Anderson Springs, utilizing steam produced from a 240C vapor-dominated reservoir. The primary purpose of this report is to provide physical, chemical, and isotopic data on samples collected in the Anderson Springs area during 1998 and 1999, in response to a Freedom of Information Act request. In July 1998, drainage from the Schwartz adit of the abandoned Anderson mercury mine increased substantially over a 2-day period, transporting a slurry of water and precipitates down a tributary and into Anderson Creek. In August 1998, J.J. Rytuba and coworkers sampled the Schwartz adit drainage and water from the Anderson Springs Hot Spring for base metal and methylmercury analysis. They measured a maximum temperature (Tm) of 85C in the Hot Spring. Published records show that the temperature of the Anderson Springs Hot Spring (main spring) was 63C in 1889, 4252C from 1974 through 1991, and 77C in March 1995. To investigate possible changes in thermal spring activity and to collect additional samples for geochemical analysis, C.J. Janik and coworkers returned to the area in September and December 1998. They determined that a cluster of springs adjacent to the main spring had Tm=98C, and they observed that a new area of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm=99.3C) had formed in an adjacent gully about 20 meters to the north of the main spring. During AugustOctober 1999, several field trips were conducted in the vicinity of Anderson Springs to continue monitoring and sampling the thermal manifestations. The new fumarolic area had increased in temperature and in discharge intensity since 1998, and a zone of dead trees had developed on the steep bank directly west of the fumaroles. Ground temperatures and diffuse flow of CO2 flow through soils were measured in the area surrounding the main spring and new fumaroles and in the zone of tree-kill.

  13. Effects of Residential Indoor Air Quality and Household Ventilation on Preterm Birth and Term Low Birth Weight in Los Angeles County, California

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Michelle; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of indoor residential air quality on preterm birth and term low birth weight (LBW). Methods. We evaluated 1761 nonsmoking women from a case-control survey of mothers who delivered a baby in 2003 in Los Angeles County, California. In multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, parity and birthplace, we evaluated the effects of living with smokers or using personal or household products that may contain volatile organic compounds and examined the influence of household ventilation. Results. Compared with unexposed mothers, women exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home had increased odds of term LBW (adjusted odds ratio [OR]?=?1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=? 0.85, 2.18) and preterm birth (adjusted OR?=?1.27; 95% CI?=?0.95, 1.70), although 95% CIs included the null. No increase in risk was observed for SHS-exposed mothers reporting moderate or high window ventilation. Associations were also observed for product usage, but only for women reporting low or no window ventilation. Conclusions. Residential window ventilation may mitigate the effects of indoor air pollution among pregnant women in Los Angeles County, California. PMID:23409879

