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Sample records for humid region site

  1. Humid site stabilization and closure

    SciTech Connect

    Cutshall, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the work described here is to identify and evaluate the importance of factors that are expected to dictate the nature of site stabilization and closure requirements. Subsequent efforts will plan for implementation of such requirements. Two principal areas of site stabilization and closure effort will be pursued initially - geological management and vegetation management. The geological effort will focus on chemical weathering and surficial erosion. Such catastrophic geologic events as landslides, flooding, earthquakes, volcanos, etc. are already considered in site selection and operation and these factors will not be emphasized initially. Vegetation management will be designed to control erosion, to minimize nuclide mobilization by roots and to be compatible with natural successional pressures. It is anticipated that the results of this work will be important both to site selection and operation as well as the actual stabilization and closure procedure.

  2. Corrective measures technology for humid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.

    1983-01-01

    The corrective measures technology task for humid sites consists of three subtasks. The first subtask has the objective of demonstrating that grout injection into closed burial trenches can achieve the hydrologic isolation of buried wastes. From laboratory testing of seven grout formulations, two promising grouts, 7.6% sodium silicate and 11.7% acrylamide, were selected for field demonstration by injection into 1:10-scale burial trenches. Both grouts effected a several orders of magnitude reduction in the mean hydraulic conductivity of the trench. The trench chemical treatment subtask has the objective of demonstrating the caustic soda injection into a closed trench's backfill and surrounding soil can achieve a fixation of radiostrontium from further ground water contamination. Monitoring of ground waters in and around the treated trench indicate a continued fixation of radiostrontium from further leaching. Soil samples were taken from the trench and found to contain /sup 90/Sr coprecipitated with calcium carbonate. The final subtask has the objective of demonstrating that the detection and treatment of ground water seeps can achieve a significant reduction in radiostrontium contamination of surface water. The utility of measuring /sup 90/Sr in ground water samples by Cerenkov radiation detection was found to be analytically equivalent to but considerably less expensive and time consuming than the standard radiochemical method.

  3. Environmental impact on construction limestone at humid regions with an emphasis on salt weathering, Al-hambra islamic archaeological site, Granada City, Spain: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamh, G. M. E.

    2007-08-01

    Al-hambra is an immense and valuable archaeological site in Spain built on Sabika hill with red brick and natural sandy limestone. It exhibits weathering features indicating salt weathering process. The main aim of this study is to examine weathering processes and intensity acting on Al-hambra. Rock petrography and mineralogical composition have been examined using thin sections, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence; limits of rock’s physical parameters using ultrasonic waves and mercury porosimeter; rock salt content through hydrochemical analysis. Salts attacking this structure are mainly from wet deposition of air pollutants on the long term chemical alteration of rock’s carbonate content to its equivalent salts. The salts’ concentration limit within the examined rock samples is considerably low but it is effective on the long run through hydration of sulphate salts and/or crystallization of chloride salts. Rock texture type and its silica as well as clay content reduces its resistance to internal stresses by salts as well as wetting and drying cycles at such humid area. The recession in limits of physical parameters examined for deep seated and weathered limestone samples quantitatively reflects weathering intensity on Al-hambra.

  4. Diurnal variation of tropospheric relative humidity in tropical regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Isaac; Arkin, Philip; Ferraro, Ralph; Eriksson, Patrick; Fetzer, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Despite the importance of water vapor especially in the tropical region, the diurnal variations of water vapor have not been completely investigated in the past due to the lack of adequate observations. Measurements from Sondeur Atmosphérique du Profil d'Humidité Intertropicale par Radiométrie (SAPHIR) onboard the low inclination Megha-Tropiques satellite with frequent daily revisits provide a valuable dataset for investigating the diurnal and spatial variation of tropospheric relative humidity in the tropical region. In this study, we first transformed SAPHIR observations into layer-averaged relative humidity, then partitioned the data based on local observation time into 24 bins with a grid resolution of one degree. Afterwards, we fitted Fourier series to the binned data. Finally, the mean, amplitude, and diurnal peak time of relative humidity in tropical regions were calculated for each grid point using either the measurements or Fourier series. The results were separately investigated for different SAPHIR channels as well as for relative humidity with respect to both liquid and ice phases. The results showed that the wet and dry regions are, respectively, associated with convective and subsidence regions which is consistent with the previous studies. The mean tropospheric humidity values reported in this study are generally 10 to 15 % higher than those reported using infrared observations which is because of strict cloud screening for infrared measurements. The results showed a large inhomogeneity in diurnal variation of tropospheric relative humidity in tropical region. The diurnal amplitude was larger over land than over ocean and the oceanic amplitude was larger over convective regions than over subsidence regions. The results showed that the diurnal amplitude is less than 10 % in middle and upper troposphere, but it is up to 30 % in lower troposphere over land. Although the peak of RH generally occurs over night or in early morning, there are several

  5. Development testing of grouting and liner technology for humid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, N.D.

    1981-01-01

    Shallow land burial, although practiced for many years, has not always secured radionuclides from the biosphere in humid environments. To develop and demonstrate improved burial technology the Engineered Test Facility was implemented. An integral part of this experiment was site characterization, with geologic and hydrologic factors as major the components. Improved techniques for burial of low-level waste were developed and tested in the laboratory before being applied in the field. The two techniques studied were membrane trench liner and grouting void spaces.

  6. Evaporation study in a humid region, Lake Michie, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, J.F., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    The mass-transfer and water-budget techniques of calibrating a reservoir for evaporation were evaluated through a study of Lake Michie, N.C. The techniques appear adequate for estimation of lake evaporation and net seepage in humid regions where lake storage is affected by streamflow and ground-water seepage, under conditions no more adverse than those affecting Lake Michie. The analysis of 25 months of mass-transfer and water-budget data collected at Lake Michie indicates pronounced seasonal variation in both evaporation and seepage.

  7. Badlands in humid regions - redbed desertification in Nanxiong Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Luobin; Hua, Peng; Simonson, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The redbed badlands in Nanxiong City, China, well represent badlands in humid regions. The erosion rate in humid regions is much higher than that in arid regions and can reach 1 cm per month during the summer. The purpose of this study is to introduce the research of badlands in China, which have not been extensively studied so far, and to compare the badlands between arid and humid regions. Furthermore, the aim is to study the impact of mineralogical and chemical composition on the disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands. For the purpose of this study field observations, sampling, and digging profiles were done. The mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Nanxiong Basin badland lithologies were determined by XRD, XRF and thin sections. Weathering resistance, process of weathering, and disintegration features were studied by weathering experiments under natural conditions. Weathering profiles can be easily divided into four layers: regolith, a strongly weathered layer, a poorly weathered layer, and an unweathered sediment. The depth of the weathering profile is influenced by the weathering resistance of the soft rock. Weathering resistance affects the erosion rate and evolution of landforms in badlands by influencing the rate from unweathered rock to regolith. Analyzed sediments have high content of illite and illite-smectite interstratifications. This composition of clay minerals together with poor sediment consolidation jointly leads to weathering prone sediment. The weathering and disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands has a close relationship with rainfall. Sheet erosion, a kind of solid-liquid phase flow, formed in the regolith of the badland during rainfall events and can be the most instrumental to erosion. The mineral composition and liquidity plasticity index were also analyzed, and the results show that the regolith are low liquid limit silts with liquid limit of 21%-25%, plastic limit of 13%-18% and plasticity index

  8. The effect of the relative humidity and the specific humidity on the determination of the climate regions in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Sinan; Cigizoglu, H. Kerem

    2013-05-01

    All elements of climate that affect climatic events must be taken into account such that the climate regions are determined with exactitude. To this end, data on maximum temperature (Tx), minimum temperature (Tn), mean temperature (Tm), and precipitation (Pt) as well as local pressure (Ps), mean wind (WN), relative humidity (RH), and specific humidity (SH) have been investigated statistically and graphically. The specific humidity data calculated using Tm, Ps, and RH data and statistical comparisons have shown that there are no drawbacks to using SH in climatologic studies. According to principal component analysis, it was concluded that RH and SH should be used together with Tx, Tm, Tn, and Pt for the determination of the climate regions. Two cluster analysis methods, Ward's method and Kohonen neural network technique, were used to show the effect of RH and SH. A comparison of the cluster's stability between the limited and high number of stations shows that Ward's method and Kohonen neural network are very stable in both cases. It was also determined that RH does not change the outline of climate regions but that it affects the zones of climate transition. It was observed that clusters determined by using Tm, Pt, and RH provide relatively more distinctive clusters in the data space than clusters determined by using Tm, Pt, and SH.

  9. Effects of relative humidity on aerosol light scattering: results from different European sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieger, P.; Fierz-Schmidhauser, R.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.

    2013-04-01

    The effect of aerosol water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering coefficient (σsp) is described in this study by comparing measurements from five European sites: the Jungfraujoch, located in the Swiss Alps at 3580 m a.s.l., Ny-Ålesund, located on Spitsbergen in the Arctic, Mace Head, a coastal site in Ireland, Cabauw, a rural site in the Netherlands and Melpitz, a regional background site in Eastern Germany. These sites were selected according to the aerosol type usually encountered at that location. The scattering enhancement factor f(RH,λ) is the key parameter to describe the effect of water uptake on the particle light scattering. It is defined as the σsp(RH) at a certain relative humidity (RH) and wavelength λ divided by its dry value. f(RH) largely varied at the five sites starting from very low values of f(RH = 85%,λ = 550 nm) around 1.28 for mineral dust to 3.41 for Arctic aerosol. Hysteresis behavior was observed at all sites except at the Jungfraujoch due to the absence of sea salt. Closure studies and Mie simulations showed that both size and chemical composition determine the magnitude of f(RH). Both parameters are also needed to successfully predict f(RH). Finally, the measurement results were compared to the widely used aerosol model OPAC (Hess et al., 1998). Significant discrepancies were seen especially at intermediate RH ranges, which were mainly attributed to inappropriate implemented hygroscopic growth within OPAC. Replacement of the hygroscopic growth with recent literature values showed a clear improvement of the OPAC model.

  10. Effects of relative humidity on aerosol light scattering: results from different European sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieger, P.; Fierz-Schmidhauser, R.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of aerosol water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering coefficient (σsp) is described in this study by comparing measurements from five European sites: the Jungfraujoch, located in the Swiss Alps at 3580 m a.s.l.; Ny-Ålesund, located on Spitsbergen in the Arctic; Mace Head, a coastal site in Ireland; Cabauw, a rural site in the Netherlands; and Melpitz, a regional background site in Eastern Germany. These sites were selected according to the aerosol type usually encountered at that location. The scattering enhancement factor f(RH, λ) is the key parameter to describe the effect of water uptake on the particle light scattering. It is defined as the σsp(RH) at a certain relative humidity (RH) and wavelength λ divided by its dry value. f(RH) at the five sites varied widely, starting at very low values of f(RH = 85%, λ = 550 nm) around 1.28 for mineral dust, and reaching up to 3.41 for Arctic aerosol. Hysteresis behavior was observed at all sites except at the Jungfraujoch (due to the absence of sea salt). Closure studies and Mie simulations showed that both size and chemical composition determine the magnitude of f(RH). Both parameters are also needed to successfully predict f(RH). Finally, the measurement results were compared to the widely used aerosol model, OPAC (Hess et al., 1998). Significant discrepancies were seen, especially at intermediate RH ranges; these were mainly attributed to inappropriate implementation of hygroscopic growth in the OPAC model. Replacement of the hygroscopic growth with values from the recent literature resulted in a clear improvement of the OPAC model.

  11. A Regional Training Course in Natural Resources Management and Environmental Monitoring in Humid-Tropical Ecosystems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ffolliott, Peter F.

    Presented are the basic concepts, methods, and considerations relevant to formulating watershed resources goals, policies, and management practices. Intended primarily for resource managers and land use planners concerned with water resources, this regional training course manual emphasizes material which applies to humid and tropical ecosystems.…

  12. The inner region of the unstable boundary layer over hilly prairie for temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brutsaert, Wilfried; Sugita, Michiaki

    1990-01-01

    The analytical treatment of wind-speed, temperature, and humidity data above nonuniform surfaces is utilized to test the Monin-Obukhov similarity at the inner region of the atmospheric boundary layer. The data profiles are analyzed, and independent measurements of the surface fluxes of sensible heat and water vapor are incorporated into the analysis. It is shown that the mean profiles of the potential temperature and specific humidity can be described using the Monin-Obukhov similarity functions in an area with unstable conditions.

  13. Storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals in hot and humid regions.

    PubMed

    Bott, Rubiana F; Oliveira, Wanderley P

    2007-04-01

    A review of the methodology for determination of the storage conditions for stability testing according to Schumacher/Grimm is presented in this paper. The purpose is to provide scientific information useful for the definition of storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals suitable to the region where the product will be dispensed. Special attention is given to stability testing in the new markets located in developing countries with very hot and humid climates. Finally, storage conditions for stability testing in the Brazilian regions were derived and examined comparatively with the guidelines of the world health organization (WHO) and regulatory bodies. The storage conditions were derived from the calculated values of the mean kinetic temperature and the relative humidity (RH). These parameters were estimated from daily values of dry and dew point temperatures of all Brazilian capitals from 1998 to 2002; collected in the morning (9 a.m.), in the afternoon (3 p.m.), and at night (9 p.m.). The Brazilian Center of Weather Forecast and Climatic Studies of the National Institute of Spatial Research (CPTEC/INPE) kindly furnished these data. Significant differences of the mean kinetic temperature (MKT) and relative humidity (RH) for Brazilian regions were observed. These results indicate the existence of a high climatic diversity between the Brazilian regions, making challenging the definition of a single storage condition for the stability testing. Some regions present RH values higher than 80%, giving support to the concerns of the WHO, indicating the necessity of revision of existing guidelines for stability testing mainly for very hot and humid regions. PMID:17523004

  14. A new temperature- and humidity-dependent surface site density approach for deposition ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, I.; Hoose, C.; Möhler, O.; Connolly, P.; Leisner, T.

    2015-04-01

    Deposition nucleation experiments with Arizona Test Dust (ATD) as a surrogate for mineral dusts were conducted at the AIDA cloud chamber at temperatures between 220 and 250 K. The influence of the aerosol size distribution and the cooling rate on the ice nucleation efficiencies was investigated. Ice nucleation active surface site (INAS) densities were calculated to quantify the ice nucleation efficiency as a function of temperature, humidity and the aerosol surface area concentration. Additionally, a contact angle parameterization according to classical nucleation theory was fitted to the experimental data in order to relate the ice nucleation efficiencies to contact angle distributions. From this study it can be concluded that the INAS density formulation is a very useful tool to describe the temperature- and humidity-dependent ice nucleation efficiency of ATD particles. Deposition nucleation on ATD particles can be described by a temperature- and relative-humidity-dependent INAS density function ns(T, Sice) with ns(xtherm) = 1.88 ×105 · exp(0.2659 · xtherm) [m-2] , (1) where the temperature- and saturation-dependent function xtherm is defined as xtherm = -(T-273.2)+(Sice-1) ×100, (2) with the saturation ratio with respect to ice Sice >1 and within a temperature range between 226 and 250 K. For lower temperatures, xtherm deviates from a linear behavior with temperature and relative humidity over ice. Also, two different approaches for describing the time dependence of deposition nucleation initiated by ATD particles are proposed. Box model estimates suggest that the time-dependent contribution is only relevant for small cooling rates and low number fractions of ice-active particles.

  15. Spatial analysis of relative humidity during ungauged periods in a mountainous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Yeonjoo

    2016-06-01

    Although atmospheric humidity influences environmental and agricultural conditions, thereby influencing plant growth, human health, and air pollution, efforts to develop spatial maps of atmospheric humidity using statistical approaches have thus far been limited. This study therefore aims to develop statistical approaches for inferring the spatial distribution of relative humidity (RH) for a mountainous island, for which data are not uniformly available across the region. A multiple regression analysis based on various mathematical models was used to identify the optimal model for estimating monthly RH by incorporating not only temperature but also location and elevation. Based on the regression analysis, we extended the monthly RH data from weather stations to cover the ungauged periods when no RH observations were available. Then, two different types of station-based data, the observational data and the data extended via the regression model, were used to form grid-based data with a resolution of 100 m. The grid-based data that used the extended station-based data captured the increasing RH trend along an elevation gradient. Furthermore, annual RH values averaged over the regions were examined. Decreasing temporal trends were found in most cases, with magnitudes varying based on the season and region.

  16. Carbon dioxide and methane supersaturation in lakes of semi-humid/semi-arid region, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhidan; Song, Kaishan; Zhao, Ying; Jin, Xiuliang

    2016-08-01

    Understanding concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in lakes is an important part of a comprehensive global carbon budget. We estimated data on the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and CH4 (pCH4) from sampling with 95 lakes in semi-humid/semi-arid region of Northeastern China during ice-free period. Both pCO2 and pCH4 varied greatly among the study sites. p(CO2) values in these lakes ranged from 21.9 to 30,152.3 μatm (n = 403), and 91% of lakes in this survey were supersaturated with CO2. p(CH4) values ranged from 12.6 to 139,630.7 μatm with all sites in this study of CH4 sources to the atmosphere during the ice-free period. The collected urban lakes samples exhibited higher pCO2 and pCH4 than wild lakes samples. Either the mean value of p(CO2) or p(CH4) in saline waters is higher than in fresh waters. Correlation analysis implied that the partial pressure of the GHGs (CO2 and CH4) showed statistically correlations with water environment indicators like pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll a (Chla). However, the most of the relationships showed a high degree of scatter, only pH might be used as the predictor of the gas partial pressure based on the result of this study (rpCO2 = -0.437, p < 0.01, n = 382; rpCH4 = -0.265, p < 0.01, n = 400). Furthermore, salinity could be a good predictor for p(CO2) and p(CH4) in 83 freshwater lakes in our study (rpCO2 = 0.365, rpCH4 = 0.323, p < 0.01, n = 348). The mean CO2 flux increased with the decreasing lake area size. The calculated annual areal carbon emission rate is 560.2 g C m-2 from 95 lakes in Northeastern China. We could not extrapolate carbon emission from these lakes to the boreal region or a wider scale because of the change of environmental conditions.

  17. Different responses of MODIS-derived NDVI to root-zone soil moisture in semi-arid and humid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianwei; Xie, Hongjie; Guan, Huade; Zhou, Xiaobing

    2007-06-01

    SummarySurface representation of the root-zone soil moisture is investigated so that feasibility of using optical remote sensing techniques to indirectly map root-zone soil moisture is assessed. Specifically, covariation of root-zone soil moisture with the normalized difference of vegetation index (NDVI) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is studied at three sites (New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas) selected from the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN). The three sites represent two types of vegetation (shrub and grass) and two types of climate conditions: semi-arid (New Mexico and Arizona) and humid (Texas). Collocated deseasonalized time series of soil moistures at five depths (5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm, 50 cm, and 100 cm) and NDVI (8-day composite in 250 m resolution) during the period of February 2000 through April 2004 were used for correlation analysis. Similar analysis was also conducted for the raw time series for comparison purposes. The linear regression of both the deseasonalized time series and the raw time series was used to estimate root-zone soil moisture. Results show that (1) the deseasonalized time series results in consistent and significant correlation (0.46-0.55) between NDVI and root-zone soil moisture at the three sites; (2) vegetation (NDVI) at the humid site needs longer time (10 days) to respond to soil moisture change than that at the semi-arid sites (5 days or less); (3) the time-series of root-zone soil moisture estimated by a linear regression model based on deseasonalized time series accounts for 42-71% of the observed soil moisture variations for the three sites; and (4) in the semi-arid region, root-zone soil moisture of shrub-vegetated area can be better estimated using NDVI than that of grass-vegetated area.

  18. Study of aerosol radiative properties under different relative humidity conditions in the thermal infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C. P.; Yang, P.; Nasiri, S. L.; Liu, X.

    2014-12-01

    In the aerosol transport process, the optical properties of aerosol particles can vary due to humidification or mixing with other kinds of aerosols. Previous studies have shown mixing dust with other types of aerosol tends to make the aerosol more spectrally absorptive, but the degree of impact of relative humidity (RH) along the transport path is not clear. To investigate this effect, we conduct a numerical study to estimate the radiative sensitivity of aerosols under various relative humidity conditions. Specifically, the OPAC (Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds) database is used, which provides the optical properties (i.e., the extinction, scattering and absorption coefficient, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor and phase function) of ten types of aerosols under various relative humidity conditions. Lookup tables (LUTs) of the bidirectional reflectivity, transmissivity and effective emissivity will be computed for the ten aerosol types for input to the high-spectral-resolution radiative transfer model (HRTM). Using these LUTs, the HTRM can calculate top-of-atmospheric brightness temperatures, which we can use to determine the degree of radiative sensitivity in the infrared spectral region. Furthermore, comparisons between simulations and MODIS observations will be presented.

  19. Water resources and land use and cover in a humid region: the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Lockaby, B Graeme; Helms, Brian; Kalin, Latif; Stoeckel, Denise

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that forest and water resources are intricately linked. Globally, changes in forest cover to accommodate agriculture and urban development introduce additional challenges for water management. The U.S. Southeast typifies this global trend as predictions of land-use change and population growth suggest increased pressure on water resources in coming years. Close attention has long been paid to interactions between people and water in arid regions; however, based on information from regions such as the Southeast, it is evident that much greater focus is required to sustain a high-quality water supply in humid areas as well. To that end, we review hydrological, physicochemical, biological, and human and environmental health responses to conversion of forests to agriculture and urban land uses in the Southeast. Commonly, forest removal leads to increased stream sediment and nutrients, more variable flow, altered habitat and stream and riparian communities, and increased risk of human health effects. Although indicators such as the percentage of impervious cover signify overall watershed alteration, the threshold to disturbance, or the point at which effects can been observed in stream and riparian parameters, can be quite low and often varies with physiographic conditions. In addition to current land use, historical practices can greatly influence current water quality. General inferences of this study may extend to many humid regions concerning climate, environmental thresholds, and the causes and nature of effects. PMID:21546673

  20. Light scattering from aerosol particles in the El Paso del Norte region / the effect of humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina Calderon, Richard

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in climate forcing, through scattering and absorption of the incoming solar radiation. The extinction of light by the presence of atmospheric aerosols was studied using two first-principle models, and corresponding computer codes. In the first model the extinction of light from irregularly shaped aerosol particles was analyzed. In the second model it was assumed that the irregularly shaped aerosol particles were covered by a film of water, and the hygroscopicity and the extinction of light by the aerosols was analyzed. These models were then applied to the Paso del Norte region and their light extinction results compared with a local extinctiometer. The inter-comparison of the models extinction results and the extinctiometer values were well correlated. It was observed that for high humidity days the model that used an aerosol particle covered with a water film correlated better with the experimental extinctiometer measurements. While these two models were validated in the Paso del Norte region, they are also applicable to any other region, under humid or dry atmospheric conditions.

  1. Effective crop evapotranspiration measurement using time-domain reflectometry technique in a sub-humid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R. K.; Panda, R. K.; Halder, Debjani

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the time-domain reflectometry (TDR) technique for daily evapotranspiration estimation of peanut and maize crop in a sub-humid region. Four independent methods were used to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ETc), namely, soil water balance budgeting approach, energy balance approach—(Bowen ratio), empirical methods approach, and Pan evaporation method. The soil water balance budgeting approach utilized the soil moisture measurement by gravimetric and TDR method. The empirical evapotranspiration methods such as combination approach (FAO-56 Penman-Monteith and Penman), temperature-based approach (Hargreaves-Samani), and radiation-based approach (Priestley-Taylor, Turc, Abetw) were used to estimate the reference evapotranspiration (ET0). The daily ETc determined by the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, Turc, Pan evaporation, and Bowen ratio were found to be at par with the ET values derived from the soil water balance budget; while the methods Abetw, Penman, and Hargreaves-Samani were not found to be ideal for the determination of ETc. The study illustrates the in situ applicability of the TDR method in order to make it possible for a user to choose the best way for the optimum water consumption for a given crop in a sub-humid region. The study suggests that the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith, Turc, and Priestley-Taylor can be used for the determination of crop ETc using TDR in comparison to soil water balance budget.

  2. Sustainable groundwater management system based on the regional hydrological cycle in the warm humid country, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, J.; Crest Kumamoto Groundwater Team

    2011-12-01

    The increase of precipitation variability with the global warming and the rapid population growth lead to the shortage of water resources on a global scale. Groundwater bocome attracted as a relatively stable water resource because of its larger reservoir and a longer residence time. As our country belongs to a warm humid climate with much precipitation and a steep topography, the regional hydrological cycle is extremely active. Surface water could be taken easily and was often used to a water supply until now, but recently groundwater is taking the place of surface water because of the stability of water supply. While in our hydro-climatic condition, the sustainable use of groundwater is possible under the appropriative management, that is, groundwater pumping rate does not exceed the recharge rate in a basin. For the sustainable use of groundwater resources, this project aims to develop new technologies relating to the quantity and quality aspects of groundwater resources. For the precise understanding of groundwater flow system, new technologies will be developed, like frequency changeable electric resistivity exploration method to evaluate an aquifer structure. There are many problems about groundwater quality including nitrate-nitrogen contamination and toxic substances from the domestic and industrial waste disposals. It is necessary to understand the production mechanism to prevent groundwater contamination and the degradation process of nitrate-nitrogen contamination to improve the water quality. Therefore this project will develop new technologies including the reduction of NO3=N and natural toxic substances loads before groundwater recharge, the on-site removal of contaminants from aquifers, and simple and effective equipment to improve groundwater quality after pumping. Furthermore, this project will also develop a new biological monitoring technique for local groundwater users to notice the contamination at a glance; change colar fish by specific ion

  3. Uncertainties in downscaled relative humidity for a semi-arid region in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandhi, Aavudai

    2011-06-01

    Monthly scenarios of relative humidity ( R H) were obtained for the Malaprabha river basin in India using a statistical downscaling technique. Large-scale atmospheric variables (air temperature and specific humidity at 925 mb, surface air temperature and latent heat flux) were chosen as predictors. The predictor variables are extracted from the (1) National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis dataset for the period 1978-2000, and (2) simulations of the third generation Canadian Coupled Global Climate Model for the period 1978-2100. The objective of this study was to investigate the uncertainties in regional scenarios developed for R H due to the choice of emission scenarios (A1B, A2, B1 and COMMIT) and the predictors selected. Multi-linear regression with stepwise screening is the downscaling technique used in this study. To study the uncertainty in the regional scenarios of R H, due to the selected predictors, eight sets of predictors were chosen and a downscaling model was developed for each set. Performance of the downscaling models in the baseline period (1978-2000) was studied using three measures (1) Nash-Sutcliffe error estimate ( E f), (2) mean absolute error (MAE), and (3) product moment correlation ( P). Results show that the performances vary between 0.59 and 0.68, 0.42 and 0.50 and 0.77 and 0.82 for E f, MAE and P. Cumulative distribution functions were prepared from the regional scenarios of R H developed for combinations of predictors and emission scenarios. Results show a variation of 1 to 6% R H in the scenarios developed for combination of predictor sets for baseline period. For a future period (2001-2100), a variation of 6 to 15% R H was observed for the combination of emission scenarios and predictors. The variation was highest for A2 scenario and least for COMMIT and B1 scenario.

  4. Groundwater Recharge and Flow Processes in Taihang Mountains, a Semi-humid Region, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Jie

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater flow/recharge variations in time and space are crucial for effective water management especially in semi-arid and semi-humid regions. In order to reveal comprehensive groundwater flow/recharge processes in a catchment with a large topographical relief and seasonal hydrological variations, intensive field surveys were undertaken at 4 times in different seasons (June 2011, August 2012, November 2012, February 2014) in the Wangkuai watershed, Taihang mountains, which is a main groundwater recharge area of the North China Plain. The groundwater, spring, stream water and reservoir water were taken, and inorganic solute constituents and stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium were determined on all water samples. Also, the stream flow rate and the depth of groundwater table were observed. The stable isotopic compositions and inorganic solute constituents in the groundwater are depleted and shown similar values as those of the surface water at the mountain-plain transitional area. Additionally, the groundwater in the vicinity of the Wangkuai Reservoir presents clearly higher stable isotopic compositions and lower d-excess than those of the stream water, indicating the groundwater around the reservoir is affected by evaporation same as the Wangkuai Reservoir itself. Hence, the surface water in the mountain-plain transitional area and Wangkuai Reservoir are principal groundwater recharge sources. An inversion analysis and simple mixing model were applied in the Wangkuai watershed using stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium to construct a groundwater flow model. The model shows that multi-originated groundwater flows from upstream to downstream along topography with certain mixing. In addition, the groundwater recharge occurs dominantly at the altitude from 421 m to 953 m, and the groundwater recharge rate by the Wangkuai Reservoir is estimated to be 2.4 % of the total groundwater recharge in the Wangkuai watershed. Therefore, the stream water and

  5. Comparison of long-term stability of containment systems for residues and wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides at an arid site and two humid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, M.; Merry-Libby, P.; Hinchman, R.

    1985-01-01

    The long-term stability of near-surface containment systems designed for the management of radioactive wastes and residues contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides are compared at the three different sites. The containment designs are: (1) a diked 8.9-m high mound, including a 3.2-m layered cap at a site (humid) near Lewiston, New York, (2) a 6.8-m-high mound, including a similar 3.2-m cap at a site (humid) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and (3) 4.8-m deep trenches with 3.0-m backfilled caps at a site (arid) near Hanford, Washington. Geological, hydrological, and biological factors affecting the long-term (1000-year) integrity of the containment systems at each site are examined, including: erosion, flooding, drought, wildfire, slope and cover failure, plant root penetration, burrowing animals, other soil-forming processes, and land-use changes. For the containment designs evaluated, releases of radon-222 at the arid site are predicted to be several orders of magnitude higher than at the two humid sites - upon initial burial and at 1000 years (after severe erosion). Transfer of wastes containing naturally occurring radionuclides from a humid to an arid environment offers little or no advantage relative to long-term stability of the containment system and has a definite disadvantage in terms of gaseous radioactive releases. 26 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  6. Daily indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jennifer L; Dockery, Douglas W

    2016-02-01

    The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme temperature events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor temperatures showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor temperatures. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of temperature and relative humidity. PMID:26054827

  7. Daily indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2016-02-01

    The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme temperature events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor temperatures showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor temperatures. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of temperature and relative humidity.

  8. CHARACTERIZING SITE HYDROLOGY (REGION 5)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  9. Field Performance of A Compacted Clay Landfill Final cover At A Humid Site

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, William H.; Benson, Craig H.; Gee, Glendon W.; Abichou, Tarek; Mcdonald, Eric V.; Tyler, Scott W.; Rock, Steven

    2006-11-01

    A study was conducted in southern Georgia, USA to evaluate how the hydraulic properties of the compacted clay barrier layer in a landfill final cover changed over a 4-yr service life. The cover was part of a test section constructed in a large drainage lysimeter that allowed CE Database subject headings: landfill, hydrogeology, compacted soils, lysimeters, desiccation continuous monitoring of the water balance. Patterns in the drainage (i.e., flow from the bottom of the cover) record suggest that preferential flow paths developed in the clay barrier soon after construction, apparently in response to desiccation cracking. After four years, the clay barrier was excavated and examined for changes in soil structure and hydraulic conductivity. Tests were conducted in situ with a sealed double-ring infiltrometer and two-stage borehole permeameters and in the laboratory on hand-carved blocks taken during construction and after four years of service. The in situ and laboratory tests indicated that the hydraulic conductivity increased approximately three orders of magnitude (from ? 10-7 to ? 10-4 cm s-1) during the service life. A dye tracer test and soil structure analysis showed that extensive cracking and root development occurred throughout the entire depth of the barrier layer. Laboratory tests on undisturbed specimens of the clay barrier indicated that the hydraulic conductivity of damaged clay barriers can be under-estimated significantly if small specimens (e.g., tube samples) are used for hydraulic conductivity assessment. The findings also indicate that clay barriers must be protected from desiccation and root intrusion if they are expected to function as intended, even at sites in warm, humid locations.

