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Sample records for humor bipolar tipo

  1. Humor.

    PubMed

    Woodbury-Fariña, Michel A; Antongiorgi, Joalex L

    2014-12-01

    Humor has not been taken as seriously as it should be. Humor has many positive effects in the daily lives of patients and clinicians need to take advantage of these. Many indices of stress are attenuated and this serves to improve the therapeutic alliance. Freudian, rational emotive therapy, and kleinian views are presented, as well as examples of how to use playful therapy. In addition, advice on how to develop humor is given. PMID:25455066

  2. Humor in Educational Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurtler, Leo

    Humor can be a crucial factor of learning environments and of communication. Recent investigations of humor in educational settings mostly focus on learning performance. This paper shifts the attention to the enhancement of social climate through humor. Humor can be an element to solve critical social situations. To develop humor, it is necessary…

  3. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder Print A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...

  4. American Humor. [Course Syllabus].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, David E. E.

    This syllabus describes a three-credit course entitled "American Humor," offered at the University of New Haven (Connecticut). According to the syllabus, "American Humor" will identify traits of American humor as historical phenomena with relations to national character, business attitudes, regionalism, folk humor, and health; historical…

  5. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Manic depression; Bipolar affective disorder; Mood disorder - bipolar; Manic depressive disorder ... Bipolar disorder affects men and women equally. It most often starts between ages 15 and 25. The exact ...

  6. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Manic depression; Bipolar affective disorder; Mood disorder - bipolar; Manic depressive disorder ... happiness and high activity or energy (mania) or depression and low activity or energy (depression). The following ...

  7. Humor. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David; Parr, Jerry; Duffy, Vincent; Strader, Bill; Stephens, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on humor in early child care: (1) "What Makes Young Children Laugh?" (David Elkind); (2) "Humor as a Tool in the Workplace" (Jerry Parr); (3) "Vincent's Vignettes" (Vincent Duffy); (4) "Family Humor" (Bill Strader); and (5) "Books to Tickle Funny Bones" (Karen Stephens). (SD)

  8. Humor, abstraction, and disbelief.

    PubMed

    Hoicka, Elena; Jutsum, Sarah; Gattis, Merideth

    2008-09-01

    We investigated humor as a context for learning about abstraction and disbelief. More specifically, we investigated how parents support humor understanding during book sharing with their toddlers. In Study 1, a corpus analysis revealed that in books aimed at 1-to 2-year-olds, humor is found more often than other forms of doing the wrong thing including mistakes, pretense, lying, false beliefs, and metaphors. In Study 2, 20 parents read a book containing humorous and non-humorous pages to their 19-to 26-month-olds. Parents used a significantly higher percentage of high abstraction extra-textual utterances (ETUs) when reading the humorous pages. In Study 3, 41 parents read either a humorous or non-humorous book to their 18-to 24-month-olds. Parents reading the humorous book made significantly more ETUs coded for a specific form of high abstraction: those encouraging disbelief of prior utterances. Sharing humorous books thus increases toddlers' exposure to high abstraction and belief-based language. PMID:21585438

  9. The Humor of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchner, Joan F.

    This paper explores the development of humor, the positive potential of young children's humor, and resources for harnessing the energy of humor. The literature on humor is dominated by two theoretical streams: psychoanalytic theory, which recognizes humor as a vehicle for expressing emotions, particularly unacceptable emotions; and cognitive…

  10. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  11. Humor and interpersonal attraction.

    PubMed

    Murstein, B I; Brust, R G

    1985-12-01

    A humor test composed of cartoons, comic strips, and jokes was administered to 30 college couples (26 single, 4 married) who rated them for humor. Subjects also stated how much they loved and liked their partner, their probability of marrying the partner, and filled out Rubin's Liking and Love Scales. The hypotheses were that similarity of rating of the humorous stimuli would be associated with loving, liking, and predisposition to marry. Hypotheses were confirmed. PMID:16367459

  12. Sense of Humor Preferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2007-01-01

    Humor is a powerful tool. It can disarm an adversary. It can leaven the purposefully self-aggrandizing nature of a job interview. Perhaps most important, it can serve as a window to personality in the same way that a resume is a window to experience. In this article, the author emphasizes the value of having a sense of humor. He emphasizes that it…

  13. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  14. The Humor in Horror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kies, Cosette

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of horror fiction for teenagers focuses on the element of humor. Topics include parodies, plots, the element of mystery, cover art, end-of-chapter cliffhangers, and formula books. An annotated list of 10 pertinent titles is included. (LRW)

  15. Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  16. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... or digestive problems Problems sleeping, or wanting to sleep all of the time Feeling tired all of the time Thoughts about death and suicide Causes & Risk Factors What causes bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder may be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. It sometimes runs in ...

  17. Bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Grande, Iria; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent chronic disorder characterised by fluctuations in mood state and energy. It affects more than 1% of the world's population irrespective of nationality, ethnic origin, or socioeconomic status. Bipolar disorder is one of the main causes of disability among young people, leading to cognitive and functional impairment and raised mortality, particularly death by suicide. A high prevalence of psychiatric and medical comorbidities is typical in affected individuals. Accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder is difficult in clinical practice because onset is most commonly a depressive episode and looks similar to unipolar depression. Moreover, there are currently no valid biomarkers for the disorder. Therefore, the role of clinical assessment remains key. Detection of hypomanic periods and longitudinal assessment are crucial to differentiate bipolar disorder from other conditions. Current knowledge of the evolving pharmacological and psychological strategies in bipolar disorder is of utmost importance. PMID:26388529

  18. Humor as a nursing intervention.

    PubMed

    Hunt, A H

    1993-02-01

    This article describes the use of humor as a nursing intervention and asks if nurses can justify the integration of the use of humor into the repertoire of nursing interventions. Several uses for humor are illustrated, and humor is differentiated from laughter. The article quotes many nurse leaders' opinions about humor and identifies do's and do not's of appropriate humor; it discusses six research studies in which health care professionals used humor as a treatment protocol. The studies were in the areas of preoperative teaching, clinical evaluation, strategies to prevent hopelessness in adolescents with oncologic illness, and group cohesiveness. Results of these six studies give some evidence, although not robust, that humor is an effective intervention. Methods of determining and implementing humor as an appropriate nursing intervention are included. PMID:8457984

  19. Characterization of humoral endorphin.

    PubMed

    Weissman, B A; Azov, R; Granat, M; Gothilf, Y; Sarne, Y

    1980-01-01

    Utilizing a radioimmunoassay (RIA) with antibodies produced against leu-enkephalin, the presence of humoral endorphin in various body fluids and tissues has been shown. Pretreatment with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was needed in all cases in order to detect the immunoreactivity. However, both treated and untreated samples of humoral endorphin were active in the opiate receptor assay. Gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-2 as well as on Sephadex G-10 columns of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), amniotic fluid (AF) and blood shows that they all contain a similar material with an apparent molecular weight of 1,000-1,400 daltons. Chromatography of rat brain homogenate exhibited two peaks of immunoreactivity, one of which is probably due to enkephalins and the other to humoral endorphin. The latter fraction was found to be very stable when incubated in CSF, while its degradation in blood was slightly faster. This opioid compound inhibited the electrically stimulated contractions of the guinea pig ileum; the specificity of this action was indicated by its reversal with low concentrations of naloxone. In pregnant women, humoral endorphin levels in maternal and cord blood remains stable during pregnancy, while there is a significantly higher concentration of humoral endorphin in the amniotic fluid at mid-trimester as compared to that in term pregnancies during labor. PMID:6255488

  20. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... health professional before making a commitment. Learn More Free Booklets and Brochures Bipolar Disorder: A brochure on ... in the public domain and available for use free of charge. Citation of the NIMH is appreciated. ...

  1. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  2. Use of Humor in Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkaus, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Provides a summary of research on the benefits and uses of subject-matter-related humor in instructional materials, and cites comments of five experts on how to use humor in the design of instruction. Thirteen references are listed. (MER)

  3. Humor in Counseling: Leader Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.

  4. Using Humor in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  5. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  6. On Humorous Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menair, Marion Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation I examine the patterns and uses of transgressive humor and sexual talk that male traders from Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) indulge in when at their leisure from trading. I investigate how cultural conceptualizations or ideologies are brought into the present moment through discursive interaction and how the cultural signs…

  7. Bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Frederick K.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    1999-01-01

    Bipolar disorder's unique combination of three characteristics - clear genetic diathesis, distinctive clinical features, early availability of an effective treatment (lithium) - explains its special place in the history of psychiatry and its contribution to the current explosive growth of neuroscience. This article looks at the state of the art in bipolar disorder from the vantage point of: (i) genetics (possible linkages on chromosomes 18 and 21q, polygenic hypothesis, research into genetic markers); (ii) diagnosis (new focus on the subjective aspects of bipolar disorder to offset the current trend of underdiagnosis due to overreliance on standardized interviews and rating scales); (iii) outcome (increase in treatment-resistant forms signaling a change in the natural history of bipolar disorder); (iv) pathophysiology (research into circadian biological rhythms and the kindling hypothesis to explain recurrence); (v) treatment (emergence of the anticonvulsants, suggested role of chronic antidepressant treatment in the development of treatment resistance); (vi) neurobiology (evaluation of regulatory function in relation to affective disturbances, role of postsynaptic second-messenger mechanisms, advances in functional neuroimaging); and (vii) psychosocial research (shedding overly dualistic theories of the past to understand the mind and brain as an entity, thus emphasizing the importance of balancing the psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches). Future progress in the understanding and treatment of bipolar disorder will rely on successful integration of the biological and psychosocial lines of investigation. PMID:22033232

  8. Humoral immunity in bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Barker, A F; Craig, S; Bardana, E J

    1987-09-01

    Bronchiectasis occurs in patients with immunodeficiency and fungal hypersensitivity disorders. To assess the prevalence of abnormal humoral immune parameters in bronchiectasis, a retrospective study was carried out on sera from 30 patients. Studies included immunoglobulin quantitation and specific antibody to fungal species. Eleven patients were found to have immunodeficiency (nine with panhypoglobulinemia and two with selective IgM deficiency). Six patients had elevations of serum IgA and four patients had elevations of serum IgE. Six patients had elevated total antibody to Aspergillus or Candida species and six had precipitin bands to one or more fungal antigens. This study indicates that immunodeficiency is prevalent and plays a causative role in some patients with bronchiectasis. Hypersensitivity reactions to Aspergillus, Candida, and other ubiquitous environmental fungi may also play an etiopathogenic role in this disease (bronchiectasis, humoral immunity, immunodeficiency). PMID:3631652

  9. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... might cause your mood changes. If not treated, bipolar disorder can lead to damaged relationships, poor job or school performance, and even suicide. However, there are effective treatments to control symptoms: medicine and talk therapy. A combination usually works best. NIH: National Institute ...

  10. The Effects of Laughter on Humor and Humor on Mood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetola, Henry W.; Reno, Raymond R.

    Two experiments were conducted examining the mood altering effects of humor and the moderating effect of laughter on both humor appreciation and mood. The mood of the subjects in the first experiment was manipulated to make them feel slightly elated or slightly depressed. They then listened to either comedy routines or an interview. The comedy…

  11. Bipolar electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Fosdick, Stephen E; Knust, Kyle N; Scida, Karen; Crooks, Richard M

    2013-09-27

    A bipolar electrode (BPE) is an electrically conductive material that promotes electrochemical reactions at its extremities (poles) even in the absence of a direct ohmic contact. More specifically, when sufficient voltage is applied to an electrolyte solution in which a BPE is immersed, the potential difference between the BPE and the solution drives oxidation and reduction reactions. Because no direct electrical connection is required to activate redox reactions, large arrays of electrodes can be controlled with just a single DC power supply or even a battery. The wireless aspect of BPEs also makes it possible to electrosynthesize and screen novel materials for a wide variety of applications. Finally, bipolar electrochemistry enables mobile electrodes, dubbed microswimmers, that are able to move freely in solution. PMID:23843205

  12. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Studies Peer Support Research WeSearchTogether Types of Bipolar Disorder There are several kinds of bipolar disorder. Each ... like an illness. What is the difference between bipolar disorder and ordinary mood swings? The three main things ...

  13. Bipolar-Battery Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

    1988-01-01

    Bipolar batteries fabricated in continuous quasi-automated process. Components of battery configured so processing steps run sequentially. Key components of battery, bipolar plate and bipolar separator, fabricated separately and later joined together.

  14. The Scoop on Good Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Gail W.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends teaching about the uses of humor in technical writing classes by using computer user manuals. Suggests that humor has a place in technical communication, particularly in computer manuals, where new users' apprehension must be reduced, heavy technical points need clarification, and warnings and cautions should be reinforced. (SKC)

  15. Some Humor in the Bible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehlk, Heinz D.

    The Bible contains a variety of literary genres including drama, tragedy, and epic poetry, and it is an excellent basis for character study. It also contains a certain amount of humor, which should not be overlooked by students of biblical literature. Examples of intentional humor include the second version of the creation, found in the second…

  16. Humor and the Primary Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canzler, Lillian

    This study focuses on the motivational aspects of children's humor and describes the naturally occurring verbal humor of children without stimulus from adults. Kindergarten and elementary school children were observed during their lunch period at school while engaged in social interaction over 16 weeks. The study was designed to (1) record the…

  17. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  18. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  19. Humor. A therapeutic approach in oncology nursing.

    PubMed

    Bellert, J L

    1989-04-01

    Humor theory has evolved from various disciplines. Numerous professionals have published literature and research studies that examine the historical perspective of humor and the current practice of humor in health care. Historically, researchers have found humor to be an unconscious activity developed from childhood to adulthood. They describe humor as spontaneous and incongruent, involving a changing state of mind. Currently, health care professionals and patients are utilizing humor as a coping mechanism, as a communication skill, and as a tool to promote the psychological and physiological healing process. This article describes how humor theory has evolved, the use of humor in health care, and humor as an adjunct therapy in oncology. Oncology nurses can utilize humor as a part of the nursing process in the care provided to patients and families. PMID:2713839

  20. Cartoon Humor in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease, Ruth A.

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that humor promotes group unity, relieves tension, and stimulates creative thinking. Demonstrates how using cartoons in nursing education helps students identify and examine stereotypes to improve relationships. (SK)

  1. Human Aqueous Humor Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Dismuke, W. Michael; Challa, Pratap; Navarro, Iris; Stamer, W. Daniel; Liu, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous humor (AH) is a dynamic intraocular fluid that supports the vitality of tissues that regulate intraocular pressure. We recently discovered that extracellular nanovesicles called exosomes are a major constituent of AH. Exosomes function in extracellular communication and contain proteins and small RNA. Our goal was to characterize the physical properties of AH exosomes and their exosomal RNA (esRNA) content. We isolated exosomes from human AH collected during cataract surgery from five patients using serial ultracentrifugation. We measured the size and concentration of AH exosomes in solution using nanoparticle tracking analysis. We found a single population of vesicles having a mean size of 121±11nm in the unprocessed AH. Data show that centrifugation does not significantly affect the mean particle size (121±11nm versus 124±21nm), but does impact the final number of exosomes in solution (87% loss from the unprocessed AH; n=5). We extracted esRNA from the pooled human AH samples using miRCURY RNA isolation kit from Exiqon. The quality of extracted esRNA was evaluated using Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100 and was used to generate a sequencing library for small RNA sequencing with Illumina MiSeq sequencer. More than 10 different miRNAs were identified; abundant species included miR-486-5p, miR-204, and miR-184. We found that the majority of extracellular vesicles in the AH were in the exosome size range, suggesting that miRNAs housed within exosomes may function in communication between AH inflow and outflow tissues. PMID:25619138

  2. Bipolar offspring: a window into bipolar disorder evolution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kiki; Steiner, Hans; Dienes, Kimberly; Adleman, Nancy; Ketter, Terence

    2003-06-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder (bipolar offspring) represent a rich cohort for study with potential for illumination of prodromal forms of bipolar disorder. Due to their high-risk nature, bipolar offspring may present phenomenological, temperamental, and biological clues to early presentations of bipolar disorder. This article reviews the evidence for establishing bipolar offspring as a high-risk cohort, the studies which point to possible prodromal states in bipolar offspring, biological findings in bipolar offspring which may be indicators of even higher risk for bipolar disorder, initial attempts at early intervention in prodromal pediatric bipolar disorder, and implications for future research. PMID:12788239

  3. Help With Bipolar Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Psychiatrist Patients & Families All Topics Help With Bipolar Disorders Curated and updated for the community by APA Topic Information Bipolar disorders are brain disorders that cause changes in a ...

  4. Neural correlates of humor detection and appreciation.

    PubMed

    Moran, Joseph M; Wig, Gagan S; Adams, Reginald B; Janata, Petr; Kelley, William M

    2004-03-01

    Humor is a uniquely human quality whose neural substrates remain enigmatic. The present report combined dynamic, real-life content and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to dissociate humor detection ("getting the joke") from humor appreciation (the affective experience of mirth). During scanning, subjects viewed full-length episodes of the television sitcoms Seinfeld or The Simpsons. Brain activity time-locked to humor detection moments revealed increases in left inferior frontal and posterior temporal cortices, whereas brain activity time-locked to moments of humor appreciation revealed increases in bilateral regions of insular cortex and the amygdala. These findings provide evidence that humor depends critically upon extant neural systems important for resolving incongruities (humor detection) and for the expression of affect (humor appreciation). PMID:15006673

  5. Using Humorous Language to Teach Literary Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Don L. F.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses diverse examples of literary devices by comparing metaphor and humor. Defines and illustrates paronomasia, paradox, oxymoron, anacoluthon, zeugma, parody, jargon, satire, conceit, anachronism, hyperbole, cacography, understatement, and doggerel. A humorous appendix contrasts errors with rhetorical devices. (NKA)

  6. The Benefits of Humor in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulloth, Joan Kay

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 31 nursing students and 3 teachers identified several benefits from using humor in class: relieving stress, focusing attention, making learning fun, enhancing learning, and strengthening relationships. Students overwhelmingly supported the use of appropriate humor. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)

  7. A Look at Humor in Literature and Children's Responses to Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monson, Dianne L.

    Humor in literature and children's responses to humor deserve serious study. Humor in literature may focus on a character's method for coping with a disturbing situation, problems (such as riddles) that engender sudden insights when things fall into place, or ludicrous characters. Incongruity and surprise also play an important part in humor and…

  8. Nutrition and Bipolar Depression.

    PubMed

    Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E

    2016-03-01

    As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder. PMID:26876319

  9. A Threshold Theory of the Humor Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R.

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when…

  10. Humor and Satire in the English Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Kenneth, Ed.

    1973-01-01

    According to the "Arizona English Bulletin" (AEB), not enough attention is given to humor or satire in high school English classes. AEB suggests that if the English class is a place for bringing reality into the curriculum, humor must become a part of the total English program. Featured in this issue are 25 essays on various aspects of humor and…

  11. Humorous Relations: Attentiveness, Pleasure and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Cris

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the structures of humor and joke telling that require particular kinds of attentiveness and particular relationships between speaker and audience, or more specifically, between classmates. First, I will analyze the pedagogical and relational preconditions that are necessary for humor to work. If humor is to work well, the…

  12. Humor Comprehension and Humor Appreciation of Cognitively Oriented Humor: A Study of Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Amelia J.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates kindergarten children's ability to comprehend and appreciate cognitively-oriented humor. Conceptual development was measured by assessing children's responses to a liquid conservation task modeled after Piaget. Results fail to support previous theories and indicate that a majority of the children fully comprehended and were able to…

  13. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hampes, William

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  14. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Hampes, William

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim's forgiveness of an offender is the victim's ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender's behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  15. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A.; Vrabel, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor. PMID:27547254

  16. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A; Vrabel, Jennifer K

    2016-08-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor. PMID:27547254

  17. Pentraxins in humoral innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Inforzato, Antonio; Bottazzi, Barbara; Garlanda, Cecilia; Valentino, Sonia; Mantovani, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Innate immunity represents the first line of defence against pathogens and plays key roles in activation and orientation of the adaptive immune response. The innate immune system comprises both a cellular and a humoral arm. Components of the humoral arm include soluble pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) that recognise pathogens associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate the immune response in coordination with the cellular arm, therefore acting as functional ancestors of antibodies. The long pentraxin PTX3 is a prototypic soluble PRM that is produced at sites of infection and inflammation by both somatic and immune cells. Gene targeting of this evolutionarily conserved protein has revealed a non-redundant role in resistance to selected pathogens. Moreover, PTX3 exerts important functions at the crossroad between innate immunity, inflammation and female fertility. Here we review the studies on PTX3, with emphasis on pathogen recognition and crosstalk with other components of the innate immune system. PMID:21948359

  18. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  19. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  20. Nonlinear refraction in vitreous humor.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, B A; Roach, W P; Rogers, M E; Mayo, M W; Toth, C A; Cain, C P; Noojin, G D

    1993-11-01

    We extend the application of the z-scan technique to determine the nonlinear refractive index (n(2)) for human and rabbit vitreous humor, water, and physiological saline. In these measurements there were nonlinear contributions to the measured signal from the aqueous samples and the quartz cell that held the sample. Measurements were made with 60-ps pulses at 532 nm. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement of the nonlinear refractive properties of biological material. PMID:19829406

  1. Effects of humor on sentence memory.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S R

    1994-07-01

    Memory for humorous and nonhumorous versions of sentences was compared. Humorous sentences were better remembered than the nonhumorous sentences on both free- and cued-recall tests and on measures of sentence recall and word recall. These effects persisted when subjects were warned that they were about to read a humorous sentence but were attenuated in incidental learning and limited to within-subjects manipulations. In incidental learning, recall was also scored as a function of subjective ratings of humor. Subjective humor affected memory in both within- and between-subjects designs. Attention, arousal, rehearsal, retrieval, and surprise explanations were explored. Results suggest that humorous material receives both increased attention and rehearsal relative to nonhumorous material. PMID:8064254

  2. Humor and aging - a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Greengross, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Humor is one of the most important human activities, one that is enjoyed daily by people in every culture and at every age. However, very little is known about how aging affects humor experiences. Research suggests that elderly people enjoy humor more than younger people, but they have increasing difficulties in understanding jokes. Several cognitive mechanisms that may help explain this trend are discussed. Also, the amount of laughter exhibited by the elderly is smaller compared to young adults. In addition, the older population seems not to enjoy aggressive types of humor as much as the younger ones, and the elderly are especially sensitive to jokes referring to old age. Because most studies are cross-sectional, we cannot ignore possible cohort effects that might influence age differences in humor production and humor appreciation. Several future directions are mentioned with the hope for further research on the subject to follow. PMID:23689078

  3. Humor: a nursing intervention for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hulse, J R

    1994-01-01

    Researchers should investigate humor's value and impact on quality of life of elders. Humorous interventions should be studied and compared in elders. The effects of endorphin release during laughter is another aspect of humor to be studied. Certainly humor is not the answer to all the discomforts encountered by older adults, but the positive effects on some cannot be disputed. Humor as a noninvasive modality and an adjunct to patient care can be of benefit not only to the patient and family, but also to the professional nurse who encounters the discomforts of the patient on a daily basis. Humor can aid in viewing the pleasures and pains of the world with new perspectives. PMID:7515018

  4. Laughing It Up: Native American Humor as Spiritual Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Garrett, J. T.; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Wilbur, Michael; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Native American humor is explored through a brief discussion of the current literature regarding the use of humor in counseling and descriptions of various forms and communication styles of Native humor as spiritual tradition. Implications for multicultural awareness in the use of humor and possible use of Native humor in counseling with Native…

  5. Treatment of bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Musetti, Laura; Del Grande, Claudia; Marazziti, Donatella; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2013-08-01

    Depressive symptoms and episodes dominate the long-term course of bipolar disorder and are associated with high levels of disability and an increased risk of suicide. However, the treatment of bipolar depression has been poorly investigated in comparison with that of manic episodes and unipolar major depressive disorder. The goal of treatment in bipolar depression is not only to achieve full remission of acute symptoms, but also to avoid long-term mood destabilization and to prevent relapses. A depressive presentation of bipolar disorder may often delay the appropriate management and, thus, worsen the long-term outcome. In these cases, an accurate screening for diagnostic indicators of a possible bipolar course of the illness should guide the therapeutic choices, and lead to prognostic improvement. Antidepressant use is still the most controversial issue in the treatment of bipolar depression. Despite inconclusive evidence of efficacy and tolerability, this class of agents is commonly prescribed in acute and long-term treatment, often in combination with mood stabilizers. In this article, we review available treatment options for bipolar depression, and we shall provide some suggestions for the management of the different presentations of depression in the course of bipolar disorder. PMID:23391164

  6. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  7. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  8. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  9. Humor: The "Witting" Edge in Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)

  10. Insight in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Látalová, Klára

    2012-09-01

    Although there has been interest in insight in bipolar disorder, research has not been as developed as in schizophrenia. The Medline, Embase, and PsychInfo data bases were searched. The key words used in the search were "bipolar", "mania", "manic", "awareness", and "insight". Books, editorials, letters, and reports on pediatric subjects were excluded. Abstracts or full texts were screened for relevance. Better insight is associated with better adherence to treatment and better outcomes. Impairments of executive functions and memory, as well as higher severity of psychotic symptoms, are associated with impairments of insight. Insight is more impaired during an illness episode than during remission, in mixed than in pure manic episodes, in bipolar II than in bipolar I patients, in pure mania than in bipolar or unipolar depression. Psychosocial treatments improve insight and outcomes. There is a need for integration of quantitative assessment methods and their introduction into research and clinical practice. PMID:22101737

  11. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202

  12. Humor, Emotional Empathy, Creativity and Cognitive Dissonance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, G. Alfred; Altermatt, Ellen R.; Forsyth, Peggy D.

    The devaluation of racial, ethnic, or religious groups, sometimes disguised as humor, is a major contributor to violence and aggression against these groups. In an effort to understand this process, five factors of humor: negative ethnic stereotype jokes, play-on-word jokes, academic/social referent cartoons, gender/establishment jokes, and gross…

  13. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching, viewers do not…

  14. Confessions from a Guy Who Teaches Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Gene L.

    2008-01-01

    Humor is an intriguing topic that exists in the contexts of adult education and human resource development. This paper describes my experiences at developing and facilitating a graduate course on humor and adult learning. Researchers and scholarly practitioners in adult education and human resource development are encouraged to build their…

  15. Bipolar fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    McElroy, James F.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention discloses an improved fuel cell utilizing an ion transporting membrane having a catalytic anode and a catalytic cathode bonded to opposite sides of the membrane, a wet-proofed carbon sheet in contact with the cathode surface opposite that bonded to the membrane and a bipolar separator positioned in electrical contact with the carbon sheet and the anode of the adjacent fuel cell. Said bipolar separator and carbon sheet forming an oxidant flowpath, wherein the improvement comprises an electrically conductive screen between and in contact with the wet-proofed carbon sheet and the bipolar separator improving the product water removal system of the fuel cell.