  14. Assessing potential effects of changes in water use with a numerical groundwater-flow model of Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Richard M.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Mayers, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid growth and development within Carson Valley in Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California, has caused concern over the continued availability of groundwater, and whether the increased municipal demand could either impact the availability of water or result in decreased flow in the Carson River. Annual pumpage of groundwater has increased from less than 10,000 acre feet per year (acre-ft/yr) in the 1970s to about 31,000 acre-ft/yr in 2004, with most of the water used in agriculture. Municipal use of groundwater totaled about 10,000 acre-feet in 2000. In comparison, average streamflow entering the valley from 1940 to 2006 was 344,100 acre-ft/yr, while average flow exiting the valley was 297,400 acre-ft/yr. Carson Valley is underlain by semi-consolidated Tertiary sediments that are exposed on the eastern side and dip westward. Quaternary fluvial and alluvial deposits overlie the Tertiary sediments in the center and western side of the valley. The hydrology of Carson Valley is dominated by the Carson River, which supplies irrigation water for about 39,000 acres of farmland and maintains the water table less than 5 feet (ft) beneath much of the valley floor. Perennial and ephemeral watersheds drain the Carson Range and the Pine Nut Mountains, and mountain-front recharge to the groundwater system from these watersheds is estimated to average 36,000 acre-ft/yr. Groundwater in Carson Valley flows toward the Carson River and north toward the outlet of the Carson Valley. An upward hydraulic gradient exists over much of the valley, and artesian wells flow at land surface in some areas. Water levels declined as much as 15 ft since 1980 in some areas on the eastern side of the valley. Median estimated transmissivities of Quaternary alluvial-fan and fluvial sediments, and Tertiary sediments are 316; 3,120; and 110 feet squared per day (ft2/d), respectively, with larger transmissivity values in the central part of the valley and smaller values near the valley margins. A groundwater-flow model of Quaternary and Tertiary sediments in Carson Valley was developed using MODFLOW and calibrated to simulate historical conditions from water years 1971 through 2005. The 35-year transient simulation represented quarterly changes in precipitation, streamflow, pumping and irrigation. Inflows to the groundwater system simulated in the model include mountain-front recharge from watersheds in the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains, valley recharge from precipitation and land application of wastewater, agricultural recharge from irrigation, and septic-tank discharge. Outflows from the groundwater system simulated in the model include evapotranspiration from the water table and groundwater withdrawals for municipal, domestic, irrigation and other water supplies. The exchange of water between groundwater, the Carson River, and the irrigation system was represented with a version of the Streamflow Routing (SFR) package that was modified to apply diversions from the irrigation network to irrigated areas as recharge. The groundwater-flow model was calibrated through nonlinear regression with UCODE to measured water levels and streamflow to estimate values of hydraulic conductivity, recharge and streambed hydraulic-conductivity that were represented by 18 optimized parameters. The aquifer system was simulated as confined to facilitate numerical convergence, and the hydraulic conductivity of the top active model layers that intersect the water table was multiplied by a factor to account for partial saturation. Storage values representative of specific yield were specified in parts of model layers where unconfined conditions are assumed to occur. The median transmissivity (T) values (11,000 and 800 ft2/d for the fluvial and alluvial-fan sediments, respectively) are both within the third quartile of T values estimated from specific-capacity data, but T values for Tertiary sediments are larger than the third quartile estimated from specific-capacity data. The estimated vertical anisotropy for the Quaternary fluvial sediments (9,000) is comparable to the value estimated for a previous model of Carson Valley. The estimated total volume of mountain-front recharge is equivalent to a previous estimate from the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) watershed models, but less recharge is estimated for the Carson Range and more recharge is estimated for the Pine Nut Mountains than the previous estimate. Simulated flow paths indicate that groundwater flows faster through the center of Carson Valley and slower through the lower hydraulic-conductivity Tertiary sediments to the east. Shallow flow in the center of the valley is towards drainage channels, but deeper flow is generally directed toward the basin outlet to the north. The aquifer system is in a dynamic equilibrium with large inflows from storage in dry years and large outflows to storage in wet years. Pumping has historically been less than 10 percent of outflows from the groundwater system, and agricultural recharge has been less than 10 percent of inflows to the groundwater system. Three principal sources of uncertainty that affect model results are: (1) the hydraulic characteristics of the Tertiary sediments on the eastern side of the basin, (2) the composition of sediments beneath the alluvial fans and (3) the extent of the confining unit represented within fluvial sediments in the center of the basin. The groundwater-flow model was used in five 55-year predictive simulations to evaluate the long-term effects of different water-use scenarios on water-budget components, groundwater levels, and streamflow in the Carson River. The predictive simulations represented water years 2006 through 2060 using quarterly stress periods with boundary conditions that varied cyclically to represent the transition from wet to dry conditions observed from water years 1995 through 2004. The five scenarios included a base scenario with 2005 pumping rates held constant throughout the simulation period and four other scenarios using: (1) pumping rates increased by 70 percent, including an additional 1,340 domestic wells, (2A) pumping rates more than doubled with municipal pumping increased by a factor of four over the base scenario, (2B) pumping rates of 2A with 2,040 fewer domestic wells, and (3) pumping rates of 2A with 3,700 acres removed from irrigation. The 55-year predictive simulations indicate that increasing groundwater withdrawals under the scenarios considered would result in as much as 40 ft and 60 ft of water-table decline on the west and east sides of Carson Valley, respectively. The water table in the central part of the valley would remain essentially unchanged, but water-level declines of as much as 30 ft are predicted for the deeper, confined aquifer. The increased withdrawals would reduce the volume of groundwater storage and decrease the mean downstream flow in the Carson River by as much as 16,500 acre-ft/yr. If, in addition, 3,700 acres were removed from irrigation, the reduction in mean downstream flow in the Carson River would be only 6,500 acre-ft/yr. The actual amount of flow reduction is uncertain because of potential changes in irrigation practices that may not be accounted for in the model. The projections of the predictive simulations are sensitive to rates of mountain-front recharge specified for the Carson Range and the Pine Nut Mountains. The model provides a tool that can be used to aid water managers and planners in making informed decisions. A prudent management approach would include continued monitoring of water levels on both the east and west sides of Carson Valley to either verify the predictions of the groundwater-flow model or to provide additional data for recalibration of the model if the predictions prove inaccurate.