  10. Enhancement effect of relative humidity on the formation and regional respiratory deposition of secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lin, Chi-Chi; Yang, Shang-Chun; Zhao, Ping

    2011-07-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of relative humidity (RH) on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from the ozonolysis of d-limonene in an environmental chamber. The mass yield and the number concentration of SOA increased seven and eight times, respectively, when the RH increased from 18% to 82%. The measured total loss rates (apparent loss rates) of the number and mass concentration of SOA in the chamber ranged from 1.70 to 1.77 h(-1) and from 2.51 to 2.61 h(-1), respectively, at a controlled ventilation rate of 0.72±0.04 h(-1). The wall-deposition-loss-rate coefficient observed (1.00±0.02 h(-1)) was approximate to the estimated value based on Zhao and Wu's model which includes the factors of turbulence, Brownian diffusion, turbophoresis and surface roughness. According to the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) model, the inhaled SOA particles are deposited primarily in the alveoli of the lung. The integrated alveolar deposited dose of the mass (surface area) of SOA over 3h accounted for 74.0-74.8% (74.3-74.9%) of the total deposited dose at the investigated RH. Raising the RH resulted in the growth of SOA particle sizes and increment of the deposition dose but did not cause significant changes in the ratio of regional to the total respiratory deposition of SOA. PMID:21570180

  11. Monitoring urban streams: strategies and protocols for humid-region lowland systems.

    PubMed

    Scholz, J G; Booth, D B

    2001-10-01

    Governmental mandates and public awareness have forced progressively smaller and less sophisticated agencies and organizations to initiate stream monitoring programs, particularly in urban and urbanizing areas. Yet many of these monitoring efforts lack either a coherent conceptual framework or appropriately chosen methods, and they rely on monitoring techniques that are simply infeasible for these institutional settings. We propose a monitoring strategy, and specific existing monitoring protocols, that will be useful for the management and rehabilitation of streams in urbanizing watersheds. A monitoring strategy must be developed by 1) identifying the management question(s) being addressed, 2) determining the institional level of effort required (and available) to effectively make particular kinds of measurements, and 3) identifying what specific parameters should and can be measured. Only a limited set of parameters show much utility or feasibility in addressing the most common management questions being faced by municipalities in urbanizing, humid-area regions of the United States. These include measures of riparian canopy, bank erosion and bank hardening, and in-stream large woody debris. With some additional expertise useful data can also be included on channel gradient, substrate composition, and pools. Nearly all of the other myriad parameters that have been measured historically on rivers and streams show little apparent value in these watershed and institutional settings. PMID:11686197

  12. Remote sensing and deforestation in humid tropical region: case of Bambouto mountain in West Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël Leumbe Leumbe, Olivier; Bitom, Dieudonné; Joly Assako Assako, René

    2015-04-01

    A diachronic study of landscapes base on remote sensing data, has been realized on mount Bambouto in the humid tropical mountain region, through soil occupation analyses. It is a volcanic massif situated in the western part of Cameroon. It has an altitude of 2740 m. The objective is to evaluate the anthropic preasure on deforestation within this zone in order to predie the consequences on the area within a short period. The successive ways in which people occupy the soil within a period of about 30 years have thus been evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively on the bases of MSS images of 1978, Tm images of 1988, ETM+ of 2001 and 2007 of Landsat. In these images, the successive application of the index of vegetation and of a supervised classification couple with field observations, digital terrain model and with population data which display serious soils degradation of the volcanic massif from the 1980s, due to continous growing anthropic preasures. In all, between 1978 and 2007, the density of population became 17 times more important more than 43 000 ha of the massif soils has been deforested, this correspond to 1 483 ha/year. IF this velocity of deforestation is maintain, most of the natural vegetation in the Bambouto massif will disappear in 2029

  13. [Distribution and transferring of carbon in kast soil system of peak forest depression in humid subtropical region].

    PubMed

    Pan, G; Sun, Y; Teng, Y; Tao, Y; Han, F

    2000-02-01

    Taking Guilin Yaji Karst Experiment Site as an exemple and with the methods of field monitoring and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the distribution and transferring of carbon in the karst soil system of peak forest depression in the humid subtropical region of China. The carbon pools in biomass, litters and soil organic matter(SOM) and their mobility as expressed by oxidizability and decomposition rate of SOM, the concentration of soil CO2 and the emission rate of CO2 from soil were investigated. The mobile carbon pool in the system supplied a rich source of CO2, which drived the karst process. When active karst process happened in Spring and Summer, over 60% of carbon in the output water was derived from soil CO2, as traced by delta 13 C distribution in the system. Therefore, owing to the carbon transfer in the pathway of air-plant-soil-water, karst process took place rather under soil-rock-water interface than under air-rock-water interface. Thus, the epigenetic karst process was driven and accelerated by soil as an interface of carbon environmental geochemistry. PMID:11766593

  14. Transport of multiple tracers in variably saturated humid region structured soils and semi-arid region laminated sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, M. A.; Jardine, P. M.; Mehlhorn, T. L.; Bjornstad, B. N.; Ladd, J. L.; Zachara, J. M.

    2003-05-01

    The processes governing physical nonequilibrium (PNE)—coupled preferential flow and matrix diffusion—are diverse between humid and semi-arid regions, and are directly related to climate and rock/sediment type, and indirectly related to subsequent soil profile development. The fate and transport of contaminants in these variably saturated undisturbed media is largely a function of the influence of PNE processes. Large cores of laminated silts and sands were collected from the US Department of Energy Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in semi-arid south central Washington. Additional cores of weathered, fractured interbedded limestone and shale saprolite were collected from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in humid eastern Tennessee. PNNL cores were collected parallel (FBP) and perpendicular (FXB) to bedding, and the ORNL core was 30° to bedding. Saturated and unsaturated transport experiments were performed using multiple nonreactive tracers that had different diffusion coefficients (Br -, PFBA, and PIPES), in order to identify the influence of PNE on the fate and transport of solutes. In the ORNL structured saprolite, solute transport was governed by coupled preferential flow and matrix diffusion, as evidenced by tracer separation and highly asymmetric breakthrough curves (BTC). BTCs became more symmetric as preferential flowpaths became inactive during drainage. Tracer separation persisted during unsaturated flow suggesting the continued importance of nonequilibrium mass transfer between flowpaths and the immobile water that was held in the soil matrix. No evidence of PNE was observed under near-saturated conditions in the semi-arid region (PNNL) laminated silts and sands. Unsaturated flow in cores with discontinuous layering resulted in preferential flow and the development of perched, immobile water as evidenced by early breakthrough and separation of tracers. Conversely, transport parallel to laterally continuous beds did not result in

  15. Changes in evapotranspiration in semi-arid and semi-humid regions of China based on upscaling eddy covariance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huimin; Gong, Tingting; Yang, Dawen

    2015-04-01

    The semi-arid and semi-humid region (about 4.98×105 km2) of China is a critical climate zone, not only because it is in the climate transitional zone with strong coupling of soil moisture and precipitation, but also because it is an ecologically vulnerable zone and a main crop-producing region. In addition, human activities in this region have been largely ongoing such as afforestation, deforestation, farmland management and intense grazing. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a main component of the water cycle and plays an important role in such a climate-land system. Thus, changes in evapotranspiration are fundamental to understand how climate and human activities affect water cycle and to guide agricultural water management and ecological restoration. In this study, data-driven regional ET is upscaled from 12 flux towers using a support vector regression (SVR) model, by combining satellite remote sensing data and ground-based meteorological observations. Two ET products will be generated with different spatial resolution and time span. One is based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) products with a spatial resolution of 1 km during 2000~2011, and the other is based on the AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with a spatial resolution of 8 km during 1982~2011. Variables that may have influences on ET, such as land surface temperature (LST), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI), short-wave radiation (SWR), water vapor deficit (VPD), will be selected as explanatory variables. The SVM model will first be tuned and trained at the site scale, and then applied to estimate regional ET. Based on the upscaled regional ET, this study will evaluate how changes in ET respond to climate change; moreover, the impacts of human activities on ET will be examined, such as how afforestation and farmland management affect ET. Furthermore, impacts of changes in ET on other water cycle components will be analyzed

  16. Regional analysis of energy facility siting

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F W; Meier, P M; Kleinman, L I

    1980-01-01

    This paper has examined some of the regional environmental parameters of energy facility siting, with emphasis on air quality impacts. An example of a siting optimization study was presented, and it was shown how difficult it presently is to specify an environmental objective function that is universally applicable. The importance of regional background effects was discussed, and long-range transport models were used to analyze the relative importance of local and long-range impacts.

  17. Thermal Adaptation Methods of Urban Plaza Users in Asia's Hot-Humid Regions: A Taiwan Case Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Fa; Hsieh, Yen-Fen; Ou, Sheng-Jung

    2015-10-01

    Thermal adaptation studies provide researchers great insight to help understand how people respond to thermal discomfort. This research aims to assess outdoor urban plaza conditions in hot and humid regions of Asia by conducting an evaluation of thermal adaptation. We also propose that questionnaire items are appropriate for determining thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users. A literature review was conducted and first hand data collected by field observations and interviews used to collect information on thermal adaptation strategies. Item analysis--Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)--were applied to refine the questionnaire items and determine the reliability of the questionnaire evaluation procedure. The reliability and validity of items and constructing process were also analyzed. Then, researchers facilitated an evaluation procedure for assessing the thermal adaptation strategies of urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia and formulated a questionnaire survey that was distributed in Taichung's Municipal Plaza in Taiwan. Results showed that most users responded with behavioral adaptation when experiencing thermal discomfort. However, if the thermal discomfort could not be alleviated, they then adopted psychological strategies. In conclusion, the evaluation procedure for assessing thermal adaptation strategies and the questionnaire developed in this study can be applied to future research on thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia. PMID:26516881

  18. Thermal Adaptation Methods of Urban Plaza Users in Asia’s Hot-Humid Regions: A Taiwan Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen-Fa; Hsieh, Yen-Fen; Ou, Sheng-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Thermal adaptation studies provide researchers great insight to help understand how people respond to thermal discomfort. This research aims to assess outdoor urban plaza conditions in hot and humid regions of Asia by conducting an evaluation of thermal adaptation. We also propose that questionnaire items are appropriate for determining thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users. A literature review was conducted and first hand data collected by field observations and interviews used to collect information on thermal adaptation strategies. Item analysis—Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)—were applied to refine the questionnaire items and determine the reliability of the questionnaire evaluation procedure. The reliability and validity of items and constructing process were also analyzed. Then, researchers facilitated an evaluation procedure for assessing the thermal adaptation strategies of urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia and formulated a questionnaire survey that was distributed in Taichung’s Municipal Plaza in Taiwan. Results showed that most users responded with behavioral adaptation when experiencing thermal discomfort. However, if the thermal discomfort could not be alleviated, they then adopted psychological strategies. In conclusion, the evaluation procedure for assessing thermal adaptation strategies and the questionnaire developed in this study can be applied to future research on thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia. PMID:26516881

  19. Surface temperatures in the polar regions from Nimbus 7 temperature humidity infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    1994-01-01

    Monthly surface temperatures in the Arctic and Antarctic regions have been derived from the 11.5 micrometer thermal infrared channel of the Nimbus 7 temperature humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) for a whole year in 1979 and for a winter and a summer month from 1980 through 1985. The data set shows interannual variability and provides spatial details that allow identification of temperature patterns over sea ice and ice sheet surfaces. For example, the coldest spot in the southern hemisphere is observed to be consistently in the Antarctic plateau in the southern hemisphere, while that in the northern hemisphere is usually located in Greenland, or one of three other general areas: Siberia, the central Arctic, or the Canadian Archipelago. Also, in the southern hemisphere, the amplitude of the seasonal fluctuation of ice sheet temperatures is about 3 times that of sea ice, while in the northern hemisphere, the corresponding fluctuations for the two surfaces are about the same. The main sources of error in the retrieval are cloud and other atmospheric effects. These were minimized by first choosing the highest radiance value from the set of measurements during the day taken within a 30 km by 30 km grid of each daily map. Then the difference of daily maps was taken and where the difference is greater than a certain threshold (which in this case is 12 C), the data element is deleted. Overall, the monthly maps derived from the resulting daily maps are spatially and temporally consistent, are coherent with the topograph y of the Antarctic continent and the location of the sea ice edge, and are in qualitative agreement with climatological data. Quantitatively, THIR data are in good agreement with Antarctic ice sheet surface air temperature station data with a correlation coefficient of 0.997 and a standard deviation of 2.0 C. The absolute values are not as good over the sea ice edges, but a comparison with Russian 2-m drift station temperatures shows very high correlation

  20. Effects of leachate accumulation on landfill stability in humid regions of China

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Jianguo; Yang Yong; Yang Shihui; Ye Bin; Zhang Chang

    2010-05-15

    Leachate levels are important to landfill stability and safety. High leachate or water levels often lead to landfill instability, which can cause accidents. Here a case study of a landfill located in a humid region of southern China is presented. Leachate distribution and quality were systematically analyzed, and the effect of leachate level on waste-mass stability was assessed. Boreholes were drilled in the field, samples were analyzed in the laboratory, and a simulation was performed. In addition, the safety and stability of the landfill was evaluated. The leachate level in the landfill was 9-19 m, which was higher than the top of the dam crest (8-20 m). Leachate accounted for more than 1/4 of the total landfill storage capacity. The contaminant concentration of the leachate samples collected directly from the waste body was very high, with large variation among the samples. The mean concentrations of NH{sub 3}-N, BOD, and COD from the waste body were 5404, 14,136, and 22,691 mg/L, nearly 2.7, 2.4, and 1.8 times the mean concentrations in the leachate pond, respectively. Three series of shear strength parameters were used in a slope stability analysis, and a limit equilibrium method was used to calculate the factor of safety (Fs). The analysis showed that Fs could be affected by potential anisotropy in the shear strength of the waste. The minimum values of Fs corresponding to series I were 1.84 and 1.17 for units I and II, respectively. The Fs value of unit II was significantly lower than the safe design value (1.25). In addition, Fs decreased with increase in the normalized height of the leachate level, h/H, where h is the height of the leachate mound and H is the maximum thickness of the landfill. If the h/H values of units I and II are kept below 50% and 40%, respectively, a safe design value of 1.25 for Fs can be guaranteed. Therefore, some measures to prevent risk should be considered.

  1. Quantifying wetland-aquifer interactions in a humid subtropical climate region: An integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, Itza; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Niu, Jie; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; McGuire, Jennifer T.

    2013-08-01

    Wetlands are widely recognized as sentinels of global climate change. Long-term monitoring data combined with process-based modeling has the potential to shed light on key processes and how they change over time. This paper reports the development and application of a simple water balance model based on long-term climate, soil, vegetation and hydrological dynamics to quantify groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interactions at the Norman landfill research site in Oklahoma, USA. Our integrated approach involved model evaluation by means of the following independent measurements: (a) groundwater inflow calculation using stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen (16O, 18O, 1H, 2H); (b) seepage flux measurements in the wetland hyporheic sediment; and (c) pan evaporation measurements on land and in the wetland. The integrated approach was useful for identifying the dominant hydrological processes at the site, including recharge and subsurface flows. Simulated recharge compared well with estimates obtained using isotope methods from previous studies and allowed us to identify specific annual signatures of this important process during the period of study (1997-2007). Similarly, observations of groundwater inflow and outflow rates to and from the wetland using seepage meters and isotope methods were found to be in good agreement with simulation results. Results indicate that subsurface flow components in the system are seasonal and readily respond to rainfall events. The wetland water balance is dominated by local groundwater inputs and regional groundwater flow contributes little to the overall water balance.

  2. Incorporating the effects of humidity in a mechanistic model of Anopheles gambiae mosquito population dynamics in the Sahel region of Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low levels of relative humidity are known to decrease the lifespan of mosquitoes. However, most current models of malaria transmission do not account for the effects of relative humidity on mosquito survival. In the Sahel, where relative humidity drops to levels <20% for several months of the year, we expect relative humidity to play a significant role in shaping the seasonal profile of mosquito populations. Here, we present a new formulation for Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquito survival as a function of temperature and relative humidity and investigate the effect of humidity on simulated mosquito populations. Methods Using existing observations on relationships between temperature, relative humidity and mosquito longevity, we developed a new equation for mosquito survival as a function of temperature and relative humidity. We collected simultaneous field observations on temperature, wind, relative humidity, and anopheline mosquito populations for two villages from the Sahel region of Africa, which are presented in this paper. We apply this equation to the environmental data and conduct numerical simulations of mosquito populations using the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS). Results Relative humidity drops to levels that are uncomfortable for mosquitoes at the end of the rainy season. In one village, Banizoumbou, water pools dried up and interrupted mosquito breeding shortly after the end of the rainy season. In this case, relative humidity had little effect on the mosquito population. However, in the other village, Zindarou, the relatively shallow water table led to water pools that persisted several months beyond the end of the rainy season. In this case, the decrease in mosquito survival due to relative humidity improved the model’s ability to reproduce the seasonal pattern of observed mosquito abundance. Conclusions We proposed a new equation to describe Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquito survival as a

  3. Four-year long-path monitoring of ambient aerosol extinction at a central European urban site: dependence on relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skupin, A.; Ansmann, A.; Engelmann, R.; Seifert, P.; Müller, T.

    2016-02-01

    The ambient aerosol particle extinction coefficient is measured with the Spectral Aerosol Extinction Monitoring System (SÆMS) along a 2.84 km horizontal path at 30-50 m height above ground in the urban environment of Leipzig (51.3° N, 12.4° E), Germany, since 2009. The dependence of the particle extinction coefficient (wavelength range from 300 to 1000 nm) on relative humidity up to almost 100 % was investigated. The main results are presented. For the wavelength of 550 nm, the mean extinction enhancement factor was found to be 1.75 ± 0.4 for an increase of relative humidity from 40 to 80 %. The respective 4-year mean extinction enhancement factor is 2.8 ± 0.6 for a relative-humidity increase from 40 to 95 %. A parameterization of the dependency of the urban particle extinction coefficient on relative humidity is presented. A mean hygroscopic exponent of 0.46 for the 2009-2012 period was determined. Based on a backward trajectory cluster analysis, the dependence of several aerosol optical properties for eight air flow regimes was investigated. Large differences were not found, indicating that local pollution sources widely control the aerosol conditions over the urban site. The comparison of the SÆMS extinction coefficient statistics with respective statistics from ambient AERONET sun photometer observations yields good agreement. Also, time series of the particle extinction coefficient computed from in situ-measured dry particle size distributions and humidity-corrected SÆMS extinction values (for 40 % relative humidity) were found in good overall consistency, which verifies the applicability of the developed humidity parameterization scheme. The analysis of the spectral dependence of particle extinction (Ångström exponent) revealed an increase of the 390-881 nm Ångström exponent from, on average, 0.3 (at 30 % relative humidity) to 1.3 (at 95 % relative humidity) for the 4-year period.

  4. Quantitative determination of erosion rates in humid region using depth profiles of in situ-produced Be-10 and Al-26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, A.; Yokoyama, Y.; Miyairi, Y.; Shiroya, K.; Matsuzaki, H.; Suzuki, A.

    2012-12-01

    Determination of erosion rates is important across a diverse range of disciplines in geology, geomorphology, and biogeochemistry (Granger and Riebe, 2007). Yet rates of long-term erosion have been difficult to quantify until recently. Measurements of in-situ produced terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) allow us to understand earth surface process quantitatively (Goss and Phillips, 2001) and has been successfully used to provide erosion rates of bedrock in arid regions where negligible or small erosion process is being taken place (e.g. Cockburn et al., 1999). Environmental parameters such as mean annual precipitation have been used to explain erosion rate variability on a global scale (Bierman and Cafee, 2002). However, the relationship between erosion rates and precipitation is still under debate due in part to scarcity of data from higher mean annual precipitation regions. In addition, erosion rates deduced from drainage basins, which is the only method to quantify erosion rates in humid regions, are strongly affected by steepness of basin slope (Riebe et al., 2000). Therefore, different approach to determine the erosion rates in humid regions is required to corroborate findings from arid regions. Here we present depth profiles of in situ-produced 10Be and 26Al on hilltop sites of Japan. The contribution from unique characteristics of individual basin slope should be minimized since all sites are limited on top of the hill, allowing a direct comparison to studies of bedrock erosion rates in arid regions. The aims of this study are (1) to develop a model of TCN depth profiles, based on actually measured density in granitic saprolite, and (2) to assess climate control on erosion rates. These data indicate close linkage between earth surface process and climate. A discrepancy in the theoretical value is also observed from the depth profiles in Saga prefecture, Japan, which may support the potential of obtaining non-steady erosion process through glacial

  5. Outdoor thermal comfort characteristics in the hot and humid region from a gender perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chen-Peng; Tsai, Kang-Ting; Kántor, Noémi; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Matzarakis, Andreas; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is a subjective psychological perception of people based also on physiological thermoregulation mechanisms when the human body is exposed to a combination of various environmental factors including air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, and radiation conditions. Due to the importance of gender in the issue of outdoor thermal comfort, this study compared and examined the thermal comfort-related differences between male and female subjects using previous data from Taiwanese questionnaire survey. Compared with males, the results indicated that females in Taiwan are less tolerant to hot conditions and intensely protect themselves from sun exposure. Our analytical results are inconsistent with the findings of previous physiological studies concerning thermal comfort indicating that females have superior thermal physiological tolerance than males. On the contrary, our findings can be interpreted on psychological level. Environmental behavioral learning theory was adopted in this study to elucidate this observed contradiction between the autonomic thermal physiological and psychological-behavioral aspects. Women might desire for a light skin tone through social learning processes, such as observation and education, which is subsequently reflected in their psychological perceptions (fears of heat and sun exposure) and behavioral adjustments (carrying umbrellas or searching for shade). Hence, these unique psychological and behavioral phenomena cannot be directly explained by autonomic physiological thermoregulation mechanisms. The findings of this study serve as a reference for designing spaces that accommodates gender-specific thermal comfort characteristics. Recommendations include providing additional suitable sheltered areas in open areas, such as city squares and parks, to satisfy the thermal comfort needs of females.

  6. Outdoor thermal comfort characteristics in the hot and humid region from a gender perspective.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chen-Peng; Tsai, Kang-Ting; Kántor, Noémi; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Matzarakis, Andreas; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Thermal comfort is a subjective psychological perception of people based also on physiological thermoregulation mechanisms when the human body is exposed to a combination of various environmental factors including air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, and radiation conditions. Due to the importance of gender in the issue of outdoor thermal comfort, this study compared and examined the thermal comfort-related differences between male and female subjects using previous data from Taiwanese questionnaire survey. Compared with males, the results indicated that females in Taiwan are less tolerant to hot conditions and intensely protect themselves from sun exposure. Our analytical results are inconsistent with the findings of previous physiological studies concerning thermal comfort indicating that females have superior thermal physiological tolerance than males. On the contrary, our findings can be interpreted on psychological level. Environmental behavioral learning theory was adopted in this study to elucidate this observed contradiction between the autonomic thermal physiological and psychological-behavioral aspects. Women might desire for a light skin tone through social learning processes, such as observation and education, which is subsequently reflected in their psychological perceptions (fears of heat and sun exposure) and behavioral adjustments (carrying umbrellas or searching for shade). Hence, these unique psychological and behavioral phenomena cannot be directly explained by autonomic physiological thermoregulation mechanisms. The findings of this study serve as a reference for designing spaces that accommodates gender-specific thermal comfort characteristics. Recommendations include providing additional suitable sheltered areas in open areas, such as city squares and parks, to satisfy the thermal comfort needs of females. PMID:24478000

  7. Evaluation of near-surface temperature, humidity, and equivalent temperature from regional climate models applied in type II downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryor, S. C.; Schoof, J. T.

    2016-04-01

    Atmosphere-surface interactions are important components of local and regional climates due to their key roles in dictating the surface energy balance and partitioning of energy transfer between sensible and latent heat. The degree to which regional climate models (RCMs) represent these processes with veracity is incompletely characterized, as is their ability to capture the drivers of, and magnitude of, equivalent temperature (Te). This leads to uncertainty in the simulation of near-surface temperature and humidity regimes and the extreme heat events of relevance to human health, in both the contemporary and possible future climate states. Reanalysis-nested RCM simulations are evaluated to determine the degree to which they represent the probability distributions of temperature (T), dew point temperature (Td), specific humidity (q) and Te over the central U.S., the conditional probabilities of Td|T, and the coupling of T, q, and Te to soil moisture and meridional moisture advection within the boundary layer (adv(Te)). Output from all RCMs exhibits discrepancies relative to observationally derived time series of near-surface T, q, Td, and Te, and use of a single layer for soil moisture by one of the RCMs does not appear to substantially degrade the simulations of near-surface T and q relative to RCMs that employ a four-layer soil model. Output from MM5I exhibits highest fidelity for the majority of skill metrics applied herein, and importantly most realistically simulates both the coupling of T and Td, and the expected relationships of boundary layer adv(Te) and soil moisture with near-surface T and q.

  8. Land Use Change Effects on Catchment Runoff Response in a Humid Tropical Montane Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Villers, L. E.; McDonnell, J.; Geissert Kientz, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The provision and regulation of water flows in catchments is probably the most important ecosystem functioning of tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF), however its hydrological dynamics and impacts associated with forest conversion remain very poorly understood. The present study aimed to compare the annual, seasonal and event-scale streamflow patterns and runoff generation processes of three neighbouring headwater catchments in eastern Mexico with similar pedological and geological characteristics, but different land cover: old-growth TMCF, 20 yr-old naturally regenerating TMCF and a heavily grazed pasture. We used a 2 yr record of rainfall and stream flow data in combination with isotope and chemical tracer data collected for a series of storms during a 6-week period of increasing antecedent wetness (wetting-up cycle). Our results showed that annual and seasonal streamflow patterns in the mature and secondary forest were similar. Conversely, the pasture showed higher annual streamflow (10%), however 50% on average lower baseflow at the end of the dry season, associated probably to more gentle slopes in combination with lower soil infiltration capacity, and thus reduced recharge of subsurface water storages. During the wetting-up cycle, storm runoff ratios increased at all three catchments (from 11 to 54% for the mature forest, 7 to 52% for the secondary forest and 3 to 59% for the pasture). With the increasing antecedent wetness, the analysis showed progressive increases of pre-event water contributions to total stormflow (from 35 to 99% in the mature forest, 26 to 92% in the secondary forest and 64 to 97% in the pasture). At all sites, rainfall-runoff responses were dominated by subsurface flow processes. However, for the largest and most intense storm sampled (typically occurring once every 2 yr), the event water contribution in the pasture (34%) was much higher than in the forests (5% on average), indicating that rainfall infiltration capacity of the pasture

  9. Impacts of climate change on erosion in humid and dry Mediterranean regions of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Sampaio, Elsa; Corte-Real, João; Moreira, Madalena; Jacinto, Rita; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard

    2014-05-01

    Soils in the Mediterranean regions of Europe are often vulnerable to soil erosion, due to a combination of annual plant cover cycles, centuries of human use, the concentration of rainstorms in a short period of the year, and other factors. Climate change could bring about a warmer and drier climate, limiting vegetation growth while bringing heavier storms during winter. This could eventually lead to higher risks of soil losses and the consequential problems of land degradation and desertification. Project ERLAND, which began in 2009, is assessing these risks for two Mediterranean research catchments in Portugal, with four main goals: (i) collect data to understand hydrological and erosion processes in representative catchments; (ii) use this data to parameterize the SWAT eco-hydrological and erosion model as accurately as possible; (iii) use future socio-economic scenarios to estimate both impacts on climate change and on future land-use practices; and (iv) apply the SWAT model for these scenarios and estimate the consequences for soil erosion rates. The Macieira catchment is in a wet Mediterranean climate region, with high rainfall (c. 1300 mm.y-1) but a distinct summer dry season; erosion processes are associated with periods of sparse cover in autumn in fields with a pasture-corn rotation, but also with forest plantations after clear-cutting and especially after forest fires. The occurrence of a forest fire inside the catchment in 2011 allowed an analysis of the role played by this kind of disturbances on soil erosion. Climate change could bring less erosive rainfall events, but an increase in fire frequency, and therefore a potential shift of erosion from agriculture to forest land-uses. The Guadalupe catchment has a dry Mediterranean climate (rainfall of c. 550 mm.y-1); erosion processes occur mostly in permanent crops (olive trees) and winter cereal fields. Climate change could bring a concentration of rainfall in winter, as well as an increase in the area

  10. Effect of asymmetrical street aspect ratios on microclimates in hot, humid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaid, Adeb; Ossen, Dilshan R.

    2015-06-01

    Asymmetrical street aspect ratios, i.e. different height-to-width (H1/W-H2/W) ratios, have not received much attention in the study of urban climates. Putrajaya Boulevard (northeast to southwest orientation) in Malaysia was selected to study the influence of six asymmetrical aspect ratio scenarios on the street microclimate using the Envi-met three-dimensional microclimate model (V3.1 Beta). Putrajaya Boulevard suffers from high surface and air temperature during the day due to the orientation, the low aspect ratio and the wide sky view factor. These issues are a common dilemma in many boulevards. Further, low and high symmetrical streets are incompatible with tropical regions as they offer conflicting properties during the day and at night. These scenarios are examined, therefore, to find asymmetrical streets which are able to reduce the impact of the day microclimate on boulevards, and as an alternative strategy fulfilling tropical day and night climatic conditions. Asymmetrical streets are better than low symmetrical streets in enhancing wind flow and blocking solar radiation, when tall buildings confront winds direction or solar altitudes. Therefore, mitigating heat islands or improving microclimates in asymmetrical streets based on tall buildings position which captures wind or caste shades. In northeast to southwest direction, aspect ratios of 0.8-2 reduce the morning microclimate and night heat islands yet the negative effects during the day are greater than the positive effects in the night. An aspect ratio of 2-0.8 reduces the temperature of surfaces by 10 to 14 °C and the air by 4.7 °C, recommended for enhancing boulevard microclimates and mitigating tropical heat islands.

  11. Effect of asymmetrical street aspect ratios on microclimates in hot, humid regions.

    PubMed

    Qaid, Adeb; Ossen, Dilshan R

    2015-06-01

    Asymmetrical street aspect ratios, i.e. different height-to-width (H1/W-H2/W) ratios, have not received much attention in the study of urban climates. Putrajaya Boulevard (northeast to southwest orientation) in Malaysia was selected to study the influence of six asymmetrical aspect ratio scenarios on the street microclimate using the Envi-met three-dimensional microclimate model (V3.1 Beta). Putrajaya Boulevard suffers from high surface and air temperature during the day due to the orientation, the low aspect ratio and the wide sky view factor. These issues are a common dilemma in many boulevards. Further, low and high symmetrical streets are incompatible with tropical regions as they offer conflicting properties during the day and at night. These scenarios are examined, therefore, to find asymmetrical streets which are able to reduce the impact of the day microclimate on boulevards, and as an alternative strategy fulfilling tropical day and night climatic conditions. Asymmetrical streets are better than low symmetrical streets in enhancing wind flow and blocking solar radiation, when tall buildings confront winds direction or solar altitudes. Therefore, mitigating heat islands or improving microclimates in asymmetrical streets based on tall buildings position which captures wind or caste shades. In northeast to southwest direction, aspect ratios of 0.8-2 reduce the morning microclimate and night heat islands yet the negative effects during the day are greater than the positive effects in the night. An aspect ratio of 2-0.8 reduces the temperature of surfaces by 10 to 14 °C and the air by 4.7 °C, recommended for enhancing boulevard microclimates and mitigating tropical heat islands. PMID:25108376

  12. Comparing the impacts of land-use management and climate change on soil erosion: a modeling exercise for humid and dry Mediterranean regions in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Carvalho-Santos, Cláudia

    2015-04-01

    Climate change could impact soil erosion rates in the Mediterranean, either directly via the concentration of rainfall in a smaller number of winter events, or indirectly through changes in vegetation cover. In particular, climate-induced changes in land-use management and associated agro-forestry practices could lead to much greater impacts than the ones expected from climate change alone. This work compares how future climate and land-use changes could impact soil erosion. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to two contrasting watersheds in Portugal. The Vez has a humid Mediterranean climate (1500 mm/yr average rainfall) and is presently covered by plantation forests and shrublands. The Xarrama has a dry Mediterranean climate (600 mm/yr annual rainfall) and is presently occupied mostly by an agroforestry system consisting of pasture and evergreen oaks. Both watersheds currently experience very low erosion rates due to the landcover type. In both cases, climate scenarios presuppose a small decrease in rainfall (-4% in the Vez, -9% in the Xarrama) but more concentrated in winter, where an increase is expected. Possible future land-use scenarios could lead to an intensification of agriculture, due to the expansion of vineyard areas in the humid region and the plantation of sunflowers for biofuel production in the dry region (up to c. 45% of the watershed in both cases). The results for both study sites were similar. The impacts of climate change itself were an increase in erosion, of 28% in the Vez and 18% in the Xarrama, which still resulted in low erosion rates. However, the impacts of land-use change were much higher: an erosion increase of 529% in the Vez and 120% in the Xarrama, leading to important erosion rates in the new agricultural areas. Despite the different changes, which could be to a large degree attributed to the higher erosion rates usually found in vineyards, the conclusions in both sites point to the much higher impact of

  13. EPA REGION 6 NPL SITE BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This dataset includes boundaries for sites on the EPA's National Priority List (NPL) as of 05/01/2005, although boundaries for all sites are not included. The field "Status" provides a description of each site's current status, i.e. Proposed, Final, Deleted, o...