  16. The benefits of humor in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Ulloth, Joan Kay

    2002-11-01

    This study was designed to examine the perceived benefits of intentionally using humor in the nursing classroom. A multiple case study of three associate degree nursing instructors and their classes was developed with qualitative methods, which included observations, interviews, and surveys. Data were examined within and across cases for commonality or difference of experience. Strong connections were made between humor and learning. Teachers and students expressed benefits they believed were received from humor. Humor can be an effective, multipurpose teaching tool for nurse educators to convey course content, hold students' attention, relieve anxiety, establish rapport with students, and make learning fun. When combined with other teaching methods, humor can enhance student learning. PMID:12437052

  17. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. PMID:26580553

  18. Humor and creative life styles.

    PubMed

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes. PMID:11641883

  19. A threshold theory of the humor response.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when a humor response occurs, certain verbal or visual stimuli (the "setup" stimuli, which function as an establishing operation) must precede a critical stimulus (such as a "punch line" or the final panel or critical feature of a cartoon), which then occasions a sudden "revelation" or "understanding"; this revelation is often accompanied by the humor response. We suggest that the setup stimuli increase the strength of the revelatory response to a point just below the threshold of awareness and that the critical stimulus, properly designed and timed, edges the revelatory response to a point just above threshold. We also suggest that it is this threshold phenomenon that produces most instances of the humor response. We discuss these issues in the context of some notable humor of Carl Rogers and B. F. Skinner. PMID:22478488

  20. A Threshold Theory of the Humor Response

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when a humor response occurs, certain verbal or visual stimuli (the “setup” stimuli, which function as an establishing operation) must precede a critical stimulus (such as a “punch line” or the final panel or critical feature of a cartoon), which then occasions a sudden “revelation” or “understanding”; this revelation is often accompanied by the humor response. We suggest that the setup stimuli increase the strength of the revelatory response to a point just below the threshold of awareness and that the critical stimulus, properly designed and timed, edges the revelatory response to a point just above threshold. We also suggest that it is this threshold phenomenon that produces most instances of the humor response. We discuss these issues in the context of some notable humor of Carl Rogers and B. F. Skinner. PMID:22478488

  1. Last Laughs: Gallows Humor and Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Piemonte, Nicole M

    2015-12-01

    This paper argues that "backstage" gallows humor among clinical mentors not only affects medical students' perceptions of what it means to be a doctor but is also symptomatic and indicative of a much larger problem in medicine-namely, the failure to attend fully to the complexity and profundity of the lived experiences of illness, suffering, and death. Reorienting the discourse surrounding gallows humor away from whether or in what context it is acceptable and toward the reasons why doctors feel the need to use such humor in the first place addresses this issue in a more illuminating way. PMID:26062447

  2. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  3. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  4. Counseling through the Funny Bone: Humor in Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Meredith

    This paper examines the role that humor may play in guidance counseling. After a brief review of the literature on the physiology of laughter and the therapeutic effects of humor, the paper draws on past research to discuss the developmental stages of humor from infancy to late adolescence and adulthood, citing examples of the kinds of humor that…

  5. Humor in Evaluating and Treating Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    BERNET, WILLIAM

    1993-01-01

    Humor can provide useful information during the psychiatric evaluation of children and adolescents and can also facilitate the therapeutic process. Clinical examples demonstrate how humor is useful as a diagnostic tool; how it can be used to shape the therapeutic relationship; and the role of humor as a therapeutic technique. Humor may help the child and adolescent patient explore feelings and may help the therapist deal with resistance. In some circumstances, the humor itself can become an agent of change. Humor has been used in the treatment of depression, aggression, social ineptitude, and conduct problems. Both the benefits and the risks of using humor are discussed. PMID:22700156

  6. Humoral innate immune response and disease

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, Stephanie N.; Varahan, Sriram; Yuan, Kai; Li, Xiangdong; Fleming, Sherry D.

    2012-01-01

    The humoral innate immune response consists of multiple components, including the naturally occurring antibodies (NAb), pentraxins and the complement and contact cascades. As soluble, plasma components, these innate proteins provide key elements in the prevention and control of disease. However, pathogens and cells with altered self proteins utilize multiple humoral components to evade destruction and promote pathogy. Many studies have examined the relationship between humoral immunity and autoimmune disorders. This review focuses on the interactions between the humoral components and their role in promoting the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral infections and chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Understanding the beneficial and detrimental aspects of the individual components and the interactions between proteins which regulate the innate and adaptive response will provide therapeutic targets for subsequent studies. PMID:22771788

  7. Laughter and humor therapy in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Weinberg, Melissa; Neal, Merv; Gilbert, Karen; Rawson, Helen; Ockerby, Cherene; Finlay, Paul; Hutchinson, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Laughter and humor therapy have been used in health care to achieve physiological and psychological health-related benefits. The application of these therapies to the dialysis context remains unclear. This paper reviews the evidence related to laughter and humor therapy as a medical therapy relevant to the dialysis patient population. Studies from other groups such as children, the elderly, and persons with mental health, cancer, and other chronic conditions are included to inform potential applications of laughter therapy to the dialysis population. Therapeutic interventions could range from humorous videos, stories, laughter clowns through to raucous simulated laughter and Laughter Yoga. The effect of laughter and humor on depression, anxiety, pain, immunity, fatigue, sleep quality, respiratory function and blood glucose may have applications to the dialysis context and require further research. PMID:24467450

  8. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

    MedlinePlus

    ... events Visit the podcast archive Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/Disorders Related ... for Your Patients Information about Depression Information about Bipolar Disorder Wellness Tools DBSA Support Groups Active Research Studies ...

  9. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Engmann, Birk

    2012-01-01

    This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet. PMID:22649454

  10. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  11. Bipolar battery construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A lightweight, bipolar battery construction for lead acid batteries in which a plurality of thin, rigid, biplates each comprise a graphite fiber thermoplastic composition in conductive relation to lead stripes plated on opposite flat surfaces of the plates, and wherein a plurality of nonconductive thermoplastic separator plates support resilient yieldable porous glass mats in which active material is carried, the biplates and separator plates with active material being contained and maintained in stacked assembly by axial compression of the stacked assembly. A method of assembling such a bipolar battery construction.

  12. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…

  13. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  14. Self-Deprecating Humor Versus Other-Deprecating Humor in Health Messages

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JI YOUNG; SLATER, MICHAEL D.; TCHERNEV, JOHN

    2016-01-01

    Humor is sometimes employed in health messages. However, little is known about contingencies under which different types of humor may or may not be effective. This experiment crossed humorous vs. non-humorous and self- vs. other-deprecating messages about binge drinking, and tested how differences in personal investment in alcohol use moderates the effects of such messages on college binge drinkers. Results showed significant three-way interaction effects on subjective norms and behavioral intentions largely consistent with hypotheses. Assessment of significant differences in the interactions indicated that for binge drinkers who weren’t high in personal investment in alcohol use, other-deprecating humor tended to reduce their perceived subjective norms about the acceptability of binge drinking behavior and their behavioral intentions. The effect of the experimental manipulation on subjective norms among these binge drinkers was shown to mediate the effect on intentions to binge drink in the future. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26020507

  15. Endophenotypes in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Lenox, Robert H; Gould, Todd D; Manji, Husseini K

    2002-05-01

    The search for genes in bipolar disorder has provided numerous genetic loci that have been linked to susceptibility to developing the disorder. However, because of the genetic heterogeneity inherent in bipolar disorder, additional strategies may need to be employed to fully dissect the genetic underpinnings. One such strategy involves reducing complex behaviors into their component parts (endophenotypes). Abnormal neurophysiological, biochemical, endocrinological, neuroanatomical, cognitive, and neuropsychological findings are characteristics that often accompany psychiatric illness. It is possible that some of these may eventually be useful in subdefining complex genetic disorders, allowing for improvements in diagnostic assessment, genetic linkage studies, and development of animal models. Findings in patients with bipolar disorder that may eventually be useful as endophenotypes include abnormal regulation of circadian rhythms (the sleep/wake cycle, hormonal rhythms, etc.), response to sleep deprivation, P300 event-related potentials, behavioral responses to psychostimulants and other medications, response to cholinergics, increase in white matter hyperintensities (WHIs), and biochemical observations in peripheral mononuclear cells. Targeting circadian rhythm abnormalities may be a particularly useful strategy because circadian cycles appear to be an inherent evolutionarily conserved function in all organisms and have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Furthermore, lithium has been shown to regulate circadian cycles in diverse species, including humans, possibly through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK-3beta), a known target of lithium. PMID:11992561

  16. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Tortorelli, Peter F; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; More, Karren Leslie; Meyer III, Harry M; Vitek, John Michael; Wang, Heli; Turner, John; Wilson, Mahlon; Garzon, Fernando; Rockward, Tommy; Connors, Dan; Rakowski, Jim; Gervasio, Don

    2008-01-01

    The objectives are: (1) Develop and optimize stainless steel alloys amenable to formation of a protective Cr-nitride surface by gas nitridation, at a sufficiently low cost to meet DOE targets and with sufficient ductility to permit manufacture by stamping. (2) Demonstrate capability of nitridation to yield high-quality stainless steel bipolar plates from thin stamped alloy foils (no significant stamped foil warping or embrittlement). (3) Demonstrate single-cell fuel cell performance of stamped and nitrided alloy foils equivalent to that of machined graphite plates of the same flow-field design ({approx}750-1,000 h, cyclic conditions, to include quantification of metal ion contamination of the membrane electrode assembly [MEA] and contact resistance increase attributable to the bipolar plates). (4) Demonstrate potential for adoption in automotive fuel cell stacks. Thin stamped metallic bipolar plates offer the potential for (1) significantly lower cost than currently-used machined graphite bipolar plates, (2) reduced weight/volume, and (3) better performance and amenability to high volume manufacture than developmental polymer/carbon fiber and graphite composite bipolar plates. However, most metals exhibit inadequate corrosion resistance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) environments. This behavior leads to high electrical resistance due to the formation of surface oxides and/or contamination of the MEA by metallic ions, both of which can significantly degrade fuel cell performance. Metal nitrides offer electrical conductivities up to an order of magnitude greater than that of graphite and are highly corrosion resistant. Unfortunately, most conventional coating methods (for metal nitrides) are too expensive for PEMFC stack commercialization or tend to leave pinhole defects, which result in accelerated local corrosion and unacceptable performance.

  17. Altered Sense of Humor in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Camilla N.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Gordon, Elizabeth; Golden, Hannah L.; Cohen, Miriam H.; Woodward, Felix J.; Macpherson, Kirsty; Slattery, Catherine F.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Sense of humor is potentially relevant to social functioning in dementias, but has been little studied in these diseases. We designed a semi-structured informant questionnaire to assess humor behavior and preferences in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 15), semantic dementia (SD; n = 7), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 10), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n = 16) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 21). Altered (including frankly inappropriate) humor responses were significantly more frequent in bvFTD and SD (all patients) than PNFA or AD (around 40% of patients). All patient groups liked satirical and absurdist comedy significantly less than did healthy controls. This pattern was reported premorbidly for satirical comedy in bvFTD, PNFA, and AD. Liking for slapstick comedy did not differ between groups. Altered sense of humor is particularly salient in bvFTD and SD, but also frequent in AD and PNFA. Humor may be a sensitive probe of social cognitive impairment in dementia, with diagnostic, biomarker and social implications. PMID:26444779

  18. [Positive aspects of old ages - humor of seniors].

    PubMed

    Mareš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions). PMID:25994908

  19. Treating humoral rejection after cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Jef; Vermeulen, Tom; Janssen Van Doorn, Karin; Vrints, Christiaan; Conraads, Viviane

    2011-04-01

    Whereas effective strategies are available to treat acute cellular cardiac rejection, humoral rejection, also called vascular or antibody-mediated rejection, is more difficult to manage. Antibody-mediated (non-cellular) rejections (AMR) are rare and few successfully treated cases have been described in the literature. We report on a female patient, diagnosed with humoral rejection, leading to severe ventricular dysfunction and haemodynamic compromise, two months after transplantation. The patient received a combination therapy, consisting of plasmapheresis and immunoglobulins, which resulted in complete resolution of immunohistochemical signs of AMR. In this report, we will overview AMR and discuss several treatment modalities. PMID:21591590

  20. Pleated metal bipolar assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Zawodzinski, Christine

    2001-01-01

    A thin low-cost bipolar plate for an electrochemical cell is formed from a polymer support plate with first flow channels on a first side of the support plate and second flow channels on a second side of the support plate, where the first flow channels and second flow channels have intersecting locations and have a depth effective to form openings through the support plate at the intersecting locations. A first foil of electrically conductive material is pressed into the first flow channels. A second foil of electrically conductive material pressed into the second flow channels so that electrical contact is made between the first and second foils at the openings through the support plate. A particular application of the bipolar plate is in polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

  1. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in crisis. What do I do? Share Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens Download PDF Download ePub ... brochure will give you more information. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. It ...

  2. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  3. Children's Literature: There's Some Sense to Its Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    1985-01-01

    Focuses on three interrelated issues: (1) developmental theories of humor (2) variables that facilitate children's responses to amusing literature, and (3) strategies for the evaluation and more effective use of humorous children's books. Provides examples of books, an overview chart of the general chronology of children's humor development, and…

  4. Are We Having Fun Yet? Humor in the English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Argues that humor is an invaluable teaching tool in English classes. Describes how the author and her students: found humor an important means of discovering profound truths in Shakespeare's dramas; enjoyed the epic "Paradise Lost"; worked with satire in Chaucer; and used humor in students' own creative activities. (SR)

  5. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  6. The Performance of Humor in Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baym, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Argues that humor can be accomplished in computer-mediated communication and can be critical to creating social meaning online. Analyzes the humor of the USENET news group rec.arts.tv.soaps (r.a.t.s.), which discusses soap operas. Combines user surveys with message analysis to show the prevalence and importance of humor in r.a.t.s. (RS)

  7. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    PubMed Central

    DiDonato, Theresa E.; Jakubiak, Brittany K.

    2016-01-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives. PMID:27547256

  8. Continuity and Change: The Cultural Context of Women's Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Alice

    As a technique of social control intimately associated with the display and control of power, humor reflects empowerment. Contemporary women have few traditions of using power, and a variety of covert factors have discouraged women's use of humor. The most significant of these is the way that the popular mind has defined humor as a male…

  9. Humor in the Classroom: Theories, Functions, and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Patrick J.

    While humor can backfire or, worse, mask dark, underlying prejudices, research reveals positive and promising connections between humor and creativity, efficiency, and mental health. Although there remains considerable room for disagreement on the essential qualities of humor, several researchers after reviewing the literature appear to have…

  10. Use of Humorous Visuals To Enhance Computer-Based-Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snetsinger, Wendy; Grabowski, Barbara

    It was hypothesized that a visual strategy that incorporates a humorous theme and cartoons with humorous comments relevant to the content helps motivate students to focus on and retain computer-based instructional material. An experiment to assess this hypothesis was undertaken with 43 college students who received a humorous presentation on…

  11. Assessing Student Perceptions of Inappropriate and Appropriate Teacher Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Wojtaszczyk, Ann M.

    2007-01-01

    This study replicated and extended Wanzer, Frymier, Wojtaszczyk, and Smith's (2006) preliminary typology of appropriate and inappropriate teacher humor and advanced three explanations for differences in interpretations of teacher humor. Students were more likely to view teacher humor as inappropriate when it was perceived as offensive and when it…

  12. Appropriate and Inappropriate Uses of Humor By Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekelja Wanzer, Melissa; Bainbridge Frymier, Ann; Wojtaszczyk, Ann M; Smith, Tony

    2006-01-01

    The use of humor in teaching has been linked to learning in several studies, although the research has been equivocal. The various types of humor used by teachers have also been investigated but not in terms of what students view as appropriate and inappropriate uses of humor. Participants in this study were asked to generate examples of…

  13. Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This reference encyclopedia contains information on both the historical and contemporary aspects of humor and comedy in the United States. Arranged in an A-to-Z format, the encyclopedia is a collection of article-length essays that examine humor from many perspectives, from defining terms; to providing information on humor writers, comedians, and…

  14. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  15. Self-Deprecating Humor Versus Other-Deprecating Humor in Health Messages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Young; Slater, Michael D; Tchernev, John

    2015-01-01

    Humor is sometimes used in health messages. However, little is known about contingencies under which different types of humor may or may not be effective. This experiment crossed humorous versus nonhumorous and self- versus other-deprecating messages about binge drinking, and tested how differences in personal investment in alcohol use moderates the effects of such messages on college binge drinkers. Results showed significant 3-way interaction effects on subjective norms and behavioral intentions largely consistent with hypotheses. Assessment of significant differences in the interactions indicated that for binge drinkers who were not high in personal investment in alcohol use, other-deprecating humor tended to reduce their perceived subjective norms about the acceptability of binge drinking behavior and their behavioral intentions. The effect of the experimental manipulation on subjective norms among these binge drinkers was shown to mediate the effect on intentions to binge drink in the future. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26020507

  16. Proteomic analysis of human vitreous humor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The vitreous humor is a transparent, gelatinous mass whose main constituent is water. It plays an important role in providing metabolic nutrient requirements of the lens, coordinating eye growth and providing support to the retina. It is in close proximity to the retina and reflects many of the changes occurring in this tissue. The biochemical changes occurring in the vitreous could provide a better understanding about the pathophysiological processes that occur in vitreoretinopathy. In this study, we investigated the proteome of normal human vitreous humor using high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Results The vitreous humor was subjected to multiple fractionation techniques followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. We identified 1,205 proteins, 682 of which have not been described previously in the vitreous humor. Most proteins were localized to the extracellular space (24%), cytoplasm (20%) or plasma membrane (14%). Classification based on molecular function showed that 27% had catalytic activity, 10% structural activity, 10% binding activity, 4% cell and 4% transporter activity. Categorization for biological processes showed 28% participate in metabolism, 20% in cell communication and 13% in cell growth. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000957. Conclusion This large catalog of vitreous proteins should facilitate biomedical research into pathological conditions of the eye including diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment and cataract. PMID:25097467

  17. Mark Twain and American Humor [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In this three-part lesson, students examine structure and characterization in the short story and consider the significance of humor through a study of Mark Twain's "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County." In Part I, through skits and storytelling, students first examine the structure of Twain's story and the role he creates for his…

  18. Prosodic Markers of Saliency in Humorous Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Lucy; Corduas, Marcella; Eisterhold, Jodi; Seifried, Brenna; Eggleston, Alyson; Attardo, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    Much of what we think we know about the performance of humor relies on our intuitions about prosody (e.g., "it's all about timing"); however, this has never been empirically tested. Thus, the central question addressed in this article is whether speakers mark punch lines in jokes prosodically and, if so, how. To answer this question, this article…

  19. Culture through Humor in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guegan-Fisher, C.

    Humor can be a very effective tool to make students remember what they should know about the traditions and beliefs, manners and institutions of a culture. The teacher himself should outwardly be the embodiment of the culture which is taught. For example, when a teacher of French walks into the classroom the first day he should introduce himself…

  20. Using Humor to Crack the Glass Ceiling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    1994-01-01

    Assistant vice president for academic personnel at public university took notes on incidents that caused participants to laugh during meetings of academic managers between 1988 and 1993. Recorded percentages of males and females in attendance, who conducted meeting, and who initiated laughter. Found differences in how men and women used humor to…

  1. Social Influences on Children's Humor Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosslyn, Stephen M.; Henker, Barbara A.

    Two experiments to study the development of the meaning of laughter in children are reported. A pilot study presented recorded audio tapes with both humorous and nonhumorous episodes, some with accompanying canned laughter, to 24 boys between the ages of 4 and 6 years. Observers recorded durations of laughter and smiling. Results showed that both…

  2. Humor: A Critical Analysis for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibles, Warren

    Part of the "Teaching Young People to be Critical Series," this booklet defines and analyzes humor for children in light of theories of philosophers Ludwig Wittenstein and John Dewey. Intended for individual or small group work, the objectives are threefold: reading improvement, reading enjoyment, and student involvement in making the leap from…

  3. Economics with a Sense of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Diane

    1985-01-01

    In this humorous dialogue that can be read and acted out as a play in high school economics classes, Karl Marx, a spokesman for communism, and Adam Smith, the father of capitalism, debate (1) whether an economy should produce designer jeans and (2) who should own McDonald's restaurant. (RM)

  4. Very Good Medicine: Indigenous Humor and Laughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mala, Cynthia Lindquist

    2016-01-01

    Humor is not only instinctive and a basic human need, but it also is very good medicine. Laughter boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, reduces stress hormones, and is linked to healthy functioning organs. [This article was written with Mylo Redwater Smith.

  5. Humor as Camouflage of Televised Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, W. James; Warren, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to research on schema theory and media effects by examining how violence is portrayed in comedy programs. Finds a high rate of violence (especially verbal forms) on comedy programs; and the combination of humor, minor acts of violence, and program context tend to trivialize its presence. Suggests that viewers' schema for comedy uses…

  6. Comic Relief: Engaging Students through Humor Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebel, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    In this time of high-stakes tests and school accountability, English classrooms have been pushed to become increasingly serious places. Combining NCLB pressures with desires to use literature to do important cultural work--such as fighting ethnic, gender, and social-class discrimination--virtually bans humor from the classroom. This is unfortunate…

  7. [Antipsychotics in bipolar disorders].

    PubMed

    Vacheron-Trystram, M-N; Braitman, A; Cheref, S; Auffray, L

    2004-01-01

    This article is a review of the various treatments that are currently available, in particular in France, for the treatment of bipolar disorders. This article specifically addresses the use of novel antipsychotic agents as alternative therapy to a lithium therapy and/or the use of conventional antipsychotics. The prevalence of bipolar disorder over a lifetime is around 1% of the general population. Bipolar disorder consists of alternating depressive and manic episodes. It mainly affects younger subjects, and is often associated with alcohol and drug addictions. There are two main subtypes of bipolar disorder. According to the DSM IV-R, type 1 of bipolar disorder is characterised when at least one manic episode (or a mixed episode) has been diagnosed. Type 2 of bipolar disorder is related to patients enduring recurrent depressive episodes but no manic episode. Type 2 affects women more frequently as opposed to type 1 affecting individuals of both sexes. Manic-depressive disorder (or cyclo-thymic disorder) appears in relation to patients who has never suffered manic episode, mixed episode or severe depressive episode but have undergone numerous periods with some symptoms of depression and hypomanic symptoms over a two-year period during which any asymptomatic periods last no longer than two months. The average age of the person going through a first episode (often a depressive one) is 20 years-old. Untreated bipolar patients may endure more than ten manic or depressive episodes. Finally, in relation to 10 to 20% of patients, the bipolar disorder will turn into a fast cycle form, either spontaneously or as a result of certain medical treatments. Psychiatrists are now able to initiate various treating strategies which are most likely to be effective as a result of the identification of clinical subtypes of the bipolar disorder. Lithium therapy has been effectively and acutely used for patients with pure or elated mania and its prophylaxis. However, lithium medication

  8. Benefits of humor in reduction of threat-induced anxiety.

    PubMed

    Yovetich, N A; Dale, J A; Hudak, M A

    1990-02-01

    The benefits of humor in reducing anxiety were investigated in a laboratory study, in which subjects were falsely led to believe that they would receive a shock in 12 min. Participants were 53 undergraduate students with either high or low sense of humor as measured by the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire of Martin and Lefcourt (1984). During the anticipatory period, subjects listened to either a humorous tape, a nonhumorous tape, or no tape. Dependent variables were repeated measures of self-reported anxiety, heart rate, and zygomatic facial activity. Anxiety increased over the anticipatory period, as predicted. A significant interaction between condition and time indicated that subjects from the humor condition consistently rated themselves as less anxious and reported less increase in stress as the shock approached. A three-way interaction concentrating on the final 3 min. indicated a tendency for subjects with low sense of humor to have higher heart rates in the no-tape condition than in the humorous or nonhumorous tape conditions. Analysis for zygomatic activity indicated more smiling by subjects with high sense of humor and by subjects in the humor condition. Also, the humorous tape elicited more smiling by subjects with high sense of humor. PMID:2326429

  9. Differentiating what is humorous from what is not.

    PubMed

    Warren, Caleb; McGraw, A Peter

    2016-03-01

    After 2.5 millennia of philosophical deliberation and psychological experimentation, most scholars have concluded that humor arises from incongruity. We highlight 2 limitations of incongruity theories of humor. First, incongruity is not consistently defined. The literature describes incongruity in at least 4 ways: surprise, juxtaposition, atypicality, and a violation. Second, regardless of definition, incongruity alone does not adequately differentiate humorous from nonhumorous experiences. We suggest revising incongruity theory by proposing that humor arises from a benign violation: something that threatens a person's well-being, identity, or normative belief structure but that simultaneously seems okay. Six studies, which use entertainment, consumer products, and social interaction as stimuli, reveal that the benign violation hypothesis better differentiates humorous from nonhumorous experiences than common conceptualizations of incongruity. A benign violation conceptualization of humor improves accuracy by reducing the likelihood that joyous, amazing, and tragic situations are inaccurately predicted to be humorous. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26692355

  10. Tobacco Use in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E.; Ellegaard, Pernille K.; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behaviour, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533

  11. Tobacco use in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E; Ellegaard, Pernille K; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M

    2015-04-30

    Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behavior, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533

  12. Bipolar disorder in women

    PubMed Central

    Parial, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder in women is a challenging disorder to treat. It is unique in its presentation in women and characterized by later age of onset, seasonality, atypical presentation, and a higher degree of mixed episodes. Medical and psychiatric co-morbidity adversely affects recovery from the bipolar disorder (BD) more often in women. Co-morbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders occur more frequently in women while substance use disorders are more common in men. Treatment of women during pregnancy and lactation is challenging. Pregnancy neither protects nor exacerbates BD, and many women require continuation of medication during the pregnancy. The postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of BD in women. Prophylaxis with mood stabilizers might be needed. Individualized risk/benefits assessments of pregnant and postpartum women with BD are required to promote the health of the women and to avoid or limit exposure of the fetus or infant to potential adverse effects of medication. PMID:26330643

  13. Bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  14. Cultural differences in therapeutic humor in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Adamle, Kathleen; Chiang, Ling-Chun

    2009-03-01

    Humor has been recognized by nurse researchers and practitioners as a constructive therapeutic intervention and has shown positive psychological and physiological outcomes for patient care. Because cross-cultural research on humor is sparse, this preliminary study investigates how nursing faculty members approach teaching therapeutic humor in the classroom and clinical education in different countries. Through an investigation of classroom (didactic) education and clinical practicum with direct patient care, the study may elucidate the linkage between theory and practice as well as how nursing faculty members view therapeutic humor in general. Researching nursing faculty teaching practices and viewpoints of therapeutic humor may help reveal cultural differences in the use of humor in healthcare settings. This cross-cultural study included 40 nursing faculty at three nursing programs: two in the United States and one in Taiwan. A qualitative approach was used to perform content analysis on responses to the open-ended questionnaires. Research findings revealed cultural differences between faculties from the two countries. Taiwanese faculty members indicated that they teach more theory and concepts related to therapeutic humor in the classroom than do nursing faculty members from the United States. However, nursing faculty members in Taiwan reported that they observe and practice less therapeutic humor in clinical settings out of respect for the cultural value of "reverence of illness" operating within Taiwanese society. Therapeutic humor was family centered and interdependent on relationships, roles, duties, and responsibilities of family members. In contrast, the U.S. faculty members stated that they teach less theory and concepts related to therapeutic humor in the classroom but observe and practice humor more in clinical settings. United States faculty approached teaching therapeutic humor in the classroom on an informal basis because the subject was not part of

  15. Psychotherapeutic Treatment of Bipolar Depression.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Kibby; Herr, Nathaniel R; Zerubavel, Noga; Hoertel, Nicolas; Neacsiu, Andrada D

    2016-03-01

    The gold standard for treating bipolar depression is based on the combination of mood stabilizers and psychotherapy. Therefore, the authors present evidence-based models and promising approaches for psychotherapy for bipolar depression. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, family focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and dialectical behavior therapy are discussed. Behavioral activation, the cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy, and the unified protocol as promising future directions are presented. This review informs medical providers of the most appropriate referral guidelines for psychotherapy for bipolar depression. The authors conclude with a decision tree delineating optimal referrals to each psychotherapy approach. PMID:26876317

  16. Humor and older adults: what makes them laugh?

    PubMed

    Kruse, Barbara G; Prazak, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Laughter, the physical response to perceived humor, has demonstrated positive effects on physical and psychological well-being. Studies that focus on effects of humor on health and well-being of older adults are scarce. No studies were found that examine what older adults find humorous. The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore the humor stimulus in a population of older adults. One hundred thirty (130) hospital auxiliary personnel aged 50 and older were asked the question What makes you laugh? Content analysis of responses revealed nine themes in two major categories, which were (a) people or animals and (b) situations or events. Children represented the largest category of people (30%), and telling jokes represented the largest category of situations or events (51%). Humor can be used by nurses as an effective therapeutic tool when caring for older adults if appropriate sources of humor are identified and applied. PMID:16880415

  17. Does Humor Influence the Stigma of Mental Illnesses?

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Powell, Karina J.; Fokuo, J. Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared to the non-disclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the non-disclosed condition suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships. PMID:24727719

  18. Does humor influence the stigma of mental illnesses?

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Fokuo, J Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A

    2014-05-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, the participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared with the nondisclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the nondisclosed condition, suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships. PMID:24727719

  19. Ion bipolar junction transistors.

    PubMed

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-06-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated. PMID:20479274

  20. Ion bipolar junction transistors

    PubMed Central

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C.; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated. PMID:20479274

  1. Don't Smile before Christmas: The Role of Humor in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallinger, Linda Moody

    1997-01-01

    Humor can be a powerful, productive tool to help teachers succeed in the classroom. Humor cultivates spirit, alleviates stress, improves communication, and diffuses conflict. Reviews types of humor (satire, cheerfulness, eccentricity, and sarcasm), discusses humor's classroom uses and benefits, and shows how school leaders can introduce humor into…