  15. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Santa Clara County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, William L.; Harp, Edwin L.; Arnal, Caroline H.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $7.6 million in damages were assessed in Santa Clara County.

  16. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Solano County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, David G.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $13.5 million in damages were assessed in Solano County.

  17. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Contra Costa County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graymer, Russell W.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $27 million in damages were assessed in Contra Costa County.

  18. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Sonoma County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, David W.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $21 million in damages were assessed in Sonoma County.

  19. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Marin County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, Meghan M.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $2.5 million in damages were assessed in Marin County.

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AS RELATED TO INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS IN CONTRA COSTA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of lung cancer incidence in Contra Costa County to ambient levels of air pollution. It was suspected that the presence of heavy industry in the county, mainly petrochemical plants and oil refineries, could be a contributin...

  1. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Santa Cruz County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.; Schuster, Robert L.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $14.5 million in damages were assessed in Santa Cruz County.

  2. Geographical distribution patterns and habitat suitability models for presence of host-seeking ixodid ticks in dense woodlands of Mendocino County, California.

    PubMed

    Eisen, L; Eisen, R J; Lane, R S

    2006-03-01

    We used drag sampling to examine the geographical distribution patterns of ixodid ticks engaging in open (non-nidicolous) host-seeking behavior in dense woodland habitats of the climatically and ecologically diverse Mendocino County in north coastal California. The findings based on this sampling methodology reflect risk of human exposure to host-seeking ticks rather than the true distribution of the ticks. Drag sampling in 78 sites yielded 7,860 nymphal or adult Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls, 220 Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, 150 Ixodes spinipalpis Hadwen & Nuttall, 15 Hemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), 12 Ixodes angustus Neumann, 12 Ixodes auritulus Neumann, and a single Dermacentor variabilis (Say). I. pacificus, which is the primary vector of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi to humans in California, occurred in all 78 sites examined. D. occidentalis, another tick species commonly biting humans in California, and H. leporispalustris typically were encountered in oak-associated woodlands in the central or eastern parts of the county. In contrast, three species of Ixodes ticks (I. angustus, I. auritulus, and I. spinipalpis) most commonly were found questing openly in woodlands with redwood present in the western part of the county. I. angustus and I. spinipalpis are occasional human biters and known experimental vectors of B. burgdorferi. Our study represents the first collection of large numbers of openly host-seeking I. spinipalpis ticks. Univariate tests of associations between presence of ticks (D. occidentalis, H. leporispalustris, I. angustus, I. auritulus, or I. spinipalpis) and environmental geographical information systems-remote sensing (GIS/ RS)-based data indicated that elevation, number of growing degree-days, and tasseled cap brightness, greenness, and wetness are especially useful predictors of presence of openly hostseeking ticks. Combinations of the above-mentioned GIS/RS-based data yielded significant logistic regression models for habitat suitability of host-seeking ticks for all five above-mentioned species. The model equations were used to create spatial surfaces of predicted presence of suitable habitat for openly host-seeking ticks in Mendocino County dense woodlands. PMID:16619628

  3. Use of USGS earth-science products by county planning agencies in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kockelman, William J.