  14. Effects of new MODIS land cover map replacement in a regional climate model on surface temperature and humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, I.

    This study investigates the extent to which utilizing 1-km new the Moderate-resolution Imaging-Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land use data in the Pennsylvania State University/NCAR's MM5 coupled with Oregon State University (OSU) provides an improved regional diagnosis of near-surface atmospheric state variables as well as characteristics of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Those variables are strongly influenced by the energy, matter and momentum exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere. MODIS data provides not only a detailed spatial distribution of vegetation, but also a delineation between water bodies and land surface for MM5 high-resolution applications. Advances in remote sensing technology allow MODIS to collect higher-quality data than previous sensors, yielding the most detailed land cover classification maps to date. The new maps are better because the quality of MODIS data is much higher than the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The default 25-category United States Geological Survey (USGS) land cover classification in MM5 was produced using data acquired in from 1992-1993 by AVHRR. Parameter sets of 17-category MODIS land use dataset are determined by making close match between MODIS, USGS and SIB categories to use in OSU land-surface model. 1-km Land-Water Mask (LWM) data is also derived from this new data as an input to MM5. When the MM5 horizontal grid increment is larger than 1-km (4-km and 12-km in current study), the dominant vegetation type in each grid box is selected to represent the ``grid level'' vegetation characteristics. The MODIS data consider the influence of detailed picture of the distribution of Earth's ecosystems in the surface energy and water budget and hence the evolution of the boundary layer. The impact on the near-surface temperature and humidity is given by making comparison between model and observations at selected land surface types.

  15. Hanford Site Regional Population - 2010 Census

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Erin L.; Snyder, Sandra F.

    2011-08-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy conducts radiological operations in south-central Washington State. Population dose estimates must be performed to provide a measure of the impact from site radiological releases. Results of the U.S. 2010 Census were used to determine counts and distributions for the residential population located within 50-miles of several operating areas of the Hanford Site. Year 2010 was the first census year that a 50-mile population of a Hanford Site operational area exceeded the half-million mark.

  16. Characterizing Site Hydrology (Region 10, Seattle, WA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  17. CHARACTERIZING SITE HYDROLOGY (REGION 8 WORKSHOP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  18. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    All matter is more or less hygroscopic. The moisture content varies with vapour concentration of the surrounding air and, as a consequence, most material properties change with humidity. Mechanical and thermal properties of many materials, such as the tensile strength of adhesives, stiffness of plastics, stoutness of building and packaging materials or the thermal resistivity of isolation materials, all decrease with increasing environmental humidity or cyclic humidity changes. The presence of water vapour may have a detrimental influence on many electrical constructions and systems exposed to humid air, from high-power systems to microcircuits. Water vapour penetrates through coatings, cable insulations and integrated-circuit packages, exerting a fatal influence on the performance of the enclosed systems. For these and many other applications, knowledge of the relationship between moisture content or humidity and material properties or system behaviour is indispensable. This requires hygrometers for process control or test and calibration chambers with high accuracy in the appropriate temperature and humidity range. Humidity measurement methods can roughly be categorized into four groups: water vapour removal (the mass before and after removal is measured); saturation (the air is brought to saturation and the `effort' to reach that state is measured); humidity-dependent parameters (measurement of properties of humid air with a known relation between a specific property and the vapour content, for instance the refractive index, electromagnetic spectrum and acoustic velocity); and absorption (based on the known relation between characteristic properties of non-hydrophobic materials and the amount of absorbed water from the gas to which these materials are exposed). The many basic principles to measure air humidity are described in, for instance, the extensive compilations by Wexler [1] and Sonntag [2]. Absorption-type hygrometers have small dimensions and can be

  19. Late Pleistocene glaciation in the Central Andes: Temperature versus humidity control — A case study from the eastern Bolivian Andes (17°S) and regional synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kull, C.; Imhof, S.; Grosjean, M.; Zech, R.; Veit, H.

    2008-01-01

    A glacier-climate model was used to calculate climatic conditions in a test site on the east Andean slope around Cochabamba (17°S, Bolivia) for the time of the maximum Late Pleistocene glaciation. Results suggest a massive temperature reduction of about - 6.4 °C (+ 1.4/- 1.3 °C), combined with annual precipitation rates of about 1100 mm (+ 570 mm/- 280 mm). This implies no major change in annual precipitation compared with today. Summer precipitation was the source for the humidity in the past, as is the case today. This climate scenario argues for a maximum advance of the paleo-glaciers in the eastern cordillera during the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 20 ka BP), which is confirmed by exposure age dates. In a synthesized view over the central Andes, the results point to an increased summer precipitation-driven Late Glacial (15-10 ka BP) maximum advance in the western part of the Altiplano (18°S-23°S), a temperature-driven maximum advance during full glacial times (LGM) in the eastern cordillera, and a pre- and post-LGM (32 ka BP/14 ka BP) maximum advance around 30°S related to increased precipitation and reduced temperature on the western slope of the Andes. The results indicate the importance of understanding the seasonality and details of the mass balance-climate interaction in order to disentangle drivers for the observed regionally asynchronous past glaciations in the central Andes.

  20. Impact of Fire Disturbance on Regional Net Ecosystem Exchange for a Sub-Humid Woodland and Grassland Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, J.; White, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    Wildland fire is a major disturbance in many ecosystems and increases flux of CO2 and CO to the atmosphere. These emission episodes cause short term atmospheric carbon concentration variation as vegetation and soil processes are perturbed. The Tall Tower Network, developed to monitor regional long-term carbon flux and related-gas in the continental boundary layer by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), detects these emissions. For this study, we used the CO2 mixing ratio data from the WKT Tall Tower site in Moody, Texas to study the impact of fire disturbance on immediate and long term regional Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) from 2001 to 2009. To detect individual potential fire events, we used products from the MODIS Active Fire Mapping Program to identify point locations of fires and Landsat data to estimate area burned based on spectral indices within the footprint of the Tall Tower. Next, we quantified carbon emission derived from fires by identifying daily NEE variations that exceeded threshold values based on seasonal averages from the Tall Tower data for each major fire event. Carbon emission from fires were also estimated based on total area burned, pre-fire biomass, and fire severity derived from the remote sensing data. We found that that the size and severity of individual fire were highly correlated with the amount of short-term regional NEE variation. Regional NEE showed a short term flux of carbon to the atmosphere following fire disturbance, but reverted to a carbon sink due to the removal of excess fuel load and increased primary productivity. The total fire-derived carbon emission calculated from ground and remote sensing data was slightly more than that estimated from the detected elevated carbon signals by the Tall Tower. This is explained by charcoal formation which remained on site. Wildland fires were expected to increase regional carbon storage by transforming biomass into more decay-resistant charcoal. This study potentially

  1. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Topical report on reference eastern humid low-level sites

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the work reported here was to develop an order-of-magnitude estimate for the potential dose to man resulting from biotic transport mechanisms at a humid reference low-level waste site in the eastern US. A description of the reference site is presented that includes the waste inventories, site characteristics and biological communites. Parameter values for biotic transport processes are based on data reported in current literature. Transport and exposure scenarios are developed for assessing biotic transport during 500 years following site closure. Calculations of radionuclide decay and waste container decomposition are made to estimate the quantities available for biotic transport. Doses to man are calculated for the biological transport of radionucludes at the reference site after loss of institutional control. These dose estimates are compared to dose estimates we calculated for the intruder-agricultural scenarios reported in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). Dose to man estimates as a result of cumulative biotic transport are calculated to be of the same order-of-magnitude as the dose resulting from the more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by findings presented in this report. Through biotic transport, radionuclides can be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man.

  2. testing the regional application of site statistics with satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinne, S.; Paradise, S.

    2009-04-01

    Remote sensing from ground sites is often associated with a time record length and/or accuracy to its data, which is superior to that of remote sensing from space. Thus, in those cases ground measurement (network-) data are applied to constrain retrieval assumptions and/or to extend satellite data in time. Alternately, this combination can be and has been used to explore the potential application of local site statistics to surrounding regions. As a demonstrator MISR sensor statistical maps of the retrieved aerosol optical depth are applied the test the regional representation of site statistics for aerosol optical depth detected at AERONET (sub-photometer) and EARLINET (lidar) sites. The regional representation tests explore local applicability for regions from 100 to 1000 km in diameter based on an analysis of averages for relative error and relative bias.

  3. MARINE SEDIMENT DATA - CERCLA NPL SITES - USEPA REGION 10

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following information has been compiled for a subgroup of the National Priority List (NPL) Superfund sites located in Region 10. A description of each NPL Site marine sediment data file is available here as well as a link to the compressed (Pkzip) DBF format data file. The da...

  4. Application of a regional model to astronomical site testing in western Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falvey, Mark; Rojo, Patricio M.

    2016-08-01

    The quality of ground-based astronomical observations is significantly affected by local atmospheric conditions, and the search for the best sites has led to the construction of observatories at increasingly remote locations, including recent initiatives on the high plateaus of East Antarctica where the calm, dry, and cloud-free conditions during winter are recognized as amongst the best in the world. Site selection is an important phase of any observatory development project, and candidate sites must be tested in the field with specialized equipment, a process both time consuming and costly. A potential means of screening site locations before embarking on field testing is through the use of regional climate models (RCMs). In this study, we describe the application of the Polar version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to the preliminary site suitability assessment of a hitherto unstudied region in West Antarctica. Numerical simulations with WRF were carried out for the winter (MJJA) of 2011 at 3- and 1-km spatial resolution over a region centered on the Ellsworth mountain range. Comparison with observations of surface wind speed and direction, temperature, and specific humidity at nine automatic weather stations indicates that the model performed well in capturing the mean values and time variability of these variables. Credible features revealed by the model includes zones of high winds over the southernmost part of the Ellsworth Mountains, a deep thermal inversion over the Ronne-Fincher Ice Shelf, and strong west to east moisture gradient across the entire study area. Comparison of simulated cloud fraction with a CALIPSO spacebourne Lidar climatology indicates that the model may underestimate cloud occurrence, a problem that has been noted in previous studies. A simple scoring system was applied to reveal the most promising locations. The results of this study indicate that the WRF model is capable of providing useful guidance during the

  5. Application of a regional model to astronomical site testing in western Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falvey, Mark; Rojo, Patricio M.

    2016-04-01

    The quality of ground-based astronomical observations is significantly affected by local atmospheric conditions, and the search for the best sites has led to the construction of observatories at increasingly remote locations, including recent initiatives on the high plateaus of East Antarctica where the calm, dry, and cloud-free conditions during winter are recognized as amongst the best in the world. Site selection is an important phase of any observatory development project, and candidate sites must be tested in the field with specialized equipment, a process both time consuming and costly. A potential means of screening site locations before embarking on field testing is through the use of regional climate models (RCMs). In this study, we describe the application of the Polar version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to the preliminary site suitability assessment of a hitherto unstudied region in West Antarctica. Numerical simulations with WRF were carried out for the winter (MJJA) of 2011 at 3- and 1-km spatial resolution over a region centered on the Ellsworth mountain range. Comparison with observations of surface wind speed and direction, temperature, and specific humidity at nine automatic weather stations indicates that the model performed well in capturing the mean values and time variability of these variables. Credible features revealed by the model includes zones of high winds over the southernmost part of the Ellsworth Mountains, a deep thermal inversion over the Ronne-Fincher Ice Shelf, and strong west to east moisture gradient across the entire study area. Comparison of simulated cloud fraction with a CALIPSO spacebourne Lidar climatology indicates that the model may underestimate cloud occurrence, a problem that has been noted in previous studies. A simple scoring system was applied to reveal the most promising locations. The results of this study indicate that the WRF model is capable of providing useful guidance during the

  6. High Plains Regional Ground-water Study web site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.

    2000-01-01

    Now available on the Internet is a web site for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program- High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study. The purpose of the web site is to provide public access to a wide variety of information on the USGS investigation of the ground-water resources within the High Plains aquifer system. Typical pages on the web site include the following: descriptions of the High Plains NAWQA, the National NAWQA Program, the study-area setting, current and past activities, significant findings, chemical and ancillary data (which can be downloaded), listing and access to publications, links to other sites about the High Plains area, and links to other web sites studying High Plains ground-water resources. The High Plains aquifer is a regional aquifer system that underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States (Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming). Because the study area is so large, the Internet is an ideal way to provide project data and information on a near real-time basis. The web site will be a collection of living documents where project data and information are updated as it becomes available throughout the life of the project. If you have an interest in the High Plains area, you can check this site periodically to learn how the High Plains NAWQA activities are progressing over time and access new data and publications as they become available.

  7. Overheating risk assessment of naturally ventilated classroom under the influence of climate change in hot and humid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuo-Tsang

    2013-04-01

    Natural ventilation (NV) is considered one of the passive building strategies used for reducing cooling energy demand. The utilization of nature wind for cooling down indoor thermal environment to reach thermal comfort requires knowledge of adequately positioning the building fenestrations, designing inlet-outlet related opening ratios, planning unobstructed cross ventilation paths, and, the most important, assessing the utilization feasibility base on local climatic variables. Furthermore, factors that influence the indoor thermal condition include building envelope heat gain, indoor air velocity, indoor heat gain (e.g. heat discharges from occupant's body, lighting fixture, electrical appliances), and outdoor climate. Among the above, the indoor thermal performance of NV building is significantly dependent to outdoor climate conditions. In hot and humid Taiwan, under college school classrooms are usually operated in natural ventilation mode and are more vulnerable to climate change in regard to maintain indoor thermal comfort. As climate changes in progress, NV classrooms would expect to encounter more events of overheating in the near future, which result in more severe heat stress, and would risk the utilization of natural ventilation. To evaluate the overheating risk under the influence of recent climate change, an actual top floor elementary school classroom with 30 students located at north Taiwan was modeled. Long-term local hourly meteorological data were gathered and further constructed into EnergyPlus Weather Files (EPWs) format for building thermal dynamic simulation to discuss the indoor thermal environmental variation during the period of 1998 to 2012 by retrospective simulation. As indoor thermal environment is an overall condition resulting from a series combination of various factors, sub-hourly building simulation tool, EnergyPlus, coupled with the above fifteen years' EPWs was adopted to predict hourly indoor parameters of mean radiant

  8. Comparison of ELM, GANN, WNN and empirical models for estimating reference evapotranspiration in humid region of Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Cui, Ningbo; Zhao, Lu; Hu, Xiaotao; Gong, Daozhi

    2016-05-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is an essential component in hydrological ecological processes and agricultural water management. Accurate estimation of ET0 is of importance in improving irrigation efficiency, water reuse and irrigation scheduling. FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (P-M) model is recommended as the standard model to estimate ET0. Nevertheless, its application is limited due to the lack of required meteorological data. In this study, trained extreme learning machine (ELM), backpropagation neural networks optimized by genetic algorithm (GANN) and wavelet neural networks (WNN) models were developed to estimate ET0, and the performances of ELM, GANN, WNN, two temperature-based (Hargreaves and modified Hargreaves) and three radiation-based (Makkink, Priestley-Taylor and Ritchie) ET0 models in estimating ET0 were evaluated in a humid area of Southwest China. Results indicated that among the new proposed models, ELM and GANN models were much better than WNN model, and the temperature-based ELM and GANN models had better performance than Hargreaves and modified Hargreaves models, radiation-based ELM and GANN models had higher precision than Makkink, Priestley-Taylor and Ritchie models. Both of radiation-based ELM (RMSE ranging 0.312-0.332 mm d-1, Ens ranging 0.918-0.931, MAE ranging 0.260-0.300 mm d-1) and GANN models (RMSE ranging 0.300-0.333 mm d-1, Ens ranging 0.916-0.941, MAE ranging 0.2580-0.303 mm d-1) could estimate ET0 at an acceptable accuracy level, and are highly recommended for estimating ET0 without adequate meteorological data.

  9. Evaluation of future precipitation scenario using statistical downscaling model over humid, subhumid, and arid region of Nepal—a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigdel, Madan; Ma, Yaoming

    2016-02-01

    Statistical downscaling model (SDSM) was applied in downscaling precipitation in the three climatic regions of Nepal. The study includes the calibration of the SDSM model by using large-scale atmospheric variables encompassing National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data, the validation of the model, and the outputs of downscaled scenarios A2 and B2 of the HadCM3 model for the future. The average R 2 value during validation period was 0.84, indicating the good applicability of SDSM for simulating precipitation. Under both scenarios A2 and B2, during the prediction period of 2010-2099, the change of annual mean precipitation in the three climatic regions would present a tendency of surplus of precipitation as compared to the mean values of the base period. On the average for all three climatic regions of Nepal, the annual mean precipitation would increase by about 13.75 % under scenario A2 and increase near about 11.68 % under scenario B2 in the 2050s. The model showed better performance over humid region; moreover, simulated results for the peak monsoon months seem to be overestimated over subhumid and arid regions.

  10. S1-hypersensitive sites in eukaryotic promoter regions.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, T; Schon, E; Gora-Maslak, G; Patterson, J; Efstratiadis, A

    1984-01-01

    We have examined by fine mapping the S1 nuclease-hypersensitivity of the 5' flanking regions of the human beta-globin and rat preproinsulin II genes and of the SV40 origin/enhancer region. In all cases S1-hypersensitive sites are located in known or presumed promoter/regulatory regions. Though a consensus DNA sequence is not evident, all of these sites reside in predominantly homopurine-homopyrimidine stretches. The alternate (non-B) DNA structure which is revealed by the enzymatic probe is a sequence-dependent feature of a short stretch of DNA, which is retained upon transplantation into a foreign environment. The alternate structure exhibits S1-nicking patterns uniquely different from those associated with the presence of Z-DNA. Images PMID:6095186

  11. Value of a regional family practice residency training program site

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Sarah; Mullett, Jennifer; Beerman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the perceptions of residents, nurses, and physicians about the effect of a regional family practice residency site on the delivery of health services in the community, as well as on the community health care providers. Design Interviews and focus groups were conducted. Setting Nanaimo, BC. Participants A total of 16 residents, 15 nurses, and 20 physicians involved with the family practice residency training program at the Nanaimo site. Methods A series of semistructured interviews and focus groups was conducted. Transcripts of interviews and focus groups were analyzed thematically by the research team. Main findings Overall, participants agreed that having a family practice residency training site in the community contributed to community life and to the delivery of health services in the following ways: increased community capacity and social capital; motivated positive relationships and attitudes in the hospital and community settings; improved communication and teamwork, as well as accessibility and understanding of the health care system; increased the standard of care; and facilitated the recruitment and retention of family physicians. Conclusion This family practice residency training site was beneficial for the community it served. Future planning for distributed medical education sites should take into account the effects of these sites on the health care community and ensure that they continue to be positive influences. Further research in this area could focus on patients’ perceptions of how residency programs affect their care, as well as on the effect of residency programs on wait times and workload for physicians and nurses. PMID:25217693

  12. Investigating the performance and energy saving potential of Chinese commercial building benchmark models for the hot humid and severe cold climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Lesley Anne

    2011-12-01

    The demand for energy in China is growing at an alarming rate. Buildings have become a significant component of the energy-demand mix accounting for nearly one-quarter of the country's total primary energy consumption. This study compares the building code standards for office and hotel buildings in the hot humid and severe cold climate regions of China and the United States. Benchmark office and hotel building models have been developed for Guangzhou and Harbin, China that meets China's minimum national and regional building energy codes with the integration of common design and construction practices for each region. These models are compared to the ASHRAE standard based US reference building models for Houston, Texas and Duluth, Minnesota which have similar climate conditions. The research further uses a building energy optimization tool to optimize the Chinese benchmarks using existing US products to identify the primary areas for potential energy savings. In the case of the Harbin models, an economic analysis has also been performed to determine the economic feasibility of alternative building designs. The most significant energy-saving options are then presented as recommendations for potential improvements to current China building energy codes.

  13. Evidence for humid and arboreal environment in the Middle Lisan Basin, 45-39 ka (the Mughr el-Hamamah site, Jordan): Implications for Anatomically Modern Human Dispersal into Western Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmaker, M.; Stutz, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The period between 50-30 kya in western Eurasia witnessed Neanderthal extinction, anatomically modern human (AMH) expansion, and a transition from Middle to Upper Paleolithic material culture. The prevailing hypothesis suggests a replacement of the Neanderthal populations by incoming AMH population, perhaps involving climatic fluctuations that favored AMH biology and habitat preferences. Yet, new evidence questions the role of climate as a forcing factor in AMH dispersal from Africa, raising the possibility that AMH populations in southern Arabia were responsible for the <50 ka expansion into western Eurasia. New excavations at Mughr el-Hamamah (MHM), Ajlun District, Jordan, uncovered a single well preserved occupational horizon. This horizon is dated by acid-base-wet oxidation/stepped combustion (ABOX-SC) AMS 14C assays to 45-39,000 cal BP and is associated with abundant diagnostic Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) artifacts. The age of the site, combined with its excellent organic preservation, suggests that MHM can play a key role in testing hypotheses about the southern Levantine Rift Valley environment and EUP human adaptations to it. This paper presents a paleoecological reconstruction derived from micromammal remains associated with in situ archaeological deposits in MHM. The assemblage is highly dominated by the Syrian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus), typical of cool and humid climate. It is common in Late Glacial fauna of the Mediterranean of the Levant, in sites such as Kebara UP and Amud. Yet, today it is known only from high elevation in Turkey, Syria and Jordan. Other taxa include several genera of murids, further supporting the reconstruction of woodland habitats within a 1-3 km radius around the site. Additional archaeological data confirm that MHM was situated along an ecotone between the forested, temperate plateau and the Jordan Valley bottom grassland. Dead Sea speleothems and stromatolites in Dead Sea escarpment caves, indicating a high stand of Lake

  14. Biogeochemical Indicators of Paleoenvironmental Changes in a Humid Region of Amazonia (Lagoa da Pata, Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B.; Mendes, L. G.; Azeredo, J. B.; Moura, M. S.; de Oliveira, A. R.; Monteiro, F.; Santelli, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    Analysis of four sediment core collected in Lagoa da Pata lake show significant changes in the environmental history of Amazonia during the last 40,000 years. The Lagoa da Pata Lake (0°17'S, 66°40'W) is located on the top of the Morro dos Seis Lagos, an isolated hill in the extensive forested plane surface of high Rio Negro basin. The climate in the region presents mean annual precipitation around 3000 mm without dry season. Three distinct sections are clearly identified in the LPT III, LPT IV and LPT V cores. They consist of upper and lower organic-rich layers, separated by a clastic layer which represents a short period of rapid accumulation around 18 ka BP. Analysis of the organic matter composition by d13C and d15N, total Carbon and Nitrogen, sedimentary chlorophyll concentration and organic matter petrography show three different phases related to organic matter deposition. Between, at least 46,000 and 31,000 14C yr B.P., the lake presented a high water level attested by high accumulation rates of organic carbon. Values of d13C (around -32%) associated to high C/N ratio demonstrate a lignocellulosic material contribution in this phase; the second phase between the 31000 yr 14C B.P. and 18000 14C B.P. is characterised by a lower productivity attested by low sedimentary chlorophyll and total organic carbon values. The d13C values increase with medium values around -28% that may correspond to an input of organic matter rich in C4 plants (grasses). The sedimentation rate decreases significantly. High charcoal fluxes were observed in this period. At around 18000 14C yr BP, there appears to have been a sudden input of clastic material. This is represented by a sandy facies, which exhibits lower carbon contents. From 18000 14C yr B.P. to the present time occurred an increase in lacustrine productivity marked by an increase in carbon and chlorophyll derivate accumulation rates. The C/N values dropped indicting an algae organic matter contribution. It probably

  15. Doing hydrology backwards in tropical humid catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real Rangel, R.; Brena-Naranjo, J. A.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down approaches in hydrology offer the possibility to predict water fluxes at the catchment scale based on the interpretation of the observed hydrological response at the catchment itself. Doing hydrology backwards (inferring precipitation and evapotranspiration rates at the catchment scale from streamflow measurements, see Kirchner (2009)) can be a useful methodology for estimating water fluxes at the catchment and regional scales. Previous studies using this inverse modeling approach have been performed in regions (UK, Switzerland, France, Eastern US) where energy-limited (in winter and early spring) and water-limited conditions (in summer) prevail during a large period of the year. However, such approach has not been tested in regions characterized by a quasi-constant supply of water and energy (e.g. humid tropics). The objective of this work is to infer annual rates of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the last decade in 10 catchments located in Mexico's tropical humid regions. Hourly discharge measurements during recession periods were analyzed and parameters for the nonlinear storage-discharge relationship of each catchment were derived. Results showed large variability in both catchment-scale precipitation and evapotranspiration rates among the selected study sites. Finally, a comparison was done between such estimates and those obtained from remotely-sensed data (TRMM for precipitation and MOD16 for evapotranspiration).

  16. Measuring Relative Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkham, Chester A.; Barrett, Kristin Burrows

    1992-01-01

    Describes four experiments that enable students to explore the phenomena of evaporation and condensation and determine the relative humidity by measuring air temperature and dew point on warm September days. Provides tables to calculate saturation points and relative humidity. (MDH)

  17. Chemical composition of the major components of PM in different sites at the Metropolitan Region of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Castillo, M. A.; Rubio, M.; Gramsch, E.; Vasquez, Y.; Oyola, P.

    2013-05-01

    Santiago, Chile's capital is one of most polluted megacity (5.5 million of people) of the world. Currently, PM2.5 annual concentration is over 2.2 times the Chilean standard (20 μg/m3). Continuous measurements of non-refractory PM1.0 (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium and organics aerosols), black carbon, and PM2,5 mass concentration were determined using Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne Research, Inc), absorption coefficient monitor (SIMCA, Santiago University) and dustrack monitor (TSI Inc) in order to know the temporal variability of the major components of PM. The measurements were carried out at kerbside, urban background, industrial and mixed residential/industrial locations during year 2012 and -2013. Meteorological data (Relative Humidity, temperature, wind speed, wind direction and precipitations) were obtained from the air quality network operated by the environmental authority. The results show strong correlation with the metropolitan region major sources. Multiple regression analysis indicates that precipitations have a strong impact on PM1.0 soluble components; relative humidity has effects only on chloride, sulfate and black carbon. Chloride concentration decrease when temperature is increasing. The perceptual contribution of each component is similar among all sites. All sites shows that OA (Organics Aerosol) as the major constituent of PM1.0 (>50%), followed of nitrates (>13%). Sulfate could be used to differentiate the industrial site; due to there is a strong impact of SO2 emission. Combustion sources direct impact can be seen at BC contribution at industrial and kerbside site. Also, the OA/BC ratio shows slow value at kerbside (3.05) and industrial (3.26) site, and higher at urban background site (4.15). Aged organics aerosols are majority found at all sites (f43/f44 plot), indicating that regional background is strong in all results. These results will be compared with size distribution measurements available from previous

  18. [Alchemists' humid radical].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    The term radical has been used by chemists since the beginnings and even when they still were alchemists. The term "humid radical" is present in numerous alchemists' texts. It was used to represent a kind of "humid", which was considered as different from what is nowadays called "humid", but was a sort of principle necessary for life. PMID:17575839

  19. Lunar heat flow: Regional prospective of the Apollo landing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegler, M. A.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    reexamine the Apollo Heat Flow Experiment in light of new orbital data. Using three-dimensional thermal conduction models, we examine effects of crustal thickness, density, and radiogenic abundance on measured heat flow values at the Apollo 15 and 17 sites. These models show the importance of regional context on heat flux measurements. We find that measured heat flux can be greatly altered by deep subsurface radiogenic content and crustal density. However, total crustal thickness and the presence of a near-surface radiogenic-rich ejecta provide less leverage, representing only minor (<1.5 mW m-2) perturbations on surface heat flux. Using models of the crust implied by Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory results, we found that a roughly 9-13 mW m-2 mantle heat flux best approximate the observed heat flux. This equates to a total mantle heat production of 2.8-4.1 × 1011 W. These heat flow values could imply that the lunar interior is slightly less radiogenic than the Earth's mantle, perhaps implying that a considerable fraction of terrestrial mantle material was incorporated at the time of formation. These results may also imply that heat flux at the crust-mantle boundary beneath the Procellarum potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus (KREEP) Terrane (PKT) is anomalously elevated compared to the rest of the Moon. These results also suggest that a limited KREEP-rich layer exists beneath the PKT crust. If a subcrustal KREEP-rich layer extends below the Apollo 17 landing site, required mantle heat flux can drop to roughly 7 mW m-2, underlining the need for future heat flux measurements outside of the radiogenic-rich PKT region.

  20. Discerning total salt contents and surface humidity on building stone with a portable moisture meter (Protimeter) in the region of Petra (Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Heras, M.; Wedekind, W.; Lopez-Arce, P.

    2012-04-01

    Water and moisture are some of the main decay agents of building stone and, in general of any stone structure. Several non-invasive methods are used to quantify moisture in building stone, many of them based on the fact that moist stone presents different electrical properties than dry stone. This is the case of resistance-based sensing equipment, such as "Protimeter" portable moisture meters. Although originally designed to measure moisture contents in wood, this sensing equipment is commonly used to measure the so-called "Wood Moisture Equivalent" (WME) in other building materials, such stone and mortar. However, this type of resistance-based sensors pose a degree of uncertainty, as there are other factors that modify electrical properties, such as porosity and salt content. When assessing the overall state of decay of a structure, it might not be crucial, in some cases, to discern between salt and water content: both high moisture levels and high salt content give high WME values, and both are usually related to areas with overall poor state of conservation and/or more prone to decay. However, discerning these two factors is crucial when trying to understand the dynamics of how some decay patterns are formed. This is the case of surface runoff in vertical façades and how it leads to the formation of alveoli and tafoni through salt weathering. Surface runoff and associated salt weathering are among the main decay processes found at the archaeological site of Petra (Jordan) and its understanding is of paramount importance for the conservation of this site. Some "Protimeter" sensors include a capacitance sensor in addition to the usual resistance sensing pins, which allows to measure sub-surface electrical properties. This paper presents results on how the combination of these two measurement modes could be used to discern if high WME values are caused by high surface humidity or by high salt contents in the context of Surface runoff and associated salt weathering

  1. 10 CFR 72.98 - Identifying regions around an ISFSI or MRS site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identifying regions around an ISFSI or MRS site. 72.98... WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.98 Identifying regions around an ISFSI or MRS site. (a) The... ISFSI or MRS must be identified. (b) The potential regional impact due to the construction, operation...

  2. Central Atlantic regional ecological test site: A prototype regional environmental information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A comparison of photomorphic regions from an uncontrolled ERTS-1 mosaic of CARETS to land use areas on a map published in the National Atlas revealed close correlations in non-urban regions. Such regional scale analysis of ERTS-1 data has the potential for providing an economical sampling strategy for selecting sites for more detailed field measurements if other environmental variables can be correlated with patterns on ERTS-1 imagery. ERTS-1 imagery has also revealed for the first time the appearance of CARETS during the winter months. Investigators have identified extensive areas of conifers, which have previously been indistinguishable from deciduous vegetation. Imagery has also shown very clearly the extent of snow cover at a particular time over the region. The evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery used for the land use mapping of the shore zone of CARETS, has shown that the presence or absence of elements of an hierarchal system of shoreline landforms can help identify areas of potential rapid change. Changes in land use class distributions on the Barrier Islands signify the environmental response to natural and man-caused processes. Both environmental vulnerability and sensitivity can be estimated from the repetitive ERTS-1 coverage of long reaches of the CARETS coast. Results indicate potential applications to land use planning, management, and regional environmental quality analysis.

  3. REGIONAL REFERENCE SITES: A METHOD FOR ASSESSING STREAM POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field assessments of impacted streams require a control or at least an unbiased estimate of attainable conditions. Control sites, such as upstream/downstream or wilderness sites, have proven inadequate for assessing attainable ecological conditions where the control streams diffe...

  4. The Clinch Bend Regional Industrial Site and economic development opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This effort focuses initially on the Clinch Bend site. Other sites and developable tracts of land are identified with the assistance of communities in proximity to Oak Ridge, the State of Tennessee, and others, and compared with the projected site requirements for large industrial facilities.