  2. Humor in Training: Laugh and the World Learns with You--Maybe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemke, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Guidelines for using humor in training are as follows: (1) use a modicum of apt, relevant humor in an informative presentation; (2) self-disparaging humor enhances the presenter's image; (3) humor is only one factor that enhances interest; (4) apt, relevant humor does not affect persuasiveness; and (5) satire has unpredictable results. (SK)

  3. Cultures of (Un)happiness: Teaching, Schooling, and Light and Dark Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The author explores humor during a time of increasingly hostile accountability measures directed toward educators. Drawing on incongruity and other theories of humor, he explores both "light" and "dark" humor and some aspects of the educational potential and power of humor. Noting how humor is related to creativity and problem management, the…

  4. Asenapine for bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Scheidemantel, Thomas; Korobkova, Irina; Rej, Soham; Sajatovic, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Asenapine (Saphris®) is an atypical antipsychotic drug which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults, as well as the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I in both adult and pediatric populations. Asenapine is a tetracyclic drug with antidopaminergic and antiserotonergic activity with a unique sublingual route of administration. In this review, we examine and summarize the available literature on the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). Data from randomized, double-blind trials comparing asenapine to placebo or olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes showed asenapine to be an effective monotherapy treatment in clinical settings; asenapine outperformed placebo and showed noninferior performance to olanzapine based on improvement in the Young Mania Rating Scale scores. There are limited data available on the use of asenapine in the treatment of depressive symptoms of BD, or in the maintenance phase of BD. The available data are inconclusive, suggesting the need for more robust data from prospective trials in these clinical domains. The most commonly reported adverse effect associated with use of asenapine is somnolence. However, the somnolence associated with asenapine use did not cause significant rates of discontinuation. While asenapine was associated with weight gain when compared to placebo, it appeared to be modest when compared to other atypical antipsychotics, and its propensity to cause increases in hemoglobin A1c or serum lipid levels appeared to be similarly modest. Asenapine does not appear to cause any clinically significant QTc prolongation. The most commonly reported extra-pyramidal symptom associated with asenapine was akathisia. Overall, asenapine appears to be a relatively well-tolerated atypical antipsychotic, effective in the treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes of BD. PMID:26674884

  5. Humor and laughter in patients with cerebellar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Frank, B; Propson, B; Göricke, S; Jacobi, H; Wild, B; Timmann, D

    2012-06-01

    Humor is a complex behavior which includes cognitive, affective and motor responses. Based on observations of affective changes in patients with cerebellar lesions, the cerebellum may support cerebral and brainstem areas involved in understanding and appreciation of humorous stimuli and expression of laughter. The aim of the present study was to examine if humor appreciation, perception of humorous stimuli, and the succeeding facial reaction differ between patients with cerebellar degeneration and healthy controls. Twenty-three adults with pure cerebellar degeneration were compared with 23 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy control subjects. No significant difference in humor appreciation and perception of humorous stimuli could be found between groups using the 3 Witz-Dimensionen Test, a validated test asking for funniness and aversiveness of jokes and cartoons. Furthermore, while observing jokes, humorous cartoons, and video sketches, facial expressions of subjects were videotaped and afterwards analysed using the Facial Action Coding System. Using depression as a covariate, the number, and to a lesser degree, the duration of facial expressions during laughter were reduced in cerebellar patients compared to healthy controls. In sum, appreciation of humor appears to be largely preserved in patients with chronic cerebellar degeneration. Cerebellar circuits may contribute to the expression of laughter. Findings add to the literature that non-motor disorders in patients with chronic cerebellar disease are generally mild, but do not exclude that more marked disorders may show up in acute cerebellar disease and/or in more specific tests of humor appreciation. PMID:22012411

  6. The Anals of History: Unintentional Humor from Freshman Compositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kristine

    1983-01-01

    Presents examples of unintentional humor from college freshman composition courses. Suggests that by pointing out miscommunications, teachers can persuade students to use standard English more effectively. (MM)

  7. Bipolar disorder and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Mariana Inés; Moreira, Marcos Aurélio; Araújo, Carolina Reis; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2007-12-01

    Bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Although research in this area is limited, studies assessing the nature of this association have focused on genetic aspects, adverse reaction to drugs and brain demyelinating lesions. Herein we report three patients with MS that also presented bipolar disorder. The coexistence of neurological and psychiatric symptoms in most MS relapses highlights the relevance of biological factors in the emergence of mood disorders in these patients. PMID:18345425

  8. Threat sensitivity in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Muhtadie, Luma; Johnson, Sheri L

    2015-02-01

    Life stress is a major predictor of the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have used laboratory paradigms to examine stress reactivity in bipolar disorder, and none have assessed autonomic reactivity to laboratory stressors. In the present investigation we sought to address this gap in the literature. Participants, 27 diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 24 controls with no history of mood disorder, were asked to complete a complex working memory task presented as "a test of general intelligence." Self-reported emotions were assessed at baseline and after participants were given task instructions; autonomic physiology was assessed at baseline and continuously during the stressor task. Compared to controls, individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater increases in pretask anxiety from baseline and showed greater cardiovascular threat reactivity during the task. Group differences in cardiovascular threat reactivity were significantly correlated with comorbid anxiety in the bipolar group. Our results suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing stress reactivity-including the use of physiological parameters that differentiate between maladaptive and adaptive profiles of stress responding-can yield valuable information regarding stress sensitivity and its associations with negative affectivity in bipolar disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25688436

  9. Engineering Humoral Immunity as Prophylaxis or Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Cailin E.; Balazs, Alejandro B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the review In this review, we will discuss the field of engineered humoral immunity with an emphasis on recent work using viral vectors to produce antibodies in vivo. As an alternative to passive transfer of monoclonal antibody protein, a transgene encoding an antibody is delivered to cells via vector transduction, resulting in expression and secretion by the host cell. This review will summarize the evidence in support of this strategy as an alternative to traditional vaccines against infection and as novel therapeutics for a variety of diseases. Recent findings Historically, humoral immunity has been engineered through vaccination and passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies. However, recent work suggests that vectors can be used to deliver transgenes encoding broadly neutralizing antibodies to nonhematopoietic tissues and can mediate long-term expression that is capable of preventing or treating infectious diseases. The production of engineered monoclonal antibodies allows for precise targeting and elimination of aberrant self-proteins that are characteristic of certain neurodegenerative disease. This approach has also been successfully used to combat cancer and addiction in several animal models. Despite the wide array of expression platforms that have been described, adeno-associated virus vectors have emerged as the frontrunner for rapid clinical translation. Summary Recent advances in vector-mediated antibody expression have demonstrated the potential for such interventions to prevent infection and treat disease. As such, it offers an alternative to immunogen-based vaccine design and a novel therapeutic intervention by enabling precise manipulation of humoral immunity. Success translating these approaches to patients may enable the development of effective prevention against previously intractable pathogens that evade immunity such as HIV, influenza, malaria or HCV and may also enable new treatment options for neurodegenerative diseases such as

  10. Using humor to communicate competitive excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Grimsley, M.

    1994-12-31

    The use of humor to communicate excellence in the nuclear industry is described, particularly as a method to relieve public anxiety. At many companies throughout our culture, it is not okay to have fun with anything work related; it violates the puritan work ethic - you know, nose to the grindstone, buckle down and get crackin, and so forth. At Wolf Creek, we`re finding that when we have fun - not only among ourselves, but around and with others as well - we are more effective with the public, more interesting to the media, and we all smile more.

  11. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Maletic, Vladimir; Raison, Charles

    2014-01-01

    From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity - reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition - limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional "unified field theory" of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial-neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia - the brain's primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway, or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of bipolarity is one of the

  12. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer’s sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection. PMID:22359467

  13. Treatment of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Geddes, John R; Miklowitz, David J

    2013-05-11

    We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in the management of depressive episodes. Lithium has the strongest evidence for long-term relapse prevention; the evidence for anticonvulsants such as divalproex and lamotrigine is less robust and there is much uncertainty about the longer term benefits of antipsychotics. Substantial progress has been made in the development and assessment of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. Long-term maintenance and possibly acute stabilisation of depression can be enhanced by the combination of psychosocial treatments with drugs. The development of future treatments should consider both the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the disorder. We should continue to repurpose treatments and to recognise the role of serendipity. We should also investigate optimum combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments at different stages of the illness. Clarification of the mechanisms by which different treatments affect sleep and circadian rhythms and their relation with daily mood fluctuations is likely to help with the treatment selection for individual patients. To be economically viable, existing psychotherapy protocols need to be made briefer and more efficient for improved scalability and sustainability in widespread implementation. PMID:23663953

  14. Pastoral Perspectives of Humor's Use in Ministry Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative component of a mixed-methods research design are reported regarding the use of humor in pastoral ministry. Thirteen Southern Baptist (SB) pastors were interviewed, from a total of 37 exemplars identified in the quantitative component of the study, regarding their perspectives toward humor in ministry. Results overall…

  15. Can Humor Increase Persuasion, Or Is It All a Joke?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markiewicz, Dorothy

    This study investigated two questions: (1) Can a humorous persuasive message increase the amount of persuasion compared with a serious control message? (2) Can humor external to and contiguous with a persuasive message increase its persuasiveness? The research on the first question attempted to determine intervening variables responsible for prior…

  16. The Use of Humor when Counseling African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vereen, Linwood G.; Butler, S. Kent; Williams, Franklyn C.; Darg, Jules A.; Downing, Trae K. E.

    2006-01-01

    According to the literature, humor is a critical tool to enhance the counseling process because it can reduce stress, build rapport, and aid in the increase of the client's self-efficacy. In recent years, the critical nature of using humor appropriately from a cultural perspective has been explored. In this article, the authors further explore the…

  17. Humor in Advertisements Enhances Product Liking by Mere Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strick, Madelijn; van Baaren, Rick B.; Holland, Rob W.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2009-01-01

    Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often considered nonpredictive of product choice. Previous research relied exclusively on explicit self-report measures to assess attitudes and purchase intentions. The present research shows that unobtrusive association of a product with humor can affect…

  18. More than trivial: strategies for using humor in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Dean, Ruth Anne Kinsman; Gregory, David M

    2005-01-01

    Humor and laughter are ubiquitous in human interactions. Terminal illness, however, is often accompanied by circumstances of anxiety, fear, and sadness. Hospice/palliative care emphasizes quality of life and the importance of human relationships. In this context, humor finds its place in authentic person-to-person connectedness. This article presents findings from a clinical ethnography that investigated the phenomena of humor and laughter in an inpatient palliative care unit. As a participant observer, the lead author accompanied 6 nurses throughout their day-to-day activities, twice weekly over 12 weeks. In addition to more than 200 hours of fieldwork, informal conversations were held with patients and families and semistructured interviews were conducted with nurses (n = 11), physicians (n = 2), a social worker (n = 1), and a physiotherapist (n = 1). Humor was pervasive, varied in the setting, and occurred across a range of intensities. Both clients and team members used humor to build relationships, contend with circumstances, and express sensibilities. Humor was affected by differences in people, differing circumstances, ethnicity, gender, and degree of stress. Participants relied on intuition as well as a constellation of other factors in discerning whether or not to use humor. Techniques for assessment included identification of cues such as expression in the eyes and timing as indications of receptivity. Combined with caring and sensitivity, humor is a powerful therapeutic asset in hospice/palliative care. It must neither be taken for granted nor considered trivial. PMID:16046892

  19. Effects of Humor on Teacher Stress, Affect, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Jacqueline Dena

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are at high risk for stress, negative emotion, and job dissatisfaction, which has been linked with health problems and early attrition. Humor has been found to relieve various forms of stress. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding humor effects on teacher stress and its related consequences. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  20. Laugh yourself to sleep: memory consolidation for humorous information.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-05-01

    There is extensive evidence that emotional information is better remembered than neutral information across long delays, especially if the delay interval contains an opportunity for sleep. However, as prior studies have focused on memory for negative stimuli, it is unclear whether positive memories benefit from time and sleep as well. To investigate the consolidation of positive memories, the current study examined differences in memory for humorous and non-humorous cartoons. While prior evidence demonstrates that humorous information is preferentially remembered relative to non-humorous information over brief delays, it is unknown whether this benefit lasts across longer delay intervals or whether sleep is important for lasting humor memories to form. Thus, we tested memory for 27 cartoons across 12-h delay periods containing either sleep or wakefulness. Results indicate that humor's enhancing effect on recall memory is robust across a 12-h delay and that a period of sleep facilitates this effect over wakefulness when cartoons are novel to participants and ranked based on subjective emotional ratings. Further, in accordance with previous studies that reveal diminished emotional reactivity to stimuli following sleep, in a supplemental experiment, we found that sleep reduced subjective ratings of humor, arousal, and positivity of humorous cartoons. These findings provide preliminary evidence that sleep's impact on negative emotional memory consolidation and emotional reactivity can be extended to positive stimuli as well. PMID:24337230

  1. Multilingual Manipulation and Humor in "I Love Lucy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschen, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    "I Love Lucy" is considered to have been one of the most humorous television programs in the United States as early as the 1950s. This paper explores the use of language by the protagonists, Lucy and Ricky Ricardo, in order to understand the source of the program's humor. Linguistic analysis of the Ricardos' speech is applied,…

  2. Subversion or Socialization? Humor and Carnival in Morris Gleitzman's Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Like their counterparts elsewhere, Australian children favour humorous novels; comedic writers consistently dominate the preteen and early teen fiction market in Australia. Regardless of its popularity, however, in comparison to more serious writing, humorous literature has received little critical attention. Of the studies aimed at this area,…

  3. Group Time: Taking a "Humor Break" at Group Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    January is a perfect time to insert a strong dose of humor into group time gatherings. Oftentimes, children have tired of the predictable pattern of group meetings and need some change. Humor-filled group time activities can be the best secret remedy. Not only will children become more interested in the group time meetings (and therefore listen…

  4. Humor in Children's Lives: A Guidebook for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Amelia J., Ed.

    Designed as a resource and as a guide for professionals who work with children and their families, this book explores the cathartic effect of humor on children, and looks at humor as an infusion of energy that promotes healthy growth, development, and adjustment in children of all ages. The chapters are as follows: (1) "Introduction: A Global…

  5. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  6. Did You Hear the One about...? Humor in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Used properly, humor can be a valuable educational tool. It also helps middle school students cope with many of the personal issues that arise and focus on school, and helps teachers connect with their students. From silly costumes to movie music, this article describes how some teachers and administrators incorporate humor into their daily school…

  7. Laughlines: The Role of Humor in Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Linda Abby; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the 1987 Drexel University/Free Library of Philadelphia Conference on Children's Literature. The edited text of the keynote address by Alvin Schwartz, "Children, Humor and Folklore," and the acceptance speech by Deborah Kogan Ray, recipient of the 1987 Drexel Citation, are included. Observations on humor from workshop sessions are…

  8. BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET BRIDGE, I-83 SOUTHBOUND, LOOKING WEST. BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET BRIDGE, I-83 SOUTHBOUND, LOOKING WEST. - Walnut Street Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Walnut Street (State Route 3034), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  9. Welcome to HELL : Humor in English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuncay, Hidayet

    2007-01-01

    Humor means understanding not only the language and words but their use, meaning, subtle nuances, the underlying culture, implications and unwritten messages. Humor does not often travel well from one culture to another, as each society has a somewhat different concept of what is funny (Dobson, 1987). In Foreign Language Learning (FLL), the…

  10. Development: Ages & Stages--The Importance of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of humor and how it helps to understand children's thinking from birth to 6 years. The article presents three sections describing how a young child's sense of humor reveals much about the way he thinks. The first section is entitled "Giggles!" written by Carla Poole. Intended for babies from birth to 2, Poole…

  11. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  12. A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Justine T.; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D.

    2016-01-01

    Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we…

  13. Learning about and through Humor in the Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy D.

    2009-01-01

    Humorous communication is extremely complex in both its forms and functions (e.g. Norrick, 1993; 2003). Much of the previous work that has put forth suggestions for incorporating humor into the language classroom (e.g. Trachtenberg, 1979; Deneire, 1995; Schmitz, 2002) has not examined these complexities in the detail necessary for the target…

  14. Targeting astrocytes in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Li, Baoman; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-06-01

    Astrocytes are homeostatic cells of the central nervous system, which are critical for development and maintenance of synaptic transmission and hence of synaptically connected neuronal ensembles. Astrocytic densities are reduced in bipolar disorder, and therefore deficient astroglial function may contribute to overall disbalance in neurotransmission and to pathological evolution. Classical anti-bipolar drugs (lithium salts, valproic acid and carbamazepine) affect expression of astroglial genes and modify astroglial signalling and homeostatic cascades. Many effects of both antidepressant and anti-bipolar drugs are exerted through regulation of glutamate homeostasis and glutamatergic transmission, through K(+) buffering, through regulation of calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 (that controls metabolism of arachidonic acid) or through Ca(2+) homeostatic and signalling pathways. Sometimes anti-depressant and anti-bipolar drugs exert opposite effects, and some effects on gene expression in drug treated animals are opposite in neurones vs. astrocytes. Changes in the intracellular pH induced by anti-bipolar drugs affect uptake of myo-inositol and thereby signalling via inositoltrisphosphate (InsP3), this being in accord with one of the main theories of mechanism of action for these drugs. PMID:27015045

  15. Mathematical models of bipolar disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Darryl; Roque-Urrea, Tairi; Urrea-Roque, John; Troyer, Jessica; Wirkus, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.

    2009-07-01

    We use limit cycle oscillators to model bipolar II disorder, which is characterized by alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes and afflicts about 1% of the United States adult population. We consider two non-linear oscillator models of a single bipolar patient. In both frameworks, we begin with an untreated individual and examine the mathematical effects and resulting biological consequences of treatment. We also briefly consider the dynamics of interacting bipolar II individuals using weakly-coupled, weakly-damped harmonic oscillators. We discuss how the proposed models can be used as a framework for refined models that incorporate additional biological data. We conclude with a discussion of possible generalizations of our work, as there are several biologically-motivated extensions that can be readily incorporated into the series of models presented here.

  16. Bipolar lead acid battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

    1991-01-01

    A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

  17. Bipolar lead acid battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

    A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

  18. Refractory bipolar disorder and neuroprogression.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Sabrina C; Passos, Ives C; Lowri, Caroline; Soares, Jair C; Kapczinski, Flavio

    2016-10-01

    Immune activation and failure of physiologic compensatory mechanisms over time have been implicated in the pathophysiology of illness progression in bipolar disorder. Recent evidence suggests that such changes are important contributors to neuroprogression and may mediate the cross-sensitization of episode recurrence, trauma exposure and substance use. The present review aims to discuss the potential factors related to bipolar disorder refractoriness and neuroprogression. In addition, we will discuss the possible impacts of early therapeutic interventions as well as the alternative approaches in late stages of the disorder. PMID:26368941

  19. Bipolar dislocation of the clavicle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Gao, Shu-Guang; Li, Yu-Sheng; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2012-11-01

    Bipolar dislocation of the clavicle at acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joint is an uncommon traumatic injury. The conservative treatments adopted in the past is associated with redislocation dysfunction and deformity. A 41 years old lady with bipolar dislocation of right shoulder is treated surgically by open reduction and internal fixation by oblique T-plate at sternoclavicular joint and Kirschner wire stabilization at acromioclavicular joint. The patient showed satisfactory recovery with full range of motion of the right shoulder and normal muscular strength. The case reported in view of rarity and at 2 years followup. PMID:23325981

  20. Science For The Public: Collaboration and Humor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wargo, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The transformation of all things media and information into a dynamic environment of user access has created what seems infinite possibilities to inform the public in many different ways - as well as seemingly infinite possibilities to confuse. This talk will describe a rather non-conventional collaboration between two different creative cultures and its significance to maintaining scientific accuracy and devising strategies important to audience engagement - among them, humor. While focusing on the award-winning effort ``When Things Get Small'' created by University of California Television producer R. Wargo in collaboration with condensed matter physicist I.K. Schuller and actor Adam J. Smith, with both NSF and private support, the case study provides insight into a model and modes which can be used successfully by other scientists to engage the public in what they do.

  1. Children's Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children. PMID:27547258

  2. Children’s Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children. PMID:27547258

  3. NEURAL CORRELATES OF HUMOR DETECTION AND APPRECIATION IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Michelle N.; Walter, Elizabeth; Black, Jessica M.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is a vital component of human well-being. Neuroimaging studies conducted with adults indicate that humor activates specific brain regions including the temporo-occipito-parietal junction (TOPJ), involved in incongruity resolution, and mesolimbic regions, involved in reward processing. However, no study to date has used neuroimaging to examine humor in typically developing children. Here we illuminate the neural network involved in the detection and appreciation of humor in childhood. Fifteen typically developing children ages 6–12 were invited to watch and respond to video clips while neural activity was imaged with a 3T GE Discovery MR750 scanner. Prior to presentation during functional imaging, the clips were evaluated by age-matched controls and were representative of three categories: Funny, Positive (enjoyable but not funny), and Neutral (not intended to evoke any emotional response). We found TOPJ and mesolimbic activation in children’s response to humor, suggesting these regions may form a humor-essential neural network already present in childhood. Furthermore, in a novel comparison of Funny stimuli to Positive stimuli, we found that bilateral TOPJ activation may be specific to humor processing and not part of a general constellation of neural activity in response to reward. Finally, we observed greater activation in the inferior frontal gyrus and NAcc in younger participants, indicating humor activation intensity changes during development. By providing a crucial link in studying the neurodevelopment of humor processing across the lifespan, our findings contribute valuable information about the evolution of how children understand their world. PMID:22302817

  4. How Patients Contribute to an Online Psychoeducation Forum for Bipolar Disorder: A Virtual Participant Observation Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel; Simpson, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Background In a recent exploratory randomized controlled trial, an online psychoeducation intervention for bipolar disorder has been found to be feasible and acceptable to patients and may positively impact on their self-management behaviors and quality of life. Objective The objective of the study was to investigate how these patients contribute to an online forum for bipolar disorder and the issues relevant for them. Methods Participants in the intervention arm of the Bipolar Interactive PsychoEDucation (“BIPED”) trial were invited to contribute to the Beating Bipolar forum alongside receiving interactive online psychoeducation modules. Within this virtual participant observation study, forum posts were analyzed using thematic analysis, incorporating aspects of discourse analysis. Results The key themes which arose from the forum posts included: medication, employment, stigma, social support, coping strategies, insight and acceptance, the life chart, and negative experiences of health care. Participants frequently provided personal narratives relating to their history of bipolar disorder, life experiences, and backgrounds, which often contained emotive language and humor. They regularly sought and offered advice, and expressed encouragement and empathy. The forum would have benefitted from more users to offer a greater support network with more diverse views and experiences. Conclusions Online forums are inexpensive to provide and may offer peer support and the opportunity for patients to share their experiences and explore issues related to their illness anonymously. Future research should focus on how to enhance patient engagement with online health care forums. Trial Registration ISRCTN81375447; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN81375447 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6YzWtHUqu). PMID:26543925

  5. Polygenic dissection of the bipolar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hamshere, M. L.; O’Donovan, M. C.; Jones, I. R.; Jones, L.; Kirov, G.; Green, E. K.; Moskvina, V.; Grozeva, D.; Bass, N.; McQuillin, A.; Gurling, H.; St Clair, D.; Young, A. H.; Ferrier, I. N.; Farmer, A.; McGuffin, P.; Sklar, P.; Purcell, S.; Holmans, P. A.; Owen, M. J.; Craddock, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent data provide strong support for a substantial common polygenic contribution (i.e. many alleles each of small effect) to genetic susceptibility for schizophrenia and overlapping susceptibility for bipolar disorder. Aims To test hypotheses about the relationship between schizophrenia and psychotic types of bipolar disorder. Method Using a polygenic score analysis to test whether schizophrenia polygenic risk alleles, en masse, significantly discriminate between individuals with bipolar disorder with and without psychotic features. The primary sample included 1829 participants with bipolar disorder and the replication sample comprised 506 people with bipolar disorder. Results The subset of participants with Research Diagnostic Criteria schizoaffective bipolar disorder (n = 277) were significantly discriminated from the remaining participants with bipolar disorder (n = 1552) in both the primary (P = 0.00059) and the replication data-sets (P = 0.0070). In contrast, those with psychotic bipolar disorder as a whole were not significantly different from those with non-psychotic bipolar disorder in either data-set. Conclusions Genetic susceptibility influences at least two major domains of psychopathological variation in the schizophrenia–bipolar disorder clinical spectrum: one that relates to expression of a ‘bipolar disorder-like’ phenotype and one that is associated with expression of ‘schizophrenia-like’ psychotic symptoms. PMID:21972277

  6. Exploratory Theoretical Tests of the Instructor Humor-Student Learning Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors' use of humor is generally a positive influence on student outcomes. However, examinations of humor have found that specific types of messages may not impact, or may even reverse, its positive effect. Instructional humor processing theory (IHPT) has been used to explain how humor impacts student learning. The current study sought…

  7. The Use of Humor in the English as a Second Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selleck, Denise Faith

    This study examines the use of teacher and student humor in the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classroom. A summary and synthesis of previous research on theories of humor, humor and its use in society, and applications of humor revealed its importance as an object of study. An analysis of audiotaped transcripts of samples of ESL classes…

  8. A Study of Humor Initiated by Cosmopolitan and Locals in an Urban University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukens, Janet G.; Jain, Nemi C.

    This paper presents the results of an empirical study designed to test three hypotheses concerning the type of humor initiated by faculty in their interpersonal communication: (1) the organizational type of person is associated with the type of humor he initiates; (2) cosmopolitans tend to initiate abrasive humor more often than lubricant humor;…

  9. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  10. Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Using Humor in Education but Were Afraid to Laugh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    The importance of laughter and humor to enhance education, and special education in particular, is addressed. A sense of humor is an attitude, and humor together with enthusiasm helps students enjoy the learning process. Humor can make students become more alert, and can have very positive influences on affect. A funny remark, a pleasant…

  11. The management of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Kate E A; Geddes, John R

    2016-03-01

    Bipolar disorder is a common mental disorder which is relapsing and remitting in nature. Subsyndromal symptoms are common and associated with poorer outcomes. Management of the disorder can be challenging and depends on the polarity and severity of the mood episode. PMID:26961448

  12. Double heterojunction bipolar phototransistor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, Michal

    2003-07-01

    An analytical mathematical model of the double heterojunction NpN bipolar phototransistor with abrupt heterojunctions in three terminal configuration is presented. The thermionic-filed emission and diffusion of injected carriers is considered and the Ebers-Moll type relations for the collector and emitter current are obtained. Several steady state characteristics of the phototransistor structure are calculated (optical gain, quantum efficiency, responsivity).

  13. Suicidality in Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sheri L.; McMurrich, Stephanie L.; Yates, Marisa

    2005-01-01

    People with bipolar disorder are at high suicide risk. The literature suggests that suicidality is predicted by higher symptom severity and less use of pharmacological agents, but few studies have examined the joint contributions of these variables. The present study examines the conjoint contribution of symptom severity and pharmacological…

  14. [Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gabriele; Schaffer, Markus; Winklbaur, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    Bipolar disorders are often associated with cognitive deficits which have an influence on social functioning and the course of the illness. These deficits have an impact on occupational ability and social integration. To date, specific cognitive domains have been found which characterize bipolar affective disorders. However, there is evidence of stable and lasting cognitive impairment in all phases of the disorder, including the remission phase, in the following domains: sustained attention, memory and executive functions (e.g. cognitive flexibility and problem solving). Although their cognitive deficits are comparable the deficits in patients with schizophrenia are more severe than those with bipolar disorder. Recent brain imaging findings indicate structural and functional abnormalities in the cortical and limbic networks of the brain in patients with bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls. Mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotics may reduce cognitive deficits in certain domains (e.g. executive functions and word fluency) and may have a positive effect on quality of life and social functioning. PMID:17640495

  15. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  16. Integrated Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maletic, Vladimir; Raison, Charles

    2014-01-01

    From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity – reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition – limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional “unified field theory” of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial–neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia – the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway, or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of

  17. The effect of humor on memory: constrained by the pun.

    PubMed

    Summerfelt, Hannah; Lippman, Louis; Hyman, Ira E

    2010-01-01

    In a series of experiments, we investigated the effect of pun humor on memory. In all experiments, the participants were exposed to knock-knock jokes in either the original form retaining the pun or in a modified form that removed the pun. In Experiment 1, the authors found that pun humor improved both recall and recognition memory following incidental encoding. In Experiment 2, they found evidence that rehearsal is not the cause of the humor effect on memory. In Experiments 3 and 4, the authors found that the constraints imposed by puns and incongruity may account for the humor effects observed. Puns constrain and limit the information that can fit in the final line of a joke and thus make recall easier. PMID:21086859

  18. Ascorbate in aqueous humor protects against myeloperoxidase-induced oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, J. T.; Howes, E. L.; English, D.