    1976-01-01

    An inventory of the use of USGS products in selected planning studies, plans, ordinances, and other planning activities was made for eight counties in the San Francisco Bay region--a region of almost five million people. This inventory was designed to determine and document the use of the 87 earth-science information products prepared as a part of the San Francisco Bay Region Environment and Resources Planning Study (SFBRS). The inventory showed that: (1) all eight counties had planning staffs who were very familiar with SFBRS products and had made frequent use of such products; (2) all eight counties had prepared planning documents which cite SFBRS products; (3) the types of planning applications most often indicated were: geologic hazards studies, seismic safety and public safety plan elements, general reference, and the preparation and review of environmental impact reports and statements; (4) over 90 percent of the 87 SFBRS products were used at least once, and nine of the products were used over 30 times each for various county planning activities; and (5) at least 85 other USGS products were also used for various county planning activities. After the inventory, selected county officials, employees, and consultants were interviewed and asked--among other things--to indicate any problems in the use of the SFBRS products, to suggest improvements, and to identify any needed or desired earth-science information. The responses showed that: (1) the scales commonly used for working maps were 1:62,500 or larger and for plan implementation were 1:24,000 or larger; (2) only one county had a geologist on its planning staff, although six others had the benefit of geotechnical services from private consulting firms, county engineering staffs, or the State Division of Mines and Geology; (3) seven of the eight counties expressed some problems in using the products, primarily because of their small scale or lack of detail; (4) all eight counties expected to continue to use the products and expressed a need or desire for additional earth-science, engineering, or other information; (5) all eight counties suggested specific improvements to future products, primarily larger scale or more detail and fewer technical or more interpretive products; and (6) all eight counties received educational, advisory, and review services from USGS personnel. Seventeen selected examples of the application of SFBRS products to various county planning activities are discussed and illustrated. These examples include four planning studies, seven plans, and two ordinances. From the inventory and responses to the interviews, it is concluded that the counties in the Bay region are very familiar with, have made frequent use of, and will continue to use SFBRS products for a wide range of county planning activities. Suggestions to ensure more effective use of earth-science information in the future include: (1) monitoring emerging critical issues and analyzing new state and federal laws and regulations so as to better anticipate and respond to county earth-science information needs; (2) creating a users advisory committee to help identify critical issues and user needs; (3) providing engineering interpretations and land- and water-use capability ratings to make earth-science information more readily usable; (4) giving priority to areas impacted by development so as to husband staff resources; (5) providing earth-science information at the larger scale and greater detail commonly used and needed by counties; (6) releasing earth-science information earlier and according to a formal distribution pattern; and (7) providing educational, advisory, and review services in connection with any earth-science information designed for planners and decisionmakers.

  4. 78 FR 59919 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Accepted... County Water Conservation District. e. Name of Project: Humboldt River Hydropower Project. f. Location... water quality certification; (2) a copy of the request for certification, including proof of the date...

  5. Geologic map and digital database of the Porcupine Wash 7.5 minute Quadrangle, Riverside County, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    This data set maps and describes the geology of the Porcupine Wash 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, southern California. The quadrangle, situated in Joshua Tree National Park in the eastern Transverse Ranges physiographic and structural province, encompasses parts of the Hexie Mountains, Cottonwood Mountains, northern Eagle Mountains, and south flank of Pinto Basin. It is underlain by a basement terrane comprising Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, and Mesozoic and Mesozoic or Cenozoic hypabyssal dikes. The basement terrane is capped by a widespread Tertiary erosion surface preserved in remnants in the Eagle and Cottonwood Mountains and buried beneath Cenozoic deposits in Pinto Basin. Locally, Miocene basalt overlies the erosion surface. A sequence of at least three Quaternary pediments is planed into the north piedmont of the Eagle and Hexie Mountains, each in turn overlain by successively younger residual and alluvial deposits. The Tertiary erosion surface is deformed and broken by north-northwest-trending, high-angle, dip-slip faults and an east-west trending system of high-angle dip- and left-slip faults. East-west trending faults are younger than and perhaps in part coeval with faults of the northwest-trending set. The Porcupine Wash database was created using ARCVIEW and ARC/INFO, which are geographical information system (GIS) software products of Envronmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). The database consists of the following items: (1) a map coverage showing faults and geologic contacts and units, (2) a separate coverage showing dikes, (3) a coverage showing structural data, (4) a scanned topographic base at a scale of 1:24,000, and (5) attribute tables for geologic units (polygons and regions), contacts (arcs), and site-specific data (points). The database, accompanied by a pamphlet file and this metadata file, also includes the following graphic and text products: (1) A portable document file (.pdf) containing a navigable graphic of the geologic map on a 1:24,000 topographic base. The map is accompanied by a marginal explanation consisting of a Description of Map and Database Units (DMU), a Correlation of Map and Database Units (CMU), and a key to point-and line-symbols. (2) Separate .pdf files of the DMU and CMU, individually. (3) A PostScript graphic-file containing the geologic map on a 1:24,000 topographic base accompanied by the marginal explanation. (4) A pamphlet that describes the database and how to access it. Within the database, geologic contacts , faults, and dikes are represented as lines (arcs), geologic units as polygons and regions, and site-specific data as points. Polygon, arc, and point attribute tables (.pat, .aat, and .pat, respectively) uniquely identify each geologic datum and link it to other tables (.rel) that provide more detailed geologic information.