  5. The transition on North America from the warm humid Pliocene to the glaciated Quaternary traced by eolian dust deposition at a benchmark North Atlantic Ocean drill site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, David C.; Bailey, Ian; Wilson, Paul A.; Beer, Christopher J.; Bolton, Clara T.; Friedrich, Oliver; Newsam, Cherry; Spencer, Megan R.; Gutjahr, Marcus; Foster, Gavin L.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Milton, J. Andrew

    2014-06-01

    We present Plio-Pleistocene records of sediment color, %CaCO3, foraminifer fragmentation, benthic carbon isotopes (δ13C) and radiogenic isotopes (Sr, Nd, Pb) of the terrigenous component from IODP Site U1313, a reoccupation of benchmark subtropical North Atlantic Ocean DSDP Site 607. We show that (inter)glacial cycles in sediment color and %CaCO3 pre-date major northern hemisphere glaciation and are unambiguously and consistently correlated to benthic oxygen isotopes back to 3.3 million years ago (Ma) and intermittently so probably back to the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. We show these lithological cycles to be driven by enhanced glacial fluxes of terrigenous material (eolian dust), not carbonate dissolution (the classic interpretation). Our radiogenic isotope data indicate a North American source for this dust (˜3.3-2.4 Ma) in keeping with the interpreted source of terrestrial plant wax-derived biomarkers deposited at Site U1313. Yet our data indicate a mid latitude provenance regardless of (inter)glacial state, a finding that is inconsistent with the biomarker-inferred importance of glaciogenic mechanisms of dust production and transport. Moreover, we find that the relation between the biomarker and lithogenic components of dust accumulation is distinctly non-linear. Both records show a jump in glacial rates of accumulation from Marine Isotope Stage, MIS, G6 (2.72 Ma) onwards but the amplitude of this signal is about 3-8 times greater for biomarkers than for dust and particularly extreme during MIS 100 (2.52 Ma). We conclude that North America shifted abruptly to a distinctly more arid glacial regime from MIS G6, but major shifts in glacial North American vegetation biomes and regional wind fields (exacerbated by the growth of a large Laurentide Ice Sheet during MIS 100) likely explain amplification of this signal in the biomarker records. Our findings are consistent with wetter-than-modern reconstructions of North American continental climate under the warm high

  6. SITE IVESTIGATIONS (SI) AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS (FI) OF REGION 4 SUPERFUND HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: OCTOBER 2005 – SEPTEMBER 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site Investigations (SIs) and expanded Field Investigations (FIs) conducted by the Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) require developing and implementing work plans which include a Project Operations Plan, Field Sampling and Analysis Plan, Quality Assurance Pl...

  7. SITE IVESTIGATIONS (SI) AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS (FI) OF REGION 4 SUPERFUND HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: AUGUST 2007 – SEPTEMBER 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site Investigations (SIs) and Field Investigations (FIs) conducted by the Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) require developing and implementing work plans which include a Project Operations Plan, Field Sampling and Analysis Plan, Quality Assurance Project Pla...

  8. SITE INVESTIGATIONS (SI) AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS (FI) OF REGION 4 SUPERFUND HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: OCTOBER 2006 – JULY 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site Investigations (SIs) and Field Investigations (FIs) conducted by the Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) require developing and implementing work plans which include a Project Operations Plan, Field Sampling and Analysis Plan, Quality Assurance Project Pla...

  9. Simulating Tree and Topography Effects on Urban Air temperature and Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Endreny, T. A.; Nowak, D. J.; Kroll, C.; Heisler, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Microclimate, especially air temperature and humidity, significantly affect human thermal comfort, ecosystem services, and building energy use. Air temperature and humidity measurements are generally recorded at fixed-location meteorology stations, which do not represent the spatial variations encountered in these parameters across the landscape. We developed a spatial air temperature and humidity model to simulate local air temperature and humidity over a region where the mesoscale climate is presumed homogeneous. The model assumes that under the same mesoscale climate, microclimate is modified by local topography and land cover, which are two critical factors determining the absorbed solar radiation and the partitioning of sensible and latent heat. Therefore, the difference in microclimates among local clusters can be determined by the differences in local topography and land cover. Given a reference site where the meteorological data are collected, the microclimate of any other local cluster can be obtained by comparing the topography and land cover of the reference site and the local cluster. The model was tested at 11 locations in Syracuse, NY, where the hourly air temperature and humidity were measured from July 15, 2010 through September 15, 2010. The simulation results showed the model has high efficiency in estimating local cluster air temperature and humidity. The model can be applied on strategic urban reforestation designs, urban heat island mitigation, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and ecosystem interaction research.

  10. Golf Turf Pesticide Runoff Losses from Four Regional Sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to validate runoff models for use on turf have been hampered by the availability of comprehensive regional data sets that can be used to demonstrate the wide spread applicability of the model validation effort. A multi state collaborative project was initiated to generate regional data sets ...

  11. Site investigations and submarine soil mechanics in polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, E. J.

    1981-10-01

    Placing oil exploration and production structures offshore in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea will require careful site investigation and evaluation of submarine soil mechanics. Ice-bonded permafrost occurs widely under the Beaufort Sea floor. Its engineering properties are important to the design of offshore structures. Highly overconsolidated clays also occur widely and interfere with access to gravels for constructing artificial islands. Sites should be selected to avoid ice-rich permafrost. Laboratory tests may need to be conducted to determine the potential hazards of thaw consolidation and weakening.

  12. Humidity without Mystification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staver, Allen E.

    1977-01-01

    Demonstrates how a simple graph can be effectively used in teaching the concept, measurement, and use of humidity. Science activities for upper elementary, secondary, and higher education students are suggested and definitions of terms are presented. (Author/DB)

  13. Academics explore humidity's benefits.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Dave

    2008-11-01

    The effects of humidification on hospital superbugs are being explored by some of the UK's top academics, in what Dave Mortimer, national sales manager for Vapac Humidity Control, explains are the UK's first such studies. PMID:19044148

  14. Interpretation at Wetland Sites in the Sydney Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadhokar, Yojana; McLoughlin, Lynette C.

    1999-01-01

    Interpretive and educational facilities at five wetland sites near Sydney (Australia) were studied to determine their goals, range of facilities and activities, and themes related to wetlands and their conservation covered in informal visitor programs and formal education programs for school groups. Program objectives and activities were generally…

  15. Acoustic Humidity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Kwack, Eug Y.; Venkateshan, Shakkottai

    1990-01-01

    Industrial humidity sensor measures volume fraction of water in air via its effect on speed of sound. Only portion of sensor exposed to sensed atmosphere is pair of stainless-steel tubes, one containing dry air and other containing moist air. Counters measure intervals between reflected pulses. Sensor rugged enough for use in harsh environments like those used to control drying of paper in paper mills, where most humidity sensors do not survive.

  16. Low-temperature oxidation of magnetite - a humidity sensitive process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Erwin; Fang, Xiaomin; Herb, Christian; Hu, Shouyun

    2015-04-01

    Extensive multi-parameter palaeoclimate records were obtained from two long-term lacustrine archives at the Tibetan Plateau: the Qaidam basin (2.69-0.08 Ma) and Heqing basin (0.90-0.03 Ma). At present the region of the Qaidam site has an arid climate (<100 mm mean annual precipitation) while the Heqing site is located in the sub-tropical region with monsoonal rainfall. Magnetic properties play a prominent role for palaeoclimate interpretation in both records. Several parameters show a 100 kyr eccentricity cyclicity; in the Qaidam record also the Mid-Pleistocene Transition is seen. Both magnetic records are controlled by different absolute and relative contributions of magnetite and its altered (maghemitized) phases as well as hematite. Weathering conditions likely cause a systematic variation of magnetic mineralogy due to low-temperature oxidation (LTO). Maghemitization is well recognized as an alteration process in submarine basalts but about its relevance for climate-induced weathering in continental environments little is known. Various factors i.e., humidity, temperature, seasonality, duration of specific weathering conditions, and bacterial activity could be responsible for maghemitization (LTO) and transformation to hematite (or goethite) when a critical degree of LTO is reached. These factors may lead to a complex interplay, but one has to note that water acts as an electrolyte for Fe(II) to Fe(III) oxidation at the crystal surface and due to maghemitization-induced lattice shrinking a larger internal particle surface area becomes exposed to oxidation. We suggest that humidity is the most crucial driver for the two studied archives - for the following reasons: (1) The overall parameter variations and catchment conditions are well in agreement with an LTO scenario. (2) In the Qaidam record we observe a direct relationship of a humidity sensitive pollen Ratio with magnetic susceptibility (reflecting the degree of alteration by LTO). (3) In the Heqing record

  17. Chapter 1. The shortgrass steppe: The region and research sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The central grassland region of North America (Figure 1.1) is the largest contiguous grassland environment on earth. Prior to European settlement, it was a vast treeless area characterized by dense head-high grasses in the wet, eastern portion, and very short, sparse grasses in the dry west. As sett...

  18. Lexington and Kentucky's Inner Bluegrass Region. Pathways in Geography Series, Site Guide Title No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulack, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This meeting site guide for Lexington, Kentucky and the Bluegrass region around Lexington illustrates why the state of Kentucky and this region are excellent examples of how geography plays out on the land, how regions emerge, and how human events and processes, in the context of the physical environment, lead to differentiation and distinction,…

  19. Optical humidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tarvin, J.A.

    1987-02-10

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor is disclosed which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors. 2 figs.

  20. Optical humidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tarvin, Jeffrey A.

    1987-01-01

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors.

  1. Rock Morphologies of the Mawrth Vallis Landing Site Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.; Wray, J. J.; Parente, M.; Silver, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    The major clay units at Mawrth Vallis have been well-characterized by OMEGA and CRISM [1-6]. Here we extend this to HiRISE data, demonstrating that these units can be mapped in photographic data as well as through imaging spectroscopy. In HiRISE data the nontronite-bearing unit consists of two main textures: 2-5 m irregular polygons and irregular parallel fracture sets. In contrast, the montmorillonite-bearing unit consists of 0.5-1.5 m regular polygons (see figure below from HiRISE RED image PSP_007612_2045). These morphologies are consistent with previous outcrop-scale observations [1, 7]. Possibly, these polygons are due to freeze-thaw cycles, desiccation, loss of interlayer water, or a combination of these processes. In any case, the same processes must have occurred throughout the Mawrth Vallis region in order to produce such consistency. On the plains surrounding Mawrth Vallis, clear bed divisions are visible in the montmorillonite unit on both gradual and steep slopes (e.g. crater walls) but none are visible in the nontronite unit except in steep crater walls, implying that the beds in the montmorillonite unit may be better lithified than those in the older nontronite unit. Kaolinite, where identified by CRISM, appears bright and fractured in HiRISE imagery with no visible polygons. These morphologies are consistent across the entire 300 x 300 km central Mawrth Vallis region. Therefore, these units can be mapped in areas with some dust/sand cover that masks the CRISM spectrum or where there are no CRISM data available (see companion abstract by Parente et al. for details on automatic texture mapping). This discovery will provide future rover missions (such as MSL) with a more complete map of the major lithologic units, which will enhance and streamline mission planning. [1]Bishop, J. L., et al. (2008) Science, 321, 830-833. [2]Bibring, J.-P., et al. (2005) Science, 307, 1576-1581. [3]Loizeau, D., et al. (2009) Icarus, (in press). [4]McKeown, N. K., et al

  2. Automated Texture Classification of the Mawrth Vallis Landing Site Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, M.; Bayley, L.; Hunkins, L.; McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Supervised classification techniques have been developed to discriminate geomorphologic units in HiRISE images of Mawrth Vallis on Mars, one of the MSL candidate landing sites. A variety of clay minerals that indicate water was once present have been identified in the ancient bedrock at Mawrth Vallis [1-7]. These clay-rich rocks exhibit distinct surface textures in HiRISE images, where the nontronite-bearing unit consists of two primary textures: 2-5 m irregular inverted polygons and irregular parallel fracture sets ([8,13], Fig. b-c). In contrast, the montmorillonite-bearing unit consists of 0.5-1.5 m regular polygons ([8,13], Fig. e). We also characterized dunes (Fig. d), and the spectrally unremarkable caprock unit (Fig. a). Classification of these textures was performed by extracting discriminatory features from gray-level run length matrices (GLRLMs) [9], gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCMs) [10], and semivariograms [11] calculated for small blocks of data in HiRISE images. Preliminary results using an algorithm containing eight of these classification features produced a texture classification technique that is 85 percent accurate. The discriminant analysis (e.g. [12]) classifier we used modeled a linear discriminant function for each class based on the training feature vectors for that class. The test vector with the largest value for its discriminant function was then assigned to each class. We assumed linear functions were acceptable for small training sets and we performed automated selection in order to identify the most discriminative features for the textures in Mawrth Vallis. Continued efforts are underway to test and refine this procedure in order to optimize texture recognition on a broader collection of textures, representing additional surface components from Mawrth Vallis and other landing sites on Mars. [1] Bibring, J.-P., et al. (2005) Science, 307, 1576-1581. [2] Poulet, F., et al. (2005) Nature, 438, 632-627. [3] Bishop, J. L., et al

  3. Parameter estimation method and updating of regional prediction equations for ungaged sites in the desert region of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently updating at-site flood frequency estimates for USGS streamflow-gaging stations in the desert region of California. The at-site flood-frequency analysis is complicated by short record lengths (less than 20 years is common) and numerous zero flows/low outliers at many sites. Estimates of the three parameters (mean, standard deviation, and skew) required for fitting the log Pearson Type 3 (LP3) distribution are likely to be highly unreliable based on the limited and heavily censored at-site data. In a generalization of the recommendations in Bulletin 17B, a regional analysis was used to develop regional estimates of all three parameters (mean, standard deviation, and skew) of the LP3 distribution. A regional skew value of zero from a previously published report was used with a new estimated mean squared error (MSE) of 0.20. A weighted least squares (WLS) regression method was used to develop both a regional standard deviation and a mean model based on annual peak-discharge data for 33 USGS stations throughout California’s desert region. At-site standard deviation and mean values were determined by using an expected moments algorithm (EMA) method for fitting the LP3 distribution to the logarithms of annual peak-discharge data. Additionally, a multiple Grubbs-Beck (MGB) test, a generalization of the test recommended in Bulletin 17B, was used for detecting multiple potentially influential low outliers in a flood series. The WLS regression found that no basin characteristics could explain the variability of standard deviation. Consequently, a constant regional standard deviation model was selected, resulting in a log-space value of 0.91 with a MSE of 0.03 log units. Yet drainage area was found to be statistically significant at explaining the site-to-site variability in mean. The linear WLS regional mean model based on drainage area had a Pseudo- 2 R of 51 percent and a MSE of 0.32 log units. The regional parameter

  4. Regional biomass fired power plant siting Wisconsin project

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    The use of alternative fuels such as wood chips, wood products industry residues, refuse derived fuel, tire derived fuel and processed manufacturing paper waste fuel pellets has been practiced for a number of years in the state of Wisconsin. At present a relatively small quantity of the non-forestry urban wood waste is reclaimed for a variety of uses such as architectural mulch, animal bedding, nature trails in parks and recreational areas. Most is disposed of by landfills. This wood waste has low bulky density, depletes valuable landfill space, and in the Milwaukee area, currently costs $35-$50 per ton for hauling and disposal. This paper reviews the technical and economic feasibility of processing urban wood wastes using existing scrap processing facilities and transporting and supplying the wood fuel to existing stream and power generating facilities at state of Wisconsin institutions. The paper is based on a recent study funded by The Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program. The capability of a large midwest auto shredding/scrap processing facility, one of 200 such facilities in the US, to serve as a central urban waste fuels processor is reviewed.

  5. Hands-on Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  6. Desiccant humidity control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amazeen, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A regenerable sorbent system was investigated for controlling the humidity and carbon dioxide concentration of the space shuttle cabin atmosphere. The sorbents considered for water and carbon dioxide removal were silica gel and molecular sieves. Bed optimization and preliminary system design are discussed along with system optimization studies and weight penalites.

  7. USEPA REGION 10 REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: SITE LOCATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA designed and implemented the Environmental Assessment Program (EMAP) to determine the current status, extent, changes, and trends in indicators of the condition of the Nations ecological resources on regional and national scales with known confidence. USEPA Region 10s ...

  8. The Regional Water Table of the Savannah River Site and Related Coverages

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.A.

    1999-01-05

    A new regional-scale map of the water table configuration beneath the Savannah River Site and its surrounding area has been developed. This map is regarded as a more accurate representation of this surface than all previous maps.

  9. Development of a target-site based regional frequency model using historical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Yasser; Bardet, Lise; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear power facilities in France were designed to withstand extreme environmental conditions with a very low probability of failure. Nevertheless, some exceptional surges considered as outliers are not properly addressed by classical frequency analysis models. If available data at the site of interest (target-site) is sufficiently complete on a long period and not characterized by the presence of an outlier, at-site frequency analysis can be used to estimate quantiles with acceptable uncertainties. Otherwise, regional and historical information (HI) may be used to mitigate the lack of data and the influence of the outlier by increasing its representativeness in the sample. several models have been proposed over the last years for regional extreme surges frequency analysis in France to take into account these outliers in the frequency analysis. However, these models do not give a specific weight to the target site and cannot take into account HI. The objective of the present work is to develop a regional frequency model (RFM) centered on a target-site and using HI. The neighborhood between sites is measured by a degree of physical and statistical dependence between observations (with a prior confidence level). Unlike existing models, the obtained region around the target site (and constituting the neighboring sites) is sliding from a target-site to another. In other words, the developed model assigns a region for each target site. The idea behind the construction of a frequency model favoring target sites and the principle of moving regions around these target-sites is the original key point of the developed model. A related issue regards the estimation of missed and/or ungauged surges at target-sites from those of gauged potential neighboring sites, a multiple linear regression (MLR) is used and it can be extended to other reconstitutions models. MLR analysis can be considered conclusive only if available observations at neighboring sites are informative enough

  10. Global and regional estimates of cancer mortality and incidence by site: I. Application of regional cancer survival model to estimate cancer mortality distribution by site

    PubMed Central

    Mathers, Colin D; Shibuya, Kenji; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher JL

    2002-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease 2000 (GBD 2000) study starts from an analysis of the overall mortality envelope in order to ensure that the cause-specific estimates add to the total all cause mortality by age and sex. For regions where information on the distribution of cancer deaths is not available, a site-specific survival model was developed to estimate the distribution of cancer deaths by site. Methods An age-period-cohort model of cancer survival was developed based on data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER). The model was further adjusted for the level of economic development in each region. Combined with the available incidence data, cancer death distributions were estimated and the model estimates were validated against vital registration data from regions other than the United States. Results Comparison with cancer mortality distribution from vital registration confirmed the validity of this approach. The model also yielded the cancer mortality distribution which is consistent with the estimates based on regional cancer registries. There was a significant variation in relative interval survival across regions, in particular for cancers of bladder, breast, melanoma of the skin, prostate and haematological malignancies. Moderate variations were observed among cancers of colon, rectum, and uterus. Cancers with very poor prognosis such as liver, lung, and pancreas cancers showed very small variations across the regions. Conclusions The survival model presented here offers a new approach to the calculation of the distribution of deaths for areas where mortality data are either scarce or unavailable. PMID:12502433

  11. 10 CFR 72.98 - Identifying regions around an ISFSI or MRS site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identifying regions around an ISFSI or MRS site. 72.98 Section 72.98 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors §...

  12. Identification of clustered YY1 binding sites in Imprinting Control Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J D; Hinz, A; Bergmann, A; Huang, J; Ovcharenko, I; Stubbs, L; Kim, J

    2006-04-19

    Mammalian genomic imprinting is regulated by Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs) that are usually associated with tandem arrays of transcription factor binding sites. In the current study, the sequence features derived from a tandem array of YY1 binding sites of Peg3-DMR (differentially methylated region) led us to identify three additional clustered YY1 binding sites, which are also localized within the DMRs of Xist, Tsix, and Nespas. These regions have been shown to play a critical role as ICRs for the regulation of surrounding genes. These ICRs have maintained a tandem array of YY1 binding sites during mammalian evolution. The in vivo binding of YY1 to these regions is allele-specific and only to the unmethylated active alleles. Promoter/enhancer assays suggest that a tandem array of YY1 binding sites function as a potential orientation-dependent enhancer. Insulator assays revealed that the enhancer-blocking activity is detected only in the YY1 binding sites of Peg3-DMR but not in the YY1 binding sites of other DMRs. Overall, our identification of three additional clustered YY1 binding sites in imprinted domains suggests a significant role for YY1 in mammalian genomic imprinting.

  13. Evaluating the adequacy of a reference site pool for ecological assessments in environmentally complex regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ode, Peter R.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Mazor, Raphael D.; Schiff, Kenneth C.; Stein, Eric D.; May, Jason; Brown, Larry R.; Herbst, David B.; Gillette, D.D.; Lunde, Kevin; Hawkins, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Many advances in the field of bioassessment have focused on approaches for objectively selecting the pool of reference sites used to establish expectations for healthy waterbodies, but little emphasis has been placed on ways to evaluate the suitability of the reference-site pool for its intended applications (e.g., compliance assessment vs ambient monitoring). These evaluations are critical because an inadequately evaluated reference pool may bias assessments in some settings. We present an approach for evaluating the adequacy of a reference-site pool for supporting biotic-index development in environmentally heterogeneous and pervasively altered regions. We followed common approaches for selecting sites with low levels of anthropogenic stress to screen 1985 candidate stream reaches to create a pool of 590 reference sites for assessing the biological integrity of streams in California, USA. We assessed the resulting pool of reference sites against 2 performance criteria. First, we evaluated how well the reference-site pool represented the range of natural gradients present in the entire population of streams as estimated by sites sampled through probabilistic surveys. Second, we evaluated the degree to which we were successful in rejecting sites influenced by anthropogenic stress by comparing biological metric scores at reference sites with the most vs fewest potential sources of stress. Using this approach, we established a reference-site pool with low levels of human-associated stress and broad coverage of environmental heterogeneity. This approach should be widely applicable and customizable to particular regional or programmatic needs.

  14. Changing rainfall and humidity within Southeast Texas.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert Kennedy

    2015-01-01

    Southeast Texas houses a precipitation transition zone between drier conditions to the North and West and some of the wettest parts of the continental U.S. to the East. The Region has seen an increase in its reported normal annual precipitation totals in recent decades. In order to determine if the additional rainfall has been influenced by warming temperatures or is within the variability of the State's long-term drought cycles, several analyses were performed on historical climate data. The analyses answered several questions: Have global and regional climate change models predicted precipitation increases in Southeast Texas and are future increases expected? Do historical monthly precipitation totals at various sites in the region provide clear trends of wetter conditions that can be discerned from long-term drought cycles? Are rainfall patterns changing with less frequent, heavier rain events? Do the reported increases in annual rainfall actually lead to wetter conditions in the region? Climate models have not predicted larger annual average precipitation totals nor do they forecast increases for Southeast Texas. While recent decades may have seen more rain relative to earlier periods, a combined analysis of observation stations across different parts of the Region shows that long-term trends are dependent on when the data is selected relative to a drought cycle. While some stations show larger amounts of rain falling during fewer days, these trends do not hold across all periods. An examination of hourly data does not show an increase in extreme rainfall events or a decrease in the number of hours during which rain has fallen. Even though rainfall has not decreased, average relative humidity has fallen. This suggests that the area is drying even with steady or increasing amounts of rain. PMID:26322255

  15. REMEDIAL INVESTIGATIONS (RI) OF REGION 4 SUPERFUND HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: AUGUST 2007 – SEPTEMBER 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) conducts and/or provides technical assistance to Remedial Investigation (RI) projects of Region 4 Superfund sites. These RI projects require developing and implementing RI Work Plans which include a Project Operations Pla...

  16. REMEDIAL INVESTIGATIONS (RI) OF REGION 4 SUPERFUND HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: OCTOBER 2006 – JULY 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) conducts and/or provides technical assistance to Remedial Investigation (RI) projects of Region 4 Superfund sites. These RI projects require developing and implementing RI Work Plans which include a Project Operations Pla...

  17. Representing a Large Region with Few Sites: A New Approach for Studies on Small Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosamond, Madeline; Kaltenecker, Georgina; Mohamed, Mohamed; Taylor, William

    2015-04-01

    Many environmental studies attempt to characterize a large geographical region but financial and logistical constraints limit the number of field sites used. A systematic approach to site selection can ensure that an adequate range in the variables of interest is captured. We present a novel method to select small watersheds for a study examining relationships between agricultural land use, landscape characteristics and stream phosphorus export. This method reduces subjectivity and uses commonly-available geospatial datasets while considering practical constraints on site selections. We selected several variables representing agricultural P inputs or intensity and landscape susceptibility to P loss. We ordinated regional-scale data on cross plots and then superimposed potential field sites, picking those that covered the range shown, and over-representing areas with high P inputs losses. We represent an 110,000 km2 geographic area with 10 sites, with good coverage of four variables, using six sites from a previous study and four new sites. The site selection method can easily be adapted to studies with a variety of goals and settings. Additionally, ordinating watersheds or regions along axes (here, "agricultural" and "landscape") can provide insight into relationships among variables and help identify areas of particular concern, thus guiding stewardship and management programs. The largest challenge is resolution: small study watersheds (20 - 70 km2) may not be well represented by spatially and temporally coarse data.

  18. Indoor humidity and human health. Part 1: Literature review of health effects of humidity-influenced indoor pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Baughman, A.V.; Arens, E.A.

    1996-11-01

    Standards for indoor thermal conditions and ventilation include upper limits for relative humidity (RH) that typically are in the range of 60% to 80% RH. Although the reasons for the limits are often not explicitly stated, it is generally known that they were set out of concern for the health effects that might occur should the humidity become too high. The primary health effects of high humidity are caused by the growth and spread of biotic agents, although humidity interactions with nonbiotic pollutants, such as formaldehyde, may also cause adverse effects. This literature review identifies the most important health issues associated with high humidities and presents humidity requirements, typical contamination sites within buildings, and remediation measures for each pollutant. Part two of the paper addresses the physical causes of moisture-related problems in buildings.

  19. Robust Patterns and Process Insight from Multi-Site, Multi-Proxy, Multi-Region Holocene Paleohydrologic Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuman, B. N.; Serravezza, M.; Marsicek, J.

    2014-12-01

    Holocene moisture trends provide a useful context for historic hydrologic variations and potential future changes, and serve as key benchmarks for assessing paleoclimate dynamics. Many different approaches exist for paleohydrologic reconstruction, and comparisons offer an opportunity to validate key patterns and gain information based on differences. We consider multiple datasets from two mid-latitude regions of North America to evaluate centennial-to-millennial hydrologic variability during the Holocene. Comparisons of proxies at individual sites (i.e., pollen-inferred precipitation, reconstructed lake levels, hydrogen isotope ratios of biomarkers) and comparisons of proxies across sites in different hydrologic settings (i.e., closed vrs open lakes) provide insight into regional changes, while differences between the semi-arid (Wyoming) and humid (New England) regions reveal shifts in continental-scale moisture gradients. Pollen-inferred precipitation records were developed using the modern analog technique, which matches fossil pollen data to the climates of equivalent modern pollen assemblages. Lake moisture budgets were quantified in terms of mm/yr of precipitation minus evapotranspiration based on water-level histories systematically reconstructed from transects of sediment cores and geophysical data. Comparisons of the budgets for open and closed lakes, which have modern lake water isotopic values consistent with no or substantial evaporative losses respectively, were used to differentiate precipitation and evapotranspiration trends. Hydrogen isotopic values of aquatic versus terrestrial biomarkers, as well as comparisons with oxygen isotopic values of carbonate sediment, provide additional constrains on the magnitude of past evaporation trends that enrich the heavy isotope composition of lake water and thus aquatic substrates. In New England, pollen-inferred precipitation trends closely agree (Adj. R2 = 0.80) with replicated lake-level reconstructions, which

  20. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  1. Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS): A prototype regional environmental information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Accomplishments have included: (1) completion of the research design for the USGS/CARETS demonstration project; (2) preparation of photomossics and land use maps at a scale of 1:100,000 for entire area; (3) demonstration of the feasibility of extracting several categories of land use information from ERTS-1 MSS data for a portion of the CARETS region; (4) demonstration of the feasibility of detecting some significant land use changes on ERTS-1 imagery; (5) demonstration of the feasibility of attaching environmental impact significance to the remote sensor-derived land use data; (6) delivery of land use information derived from high altitude aircraft data to the Maryland state planning agency for use in its statewide land use inventory; (7) demonstration of high interest by other use groups in the test region in products and services provided by investigation; and (8) determination of the viability of setting up a computerized geographic information system as part of the CARETS investigation, to facilitate handling of sensor-derived land use data in a variety of formats to suit user requirements.

  2. Nuclear event time histories and computed site transfer functions for locations in the Los Angeles region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, A.M.; Covington, P.A.; Park, R.B.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Perkins, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a collection of Nevada Test Site (NTS) nuclear explosion recordings obtained at sites in the greater Los Angeles, Calif., region. The report includes ground velocity time histories, as well as, derived site transfer functions. These data have been collected as part of a study to evaluate the validity of using low-level ground motions to predict the frequency-dependent response of a site during an earthquake. For this study 19 nuclear events were recorded at 98 separate locations. Some of these sites have recorded more than one of the nuclear explosions, and, consequently, there are a total of 159, three-component station records. The location of all the recording sites are shown in figures 1–5, the station coordinates and abbreviations are given in table 1. The station addresses are listed in table 2, and the nuclear explosions that were recorded are listed in table 3. The recording sites were chosen on the basis of three criteria: (1) that the underlying geological conditions were representative of conditions over significant areas of the region, (2) that the site was the location of a strong-motion recording of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, or (3) that more complete geographical coverage was required in that location.

  3. [DNA bend sites in the promoter region of the human estrogen receptor alpha gene].

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, K; Sakuma, Y

    1998-12-01

    DNA bend sites in the promoter region of the human estrogen receptor a gene were determined by the circular permutation assay. Among a total of five sites (ERB -4 to -1, and ERB + 1) mapped in the 3 kb region, three matched with the positions of the predicted periodicity while the other two did not. Most of the sites were accompanied by the short poly (dA)-poly (dT) tracts including the potential bend core sequence A2N8A2N8A2 (A/A/A). Fine mapping of the ERB-2 site indicated that this A/A/A and the immediate franking sequences contained motifs for the estrogen response element. This region had a higher affinity for the nuclear scaffold and was included in the core region of the nucleosome structure. However, binding of the nuclear factor(s) to the motifs and disruption of nucleosome structure occurred without ATP. These results suggest that a class of periodic bent DNA could act as a site of multiple interactions among the nuclear scaffold, core histones and nuclear factors. PMID:9893449

  4. From regional to site specific SPTHA through inundation simulations: a case study for three test sites in Central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Romano, Fabrizio; Volpe, Manuela; Brizuela, Beatriz; Piatanesi, Alessio; Basili, Roberto; Lorito, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    We propose a procedure that enables the quantification of tsunami hazard at specific target sites through numerical simulations, accounting for the full variability of potential seismic sources. To this end, we developed a method that reduces the computational effort required by a very large number of detailed inundation simulations by adopting the offshore tsunami propagation patterns used for regional Seismic PTHA (SPTHA) as a proxy for the subsequent hazard estimate. The reduction of the computational effort is based on a two steps filtering procedure of the offshore SPTHA, through which a reduced number of scenarios to be modelled for inundation is selected. Each scenario represents a larger set of sources that form a cluster of potential tsunamis with similar impact on the target area. This filtering procedure is completely based on the tsunami profiles offshore, and it represents a generalization of the method proposed in Lorito et al. (2015) allowing i) to consider a much larger set of input linear simulations, and ii) to control the within-cluster variance of each selected cluster of seismic sources (thence, indirectly the artificial uncertainty introduced in probabilistic inundation maps by this filtering process). Here we present the preliminary results obtained for three test sites in central Mediterranean (Milazzo and Siracusa, Southern Italy, and Thessaloniki, Northern Greece). We preliminary perform a regional SPTHA covering the whole Mediterranean, in which the aleatory variability is quantified considering about 2 × 107 different seismic sources, and epistemic uncertainty is explored through an ensemble model based on more than ×105 alternative model implementations. For each site, separately, few hundreds of "representative scenarios" are filtered out of all the potential seismic sources. Then, the inundations caused by such scenarios is explicitly modelled and the site-specific SPTHA obtained, allowing a complete characterization of the tsunami

  5. Assessment of Natural Stream Sites for Hydroelectric Dams in the Pacific Northwest Region

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall; Kristin L. Verdin; Randy D. Lee

    2012-03-01

    This pilot study presents a methodology for modeling project characteristics using a development model of a stream obstructing dam. The model is applied to all individual stream reaches in hydrologic region 17, which encompasses nearly all of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Project site characteristics produced by the modeling technique include: capacity potential, principal dam dimensions, number of required auxiliary dams, total extent of the constructed impoundment boundary, and the surface area of the resulting reservoir. Aggregated capacity potential values for the region are presented in capacity categories including total, that at existing dams, within federal and environmentally sensitive exclusion zones, and the balance which is consider available for greenfield development within the limits of the study. Distributions of site characteristics for small hydropower sites are presented and discussed. These sites are screened to identify candidate small hydropower sites and distributions of the site characteristics of this site population are presented and discussed. Recommendations are made for upgrading the methodology and extensions to make the results more accessible and available on a larger scale.