    1985-01-01

    Chemotactic factors can cause polymorphonuclear leukocytes to release the contents of azurophilic granules, including the enzymes beta-glucuronidase and myeloperoxidase. In the presence of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye, the supernatant from stimulated leukocytes contains beta-glucuronidase, but myeloperoxidase is not detectable. Studies with aqueous humor and partially purified human myeloperoxidase suggest that this phenomenon is not due to a failure of enzyme release. The factor responsible for the inability to detect MPO in the assay system is heat-labile, dialyzable, and reversed by ascorbate oxidase. Comparable assay inhibition is produced by ascorbic acid at a concentration present in either human or rabbit aqueous humor. The ability of aqueous humor to protect against myeloperoxidase-induced oxidation may contribute to several diverse phenomena, including the susceptibility of the eye to Candida infection and a prolonged half-life for several inflammatory mediators in the anterior chamber. PMID:2992283

  19. GLUCOCORTICOID EFFECTS ON NATURAL AND HUMORAL IMMUNITY IN MALLARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult male mallards were treated with dexamethasone (DEX) to observe the impact of glucocorticoids (GC) upon natural killer cell activity, humoral antibody response to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) , and other physiologic parameters. esults showed that DEX caused significant decrease...

  20. The Aggression-Inhibiting Influence of Nonhostile Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.; Ball, Rodney L.

    1974-01-01

    The present experiment sought to investigate the hypothesis that exposure to nonhostile humor would be highly effective in reducing the level of aggression subsequently evidenced by angry individuals. (Author/RK)

  1. A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns.

    PubMed

    Kao, Justine T; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D

    2016-07-01

    Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we propose two information-theoretic measures-ambiguity and distinctiveness-derived from a simple model of sentence processing. We test these measures on a set of puns and regular sentences and show that they correlate significantly with human judgments of funniness. Moreover, within a set of puns, the distinctiveness measure distinguishes exceptionally funny puns from mediocre ones. Our work is the first, to our knowledge, to integrate a computational model of general language understanding and humor theory to quantitatively predict humor at a fine-grained level. We present it as an example of a framework for applying models of language processing to understand higher level linguistic and cognitive phenomena. PMID:26235596

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of postpartum bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin; Sharma, Verinder

    2010-07-01

    The postpartum period is a time of increased risk of new-onset psychiatric illness, hospital admissions and out-patient psychiatric care for new mothers. Research into postpartum mood disorders has focused primarily on major depressive disorder, and has overlooked the study of bipolar disorder, particularly bipolar II disorder and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Failure to properly diagnose postpartum bipolar disorder may delay the initiation of appropriate treatment, lead to inappropriate treatment - thereby precipitating (hypo)mania, rapid cycling or a mixed episode - or result in polypharmacy and treatment refractoriness. The most serious consequence, however, is the high risk of infanticide and suicide among women with postpartum bipolar disorder. While no specific screening tools have been validated for postpartum mania or bipolar depression, symptoms of hypomania, atypical depression, a family history of bipolar disorder and a rapid onset of depressive symptoms following delivery may suggest a bipolar diathesis. In the absence of any pharmacological or psychotherapeutic treatments to guide clinical decision-making, it is recommended that the treatment of postpartum bipolar depression follow the same guidelines as the treatment of non-postpartum bipolar depression, using medications that are compatible with lactation. PMID:20586688

  3. Autocapture enhancements: unipolar and bipolar lead compatibility and bipolar pacing capability on bipolar leads.

    PubMed

    Binner, Ludwig; Messenger, John; Sperzel, Johannes; Bondke, Hansjürgen; Vandekerckhove, Yves; Poore, John; Scheiner, Jöerg; Berkhof, Marc; Park, Euljoon; Holmström, Nils; Bornzin, Gene A

    2003-01-01

    Beat-by-beat Autocapture maximizes device longevity by minimizing stimulus amplitude while assuring patient safety. Currently, Autocapture permits use of only bipolar leads. The authors have devised a detection method that operates with unipolar and bipolar leads and covers all pacing and sensing combinations (but bipolar pace and sense simultaneously). This new detection method for unipolar sensing uses the integral of the negative portion of the unipolar evoked response as a robust capture detection feature. When using bipolar leads, the method provides the flexibility of bipolar or unipolar pacing. In this study, unipolar ventricular intracardiac electrograms (EGMs) were recorded in 71 patients, 73.7 +/- 9.9 years of age; 9 with high polarization, 62 with low polarization. High polarization had polished platinum or activated carbon electrodes. Low polarization had TiN, platinized platinum, or IrOx electrodes. The intracardiac EGMs were recorded 544 +/- 796 days after implant. The pacemakers performed an automatic capture threshold test while the intracardiac EGM signals were recorded in a programmer. These digitized signals were saved for off-line analysis. The unipolar evoked response was calculated at up to six (depending on capture threshold) pacing voltages and the polarization integral at 4.5 V and at loss of capture. An automatic calibration algorithm determined if the signal-to-noise ratio was adequate for Autocapture operation. Autocapture was possible with 60 of 62 of the low polarizations, and with 6 of 9 of the high polarizations. The average values form the data collected were: average unipolar evoked response--4.1 +/- 2.1 mV, average peak negative voltage--10.0 +/- 3.7 mV, average polarization 0.3 +/- 0.34 mV, and average signal-to-noise ratio (unipolar evoked response/ polarization) 38 +/- 71. In all cases the algorithm correctly determined the appropriateness of using Autocapture with the electrodes tested and the unipolar evoked response

  4. Nicotine dependence and psychosis in Bipolar disorder and Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar type.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Elena; Hartz, Sarah M; Tran, Jeffrey; Hilty, Donald M; Sklar, Pamela; Smoller, Jordan W; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N

    2016-06-01

    Patients with Bipolar disorder smoke more than the general population. Smoking negatively impacts mortality and clinical course in Bipolar disorder patients. Prior studies have shown contradictory results regarding the impact of psychosis on smoking behavior in Bipolar disorder. We analyzed a large sample of Bipolar disorder and Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar Type patients and predicted those with a history of psychosis would be more likely to be nicotine dependent. Data from subjects and controls were collected from the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort (GPC). Subjects were diagnosed with Bipolar disorder without psychosis (N = 610), Bipolar disorder with psychosis (N = 1544). Participants were classified with or without nicotine dependence. Diagnostic groups were compared to controls (N = 10065) using logistic regression. Among smokers (N = 6157), those with Bipolar disorder had an increased risk of nicotine dependence (OR = 2.5; P < 0.0001). Patients with Bipolar disorder with psychosis were more likely to be dependent than Bipolar disorder patients without psychosis (OR = 1.3; P = 0.03). Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar Type patients had more risk of nicotine dependence when compared to Bipolar disorder patients with or without psychosis (OR = 1.2; P = 0.02). Bipolar disorder patients experiencing more severity of psychosis have more risk of nicotine dependence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26467098

  5. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  6. Humor appreciation of captionless cartoons in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It seems that the core neural regions and cognitive processes implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) pathophysiology may overlap with those involved in humor appreciation. However, to date, there have been no studies that have explored humor appreciation in OCD. The purpose of the present work was to investigate humor appreciation in a group of patients with OCD. Methods We examined 25 patients with OCD and 25 healthy controls, matched by age, education, and gender. We administered Penn's Humor Appreciation Test (PHAT), a computerized test comprising captionless cartoons by Mordillo. Each set of stimuli consisted of two almost identical drawings, one of which was funny due to the alteration of a detail in the cartoon, whereas the other was not funny. Severity of psychopathology was evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Results No significant effect for group, gender or group × gender interaction was found on the PHAT scores. In OCD patients, humor appreciation was not significantly associated with age of onset, duration of illness, and obsessions, but correlated significantly with compulsions. Conclusions Humor appreciation, based on captionless cartoons in OCD, does not seem to be deficient compared to healthy subjects but may be related to illness characteristics. PMID:22103926

  7. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  8. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    PubMed

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion. PMID:25786353

  9. Eosinophils: important players in humoral immunity.

    PubMed

    Berek, C

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils perform numerous tasks. They are involved in inflammatory reactions associated with innate immune defence against parasitic infections and are also involved in pathological processes in response to allergens. Recently, however, it has become clear that eosinophils also play crucial non-inflammatory roles in the generation and maintenance of adaptive immune responses. Eosinophils, being a major source of the plasma cell survival factor APRIL (activation and proliferation-induced ligand), are essential not only for the long-term survival of plasma cells in the bone marrow, but also for the maintenance of these cells in the lamina propria which underlies the gut epithelium. At steady state under non-inflammatory conditions eosinophils are resident cells of the gastrointestinal tract, although only few are present in the major organized lymphoid tissue of the gut - the Peyer's patches (PP). Surprisingly, however, lack of eosinophils abolishes efficient class-switching of B cells to immunoglobulin (Ig)A in the germinal centres of PP. Thus, eosinophils are required to generate and to maintain mucosal IgA plasma cells, and as a consequence their absence leads to a marked reduction of IgA both in serum and in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Eosinophils thus have an essential part in long-term humoral immune protection, as they are crucial for the longevity of antibody-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow and, in addition, for gut immune homeostasis. PMID:26291602

  10. Whole vitreous humor dissection for vitreodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Murali, Karthik; Kashani, Amir H; Humayun, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    The authors propose an effective technique to isolate whole, intact vitreous core and cortex from post mortem enucleated porcine eyes. While previous studies have shown the results of such dissections, the detailed steps have not been described, precluding researchers outside the field from replicating their methods. Other studies harvest vitreous either through aspiration, which does not maintain the vitreous structure anatomy, or through partial dissection, which only isolates the vitreous core. The proposed method isolates the whole vitreous body, with the vitreous core and cortex intact, while maintaining vitreous anatomy and structural integrity. In this method, a full thickness scleral flap in an enucleated porcine eye is first created and through this, the choroid tissue can be separated from the sclera. The scleral flap is then expanded and the choroid is completely separated from the sclera. Finally the choroid-retina tissue is peeled off the vitreous to leave an isolated intact vitreous body. The proposed vitreous dissection technique can be used to study physical properties of the vitreous humor. In particular, this method has significance for experimental studies involving drug delivery, vitreo-retinal oxygen transport, and intraocular convection. PMID:26065393

  11. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16–24, 25–35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80–.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66–.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5–35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0–15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus–despite similar labels–these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles. PMID:27547259

  12. [Psychopharmacological treatment of bipolar disease].

    PubMed

    Licht, Rasmus W; Vestergaard, Per

    2002-05-01

    This paper gives an update on the psychopharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder. The antimanic efficacy of lithium is well documented. The same applies to valproate, which is also efficacious in mixed mania. Conventional antipsychotics act fast in mania and do not require blood tests, but they have considerable neurological side effects. The newer antipsychotics, olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone, have also been shown to have antimanic efficacy. Clozapine is extremely effective, also when other treatment fails. For the treatment of bipolar depression, lithium, lamotrigine, and antidepressants all seem to work, but antidepressants may sometimes precipitate mania or worsen the course of illness. For prophylaxis, lithium is still to be considered the first drug of choice. However, for several reasons, for instance treatment failure or side effects, long-term treatment with antiepileptics may often be necessary. Among the antiepileptics, carbamazepine, valproate, and lamotrigine are the best studied. PMID:12025705

  13. [Poststroke-bipolar affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Bengesser, S A; Wurm, W E; Lackner, N; Birner, A; Reininghaus, B; Kapfhammer, H-P; Reininghaus, E

    2013-08-01

    A few weeks after suffering from a basal ganglia infarction (globus pallidus) with left-sided hemiplegia, a 23-year-old woman exhibited for the first time a pronounced mania with self-endangerment. The use of oral contraceptives was the only determinable risk factor. During the further course, the mother also developed a depressive disorder. Thus a certain genetic predisposition for affective disorders may be relevant, although this would not explain the outbreak by itself. An association between the right-sided basal ganglia infarction and the occurrence of a bipolar affective disorder has been described in the literature. Vascular or, respectively, inflammatory risk factors in synopsis with the aetiopathogenesis of bipolar affective disorders are also discussed in depth in this case report. PMID:23939559

  14. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  15. Major Ups and Downs: Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Major Ups and Downs Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings Most people feel happy ... Strike Out Stroke Wise Choices Links Dealing with Bipolar Disorder If you have bipolar disorder, get treatment and ...

  16. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  17. Vitreous humor rheology after Nd:YAG laser photo disruption.

    PubMed

    Abdelkawi, Salwa A; Abdel-Salam, Ahmed M; Ghoniem, Dina F; Ghaly, Sally K

    2014-03-01

    This work aimed to consider the hazardous side effect of eye floaters treatment with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on the protein and viscoelastic properties of the vitreous humor, and evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against laser photo disruption. Five groups of New Zealand rabbits were divided as follows: control group for (n = 3) without any treatment, the second group (n = 9) treated with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser energy of 5 mJ × 100 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 for each). The third group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. The fourth group (n = 9) treated with 10 mJ 9 50 pulse delivered to the anterior, middle, and posterior vitreous, respectively (n = 3 rabbits each). The fifth group (n = 9) received a daily dose of 25 mg/kg body weight vitamin C for 2 weeks, and then treated with laser as the previous group. After 2 weeks of laser treatment, the protein content, refractive index (RI), and the rheological properties of vitreous humor, such as consistency, shear stress, and viscosity, were determined. The results showed that, the anterior vitreous group exposed to of 5 mJ × 100 pulse and/or supplemented with vitamin C, showed no obvious change. Furthermore, all other treated groups especially for mid-vitreous and posterior vitreous humor showed increase in the protein content, RI and the viscosity of vitreous humor. The flow index remained below unity indicating the non-Newtonian behavior of the vitreous humor. Application of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser should be restricted to the anterior vitreous humor to prevent the deleterious effect of laser on the gel state of the vitreous humor. PMID:23797611

  18. Recent progress in understanding pediatric bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2012-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is one of the most severe psychiatric illnesses, particularly when onset occurs during childhood or adolescence. With recent empirical evidence, questions regarding the existence of bipolar disorder among children and adolescents have given way to questions regarding prevalence. There are substantial risks inherent in misapplying diagnoses and treatments of bipolar disorder when not warranted and in withholding these diagnoses and treatments when they are warranted. As with adults, the course of bipolar disorder among children and adolescents diagnosed using unmodified diagnostic criteria is characterized by recovery and recurrence, functional impairment, suicidality, and high rates of comorbid psychiatric and medical problems. Discrepancies between increasing billing diagnoses and a stable epidemiologic prevalence of bipolar disorder suggest the possibility that diagnostic criteria are not being systematically applied in some clinical settings. Introducing new diagnoses may exacerbate rather than mitigate concerns regarding misdiagnosis and excessive use of mood-stabilizing medications. Several medications, particularly second-generation antipsychotics, are efficacious for treating acute manic episodes of bipolar I disorder. However, less is known regarding the treatment of other mood states and subtypes of bipolar disorder. Psychosocial treatments provide a forum in which to educate children and families regarding bipolar disorder and its treatment, and may be especially beneficial for reducing depressive symptoms. Offspring of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of developing the illness, as are youth with major depressive disorder and certain psychiatric comorbidities. Preliminary findings regarding biomarkers offer hope that, in the future, these biomarkers may inform diagnostic and treatment decisions. PMID:22213607

  19. Distinctions between bipolar and unipolar depression

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar, Amy K.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Winters, Ray

    2010-01-01

    This is a review of the studies comparing unipolar and bipolar depression, with focus on the course, symptomatology, neurobiology, and psychosocial literatures. These are reviewed with one question in mind: does the evidence support diagnosing bipolar and unipolar depressions as the same disorder or different? The current nomenclature of bipolar and unipolar disorders has resulted in research that compares these disorders as a whole, without considering depression separately from mania within bipolar disorder. Future research should investigate two broad categories of depression and mania as separate disease processes that are highly comorbid. PMID:15792852

  20. Laugh and learn: humor as a teaching strategy in occupational therapy education.

    PubMed

    Southam, Marti; Schwartz, Kathleen Barker

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY Humor use in education has been studied in fields such as psychology and nursing. Research has demonstrated that effective educational humor needs to be integrated into the topic and used in moderation. Used appropriately, humor can gain attention, facilitate creative thinking and memory, motivate students to attend class, and promote learning outcomes. No studies were located in the occupational therapy literature that specifically related to humor as an aspect of teaching. The purpose of this article is to explore the merits of humor as an educational tool and to give examples of ways that occupational therapy faculty and clinical instructors can employ humor. PMID:23944666

  1. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  2. Does humor explain why relationally aggressive adolescents are popular?

    PubMed

    Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G

    2014-08-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents' gender and their friends' levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; M age = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  3. Targeting Channelrhodopsin-2 to ON-bipolar Cells With Vitreally Administered AAV Restores ON and OFF Visual Responses in Blind Mice

    PubMed Central

    Macé, Emilie; Caplette, Romain; Marre, Olivier; Sengupta, Abhishek; Chaffiol, Antoine; Barbe, Peggy; Desrosiers, Mélissa; Bamberg, Ernst; Sahel, Jose-Alain; Picaud, Serge; Duebel, Jens; Dalkara, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Most inherited retinal dystrophies display progressive photoreceptor cell degeneration leading to severe visual impairment. Optogenetic reactivation of retinal neurons mediated by adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy has the potential to restore vision regardless of patient-specific mutations. The challenge for clinical translatability is to restore a vision as close to natural vision as possible, while using a surgically safe delivery route for the fragile degenerated retina. To preserve the visual processing of the inner retina, we targeted ON bipolar cells, which are still present at late stages of disease. For safe gene delivery, we used a recently engineered AAV variant that can transduce the bipolar cells after injection into the eye's easily accessible vitreous humor. We show that AAV encoding channelrhodopsin under the ON bipolar cell–specific promoter mediates long-term gene delivery restricted to ON-bipolar cells after intravitreal administration. Channelrhodopsin expression in ON bipolar cells leads to restoration of ON and OFF responses at the retinal and cortical levels. Moreover, light-induced locomotory behavior is restored in treated blind mice. Our results support the clinical relevance of a minimally invasive AAV-mediated optogenetic therapy for visual restoration. PMID:25095892

  4. Tipos de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Lista alfabética de todos los tipos de cáncer con enlaces a enfermedades específicas e información general sobre tratamiento, cuidados de apoyo, exámenes de detección, prevención, estudios clínicos y otros temas.

  5. Humor theories and the physiological benefits of laughter.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Julia; Eisenbraun, Amy Janel

    2009-01-01

    There are 3 main theories used to explain the functions of humor: (1) the relief theory, (2) the incongruity theory, and (3) the superiority theory. While these theories focus on the specific role that humor plays for people in situations such as dealing with misfortune, making sense of rule violations, and bonding with others, we propose that underlying each of these theories are the physiological benefits of laughter. We draw on findings from empirical studies on laughter to demonstrate that these physiological benefits occur regardless of the theory that is used to explain the humor function. Findings from these studies have important implications for nurse practitioners working in hospice settings, long-term care facilities, nursing homes, and hospitals. PMID:19901609

  6. The Use of Humor in Serious Mental Illness: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gelkopf, Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation. PMID:19687190

  7. Human aqueous humor proteome in cataract, glaucoma, and pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kliuchnikova, Anna A; Samokhina, Nadezhda I; Ilina, Irina Y; Karpov, Dmitry S; Pyatnitskiy, Mikhail A; Kuznetsova, Ksenia G; Toropygin, Ilya Y; Kochergin, Sergey A; Alekseev, Igor B; Zgoda, Victor G; Archakov, Alexander I; Moshkovskii, Sergei A

    2016-07-01

    Twenty-nine human aqueous humor samples from patients with eye diseases such as cataract and glaucoma with and without pseudoexfoliation syndrome were characterized by LC-high resolution MS analysis. In total, 269 protein groups were identified with 1% false discovery rate including 32 groups that were not reported previously for this biological fluid. Since the samples were analyzed individually, but not pooled, 36 proteins were identified in all samples, comprising the constitutive proteome of the fluid. The most dominant molecular function of aqueous humor proteins as determined by GO analysis is endopeptidase inhibitor activity. Label-free protein quantification showed no significant difference between glaucoma and cataract aqueous humor proteomes. At the same time, we found decrease in the level of apolipoprotein D as a marker of the pseudoexfoliation syndrome. The data are available from ProteomeXchange repository (PXD002623). PMID:27193151

  8. Glucose determination in human aqueous humor with Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L.; Pelletier, Christine C.; Borchert, Mark

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that spectroscopic analysis of the aqueous humor of the eye could be used to indirectly predict blood glucose levels in diabetics noninvasively. We have been investigating this potential using Raman spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS) analysis. We have determined that glucose at clinically relevant concentrations can be accurately predicted in human aqueous humor in vitro using a PLS model based on artificial aqueous humor. We have further determined that with proper instrument design, the light energy necessary to achieve clinically acceptable prediction of glucose does not damage the retinas of rabbits and can be delivered at powers below internationally acceptable safety limits. Herein we summarize our current results and address our strategies to improve instrument design. 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  9. Swimming in Deep Water: Childhood Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies…

  10. Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…

  11. Bipolar Disorder and Cognitive Therapy: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riskind, John H.

    2005-01-01

    This article comments on the three articles (Leahy, 2005; Newman, 2005; and Reilly-Harrington & Knauz, 2005) that deal with the applications of cognitive therapy to treatment of bipolar disorder. They focus on the uses of cognitive therapy in treating three important facets of the special problems of bipolar patients: rapid cycling, severe…

  12. Bipolar disorder diagnosis: challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Mary L; Kupfer, David J

    2013-05-11

    Bipolar disorder refers to a group of affective disorders, which together are characterised by depressive and manic or hypomanic episodes. These disorders include: bipolar disorder type I (depressive and manic episodes: this disorder can be diagnosed on the basis of one manic episode); bipolar disorder type II (depressive and hypomanic episodes); cyclothymic disorder (hypomanic and depressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for depressive episodes); and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (depressive and hypomanic-like symptoms that do not meet the diagnostic criteria for any of the aforementioned disorders). Bipolar disorder type II is especially difficult to diagnose accurately because of the difficulty in differentiation of this disorder from recurrent unipolar depression (recurrent depressive episodes) in depressed patients. The identification of objective biomarkers that represent pathophysiologic processes that differ between bipolar disorder and unipolar depression can both inform bipolar disorder diagnosis and provide biological targets for the development of new and personalised treatments. Neuroimaging studies could help the identification of biomarkers that differentiate bipolar disorder from unipolar depression, but the problem in detection of a clear boundary between these disorders suggests that they might be better represented as a continuum of affective disorders. Innovative combinations of neuroimaging and pattern recognition approaches can identify individual patterns of neural structure and function that accurately ascertain where a patient might lie on a behavioural scale. Ultimately, an integrative approach, with several biological measurements using different scales, could yield patterns of biomarkers (biosignatures) to help identify biological targets for personalised and new treatments for all affective disorders. PMID:23663952

  13. Thomson semiconductors bipolar IC strategy to 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellamussia, J. P.

    1984-04-01

    The strategy to develop and market bipolar integrated circuits through 1986 by thomson semiconductors is discussed. Current technology and future research on prototype microprocessors using bipolar integrated circuits is evaluated. The physical properties of the circuits such as heat dissipation, energy consumption rates and response times are studied.

  14. Modeling "Soft" Errors in Bipolar Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J.; Benumof, R.; Vonroos, O.

    1985-01-01

    Mathematical models represent single-event upset in bipolar memory chips. Physics of single-event upset in integrated circuits discussed in theoretical paper. Pair of companion reports present mathematical models to predict critical charges for producing single-event upset in bipolar randomaccess memory (RAM) chips.

  15. Adjunctive Psychotherapy for Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Miklowitz, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Psychotherapy has long been recommended as adjunctive to pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder, but it is unclear which interventions are effective for which patients, over what intervals, and for what domains of outcome. This article reviews randomized trials of adjunctive psychotherapy for bipolar disorder. Method Eighteen trials of individual and group psychoeducation, systematic care, family therapy, interpersonal therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy are described. Relevant outcome variables include time to recovery, recurrence, duration of episodes, symptom severity, and psychosocial functioning. Results The effects of the treatment modalities varied according to the clinical condition of patients at the time of random assignment and the polarity of symptoms at follow-up. Family therapy, interpersonal therapy, and systematic care appeared to be most effective in preventing recurrences when initiated after an acute episode, whereas cognitive-behavioral therapy and group psychoeducation appeared to be most effective when initiated during a period of recovery. Individual psychoeducational and systematic care programs were more effective for manic than depressive symptoms, whereas family therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy were more effective for depressive than manic symptoms. Conclusions Adjunctive psychotherapy enhances the symptomatic and functional outcomes of bipolar disorder over 2-year periods. The various modalities differ in content, structure, and associated mediating mechanisms. Treatments that emphasize medication adherence and early recognition of mood symptoms have stronger effects on mania, whereas treatments that emphasize cognitive and interpersonal coping strategies have stronger effects on depression. The placement of psychotherapy within chronic care algorithms and its role as a preventative agent in the early stages of the disorder deserve investigation. PMID:18794208

  16. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-02-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected

  17. [Child and adolescent bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Stuppäck, Christoph; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Aichhorn, Monika; Hausmann, Armand

    2007-01-01

    The onset of bipolar disorders before the age of 10 is rare. First manifestation occurs most frequently between the age of 15 to 30. Children of a parent with bipolar disorder are at a fivefold risk for developing a bipolar disorder. Therefore, an elaborate family-history is essential for the assessment of potentially manic or depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. Basically, for all age groups the same diagnostic criteria according to ICD 10 are applied. Due to the differing symptoms for children and adolescents the finding of a diagnosis is considerably harder than for adults. Manic episodes before the age of 10 are characterized by increased activity, more risk taking behaviour and elevated emotional instability. In adolescents, however, behavioural disturbance with antisocial behaviour and drug-abuse are more common. Thus, typical misdiagnosis as ADHD or conduct disorders for children and adolescents are frequent. Aggravating the complexity, in up to 90 % both differential-diagnosis may occur as comorbid disorders. Furthermore, psychotic symptoms are more common than in adults and dysphoria is more likely than euphoric or depressive mood. Asymptomatic intervals rarely exist, whereas "ups" and "downs" in rapid succession are prevailing (rapid cycling). An early diagnosis, leading specific treatment, is essential for the prognosis of bipolar disorders. Additionally, structural (CCT or MRI) and laboratory examination are essential to expel endocrine or brain-organic diseases. Besides psychotherapeutic and psychoeducative methods, always including parents and attached persons, the psychopharmacological treatment is a major part of a multimodal treatment. The available substances partly have been in use for years and are appropriate for youngsters. These include mood stabilizers like lithium, divalproex and carbamazepine, which provide besides their acute antimanic effects also relapse-prophylactic properties. In addition atypical antipsychotics like

  18. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-01-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected

  19. [Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction Part 1. Psychological data].