  6. Analysis of methods to determine storage capacity of, and sedimentation in, Loch Lomond Reservoir, Santa Cruz County, California, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Kelly R.; Freeman, Lawrence A.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Santa Cruz, conducted bathymetric and topographic surveys to determine the water storage capacity of, and the loss of capacity owing to sedimentation in, Loch Lomond Reservoir in Santa Cruz County, California. The topographic survey was done as a supplement to the bathymetric survey to obtain information about temporal changes in the upper reach of the reservoir where the water is shallow or the reservoir may be dry, as well as to obtain information about shoreline changes throughout the reservoir. Results of a combined bathymetric and topographic survey using a new, state-of-the-art method with advanced instrument technology indicate that the maximum storage capacity of the reservoir at the spillway altitude of 577.5 feet (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929) was 8,646 ±85 acre-feet in March 2009, with a confidence level of 99 percent. This new method is a combination of bathymetric scanning using multibeam-sidescan sonar, and topographic surveying using laser scanning (LiDAR), which produced a 1.64-foot-resolution grid with altitudes to 0.3-foot resolution and an estimate of total water storage capacity at a 99-percent confidence level. Because the volume of sedimentation in a reservoir is considered equal to the decrease in water-storage capacity, sedimentation in Loch Lomond Reservoir was determined by estimating the change in storage capacity by comparing the reservoir bed surface defined in the March 2009 survey with a revision of the reservoir bed surface determined in a previous investigation in November 1998. This revised reservoir-bed surface was defined by combining altitude data from the 1998 survey with new data collected during the current (2009) investigation to fill gaps in the 1998 data. Limitations that determine the accuracy of estimates of changes in the volume of sedimentation from that estimated in each of the four previous investigations (1960, 1971, 1982, and 1998) are a result of the limitations of the survey equipment and data-processing methods used. Previously used and new methods were compared to determine the recent (1998-2009) change in storage capacity and the most accurate and cost-effective means to define the reservoir bed surface so that results can be easily replicated in future surveys. Results of this investigation indicate that the advanced method used in the 2009 survey accurately captures the features of the wetted reservoir surface as well as features along the shoreline that affect the storage capacity calculations. Because the bathymetric and topographic data are referenced to a datum, the results can be easily replicated or compared with future results. Comparison of the 2009 reservoir-bed surface with the surface defined in 1998 indicates that sedimentation is occurring throughout the reservoir. About 320 acre-feet of sedimentation has occurred since 1998, as determined by comparing the revised 1998 reservoir-bed surface, with an associated maximum reservoir storage capacity of 8,965 acre-feet, to the 2009 reservoir bed surface, with an associated maximum capacity of 8,646 acre-feet. This sedimentation is more than 3 percent of the total storage capacity that was calculated on the basis of the results of the 1998 bathymetric investigation.

  7. Wilhelm von Humboldt's Idea of "Bildung" and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Elsina

    The importance of Wilhelm von Humboldt's work in educational philosophy is little known outside of Germany and even there he is more often criticized than praised. This is unfortunate because his contributions to education and other areas had an important impact on other philosophers of his period and are well worth considering today. In his main

  8. Molecular Modeling and Computational Chemistry at Humboldt State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paselk, Richard A.; Zoellner, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a molecular modeling and computational chemistry (MM&CC) facility for undergraduate instruction and research at Humboldt State University. This facility complex allows the introduction of MM&CC throughout the chemistry curriculum with tailored experiments in general, organic, and inorganic courses as well as a new molecular modeling

  9. Collegiality and Complexity: Humboldt's Relevance to British Universities Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elton, Lewis

    2008-01-01

    The two fundamental features of Humboldt's prescription for the new University of Berlin in 1810--research-like learning as a collaboration of teachers and students, and academic freedom of research and teaching (based essentially on an intuitive, but deep understanding of complexity theory)--are as valid now as they were 200 years ago in spite of

  10. Collegiality and Complexity: Humboldt's Relevance to British Universities Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elton, Lewis

    2008-01-01

    The two fundamental features of Humboldt's prescription for the new University of Berlin in 1810--research-like learning as a collaboration of teachers and students, and academic freedom of research and teaching (based essentially on an intuitive, but deep understanding of complexity theory)--are as valid now as they were 200 years ago in spite of…

  11. 77 FR 56179 - Humboldt (NV) Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Forest Service Humboldt (NV) Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding... 2567555. Written comments should be sent to USDA Forest Service, 1200 E Winnemucca Blvd., Winnemucca,...