  6. Corn grain, stover yield and nutrient removal validations at regional partnership sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays, L.) stover has been identified as a major feedstock for cellulosic bioenergy. This report summarizes grain and stover yield as well as N, P, and K removal at several Sun Grant Regional Partnership (SGRP) sites. National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) grain yields were used t...

  7. CAN SITE-SPECIFIC TRENDS BE EXTRAPOLATED TO A REGION? AN ACIDIFICATION EXAMPLE FOR THE NORTHEAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the absence of true regional data on changes in the acid/base status of lakes in the northeastern United States, we explore the possibility of using site-specific trends information from a judgment sample of lakes to assess the efficacy of the Clean Air Act Amendments. A meta-...

  8. Crystal Microbalance Monitors Relative Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensor monitors water evaporation in industrial drying processes. Measured adsorption isotherm for instrument essentially linear over entire range of relative humidity. Testing at each temperature setting less than half hour for full relative-humidity range, with estimated frequency response time less than 10 seconds. Used to measure relative humidity of ambient atmosphere near drying paper, food textile fabrics and pulp to optimize water-drying portion of processing cycle.

  9. Measurements of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) using PTR-MS: calibration, humidity dependence, inter-comparison and results from field studies in an oil and gas production region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Warneke, C.; Graus, M.; Field, R.; Geiger, F.; Veres, P. R.; Soltis, J.; Li, S.-M.; Murphy, S. M.; Sweeney, C.; Pétron, G.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J.

    2014-06-01

    Natural gas production is associated with emissions of several trace gases, some of them classified as air toxics. While volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have received much attention, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can also be of concern due to the known health impacts of exposure to this hazardous air pollutant. Here, we present quantitative, fast time-response measurements of H2S using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) instruments. An Ultra-Light-Weight PTR-MS (ULW-PTR-MS) in a mobile laboratory was operated for measurements of VOCs and H2S in a gas and oil field during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) 2012 campaign. Measurements of VOCs and H2S by a PTR-MS were also made at the Horse Pool ground site in the Uintah Basin during UBWOS 2013. The H2S measurement by PTR-MS is strongly humidity dependent because the proton affinity of H2S is only slightly higher than that of water. The H2S sensitivity of PTR-MS ranged between 0.6-1.4 ncps ppbv-1 (normalized counts per second/parts per billion by volume) during UBWOS 2013. We compare the humidity dependence determined in the laboratory with in-field calibrations and determine the H2S mixing ratios for the mobile and ground measurements. The PTR-MS measurements at Horse Pool are evaluated by comparison with simultaneous H2S measurements using a PTR Time-of-Flight MS (PTR-ToF-MS) and a Picarro cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument for H2S/CH4. On average 0.6 ± 0.3 ppbv H2S was present at Horse Pool during UBWOS 2013. The correlation between H2S and methane enhancements suggests that the source of H2S is associated with oil and gas extraction in the basin. Significant H2S mixing ratios of up to 9 ppmv downwind of storage tanks were observed during the mobile measurements. This study suggests that H2S emissions associated with oil and gas production can lead to short-term high levels close to point sources, and elevated background levels away from those sources. In addition, our work has

  10. Measurements of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) using PTR-MS: calibration, humidity dependence, inter-comparison and results from field studies in an oil and gas production region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Warneke, C.; Graus, M.; Field, R.; Geiger, F.; Veres, P. R.; Soltis, J.; Li, S.-M.; Murphy, S. M.; Sweeney, C.; Pétron, G.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J.

    2014-10-01

    Natural gas production is associated with emissions of several trace gases, some of them classified as air toxics. While volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have received much attention, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can also be of concern due to the known health impacts of exposure to this hazardous air pollutant. Here, we present quantitative, fast time-response measurements of H2S using proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) instruments. An ultra-light-weight PTR-MS (ULW-PTR-MS) in a mobile laboratory was operated for measurements of VOCs and H2S in a gas and oil field during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) 2012 campaign. Measurements of VOCs and H2S by a PTR-MS were also made at the Horse Pool ground site in the Uintah Basin during UBWOS 2013. The H2S measurement by PTR-MS is strongly humidity dependent because the proton affinity of H2S is only slightly higher than that of water. The H2S sensitivity of PTR-MS ranged between 0.6-1.4 ncps ppbv-1 during UBWOS 2013. We compare the humidity dependence determined in the laboratory with in-field calibrations and determine the H2S mixing ratios for the mobile and ground measurements. The PTR-MS measurements at Horse Pool are evaluated by comparison with simultaneous H2S measurements using a PTR time-of-flight MS (PTR-ToF-MS) and a Picarro cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument for H2S / CH4. On average 0.6 ± 0.3 ppbv H2S was present at Horse Pool during UBWOS 2013. The correlation between H2S and methane enhancements suggests that the source of H2S is associated with oil and gas extraction in the basin. Significant H2S mixing ratios of up to 9 ppmv downwind of storage tanks were observed during the mobile measurements. This study suggests that H2S emissions associated with oil and gas production can lead to short-term high levels close to point sources, and elevated background levels away from those sources. In addition, our work has demonstrated that PTR-MS can make reliable measurements of

  11. Seasonal variations and chemical characterization of ambient PM 10 at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata (Calcutta), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karar, Kakoli; Gupta, A. K.

    2006-07-01

    Monitoring of ambient PM 10 (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 μm aerodynamic diameter) has been done at residential (Kasba) and industrial (Cossipore) sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003 to November 2004. The measurements have been performed once a week during the study period. PM 10 mass concentrations ranged from 68.2 to 280.6 μg/m 3 at a residential site and 62.4 to 401.2 μg/m 3 at an industrial site. Metal constituents of ambient PM 10 deposited on quartz microfibre filter papers were identified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). Chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are the seven toxic trace metals quantified from the measured PM 10 concentrations. Results identified zinc with maximum contribution of PM 10 among measured metals having concentrations of 0.49 μg/m 3 at the residential site, and 0.53 μg/m 3 at the industrial site. The PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) compounds namely, fluoranthene (Fl), pyrene (Py), benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) have been analyzed using gas chromatography. The major PAH compound at the monitoring sites was BbF with 0.03 μg/m 3 at the residential site and 0.02 μg/m 3 at the industrial site. Total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC) and organic carbon (OC) of PM 10 were analyzed using a carbon analyzer. Exposed quartz microfibre filter papers were also analyzed for water-soluble anions of fluoride (F -), chloride (Cl -), nitrate (NO 3-), phosphate (PO 43-) and sulfate (SO 42-) using ion chromatography. Sulfate was found in maximum concentration among anionic species with a value of 1.2 μg/m 3 at the residential site, and 1.7 μg/m 3 at the industrial site. Meteorological parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were collected

  12. Adjustment of regional regression equations for urban storm-runoff quality using at-site data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barks, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    Regional regression equations have been developed to estimate urban storm-runoff loads and mean concentrations using a national data base. Four statistical methods using at-site data to adjust the regional equation predictions were developed to provide better local estimates. The four adjustment procedures are a single-factor adjustment, a regression of the observed data against the predicted values, a regression of the observed values against the predicted values and additional local independent variables, and a weighted combination of a local regression with the regional prediction. Data collected at five representative storm-runoff sites during 22 storms in Little Rock, Arkansas, were used to verify, and, when appropriate, adjust the regional regression equation predictions. Comparison of observed values of stormrunoff loads and mean concentrations to the predicted values from the regional regression equations for nine constituents (chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, total nitrogen as N, total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as N, total phosphorus as P, dissolved phosphorus as P, total recoverable copper, total recoverable lead, and total recoverable zinc) showed large prediction errors ranging from 63 percent to more than several thousand percent. Prediction errors for 6 of the 18 regional regression equations were less than 100 percent and could be considered reasonable for water-quality prediction equations. The regression adjustment procedure was used to adjust five of the regional equation predictions to improve the predictive accuracy. For seven of the regional equations the observed and the predicted values are not significantly correlated. Thus neither the unadjusted regional equations nor any of the adjustments were appropriate. The mean of the observed values was used as a simple estimator when the regional equation predictions and adjusted predictions were not appropriate.

  13. Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal Siting in a Highly Seismic Region on the Mexican Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaczek, Yannick; Lambert, Nicolas

    A new LNG terminal should be built on the Pacific coast of Mexico, one of the most seismic regions in the world. According to International codes, a siting process must be carried out to insure the feasibility of the project, which involves, in a first step, a data collection of all existing documents related to geology, seismicity, and geotechnics. As a second step, a seismo-tectonic study has been performed, with localisation of active faults on or close to the site (aerial and satellite imagery, geophysical investigations) and determination of OBE & SSE levels. Afterwards, the site was globally characterised, with a first geotechnical report, dealing with liquefaction risks, typical soil layers, and general foundation methodology. The general site layout, the general stability of buildings, the detailed soil investigations, and the detailed foundation design are performed in the phases as described in this paper.

  14. Multiple octamer binding sites in the promoter region of the bovine alpha s2-casein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Groenen, M A; Dijkhof, R J; van der Poel, J J; van Diggelen, R; Verstege, E

    1992-01-01

    Using a set of overlapping oligonucleotides from the promoter region of the bovine alpha s2-casein gene we have identified two nuclear factors which probably are involved in expression of this gene and the related calcium sensitive alpha s1- and beta-casein genes. One of these factors which was present in extracts of all tissues that have been tested including Hela cells turned out to be the octamer binding protein OCT-1. Oct-1 binds with different affinity to 4 sites at positions centred around -480, -260, -210 and -50. The strongest of these 4 binding sites, the one around position -50, is highly conserved in all calcium sensitive caseins of mouse, rat, rabbit and cattle. The other nuclear factor (MGF, mammary gland factor) which is specifically expressed in the mammary gland, binds to a site around position -90. This binding site is also highly conserved in all calcium sensitive caseins of mouse, rat, rabbit and cattle. Images PMID:1508722

  15. Upper tropospheric humidity changes under constant relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, Klaus; Eleftheratos, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    Theoretical derivations are given on the change of upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) in a warming climate. The considered view is that the atmosphere, which is getting moister with increasing temperatures, will retain a constant relative humidity. In the present study, we show that the upper tropospheric humidity, a weighted mean over a relative humidity profile, will change in spite of constant relative humidity. The simple reason for this is that the weighting function that defines UTH changes in a moister atmosphere. Through analytical calculations using observations and through radiative transfer calculations, we demonstrate that two quantities that define the weighting function of UTH can change: the water vapour scale height and the peak emission altitude. Applying these changes to real profiles of relative humidity shows that absolute UTH changes typically do not exceed 1 %. If larger changes would be observed they would be an indication of climatological changes of relative humidity. As such, an increase in UTH between 1980 and 2009 in the northern midlatitudes, as shown by earlier studies using the High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) data, may be an indication of an increase in relative humidity as well.

  16. Improving irrigation management for humid and sub-humid climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project includes studies led by both USDA-ARS and University of Missouri scientists, with a goal to develop solutions to broad water management problems with application to humid and sub-humid areas in the USA and the world. Our interdisciplinary team optimizes production systems for irrigated ...

  17. Improving irrigation management for humid and sub-humid climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project includes studies led by both USDA-ARS and University of Missouri scientists, with a goal to develop solutions to broad water management problems with application to humid and sub-humid areas in the USA and the world. Our interdisciplinary team evaluates and optimizes production systems ...

  18. Upper-tropospheric humidity changes under constant relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, K.; Eleftheratos, K.

    2015-10-01

    Theoretical derivations are given on the change of upper-tropospheric humidity (UTH) in a warming climate. Considered view is that the atmosphere, getting moister with increasing temperatures, will retain a constant relative humidity. In the present study we show that the upper-tropospheric humidity, a weighted mean over a relative humidity profile, will change in spite of constant relative humidity. The simple reason for this is that the weighting function, that defines UTH, changes in a moister atmosphere. Through analytical calculations using observations and through radiative transfer calculations we demonstrate that two quantities that define the weighting function of UTH can change: the water vapour scale height and the peak emission altitude. Applying these changes to real profiles of relative humidity shows that absolute UTH changes typically do not exceed 1 %. If larger changes would be observed they would be an indication of climatological changes of relative humidity. As such, an increase in UTH between 1980 and 2009 in the northern midlatitudes as shown by earlier studies using HIRS data, may be an indication of an increase in relative humidity as well.

  19. Water-quality and geophysical data for three study sites within the Williston Basin and Prairie Pothole Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Chesley-Preston, Tara

    2012-01-01

    This report is a data release for water geochemical sample analyses and geophysical surveys for three sites within the Williston Basin and Prairie Pothole Region of Montana and North Dakota. The data collection sites and procedures are described.

  20. Utilizing Regional Centers in Sustaining Upgraded Russian Federation Ministry of Defense Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kaldenbach, Karen Yvonne; Chainikov, General Vladimir; Fedorov, General Victor; Larionov, Igor V; Sokolnikov, Pavel I; Estigneev, Yuri; Bolton, Charles; Ross, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s the governments of the United States (U.S.) and the Russian Federation (RF) have been collaborating on nonproliferation projects, particularly in the protection of nuclear material through the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). To date, this collaboration has resulted in upgrades to more than 72 RF Ministry of Defense (MOD) sensitive sites and facilities. These upgrades include physical protection systems (PPS), facilities to ensure material remains secure in various configurations, and infrastructure to support, maintain, and sustain upgraded sites. Significant effort on the part of both governments has also been expended to ensure that personnel obtain the necessary skills and training to both operate and maintain the security systems, thereby ensuring long term sustainability. To accomplish this, initial vendor training on physical protection systems was provided to key personnel, and an approved training curriculum was developed to teach the skills of operating, managing, administering, and maintaining the installed physical protection systems. This approach also included documentation of the processes and procedures to support infrastructure, requisite levels of maintenance and testing of systems and equipment, lifecycle management support, inventory systems and spare parts caches. One of the core components in the U.S. exit strategy and full transition to the RF MOD is the development and utilization of regional centers to facilitate centralized training and technical support to upgraded MOD sites in five regions of the RF. To date, two regional centers and one regional classroom facility are functional, and two additional regional centers are currently under construction. This paper will address the process and logistics of regional center establishment and the future vision for integrated regional center support by the RF MOD.

  1. Small activating RNA binds to the genomic target site in a seed-region-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xing; Jiang, Qian; Chang, Nannan; Wang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Chujun; Xiong, Jingwei; Cao, Huiqing; Liang, Zicai

    2016-01-01

    RNA activation (RNAa) is the upregulation of gene expression by small activating RNAs (saRNAs). In order to investigate the mechanism by which saRNAs act in RNAa, we used the progesterone receptor (PR) gene as a model, established a panel of effective saRNAs and assessed the involvement of the sense and antisense strands of saRNA in RNAa. All active saRNAs had their antisense strand effectively incorporated into Ago2, whereas such consistency did not occur for the sense strand. Using a distal hotspot for saRNA targeting at 1.6-kb upstream from the PR transcription start site, we further established that gene activation mediated by saRNA depended on the complementarity of the 5′ region of the antisense strand, and that such activity was largely abolished by mutations in this region of the saRNA. We found markedly reduced RNAa effects when we created mutations in the genomic target site of saRNA PR-1611, thus providing evidence that RNAa depends on the integrity of the DNA target. We further demonstrated that this saRNA bound the target site on promoter DNA. These results demonstrated that saRNAs work via an on-site mechanism by binding to target genomic DNA in a seed-region-dependent manner, reminiscent of miRNA-like target recognition. PMID:26873922

  2. Does ecosystem sensitivity to precipitation at the site-level conform to regional-scale predictions?.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Kevin R; Blair, John M; Smith, Melinda D; Knapp, Alan K

    2016-03-01

    Central to understanding global C cycle dynamics is the functional relationship between precipitation and net primary production (NPP). At large spatial (regional) scales, the responsiveness of aboveground NPP (ANPP) to interannual variation in annual precipitation (AP; ANPPsens) is inversely related to site-level ANPP, coinciding with turnover of plant communities along precipitation gradients. Within ecosystems experiencing chronic alterations in water availability, plant community change will also occur with unknown consequences for ANPPsens. To examine the role plant community shifts may play in determining alterations in site-level ANPPPsens, we experimentally increased precipitation by approximately 35% for two decades in a native Central U.S. grassland. Consistent with regional models, ANPPsens decreased initially as water availability and ANPP increased. However, ANPPsens shifted back to ambient levels when mesic species increased in abundance in the plant community. Similarly, in grassland sites with distinct mesic and xeric plant communities and corresponding 50% differences in ANPP, ANPPsens did not differ over almost three decades. We conclude that responses in ANPPsens to chronic alterations in water availability within an ecosystem may not conform to regional AP-ANPP patterns, despite expected changes in ANPP and plant communities. The result is unanticipated functional resistance to climate change at the site scale. PMID:27197383

  3. Extraction of Functional Binding Sites from Unique Regulatory Regions: The Drosophila Early Developmental Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Papatsenko, Dmitri A.; Makeev, Vsevolod J.; Lifanov, Alex P.; Régnier, Mireille; Nazina, Anna G.; Desplan, Claude

    2002-01-01

    The early developmental enhancers of Drosophila melanogaster comprise one of the most sophisticated regulatory systems in higher eukaryotes. An elaborate code in their DNA sequence translates both maternal and early embryonic regulatory signals into spatial distribution of transcription factors. One of the most striking features of this code is the redundancy of binding sites for these transcription factors (BSTF). Using this redundancy, we explored the possibility of predicting functional binding sites in a single enhancer region without any prior consensus/matrix description or evolutionary sequence comparisons. We developed a conceptually simple algorithm, Scanseq, that employs an original statistical evaluation for identifying the most redundant motifs and locates the position of potential BSTF in a given regulatory region. To estimate the biological relevance of our predictions, we built thorough literature-based annotations for the best-known Drosophila developmental enhancers and we generated detailed distribution maps for the most robust binding sites. The high statistical correlation between the location of BSTF in these experiment-based maps and the location predicted in silico by Scanseq confirmed the relevance of our approach. We also discuss the definition of true binding sites and the possible biological principles that govern patterning of regulatory regions and the distribution of transcriptional signals. PMID:11875036

  4. Variations of relative humidity in relation to meningitis in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seefeldt, M. W.; Hopson, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    The meningitis belt is a region covering Sub-Saharan Africa from the Sahel of West Africa eastward to western Ethiopia. The region is prone to meningitis epidemics during the dry season extending from approximately January to May, depending on the region. Relative humidity has been found to be a critical environmental factor indicating the susceptibility of a region to meningitis epidemics. This study evaluates the variation of relative humidity across West Africa over 30 dry-seasons (1979 - 2009) using the NASA-MERRA dataset. The method of self-organizing maps is employed to characterize the changes in relative humidity patterns across the region within a given dry season as well as changes over the 30 years. A general pattern of changes in relative humidity is indicated as the rainbelt retreats to the south at the onset of the dry season and then returns to the region at the end of the dry season. Within each dry season there is a unique pattern. The climatological conditions of relative humidity at the onset of the dry season provide an indication of the moisture environment for the entire dry season. Year to year variation in the relative humidity patterns are found to be gradual. Future applications involve using the results from the SOM evaluation to be used for future decisions involving prevention of meningitis epidemics.

  5. Structural relationships of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Nevada Test Site region, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cashman, P.H.; Cole, J.C.

    1999-08-30

    This report summarizes the evidence for a revised interpretation of major structural features in the pre-Tertiary rocks of the region including and surrounding the Nevada Test Site. The thick miogeoclinal section of Late Proterozoic through Lower Permian sedimentary strata records major foreland-vergent thrust faulting, younger hinterland-vergent folding and thrusting, and local extension on low-angle normal faults. In addition, structural discontinuities in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site strongly suggest a broad, north-trending zone of sinistral strike-slip faulting that may have had a cumulative offset of many kilometers.

  6. Operation and research at the Ithaca MAP3S regional precipitation chemistry site

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.J.; Likens, G.E.

    1991-07-01

    Annual precipitation chemistry data from network start-up through 1988 is presented for the nine MAP3S sites. Time trends show significant negative linear regressions (P < 0.10) for SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} at 2 sites, H{sup +} at 4 sites, Ca{sup ++} at 1 site, and Na{sup +} at 1 site. Significant positive regressions over time include: NH{sub 4}{sup +} at 2 sites, Ca{sup ++} at 1 site, K{sup +} at 4 sites, and Cl{sup {minus}} at 2 sites. The Ithaca site shows the highest number of significant trends, with positive trends for Cl{sup {minus}}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Ca{sup ++}, and K{sup +}, and a negative trend for H{sup +}. Linear regressions of annual SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations on SO2 emissions show a significant positive relationship for Whiteface, Illinois, and Ohio at p < 0.10, 0.02, and 0.05 respectively. Overall for all MAP3S sites, plus Hubbard Brook a 25% decline in SO2 emissions over the region has been accompanied by a 16.5% decline in annual precipitation concentrations of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. For the region as a whole, a 20% decline in combined emissions has been accompanied to a 20% decline in H{sup +} concentrations. Thus a linear relationship exists between combined emissions and precipitation H{sup +} concentrations. No strong relationship exists for NOx emissions and precipitation NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentration at the annual, seasonal or monthly level. Removing the NOx transportation sector, removing high and low precipitation values, or high pH values also does little to improve the NOx -- NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentration relationships. Dry deposition components such a PAN, NO2, gaseous HNO{sub 3}, or aerosol NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} should be included in the future with precipitation NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to relate emissions of NOx to nitrogen deposition. 11 refs., 27 figs.,1 tab.

  7. Humidity Graphs for All Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmael, F.

    1982-01-01

    In a previous article in this journal (Vol. 17, p358, 1979), a wet-bulb depression table was recommended for two simple experiments to determine relative humidity. However, the use of a graph is suggested because it gives the relative humidity directly from the wet and dry bulb readings. (JN)

  8. Report Card on Humidity Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, John C.; Bayer, Charlene

    2003-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62-1999 on outdoor ventilation rates and space humidity levels for schools. Examined conventional cooling versus desiccant-based systems designed to control indoor humidity levels. Discusses the effectiveness of systems…

  9. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-04-01

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents' concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance. PMID:27070632

  10. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-01-01

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents’ concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance. PMID:27070632

  11. Structural relationships of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Nevada Test Site region, southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, James C.; Cashman, Patricia Hughes

    1999-01-01

    This report contains a synthesis and interpretation of structural and stratigraphic data for pre-Tertiary rocks in a large area of southern Nevada within and near the Nevada Test Site. Its presents descriptive and interpretive information from discontinuously exposed localities in the context of a regional model that integrates stratigraphy, sedimentology, crustal structure, and deformational style and timing. Evidence is given for substantial strike-slip faults, for modest excursion on low-angle faults, and for pre-Oligocene formation of the regional oroclinal flexure in neighboring mountain ranges.

  12. A 400 year reconstruction of July relative air humidity for the region Vienna (eastern Austria) based on carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring latewood cellulose of oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, M.; Boettger, T.; Weigl, M.; Grabner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Stable isotope chronologies and correlation to climate. We present the stable isotope chronologies of carbon (^13Clw) and oxygen (^18Olw) for the period from 1600 to 2003 respectively of non-exchangeable hydrogen (^2Hlw) for the last century constructed base upon tree-ring latewood cellulose from oaks (Quercus petraea Matt. Liebl.) grown in the region Vienna (Austria). The stable isotope ratios correspond mainly to the summer climate conditions. For the calibration period (1900-2003) we found high significant correlations (p < 0.001) between ^13Clw and relative air humidity (RH) of July (-0.66), between ^18Olw and RHV I-V II (-0.61) and between ^2Hlw and RHV I-V III(-0.56). In the case of temperatures high significant correlations between the growing season temperature and ^13Clw (0.55), between the annual mean temperatures and ^18Olw ratios (0.45) and between summer mean temperatures (June to August) and ^2Hlw values (0.49) were estimated. Modeling. Various univariate and multivariate linear regressions models were proved for the reconstruction of summer relative air humidity and temperature. We found that establishing of robust models had several uncertainties: - using common linear transfer functions which oversimplify the complexity of relations; - using of pooled material and neglecting of different reactions from individual trees to climate; - high-order autocorrelations in the isotope time series; - climatic trends in the investigated region which are different in the first and in the second half of 20th century; - temporal instability of climate signals in the isotope ratios of tree ring cellulose. In the case of temperature no valid model could be estimated caused by temporal instabilities of signal strength. For relative air humidity two bivariate models RHV II = (-4.3 ± 0.7) * ^13Clw + (-2.8 ± 0.5) * ^18Olw + 44 [1] and RHV II = (-4.7 ± 0.7) * ^13Clw + (-0.35 ± 0.07) * ^2Hlw - 68 [2] were found as verifiable and applicable to reconstruct RHV II

  13. A 400 year reconstruction of July relative air humidity for the region Vienna (eastern Austria) based on carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring latewood cellulose of oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, M.; Boettger, T.; Weigl, M.; Grabner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Stable isotope chronologies and correlation to climate. We present the stable isotope chronologies of carbon (^13Clw) and oxygen (^18Olw) for the period from 1600 to 2003 respectively of non-exchangeable hydrogen (^2Hlw) for the last century constructed base upon tree-ring latewood cellulose from oaks (Quercus petraea Matt. Liebl.) grown in the region Vienna (Austria). The stable isotope ratios correspond mainly to the summer climate conditions. For the calibration period (1900-2003) we found high significant correlations (p < 0.001) between ^13Clw and relative air humidity (RH) of July (-0.66), between ^18Olw and RHV I-V II (-0.61) and between ^2Hlw and RHV I-V III(-0.56). In the case of temperatures high significant correlations between the growing season temperature and ^13Clw (0.55), between the annual mean temperatures and ^18Olw ratios (0.45) and between summer mean temperatures (June to August) and ^2Hlw values (0.49) were estimated. Modeling. Various univariate and multivariate linear regressions models were proved for the reconstruction of summer relative air humidity and temperature. We found that establishing of robust models had several uncertainties: - using common linear transfer functions which oversimplify the complexity of relations; - using of pooled material and neglecting of different reactions from individual trees to climate; - high-order autocorrelations in the isotope time series; - climatic trends in the investigated region which are different in the first and in the second half of 20th century; - temporal instability of climate signals in the isotope ratios of tree ring cellulose. In the case of temperature no valid model could be estimated caused by temporal instabilities of signal strength. For relative air humidity two bivariate models RHV II = (-4.3 ± 0.7) * ^13Clw + (-2.8 ± 0.5) * ^18Olw + 44 [1] and RHV II = (-4.7 ± 0.7) * ^13Clw + (-0.35 ± 0.07) * ^2Hlw - 68 [2] were found as verifiable and applicable to reconstruct RHV II

  14. Humidity Effects and Anisotropic Etching During Exfoliated Black Phosphorus Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favron, Alexandre; Moraille, Patricia; Gaufres, Etienne; Roorda, Tycho; Levesque, Pierre L.; Leonelli, Richard; Martel, Richard

    Black phosphorus, a lamellar structure similar to graphene, is a high mobility semiconductor having a tunable optical band gap from 0.3 eV up to ~2 eV with decreasing layer thickness. Our previous study has highlighted a fast photo-oxidation in ambient conditions when black phosphorus is exfoliated as thin layers. The kinetics of this degradation is also enhanced by quantum confinement effects and faster for the thinnest layers, which represents an important hurdle to prepare few layers. Here we further investigate the role of water in the process by following the reaction kinetics in different humidity using fast AFM imaging. We report on important changes of wettability of thin layers at room temperature depending on the degradation stages and layer thickness. For a given level of humidity at equilibrium, we observe the formation of water droplets. Those droplets form preferentially on defects sites and cracks and then grow on the thicker parts of the flake to finally accumulate on to the thinnest regions. This sequence of water droplet growth faster from thick to thin layers is interpreted as being due to a lowering of surface tension with decreasing layer thickness. In a second study, the oxidation kinetics of layers completely immersed in water reveal an anisotropic oxidation process with preferential etching in specific orientations of the crystal. This study will be discussed in the context of a reactivity of black phosphorus that appears both anisotropic and thickness-dependent.

  15. Refuge fortifications and Linienbandkeramik site clustering in the Hesbaye region of Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, Russell Spencer

    The location and function of Neolithic Linienbandkeramik enclosures eastern Belgium was examined. A hypothesis that answers a long-standing question about Linienbandkeramik village clusters---in the Hesbaye region of Belgium and perhaps in other regions of Linienbandkeramik settlement---was developed. The dissertation also explores the response of Linienbandkeramik peoples to the threat of warfare, either from other Linienbandkeramik villages in the region or from the Mesolithic foragers living beyond the frontier of Linienbandkeramik settlement. The key response to the threat of warfare was the enclosing, or fortification, of certain locations. A total of 114 Linienbandkeramik sites, 108 unfortified and 6 fortified, were examined. Twelve were subjected to a variety of geophysical surveying methods to determine the presence or absence of fortifications and their extent. Following the geophysical surveys and ground truthing of the survey results, a geographic information system of Linienbandkeramik sites, environmental data and other features was created to test the importance of various factors. The results of the study suggest that---apart from being close to water---being close to a fortification is the most important predictor for the location of unfortified village sites. This suggests that fortifications may have been a factor in the creation of Linienbandkeramik village clusters because the fortified sites are too extensive to have been constructed by the number of people apparently living within them. Linienbandkeramik fortifications were therefore most likely communal constructions surrounded by the "satellite" villages responsible for building them. The data also suggest that fortifications were not erected against other Linienbandkeramik people, but rather the Mesolithic peoples on the boundary of Linienbandkeramik expansion. Demonstrating that fortifications were central to clusters of villages fills a major gap in our understanding of Linienbandkeramik

  16. SO2 measurements at a high altitude site in the central Himalayas: Role of regional transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naja, Manish; Mallik, Chinmay; Sarangi, Tapaswini; Sheel, Varun; Lal, Shyam

    2014-12-01

    Continuous measurements of a climatically important acidic gas, SO2, were made over Nainital (29.37°N, 79.45°E; 1958 m amsl), a regionally representative site in the central Himalayas, for the first time during 2009-2011. Unlike many other sites, the SO2 levels over Nainital are higher during pre-monsoon (345 pptv) compared to winter (71 pptv). High values during pre-monsoon are attributed to the transport of air masses from regions viz. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), northern India and north-East Pakistan, which are dotted with numerous industries and power plants, where coal burning occurs. Transport from the polluted regions is evinced from good correlations of SO2 with wind speed, NOy and UV aerosol index during these periods. Daytime elevations in SO2 levels, influenced by 'valley winds' and boundary layer evolution, is a persistent feature at Nainital. SO2 levels are very much lower during monsoon compared to pre-monsoon, due to oxidation losses and wet scavenging. Despite this, SO2/NOy slopes are high (>0.4) both during pre-monsoon and monsoon, indicating impacts of point sources. The SO2 levels during winter are lower as the measurement site is cut off from the plains due to boundary layer dynamics. Further, the SO2 levels during winter nights are the lowest (lesser than 50 pptv) and resemble free tropospheric conditions.

  17. A climatology of tropospheric humidity inversions in five reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunke, Michael A.; Stegall, Steve T.; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-02-01

    Specific humidity is generally thought to decrease with height in the troposphere. However, here we document the existence of specific humidity inversions in five reanalyses: the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) second reanalysis (NCEP-2), the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF) 40-year reanalysis (ERA-40), the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research Applications (MERRA), NCEP's Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), and the ECMWF interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim). These inversions are most frequent in the polar regions. Inversions do occur elsewhere, most notably over the subtropical stratus regions, but are less frequent and likely overproduced depending on the location. Polar inversions are the most persistent in winter and the strongest (as defined by the humidity difference divided by the pressure difference across the inversion) in summer or autumn with low bases (at pressures > 900 hPa). Winter humidity inversions are lower, being near-surface, due to the persistence of low-level temperature inversions associated with these humidity inversions, while summer humidity inversions tend to be located near cloud top providing moisture to prevent the melt season stratus from evaporating. The most important contributions to affect humidity inversions in MERRA are dynamics, turbulence, and moist physics. However, local advection may not play as much of a role as regional humidity convergence. The subtropical stratus inversions are as thick as polar humidity inversions but with higher bases generally at pressures < 900 hPa. These inversions are confirmed by rawinsonde data, but there are discrepancies between the observed annual and diurnal cycles in inversion frequency and those portrayed in the reanalyses.