    PubMed

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Humor is, from a psychological point of view, a complex process involving cognitive, affective, interspersonal and social elements in a interpersonal context. Its cognitive core is based on the perception of incongruity between two related inconsistent or contradictory mental representations. The total or partial resolution of incongruity in a playful frame is associated with a specific positive emotion, which characteristics and intensity are determined by the structure of the humoristic stimulus more than its content, and the personal and social contexts. Main theories of humor are reviewed as well as its development, its cognitive and affective correlates, and the influence of genre, age and personality. PMID:27005341

  20. Age effects on B cells and humoral immunity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Frasca, Daniela; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria; Landin, Ana Marie; Blomberg, Bonnie B

    2010-01-01

    Both humoral and cellular immune responses are impaired in aged individuals, leading to decreased vaccine responses. Although T cell defects occur, defects in B cells play a significant role in age-related humoral immune changes. The ability to undergo class switch recombination (CSR), the enzyme for CSR, AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) and the transcription factor E47 are all decreased in aged stimulated B cells. We here present an overview of age-related changes in human B cell markers and functions, and also discuss some controversies in the field of B cell aging. PMID:20728581

  1. Humor in print health advertisements: enhanced attention, privileged recognition, and persuasiveness of preventive messages.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Nathalie; Brigaud, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effect of humor in one particular type of print advertisement: the preventive health ads for three topics (alcohol, tobacco, obesity). Previous research using commercial ads demonstrated that individuals' attention is spontaneously attracted by humor, leading to a memory advantage for humorous information over nonhumorous information. Two experiments investigated whether the positive effect of humor can occur with preventive health ads. In Experiment 1, participants observed humorous and nonhumorous health ads while their viewing times were recorded. In Experiment 2, to compare humorous and nonhumorous ads, the memory of health messages was assessed through a recognition task and a convincing score was collected. The results confirmed that, compared to nonhumorous health ads, those using humor received prolonged attention, were judged more convincing, and their messages were better recognized. Overall, these findings suggest that humor can be of use in preventive health communication. PMID:24160572

  2. Using Humor in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Worthy of Further Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Canha, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients’ recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further. PMID:27347254

  3. Using Humor in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Worthy of Further Investigation.

    PubMed

    Canha, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients' recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further. PMID:27347254

  4. The prestige model of spectrum bipolarity.

    PubMed

    Le Bas, James; Newton, Richard; Sore, Rachel; Castle, David

    2015-02-01

    Because affective pathogenesis is a hard problem for psychiatry, it behoves researchers to develop and test novel models of causality. We examine the notion that the adaptive drive to social investment - prestige - provides clues to the bipolar spectrum. A seven node bipolar spectrum is proposed, based on a putative gradient of "bipolarity". It is conceived that this gradient may correlate with the drive to social investment (prestige). In order to test this hypothesis with proof of concept data, a case control study categorised 228 subjects into a seven node bipolar spectrum. Whilst controlling for mood elevation and depression, differences in strategic prestige (leadership) motivation (MSPM) between spectrum groups were examined. The bipolar I (S1) node had a greater strategic prestige (leadership) motivation score than the controls (S7) by 21.17 points, 95% CI [8.16, 34.18], p<.001, d=1.05, while the bipolar II (S2) node was higher than the control group by 16.73 points, 95% CI [0.92, 32.54], p=.030, d=0.84. Whilst the pseudounipolar (S3) node (those with depression and bipolar family histories; n=17) had only a marginally statistical difference in MSPM compared to controls (p=.051), the mean difference (16.98) and d value (0.86) indicated an elevated MSPM level. Prestige (leadership) motivation score positively correlated with dimensional lifetime bipolarity (Mood Disorder Questionnaire) score (rp=0.47), supporting the spectrum prestige motivation gradient notion. Evidence is presented for a genetic disposition to elevated strategic prestige (leadership) motivation. Sensitivity to Social Inclusion (MSIS), Contingency of Self-Worth (CSW.av) and tension significantly predicted strategic prestige (leadership) motivation (MSPM) score in a multiple regression. - suggesting that a vulnerability of the social self may be a feature of bipolar disorders. The prestige model of spectrum bipolarity offers a new conceptualisation of affective disorders and has received

  5. Viruses, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Yolken, R H; Torrey, E F

    1995-01-01

    The hypothesis that viruses or other infectious agents may cause schizophrenia or bipolar disorder dates to the 19th century but has recently been revived. It could explain many clinical, genetic, and epidemiologic aspects of these diseases, including the winter-spring birth seasonality, regional differences, urban birth, household crowding, having an older sibling, and prenatal exposure to influenza as risk factors. It could also explain observed immunological changes such as abnormalities of lymphocytes, proteins, autoantibodies, and cytokines. However, direct studies of viral infections in individuals with these psychiatric diseases have been predominantly negative. Most studies have examined antibodies in blood or cerebrospinal fluid, and relatively few studies have been done on viral antigens, genomes, cytopathic effect on cell culture, and animal transmission experiments. Viral research on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is thus comparable to viral research on multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease: an attractive hypothesis with scattered interesting findings but no clear proof. The application of molecular biological techniques may allow the identification of novel infectious agents and the associations of these novel agents with serious mental diseases. PMID:7704891

  6. Helping At-Risk College Students Help Themselves through Humor: A Reading and Writing Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Lois E.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines the many benefits of humor. Describes a reading and writing strategy to help at-risk college students reduce stress, appreciate the humor in many areas of college life, and use reading and writing about humorous college situations as a tool for developing critical thinking. Describes an application of the strategy. (SR)

  7. The Association between Humor and Depression in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients and High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiheit, Stacy R.; Overholser, James C.; Lehnert, Kim L.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined relationship between a sense of humor and symptoms of depression among adolescents. Findings on measures of humor and depression for 140 adolescents revealed that a sense of humor can be reliably measured and may be inversely related to symptoms of depression. (LBT)

  8. Humor in Pedagogy: How Ha-Ha Can Lead to Aha!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have examined the pedagogical implications and cautions concerning the use of humor in teaching. Humor has been associated with a host of positive physiological and psychological effects. Researchers have identified that educators who use humor in their instruction are more positively rated by their peers and their students; others…

  9. The Relationship between Instructor Humor Orientation and Students' Report on Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Humor is an integral component of any language and therefore has an impact on the way languages are acquired/learned. Numerous studies have investigated the role of instructor humor in teaching/learning processes; however, there is little empirical research on the relationship between instructor humor and learning of a second language. This paper…

  10. Those who laugh are defenseless: how humor breaks resistance to influence.

    PubMed

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W; van Baaren, Rick B; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-06-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in memory. Brand associations are important because there is often a time delay between ad exposure and brand decisions. We separately manipulated two typical aspects of humor processing, that is, distraction and positive affect, and examined their effects on the development of respectively negative and positive brand associations. All experiments were conducted with university students as participants. The results showed that resistance causes negative brand associations (Experiments 1 and 2), and humor prevents the development of these negative brand associations more than nondistracting positive stimuli and neutral stimuli (Experiment 2 and 3). The prevention of negative brand associations was caused by the distractive properties of humor. Irrespective of resistance, the positive affect engendered by humor enhanced positive brand associations. Experiment 3 showed that distraction and positive affect in humor uniquely contribute to brand preference. Together, these results illustrate that the effect of humor on resistance follows a two-step process: humor forestalls the development of negative brand associations because of its distractive properties (cognitive mechanism), and engenders positive brand associations because of its positive emotional outcomes (affective mechanism). These effects of humor on brand associations jointly promote brand preference. PMID:22564085

  11. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  12. Learning to Laugh at Ourselves: Humor, Self-Transcendence, and the Cultivation of Moral Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…

  13. The Use of Humor as a Teaching Strategy in Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukehart, Dennis E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the use of humor as a teaching strategy among a sample of nurse educators employed by community colleges and universities in Northern and Central California nursing programs. The study also identified the types of humor used, how humor is used in the classroom, and nurse educators' perceptions of…

  14. Use and Non-Use of Humor in Academic ESL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay; Abdullah, Mohd S. Faiz

    2011-01-01

    A substantial body of research emphasizes the importance of humor in teaching/learning processes; however, research on the reasons for non-use of humor in academic contexts has enjoyed scant attention. Addressing this gap, this study examines the reasons for instructors' humor avoidance taking into account student perceived benefits of using humor…

  15. Humor in Literature about Children with Disability: What Are We Seeing in Literature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    This article explores instances of humor in literature as it relates to children with disabilities and offers ways to help children and adolescents build an authentic understanding of disability and disability humor. The prevalent message in the books reviewed is that children with disability not only appreciate humor but also can produce various…

  16. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  17. Humoral response to rabies vaccines in pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Tiwari, K N; Mohan, Bhardwaj; Mala, Chabbra; Rana, U V S; Ichhpujani, R L

    2007-06-01

    Humoral immune response was studied in dogs vaccinated with different tissue culture vaccines commonly used for immunization of dogs in India. The results revealed that after single dose of vaccination only 56% dogs developed protective titer (> or = 1:8). The response of the three vaccines used in the study was not similar, highlighting the need to maintain post marketing surveillance. PMID:18338690

  18. Mexican Proverbs: The Philosophy, Wisdom and Humor of a People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballesteros, Octavio A.

    Careful reading of proverbs can aid an individual to develop self-awareness by providing insights into what one cultural group considers desirable human behavior. Respect for the elderly can be taught to the young through the study of proverbs. Through their proverbs, the Mexicans reveal their friendliness, love of animals, sense of humor, and…

  19. Humorous Language Play in a Thai EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Ross

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between creativity, play, and language learning has been of increasing interest over the past decade, but the role of humour itself in SLL remains significantly under-explored. The present study examines humorous language play initiated by a bilingual EFL teacher and taken up by his post-beginner students in a Thai university…

  20. Does CMC Promote Language Play? Exploring Humor in Two Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergriff, Ilona; Fuchs, Carolin

    2009-01-01

    In view of the growing body of research on humor and language play in computer-mediated communication (CMC) which--more than any other medium--has been associated with goofing off, joking, and other nonserious communication, this paper compares spontaneous foreign language play (L2 play) in text-only synchronous computer-mediated versus…

  1. Laugh and Learn: Using Humor to Teach Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how one high school English teacher used humor when teaching Shakespearean tragedy. Describes how this improved students' attitudes and appreciation of the tragedies, helped them appreciate literature devices in the plays, and helped them review prior to their exam. (SR)

  2. Temperament and Communicative Competence as Predictors of Young Children's Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, David K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Explores the relations between temperament, communicative competence, and humor expression among four- and five-year-old nursery school children. Shows that ratings of communicative competence and various dimensions of temperament account for a significant proportion of the variance in the reported frequency of children's laughter and verbal and…

  3. Using Humorous Sitcom Clips in Teaching Federal Income Taxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, H. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    This article shares the motivation, process, and outcomes of using humorous scenes from television comedies to teach the real world of tax practice. The article advances the literature by reviewing the use of video clips in a previously unexplored discipline, discussing the process of identifying and selecting appropriate clips, and introducing…

  4. Humor Preference as a Function of Preoedipal Fixation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juni, Samuel

    1982-01-01

    Psychoanalytic theory predicts that humor preference is a derivative of unresolved childhood conflicts. Analyzed students' (N=104) Rorschach protocols to yield measures of preoedipal fixation. Students ranked jokes from most to least funny. Results showed that the ranking of jokes was a function of the fixation measures for women only. (Author/RC)

  5. Brock Cole: The Good, the Bad, and the Humorously Ironic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Wendy J.

    1999-01-01

    Looks at three books for young adults by Brock Cole: "The Goats" (1987), "Celine" (1989), and "The Facts Speak for Themselves" (1997). Discusses common elements in these stories: young people who rise to the occasion; adults who often do not; characters readers can empathize with; an honest treatment of sexuality; and a wonderful use of humor. (SR)

  6. Humor and the Emeritus Professor: An Interview with Gene Roth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivona, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a compilation of several conversations with Dr. Gene Roth, Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus at Northern Illinois University. Dr. Roth is past President of the Academy of Human Resource Development, and although he is well known for his efforts in bringing humor into the field of HRD, he is not the same Gene Roth that played…

  7. Humor as a Presentational Device in Broadcast Public Service Announcements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, D. J.

    On a daily basis, American television and radio audiences are subjected to a stream of broadcast Public Service Announcements (PSAs), each promoting "some kind of social or economic action deemed beneficial" (Stridsberg, 1977). Often, these announcements employ humor as a presentational device to help stimulate the behavioral change needed to…

  8. Oxidative Stress Levels in Aqueous Humor from High Myopic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Bi; Kim, Ha Kyoung; Hyon, Joon Young; Wee, Won Ryang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare oxidative stress status in the aqueous humor of highly myopic eyes and control eyes. Methods Aqueous humor samples were collected from 15 highly myopic eyes (high myopia group) and 23 cataractous eyes (control group) during cataract surgery. Central corneal thickness, corneal endothelial cell density, hexagonality of corneal endothelial cells, and cell area of corneal endothelial cells were measured using specular microscopy. Axial length was measured using ultrasound biometry. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results 8-OHdG level was lower in the aqueous humor of myopic patients than in that of control group (p = 0.014) and was positively correlated with central corneal thickness and negatively correlated with axial length (r = 0.511, p = 0.02; r = -0.382, p < 0.001). There was no correlation between 8-OHdG level and corneal endothelial cell density, hexagonality, or cell area. Malondialdehyde level did not show any correlation with any parameters evaluated. Conclusions 8-OHdG might be a sensitive biomarker for evaluating oxidative stress status in the eye. Oxidative stress level was lower in the aqueous humor of highly myopic eyes compared to that in control eyes, which indicates lower metabolic activity in these eyes. PMID:27247516

  9. Tracking Humoral Responses Using Self Assembling Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Niroshan; Anderson, Karen S.; Raphael, Jacob v.; Hainsworth, Eugenie; Sibani, Sahar; Montor, Wagner R.; Pacek, Marcin; Wong, Jessica; Eljanne, Mariam; Sanda, Martin G.; Hu, Yanhui; Logvinenko, Tanya; LaBaer, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The humoral immune response is a highly specific and adaptive sensor for changes in the body's protein milieu, which responds to novel structures of both foreign and self antigens. Although immunoglobulins represent a major component of human serum and are vital to survival, little is known about the response specificity and determinants that govern the human immunome. Historically, antigen-specific humoral immunity has been investigated using individually-produced and purified target proteins, a labor-intensive process that has limited the number of antigens that have been studied. Here, we present the development of methods for applying self-assembling protein microarrays and a related method for producing 96-well formatted macroarrays for monitoring the humoral response at the proteome scale. Using plasmids encoding full-length cDNAs for over 850 human proteins and 1700 pathogen proteins, we demonstrate that these microarrays are highly sensitive, specific, reproducible, and can simultaneously measure immunity to thousands of proteins without a priori protein purification. Using this approach, we demonstrate the detection of humoral immunity to known and novel self-antigens, cancer antigens, autoimmune antigens, as well as pathogen-derived antigens. This represents a powerful and versatile tool for monitoring the immunome in health and disease. PMID:21136799

  10. Laughing matters: Infant humor in the context of parental affect.

    PubMed

    Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Cousineau, Kassandra; Pettinato, Christine; Woodard, Kelly

    2015-08-01

    Smiling and laughing appear very early during the first year of life, but little is known about how infants come to appraise a stimulus as humorous. This short-term longitudinal study explored infant humor perception from 5 to 7 months of age as a function of parental affect during an absurd event. Using a within-participants design, parents alternated smiling/laughing with emotional neutrality while acting absurdly toward their infants. Group comparisons showed that infants (N = 37) at all ages smiled at the event regardless of parental affect but did so significantly longer at 5 and 6 months, and more often and sooner at 7 months, when parents provided humor cues. Similarly, sequential analyses revealed that after gazing at the event, 7-month-olds were more likely to smile at it only when parents provided humor cues and were comparatively more likely to look away when parents were neutral. Thus, starting at 5 months of age, parental affect influenced infants' affect toward an absurd event, an effect that was magnified at 7 months. These results are discussed in the context of emotional contagion, regulation, and the emergence of social referencing. PMID:25897958

  11. Bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelman, E.; Kout, W.; Vogelaar, B.; Lenssen, J.; de Waal, E.

    The bipolar plates are in weight and volume the major part of the PEM fuel cell stack, and are also a significant contributor to the stack costs. The bipolar plate is therefore a key component if power density has to increase and costs must come down. Three cell plate technologies are expected to reach targeted cost price levels, all having specific advantages and drawbacks. NedStack has developed a conductive composite materials and a production process for fuel cell plates (bipolar and mono-polar). The material has a high electric and thermal conductivity, and can be processed into bipolar plates by a proprietary molding process. Process cycle time has been reduced to less than 10 s, making the material and process suitable for economical mass production. Other development work to increase material efficiency resulted in thin bipolar plates with integrated cooling channels, and integrated seals, and in two-component bipolar plates. Total thickness of the bipolar plates is now less than 3 mm, and will be reduced to 2 mm in the near future. With these thin integrated plates it is possible to increase power density up to 2 kW/l and 2 kW/kg, while at the same time reducing cost by integrating other functions and less material use.

  12. Brief Report: A Family Risk Study Exploring Bipolar Spectrum Problems and Cognitive Biases in Adolescent Children of Bipolar Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espie, Jonathan; Jones, Steven H.; Vance, Yvonne H.; Tai, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of bipolar spectrum diagnoses. This cross-sectional study explores cognitive factors in the prediction of vulnerability to bipolar disorder. Adolescents at high-risk (with a parent with bipolar disorder; n = 23) and age and gender matched adolescents (n = 24) were recruited. Parent…

  13. Recognising Bipolar Disorders in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Dietch, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder, previously called 'Manic-depression', is a complex group of conditions characterised by recurrent changes in mood and energy. Crucially, the intensity and duration of these changes go beyond normal fluctuations and personality traits. Bipolar Disorder is a mental health disorder, but physical health manifestations (Smith 2013, Westman 2013, Fagiolini 2008, Young 2013) and complications are just as important. GPs have a key role in the recognition and management, in conjunction with secondary care colleagues. Diagnosis is often difficult and may take several years (Smith 2011, Angst 2005, Manning 2010), because patients usually seek help for anxiety, depression or fatigue, not hypomania/mania, which they may not recognise. Individuals with a first episode of mania are more likely to present directly to secondary care, sometimes via a third party alerting the emergency services. There is also debate around the classification, diagnosis and treatment of individuals with brief and milder mood changes ('bipolar spectrum disorder') (Faravelli 2009, Spence 2011). In the UK, the recent NICE Guidelines (2014) 1 only included Bipolar I and Bipolar II for these reasons. A particular challenge for GPs is that whilst most people who have Bipolar Disorder (and especially Bipolar II) are depressed, most people with depression within a Primary Care setting do not have Bipolar Disorder. Thus, a brief pragmatic screen is recommended in Primary care: ask about a family history of Bipolar Disorder and screen for a history of mania/hypomania in individuals with anxiety, depression or irritability, especially if there are recurrent episodes, suicidal thoughts or a previous suicide attempt. For suspected cases, formal diagnosis should not be made within Primary Care but individuals should be referred for Psychiatric assessment, ideally to a Mood Disorders specialist. PMID:26417759

  14. SEU In An Advanced Bipolar Integrated Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Secrest, Elaine C.; Berndt, Dale F.

    1989-01-01

    Report summarizes investigation of single-event upsets (SEU) in bipolar integrated-circuit set of flip-flops (memory cells). Device tested made by advanced digital bipolar silicon process of Honeywell, Inc. Circuit chip contained 4 cells. Construction enabled study of effect of size on SEU behavior. Each cell externally biased so effect of bias current on SEU behavior. Results of study provides important information for optimal design of devices fabricated using buried-layer bipolar process operating in heavy-ion SEU environments. Designers use information to provide required levels of suppression of SEU in specific applications via combinations of size and/or cell-current scaling.

  15. Bipolar Disorder: A Daughter's Experience.

    PubMed

    Khare, Satya Rashi

    2016-09-01

    My father suffered from bipolar disorder. His illness placed an enormous strain on our relationship which, for the most part, was filled with turbulence. Although our family physician played an integral role in supporting my parents throughout the disease, I did not receive the same support and suffered as a consequence. In this essay, I describe my father's manic and major depressive episodes, as well as my emotions that resulted from the experience. Treating mental illness goes beyond just treating the patient but rather encompasses the family as a whole. My relationship with my father may have been different had I learned effective coping strategies through the support of my family physician. PMID:27621165

  16. Antidepressant chronotherapeutics for bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Chronotherapeutics refers to treatments based on the principles of circadian rhythm organization and sleep physiology, which control the exposure to environmental stimuli that act on biological rhythms, in order to achieve therapeutic effects in the treatment of psychiatric conditions. It includes manipulations of the sleep-wake cycle such as sleep deprivation and sleep phase advance, and controlled exposure to light and dark. The antidepressant effects of chronotherapeutics are evident in difficult-to-treat conditions such as bipolar depression, which has been associated with extremely low success rates of antidepressant drugs in naturalistic settings and with stable antidepressant response to chronotherapeutics in more than half of the patients. Recent advances in the study of the effects of chronotherapeutics on neurotransmitter systems, and on the biological clock machinery, allow us to pinpoint its mechanism of action and to transform it from a neglected or "orphan" treatment to a powerful clinical instrument in everyday psychiatric practice. PMID:23393416

  17. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Tekkanat, B.; Bolstad, J.J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the present invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process. 4 figs.

  18. Antidepressant chronotherapeutics for bipolar depression

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Chronotherapeutics refers to treatments based on the principles of circadian rhythm organization and sleep physiology, which control the exposure to environmental stimuli that act on biological rhythms, in order to achieve therapeutic effects in the treatment of psychiatric conditions. It includes manipulations of the sleep-wake cycle such as sleep deprivation and sleep phase advance, and controlled exposure to light and dark. The antidepressant effects of chronotherapeutics are evident in difficult-to-treat conditions such as bipolar depression, which has been associated with extremely low success rates of antidepressant drugs in naturalistic settings and with stable antidepressant response to chronotherapeutics in more than half of the patients. Recent advances in the study of the effects of chronotherapeutics on neurotransmitter systems, and on the biological clock machinery, allow us to pinpoint its mechanism of action and to transform it from a neglected or “orphan” treatment to a powerful clinical instrument in everyday psychiatric practice. PMID:23393416

  19. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Tekkanat, Bora; Bolstad, James J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the pesent invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process.

  20. Recent work on bipolar nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M.

    1983-01-01

    The results of recent studies of bipolar nebulae (BPN) using nebular-polarization mapping, spectropolarimetry, near-IR spectroscopy, far-IR photometry, and radio-maser and continuum observations are surveyed. The characteristics of several BPN of different evolutionary types are discussed and illustrated with spectra, model drawings, and maps. As shown in a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of 19 BPN, this morphological class includes pre-main-sequence stars, red giants in transition to ordinary planetary nebulae, pre-white-dwarfs, a dust-shrouded carbon star, and a visual binary with a type-O primary. VLA 6-cm observations of the latter object, MWC 349, reveal a morphology similar to the optical structure of the Red Rectangle illuminated by HD 44179: it is suggested that equatorial dusty tori may occur commonly at different phases of stellar evolution, and hence that BPN may be relatively abundant, although short-lived, phenomena.

  1. Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure presents a concept of a bipolar miniature electrostatic ion thruster for maneuvering a small spacecraft. The ionization device in the proposed thruster would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several mega-volts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. In a thruster-based on this concept, one or more propellant gases would be introduced into such a membrane ionizer. Unlike in larger prior ion thrusters, all of the propellant molecules would be ionized. This thruster would be capable of bipolar operation. There would be two accelerator grids - one located forward and one located aft of the membrane ionizer. In one mode of operation, which one could denote the forward mode, positive ions leaving the ionizer on the backside would be accelerated to high momentum by an electric field between the ionizer and an accelerator grid. Electrons leaving the ionizer on the front side would be ejected into free space by a smaller accelerating field. The equality of the ion and electron currents would eliminate the need for an additional electron- or ion-emitting device to keep the spacecraft charge-neutral. In another mode of operation, which could denote the reverse mode, the polarities of the voltages applied to the accelerator grids and to the electrodes of the membrane ionizer would be the reverse of those of the forward mode. The reversal of electric fields would cause the ion and electrons to be ejected in the reverse of their forward mode directions, thereby giving rise to thrust in the direction opposite that of the forward mode.

  2. Humor styles and loneliness: a study among Hong Kong and Hangzhou undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Wong, Ashley Yuen Man; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between humor styles and loneliness among a sample of Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese. A total of 159 Hong Kong undergraduates and 178 Hangzhou undergraduates were recruited to complete a survey composed of the Humor Styles Questionnaire and the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scales. Multiple regression analyses showed that self-defeating humor explained significant variance in both social and emotional loneliness for Hong Kong students, but only in social loneliness for Hangzhou students. Hong Kong students scored significantly higher on aggressive humor and self-defeating humor, and scored significantly lower on affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor than did their counterparts in Hangzhou. This could be attributed to the greater influence of Confucianism in Mainland China than in Hong Kong. PMID:25153950

  3. Empirical typology of bipolar I mood episodes*

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, David A.; Leon, Andrew C.; Endicott, Jean; Coryell, William H.; Li, Chunshan; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Keller, Martin B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Much remains unknown about the phenomenology of bipolar I disorder. Aims To determine the type of bipolar I mood episodes that occur over time, and their relative frequency. Method A total of 219 individuals with Research Diagnostic Criteria bipolar I disorder were prospectively followed for up to 25 years (median 20 years). Psychopathology was assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation. Results Overall, 1208 mood episodes were prospectively observed. The episodes were empirically classified as follows: major depression, 30.9% (n = 373); minor depression, 13.0% (n = 157); mania, 20.4% (n = 246); hypomania, 10.4% (n = 126); cycling, 17.3% (n = 210); cycling plus mixed state, 7.8% (n = 94); and mixed, 0.2% (n = 2). Conclusions Cycling episodes constituted 25% of all episodes. Work groups revising ICD–10 and DSM–IV should add a category for bipolar I cycling episode. PMID:19949203

  4. White matter microstructure alterations in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bellani, Marcella; Perlini, Cinzia; Ferro, Adele; Cerruti, Stefania; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Isola, Miriam; Cerini, Roberto; Dusi, Nicola; Andreone, Nicola; Balestrieri, Matteo; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Tansella, Michele; Brambilla, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Summary Genetic, neuropathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings support the presence of diffuse white matter cytoarchitectural disruption in bipolar disorder. In this study, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was applied to study cortical white matter microstructure organisation in 24 patients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder and 35 matched normal controls. DWI images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla scanner and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were determined over regions of interest placed, bilaterally, in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital white matter. Significantly increased ADC values were found in bipolar patients with respect to normal controls in the right temporal lobe, left parietal lobe and bilateral occipital lobes. ADC values did not associate significantly with age or with clinical variables (p>0.05). Diffuse cortical white matter alterations on DWI in bipolar disorder denote widespread disruption of white matter integrity and may be due to altered myelination and/or axonal integrity. PMID:22687164

  5. Silence as the Root of American Indian Humor: Further Meditations on the Comic Vision of Anishinaabe Culture and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    The literature on humor generally focuses on the nature of incongruities as the root of humor. In this article, the author takes the examination of humor one step further by meditating on the mental frame involved with humor. He is interested in what cultural experiences would predispose the individuals within a given culture to have a sense of…

  6. [The effect of humor in the workplace on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor. PMID:27180510

  7. Explorations of the Functions of Humor and Other Types of Fun among Families of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Alicja

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative study of six families of children with disabilities and their perspectives on humor. The findings revealed that the families had an understanding of humor that went beyond the generalized humor construct. They embraced both the concept of humor and "other types of fun." Furthermore, the families' attempts at…

  8. Decoding humor experiences from brain activity of people viewing comedy movies.

    PubMed

    Sawahata, Yasuhito; Komine, Kazuteru; Morita, Toshiya; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer's perception of humor (humor onset) determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events. PMID:24324656

  9. Decoding Humor Experiences from Brain Activity of People Viewing Comedy Movies

    PubMed Central

    Sawahata, Yasuhito; Komine, Kazuteru; Morita, Toshiya; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer’s perception of humor (humor onset) determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events. PMID:24324656

  10. Rumination in bipolar disorder: evidence for an unquiet mind

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Depression in bipolar disorder has long been thought to be a state characterized by mental inactivity. However, recent research demonstrates that patients with bipolar disorder engage in rumination, a form of self-focused repetitive cognitive activity, in depressed as well as in manic states. While rumination has long been associated with depressed states in major depressive disorder, the finding that patients with bipolar disorder ruminate in manic states is unique to bipolar disorder and challenges explanations put forward for why people ruminate. We review the research on rumination in bipolar disorder and propose that rumination in bipolar disorder, in both manic and depressed states, reflects executive dysfunction. We also review the neurobiology of bipolar disorder and recent neuroimaging studies of rumination, which is consistent with our hypothesis that the tendency to ruminate reflects executive dysfunction in bipolar disorder. Finally, we relate the neurobiology of rumination to the neurobiology of emotion regulation, which is disrupted in bipolar disorder. PMID:22738363

  11. The development of lurasidone for bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Loebel, Antony; Xu, Jane; Hsu, Jay; Cucchiaro, Josephine; Pikalov, Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic, recurrent illness that ranks among the top 10 causes of disability in the developed world. As the illness progresses, major depressive episodes increasingly predominate. However, few treatment options are available that have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of bipolar depression, either as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in combination with mood stabilizers. Lurasidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug that was initially developed for the treatment of schizophrenia. Since no previous atypical antipsychotic development program had proceeded directly from work on schizophrenia to bipolar depression, the decision to focus on this indication represented an innovation in central nervous system drug development and was designed to address a clinically significant unmet need. The current review summarizes key results of a clinical development program undertaken to characterize the efficacy and safety of lurasidone in patients diagnosed with bipolar depression. Lurasidone is currently the only treatment for bipolar depression approved in the United States as both a monotherapy and an adjunctive therapy with lithium or valproate. The approval of lurasidone expands available treatment options for patients with bipolar depression and provides a therapy with an overall favorable risk-benefit profile. PMID:26771990