  12. Analytical data for waters of the Harvard Open Pit, Jamestown Mine, Tuolumne County, California, March 1998-September 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashley, R.P.; Savage, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Jamestown mine is located in the Jamestown mining district in western Tuolumne County, California (see Fig. 1). This district is one of many located on or near the Melones fault zone, a major regional suture in the Sierra Nevada foothills. The districts along the Melones fault comprise the Mother Lode gold belt (Clark, 1970). The Harvard pit is the largest of several open pits mined at the Jamestown site by Sonora Mining Corporation between 1986 and 1994 (Fig. 2; Algood, 1990). It is at the site of an historical mine named the Harvard that produced about 100,000 troy ounces of gold, mainly between 1906 and 1916 (Julihn and Horton, 1940). Sonora Mining mined and processed about 17,000,000 short tons of ore, with an overall stripping ratio of about 4.5:1, yielding about 660,000 troy ounces of gold (Nelson and Leicht, 1994). Most of this material came from the Harvard pit, which attained dimensions of about 2700 ft (830 m) in length, 1500 ft (460 m) in width, and 600 ft (185 m) in depth. The bottom of the pit is at an elevation of 870 ft (265 m). Since mining operations ceased in mid-1994, the open pit has been filling with water. As of November, 2000, lake level had reached an elevation of about 1170 ft (357 m). Water quality monitoring data gathered after mine closure showed rising levels of arsenic, sulfate, and other components in the lake, with particularly notable increases accompanying a period of rapid filling in 1995 (County of Tuolumne, 1998). The largest potential source for arsenic in the vicinity of the Harvard pit is arsenian pyrite, the most abundant sulfide mineral related to gold mineralization. A previous study of weathering of arsenian pyrite in similarly mineralized rocks at the Clio mine, in the nearby Jacksonville mining district, showed that arsenic released by weathering of arsenian pyrite is effectively attenuated by adsorption on goethite or coprecipitation with jarosite, depending upon the buffering capacity of the pyrite-bearing rock (Savage and others, 2000). Although jarosite would be expected to dissolve in water having the composition of the developing pit lake, iron oxyhydroxide species (ferrihydrite and goethite) would be stable, and strong partitioning of arsenic onto suspended particles or bottom sediments containing these iron phases would be expected. Arsenic release to the lake would not be expected until stratification develops, producing a reducing, non-circulating hypolimnion in which the iron phases would be destroyed by dissolution. The fact that arsenic concentrations increased rapidly before the pit lake was deep enough to stratify shows that arsenic may not be attenuated in the ways that the earlier Clio mine area study indicated, and suggested that our understanding of release and transport of arsenic in this environment is incomplete. Therefore, in 1997 we decided to study the chemical evolution of the Harvard pit lake as part of a project on environmental impacts of gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, and in early 1998 we developed a cooperative study with several of the investigators in the Stanford University Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences who had done the Clio study. The U.S. Geological Survey portion of the project has been funded by the Mineral Resources Program. It is anticipated that a better understanding of the release and transport of arsenic into the Harvard pit lake and its accumulation there will contribute to more accurate predictions of arsenic release from weathering of sulfide-bearing rocks exposed by mining or other activities or events, and to better forecasts of pit lake evolution in this and similar environments, leading to more effective monitoring and mitigation strategies. An accurate predictive model is needed for the Harvard pit lake to forecast trends in metal concentrations, particularly arsenic, and also concentrations of major cations and anions. As the lake approaches pre-mining groundwater levels the lake water could move down the hydrologic gradient to the southeast into domestic wells, and could also affect the surface water of Woods Creek (see Figures 1-3). This report presents data for water samples collected from March, 1998 through September, 1999. Selected preliminary data for the pit lake for the 1998 calendar year have been reported (Savage and others, 2000).

  13. 75 FR 74681 - Alpine County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ...: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Alpine County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will hold a meeting... 96120. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Morris, RAC Coordinator, USDA, Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Carson Ranger District, 1536 S. Carson Street, Carson City, NV 89701 (775) 884-8140;...