  18. Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok

    2007-03-06

    Data centers require continuous air conditioning to address high internal heat loads (heat release from equipment) and maintain indoor temperatures within recommended operating levels for computers. Air economizer cycles, which bring in large amounts of outside air to cool internal loads when weather conditions are favorable, could save cooling energy. There is reluctance from many data center owners to use this common cooling technique, however, due to fear of introducing pollutants and potential loss of humidity control. Concerns about equipment failure from airborne pollutants lead to specifying as little outside air as permissible for human occupants. To investigate contamination levels, particle monitoring was conducted at 8 data centers in Northern California. Particle counters were placed at 3 to 4 different locations within and outside of each data center evaluated in this study. Humidity was also monitored at many of the sites to determine how economizers affect humidity control. Results from this study indicate that economizers do increase the outdoor concentration in data centers, but this concentration, when averaged annually, is still below current particle concentration limits. Study results are summarized below: (1) The average particle concentrations measured at each location, both outside and at the servers, are shown in Table 1. Measurements show low particle concentrations at all data centers without economizers, regardless of outdoor particle concentrations. Particle concentrations were typically an order of magnitude below both outside particle concentrations and recently published ASHRAE standards. (2) Economizer use caused sharp increases in particle concentrations when the economizer vents were open. The particle concentration in the data centers, however, quickly dropped back to pre-economizer levels when the vents closed. Since economizers only allow outside air part of the time, the annual average concentrations still met the ASHRAE

  19. Candidate-Landing Sites and Backups for the Mars Surveyor Program in the Schiaparelli. Crater Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Grin, Edmond A.; Hand, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Our Survey area comprises the Sinus Sabeus NW quadrangle that includes most of the Schiaparelli crater and part of the Arabia SW region (3 N to 15 S Lat.) and (0 to 337.5 W long.) and covers all regions that show a potential hydrogeological link with the Schiaparelli impact structure. This area is hereafter defined as the Schiaparelli Crater Region. The Schiaparelli crater region is one of the most documented MOC targets. Up to now, MGS MOC camera took two dozen images at an average of 5m/pxl resolution that not only provide an exceptional insight on the local geology and morphology, but give also key-elements to assess landing safety criteria. In addition, the MOLA topographic profile No. 23 passes through part of the crater basin allowing the adjustment of the elevation as previously known from the Viking mission (USGS I-2125, 1991). Beyond the Mars Polar Lander mission that will land next December, the future missions (2001 APEX, 2003, and 2005) are led by a series of science objectives and engineering constraints that must be considered in order to select landing sites that will fulfill the Surveyor Program's objectives. The search for a sound and safe candidate-site (without ending up with the usual "safe but boring" or "fascinating but too risky" site) is usually limited by the data available to the investigator, by the data accuracy (e.g. poor image resolution, poor altimetry), and the lack of crucial information for science and safety that can be derived from them. The Schiaparelli region provides an exception to this recurrent pattern. We listed the preliminary constraints for landing site selection identified for the Surveyor '01 mission, in terms of safety requirements and data needed and compared them against the existing information and/or data already available for the Schiaparelli region. The engineering constraints of '03 and '05 are not designated yet but, since they are also related to atmospheric density and Lander designs, we will assume that

  20. Candidate-Landing Sites and Backups for the Mars Surveyor Program in the Schiaparelli. Crater Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Grin, Edmond A.; Hand, Kevin

    1999-06-01

    Our Survey area comprises the Sinus Sabeus NW quadrangle that includes most of the Schiaparelli crater and part of the Arabia SW region (3 N to 15 S Lat.) and (0 to 337.5 W long.) and covers all regions that show a potential hydrogeological link with the Schiaparelli impact structure. This area is hereafter defined as the Schiaparelli Crater Region. The Schiaparelli crater region is one of the most documented MOC targets. Up to now, MGS MOC camera took two dozen images at an average of 5m/pxl resolution that not only provide an exceptional insight on the local geology and morphology, but give also key-elements to assess landing safety criteria. In addition, the MOLA topographic profile No. 23 passes through part of the crater basin allowing the adjustment of the elevation as previously known from the Viking mission (USGS I-2125, 1991). Beyond the Mars Polar Lander mission that will land next December, the future missions (2001 APEX, 2003, and 2005) are led by a series of science objectives and engineering constraints that must be considered in order to select landing sites that will fulfill the Surveyor Program's objectives. The search for a sound and safe candidate-site (without ending up with the usual "safe but boring" or "fascinating but too risky" site) is usually limited by the data available to the investigator, by the data accuracy (e.g. poor image resolution, poor altimetry), and the lack of crucial information for science and safety that can be derived from them. The Schiaparelli region provides an exception to this recurrent pattern. We listed the preliminary constraints for landing site selection identified for the Surveyor '01 mission, in terms of safety requirements and data needed and compared them against the existing information and/or data already available for the Schiaparelli region. The engineering constraints of '03 and '05 are not designated yet but, since they are also related to atmospheric density and Lander designs, we will assume that

  1. Geology of the Chinese nuclear test site near Lop Nor, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Chinese underground nuclear test site in the Kuruktag and Kyzyltag mountains of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of northwest China, is the location of sixteen underground tests that occurred between 1969 and 1992. The largest test to date, conducted on 21 May 1992, had a reported yield of about one megaton. Geophysical properties of the rocks and a large-scale geologic map of part of the test area were published by the Chinese in 1986 and 1987 and are the first site-specific data available for this test site. In areas of low relief, underground nuclear testing has occurred below the water table, in shafts drilled vertically into dense, low porosity Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks. Additional testing in areas of more rugged terrain has occurred in horizontal tunnels, probably above the water table. At least one of these tunnels was driven into granite. The upper 50 m of the rock in the area of the vertical tests is weathered and fractured; these conditions have been shown to influence the magnitude of the disturbance of the land surface after a nuclear explosion. These descriptions suggest hard rock coupling at depth and a closer resemblance to the former Soviet test site in eastern Kazakhstan than to the U.S. test site in Nevada. ?? 1994.

  2. Carbon dynamics within agricultural and native sites in the loess region of Western lowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Kramer, L.; Parton, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    In order to quantify the historical changes in carbon storage that result from agricultural conversion, this study compared the carbon dynamics of two sites in the loess region of Iowa: a native prairie and a cropland. Field data were obtained to determine present-day carbon storage and its variability within a landscape (a stable ridgetop vs. eroding upper-midslope vs. depositional lower slope). Models were used to recreate the historical carbon budget of these sites and determine the cropland's potential to be a net CO2 source or sink, relative to the atmosphere. Regardless of slope position, the cropland site contains approximately half the amount of carbon as prairie. Variability in soil carbon storage within a site as a consequence of slope position is as large or larger (variations of 200-300%) than temporal variation (???200% at all slope positions). The most extreme difference in soil carbon storage between the cropland and prairie sites is found in the soil at the upper-midslope, which is the area of greatest erosion. The models estimate that 93-172% of the carbon in the original topsoil has been lost from the cropland's eroding midslope. Much of this carbon is derived from deeper soil horizons. Either a small sink or strong source of carbon to the atmosphere is created, depending on the fate of the eroded sediment and its associated carbon.

  3. Significant motions between GPS sites in the New Madrid region: implications for seismic hazard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur; Smalley, Robert; Paul, J.

    2012-01-01

    Position time series from Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in the New Madrid region were differenced to determine the relative motions between stations. Uncertainties in rates were estimated using a three‐component noise model consisting of white, flicker, and random walk noise, following the methodology of Langbein, 2004. Significant motions of 0.37±0.07 (one standard error) mm/yr were found between sites PTGV and STLE, for which the baseline crosses the inferred deep portion of the Reelfoot fault. Baselines between STLE and three other sites also show significant motion. Site MCTY (adjacent to STLE) also exhibits significant motion with respect to PTGV. These motions are consistent with a model of interseismic slip of about 4  mm/yr on the Reelfoot fault at depths between 12 and 20 km. If constant over time, this rate of slip produces sufficient slip for an M 7.3 earthquake on the shallow portion of the Reelfoot fault, using the geologically derived recurrence time of 500 years. This model assumes that the shallow portion of the fault has been previously loaded by the intraplate stress. A GPS site near Little Rock, Arkansas, shows significant southward motion of 0.3–0.4  mm/yr (±0.08  mm/yr) relative to three sites to the north, indicating strain consistent with focal mechanisms of earthquake swarms in northern Arkansas.

  4. Gas and humidity sensing element

    SciTech Connect

    Komine, Y.; Sawada, T.

    1984-06-26

    A gas and humidity sensing element in a single integral structure made of a base plate of apatite ceramics, on which a particular metal oxide such as tin oxide, zinc oxide, or composite oxide of titanium and niobium is provided. The sensing element has a function of sensing gas and humidity with outstanding sensitivity to bad smell gas and alcoholic gas, in which the humidity is sensed and measured by variations in electrical resistance of the apatite ceramic base plate and the bad smell gas such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, etc. is sensed and measured by variations in electrical resistance of the metal oxide.

  5. A Wetness Index Using Terrain-Corrected Surface Temperature and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Derived from Standard MODIS Products: An Evaluation of Its Use in a Humid Forest-Dominated Region of Eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Quazi K.; Bourque, Charles P.-A.; Meng, Fan-Rui; Cox, Roger M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we develop a method to estimate land-surface water content in a mostly forest-dominated (humid) and topographically-varied region of eastern Canada. The approach is centered on a temperature-vegetation wetness index (TVWI) that uses standard 8-day MODIS-based image composites of land surface temperature (TS) and surface reflectance as primary input. In an attempt to improve estimates of TVWI in high elevation areas, terrain-induced variations in TS are removed by applying grid, digital elevation model-based calculations of vertical atmospheric pressure to calculations of surface potential temperature (θS). Here, θS corrects TS to the temperature value to what it would be at mean sea level (i.e., ∼101.3 kPa) in a neutral atmosphere. The vegetation component of the TVWI uses 8-day composites of surface reflectance in the calculation of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values. TVWI and corresponding wet and dry edges are based on an interpretation of scatterplots generated by plotting θS as a function of NDVI. A comparison of spatially-averaged field measurements of volumetric soil water content (VSWC) and TVWI for the 2003-2005 period revealed that variation with time to both was similar in magnitudes. Growing season, point mean measurements of VSWC and TVWI were 31.0% and 28.8% for 2003, 28.6% and 29.4% for 2004, and 40.0% and 38.4% for 2005, respectively. An evaluation of the long-term spatial distribution of land-surface wetness generated with the new θS-NDVI function and a process-based model of soil water content showed a strong relationship (i.e., r2 = 95.7%).

  6. Warrego Valles and Other Candidate Sites of Local Hydrothermal Activity Within The Thaumasia Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Tanaka, K. L.; Lias, J. H.; Hare, T. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Gulick, V. C.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated for the Thaumasia region of Mars that: (1) valley formation peaked during the Noachian and declined substantially during the Hesperian and Amazonian Periods and (2) valleys, many of which form networking systems, largely occur near volcanoes, highly faulted terrains, and large impact craters of similar age, thus suggesting hydrothermal activity. In Tanaka et al, the various hypotheses for valley formation on Mars are presented, and a geologic explanation for valley erosion in the Thaumasia region is given that "best fits" the region's geographic and geologic datasets. That comprehensive GIS-based investigation suggests that hydrothermal and seismic activity were the primary causes of valley formation in the Thaumasia region; the data make widespread precipitation less likely as a major factor in valley formation, except perhaps during the Early Noachian, for which much of the geologic record has been destroyed. Based on the reconstruction of the stratigraphic, tectonic, volcanic, and erosional histories and the close association of valleys in time and space with Noachian to Early Hesperian volcanoes and rift systems and Hesperian to Early Amazonian impact craters less than 50 km in diameter, we propose 13 sites of hydrothermal activity within the Thaumasia region; these are the best examples of valleys associated with these geologic features, but there are other less pronounced correlations elsewhere in the region.

  7. Photochemical processing of organic aerosol at nearby continental sites: contrast between urban plumes and regional aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowik, J. G.; Brook, J.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Evans, G. J.; Hayden, K.; Jeong, C.-H.; Li, S.-M.; Liggio, J.; Liu, P. S. K.; McGuire, M.; Mihele, C.; Sjostedt, S.; Vlasenko, A.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2011-03-01

    As part of the BAQS-Met 2007 field campaign, Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (ToF-AMS) were deployed at two sites in southwestern Ontario from 17 June to 11 July 2007. One instrument was located at Harrow, ON, a rural, agriculture-dominated area approximately 40 km southeast of the Detroit/Windsor/Windsor urban area and 5 km north of Lake Erie. The second instrument was located at Bear Creek, ON, a rural site approximately 70 km northeast of the Harrow site and 50 km east of Detroit/Windsor. Positive matrix factorization analysis of the combined organic mass spectral dataset yields factors related to secondary organic aerosol (SOA), direct emissions, and a factor tentatively attributed to the reactive uptake of isoprene and/or condensation of its early generation reaction products. This is the first application of PMF to simultaneous AMS measurements at different sites, an approach which allows for self-consistent, direct comparison of the datasets. Case studies are utilized to investigate processing of SOA from (1) fresh emissions from Detroit/Windsor and (2) regional aerosol during periods of inter-site flow. A strong correlation is observed between SOA/excess CO and photochemical age as represented by the NOx/NOy ratio for Detroit/Windsor outflow. Although this correlation is not evident for more aged air, measurements at the two sites during inter-site transport nevertheless show evidence of continued atmospheric processing by SOA production. However, the rate of SOA production decreases with airmass age from an initial value of ~10.1 μg m-3 ppmvCO-1 h-1 for the first ~10 h of plume processing to near-zero in an aged airmass (i.e. after several days). The initial SOA production rate is comparable to the observed rate in Mexico City over similar timescales.

  8. Relative humidity: important modifier of pollutant uptake by plants

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Taylor, G.E.

    1981-01-09

    Laboratory measurements of foliar uptake of sulfur dioxide and ozone by red kidney beans demonstrated a strong effect of relative humidity on internal pollutant dose. Foliar uptake was enhanced two- to threefold for sulfur dioxide and three- to fourfold for ozone by an increase in relative humidity from 35 to 75 percent. For the same exposure concentration, vegetation growing in humid areas (such as the eastern United States) may experience a significantly greater internal flux of pollutants than that in more arid regions. 22 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  9. Reconnaissance survey of site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cabak, M.A.; Beck, M.L.; Gillam, C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the archaeological investigation of Site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center in Aiken County on the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Pedestrian and subsurface survey techniques were used to investigate the 1,403-acre project area. Survey resulted in the discovery of 23 previously unrecorded sites and 11 occurrences; six previously recorded sites were also investigated. These sites consist of six prehistoric sites, nine historic sites, and 14 sites with both prehistoric and historic components. Sites locations and project area boundaries are provided on a facsimile of a USGS 7.5 topographic map. The prehistoric components consist of very small, low-density lithic and ceramic scatters; most contain less than 10 artifacts. Six of the prehistoric components are of unknown cultural affiliation, the remaining prehistoric sites were occupied predominately in the Woodland period. The historic sites are dominated by postbellum/modem home places of tenant and yeoman farmers but four historic sites were locations of antebellum house sites (38AK136, 38AK613, 38AK660, and 38AK674). The historic sites also include an African-American school (38AK677).

  10. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment including site effects for Evansville, Indiana, and the surrounding region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haase, Jennifer S.; Bowling, Tim; Nowack, Robert L.; Choi, Yoon S.; Cramer, Chris H.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Bauer, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the Evansville, Indiana region incorporating information from new surficial geologic mapping efforts on the part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Kentucky and Indiana State Geological Surveys, as well as information on the thickness and properties of near surface soils and their associated uncertainties. The subsurface information has been compiled to determine bedrock elevation and reference depth-dependent shear-wave velocity models for the different soil types. The probabilistic seismic hazard calculation applied here follows the method used for the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard Maps, with modifications to incorporate estimates of local site conditions and their uncertainties, in a completely probabilistic manner. The resulting analysis shows strong local variations of acceleration with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, particularly for 0.2-second (s) period spectral acceleration (SA), that are clearly correlated with variations in the thickness of unconsolidated soils above bedrock. These values are much greater than the USGS national seismic hazard map values, which assume B/C site conditions. When compared to the national maps with an assumed uniform site D class amplification factor applied, the high-resolution seismic hazard maps have higher amplitudes for peak ground acceleration and 0.2-s SA for most of the map region. However, deamplification relative to the D class national seismic hazard maps appears to play an important role within the limits of the ancient bedrock valley underlying Evansville where soils are thickest. For 1.0-s SA, the new high-resolution seismic hazard maps show levels consistent with D class site response within the limits of this ancient bedrock valley, but levels consistent with B/C site conditions outside.

  11. Evidence for chemoreceptors with bimodular ligand-binding regions harboring two signal-binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Pineda-Molina, Estela; Reyes-Darias, José-Antonio; Lacal, Jesús; Ramos, Juan L.; García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Gavira, Jose A.; Krell, Tino

    2012-01-01

    Chemoreceptor-based signaling is a central mechanism in bacterial signal transduction. Receptors are classified according to the size of their ligand-binding region. The well-studied cluster I proteins have a 100- to 150-residue ligand-binding region that contains a single site for chemoattractant recognition. Cluster II receptors, which contain a 220- to 300-residue ligand-binding region and which are almost as abundant as cluster I receptors, remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we report high-resolution structures of the ligand-binding region of the cluster II McpS chemotaxis receptor (McpS-LBR) of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 in complex with different chemoattractants. The structure of McpS-LBR represents a small-molecule binding domain composed of two modules, each able to bind different signal molecules. Malate and succinate were found to bind to the membrane-proximal module, whereas acetate binds to the membrane-distal module. A structural alignment of the two modules revealed that the ligand-binding sites could be superimposed and that amino acids involved in ligand recognition are conserved in both binding sites. Ligand binding to both modules was shown to trigger chemotactic responses. Further analysis showed that McpS-like receptors were found in different classes of proteobacteria, indicating that this mode of response to different carbon sources may be universally distributed. The physiological relevance of the McpS architecture may lie in its capacity to respond with high sensitivity to the preferred carbon sources malate and succinate and, at the same time, mediate lower sensitivity responses to the less preferred but very abundant carbon source acetate. PMID:23112148

  12. Holographic humidity response of slanted gratings in moisture-absorbing acrylamide photopolymer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan; Liu, Hongpeng; Mao, Dongyao; Geng, Yaohui; Wang, Weibo; Sun, Liping; Lv, Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Holographic humidity response is characterized in detail using transmission and reflection geometry in moisture-absorbing acrylamide photopolymer. The diffraction spectrum and its temporal evolution at various relative humidity are measured and analyzed. The quantitative relations between relative humidity and holographic properties of slanted gratings are determined. The responsibility of holographic gratings for various relative humidity is observed by the spectrum response of gratings. The extracted humidity constants reflect the applicability of reflection and transmission gratings at different humidity regions. The humidity reversibility experiment is achieved for confirming repeatability of the sensor. These experiments provide a probability for improving the applicability of a holographic humidity sensor. Finally, the extended diffusion model is derived by introducing the expansion coefficient to describe the dynamic swelling process. This work can accelerate development of the holographic sensor and provide a novel strategy for exploring the swelling mechanism of photopolymer. PMID:26368095

  13. Descriptive analysis and spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) for swine sites participating in area regional control and elimination programs from 3 regions of Ontario.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Andreia G; Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Hand, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe demographics, basic biosecurity practices, ownership structure, and prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in swine sites located in 3 regions in Ontario, and investigate the presence of spatial clustering and clusters of PRRS positive sites in the 3 regions. A total of 370 swine sites were enrolled in Area Regional Control and Elimination projects in Niagara, Watford, and Perth from 2010 to 2013. Demographics, biosecurity, and site ownership data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and site locations were obtained from an industry organization. Status was assigned on the basis of available diagnostic tests and/or assessment by site veterinarians. Spatial dependence was investigated using the D-function, the spatial scan statistic test and the spatial relative risk method. Results showed that the use of strict all-in all-out (AIAO) pig flow and shower before entry are uncommon biosecurity practices in swine sites, but a larger proportion of sites reported having a Danish entry. The prevalence of PRRS in the 3 regions ranged from 17% to 48% and localized high and low risk clusters were detected. Sites enrolled in the PRRS control projects were characterized by membership in multiple and overlapping ownership structures and networks, which complicates the way the results of monitoring and disease management measures are communicated to the target population. PMID:26424906

  14. Descriptive analysis and spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) for swine sites participating in area regional control and elimination programs from 3 regions of Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Andreia G.; Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Hand, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe demographics, basic biosecurity practices, ownership structure, and prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in swine sites located in 3 regions in Ontario, and investigate the presence of spatial clustering and clusters of PRRS positive sites in the 3 regions. A total of 370 swine sites were enrolled in Area Regional Control and Elimination projects in Niagara, Watford, and Perth from 2010 to 2013. Demographics, biosecurity, and site ownership data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and site locations were obtained from an industry organization. Status was assigned on the basis of available diagnostic tests and/or assessment by site veterinarians. Spatial dependence was investigated using the D-function, the spatial scan statistic test and the spatial relative risk method. Results showed that the use of strict all-in all-out (AIAO) pig flow and shower before entry are uncommon biosecurity practices in swine sites, but a larger proportion of sites reported having a Danish entry. The prevalence of PRRS in the 3 regions ranged from 17% to 48% and localized high and low risk clusters were detected. Sites enrolled in the PRRS control projects were characterized by membership in multiple and overlapping ownership structures and networks, which complicates the way the results of monitoring and disease management measures are communicated to the target population. PMID:26424906

  15. Temperature, Humidity, And Polymer Aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents analysis of experimental data on electrical resistivity of polymer (polyvinyl butyral) as function of temperature and relative humidity. Resulting theoretical expression for electrical resistivity resembles generally accepted empirical law for the corrosion rate.

  16. Humidity testing of bleached holograms.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, A J

    1971-04-01

    One of the proposed storage media for semipermanent optical stores is an array of bleached holograms fabricated on photographic plates. If a store utilizing this medium is to be operated in a field environment, the effect of humidity variation requires consideration. In this study holograms were made using either Burckhardt's potassium ferricyanide or Russo and Sottini's modified R-10 type bleach on Kodak 649F and Agfa 10E70 plates. Diffraction efficiency was measured as a function of relative humidity over the range 30-98%. For holograms fabricated and tested as described above it was found that relative humidity values above 75% caused a permanent loss in diffraction efficiency for potassium ferricyanide bleached plates; humidity above 90% produced a temporary loss in R-10 bleached plates. PMID:20094561

  17. Humidity sensing with doped polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Shilpa; Chakane, Sanjay D. S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Samui, A. B.; Krishnamurthy, V. N.

    2001-03-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) was doped with different dopants like camphosulphoric acid (CSA), diphenyl phosphate (DPPH), Sulphonic acid (S) and Maleic acid (MAC) by chemical method. The samples were prepared in the form of pellets as well as films. Polyaniline doped with Maleic acid was found to be mechanically and chemically stable as compared to other dopants and therefore the effect of humidity on conductivity was further investigated. Films prepared out of styrene buryl acrylate copolymer with different concentrations of PANI Maleic acid were used for sensing humidity ranging between 20% to 90% relative humidity. A maximum change in the conductivity of three to four orders of magnitude was obtained for the Maleic acid doped polyaniline pellet while two orders of magnitude change was obtained for the film samples over the range of humidity measured.

  18. Effects of humidity and depurination on the charge transport in DNA films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Han, J. H.; Kim, D.; Jeon, G. W.; Lee, Cheol Eui; Park, Y. J.; Kim, H. D.; Kim, J.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the humidity and depurination (creating apurinic sites) effects on the electrical conduction in the λ-DNA films at different relative humidities and depurination times. The DNA films were found to follow the polaron hopping model, and the polaron hopping distance turned out to decrease at the higher relative humidity, more water molecules supposedly being adsorbed on the film. The activation energy showed little dependence on the depurination time at the higher relative humidity, whereas at the lower humidity it increased sharply with increasing depurination time.

  19. Test-sites for earthquake prediction experiments within the Colli Albani region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, F.; Calcara, M.

    In this paper we discuss some geochemical data gathered by discrete and continuous monitoring during the 1995-1996 period, carried out for earthquake prediction test-experiments throughout the Colli Albani quiescent volcano, seat of seismicity, selecting some gas discharge sites with peri-volcanic composition. In particular we stressed the results obtained at the continuous geochemical monitoring station (GMS I, BAR site), designed by ING for geochemical surveillance of seismic events. The 12/6/1995 (M=3.6-3.8) Roma earthquake together with the 3/11/1995 (M=3.1) Tivoli earthquake was the most energetic events within the Colli Albani - Roma area, after the beginning of the continuous monitoring (1991) up today: strict correlation between these seismic events and fluid geochemical anomalies in groundwater has been discovered (temperature, Eh, 222Rn, CO 2, NH 3). Separation at depth of a vapour phase, rich in reducing-acidic gases (CO 2, H 2S, etc...), from a hyper-saline brine, within the deep geothermal reservoir is hypothesised to explain the geochemical anomalies: probably the transtensional episodes accompanying the seismic sequences caused an increasing and/or triggering of the phase-separation process and fluid migration, on the regional scale of the Western sector of the Colli Albani, beyond the seismogenic depth (2-4 Km) up to surface. We draw the state of art of GMS II monitoring prototype and the selection criteria of test-sites for earthquake prediction experiments in the Colli Albani region.

  20. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. Final draft, technical memorandum

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, W.C.; Voorhees, M.L.; Prickett, T.A.

    1980-05-23

    This technical memorandum was prepared to: (1) describe a typical basalt radionuclide repository site, (2) describe geologic and hydrologic processes associated with regional radionuclide transport in basalts, (3) define the parameters required to model regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site, and (4) develop a ''conceptual model'' of radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. In a general hydrological sense, basalts may be described as layered sequences of aquifers and aquitards. The Columbia River Basalt, centered near the semi-arid Pasco Basin, is considered by many to be typical basalt repository host rock. Detailed description of the flow system including flow velocities with high-low hydraulic conductivity sequences are not possible with existing data. However, according to theory, waste-transport routes are ultimately towards the Columbia River and the lengths of flow paths from the repository to the biosphere may be relatively short. There are many physical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear processes with associated parameters that together determine the possible pattern of radionuclide migration in basalts and surrounding formations. Brief process descriptions and associated parameter lists are provided. Emphasis has been placed on the use of the distribution coefficient in simulating ion exchange. The use of the distribution coefficient approach is limited because it takes into account only relatively fast mass transfer processes. In general, knowledge of hydrogeochemical processes is primitive.

  1. Decision Making on Regional Landfill Site Selection in Hormozgan Province Using Smce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majedi, A. S.; Kamali, B. M.; Maghsoudi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Landfill site selection and suitable conditions to bury hazardous wastes are among the most critical issues in modern societies. Taking several factors and limitations into account along with true decision making requires application of different decision techniques. To this end, current paper aims to make decisions about regional landfill site selection in Hormozgan province and utilizes SMCE technique combined with qualitative and quantitative criteria to select the final alternatives. To this respect, we first will describe the existing environmental situation in our study area and set the goals of our study in the framework of SMCE and will analyze the effective factors in regional landfill site selection. Then, methodological procedure of research was conducted using Delphi approach and questionnaires (in order to determine research validity, Chronbach Alpha (0.94) method was used). Spatial multi-criteria analysis model was designed in the form of criteria tree in SMCE using IL WIS software. Prioritization of respective spatial alternatives included: Bandar Abbas city with total 4 spatial alternatives (one zone with 1st priority, one zone with 3rd priority and two zones with 4thpriority) was considered the first priority, Bastak city with total 3 spatial alternatives (one zone with 2nd priority, one zone with 3rdpriorit and one zone with 4th priority) was the second priority and Bandar Abbas, Minab, Jask and Haji Abad cities were considered as the third priority.

  2. Hydrology and Water Management in the Humid Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonell, Michael; Hufschmidt, Maynard M.; Gladwell, John S.

    1993-09-01

    This book considers all aspects of hydrology in the humid tropics. The first four parts of the book cover the physical basis of hydrology in the humid tropics: climatology, meteorology, process hydrology, sedimentation, water quality and freshwater ecology. This is followed by extensive treatment of the human and societal issues: land-use changes, water resource management, and rural and urban water supply in the tropical regions.

  3. Is Obsidian Hydration Dating Affected by Relative Humidity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Trembour, F.W.; Smith, G.I.; Smith, F.L.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments carried out under temperatures and relative humidities that approximate ambient conditions show that the rate of hydration of obsidian is a function of the relative humidity, as well as of previously established variables of temperature and obsidian chemical composition. Measurements of the relative humidity of soil at 25 sites and at depths of between 0.01 and 2 m below ground show that in most soil environments, at depths below about 0.25 m, the relative humidity is constant at 100%. We have found that the thickness of the hydrated layer developed on obsidian outcrops exposed to the sun and to relative humidities of 30-90% is similar to that formed on other portions of the outcrop that were shielded from the sun and exposed to a relative humidity of approximately 100%. Surface samples of obsidian exposed to solar heating should hydrate more rapidly than samples buried in the ground. However, the effect of the lower mean relative humidity experiences by surface samples tends to compensate for the elevated temperature, which may explain why obsidian hydration ages of surface samples usually approximate those derived from buried samples.

  4. Humidity profiles over the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. T.; Tang, Wenqing; Niiler, Pearn P.

    1991-01-01

    The variabilities of atmospheric humidity profile over oceans from daily to interannual time scales were examined using 9 years of daily and semidaily radiosonde soundings at island stations extending from the Arctic to the South Pacific. The relative humidity profiles were found to have considerable temporal and geographic variabilities, contrary to the prevalent assumption. Principal component analysis on the profiles of specific humidity were used to examine the applicability of a relation between the surface-level humidity and the integrated water vapor; this relation has been used to estimate large-scale evaporation from satellite data. The first principal component was found to correlate almost perfectly with the integrated water vapor. The fractional variance represented by this mode increases with increasing period. It reaches approximately 90 percent at two weeks and decreases sharply, below one week, down to approximately 60 percent at the daily period. At low frequencies, the integrated water vapor appeared to be an adequate estimator of the humidity profile and the surface-level humidity. At periods shorter than a week, more than one independent estimator is needed.

  5. VS30 mapping and soil classification for seismic site effect evaluation in Dinar region, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismet Kanlı, Ali; Tildy, Péter; Prónay, Zsolt; Pınar, Ali; Hermann, László

    2006-04-01

    The Dinar earthquake (MS= 6.1) of 1995 October 1 killed 90 people and destroyed more than 4000 buildings. Despite the moderate size of the earthquake, the level of damage was extremely high, which led to many studies that were carried out in the region. The majority of these studies concluded that the main reasons for the damage were the construction errors and the poor soil conditions. However, at that time no appropriate soil condition map based on extended, high density measurements was available. Shear wave velocity is an important parameter for evaluating the dynamic behaviour of soil in the shallow subsurface. Thus site characterization in calculating seismic hazards is usually based on the near surface shear wave velocity values. The average shear wave velocity for the top 30 m of soil is referred to as VS30. For earthquake engineering design purposes, both the Uniform Building Code (UBC) and Eurocode 8 (EC8) codes use VS30 to classify sites according to the soil type. The Vs30 values calculated by using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) were used to create a new soil classification map of the Dinar region. Surface seismic measurements were carried out at 50 locations mostly in Dinar city and its surroundings. The dispersion data of the recorded Rayleigh waves were inverted using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) method to obtain shear wave velocity profiles of the investigated sites. Thus the derived Vs30 map of the Dinar region was transformed to the UBC and EC8 standards. Soil classification results show that most parts of the region, located in alluvial basin, have low shear wave velocity values. These values are within the range of 160-240 m s-1 and thus fall into the SD and SE categories according to the UBC and the C and D categories according to EC8. Within the region, some parts located on the hill zone and the transition zone have better soil conditions [corresponding to SC (UBC) and B (EC8) categories] and have comparatively high shear wave

  6. A method to characterise site, urban and regional ambient background radiation.

    PubMed

    Passmore, C; Kirr, M

    2011-03-01

    Control dosemeters are routinely provided to customers to monitor the background radiation so that it can be subtracted from the gross response of the dosemeter to arrive at the occupational dose. Landauer, the largest dosimetry processor in the world with subsidiaries in Australia, Brazil, China, France, Japan, Mexico and the UK, has clients in approximately 130 countries. The Glenwood facility processes over 1.1 million controls per year. This network of clients around the world provides a unique ability to monitor the world's ambient background radiation. Control data can be mined to provide useful historical information regarding ambient background rates and provide a historical baseline for geographical areas. Historical baseline can be used to provide site or region-specific background subtraction values, document the variation in ambient background radiation around a client's site or provide a baseline for measuring the efficiency of clean-up efforts in urban areas after a dirty bomb detonation. PMID:20959341

  7. ECRbase: Database of Evolutionary Conserved Regions, Promoters, and Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Vertebrate Genomes

    DOE Data Explorer

    Loots, Gabriela G. [LLNL; Ovcharenko, I. [LLNL

    Evolutionary conservation of DNA sequences provides a tool for the identification of functional elements in genomes. This database of evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in vertebrate genomes features a database of syntenic blocks that recapitulate the evolution of rearrangements in vertebrates and a comprehensive collection of promoters in all vertebrate genomes generated using multiple sources of gene annotation. The database also contains a collection of annotated transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in evolutionary conserved and promoter elements. ECRbase currently includes human, rhesus macaque, dog, opossum, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, and fugu genomes. (taken from paper in Journal: Bioinformatics, November 7, 2006, pp. 122-124

  8. A Ten Step Protocol and Plan for CCS Site Characterization, Based on an Analysis of the Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-15

    This report expresses a Ten-Step Protocol for CO2 Storage Site Characterization, the final outcome of an extensive Site Characterization analysis of the Rocky Mountain region, USA. These ten steps include: (1) regional assessment and data gathering; (2) identification and analysis of appropriate local sites for characterization; (3) public engagement; (4) geologic and geophysical analysis of local site(s); (5) stratigraphic well drilling and coring; (6) core analysis and interpretation with other data; (7) database assembly and static model development; (8) storage capacity assessment; (9) simulation and uncertainty assessment; (10) risk assessment. While the results detailed here are primarily germane to the Rocky Mountain region, the intent of this protocol is to be portable or generally applicable for CO2 storage site characterization.