  12. The use of bipolar technology in hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Stefania; DE Alberti, Davide; Garuti, Giancarlo

    2016-04-01

    Bipolar technology was introduced in the hysteroscopic clinical use in 1999, by the design of both loop electrodes addressed to resectoscopic surgery and miniaturized electrodes adaptable to small-size hysteroscopes. The need of an electrolytic solution as distension medium and the spatial relationships between the active and return bipolar electrode avoid, by definition, the risks of severe electrolyte imbalance syndromes and unpredictable electrical burns, sometimes complicating monopolar surgery. The true revolution in the hysteroscopy care has achieved through the availability of mini-hysteroscopes not requiring cervical dilatation, thus limiting uterine wall damages and allowing surgeons to manage several endometrial pathologies by mini-invasive procedures using an effective electrosurgical bipolar instrumentation. Many surgical interventions, traditionally accomplished by the resectoscope in a surgical room theatre, can be now carried out in an outpatient setting without any support from anesthesia. The patients' avoidance of surgical room access and the quick return to daily activities lead to an obvious - but not fully demonstrated - improvement in the medical and social costs associated to outpatient operative hysteroscopy. In the field of resectoscopy, bipolar electrodes are clinically as effective as monopolar devices. Randomized trials showed that bipolar resectoscopic technology prevents the electrolyte imbalance observed after monopolar surgery. However, in daily clinical practice the assumedly safer profile of bipolar with respect to monopolar resectoscopy has not been demonstrated yet. PMID:26928415

  13. Is Laughing at the Expense of Victims and Offenders a Red Flag? Humor and Secondary Traumatic Stress.

    PubMed

    Craun, Sarah W; Bourke, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Those who work with human trauma often use humor to handle job stressors. Research has demonstrated that lighthearted humor is related to lower secondary traumatic stress scores, while gallows humor has the inverse relationship. This work explores how three types of humor relate to secondary traumatic stress: (a) humor at the expense of victims, (b) humor at the expense of offenders, and (c) humor containing sexual innuendo. Internet crimes against children taskforce personnel completed questionnaires about secondary traumatic stress and coping techniques. Humor at the expense of victims was rarely used, but when it was, it was indicative of higher secondary traumatic stress. There were no relationships between secondary traumatic stress and the use of humor at the expense of offenders or humor containing sexual innuendo. PMID:26301442

  14. Evaluating the interfacial reaction kinetics of the bipolar membrane interface in the bipolar membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sikan; Lu, Shanfu; Zhang, Jin; Sui, Pang-Chieh; Xiang, Yan

    2013-07-21

    A reaction kinetic model of the bipolar membrane interface in the bipolar membrane fuel cell (BPMFC) was proposed based on the p-n junction theory and chemical reaction kinetics. It verified the self-humidification feasibility of the BPMFC successfully. PMID:23744271

  15. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  16. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  17. Mother, melancholia, and humor in Erik H. Erikson's earliest writings.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2008-09-01

    Erik H. Erikson wrote three articles when he was in his late-twenties and an up-and-coming member of the psychoanalytic community in Vienna. At the time he wrote these articles, he was in a training psychoanalysis with Anna Freud, teaching at the Heitzing School in Vienna, and learning the Montessori method of teaching. These articles focus on the loss of primary narcissism and the development of the superego (or punitive conscience) in early childhood, especially through the child's conflict with maternal authority. They support the idea that melancholia, with its internalized rage against the mother, is the inevitable outcome of the loss of primary narcissism. I note, however, that the third of these articles makes a case for the restorative role of humor, especially when Freud's view that humor is a function of the superego is taken into account. PMID:19105029

  18. Effects of Prostaglandin Analogues on Aqueous Humor Outflow Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Nelson S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most prevalent risk factor for glaucoma. All treatments, whether surgical or pharmaceutical, are aimed at lowering IOP. Prostaglandin analogues are a first line therapy for glaucoma due to their ability to reduce IOP, once-daily dosing, efficacy, and minimal side-effect profile. Whereas prostaglandin analogues have been known to alter aqueous humor outflow through the unconventional (uveoscleral) pathway, more recent evidence suggests their action also occurs through the conventional (trabecular) pathway. Understanding how prostaglandin analogues successfully lower IOP is important, as this information may lead to the discovery of new molecular targets for future therapeutic intervention. This review explores the current understanding of prostaglandin analogue biology as it pertains to IOP reduction and improved aqueous humor outflow facility. PMID:24359106

  19. Lateralization in appreciation of humor: sex differences vs stimulus effects.

    PubMed

    Gallivan, J

    1997-10-01

    The finding that women rate funnier humorous items with left-ear input, while men give higher ratings with right-ear input has been cited as evidence for a biological basis for sex differences in appreciation of humor. However, in 1991 Gallivan did not find this effect and suggested that the earlier finding could have been due to the use of 'male-oriented' stimuli. In this study, 72 subjects rated the funniness of 32 'female oriented' comedy excerpts, presented monaurally. Women gave higher ratings with right-ear input but men's ratings were not affected by ear of presentation. These findings represent another failure to replicate the earlier-reported hemispheric effect and support the conclusion that it may have been due to the stimuli used. PMID:9347538

  20. Aqueous humor cytokine profiling in patients with wet AMD

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Ding, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yu; Li, Jiaqing; Tang, Miao; Yuan, Miner; Hu, Andina; Zhan, Zongyi; Li, Zijing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the chemokine expression profiles in the aqueous humor of wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) patients and to correlate their levels with clinical findings. Methods Undiluted aqueous humor samples (100–200 μl) were obtained from 16 wet AMD eyes and 12 control eyes. Forty chemokines were measured using a multiplex method. A 6×6 mm area of the macular region centered on the fovea was examined using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results The detection rates were 50% or more for 15 chemokines. Compared with the control group, the aqueous humor in wet AMD patients showed a significantly higher expression of CXCL10 (p=0.004), CCL14 (p=0.002), CXCL16 (p=0.013), CXCL7 (p=0.033), and CCL22 (p=0.037), while growth-related oncogene (GRO) was significantly decreased in the wet AMD patients (p=0.001). When compared with treatment-naïve patients, the recurrent group had significant upregulation of CXCL10 (p=0.012) and CCL22 (p=0.002). CXCL16 was positively correlated with lesion size, and CCL22 was higher in patients whose OCT images showed intraretinal fluid (IRF) or hyperreflective foci (HF). Conclusions Elevated levels of inflammation-related chemokines, including CXCL10, CCL14, CXCL16, CXCL7, and CCL22, in the aqueous humor of AMD patients may suggest a pathogenic role for inflammation. CXCL10 and CCL22 were more elevated in eyes with recurrent wet AMD than in treatment-naïve eyes. CXCL16 was positively correlated with lesion size. The increase in CCL22 was correlated with the presence of IRF or HF. These data may be of interest in the search for biomarkers associated with wet AMD and may potentially indicate different treatment strategies. PMID:27122966

  1. Thresholds for Cenozoic bipolar glaciation.

    PubMed

    Deconto, Robert M; Pollard, David; Wilson, Paul A; Pälike, Heiko; Lear, Caroline H; Pagani, Mark

    2008-10-01

    The long-standing view of Earth's Cenozoic glacial history calls for the first continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica in the earliest Oligocene epoch ( approximately 33.6 million years ago), followed by the onset of northern-hemispheric glacial cycles in the late Pliocene epoch, about 31 million years later. The pivotal early Oligocene event is characterized by a rapid shift of 1.5 parts per thousand in deep-sea benthic oxygen-isotope values (Oi-1) within a few hundred thousand years, reflecting a combination of terrestrial ice growth and deep-sea cooling. The apparent absence of contemporaneous cooling in deep-sea Mg/Ca records, however, has been argued to reflect the growth of more ice than can be accommodated on Antarctica; this, combined with new evidence of continental cooling and ice-rafted debris in the Northern Hemisphere during this period, raises the possibility that Oi-1 represents a precursory bipolar glaciation. Here we test this hypothesis using an isotope-capable global climate/ice-sheet model that accommodates both the long-term decline of Cenozoic atmospheric CO(2) levels and the effects of orbital forcing. We show that the CO(2) threshold below which glaciation occurs in the Northern Hemisphere ( approximately 280 p.p.m.v.) is much lower than that for Antarctica ( approximately 750 p.p.m.v.). Therefore, the growth of ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere immediately following Antarctic glaciation would have required rapid CO(2) drawdown within the Oi-1 timeframe, to levels lower than those estimated by geochemical proxies and carbon-cycle models. Instead of bipolar glaciation, we find that Oi-1 is best explained by Antarctic glaciation alone, combined with deep-sea cooling of up to 4 degrees C and Antarctic ice that is less isotopically depleted (-30 to -35 per thousand) than previously suggested. Proxy CO(2) estimates remain above our model's northern-hemispheric glaciation threshold of approximately 280 p.p.m.v. until approximately 25 Myr

  2. HUMOR STYLES, CREATIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND CREATIVE THINKING IN A HONG KONG SAMPLE.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Hui, Anna Na

    2015-12-01

    Humor is found to be an essential element of creative thinking in Western culture. In Eastern culture, however, the relationship between creativity and humor is ambivalent. This study examined the relationship among humor styles, creative personality traits, and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 118 Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong was recruited to complete the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the three Creative Personality subscales of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-2 (CPAI-2), and the Verbal Test of the Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests. Results show that humor styles are uncorrelated with creative thinking abilities of flexibility, fluency, and originality, but affiliative humor and aggressive humor are correlated with creative personality traits of novelty and diversity. A hierarchical multiple regression shows that both humor styles and creative personality traits of novelty and diversity account for non-significant variance on creative thinking abilities. These findings largely support a hypothesized non-association between humor styles and creative measures. They also pose a sharp contrast to findings obtained in the West, in which humor styles are typically correlated with both creative thinking abilities and creative personality traits. PMID:26595303

  3. The effect of humor on aggression catharsis in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Ziv, A

    1987-07-01

    Two studies were designed to measure the cathartic effects of humor on aggressive responses. In the first study, two versions (easy and difficult) of Raven's intelligence test were administered to two groups of high school students. Only the easy version could be solved in the alloted time. Rosenzweig's (1951) Picture Frustration test was then administered and the students' aggressive responses were scored. Results showed that those who did not solve the problems had significantly higher scores on aggressivity than did the others. The second study, using four different groups, was planned according to a modified Solomon design. Two of the four groups of students completed the difficult part of the Raven test, and then two video-tapes were presented: a humorous one to two groups and a neutral one to the others. Finally, the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test was administered to all four groups. An analysis of variance computed on the aggressivity scores showed one significant difference: frustrated students who viewed the humorous videotape had lower scores than those viewing the neutral one. PMID:3625568

  4. Immune response and histology of humoral rejection in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    González-Molina, Miguel; Ruiz-Esteban, Pedro; Caballero, Abelardo; Burgos, Dolores; Cabello, Mercedes; Leon, Miriam; Fuentes, Laura; Hernandez, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive immune response forms the basis of allograft rejection. Its weapons are direct cellular cytotoxicity, identified from the beginning of organ transplantation, and/or antibodies, limited to hyperacute rejection by preformed antibodies and not as an allogenic response. This resulted in allogenic response being thought for decades to have just a cellular origin. But the experimental studies by Gorer demonstrating tissue damage in allografts due to antibodies secreted by B lymphocytes activated against polymorphic molecules were disregarded. The special coexistence of binding and unbinding between antibodies and antigens of the endothelial cell membranes has been the cause of the delay in demonstrating the humoral allogenic response. The endothelium, the target tissue of antibodies, has a high turnover, and antigen-antibody binding is non-covalent. If endothelial cells are attacked by the humoral response, immunoglobulins are rapidly removed from their surface by shedding and/or internalization, as well as degrading the components of the complement system by the action of MCP, DAF and CD59. Thus, the presence of complement proteins in the membrane of endothelial cells is transient. In fact, the acute form of antibody-mediated rejection was not demonstrated until C4d complement fragment deposition was identified, which is the only component that binds covalently to endothelial cells. This review examines the relationship between humoral immune response and the types of acute and chronic histological lesion shown on biopsy of the transplanted organ. PMID:27267916

  5. Stop laughing! Humor perception with and without expressive suppression.

    PubMed

    Korb, Sebastian; Grandjean, Didier; Samson, Andrea C; Delplanque, Sylvain; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-01-01

    The neurophysiological study of emotion regulation focused on the strategy of reappraisal-i.e., the cognitive reinterpretation of a stimulus. Reappraisal reduces emotional expression, the experience of both negative and positive feelings, and the amplitude of an event-related potential (ERP)-the late positive potential (LPP). In contrast, the strategy of expressive suppression (ES), being the inhibition of emotional expression, has been reported to reduce subjective feelings of positive, but not negative emotion, and has not yet been investigated with ERPs. We focused on the LPP to assess the correlates of ES in the context of humor perception. Twenty-two female participants rated sequences of humorous (H) and non-humorous (NH) pictures, while their zygomaticus muscle was recorded. A spontaneous (SP) condition, in which participants attended naturally to the pictures, resulted in higher ratings of funniness, increased smiling, and increased LPP amplitude for H compared to NH stimuli. An ES condition, in which participants suppressed their facial reactions, resulted in reduced smiling, without affecting subjective ratings. LPP amplitude did not differ between H and NH stimuli during ES, suggesting equal allocation of processing resources to both stimuli. These results suggest that, similarly to reappraisal, ES modifies the way the brain processes positive emotional stimuli. PMID:22369232

  6. Bimatoprost Effects on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, David F.; Krauss, Achim H.-P.; Nilsson, Siv F. E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of bimatoprost on aqueous humor dynamics were quantified in monkey eyes. Uveoscleral outflow was measured by the anterior chamber perfusion method, using FITC-dextran. Total outflow facility was determined by the two-level constant pressure method. Aqueous flow was measured with a scanning ocular fluorophotometer. Uveoscleral outflow was 0.96 ± 0.19 μL min−1 in vehicle-treated eyes and 1.37 ± 0.27 μL min−1 (n = 6; P < .05) in eyes that received bimatoprost 0.01% b.i.d. × 5 days. Bimatoprost had no effect on total outflow facility, which was 0.42 ± 0.05 μL min−1 at baseline and 0.42 ± 0.04 μL min−1 after bimatoprost treatment. Bimatoprost had no significant effect on aqueous humor flow. This study demonstrates that bimatoprost increases uveoscleral outflow but not total outflow facility or aqueous humor flow, indicating that it lowers intraocular pressure in ocular normotensive monkeys by a mechanism that exclusively involves uveoscleral outflow. PMID:20508775

  7. Studies of the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets.

    PubMed

    Hamahashi, K; Sato, M; Yamato, M; Kokubo, M; Mitani, G; Ito, S; Nagai, T; Ebihara, G; Kutsuna, T; Okano, T; Mochida, J

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to repair and regenerate articular cartilage with layered chondrocyte sheets, produced using temperature-responsive culture dishes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets. Articular chondrocytes and synovial cells were harvested during total knee arthroplasty. After co-culture, the samples were divided into three groups: a monolayer, 7 day culture sheet group (group M); a triple-layered, 7 day culture sheet group (group L); and a monolayer culture group with a cell count identical to that of group L (group C). The secretion of collagen type 1 (COL1), collagen type 2 (COL2), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13), transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Layered chondrocyte sheets produced the most humoral factors. PGE2 expression declined over time in group C but was significantly higher in groups M and L. TGFβ expression was low in group C but was significantly higher in groups M and L (p<0.05). Our results suggest that the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets may contribute to cartilaginous tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:23165985

  8. Q fever in pregnant goats: humoral and cellular immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Both humoral and cellular immunity are important in the host defence against intracellular bacteria. Little is known about the immune response to C. burnetii infections in domestic ruminants even though these species are the major source of Q fever in humans. To investigate the goat’s immune response we inoculated groups of pregnant goats via inhalation with a Dutch outbreak isolate of C. burnetii. All animals were successfully infected. Phase 1 and Phase 2 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies were measured. Cellular immune responses were investigated by interferon-gamma, enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot test (IFN-γ Elispot), lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) and systemic cytokines. After two weeks post inoculation (wpi), a strong anti-C. burnetii Phase 2 IgM and IgG antibody response was observed while the increase in IgM anti-Phase 1 antibodies was less pronounced. IgG anti-Phase 1 antibodies started to rise at 6 wpi. Cellular immune responses were observed after parturition. Our results demonstrated humoral and cellular immune responses to C. burnetii infection in pregnant goats. Cell-mediated immune responses did not differ enough to distinguish between Coxiella-infected and non-infected pregnant animals, whereas a strong-phase specific antibody response is detected after 2 wpi. This humoral immune response may be useful in the early detection of C. burnetii-infected pregnant goats. PMID:23915213

  9. SEX DIFFERENCES DURING HUMOR APPRECIATION IN CHILD SIBLING-PAIRS

    PubMed Central

    Vrticka, Pascal; Neely, Michelle; Walter, Elizabeth; Black, Jessica M.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    The developmental origin of sex differences in adult brain function is poorly understood. Elucidating neural mechanisms underlying comparable cognitive functionality in both children and adults is required to address this gap. Humor appreciation represents a particularly relevant target for such developmental research because explanatory theories apply across the life span and underlying neurocircuitry shows sex differences in adults. As a positive mood state, humor is also of interest due to sex differences in rates of depression, a disorder afflicting twice as many women as men. In this study, we employed fMRI to investigate brain responses to funny versus positive (and neutral) video clips in 22 children ages 6 to 13 years, including 8 sibling pairs. Our data revealed increased activity to funny clips in bilateral temporo-occipital cortex, midbrain, and amygdala in girls. Conversely, we found heightened activation to positive clips in bilateral inferior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in boys. Many of these effects persisted when looking at sibling-pairs only. We interpret such findings as reflecting the presence of early sex divergence in reward saliency / expectation and stimulus relevance attribution. These findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary and developmental theories of humor function. PMID:23672302

  10. Monitoring of aqueous humor metabolites using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicksted, James P.; Erckens, Roel J.; Motamedi, Massoud; March, Wayne F.

    1994-05-01

    Laser Raman scattering has been used to monitor glucose and lactate metabolites within aqueous humor specimens obtained from nine human eyes during cataract surgery. Nine postmortem rabbit eyes were also investigated. Raman measurements were obtained using a single grating Raman spectrometer with a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD. A 514.5 nm line from an argon laser was used to illuminate capillaries containing several microliters of aqueous humor. A water background was subtracted from each of the aqueous humor Raman spectra. This experimental system was calibrated so that each metabolite in water could be measured down to 0.1 weight percent. Raman peaks indicative of the stretching vibrations of methylene and methyl groups associated with glucose and lactate, respectively, were observed in the human specimens. A second stretching mode characteristic of lactate between the carbon atom and either the carboxylic acid group or carboxylate ion group was also observed providing a distinguishing feature between the glucose and lactate Raman peaks. Similar structure was observed from the rabbit specimens, but these samples have recently been found to have been contaminated during euthanasia.

  11. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A

    2016-08-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin's research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin's earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin's subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin's comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  12. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin’s research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin’s earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin’s subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin’s comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  13. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; González-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Ayşegül; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valentí, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martínez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Özerdem, Ayşegül; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flávio; Vieta, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Objective The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. Method An expert task force iteratively developed consensus through serial consensus-based revisions using the Delphi method. Initial survey items were based on systematic review of the literature. Subsequent surveys included new or reworded items and items that needed to be rerated. This process resulted in the final ISBD Task Force clinical recommendations on antidepressant use in bipolar disorder. Results There is striking incongruity between the wide use of and the weak evidence base for the efficacy and safety of antidepressant drugs in bipolar disorder. Few well-designed, long-term trials of prophylactic benefits have been conducted, and there is insufficient evidence for treatment benefits with antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers. A major concern is the risk for mood switch to hypomania, mania, and mixed states. Integrating the evidence and the experience of the task force members, a consensus was reached on 12 statements on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder. Conclusions Because of limited data, the task force could not make broad statements endorsing antidepressant use but acknowledged that individual bipolar patients may benefit from antidepressants. Regarding safety, serotonin reuptake inhibitors and bupropion may have lower rates of manic switch than tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants and norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The frequency and severity of antidepressant-associated mood elevations appear to be greater in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder. Hence, in bipolar I patients antidepressants should be prescribed only as an adjunct to mood-stabilizing medications

  14. Anticipation in bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, M.G.; McMahon, F.J.; Chase, G.A.; Simpson, S.G.; Ross, C.A.; DePaulo, J.R. Jr. )

    1993-08-01

    Anticipation refers to the increase in disease severity or decrease in age at onset in succeeding generations. This phenomenon, formerly ascribed to observation biases, correlates with the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TNRs) in some disorders. If present in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), anticipation could provide clues to its genetic etiology. The authors compared age at onset and disease severity between two generations of 34 unilineal families ascertained for a genetic linkage study of BPAD. Life-table analyses showed a significant decrease in survival to first mania or depression from the first to the second generation (P <.001). Intergenerational pairwise comparisons showed both a significantly earlier age at onset (P < .001) and a significantly increased disease severity (P < .001) in the second generation. This difference was significant under each of four data-sampling schemes which excluded probands in the second generation. The second generation experienced onset 8.9-13.5 years earlier and illness 1.8-3.4 times more severe than did the first generation. In additional analyses, drug abuse, deaths of affected individuals prior to interview, decreased fertility, censoring of age at onset, and the cohort effect did not affect our results. The authors conclude that genetic anticipation occurs in this sample of unilineal BPAD families. These findings may implicate genes with expanding TNRs in the genetic etiology of BPAD. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process. PMID:27068058

  16. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD) may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC) and temporal pole (TP) structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI) DTI in understanding BD. A “ventral semantic stream” has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person–emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI’s that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects. PMID:19337455

  17. Anticipation in bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    McInnis, M G; McMahon, F J; Chase, G A; Simpson, S G; Ross, C A; DePaulo, J R

    1993-08-01

    Anticipation refers to the increase in disease severity or decrease in age at onset in succeeding generations. This phenomenon, formerly ascribed to observation biases, correlates with the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TNRs) in some disorders. If present in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), anticipation could provide clues to its genetic etiology. We compared age at onset and disease severity between two generations of 34 unilineal families ascertained for a genetic linkage study of BPAD. Life-table analyses showed a significant decrease in survival to first mania or depression from the first to the second generation (P < .001). Intergenerational pairwise comparisons showed both a significantly earlier age at onset (P < .001) and a significantly increased disease severity (P < .001) in the second generation. This difference was significant under each of four data-sampling schemes which excluded probands in the second generation. The second generation experienced onset 8.9-13.5 years earlier and illness 1.8-3.4 times more severe than did the first generation. In additional analyses, drug abuse, deaths of affected individuals prior to interview, decreased fertility, censoring of age at onset, and the cohort effect did not affect our results. We conclude that genetic anticipation occurs in this sample of unilineal BPAD families. These findings may implicate genes with expanding TNRs in the genetic etiology of BPAD. PMID:8328456

  18. Bipolar Diagnosis May Take Up to 6 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... MONDAY, July 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with bipolar disorder may face a long wait from when their ... treatment, the diagnosis of the early phase of bipolar disorder can be difficult," study leader Matthew Large, a ...

  19. Depressive Episode May Not Always Follow Mania in Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Depressive Episode May Not Always Follow Mania in Bipolar Disorder New study finds anxiety could be a third ... 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- While many may associate bipolar disorder with episodes of mania followed by periods of ...

  20. Bipolar pulse generator for intense pulsed ion beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, H.; Igawa, K.; Kitamura, I.; Masugata, K.

    2007-01-15

    A new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named ''bipolar pulse accelerator'' (BPA) has been proposed in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. To confirm the principle of the BPA, we developed a bipolar pulse generator for the bipolar pulse experiment, which consists of a Marx generator and a pulse forming line (PFL) with a rail gap switch on its end. In this article, we report the first experimental result of the bipolar pulse and evaluate the electrical characteristics of the bipolar pulse generator. When the bipolar pulse generator was operated at 70% of the full charge condition of the PFL, the bipolar pulse with the first (-138 kV, 72 ns) and the second pulse (+130 kV, 70 ns) was successfully obtained. The evaluation of the electrical characteristics indicates that the developed generator can produce the bipolar pulse with fast rise time and sharp reversing time.

  1. Bipolar pulse generator for intense pulsed ion beam accelerator.

    PubMed

    Ito, H; Igawa, K; Kitamura, I; Masugata, K

    2007-01-01

    A new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named "bipolar pulse accelerator" (BPA) has been proposed in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. To confirm the principle of the BPA, we developed a bipolar pulse generator for the bipolar pulse experiment, which consists of a Marx generator and a pulse forming line (PFL) with a rail gap switch on its end. In this article, we report the first experimental result of the bipolar pulse and evaluate the electrical characteristics of the bipolar pulse generator. When the bipolar pulse generator was operated at 70% of the full charge condition of the PFL, the bipolar pulse with the first (-138 kV, 72 ns) and the second pulse (+130 kV, 70 ns) was successfully obtained. The evaluation of the electrical characteristics indicates that the developed generator can produce the bipolar pulse with fast rise time and sharp reversing time. PMID:17503918

  2. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C) functioning and sleep-wake homeostasis (process S) on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. PMID:27418862

  3. Bipolar batteries based on Ebonex ® technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyns, A. C.; Hill, A.; Ellis, K. G.; Partington, T. J.; Hill, J. M.

    Continuing work by Atraverda on the production of a composite-laminate form of the Ebonex ® material, that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries, is described. Ebonex ® is the registered trade name of a range of titanium suboxide ceramic materials, typically Ti 4O 7 and Ti 5O 9, which combine electrical conductivity with high corrosion and oxidation resistance. Details of the structure of the composite, battery construction techniques and methods for filling and forming of batteries are discussed. In addition, lifetime and performance data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory bipolar lead-acid batteries and cells are presented. Battery production techniques for both conventional monopolar and bipolar batteries are reviewed. The findings indicate that substantial time and cost savings may be realised in the manufacture of bipolar batteries in comparison to conventional designs. This is due to the fewer processing steps required and more efficient formation. The results indicate that the use of Ebonex ® composite material as a bipolar substrate will provide lightweight and durable high-voltage lead-acid batteries suitable for a wide range of applications including advanced automotive, stationary power and portable equipment.

  4. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C) functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S) on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. PMID:27418862

  5. [Pseudocholinesterase activity in type 1 bipolar patients].

    PubMed

    Ezzaher, Asma; Haj Mouhamed, Dhouha; Mechri, Anwar; Neffati, Fadoua; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the variation of pseudocholinesterase activity (BuChE) in bipolar patients and to explore its relation to the clinical and therapeutic characteristics of this disease. Our study included 105 patients with bipolar disorder and 100 control subjects aged 38.7 ± 12.2 and 36.4 ± 15.7 y, respectively. BuChE was determined by kinetic methods on Cobas Integra 400 plus™. Compared with controls, patients had a significantly higher pseudocholinesterase activity. Moreover, this increase was significantly associated (p = 0.001) with bipolar disorder with sensibility of 58% and specificity of 62% at threshold of 7392 IU/L. There was no significant change in pseudocholinesterase activity in relation to illness episodes and treatment, whereas the lowest values of this activity were seen in euthymic patients and those taking psychotics. Therefore, this activity is a real interest in the biological monitoring of patients as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases associated with bipolar disorder. But it would be most useful to evaluate their interest as a predictor of bipolar disorder in patients at risk. PMID:22294139

  6. Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Hosang, Georgina M.; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. Aims To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Method Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Results We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Conclusions Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. PMID:25359927

  7. [Non pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Mirabel-Sarron, Christine; Giachetti, Raphaël

    2012-12-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic and recurring disorder associated with significant psychosocial impairment. A number of psychosocial interventions have been developed to address impairment. The consensus makes mood stabilizer the treatment of bipolar disorder. However, numerous patients are not in complete remission despite a controlled observance. Every patient can follow a psycho educational program. What this paper adds. The review identifies that a range of interventions have demonstrated efficacy in extended periods of euthymia, improved social and occupational functioning and alleviation of subsyndromal symptoms. Adjunctive, short-term psychotherapies have been shown to offer fairly consistent benefits to bipolar disorder patients. Cognitive-behavioural therapy, family-focused therapy, and psychoeducation offer the most robust efficacy in regard to relapse prevention. The most complex situations including comorbidities can be helped by behavioral and cognitive therapy for bipolar disorder. Evaluations emphasize positive impact. The psychosocial interventions reviewed provide mental health nurses with evidence-based approaches to improving mental health care for patients with bipolar disorder. There is a need for mental health nurses to conduct high quality trials of the clinical effectiveness of these interventions. PMID:23395231

  8. Nickel hydrogen bipolar battery electrode design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puglisi, V. J.; Russell, P.; Verrier, D.; Hall, A.