  14. 76 FR 34648 - Tehama County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Forest Service Tehama County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act. The..., Committee Coordinator, USDA, Mendocino National Forest, Grindstone Ranger District, 825 N. Humboldt...

  15. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Library Sacramento, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Library Sacramento, California Photo Taken: 1860 Re-photo: March 1940 EAST FRONT - CENTRAL SECTION - Custom House, Custom House Plaza, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  16. Reconnaissance of beryl-bearing pegmatites in the Ruby Mountains, other areas in Nevada, and northwestern Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Jerry Chipman; Hinrichs, E. Neal

    1957-01-01

    The scheelite-beryl deposits at Oreana and in Humboldt Canyon, Pershing County., are rich in beryllium. Twelve samples from the Humboldt Canyon (Lakeview) deposit range from 0.018 to 0.11 percent BeO, but underground crosscuts have failed to intersect similar rock at depth. Beryl locally constitutes as much as 10 percent of the pegmati tic ore at Oreana. &nbs

  17. Swath Bathymetry Surveys of the Monterey Bay Area from Point Ano Nuevo to Moss Landing, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes swath bathymetry and backscatter data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey on the continental shelf within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary between Point A?o Nuevo and Moss Landing, in San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, Calif. The survey was done for the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), in field activities S-7-09-MB and S-10-09-MB, by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The data were aquired in two seperate surveys: (1) between August 13, 2009 and September 3, 2009, personnel from WCMG completed field activity S-7-09-MB, from Point A?o Nuevo south to Table Rock, as well as a block west of Soquel Canyon; (2) between October 12 and December 16, 2009, WCMG conducted field activity S-10-09-MB, surveying between Table Rock and Moss Landing.

  18. Joint environmental assessment for Chevron USA, Inc. and Santa Fe Energy Resources, Inc.: Midway Valley 3D seismic project, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The proposed Midway Valley 3D Geophysical Exploration Project covers approximately 31,444 aces of private lands, 6,880 acres of Department of Energy (DOE) Lands within Naval Petroleum Reserve 2 (NPR2) and 3,840 acres of lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in western Kern County, California. This environmental assessment (EA) presents an overview of the affected environment within the project area using results of a literature review of biological field surveys previously conducted within or adjacent to a proposed 3D seismic project. The purpose is to provide background information to identify potential and known locations of sensitive wildlife and special status plant species within the proposed seismic project area. Biological field surveys, following agency approved survey protocols, will be conducted during October through November 1996 to acquire current resources data to provide avoidance as the project is being implemented in the field.

  19. Application of complex trace analysis for improved target identification in gem-tourmaline-bearing pegmatites in the Himalaya mine, San Diego County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Jeffrey E.; Cook, Frederick A.

    2000-04-01

    Gem bearing miarolitic cavities in rare metal, lithium enriched, granitic pegmatites pose challenging exploration targets, as they are not readily identifiable using normal geophysical methods. Application of ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been successful in delineating gem-bearing zones in the Himalaya pegmatite mine in San Diego County, California. Careful setup and data processing, using complex signal analysis, have so far allowed us to distinguish between gem- bearing pockets, non-gem bearing pockets, and barren/frozen dike. Each of us independently hypothesized, in 1995, that GPR could be an appropriate tool for gemstone exploration in the subsurface exposures in adits, drifts and stopes of many gem mines (Patterson, 1996; Cook, 1997). The culmination of these efforts was reached in June, 1998, with the first documented discovery of gem tourmaline pockets using this technique.

  20. Map showing recent (1997-98 El Nino) and historical landslides, Crow Creek and vicinity, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, Jeffrey A.; Godt, Jonathan; Tachker, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the spatial distribution of 3,800 landslides caused by 1997-98 El Ni?o winter rainfall in the vicinity of Crow Creek in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California. The report also documents 558 historical (pre-1997-98) landslides. Landslides were mapped from 1:12,000-scale aerial photographs and classified as either debris flows or slides. Slides include rotational and translational slides, earth flows, and complex slope movements. Debris flows and slides from the 1997-98 winter modified 1 percent of the surface of the 148.6 km2 study area. Debris flows were scattered throughout the area, regardless of the type of underlying bedrock geology. Slides, however, were concentrated in a soft sandstone, conglomerate, and clayey group of rock units. Digital map files accompany the report.