  9. Array analysis of regional Pn and Pg wavefields from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, M.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1991-06-01

    Small-aperture high-frequency seismic arrays with dimensions of a few kilometers or less, can improve our ability to seismically monitor compliance with a low-yield Threshold Test Ban Treaty. This work studies the characteristics and effectiveness of array processing of the regional Pn and Pg wavefields generated by underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. Waveform data from the explosion HARDIN (m{sub b} = 5.5) is recorded at a temporary 12-element, 3-component, 1.5 km-aperture array sited in an area of northern Nevada. The explosions VILLE (m{sub b} = 4.4) and SALUT (m{sub b} = 5.5) are recorded at two arrays sited in the Mojave desert, one a 96-element vertical-component 7 km-aperture array and the other a 155-element vertical-component 4 km-aperture array. Among the mean spectra for the m{sub b} = 5.5 events there are significant differences in low-frequency spectral amplitudes between array sites. The spectra become nearly identical beyond about 6 Hz. Spectral ratios are used to examine seismic source properties and the partitioning of energy between Pn and Pg. Frequency-wavenumber analysis at the 12-element array is used to obtain estimates of signal gain, phase velocity, and source azimuth. This analysis reveals frequency-dependent biases in velocity and azimuth of the coherent Pn and Pg arrivals. Signal correlation, the principal factor governing array performance, is examined in terms of spatial coherence estimates. The coherence is found to vary between the three sites. In all cases the coherence of Pn is greater than that for Pg. 81 refs., 92 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. REGIONAL HYDROLOGY OF THE NOPAL I SITE, SIERRA DE PENA BLANCA, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P.F. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Oliver; De La Garza; S. Harder

    2005-07-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area.

  11. Seasonal Variation of Methane Emissions in California's Urban and Rural Regions Using Multi-site Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Hsu, Y.; Andrews, A. E.; Bianco, L.; Newman, S.; Cui, X.; Bagley, J.; Graven, H. D.; Salameh, P.; Sloop, C.; LaFranchi, B.; Michelsen, H. A.; Bambha, R.; Weiss, R. F.; Keeling, R. F.; Fischer, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    California's commitment (Assembly Bill 32) to reduce total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 requires quantification of current GHG emissions. We present seasonal variation of California's total CH4 emissions for summer 2013 - spring 2014, using data from a dozen sites covering urban and rural areas of California that include South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB), Central Valley, and San Francisco Bay Area. We apply a Bayesian inverse model to estimate CH4 emissions from discrete regions of California and source sectors by combining atmospheric measurements, upstream background, updated high-resolution prior emission maps developed for California, and predicted atmospheric transport from WRF-STILT. We quantify site-specific model-measurement uncertainties due to transport using simulated and observed meteorology, background estimated from oceanic and aircraft observations, and the prior emissions. In particular, we evaluate predicted transport variables in WRF with networks of surface and upper air observations. Preliminary inversion results during summer of 2013 suggest that state total CH4 emissions are 1.2 - 1.7 times higher than the current CARB inventory. Here, we extend and improve upon earlier analyses to provide a full seasonal cycle of CH4 emissions across all major urban and rural regions in California.

  12. A discrete region centered 22 base pairs upstream of the initiation site modulates transcription of Drosophila tRNAAsn genes.

    PubMed Central

    Lofquist, A K; Garcia, A D; Sharp, S J

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the mechanism by which 5'-flanking sequences modulate the in vitro transcription of eucaryotic tRNA genes. Using deletion and linker substitution mutagenesis, we have found that the 5'-flanking sequences responsible for the different in vitro transcription levels of three Drosophila tRNA5Asn genes are contained within a discrete region centered 22 nucleotides upstream from the transcription initiation site. In conjunction with the A-box intragenic control region, this upstream transcription-modulatory region functions in the selection mechanism for the site of transcription initiation. Since the transcription-modulatory region directs the position of the start site and the actual sequence of the transcription-modulatory region determines the level of tRNAAsn gene transcription, the possibility is raised that the transcription-modulatory region directs a transcription initiation event similar to open complex formation at procaryotic promoters. Images PMID:3141790

  13. Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report western region (north section)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Western Region (North Section) of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 21 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

  14. A site check prior to regional anaesthesia to prevent wrong-sided blocks.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, P; Pattullo, S

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the 'Stop Before You Block' (SB4YB) initiative in an Australian teaching hospital. This process, which began in the UK in 2010, is a pre-procedure pause to confirm the correct side of a regional anaesthetic block. A change in practice was implemented with the formal roll out of a SB4YB educational program. Use of the initiative was then audited over a subsequent three-month period. It was hoped that after implementing the initiative, at least 80% of blocks would have a site check performed. However, despite apparent support for the initiative, uptake was less than expected with only about 57% of blocks having a site check performed. A site check was less frequent if the block was done as an emergency procedure, outside of an operating theatre or by a locum or visiting anaesthetist. Our conclusion from the audit was that education is insufficient to promote a change in this practice. We propose that Stop Before You Block or a block time-out should be performed prior to all unilateral nerve blocks. Success of this initiative requires education, and both cultural and systems changes to occur. We propose that a formal block time-out should become part of the surgical safety checklist and this activity should be endorsed and promoted by anaesthetic professional bodies. PMID:27456184

  15. Multi-site characterization of tropical aerosols: Implications for regional radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumit, Kumar; Devara, P. C. S.; Manoj, M. G.

    2012-03-01

    A land campaign, as a part of the Indian Space Research Organization-Geosphere Biosphere Program (ISRO-GBP), has been organized using a suit of instruments like AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) Sun/Sky sunphotometer, Microtops-II (MICROprocessor-controlled Total Ozone Portable Spectrometer), short-wave pyranometer from December 1, 2006 to April 30, 2007, over five locations (Ahmedabad, Pune, Sinhgad, Trivandrum and Gadanki) representing different environments. The dominance of different aerosol types such as biomass burning, urban/industrial pollution, marine origin and desert-dust particles is expected at these five sites. In all locations, significant day-to-day variability in AOD and Ångström exponent is observed. The Ångström exponent exhibits its lowest values over semi-arid region (Ahmedabad) 0.4-0.7, while it is around 1.8 at rural site (Gadanki). The retrieved volume size distributions for Pune, Ahmedabad and Trivandrum are found to be bimodal with varying concentration of each mode. Interesting feature of this observation is, very low coarse-mode volume concentration observed at Trivandrum even though observations were made about 300 m from the coast. The synergy of results from these complementary measurements is reflected in the computed regional aerosol radiative forcing and heating rates. We have used a radiative transfer model (SBDART) to examine the variations of aerosol direct radiative effect (ADRE) and heating rates to give an overall estimation of the effect on climate. The ADRE, over different measurement sites, at short wavelength is found to be negative at the surface in the range of - 18 to - 59 W m - 2 , and TOA forcing values varied from + 0.9 to - 8 W m - 2 .

  16. A regional GIS-based model for reconstructing natural monthly streamflow series at ungauged sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumo, Dario; Lo Conti, Francesco; Viola, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2016-04-01

    Several hydrologic applications require reliable estimates of monthly runoff in river basins to face the widespread lack of data, both in time and in space. The main aim of this work is to propose a regional model for the estimation of monthly natural runoff series at ungauged sites, analyzing its applicability, reliability and limitations. A GIS (Geographic Information System) based model is here developed and applied to the entire region of Sicily (Italy). The core of this tool is a regional model for the estimation of monthly natural runoff series, based on a simple modelling structure, consisting of a regression based rainfall-runoff model with only four parameters. The monthly runoff is obtained as a function of precipitation and mean temperature at the same month and runoff at the previous month. For a given basin, the four model parameters are assessed by specific regional equations as a function of some easily measurable geomorphic and climate basins' descriptors. The model is calibrated by a "two-step" procedure applied to a number of gauged basins over the region. The first step is aimed at the identification of a set of parameters optimizing model performances at the level of single basin. Such "optimal" parameters sets, derived for each calibration basin, are successively used inside a regional regression analysis, performed at the second step, by which the regional equations for model parameters assessment are defined and calibrated. All the gauged watersheds across the Sicily have been analyzed, selecting 53 basins for model calibration and using other 6 basins exclusively for validation purposes. Model performances, quantitatively evaluated considering different statistical indexes, demonstrate a relevant model ability in capturing the observed hydrological response at both the monthly level and higher time scales (seasonal and annual). One of the key features related to the proposed methodology is its easy transferability to other arid and semiarid

  17. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    SciTech Connect

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions.

  18. Ultrahigh humidity sensitivity of graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Hengchang; Yin, Kuibo; Xie, Xiao; Ji, Jing; Wan, Shu; Sun, Litao; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2013-01-01

    Humidity sensors have been extensively used in various fields, and numerous problems are encountered when using humidity sensors, including low sensitivity, long response and recovery times, and narrow humidity detection ranges. Using graphene oxide (G-O) films as humidity sensing materials, we fabricate here a microscale capacitive humidity sensor. Compared with conventional capacitive humidity sensors, the G-O based humidity sensor has a sensitivity of up to 37800% which is more than 10 times higher than that of the best one among conventional sensors at 15%–95% relative humidity. Moreover, our humidity sensor shows a fast response time (less than 1/4 of that of the conventional one) and recovery time (less than 1/2 of that of the conventional one). Therefore, G-O appears to be an ideal material for constructing humidity sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity for widespread applications. PMID:24048093

  19. Economic impact of accelerated cleanup on regions surrounding the U.S. DOE's major nuclear weapons sites.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M; Solitare, L; Frisch, M; Lowrie, K

    1999-08-01

    The regional economic impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy's accelerated environmental cleanup plan are estimated for the major nuclear weapons sites in Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington. The analysis shows that the impact falls heavily on the three relatively rural regions around the Savannah River (SC), Hanford (WA), and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (ID) sites. A less aggressive phase-down of environmental management funds and separate funds to invest in education and infrastructure in the regions helps buffer the impacts on jobs, personal income, and gross regional product. Policy options open to the federal and state and local governments are discussed. PMID:10765427

  20. Positive selection neighboring functionally essential sites and disease-implicated regions of mammalian reproductive proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reproductive proteins are central to the continuation of all mammalian species. The evolution of these proteins has been greatly influenced by environmental pressures induced by pathogens, rival sperm, sexual selection and sexual conflict. Positive selection has been demonstrated in many of these proteins with particular focus on primate lineages. However, the mammalia are a diverse group in terms of mating habits, population sizes and germ line generation times. We have examined the selective pressures at work on a number of novel reproductive proteins across a wide variety of mammalia. Results We show that selective pressures on reproductive proteins are highly varied. Of the 10 genes analyzed in detail, all contain signatures of positive selection either across specific sites or in specific lineages or a combination of both. Our analysis of SP56 and Col1a1 are entirely novel and the results show positively selected sites present in each gene. Our findings for the Col1a1 gene are suggestive of a link between positive selection and severe disease type. We find evidence in our dataset to suggest that interacting proteins are evolving in symphony: most likely to maintain interacting functionality. Conclusion Our in silico analyses show positively selected sites are occurring near catalytically important regions suggesting selective pressure to maximize efficient fertilization. In those cases where a mechanism of protein function is not fully understood, the sites presented here represent ideal candidates for mutational study. This work has highlighted the widespread rate heterogeneity in mutational rates across the mammalia and specifically has shown that the evolution of reproductive proteins is highly varied depending on the species and interacting partners. We have shown that positive selection and disease are closely linked in the Col1a1 gene. PMID:20149245

  1. Photogated humidity-driven motility

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lidong; Liang, Haoran; Jacob, Jolly; Naumov, Panče

    2015-01-01

    Hygroinduced motion is a fundamental process of energy conversion that is essential for applications that require contactless actuation in response to the day–night rhythm of atmospheric humidity. Here we demonstrate that mechanical bistability caused by rapid and anisotropic adsorption and desorption of water vapour by a flexible dynamic element that harnesses the chemical potential across very small humidity gradients for perpetual motion can be effectively modulated with light. A mechanically robust material capable of rapid exchange of water with the surroundings is prepared that undergoes swift locomotion in effect to periodic shape reconfiguration with turnover frequency of <150 min−1. The element can lift objects ∼85 times heavier and can transport cargos ∼20 times heavier than itself. Having an azobenzene-containing conjugate as a photoactive dopant, this entirely humidity-driven self-actuation can be controlled remotely with ultraviolet light, thus setting a platform for next-generation smart biomimetic hybrids. PMID:26067649

  2. Photogated humidity-driven motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lidong; Liang, Haoran; Jacob, Jolly; Naumov, Panče

    2015-06-01

    Hygroinduced motion is a fundamental process of energy conversion that is essential for applications that require contactless actuation in response to the day-night rhythm of atmospheric humidity. Here we demonstrate that mechanical bistability caused by rapid and anisotropic adsorption and desorption of water vapour by a flexible dynamic element that harnesses the chemical potential across very small humidity gradients for perpetual motion can be effectively modulated with light. A mechanically robust material capable of rapid exchange of water with the surroundings is prepared that undergoes swift locomotion in effect to periodic shape reconfiguration with turnover frequency of <150 min-1. The element can lift objects ~85 times heavier and can transport cargos ~20 times heavier than itself. Having an azobenzene-containing conjugate as a photoactive dopant, this entirely humidity-driven self-actuation can be controlled remotely with ultraviolet light, thus setting a platform for next-generation smart biomimetic hybrids.

  3. Drought Prediction Site Specific and Regional up to Three Years in Advance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhler, G.; O'Brien, D. P.

    2002-12-01

    Dynamic Predictables has developed proprietary software that analyzes and predicts future climatic behavior based on past data. The programs employ both a regional thermodynamic model together with a unique predictive algorithm to achieve a high degree of prediction accuracy up to 36 months. The thermodynamic model was developed initially to explain the results of a study on global circulation models done at SUNY-Stony Brook by S. Hameed, R.G. Currie, and H. LaGrone (Int. Jour. Climatology, 15, pp.852-871, 1995). The authors pointed out that on a time scale of 2-70 months the spectrum of sea level pressure is dominated by the harmonics and subharmonics of the seasonal cycle and their combination tones. These oscillations are fundamental to an understanding of climatic variations on a sub-regional to continental basis. The oscillatory nature of these variations allows them to be used as broad based climate predictors. In addition, they can be subtracted from the data to yield residuals. The residuals are then analyzed to determine components that are predictable. The program then combines both the thermodynamic model results (the primary predictive model) with those from the residual data (the secondary model) to yield an estimate of the future behavior of the climatic variable. Spatial resolution is site specific or aggregated regional based upon appropriate length (45 years or more monthly data) and reasonable quality weather observation records. Most climate analysis has been based on monthly time-step data, but time scales on the order of days can be used. Oregon Climate Division 1 (Coastal) precipitation provides an example relating DynaPred's method to nature's observed elements in the early 2000s. The prediction's leading dynamic factors are the strong seasonal in the primary model combined with high secondary model contributions from planet Earth's Chandler Wobble (near 15 months) and what has been called the Quasi-Triennial Oscillation (QTO, near 36 months

  4. Promoters and processing sites within the transforming region of bovine papillomavirus type 1.

    PubMed

    Ahola, H; Stenlund, A; Moreno-López, J; Pettersson, U

    1987-07-01

    The mRNAs present in bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1)-transformed C127 cells were studied by primer extension. The results show that two internal promoters are present in the E region of BPV-1 in addition to the previously identified promoter at coordinate 1 (H. Ahola, A. Stenlund, J. Moreno-López, and U. Pettersson, Nucleic Acids Res. 11:2639-2650, 1983). One, located at coordinate 31, generated a set of mRNAs with heterogeneous 5' ends, which may encode the major transforming protein of BPV-1, the E5 protein. The second promoter, which is located at coordinate 39, generates colinear mRNAs which encode either the E4 protein or a truncated form of the E2 protein. Unlike the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (O. Danos, E. Georges, G. Orth, and M. Yaniv, J. Virol. 53:735-741, 1985), BPV-1 appears to lack a separate promoter for expression of the E7 protein. The major splice sites in the transforming region (E region) of the BPV-1 genome were also identified by nucleotide sequence analysis. PMID:2884331

  5. Precise detection of L. monocytogenes hitting its highly conserved region possessing several specific antibody binding sites.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Abolfazl; Rasooli, Iraj; Reza Rahbar, Mohammad; Khalili, Saeed; Amani, Jafar; Ahmadi Zanoos, Kobra

    2012-07-21

    Listeria monocytogenes, a facultative intracellular fast-growing Gram-positive food-borne pathogen, can infect immunocompromised individuals leading to meningitis, meningoencephalitis and septicaemias. From the pool of virulence factors of the organism, ActA, a membrane protein, has a critical role in the life cycle of L. monocytogenes. High mortality rate of listeriosis necessitates a sensitive and rapid diagnostic test for precise identification of L. monocytogenes. We used bioinformatic tools to locate a specific conserved region of ActA for designing and developing an antibody-antigen based diagnostic test for the detection of L. monocytogenes. A number of databases were looked for ActA related sequences. Sequences were analyzed with several online software to find an appropriate region for our purpose. ActA protein was found specific to Listeria species with no homologs in other organisms. We finally introduced a highly conserved region within ActA sequence that possess several antibody binding sites specific to L. monocytogenes. This protein sequence can serve as an antigen for designing a relatively cheap, sensitive, and specific diagnostic test for detection of L. monocytogenes. PMID:22575546

  6. 77 FR 62535 - Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Employment Group, Aerotek, and Manpower, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Hydro Aluminum North... and former workers of Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. The subject...

  7. Ultrafast graphene oxide humidity sensors.

    PubMed

    Borini, Stefano; White, Richard; Wei, Di; Astley, Michael; Haque, Samiul; Spigone, Elisabetta; Harris, Nadine; Kivioja, Jani; Ryhänen, Tapani

    2013-12-23

    Sensors allow an electronic device to become a gateway between the digital and physical worlds, and sensor materials with unprecedented performance can create new applications and new avenues for user interaction. Graphene oxide can be exploited in humidity and temperature sensors with a number of convenient features such as flexibility, transparency and suitability for large-scale manufacturing. Here we show that the two-dimensional nature of graphene oxide and its superpermeability to water combine to enable humidity sensors with unprecedented response speed (∼30 ms response and recovery times). This opens the door to various applications, such as touchless user interfaces, which we demonstrate with a 'whistling' recognition analysis. PMID:24206232

  8. School-Site Administrators: A California County and Regional Perspective on Labor Market Trends. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 084

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Melissa Eiler; Fong, Anthony B.; Makkonen, Reino

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the differences among California's counties and regions in their needs for new school-site administrators in the coming decade, as driven by a combination of projected administrator retirements and projected student enrollment changes. The projected need for new school-site administrators, based solely on these combined…

  9. Modelling and predicting urban atmospheric pollutants in the Aosta Valley region of Italy using a site-optimised model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirks, Kim N.; Nanni, Alessandro; Dirks, Vincent I.

    2006-01-01

    An effective simple site-optimised urban air pollution model for predicting CO, PM10, NO and NO2 concentrations is developed for the topographically complex region of the Aosta Valley in Italy. The good results suggest that such a model could be used to downscale mesoscale-forecasted surface conditions to give real-time site-specific pollution predictions.

  10. Sites of Calcium Uptake of Fish Otoliths correspond with macular Regions rich of Carbonic Anhydrase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, M.; Anken, R.; Hilbig, R.

    Based on pharmacological data, it has been suggested that the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays a prominent role in the mineralization of fish otoliths. In order to directly test this proposal, the topographical distribution of CA was histochemically analyzed in the utricular and saccular maculae of larval cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Further investigations were focussed on the sites of otolithic calcium uptake using the fluorescent calcium tracer alizarin-complexone (AC). Both in the utricle and the saccule, CA-rich areas were located on both sides of the sensory macula which reportedly contain ionocytes, specialized cells regulating the ionic composition of the endolymph. The reactivity of CA per μm^2 was similar in all of these regions. In the saccule, the size of the dorsal and ventral CA-rich regions did not differ (and thus yielded the same total CA-reactivity), whereas, in the utricle, the medial CA-rich portion was considerably larger (and therefore had a higher total CA-reactivity) as compared to the laterally located area (the CA-rich regions are homologous in the both endorgans; however, anatomical references relative to the body axes of a fish differ, since the two maculae are located perpendicular to each other). AC-incubation resulted in a fluorescent band on the proximal surface of the otoliths (this surface lies next to the sensory epithelium). In saccular otoliths (sagittae), AC-fluorescence was distributed evenly within the band. However, in the utricular otoliths (lapilli), the medial portion of the AC-band was considerably broader as compared to its lateral aspect. These results strongly suggest that calcium uptake of otoliths takes place especially in those regions of their proximal face which are located adjacent to CA-rich areas of the macular epithelium. It is thus concluded that CA is directly involved in otolith calcification. Acknowledgement: This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) (FKZ: 50 WB

  11. Human in vivo regional intestinal permeability: quantitation using site-specific drug absorption data.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, Erik; Dahlgren, David; Roos, Carl; Lennernäs, Hans

    2015-06-01

    Application of information on regional intestinal permeability has been identified as a key aspect of successful pharmaceutical product development. This study presents the results and evaluation of an approach for the indirect estimation of site-specific in vivo intestinal effective permeability (Peff) in humans. Plasma concentration-time profiles from 15 clinical studies that administered drug solutions to specific intestinal regions were collected and analyzed. The intestinal absorption rate for each drug was acquired by deconvolution, using historical intravenous data as reference, and used with the intestinal surface area and the dose remaining in the lumen to estimate the Peff. Forty-three new Peff values were estimated (15 from the proximal small intestine, 11 from the distal small intestine, and 17 from the large intestine) for 14 active pharmaceutical ingredients representing a wide range of biopharmaceutical properties. A good correlation (r(2) = 0.96, slope = 1.24, intercept = 0.030) was established between these indirect jejunal Peff estimates and jejunal Peff measurements determined directly using the single-pass perfusion double balloon technique. On average, Peff estimates from the distal small intestine and large intestine were 90% and 40%, respectively, of those from the proximal small intestine. These results support the use of the evaluated deconvolution method for indirectly estimating regional intestinal Peff in humans. This study presents the first comprehensive data set of estimated human regional intestinal permeability values for a range of drugs. These biopharmaceutical data can be used to improve the accuracy of gastrointestinal absorption predictions used in drug development decision-making. PMID:25919764

  12. Screening of CHP Potential at Federal Sites in Select Regions of the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Energy Nexus Group, . .

    2002-02-25

    Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CHP) is a master term for onsite power generation technologies that sequentially produce electrical or mechanical energy and useful thermal energy. Some form of CHP has existed for more than 100 years and it is now achieving a greater level of acceptance due to an increasing need for reliable power service and energy cost management. Capturing and using the heat produced as a byproduct of generating electricity from fuel sources increases the usable energy that can be obtained from the original fuel source. CHP technologies have the potential to reduce energy consumption through increased efficiency--decreasing energy bills as well as pollution. The EPA recognizes CHP as a potent climate change mitigation measure. The U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is assisting Federal agencies to realize their energy efficiency goals. CHP is an efficiency measure that is receiving growing attention because of its sizable potential to provide efficiency, environmental, and reliability benefits. CHP therefore benefits the host facility, the electric infrastructure, and the U.S. society as a whole. This report and study seeks to make a preliminary inquiry into near term CHP opportunities for federal facilities in selected U.S. regions. It offers to help focus the attention of policy makers and energy facility managers on good candidate facilities for CHP. First, a ranked list of high potential individual sites is identified. Then, several classes of federal facilities are identified for the multiple opportunities they offer as a class. Recommendations are then offered for appropriate next steps for the evaluation and cost effective implementation of CHP. This study was designed to ultimately rank federal facilities in terms of their potential to take advantage of CHP economic and external savings in the near term. In order to best serve the purposes of this study, projections have been expressed in terms of

  13. S wave attenuation and site effects in the region of Friuli, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Raúl R.; Pacor, Francesca; Sala, Alfio; Petrungaro, Carmine

    1996-10-01

    We used strong motion records from the 1976 Friuli earthquake (M 6.4) and 10 of the biggest aftershocks recorded by the National Accelerograph Network of the Electrical Power Company of Italy to estimate the quality factor Q of S waves in this region. The wide distance range of the recordings (10 < r < 190 km) permits us to analyze the spectral amplitude decay of the records using a nonparametric approach [e.g., Anderson and Quaas, 1988; Castro et al., 1990; Anderson, 1991]. We obtained attenuation functions for a set of 18 frequencies ranging between 0.4 and 25.0 Hz. The values of Q retrieved from the attenuation functions obtained follow the frequency-dependent relation Q = 20.4f. A test of the method was made using a second data set consisting of digital seismograms from the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Seismograph Network. In spite of the different size of the volume sampled by these data (10 < r < 131 km), the frequency dependence of Q obtained (Q = 16.1f0.92) is similar to that obtained with the strong motion data set. The near-surface attenuation was also estimated using the model proposed by Anderson and Hough [1984] and Anderson [1991]. We found that κ0 is smaller for the strong motion stations located on rock compared to stations located on either shallow or soft sediments. To estimate the site response of the strong motion stations, we corrected the spectral records for the attenuation effect and then inverted the corrected records to separate source and site effects using the inversion scheme proposed by Andrews [1986]. To verify the site amplification estimates obtained, we also calculated the transfer function of each site using Nakamura's [1989] method for S wave [e.g., Lermo and Chavez-García, 1993]. In general, the shapes of the site functions obtained with the inversion are consistent with the transfer functions obtained calculating the horizontal to vertical component ratio.

  14. ECRbase: Database of Evolutionary Conserved Regions, Promoters, and Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Vertebrate Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Loots, G; Ovcharenko, I

    2006-08-08

    Evolutionary conservation of DNA sequences provides a tool for the identification of functional elements in genomes. We have created a database of evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in vertebrate genomes entitled ECRbase that is constructed from a collection of pairwise vertebrate genome alignments produced by the ECR Browser database. ECRbase features a database of syntenic blocks that recapitulate the evolution of rearrangements in vertebrates and a collection of promoters in all vertebrate genomes presented in the database. The database also contains a collection of annotated transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in all ECRs and promoter elements. ECRbase currently includes human, rhesus macaque, dog, opossum, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, and two pufferfish genomes. It is freely accessible at http://ECRbase.dcode.org.

  15. Regional chemical setting of the Apollo 16 landing site and the importance of the Kant Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, C. G.; El-Baz, F.

    1982-01-01

    Orbital X-ray data from the Apollo 16 region indicate that physiographic units identified before the lunar mission can be classified as chemical units as well. The Descartes Mountains, however, appear to be an extension of the Kant Plateau composition that is unusually anorthositic and resembles farside terra. The Cayley Plains have closer affinities to basaltic materials than terra materials, physically, spectrally and chemically. The Theophilus impact, 330 km east of the landing site, excavated magnesium-rich basalts from below less-magnesian flows in Mare Nectaris; but, mafic ejecta was substantially blocked from the Apollo 16 site by the Kant Plateau that rises 5 km above the level of the mare. Apollo 16 soil samples from stations selected to collect either Descartes Mountains material or Cayley Plains material were surprisingly similar. However, they do, indeed, show the chemical trends indicative of the two units as defined by the orbiting geochemistry detectors. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains material may be among the rare nearside examples of a plagioclase-rich cumulate of the primordial magma ocean.

  16. Influence of site of regional ischemia on LV cavity shape change in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, P.; Kass, D.; Lima, J.; Maughan, W.L.; Graves, W.; Weiss, J.L. )

    1988-03-01

    The authors assessed whether altering the location of acute ischemia produced differing and consistent changes in cavity shape in the canine left ventricle. Twenty anesthetized open-chest dogs underwent transient occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) or circumflex (Circ) artery, and cavity shape change was recorded in two-dimensional short-axis echocardiograms. The extent of injury was assessed by radiolabeled microspheres. Shape was analyzed by converting digitized endocardial contours into polar form and expressing the results as a Fourier series. Series terms reflected specific shape deformations. Normal ventricular shape became more circular during ejection indicated by a reduction in the power in nearly all of the Fourier spectra components. During Circ occlusion, the chamber became more elongated and overall shape significantly less circular at end systole than at end diastole. LAD occlusion produced an entirely different pattern, one with no significant elongation but the development of a more triangular shape by end systole. They conclude that there are characteristic and contrasting shape deformations in LV short-axis contours that depend on the site of ischemic injury. These changes may relate to site-specific geometry and loading, and they point to potential limitations of left ventricular models that no not account for regional inhomogeneity.

  17. Source origin of trace elements in PM from regional background, urban and industrial sites of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Viana, M.; Alastuey, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Castillo, S.; Pey, J.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.; Artíñano, B.; Salvador, P.; García Dos Santos, S.; Fernández-Patier, R.; Moreno-Grau, S.; Negral, L.; Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Gil, J. I.; Inza, A.; Ortega, L. A.; Santamaría, J. M.; Zabalza, J.

    Despite their significant role in source apportionment analysis, studies dedicated to the identification of tracer elements of emission sources of atmospheric particulate matter based on air quality data are relatively scarce. The studies describing tracer elements of specific sources currently available in the literature mostly focus on emissions from traffic or large-scale combustion processes (e.g. power plants), but not on specific industrial processes. Furthermore, marker elements are not usually determined at receptor sites, but during emission. In our study, trace element concentrations in PM 10 and PM 2.5 were determined at 33 monitoring stations in Spain throughout the period 1995-2006. Industrial emissions from different forms of metallurgy (steel, stainless steel, copper, zinc), ceramic and petrochemical industries were evaluated. Results obtained at sites with no significant industrial development allowed us to define usual concentration ranges for a number of trace elements in rural and urban background environments. At industrial and traffic hotspots, average trace metal concentrations were highest, exceeding rural background levels by even one order of magnitude in the cases of Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Sn, W, V, Ni, Cs and Pb. Steel production emissions were linked to high levels of Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cd, Se and Sn (and probably Pb). Copper metallurgy areas showed high levels of As, Bi, Ga and Cu. Zinc metallurgy was characterised by high levels of Zn and Cd. Glazed ceramic production areas were linked to high levels of Zn, As, Se, Zr, Cs, Tl, Li, Co and Pb. High levels of Ni and V (in association) were tracers of petrochemical plants and/or fuel-oil combustion. At one site under the influence of heavy vessel traffic these elements could be considered tracers (although not exclusively) of shipping emissions. Levels of Zn-Ba and Cu-Sb were relatively high in urban areas when compared with industrialised regions due to tyre and brake abrasion, respectively.

  18. Relative humidity from psychrometric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, T. W.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical equation for computing relative humidity as function of wet bulb temperature, dry bulb temperature, and atmospheric pressure is suitable for use with calculator or computer. Analytical expressions may be useful for chemical process control systems and building environmental control systems.