    1985-01-01

    The preferred approach of the NASA development effort in nickel hydrogen battery design utilizes a bipolar plate stacking arrangement to obtain the required voltage-capacity configuration. In a bipolar stack, component designs must take into account not only the typical design considerations such as voltage, capacity and gas management, but also conductivity to the bipolar (i.e., intercell) plate. The nickel and hydrogen electrode development specifically relevant to bipolar cell operation is discussed. Nickel oxide electrodes, having variable type grids and in thicknesses up to .085 inch are being fabricated and characterized to provide a data base. A selection will be made based upon a system level tradeoff. Negative (hydrpogen) electrodes are being screened to select a high performance electrode which can function as a bipolar electrode. Present nickel hydrogen negative electrodes are not capable of conducting current through their cross-section. An electrode was tested which exhibits low charge and discharge polarization voltages and at the same time is conductive. Test data is presented.

  9. Different attitudes toward humor between Chinese and American students: evidence from the Implicit Association Test.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng; Yue, Xiao Dong; Lu, Su

    2011-08-01

    Although cross-cultural research indicates that Chinese people demonstrate less humor than do Americans, little research addresses the reasons. This cross-cultural difference may be largely due to different implicit attitudes toward humor held by Chinese and Americans, deeply rooted in the two cultural traditions. Both self-report evaluation and the Implicit Association Test (IAT) were used to compare Chinese and American attitudes toward humor. Although 60 Chinese undergraduate students showed no significant difference from 33 American exchange students in explicit attitudes toward humor, the former associated humor more frequently with unpleasant adjectives and seriousness with pleasant adjectives on the IAT; the opposite pattern was found for the American group. This indicated a negative implicit attitude toward humor among the Chinese students. PMID:22049652

  10. Frontal brain asymmetry and transient cardiovascular responses to the perception of humor.

    PubMed

    Papousek, Ilona; Schulter, Günter; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Samson, Andrea C; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Lackner, Helmut K

    2013-04-01

    The study examined the relationship of individual differences in prefrontal brain asymmetry, measured by the EEG in resting conditions, to the individual's responsivity in the context of humor (n=42). Several weeks after the EEG recording, immediate cardiovascular responses to the perception of humor and behavioral indicators of humor processing were obtained in an experimental paradigm involving non-verbal cartoons. Relatively greater resting activity in the left than right prefrontal cortex, particularly at the ventrolateral positions, was associated with faster detection of humor, a more pronounced cardiac response to the perception of humor (heart rate and cardiac output), and more accessible internal positive affective states (indicated by faster reports of amusement levels). The study confirms and extends findings of the relevance of prefrontal brain asymmetry to affective responsivity, contributing evidence in the domain of positive affect and humor, and demonstrating relationships to the immediate cardiovascular response pattern to an emotional event. PMID:23274171

  11. "Make'em Laugh and They Will Learn": A Closer Look at the Relationship between Perceptions of Instructors' Humor Orientation and Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja

    The use of humor in the classroom has been investigated using a variety of humor operationalizations and methodologies with mixed results. The present study examined the role of teacher humor orientation (HO) rather than specific humorous behaviors. The relationship between teacher humor orientation and learning was the focus of this study.…

  12. Professors Are from Mars[R], Students Are from Snickers[R]: How To Write and Deliver Humor in the Classroom and in Professional Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Ronald A.

    This book is a guide to humor that can break down the communication barriers between professors and students, who can be so different that they can seem to come from different planets. The chapters are: (1) "Why Use Humor?"; (2) "Anatomy of Humor"; (3) "Types and Forms of Humor"; (4) "Sources of Humorous Material"; (5) "Delivering Humor…

  13. Electrodeionization Using Microseparated Bipolar Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Donald; Jackson, George; Andrews, Craig C.; Tennakoon, Charles L, K.; Singh, Waheguru; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Jabs, Harry; Chepin, James F.; Archer, Shivaun; Gonzalez-Martinez, Anukia; Cisar, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    An electrochemical technique for deionizing water, now under development, is intended to overcome a major limitation of prior electrically-based water-purification techniques. The limitation in question is caused by the desired decrease in the concentration of ions during purification: As the concentration of ions decreases, the electrical resistivity of the water increases, posing an electrical barrier to the removal of the remaining ions. In the present technique, this limitation is overcome by use of electrodes, a flowfield structure, and solid electrolytes configured to provide conductive paths for the removal of ions from the water to be deionized, even when the water has already been purified to a high degree. The technique involves the use of a bipolar membrane unit (BMU), which includes a cation-exchange membrane and an anion-exchange membrane separated by a nonconductive mesh that has been coated by an ionically conductive material (see figure). The mesh ensures the desired microseparation between the ion-exchange membranes: The interstices bounded by the inner surfaces of the membranes and the outer surfaces of the coated mesh constitute a flow-field structure that allows the water that one seeks to deionize (hereafter called "process water" for short) to flow through the BMU with a low pressure drop. The flow-field structure is such that the distance between any point in the flow field and an ionically conductive material is small; thus, the flow-field structure facilitates the diffusion of molecules and ions to and from the ion-exchange membranes. The BMU is placed between an anode and a cathode, but not in direct contact with these electrodes. Instead, the space between the anion-exchange membrane and the anode is denoted the anode compartment and is filled with an ionic solution. Similarly, the space between the cation-exchange membrane and the cathode is denoted the cathode compartment and is filled with a different ionic solution. The electrodes are

  14. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,…

  15. A neuroplastic deafferentation hypothesis for bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jonathan; Mirams, Jamie; Patel, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder, characterised by extreme cyclical variations in mood between depression and mania, is a common, debilitating and sometimes fatal psychiatric condition with an unclear aetiology. In this paper we propose a hypothesis for the development of bipolar disorder through which neuroplastic changes in response to an index depressive episode leads to the amplification of subthreshold pleasurable stimuli that then drive conversion into a manic state. This ‘pleasure deafferentation hypothesis’ is reached through a discussion of the neuroscientific basis of deafferentation at the level of the neuron and its role in the development of various neurological and psychiatric phenomena before a case for deafferentation as applied to bipolar disorder is justified and its implications discussed. PMID:26459976

  16. Humor as a reward mechanism: event-related potentials in the healthy and diseased brain.

    PubMed

    Mensen, Armand; Poryazova, Rositsa; Schwartz, Sophie; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Humor processing involves distinct processing stages including incongruity detection, emotional response, and engagement of mesolimbic reward regions. Dysfunctional reward processing and clinical symptoms in response to humor have been previously described in both hypocretin deficient narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC) and in idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD). For NC patients, humor is the strongest trigger for cataplexy, a transient loss of muscle tone, whereas dopamine-deficient PD-patients show blunted emotional responses to humor. To better understand the role of reward system and the various contributions of hypocretinergic and dopaminergic mechanisms to different stages of humor processing we examined the electrophysiological response to humorous and neutral pictures when given as reward feedback in PD, NC and healthy controls. Humor compared to neutral feedback demonstrated modulation of early ERP amplitudes likely corresponding to visual processing stages, with no group differences. At 270 ms post-feedback, conditions showed topographical and amplitudinal differences for frontal and left posterior electrodes, in that humor feedback was absent in PD patients but increased in NC patients. We suggest that this effect relates to a relatively early affective response, reminiscent of increased amygdala response reported in NC patients. Later ERP differences, corresponding to the late positive potential, revealed a lack of sustained activation in PD, likely due to altered dopamine regulation in reward structures in these patients. This research provides new insights into the temporal dynamics and underlying mechanisms of humor detection and appreciation in health and disease. PMID:24489683

  17. The use of humor in forensic mental health staff-patient interactions.

    PubMed

    Gildberg, Frederik A; Bradley, Stephen K; Paaske, Kristian J; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Humor utilized in the practice of forensic mental health nursing might seem somehow inappropriate, given the serious circumstances surrounding most forensic mental health patients. However, some recent research has pointed to the use of humor as an important component in staff interactions with forensic mental health patients. This study reviews the existing international forensic mental health research literature on humor to investigate (a) what characterizes forensic mental health staff-patient use of humor and (b) what significance humor holds within the forensic mental health setting. The search was conducted in June 2013. Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, and PsychINFO were searched using keywords relevant to the study. Articles were categorized using a literature matrix and analyzed using thematic analysis. Twelve research articles were reviewed and included in the analysis. Three themes were identified: (a) "humor as staff skill," showing that staff found humor to be important as an interpersonal ability; (b) "humor as a relational tool" with the purpose of establishing and maintaining staff-patient interactions; and (c) "the impact of humor on patients," describing impacts on conflicts, dimensions of health, and motivation. The results of the analysis are however limited because of the dearth of published articles on the subject. PMID:24847873

  18. Sex differences in preferences for humor: a replication, modification, and extension.

    PubMed

    Hone, Liana S E; Hurwitz, William; Lieberman, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary-minded scientists have proposed that humor is a sexually selected trait in men that signals mate quality. Indeed, women tend to prefer men who make them laugh and men tend to prefer women who laugh at their jokes. However, it is unclear how robust this pattern is. Here we report a replication of one of the first studies (Bressler, Martin, and Balshine, 2006) to examine the sex differences in preferences for humor receptivity versus humor production. We replicate Bressler et al.'s (2006) findings that men prefer women who are receptive to their humor whereas women prefer men who produce humor. These findings held even after we modified Bressler et al.'s questionnaire for better conceptual validity. Furthermore, using a separate measure designed to assess trade-offs, we found that men viewed humor receptivity as a necessity and humor production as a luxury when they were asked to create an ideal long-term partner. For women, it was just the opposite. These results bolster the claim that sexual selection has shaped sex differences regarding preferences for a prospective mate's sense of humor and that what one means by "sense of humor" can vary. PMID:25670631

  19. Does humor in radio advertising affect recognition of novel product brand names?

    PubMed

    Berg, E M; Lippman, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall. PMID:11506048

  20. [Detection of leptospira by culture of vitreous humor and detection of antibodies against leptospira in vitreous humor and serum of 225 horses with equine recurrent uveitis].

    PubMed

    Dorrego-Keiter, Elisa; Tóth, József; Dikker, Lieke; Sielhorst, Jutta; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2016-01-01

    In the ongoing discussion regarding the aetiopathogenesis of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) it was the aim of the present study to elucidate the relationship of leptospira infection and ERU. In a population of 225 horses leptospira were examined in vitreous humor by culture and leptospira antibody were detected in vitreous humor and serum samples. Preoperative serum samples were collected from 221/225 ERU patients of different age, gender and breed. Undiluted vitreous humor was aseptically taken from 198/225 patients that underwent pars plana vitrectomy at the beginning of surgery and from 27/225 patients' eyeball after enucleation: Serum and vitreous humor were tested for specific leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Furthermore, vitreous humor was examined by culture. 20 patients which were euthanized due to a live-threatening disease other than ERU served as a control group. A total of 127/221 (57.5%) horses had serum antibodies (≥ 1:100). Most frequently antibodies against L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa were detected (79/127), followed by L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (34/127) and L. interrogans serovar Bratislava (29/127). Only 79/225 horses (35.1%) had leptospiral antibodies in vitreous humor, in which L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa (67/79) was identified most frequently followed by L. interrogans serovar Pomona (18/79) and L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (8/79) which was identified as single or multiple reaction. Isolation of leptospira from vitreous humor was positive in 34/212 horses (16%). 10/20 control horses had a positive antibody titer against leptospira in serum and 2/20 horses in vitreous humor, whereas there was no leptospira detected in culture. The result of 84% negative cultures from vitreous humor of 212 ERU patients is decisive for the diagnosis and therapy of ERU. PMID:27344913

  1. Recognizing signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Carbray, Julie A; Iennaco, Joanne DeSanto

    2015-11-01

    Psychiatric mental health nurses and advanced practice nurses play an important role in the assessment and care of patients with bipolar disorder. Using appropriate rating scales and diagnostic criteria can aid in the assessment of patients who present with a variety of symptoms. In this game-based CME activity, you will assume the role of a psychiatric mental health advanced practice nurse who must recognize the signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder and select appropriate treatment for a 20-year-old patient with suicidal thoughts. PMID:26646046

  2. [Bipolar disorders and self-stigma].

    PubMed

    Richard-Lepouriel, H

    2015-09-16

    Despite wide media coverage in recent years, the stigmatization of people with bipolar disorder still exists. Bipolar people also have their own tendency to self-stigmatize that is to integrate their beliefs, prejudices and stigmatizing behaviors. The consequences are important: shame, guilt, withdrawal and renunciation to lead one's own life according to personal values increasing therefore the risk of mood relapses. Self-stigma is rarely assessed in clinical practice and few strategies have been designed to face them efficiently. Recognizing self-stigmatizing beliefs and challenging them are the first steps of this vast endeavour. PMID:26591079

  3. Putative Drugs and Targets for Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Carlos A.; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    Current pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder (BPD) is generally unsatisfactory for a large number of patients. Even with adequate modern bipolar pharmacological therapies, many afflicted individuals continue to have persistent mood episode relapses, residual symptoms, functional impairment and psychosocial disability. Creating novel therapeutics for BPD is urgently needed. Promising drug targets and compounds for BPD worthy of further study involve the following systems: purinergic, dynorphin opioid neuropeptide, cholinergic (muscarinic and nicotinic), melatonin and serotonin (5-HT2C receptor), glutamatergic, hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis have all been implicated. Intracellular pathways and targets worthy of further study include glycogen synthase kinase-3 protein, protein kinase C, arachidonic acid cascade. PMID:18704977

  4. Small scale bipolar nickel-hydrogen testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1988-01-01

    Bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, ranging in capacity from 6 to 40 A-hr, have been tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center over the past six years. Small scale tests of 1 A-hr nickel-hydrogen stacks have been initiated as a means of screening design and component variations for bipolar nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries. Four small-scale batteries have been built and tested. Characterization and limited cycle testing were performed to establish the validity of test results in the scaled down hardware. The results show characterization test results to be valid. LEO test results in the small scale hardware have limited value.

  5. Is There a Bipolar Prodrome Among Children and Adolescents?

    PubMed

    Hunt, Jeffrey; Schwarz, Charlotte M; Nye, Paul; Frazier, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Bipolar disorder in youth substantially impairs behavior, family, and social functioning and interferes with developmental course. There is increasing interest in defining a bipolar prodrome similar to that reported in early-onset psychosis that will allow for earlier intervention and reduction in overall morbidity and mortality. Several lines of research have addressed this important issue including studies of offspring of bipolar parents, high-risk cohorts, and longitudinal follow-up of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), ADHD, and bipolar spectrum disorder. The development and validation of bipolar prodrome rating scales also shows promise. Recent attempts to intervene at earlier stages of bipolar disorder have led to some positive outcomes. However, a controversy remains concerning the identification and management of the earliest symptoms. Further research is needed to fully validate a bipolar prodrome and to determine the optimal course of action at various stages of illness. PMID:26893233

  6. Predictors of Lithium Response in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Sarah K.; Mahon, Pamela B.; Potash, James B.

    2011-01-01

    While lithium is generally regarded as the first-line agent for patients with bipolar disorder, it does not work for everyone, which raises the question: can we predict who will be most likely to respond? In this paper, we review the most compelling clinical, biologic, and genetic predictors of lithium response in bipolar disorder. Among clinical factors, the strongest predictors of good response are fewer hospitalizations preceding treatment, an episodic course characterized by an illness pattern of mania followed by depression, and a later age at onset of bipolar disorder. While several biologic predictors have been studied, the results are preliminary and require replication with studies of larger patient samples over longer observation periods. Neuroimaging is a particularly promising method given that it might concurrently illuminate pathophysiologic underpinnings of bipolar disorder, the mechanism of action of lithium, and potential predictors of lithium response. The first genome-wide association study of lithium response was recently completed. No definitive results emerged, perhaps because the study was underpowered. With major new initiatives in progress aiming to identify genes and genetic variations associated with lithium response, there is much reason to be hopeful that clinically useful information might be generated within the next several years. This could ultimately translate into tests that could guide the choice of mood-stabilizing medication for patients. In addition, it might facilitate pharmacologic research aimed at developing newer, more effective medications that might act more quickly and yield fewer side effects. PMID:23251751

  7. Unmet needs of bipolar disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    Hajda, Miroslav; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Hruby, Radovan; Ociskova, Marie; Holubova, Michaela; Kamaradova, Dana; Mainerova, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mental illness with adverse impact on the lives of the patients and their caregivers. BD is associated with many limitations in personal and interpersonal functioning and restricts the patients’ ability to use their potential capabilities fully. Bipolar patients long to live meaningful lives, but this goal is hard to achieve for those with poor insight. With progress and humanization of society, the issue of patients’ needs became an important topic. The objective of the paper is to provide the up-to-date data on the unmet needs of BD patients and their caregivers. Methods A systematic computerized examination of MEDLINE publications from 1970 to 2015, via the keywords “bipolar disorder”, “mania”, “bipolar depression”, and “unmet needs”, was performed. Results Patients’ needs may differ in various stages of the disorder and may have different origin and goals. Thus, we divided them into five groups relating to their nature: those connected with symptoms, treatment, quality of life, family, and pharmacotherapy. We suggested several implications of these needs for pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Conclusion Trying to follow patients’ needs may be a crucial point in the treatment of BD patients. However, many needs remain unmet due to both medical and social factors. PMID:27445475

  8. Modeling of dynamic bipolar plasma sheaths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, J. M.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Ottinger, P. F.

    1992-01-01

    The behavior of a one-dimensional plasma sheath is described in regimes where the sheath is not in equilibrium because it carries current densities that are either time dependent, or larger than the bipolar Child-Langmuir level determined from the injected ion flux. Earlier models of dynamic bipolar sheaths assumed that ions and electrons evolve in a series of quasiequilibria. In addition, sheath growth was described by the equation Zen0ẋs=‖ ji‖-Zen0u0, where ẋs is the velocity of the sheath edge, ji is the ion current density, n0u0 is the injected ion flux density, and Ze is the ion charge. In this paper, a generalization of the bipolar electron-to-ion current density ratio formula is derived to study regimes where ions are not in equilibrium. A generalization of the above sheath growth equation is also developed, which is consistent with the ion continuity equation and which reveals new physics of sheath behavior associated with the emitted electrons and their evolution. Based on these findings, two new models of dynamic bipolar sheaths are developed. Larger sheath sizes and potentials than those of earlier models are found. In certain regimes, explosive sheath growth is predicted.

  9. [The nosological evolution of bipolar affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Bélteczki, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    The nosological improvement of the bipolar disorder (manic-depression) follow the written history of psychiatry. The symptoms of manic and depressive episodes and mixed states were described in the ancient times. In my summary I accompany the taxonomic improvement, the changing of diagnostic categories and the work of the most important researchers from the beginning to these days. PMID:27244868

  10. Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Neutzler, Jay Kevin

    1998-01-01

    A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprising corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant.

  11. Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Neutzler, J.K.

    1998-07-07

    A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprises corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant. 6 figs.

  12. Corrosion test cell for bipolar plates

    DOEpatents

    Weisbrod, Kirk R.

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion test cell for evaluating corrosion resistance in fuel cell bipolar plates is described. The cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell includes an anode chamber and an cathode chamber, each on opposite sides of the plate. Each chamber contains a pair of mesh platinum current collectors and a catalyst layer pressed between current collectors and the plate. Each chamber is filled with an electrolyte solution that is replenished with fluid from a much larger electrolyte reservoir. The cell includes gas inlets to each chamber for hydrogen gas and air. As the gases flow into a chamber, they pass along the platinum mesh, through the catalyst layer, and to the bipolar plate. The gas exits the chamber through passageways that provide fluid communication between the anode and cathode chambers and the reservoir, and exits the test cell through an exit port in the reservoir. The flow of gas into the cell produces a constant flow of fresh electrolyte into each chamber. Openings in each cell body is member allow electrodes to enter the cell body and contact the electrolyte in the reservoir therein. During operation, while hydrogen gas is passed into one chamber and air into the other chamber, the cell resistance is measured, which is used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the bipolar plate.

  13. Memory and Learning in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Erin B.; Treland, Julia E.; Snow, Joseph; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Towbin, Kenneth E.; Charney, Dennis S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBPD) would demonstrate impairment relative to diagnosis-free controls of comparable age, gender, and IQ on measures of memory functioning. Method: The authors administered a battery of verbal and visuospatial memory tests to 35 outpatients with PBPD and 20 healthy…

  14. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L.; Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H.

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Katherine A.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common in bipolar disorder. Stimulus control and sleep restriction are powerful, clinically useful behavioral interventions for insomnia, typically delivered as part of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Both involve short-term sleep deprivation. The potential for manic or hypomanic symptoms to emerge after sleep deprivation in bipolar disorder raises questions about the appropriateness of these methods for treating insomnia. In a series of patients with bipolar disorder who underwent behavioral treatment for insomnia, the authors found that regularizing bedtimes and rise times was often sufficient to bring about improvements in sleep. Two patients in a total group of 15 patients reported mild increases in hypomanic symptoms the week following instruction on stimulus control. Total sleep time did not change for these individuals. Two of five patients who underwent sleep restriction reported mild hypomania that was unrelated to weekly sleep duration. Sleep restriction and stimulus control appear to be safe and efficacious procedures for treating insomnia in patients with bipolar disorder. Practitioners should encourage regularity in bedtimes and rise times as a first step in treatment, and carefully monitor changes in mood and daytime sleepiness throughout the intervention. PMID:23820830

  16. Titanium carbide bipolar plate for electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    LaConti, Anthony B.; Griffith, Arthur E.; Cropley, Cecelia C.; Kosek, John A.

    2000-07-04

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive, non-porous bipolar plate is made from titanium carbide for use in an eletrochemical device. The process involves blending titanium carbide powder with a suitable binder material, and molding the mixture, at an elevated temperature and pressure.

  17. [Psychotherapeutic interventions in bipolar disorder: a review].

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Armand; Hörtnagl, Christine; Müller, Markus; Waack, Julie; Walpath, Michaela; Conca, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of bipolar disorders is a demanding task involving patients, therapists and relatives. As bipolar disorders are associated to multiple psychosocial disturbances, the management of a bipolar disease should focus on psychosocial interventions. Despite an exploding literature on this topic, psychopharmacological interventions applied as a monotherapy have shown unsatisfactory outcomes. In order to enhance outcome, psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), psychoeducation, a modified form of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPSRT) or family focussed psychotherapy (FFT) were investigated. When used in conjunction with pharmacotherapy, these interventions may prolong time to relapse, reduce symptom severity, and increase medication adherence. These combinations are currently considered being the golden standard in the treatment of bipolar disorders. Psychotherapeutic interventions as an add-on strategy exert better effects when patients are euthymic at entry. Prevention of manic episodes seems to be more successful as compared to the prevention of depressive episodes. There are currently no hints for a method specific efficacy. Efficacy of psychoeducation seems to be rather short lived. Currently not yet evaluated booster-sessions might help. More data are needed in order to identify patients with a putative good response to psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:17640496

  18. Oxide bipolar electronics: materials, devices and circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Marius; Klüpfel, Fabian; Karsthof, Robert; Schlupp, Peter; Schein, Friedrich-Leonhard; Splith, Daniel; Yang, Chang; Bitter, Sofie; von Wenckstern, Holger

    2016-06-01

    We present the history of, and the latest progress in, the field of bipolar oxide thin film devices. As such we consider primarily pn-junctions in which at least one of the materials is a metal oxide semiconductor. A wide range of n-type and p-type oxides has been explored for the formation of such bipolar diodes. Since most oxide semiconductors are unipolar, challenges and opportunities exist with regard to the formation of heterojunction diodes and band lineups. Recently, various approaches have led to devices with high rectification, namely p-type ZnCo2O4 and NiO on n-type ZnO and amorphous zinc-tin-oxide. Subsequent bipolar devices and applications such as photodetectors, solar cells, junction field-effect transistors and integrated circuits like inverters and ring oscillators are discussed. The tremendous progress shows that bipolar oxide electronics has evolved from the exploration of various materials and heterostructures to the demonstration of functioning integrated circuits. Therefore a viable, facile and high performance technology is ready for further exploitation and performance optimization.

  19. Electrostatic Changes Observed with Narrow Bipolar Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunarathne, S.; Marshall, T. C.; Stolzenburg, M.; Karunarathna, N.

    2015-12-01

    Narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs) or compact intracloud discharges are impulsive discharges that are considered to be the strongest natural emitters in the HF radio band; they usually occur at high altitudes in some thunderstorms. In the summer of 2011, we collected E-change data with wideband flat-plate antennas (0.16 Hz - 2.5 MHz) at ten stations covering an area of nearly 70 km x 100 km in and around Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA. On one thunderstorm day, 14 August 2011, we detected 226 positive NBPs, and some observations of these pulses were published in Karunarathne et al. [2015, JGR-atmospheres]. Of these 226 NBPs, 50 (22.1 %) occurred within 10 km horizontally of at least one sensor. All of these closer sensors show electrostatic changes associated with corresponding NBPs, with a net electrostatic change in the main bipolar pulse and with a slower electrostatic change after the bipolar pulse that seems similar to short continuing current immediately after some cloud-to-ground return strokes. Although NBPs have been considered as short duration pulses (10 - 20 microseconds), the electrostatic changes after the main bipolar pulse ranged from 0.7 ms to 34 ms and associated charge moments were calculated. The total duration of the electrostatic E-change was strongly dependent on the distance to the sensors. In this presentation, we will present data for these electrostatic changes, some statistics, and physical background and reasoning for the electrostatic changes.

  20. Cellular and humoral immunity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Dhib-Jalbut, S S; Abdelnoor, A M; Haddad, F S

    1981-01-01

    Cellular and humoral immunity was studied in 26 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Results were compared with those of 14 normal controls and 11 patients suffering from other neurological disorders. It was shown that cellular and humoral immune responses are adequate in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The persistently elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA indicated a persistent infection, and their progressive rise in later stages correlated with the progressive nature of the illness. IgG progressively increased with the clinical stage in the cerebrospinal fluid unaccompanied by a corresponding rise in the measles antibody titer. This suggests that antigenic determinants other than those tested play a role in the production of IgG in the cerebrospinal fluid. The progressive increase in the ratio of cerebrospinal fluid to serum IgG with the advance of the disease suggests synthesis of IgG locally in the central nervous system. Elevated measles antibody titer in serum and cerebrospinal fluid is a consistent aid in the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. It is more specific in cerebrospinal fluid than in serum. Its level did not vary significantly with the clinical stages or duration of illness. Depressed serum complement activity has been detected in some subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients in whom serum levels of the third and fourth components of the complement were normal. PMID:6973545

  1. Effect of centchroman on cellular and humoral immunity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Licto; Asad, Mohammad; Hrishikeshavan, Heremaglur Jagannath; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

    2007-01-01

    Centchroman (Ormeloxifene) is a nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator that is used as once a week oral contraceptive agent. The effect of centchroman on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. The first three models namely carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and neutrophil adhesion test were used to study cell mediated immunity while the latter three models were used to see the effect on humoral immunity. Centchroman was administered orally at a dose of 5 mg/kg and levamisole (2.5 mg/kg/ p.o) was used as standard drug. Centchroman significantly increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and also prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased significantly the circulating antibody litre in indirect haemagglunation test. However, it did not show any significant effect on phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay and nor did influence the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Centchroman was also not effective in preventing the cyclophosphamde induced neutropenia. Hence, it was concluded that centchroman increases humoral immunity with no significant effect on cell mediated immunity. PMID:18476393

  2. Oculo-peritoneal shunt: draining aqueous humor to the peritoneum.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Junyent, Ana; Maldonado-Bas, Arturo; Gonzalez, Andrea; Pueyrredón, Francisco; Maldonado-Junyent, María; Maldonado-Junyent, Arturo; Rodriguez, Diego; Bulacio, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, there were estimated to be approximately 60.5 million people with glaucoma. This number is expected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020. In 2010, there were 8.4 million people with bilateral blindness caused by glaucoma, and this number is expected in increase to 11.2 million by 2020. Filtering implants are special devices that have been developed to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma. The success rate of these implants is relatively low, and they continue to fail over time. To avoid failure caused by the formation of scar tissue around the implants, attempts have been made to drain the aqueous humor to various sites, including the venous system, lacrimal sac, sinuses, and conjunctival fornix. Recently, a system to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the peritoneum has been developed. The surgical technique involved in this system is a modification of the technique currently used by neurosurgeons for the treatment of hydrocephalus. We present the first case operated using this technique. PMID:25945537

  3. Serum immunoglobulin levels and humoral immune competence in coalworkers

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.D.; Boyd, J.E.; Collins, H.P.; Davis, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels were measured in 788 coalworkers and 121 nonmining controls for comparison with the radiological category of pneumoconiosis after taking into account age and smoking habit. In addition a simple assessment of humoral immune competence was made by estimating the titre of serum antibody against the common gut commensal Escherichia coli. Smoking was found to depress serum IgA and IgM while levels of IgG and IgA increased slightly with age. Men with radiological signs of coalworkers pneumoconiosis (CWP) had significantly raised levels of IgA and IgG with increasing pneumoconiosis category. Even coalworkers with less than category 1 simple pneumoconiosis had raised levels of IgA, suggesting that increased production of this immunoglobulin occurs before radiologically identifiable pathological changes have occurred in the lung tissue. No association between reduced humoral immune competence and radiological category of pneumoconiosis was found. Whether high Ig levels in men exposed to coal dust are merely a passive response to dusted lung tissue or whether they indicate that an immunological process is important in the development of pneumoconiotic lesions remains uncertain.