  19. Air motion determination by tracking humidity patterns in isentropic layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancuso, R. L.; Hall, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Determining air motions by tracking humidity patterns in isentropic layers was investigated. Upper-air rawinsonde data from the NSSL network and from the AVE-II pilot experiment were used to simulate temperature and humidity profile data that will eventually be available from geosynchronous satellites. Polynomial surfaces that move with time were fitted to the mixing-ratio values of the different isentropic layers. The velocity components of the polynomial surfaces are part of the coefficients that are determined in order to give an optimum fitting of the data. In the mid-troposphere, the derived humidity motions were in good agreement with the winds measured by rawinsondes so long as there were few or no clouds and the lapse rate was relatively stable. In the lower troposphere, the humidity motions were unreliable primarily because of nonadiabatic processes and unstable lapse rates. In the upper troposphere, the humidity amounts were too low to be measured with sufficient accuracy to give reliable results. However, it appears that humidity motions could be used to provide mid-tropospheric wind data over large regions of the globe.

  20. S1018 Regional Committee on Irrigation Management for Humid and Sub-humid Regions Annual Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall goal of our research is the development of economically viable, environmentally sound production systems for the Mid-South. Because of the growing importance of water management to crop production in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Flood Plain, particular emphasis is placed on addressing ...

  1. Automatic Supporting System for Regionalization of Ventricular Tachycardia Exit Site in Implantable Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Sanromán-Junquera, Margarita; Mora-Jiménez, Inmaculada; Almendral, Jesús; García-Alberola, Arcadio; Rojo-Álvarez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Electrograms stored in Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICD-EGM) have been proven to convey useful information for roughly determining the anatomical location of the Left Ventricular Tachycardia exit site (LVTES). Our aim here was to evaluate the possibilities from a machine learning system intended to provide an estimation of the LVTES anatomical region with the use of ICD-EGM in the situation where 12-lead electrocardiogram of ventricular tachycardia are not available. Several machine learning techniques were specifically designed and benchmarked, both from classification (such as Neural Networks (NN), and Support Vector Machines (SVM)) and regression (Kernel Ridge Regression) problem statements. Classifiers were evaluated by using accuracy rates for LVTES identification in a controlled number of anatomical regions, and the regression approach quality was studied in terms of the spatial resolution. We analyzed the ICD-EGM of 23 patients (18±10 EGM per patient) during left ventricular pacing and simultaneous recording of the spatial coordinates of the pacing electrode with a navigation system. Several feature sets extracted from ICD-EGM (consisting of times and voltages) were shown to convey more discriminative information than the raw waveform. Among classifiers, the SVM performed slightly better than NN. In accordance with previous clinical works, the average spatial resolution for the LVTES was about 3 cm, as in our system, which allows it to support the faster determination of the LVTES in ablation procedures. The proposed approach also provides with a framework suitable for driving the design of improved performance future systems. PMID:25910170

  2. Structured Regions of Alpha-synuclein Fibrils Include the Early Onset Parkinson's Disease Mutation Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Comellas Canal, Gemma; Lemkau, Luisel R.; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Kloepper, Kathryn D.; Ladror, Daniel T.; Ebisu, Reika; Woods, Wendy S.; Lipton, Andrew S.; George, Julia M.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2011-08-26

    Alpha-Synuclein (AS) fibrils constitute the major proteinaceous component of Lewy bodies (LBs), the pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. Three single point mutations in the AS gene, as well as multiplication of the wild-type (WT) AS allele, have been previously identified in families with early-onset PD. Although AS fibrils have been the subject of intense study, critical details about their structure including the precise location of the B-strands and the extent of the core, the three-dimensional structure and the effects of the mutations—remain unknown. Here, we have used magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy to present a detailed characterization of the full-length WT AS fibrils. With improved sample preparations, isotopic labeling patterns and NMR experiments, we have confidently assigned more than 90% of the 13C and 15N backbone and sidechain chemical shifts of the detected residues from residue 39 to 97, and quantified the conformational dynamics throughout this region. Our results demonstrate that the core of AS fibrils extends with a repeated motif and that residues 30, 46 and 53-the early-onset PD mutant sites-are located in structured regions of AS fibrils.

  3. Location of active transmission sites of Schistosoma japonicum in lake and marshland regions in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z J; Carpenter, T E; Lynn, H S; Chen, Y; Bivand, R; Clark, A B; Hui, F M; Peng, W X; Zhou, Y B; Zhao, G M; Jiang, Q W

    2009-06-01

    Schistosomiasis control in China has, in general, been very successful during the past several decades. However, the rebounding of the epidemic situation in some areas in recent years raises concerns about a sustainable control strategy of which locating active transmission sites (ATS) is a necessary first step. This study presents a systematic approach for locating schistosomiasis ATS by combining the approaches of identifying high risk regions for schisotosmiasis and extracting snail habitats. Environmental, topographical, and human behavioural factors were included in the model. Four significant high-risk regions were detected and 6 ATS were located. We used the normalized difference water index (NDWI) combined with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to extract snail habitats, and the pointwise 'P-value surface' approach to test statistical significance of predicted disease risk. We found complicated non-linear relationships between predictors and schistosomiasis risk, which might result in serious biases if data were not properly treated. We also found that the associations were related to spatial scales, indicating that a well-designed series of studies were needed to relate the disease risk with predictors across various study scales. Our approach provides a useful tool, especially in the field of vector-borne or environment-related diseases. PMID:19416552

  4. Radioecological characterization of a uranium mining site located in a semi-arid region in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Horst M; Lamego Simoes Filho, F Fernando; Perez, Valeska; Franklin, Mariza Ramalho; Gomiero, Luiz Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the radioecological characterization of the new Brazilian uranium mining and milling site located in a semi-arid region of the country. The process characterization demonstrated that in heap leach plants most of the 226Ra remains in the leached ore. Despite the potential higher availability of radium isotopes in the soils of the studied region the lack of precipitation in that area reduces the leaching/mobilization of the radionuclides. High 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations were found in manioc while 210Pb was significant in pasture. It was suggested that a range from 10(-3) to 10(-1) may conveniently encompass most of the transfer factors (TF) values for soil/plant systems (i.e. involving different cultures, different soils and natural radionuclides). Impacts due to aerial transportation of aerosols and radon generated in the mining were proved to be minimal and restricted to an area not greater than 15 km2. Finally, uranium complexation by carbonates was shown to be the main mechanism responding for the elevated radionuclide concentration in groundwater. PMID:16545512

  5. Humidity Sensors Printed on Recycled Paper and Cardboard

    PubMed Central

    Mraović, Matija; Muck, Tadeja; Pivar, Matej; Trontelj, Janez; Pleteršek, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Research, design, fabrication and results of various screen printed capacitive humidity sensors is presented in this paper. Two types of capacitive humidity sensors have been designed and fabricated via screen printing on recycled paper and cardboard, obtained from the regional paper and cardboard industry. As printing ink, commercially available silver nanoparticle-based conductive ink was used. A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the humidity measurement methods using paper as a dielectric material. Performances of different structures have been tested in a humidity chamber. Relative humidity in the chamber was varied in the range of 35%–80% relative humidity (RH) at a constant temperature of 23 °C. Parameters of interest were capacitance and conductance of each sensor material, as well as long term behaviour. Process reversibility has also been considered. The results obtained show a mainly logarithmic response of the paper sensors, with the only exception being cardboard-based sensors. Recycled paper-based sensors exhibit a change in value of three orders of magnitude, whereas cardboard-based sensors have a change in value of few 10s over the entire scope of relative humidity range (RH 35%–90%). Two different types of capacitor sensors have been investigated: lateral (comb) type sensors and modified, perforated flat plate type sensors. The objective of the present work was to identify the most important factors affecting the material performances with humidity, and to contribute to the development of a sensor system supported with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip directly on the material, for use in smart packaging applications. Therefore, the authors built a passive and a battery-supported wireless module based on SL900A smart sensory tag's IC to achieve UHF-RFID functionality with data logging capability. PMID:25072347

  6. Humidity sensors printed on recycled paper and cardboard.

    PubMed

    Mraović, Matija; Muck, Tadeja; Pivar, Matej; Trontelj, Janez; Pleteršek, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Research, design, fabrication and results of various screen printed capacitive humidity sensors is presented in this paper. Two types of capacitive humidity sensors have been designed and fabricated via screen printing on recycled paper and cardboard, obtained from the regional paper and cardboard industry. As printing ink, commercially available silver nanoparticle-based conductive ink was used. A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the humidity measurement methods using paper as a dielectric material. Performances of different structures have been tested in a humidity chamber. Relative humidity in the chamber was varied in the range of 35%-80% relative humidity (RH) at a constant temperature of 23 °C. Parameters of interest were capacitance and conductance of each sensor material, as well as long term behaviour. Process reversibility has also been considered. The results obtained show a mainly logarithmic response of the paper sensors, with the only exception being cardboard-based sensors. Recycled paper-based sensors exhibit a change in value of three orders of magnitude, whereas cardboard-based sensors have a change in value of few 10s over the entire scope of relative humidity range (RH 35%-90%). Two different types of capacitor sensors have been investigated: lateral (comb) type sensors and modified, perforated flat plate type sensors. The objective of the present work was to identify the most important factors affecting the material performances with humidity, and to contribute to the development of a sensor system supported with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip directly on the material, for use in smart packaging applications. Therefore, the authors built a passive and a battery-supported wireless module based on SL900A smart sensory tag's IC to achieve UHF-RFID functionality with data logging capability. PMID:25072347

  7. Sites of calcium uptake of fish otoliths correspond with macular regions rich of carbonic anhydrase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, M.; Anken, R.; Hilbig, R.

    2006-01-01

    Based on pharmacological data, it has been suggested that the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CAH) plays a prominent role in the mineralization of fish otoliths. To directly test this proposal, the topographical distribution of CAH was histochemically analyzed in the utricular and saccular maculae of larval cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Further investigations were focussed on the sites of otolithic calcium uptake using the fluorescent calcium tracer alizarin-complexone (AC). Both in the utricle and the saccule, CAH-reactivity was prominent in regions on both sides of the sensory macula (centrifugal (cf) and centripetal (cp) areas), which reportedly contain ionocytes, specialized cells regulating the ionic composition of the endolymph. (The terms centrifugal and centripetal were chosen instead of lateral and medial, because the saccule is positioned perpendicular to the utricle; “lateral” and “medial” thus do not allow an unambiguous allocation of the respective regions.) In the saccule, the size of cf and cp did not differ from each other, whereas, in the utricle, cp was considerably larger as compared to cf (CAH-reactivity per μm2 was nearly identical in both areas of both endorgans). AC-incubation resulted in a fluorescent band on the proximal surface of the otoliths (this surface lies next to the sensory epithelium). In saccular otoliths (sagittae), the area of the band did not differ between centrifugal and centripetal otolith regions, whereas in the utricular otoliths (lapilli), the area of the centripetal AC-band was larger in size as compared to the centrifugal one (AC-fluorescence per μm2 did not differ between the areas analyzed in both types of otoliths). These results strongly suggest that calcium/carbonate uptake of otoliths takes place especially in those regions of their proximal face which are located adjacent to CAH-rich areas of the macular epithelium. It is thus concluded that CAH is directly involved in otolith calcification. The

  8. Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure Sensors (THWAPS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-01-17

    The temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure system (THWAPS) provide surface reference values of these measurements for balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) launches. The THWAPS is located adjacent to the SONDE launch site at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility. The THWAPS system is a combination of calibration-quality instruments intended to provide accurate measurements of meteorological conditions near the surface. Although the primary use of the system is to provide accurate surface reference values of temperature, pressure, relative humidity (RH), and wind velocity for comparison with radiosonde readings, the system includes a data logger to record time series of the measured variables.

  9. Acoustic mapping of the regional seafloor geology in and around Hawaiian ocean dredged-material disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torresan, Michael E.; Gardner, James V.

    2000-01-01

    During January and February 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Team (USGS) conducted regional high-resolution multibeam mapping surveys of the area surrounding EPA-designated ocean disposal sites located offshore of the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii. The sites are all located within 5 nautical miles of shore on insular shelves or slopes. Regional maps were required of areas much larger than the disposal sites themselves to assess both the regional seafloor geology and the immediate vicinity of the disposal sites. The purpose of the disposal site surveys was to delimit the extent of disposal material by producing detailed bathymetric and backscatter maps of the seafloor with a ± 1 m spatial accuracy and <1% depth error. The advantage of using multibeam over conventional towed, single-beam sidescan sonar is that the multibeam data are accurately georeferenced for precise location of all imaged features. The multibeam produces a coregistered acoustic-backscatter map that is often required to locate individual disposal deposits. These data were collected by the USGS as part of its regional seafloor mapping and in support of ocean disposal site monitoring studies conducted in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE).

  10. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Xingna; Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui; Liu, Chao

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core-shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ±6% and ±14% for external mixture and ±9% and ±31% for core-shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. PMID:26851881

  11. Parameterizing century to model cultivated and noncultivated sites in the Loess region of western Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manies, Kristen L.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Kramer, Larry; Parton, William

    2000-01-01

    One of the main questions remaining for global science involves the cycle of carbon among the atmosphere, oceans, and land. Scientists are trying to better determine the amount of carbon stored in and transferred between these three locations. This task has become more complex because in recent decades the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere has increased due to the burning of fossil fuels and land-use changes. The amount of this increase is greater than the amount of carbon accumulating in the atmosphere and oceans. Many scientists are studying different terrestrial ecosystems to find this 'missing" carbon. One such project is the Mississippi Basin Carbon Project (MBCP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). MBCP is studying the soils and sediments of the Mississippi River Basin, with an emphasis on understanding human influences on erosion and thus the movement of carbon within a landscape. One goal of the MBCP is to understand, at the field scale, the key processes of erosion and sedimentation, and thus the movement of carbon, in upland areas. Both field measurements and modeling efforts are being used for this purpose. On the modeling front, the Century Model is being used to describe the historical carbon dynamics for two field sites, an agricultural field and uncultivated prairie, located in the loess region of western Iowa. The objective of these modeling efforts is to recreate the carbon dynamics of the upper slope in each of these watersheds. The upper slope represents the area of a hillslope with the greatest potential erosion. This report describes how Century was parameterized to represent these two sites.

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): BMI-Textron Site, Lake Park, FL, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Basic Microelectronic, Incorporated (BMI)-Textron Site (BMI-Textron Site or the Site), in Lake Park, Florida. This remedy addresses the contaminated principal threat of ground water at the Site. This remedy addresses the principal threat remaining at the Site, by using existing institutional controls, and monitoring ground water contaminated with arsenic, cyanide, sodium and fluoride.

  13. Regional CalVal of Altimeter Range at Non-Dedicated Sites in Preparation f Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancet, M.; Watson, C.; Haines, B.; Bonnefond, P.; Lyard, F.; Femenias, P.; Guinle, T.

    2015-12-01

    In situ calibration ensures regular and long-term control of the altimeter sea surface height (SSH) time series through comparisons with independent records. Usually, in situ calibration and validation of altimeter SSH is undertaken at specific CALVAL sites through the direct comparison of the altimeter data with in situ data [1]. However, NOVELTIS has developed a regional CALVAL technique, which aims at increasing the number and the repeatability of the altimeter bias assessments by determining the altimeter bias both on overflying passes and on satellite passes located far away from the calibration site. In principle this extends the single site approach to a wider regional scale, thus reinforcing the link between the local and the global CALVAL analyses. It also provides a means to maintain a calibration time series through periods of data-outage at a specific dedicated calibration site. The regional method was initially developed at the Corsican calibration sites of Senetosa and Ajaccio. The method was used to compute the biases of Jason-1, Jason-2 and Envisat (before and after the orbit change in 2010) at both sites, and proved its stability and generality through this cross-calibration exercise [2]. These last years, the regional method was successfully implemented at the Californian site of Harvest and at the Australian site of Bass Strait, in close collaboration with JPL and the University of Tasmania, respectively. These recent studies gave the first Envisat absolute bias estimates at non-dedicated sites using the same method, and showed high consistency with the analyses of the global CALVAL teams and the work of the in situ CALVAL teams. These results highlight the numerous advantages of this technique for monitoring missions on any orbits such as the future Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 missions.

  14. Humidity sensing by carbon nanocones.

    PubMed

    Svåsand, Eldrid; Häberle, Patricio

    2014-05-01

    Carbon nano-structures, mainly nanotubes, have been explored in the past as sensing devices. In this report we have considered cones and discs (CNCs) subjected to acid treatment, dry oxidation and high temperature annealing, to study the modifications induced as they are used as sensing elements of varying relative humidity (RH). The relative humidity was varied in cycles of 30 min between 36% and 75%. Not strangely, the acid treated films displayed a much larger variation in resistance for the same difference in RH (16%). In the as-grown material, very small variations were detected among cycles under similar conditions. The changes induced in the sensors structures by the different preparation procedures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman reflexion. These results were used to model their behaviour as RH sensors. PMID:24734591

  15. Petrologic considerations for hot dry rock geothermal site selection in the Clear Lake Region, California

    SciTech Connect

    Stimac, J.; Goff, F. ); Hearn, B.C. Jr. )

    1992-01-01

    The Clear Lake area is well known for anomalous heat flow, thermal springs, hydrothermal mineral deposits, and Quaternary volcanism. These factors, along with the apparent lack of a large reservoir of geothermal fluid north of Collayomi fault make the Clear Lake area an attractive target for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development. Petrologic considerations provide some constraints on site selection for HDR development. Spatial and temporal trends in volcanism in the Coast Ranges indicate that magmatism has migrated to the north with time, paralleling passage of the Mendocino triple junction and propagation of the San Andreas fault. Volcanism in the region may have resulted from upwelling of hot asthenosphere along the southern margin of the subducted segment of the Gorda plate. Spatial and temporal trends of volcanism within the Clear Lake volcanic field are similar to larger-scale trends of Neogene volcanism in the Cost Ranges. Volcanism (especially for silicic compositions) shows a general migration to the north over the {approximately}2 Ma history of the field, with the youngest two silicic centers located at Mt. Konocti and Borax Lake. The Mt. Konocti system (active from {approximately} 0.6 to 0.3 Ma) was large and long-lived, whereas the Borax Lake system is much smaller but younger (0.09 Ma). Remnants of silicic magma bodies under Mt. Konocti may be in the latter stages of cooling, whereas a magma body centered under Borax Lake may be in the early stages of development. The existence of an upper crustal silicic magma body of under Borax Lake has yet to be demonstrated by passive geophysics, however, subsurface temperatures in the area as high (> 200{degrees}C at 2000 m) as those beneath the Mt. Konocti area. Based on petrologic considerations alone, the Mt. Konocti-Borax Lake area appears to be the most logical choice for HDR geothermal development in the region.

  16. Humidity Dependence of Adhesion for Silane Coated Microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; MAYER,THOMAS M.; CARPICK,ROBERT W.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; SRINIVASAN,U.; MABOUDIAN,R.

    1999-11-09

    This study examines adhesion between silane-coated micromachined surfaces that are exposed to humid conditions. Our quantitative values for interfacial adhesion energies are determined from an in-situ optical measurement of deformations in partly-adhered cantilever beams. We coated micromachined cantilevers with either ODTS (C{sub 18}H{sub 37}SiCl{sub 3}) or FDTS (C{sub 8}F{sub 17}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}SiCl{sub 3}) with the objective of creating hydrophobic surfaces whose adhesion would be independent of humidity. In both cases, the adhesion energy is significantly lower than for uncoated, hydrophilic surfaces. For relative humidities (RH) less than 95% (ODTS) and 80% (FDTS) the adhesion energy was extremely low and constant. In fact, ODTS-coated beams exposed to saturated humidity conditions and long (48 hour) exposures showed only a factor of two increase in adhesion energy. Surprisingly, FDTS coated beams, which initially have a higher contact angle (115{degree}) with water than do ODTS coated beams (112{degree}), proved to be much more sensitive to humidity. The FDTS coated surfaces showed a factor of one hundred increase in adhesion energy after a seven hour exposure to 90% RH. Atomic force microscopy revealed agglomerated coating material after exposed to high RH, suggesting a redistribution of the monolayer film. This agglomeration was more prominent for FDTS than ODTS. These findings suggest a new mechanism for uptake of moisture under high humidity conditions. At high humidities, the silane coatings can reconfigure from a surface to a bulk phase leaving behind locally hydrophilic sites which increase the average measured adhesion energy. In order for the adhesion increase to be observed, a significant fraction of the monolayer must be converted from the surface to the bulk phase.

  17. Carbon Emission from Forest Fires on Scots Pine Logging Sites in the Angara Region of Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; McRae, D. J.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Kovaleva, N. M.

    2010-12-01

    Wildfire and large-scale forest harvesting are the two major disturbances in the Russian boreal forests. Non-recovered logged sites total about a million hectares in Siberia. Logged sites are characterized by higher fire hazard than forest sites due to the presence of generally untreated logging slash (i.e., available fuel) which dries out much more rapidly compared to understory fuels. Moreover, most logging sites can be easily accessed by local population; this increases the risk for fire ignition. Fire impacts on the overstory trees, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation biomass were estimated on 14 logged and unlogged comparison sites in the Lower Angara Region in 2009-2010 as part of the NASA-funded NEESPI project, The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia. Based on calculated fuel consumption, we estimated carbon emission from fires on both logged and unlogged burned sites. Carbon emission from fires on logged sites appeared to be twice that on unlogged sites. Soil respiration decreased on both site types after fires. This reduction may partially offset fire-produced carbon emissions. Carbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions and as a result of anticipated increases in future forest harvesting in Siberia.

  18. Humidity and Buildings. Technical Paper No. 188.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheon, N. B.

    Modified and controlled relative humidity in buildings for certain occupancies is discussed. New criteria are used in determining the needs, desirability and problems associated with humidities in a building. Severe winter climate requires that special attention be given to the problems associated with increased indoor humidities during cold…

  19. Humidity response of the Eberline model PAC-7 alpha instrument

    SciTech Connect

    McAtee, J.L.

    1981-04-01

    Response of the Eberline Model PAC-7 alpha instrument under varying relative humidity (RH) and temperature conditions was studied in an environmental chamber. Electric discharges resulting in spurious counts or in instrument paralysis occurred at 35 to 50% RH. Improvement in the RH level tolerated by the PAC-7 alpha instrument was obtained by conformal coating of the high-voltage region of the printed circuit (PC) board. Following this treatment, electric discharges occurred only at relatively high humidity levels and then as a result of high-voltage breakdown within the AC-24C probe rather than within the PC board.

  20. GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Regional Landfill Site Selection in Transitional Countries: A Case Study From Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

  1. Multi-site study of diffusion metric variability: effects of site, vendor, field strength, and echo time on regions-of-interest and histogram-bin analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, K. G.; Chou, M.-C.; Preciado, R. I.; Gimi, B.; Rollins, N. K.; Song, A.; Turner, J.; Mori, S.

    2016-03-01

    It is now common for magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) based multi-site trials to include diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) as part of the protocol. It is also common for these sites to possess MR scanners of different manufacturers, different software and hardware, and different software licenses. These differences mean that scanners may not be able to acquire data with the same number of gradient amplitude values and number of available gradient directions. Variability can also occur in achievable b-values and minimum echo times. The challenge of a multi-site study then, is to create a common protocol by understanding and then minimizing the effects of scanner variability and identifying reliable and accurate diffusion metrics. This study describes the effect of site, scanner vendor, field strength, and TE on two diffusion metrics: the first moment of the diffusion tensor field (mean diffusivity, MD), and the fractional anisotropy (FA) using two common analyses (region-of-interest and mean-bin value of whole brain histograms). The goal of the study was to identify sources of variability in diffusion-sensitized imaging and their influence on commonly reported metrics. The results demonstrate that the site, vendor, field strength, and echo time all contribute to variability in FA and MD, though to different extent. We conclude that characterization of the variability of DTI metrics due to site, vendor, field strength, and echo time is a worthwhile step in the construction of multi-center trials.

  2. Combining GIS with fuzzy multicriteria decision-making for landfill siting in a fast-growing urban region.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Parvathinathan, G; Breeden, Jeff B

    2008-04-01

    Landfill siting is a difficult, complex, tedious, and protracted process requiring evaluation of many different criteria. This paper presents a fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis alongside with a geospatial analysis for the selection of landfill sites. It employs a two-stage analysis synergistically to form a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for waste management in a fast-growing urban region, south Texas. The first-stage analysis makes use of the thematic maps in Geographical information system (GIS) in conjunction with environmental, biophysical, ecological, and socioeconomic variables leading to support the second-stage analysis using the fuzzy multicriteria decision-making (FMCDM) as a tool. It differs from the conventional methods of integrating GIS with MCDM for landfill selection because the approach follows two sequential steps rather than a full-integrated scheme. The case study was made for the city of Harlingen in south Texas, which is rapidly evolving into a large urban area due to its vantage position near the US-Mexico borderlands. The purpose of GIS was to perform an initial screening process to eliminate unsuitable land followed by utilization of FMCDM method to identify the most suitable site using the information provided by the regional experts with reference to five chosen criteria. Research findings show that the proposed SDSS may aid in recognizing the pros and cons of potential areas for the localization of landfill sites in any study region. Based on initial GIS screening and final FMCDM assessment, "site 1" was selected as the most suitable site for the new landfill in the suburban area of the City of Harlingen. Sensitivity analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulation where the decision weights associated with all criteria were varied to investigate their relative impacts on the rank ordering of the potential sites in the second stage. Despite variations of the decision weights within a range of 20%, it shows that "site 1

  3. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Aberdeen Pesticide Dumps Site, Aberdeen, NC, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit Three (OU3) of the Aberdeen Pesticide Dumps Site (the 'Site'), in Aberdeen, North Carolina. The remedy selected addresses groundwater, sediment, and surface water contamination and ecological concerns to eliminate or reduce the risks posed by the Site.

  4. Humidity insensitive TOPAS polymer fiber Bragg grating sensor.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wu; Khan, Lutful; Webb, David J; Kalli, Kyriacos; Rasmussen, Henrik K; Stefani, Alessio; Bang, Ole

    2011-09-26

    We report the first experimental demonstration of a humidity insensitive polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG), as well as the first FBG recorded in a TOPAS polymer optical fiber in the important low loss 850 nm spectral region. For the demonstration we have fabricated FBGs with resonance wavelength around 850 nm and 1550 nm in single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibers made of TOPAS and the conventional poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Characterization of the FBGs shows that the TOPAS FBG is more than 50 times less sensitive to humidity than the conventional PMMA FBG in both wavelength regimes. This makes the TOPAS FBG very appealing for sensing applications as it appears to solve the humidity sensitivity problem suffered by the PMMA FBG. PMID:21996915

  5. Comparison of Sequencing (Barcode Region) and Sequence-Tagged-Site PCR for Blastocystis Subtyping

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Blastocystis is the most common nonfungal microeukaryote of the human intestinal tract and comprises numerous subtypes (STs), nine of which have been found in humans (ST1 to ST9). While efforts continue to explore the relationship between human health status and subtypes, no consensus regarding subtyping methodology exists. It has been speculated that differences detected in subtype distribution in various cohorts may to some extent reflect different approaches. Blastocystis subtypes have been determined primarily in one of two ways: (i) sequencing of small subunit rRNA gene (SSU-rDNA) PCR products and (ii) PCR with subtype-specific sequence-tagged-site (STS) diagnostic primers. Here, STS primers were evaluated against a panel of samples (n = 58) already subtyped by SSU-rDNA sequencing (barcode region), including subtypes for which STS primers are not available, and a small panel of DNAs from four other eukaryotes often present in feces (n = 18). Although the STS primers appeared to be highly specific, their sensitivity was only moderate, and the results indicated that some infections may go undetected when this method is used. False-negative STS results were not linked exclusively to certain subtypes or alleles, and evidence of substantial genetic variation in STS loci was obtained. Since the majority of DNAs included here were extracted from feces, it is possible that STS primers may generally work better with DNAs extracted from Blastocystis cultures. In conclusion, due to its higher applicability and sensitivity, and since sequence information is useful for other forms of research, SSU-rDNA barcoding is recommended as the method of choice for Blastocystis subtyping. PMID:23115257

  6. Global and regional estimates of cancer mortality and incidence by site: II. results for the global burden of disease 2000

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Kenji; Mathers, Colin D; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher JL

    2002-01-01

    Background Mortality estimates alone are not sufficient to understand the true magnitude of cancer burden. We present the detailed estimates of mortality and incidence by site as the basis for the future estimation of cancer burden for the Global Burden of Disease 2000 study. Methods Age- and sex- specific mortality envelope for all malignancies by region was derived from the analysis of country life-tables and cause of death. We estimated the site-specific cancer mortality distributions from vital records and cancer survival model. The regional cancer mortality by site is estimated by disaggregating the regional cancer mortality envelope based on the mortality distribution. Estimated incidence-to-mortality rate ratios were used to back calculate the final cancer incidence estimates by site. Results In 2000, cancer accounted for over 7 million deaths (13% of total mortality) and there were more than 10 million new cancer cases world wide in 2000. More than 60% of cancer deaths and approximately half of new cases occurred in developing regions. Lung cancer was the most common cancers in the world, followed by cancers of stomach, liver, colon and rectum, and breast. There was a significant variations in the distribution of site-specific cancer mortality and incidence by region. Conclusions Despite a regional variation, the most common cancers are potentially preventable. Cancer burden estimation by taking into account both mortality and morbidity is an essential step to set research priorities and policy formulation. Also it can used for setting priorities when combined with data on costs of interventions against cancers. PMID:12502432

  7. Aging in humid granular media.

    PubMed

    Restagno, Frédéric; Ursini, Cécile; Gayvallet, Hervé; Charlaix, Elisabeth

    2002-08-01

    Aging behavior is an important effect in the friction properties of solid surfaces. In this paper we investigate the temporal evolution of the static properties of a granular medium by studying the aging over time of the maximum stability angle of submillimetric glass beads. We report the effect of several parameters on these aging properties, such as the wear on the beads, the stress during the resting period, and the humidity content of the atmosphere. Aging effects in an ethanol atmosphere are also studied. These experimental results are discussed at the end of the paper. PMID:12241167

  8. A physically based analytical spatial air temperature and humidity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Endreny, Theodore A.; Nowak, David J.

    2013-09-01

    Spatial variation of urban surface air temperature and humidity influences human thermal comfort, the settling rate of atmospheric pollutants, and plant physiology and growth. Given the lack of observations, we developed a Physically based Analytical Spatial Air Temperature and Humidity (PASATH) model. The PASATH model calculates spatial solar radiation and heat storage based on semiempirical functions and generates spatially distributed estimates based on inputs of topography, land cover, and the weather data measured at a reference site. The model assumes that for all grids under the same mesoscale climate, grid air temperature and humidity are modified by local variation in absorbed solar radiation and the partitioning of sensible and latent heat. The model uses a reference grid site for time series meteorological data and the air temperature and humidity of any other grid can be obtained by solving the heat flux network equations. PASATH was coupled with the USDA iTree-Hydro water balance model to obtain evapotranspiration terms and run from 20 to 29 August 2010 at a 360 m by 360 m grid scale and hourly time step across a 285 km2 watershed including the urban area of Syracuse, NY. PASATH predictions were tested at nine urban weather stations representing variability in urban topography and land cover. The PASATH model predictive efficiency R2 ranged from 0.81 to 0.99 for air temperature and 0.77 to 0.97 for dew point temperature. PASATH is expected to have broad applications on environmental and ecological models.

  9. Health assessment for Hagen Farm Site, Stoughton, Wisconsin, Region 5. CERCLIS No. WID980610059. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-23

    Hagen Farm is listed on the National Priorities List. The site, in the township of Dunkirk, Dane County, Wisconsin, was found to be contaminating surrounding ground water in the early 1980's. The site was used as a dumpsite for industrial waste. The media of concern are ground water and on-site soil contamination. Soil contamination data are not available. The existing on-site data show ground water contamination at the monitoring-well sites. These contaminants at maximum levels include: xylenes, 27,000 ppb; ethylbenzene, 7000 ppb; toluene, 260 ppb; tetrahydrofuran, 56,000 ppb; chlorobenzene, 24 ppb. The Hagen Farm Site represents a public health concern. The ground water contamination has been clearly demonstrated, and continued private well use has been established. The ongoing use of the Sundby Sand and Gravel Well for industrial use and use in toilet facilities exposes workers to an unknown contamination.

  10. Student Involvement with the Regionally Important Geomorphological Site (RIGS) Scheme: An Opportunity to Learn Geomorphology and Gain Transferable Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Lindsey

    1996-01-01

    Outlines student involvement with a conservation project that aims to develop a Regionally Important Geological/Geomorphological Site network (RIGS) at a county level in the United Kingdom. Emphasis is placed on identifying, describing, evaluating, and documenting land forms of educational, research, historical, and/or aesthetic value. (MJP)