  4. Searching for biomarkers: humoral response profiling with luciferase immunoprecipitation systems.

    PubMed

    Burbelo, Peter D; Ching, Kathryn H; Bren, Kathleen E; Iadarola, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    B-cell-mediated humoral responses are triggered in many human diseases, including autoimmune diseases, cancer, and neurologic and infectious diseases. However, the full exploitation of the information contained within a patient's antibody repertoire for diagnosis, monitoring and even disease prediction has been limited due to the poor diagnostic performance of many immunoassay formats. We have developed luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) that harnesses light-emitting proteins to generate high-definition antibody profiles that are optimal for both diagnostics and biomarker discovery. Here, we describe the results and implications from a range of LIPS-antibody profiling studies performed in our laboratory. These include highly sensitive diagnostics for domestic and global pathogens, insights into infection-related diseases, discovery of new biomarkers for human diseases, subcategorization of symptoms and identification of pathogenic autoantibodies against self-proteins. These investigations highlight the types of humoral response profiles associated with different diseases, provide new information related to disease pathogenesis and offer a framework for incorporating LIPS antibody profiling into global health initiatives and disease monitoring. PMID:21679112

  5. Changes in humoral immunologic parameters after exposure to volcanic ash.

    PubMed

    Olenchock, S A; Mull, J C; Mentnech, M S; Lewis, D M; Bernstein, R S

    1983-03-01

    Occupational exposure to volcanic ash from Mount St. Helens continues during the salvaging of trees in the high dust blow-down area of Washington. We studied the effects of volcanic ash exposure on the level of humoral immune factors IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, C4, and ANA (antinuclear antibody) in a group of volcanic ash-exposed loggers shortly after the major eruption and one year later. Comparisons with similar levels in nonexposed, similarly employed, matched loggers were made. C3 and C4 levels were significantly lower at both time periods in the exposed loggers when compared to the reference group. No differences between groups were observed at either time period for the immunoglobulin levels or ANA. The exposed loggers did show a marked decrease (not seen in the reference group) in serum IgG levels after 1 yr of exposure to the volcanic ash. They likewise showed a significant mean increase in IgA, while the reference group had a mean increase in IgM after 1 yr. These data suggest that exposure to volcanic ash may affect humoral immunologic parameters. PMID:6601725

  6. The adenylate cyclase receptor complex and aqueous humor formation.

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, J.; Sears, M.

    1984-01-01

    The secretory tissue of the eye, the ciliary processes, contains an enzyme receptor complex, composed of membrane proteins, the catalytic moiety of the enzyme adenylate cyclase, a guanyl nucleotide regulatory protein (or N protein), and other features. The enzyme can be activated by well-known neurohumoral or humoral agents, catecholamines, glycoprotein hormones produced by the hypothalamic pituitary axis, and other related compounds, including placental gonadotropin, organic fluorides, and forskolin, a diterpene. These compounds cause the ciliary epithelia to produce cyclic AMP at an accelerated rate. Cyclic AMP, as a second messenger, causes, either directly or indirectly, a decrease in the net rate of aqueous humor inflow that may be modulated by cofactors. Clinical syndromes fit the experimental data so that an integrated explanation can be given for the reduced intraocular pressure witnessed under certain central nervous system and adrenergic influences. The molecular biology of this concept provides important leads for future investigations that bear directly both upon the regulation of intraocular pressure and upon glaucoma. Images FIG. 11 PMID:6093393

  7. Humor Styles and Their Relationship to Well-Being among the Gifted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick; Ronner, Sieuwke; Nauta, Arnolda

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which a sample of 202 gifted individuals (members of Mensa) engaged in four humor styles and the extent to which these humor styles were related to their well-being. These results were compared to a comparative population sample (n = 265). Results showed that gifted individuals most often used positive…

  8. A Review of Humor in Educational Settings: Four Decades of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banas, John A.; Dunbar, Norah; Rodriguez, Dariela; Liu, Shr-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to provide a summary of extant research regarding humor in the classroom, with an emphasis on identifying and explaining inconsistencies in research findings and offering new directions for future studies in this area. First, the definitions, functions, and main theories of humor are reviewed. Next, the paper…

  9. Entextualized Humor in the Formation of Scientist Identities among U.S. Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Mary; Skapoulli, Elena; Barnwell, Brendan; Lee, Jung-Eun Janie

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the socialization of novices into scientific cultures typically emphasize official knowledge-making activities. However, scientific socialization is also accomplished informally through humor. As entextualized humor, formulaic jokes enable U.S. undergraduate students in science to claim scientist identities both through a displayed…

  10. "Last Professor Standing!": Powerpoint Enables All Faculty to Use Humor in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    There are two major global educational trends that have changed the form and execution of humor in the classroom and in professional conferences: (1) the burgeoning instructional technology, especially PowerPoint, which can provide a vehicle for several forms of low risk humor anyone can present; and (2) the diversity of classroom demographics,…

  11. Moderating Influence of Gender on the Relationship between Humor and Peer Acceptance in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lawrence W.

    The hypothesis was tested that humor facilitates social attraction. Students in three fourth-grade classrooms responded to two different peer rating surveys, one measuring interpersonal perceptions of humorousness and the other measuring classroom social distance. Differences between same- and cross-gender ratings were examined. Statistical…

  12. Laughter: The Navajo Way. Humorous Stories of the People (in Navajo and English) Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Alan; Dennison, Gene

    This book has been prepared for the use of teachers, ethnologists, linguists, Indian studies scholars, language students and those who have an interest in the languages and cultures of the earlier inhabitants of this continent. The stories reflect the Navajo love for and genius with words and humor. Most of the humor represented is of three basic…

  13. Comprehension of Humor in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Glass, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The normal development of humor in children has been well documented with a predictable course that is tied to social, cognitive, and linguistic development in children. This study explored humor comprehension in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD). Children with NVLD were compared with children with reading disabilities and a…

  14. Comprehension of humor in children with nonverbal learning disabilities, reading disabilities, and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Glass, Kimberly

    2008-12-01

    The normal development of humor in children has been well documented with a predictable course that is tied to social, cognitive, and linguistic development in children. This study explored humor comprehension in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD). Children with NVLD were compared with children with reading disabilities and a comparison group of children with no learning disabilities to assess their comprehension of humor. The humor test was composed of a joke and cartoon section. No group differences in humor comprehension were found when the NVLD group was defined as having visual-spatial and visual reasoning deficits. However, when the NVLD group was divided into children with and without social perceptual difficulties as defined by a direct measure of social comprehension, significant group differences were found in the levels of humor comprehension. These results support the association of humor comprehension with social perception and lend tentative support to the hypothesis that children with NVLD may not be a homogenous group. Future study directions include further exploration into the nature of the association between humor comprehension and social perception as well as closer examination of the heterogeneity of NVLD. PMID:18726696

  15. He Who Laughs First: The Importance of Humor to Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Suzanne

    1985-01-01

    Reviews current theories of humor development, discusses the interaction of humor with other developmental areas (including cognitive development, personality development, creativity, and moral development), and suggests ways in which research can be applied in the early childhood classroom. (Author/DST)

  16. To Laugh is to Know: A Discussion of the Cognitive Element in Children's Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Libby

    The development of children's humor is described, focusing on the cognitive aspect of what is funny and how this relates to children's intellectual growth. Cognitive elements that facilitate children's humor are identified as: (1) the ability to grasp incongruities, (2) the presence of an intellectual challenge, (3) timing, (4) novelty, and (5) a…

  17. Humor Ability Reveals Intelligence, Predicts Mating Success, and Is Higher in Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greengross, Gil; Miller, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    A good sense of humor is sexually attractive, perhaps because it reveals intelligence, creativity, and other "good genes" or "good parent" traits. If so, intelligence should predict humor production ability, which in turn should predict mating success. In this study, 400 university students (200 men and 200 women) completed measures of abstract…

  18. Direct current stimulation of the left temporoparietal junction modulates dynamic humor appreciation.

    PubMed

    Slaby, Isabella; Holmes, Amanda; Moran, Joseph M; Eddy, Marianna D; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A; Brunyé, Tad T

    2015-11-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of transcranial direct current stimulation targeting the left temporoparietal junction (TPJ) on humor appreciation during a dynamic video rating task. In a within-participants design, we targeted the left TPJ with anodal, cathodal, or no transcranial direct current stimulation, centered at electrode site C3 using a 4×1 targeted stimulation montage. During stimulation, participants dynamically rated a series of six stand-up comedy videos for perceived humor. We measured event-related (time-locked to crowd laughter) modulation of humor ratings as a function of stimulation condition. Results showed decreases in rated humor during anodal (vs. cathodal or none) stimulation; this pattern was evident for the majority of videos and was only partially predicted by individual differences in humor style. We discuss the possibility that upregulation of neural circuits involved in the theory of mind and empathizing with others may reduce appreciation of aggressive humor. In conclusion, the present data show that neuromodulation of the TPJ can alter the mental processes underlying humor appreciation, suggesting critical involvement of this cortical region in detecting, comprehending, and appreciating humor. PMID:26351965

  19. The Use of Humor in a CBI Science Lesson To Enhance Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snetsinger, Wendy; Grabowski, Barbara

    This research experiment studied the effect of humor versus non-humor on learning and retention of a computer-based instructional (CBI) lesson on tick identification. The experiment also surveyed the subjects' enjoyment of the lesson material, their personal experiences with ticks, and their concerns about ticks and tick-borne diseases.…

  20. Antigenic Targets of the Bovine Humoral Response to PDD-associated Spirochetes Change with Subsequent Exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD), also known as hairy heel wart, is a major cause of lameness of cows in the U.S. dairy industry. Cattle are known to mount a humoral response to spirochetes isolated from PDD lesions. This study was undertaken to evaluate the progression of the bovine humoral i...

  1. The Potency of Humor and Instructional Self-Efficacy on Art Teacher Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Palmer, Teri

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study was sparked by a keen interest in art teachers who practice humor in challenging school environments. Stressors unique to art education can cause teachers to lose heart in such a way that their ability to perform is compromised. To teach effectively, teachers must maintain resilience to cope with stress. Pedagogical humor,…

  2. Humor in High School and the Role of Teacher Leaders in School Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosiczky, Bonnie; Mullen, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    How can public schools improve public relations strategies, particularly in communications between teachers and students? The purposes of this study were to investigate teacher leaders' perceptions of the use of humor in the high school classroom and discover how humor might bridge instruction to student learning and strengthen…

  3. Humor and laughter in persons with cognitive impairment and their caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Liptak, Amy; Tate, Judith; Flatt, Jason; Oakley, Mary Ann; Lingler, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe humor and laughter in persons with cognitive impairment (PWCI) and caregivers who were recalling a shared experience in a focus group. Design Twenty participants attended an Art Engagement Activity at the Andy Warhol Art Museum, which included a guided tour and an art project. All PWCI had medically diagnosed cognitive disorders and all caregiver participants did not. Four focus groups were conducted and transcripts of audio-recorded sessions were transferred to a qualitative software program. Methods Words, phrases and episodes of humor and laughter were used to construct codes, which were refined during group analysis using constant comparison. Findings Humor and laughter were present in all four focus groups. Emerging themes of humor included silliness, sarcasm and commenting about hardships of dementia. Laughter was identified in segments with and without humor. Some PWCI were unable to follow social cues. Conclusions Humor and laughter played a role in creating a safe social environment. PWCI were able to engage in humor during social interactions, yet some had difficulty recognizing social cues. Further study may reveal roles of humor and laughter in adaptation to cognitive decline and holistic interventions for improved quality of life. PMID:23926217

  4. Relationships between Humor Styles and Family Functioning in Parents of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Alicja; McGrail, J. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The humor styles and family functioning of parents of children with disabilities are understudied subjects. This study seeks to shed quantitative light on these areas. Seventy-two parents of children with disabilities completed the "Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales" (FACES IV) and the "Humor Styles…

  5. Spanish Teachers' Sense of Humor and Student Performance on the National Spanish Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams…

  6. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  7. The Role of Humor in Learning Physics: a Study of Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, Maria

    2016-02-01

    We all know that they do it, but what do students laugh about when learning science together? Although research has shown that students do use humor when they learn science, the role of humor in science education has received little attention. In this study, undergraduate students' laughter during collaborative work in physics has been investigated. In order to do this, a framework inspired by conversation analysis has been used. Empirical data was drawn from two video-recorded sessions in which first-year engineering students solved physics problems together. The analysis revealed that the students' use of humor was almost exclusively related to physics. Five themes identified summarize the role of humor in the group discussions: Something is obvious, Something is difficult, Something said might be wrong, Something is absurd, and Something said is not within informal norms. This study shows that humor may contribute not only to a good working atmosphere and thereby to the students' learning but also how humor interrelates with both disciplinary culture of physics and its epistemology. The students do not only create and re-create humor that facilitates their social interactions, but through humor they constitute local norms of science and engage with the disciplinary discourse.

  8. A Review of Humor for Computer Games: Play, Laugh and More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dormann, Claire; Biddle, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Computer games are now becoming ways to communicate, teach, and influence attitudes and behavior. In this article, we address the role of humor in computer games, especially in support of serious purposes. We begin with a review of the main theories of humor, including superiority, incongruity, and relief. These theories and their…

  9. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  10. The heart of the matter: the effects of humor on well-being during recovery from cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Nicholas L; Yoshimura, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the uses of humor among cardiovascular patients to test the associations between humor use, satisfaction with companion relationships, and health during recovery. Self-report data were collected from members of two national support groups for patients recovering from cardiovascular disease. As expected, general humorousness associated with social and psychological well-being. Several specific functions of humor in cardiovascular recovery were identified and linked with health perceptions. Antidote humor increased social and psychological health perceptions, whereas conversation regulation humor and distancing humor were negatively related to perceived social and psychological health. Relationship satisfaction mediated most effects. The findings offer new insight into the variability of humor effects, particularly following cardiovascular treatment. PMID:23829386

  11. Memantine: New prospective in bipolar disorder treatment

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Giulia; Demontis, Francesca; Serra, Francesca; De Chiara, Lavinia; Spoto, Andrea; Girardi, Paolo; Vidotto, Giulio; Serra, Gino

    2014-01-01

    We review preclinical and clinical evidences strongly suggesting that memantine, an old drug currently approved for Alzheimer’s dementia, is an effective treatment for acute mania and for the prevention of manic/hypomanic and depressive recurrences of manic-depressive illness. Lithium remains the first line for the treatment and prophylaxis of bipolar disorders, but currently available treatment alternatives for lithium resistant patients are of limited and/or questionable efficacy. Thus, research and development of more effective mood stabilizer drugs is a leading challenge for modern psychopharmacology. We have demonstrated that 21 d administration of imipramine causes a behavioural syndrome similar to a cycle of bipolar disorder, i.e., a mania followed by a depression, in rats. Indeed, such treatment causes a behavioural supersensitivity to dopamine D2 receptor agonists associated with an increase sexual activity and aggressivity (mania). The dopamine receptor sensitization is followed, after imipramine discontinuation, by an opposite phenomenon (dopamine receptor desensitization) and an increased immobility time (depression) in the forced swimming test of depression. Memantine blocks the development of the supersensitivity and the ensuing desensitization associated with the depressive like behavior. On the basis of these observations we have suggested the use of memantine in the treatment of mania and in the prophylaxis of bipolar disorders. To test this hypothesis we performed several naturalistic studies that showed an acute antimanic effect and a long-lasting and progressive mood-stabilizing action (at least 3 years), without clinically relevant side effects. To confirm the observations of our naturalistic trials we are now performing a randomized controlled clinical trial. Finally we described the studies reporting the efficacy of memantine in manic-like symptoms occurring in psychiatric disorders other than bipolar. Limitations: A randomized controlled

  12. Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar electrosurgical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Boehme, A.; Mack, Martin G.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    In addition to the laser, microwave or other energy sources, interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency current (RFITT) in bipolar technique has already been shown in vitro to be a safe and economical alternative energy source with a comparable operating performance. The bipolar technique is, from the technical point of view, completely without risk whereas with monopolar devices, where a neutral electrode has to be applied, an uncontrolled current flow passes through the patient's body. The therapeutical application efficiency of these bipolar RF-needle applicators was evaluated using newly designed high performance flushed and cooled probes (qq 3 mm). These can be used to create large coagulation volumes in tissue such as for the palliative treatment of liver metastases or the therapy of the benign prostate hyperplasia. As a result, the achievable lesion size resulting from these flushed and internally cooled RF- probes could be increased by a factor of three compared to a standard bipolar probe. With these bipolar power RF- applicators, coagulation dimensions of 5 cm length and 4 cm diameter with a power input of 40 watt could be achieved within 20 minutes. No carbonization and electrode tissue adherence was found. Investigations in vitro with adapted RFITT-probes using paramagnetic materials such as titanium alloys and high performance plastic have shown that monitoring under MRI (Siemens Magnetom, 1.5 Tesla), allows visualization of the development of the spatial temperature distribution in tissue using an intermittent diagnostic and therapeutical application. This does not lead to a loss in performance compared to continuous application. A ratio of 1:4 (15 s Thermo Flash MRI, 60 s RF-energy) has shown to be feasible.

  13. Virtuous laughter: we should teach medical learners the art of humor.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Simon

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the stress and burnout suffered by critical care workers. Physicians have a responsibility to teach learners the skills required not only to treat patients, but to cope with the demands of a stressful profession. Humor has been neglected as a strategy to help learners develop into virtuous and resilient physicians. Humor can be used to reduce stress, address fears, and to create effective health care teams. However, there are forms of humor which can be hurtful or discriminatory. In order to maximize the benefits of humor and to reduce its harms, we need to teach and model the effective and virtuous use of humor in the intensive care unit. PMID:25959366

  14. Humor Therapy: Relieving Chronic Pain and Enhancing Happiness for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Mimi M. Y.; Lo, Anna P. K.; Cheng, Tracy L. Y.; Chan, Eva K. K.; Chan, Annie H. Y.; Chung, Helena S. W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of a humor therapy program in relieving chronic pain, enhancing happiness and life satisfaction, and reducing loneliness among older persons with chronic pain. It was a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest controlled design. Older persons in a nursing home were invited to join an 8-week humor therapy program (experimental group), while those in another nursing home were treated as a control group and were not offered the program. There were 36 older people in the experimental group and 34 in the control group. Upon completion of the humor therapy program, there were significant decreases in pain and perception of loneliness, and significant increases in happiness and life satisfaction for the experimental group, but not for the control group. The use of humor therapy appears to be an effective nonpharmacological intervention. Nurses and other healthcare professionals could incorporate humor in caring for their patients. PMID:21151506

  15. Don't Tease Me, I'm Working: Examining Humor in a Midwestern Organization Using Ethnography of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojha, Ajay K.; Holmes, Tammy L.

    2010-01-01

    Within organizations, the communicative phenomenon of humor is commonplace. Humorous talk is just as important and frequent to regular discourse that takes place between organizational members. In this inquiry we examine humor as a particular way of communicating between members of a small Midwestern United States organization. Specifically, we…

  16. It's in the way that you use it: attachment and the dyadic nature of humor during conflict negotiation in romantic couples.

    PubMed

    Winterheld, Heike A; Simpson, Jeffry A; Oriña, M Minda

    2013-04-01

    In a behavioral observation study with dating couples, we examined (a) how attachment orientations predict humor use and (b) how people respond to their partners' use of humor. Couples were videotaped while trying to resolve a relationship conflict. Each discussion was rated on several theoretically relevant dimensions. Highly avoidant individuals used more aggressive humor and less affiliative humor during their discussions, whereas highly anxious individuals used more self-defeating humor. Individuals also tailored their humor use to partners who were highly anxious and distressed. Aggressive humor was received more negatively by partners who sought more care. Affiliative humor was favorably received, especially when partners were more distressed, whereas self-defeating humor elicited negative responses from highly distressed partners. Both highly anxious and avoidant individuals reacted unfavorably when they were the recipients of the humor styles they used most often. The implications of these results for our understanding of relationships and humor are discussed. PMID:23456558

  17. Longitudinal Course of Bipolar I Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, David A.; Leon, Andrew C.; Coryell, William H.; Endicott, Jean; Li, Chunshan; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Boyken, Lara; Keller, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    Context The phenomenology of bipolar I disorder affects treatment and prognosis. Objective To describe the duration of bipolar I mood episodes and factors associated with recovery from these episodes. Design Subjects with Research Diagnostic Criteria bipolar I disorder were prospectively followed up for as long as 25 years. The probability of recovery over time from multiple successive mood episodes was examined with survival analytic techniques, including a mixed-effects grouped-time survival model. Setting Five US academic medical centers. Participants Two hundred nineteen subjects with bipolar I disorder. Main Outcome Measures Level of psychopathology was assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation every 6 months for the first 5 years of follow-up and annually thereafter. Results The median duration of bipolar I mood episodes was 13 weeks. More than 75% of the subjects recovered from their mood episodes within 1 year of onset. The probability of recovery was significantly less for an episode with severe onset (psychosis or severe psychosocial impairment in week 1 of the episode) (hazard ratio [HR]=0.746; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.578–0.963; P=.02) and for subjects with greater cumulative morbidity (total number of years spent ill with any mood episode) (HR=0.917; 95% CI, 0.886–0.948; P<.001). Compared with the probability of recovery from a major depressive episode, there was a significantly greater probability of recovery from an episode of mania (HR=1.713; 95% CI, 1.373–2.137; P<.001), hypomania (HR=4.502; 95% CI, 3.466–5.849; P<.001), or minor depression (HR = 2.027; 95% CI, 1.622–2.534; P<.001) and, conversely, a significantly reduced probability of recovery from a cycling episode (switching from one pole to the other without an intervening period of recovery) (HR=0.438; 95% CI, 0.351–0.548; P<.001). Conclusions The median duration of bipolar I mood episodes was 13 weeks, and the probability of recovery was significantly

  18. Science for the Public Through Collaboration and Humor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wargo, Richard

    2013-03-01

    The transformation of all things media and information into a dynamic environment of user access has created what seems infinite possibilities to inform the public in many different ways - as well as seemingly infinite possibilities to confuse. This talk will describe a rather non-conventional collaboration between two different creative cultures and its significance to maintaining scientific accuracy and devising strategies important to audience engagement - among them humor. While focusing on the award-winning effort ``When Things Get Small'' created by University of California Television producer R. Wargo in collaboration with condensed matter physicist I.K. Schuller and actor Adam J. Smith, with both NSF and private support, the case study provides insight into a model and modes which can be used successfully by other scientists to engage the public in what they do.

  19. Psychological stress may induce increased humoral and decreased cellular immunity.

    PubMed

    Paik, I H; Toh, K Y; Lee, C; Kim, J J; Lee, S J

    2000-01-01

    Stress alters immune function and affects different immune cell populations in different ways. The authors examined whether psychological stress has different effects on the production of macrophage, T-helper 1(Th1) cell, and T-helper 2(Th2) cell-derived cytokines. Forty-two college students were recruited and their blood was sampled on the day they were to take a stressful academic examination and again 4 weeks after the examination. The stress from the academic examination significantly increased IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-10 and decreased IFN-gamma production. These findings suggest that examination stress may increase Th2 cell-mediated humoral immunity and macrophage activities and may decrease Th1 cell-mediated cellular immunity. PMID:11209594

  20. Natural and Induced Humoral Responses to MUC1

    PubMed Central

    von Mensdorff-Pouilly, Silvia; Moreno, Maria; Verheijen, René H. M.

    2011-01-01

    MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the ductal cell surface of glandular epithelial cells. Loss of polarization, overexpression and aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 in mucosal inflammation and in adenocarcinomas induces humoral immune responses to the mucin. MUC1 IgG responses have been associated with a benefit in survival in patients with breast, lung, pancreatic, ovarian and gastric carcinomas. Antibodies bound to the mucin may curb tumor progression by restoring cell-cell interactions altered by tumor-associated MUC1, thus preventing metastatic dissemination, as well as counteracting the immune suppression exerted by the molecule. Furthermore, anti-MUC1 antibodies are capable of effecting tumor cell killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although cytotoxic T cells are indispensable to achieve anti-tumor responses in advanced disease, abs to tumor-associated antigens are ideally suited to address minimal residual disease and may be sufficient to exert adequate immune surveillance in an adjuvant setting, destroying tumor cells as they arise or maintaining occult disease in an equilibrium state. Initial evaluation of MUC1 peptide/glycopeptide mono and polyvalent vaccines has shown them to be immunogenic and safe; anti-tumor responses are scarce. Progress in carbohydrate synthesis has yielded a number of sophisticated substrates that include MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes that are at present in preclinical testing. Adjuvant vaccination with MUC1 glycopeptide polyvalent vaccines that induce strong humoral responses may prevent recurrence of disease in patients with early stage carcinomas. Furthermore, prophylactic immunotherapy targeting MUC1 may be a strategy to strengthen immune surveillance and prevent disease in subjects at hereditary high risk of breast, ovarian and colon cancer. PMID:24212946

  1. Humoral and cellular factors of maternal immunity in swine.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Henri; Berri, Mustapha; Gerdts, Volker; Meurens, François

    2009-03-01

    Immunoglobulins cannot cross the placenta in pregnant sows. Neonatal pigs are therefore agammaglobulinemic at birth and, although immunocompetent, they cannot mount rapid immune responses at systemic and mucosal sites. Their survival depends directly on the acquisition of maternal immunity via colostrum and milk. Protection by maternal immunity is mediated by a number of factors, including specific systemic humoral immunity, involving mostly maternal IgG transferred from blood to colostrum and typically absorbed within the first 36 h of life. Passive mucosal immunity involves local humoral immunity, including the production of secretory IgA (sIgA), which is transferred principally via milk until weaning. The mammary gland (MG) produces sIgA, which is, then secreted into the milk via the poly-Ig receptor (pIgR) of epithelial cells. These antibodies are produced in response to intestinal and respiratory antigens, including pathogens and commensal organisms. Protection is also mediated by cellular immunity, which is transferred via maternal cells present in mammary secretions. The mechanisms underlying the various immunological links between MG and the mucosal surfaces involve hormonally regulated addressins and chemokines specific to these compartments. The enhancement of colostrogenic immunity depends on the stimulation of systemic immunity, whereas the enhancement of lactogenic immunity depends on appropriate stimulation at induction sites, an increase in cell trafficking from the gut and upper respiratory tract to the MG and, possibly, enhanced immunoglobulin production at the effector site and secretion in milk. In addition, mammary secretions provide factors other than immunoglobulins that protect the neonate and regulate the development of mucosal immunity--a key element of postnatal adaptation to environmental antigens. PMID:18761034

  2. Optical orientation in bipolar spintronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, Jaroslav; Žutić, Igor

    2008-11-01

    Optical orientation is a highly efficient tool for the generation of nonequilibrium spin polarization in semiconductors. Combined with spin-polarized transport it offers new functionalities for conventional electronic devices, such as pn junction bipolar diodes or transistors. In nominally nonmagnetic junctions optical orientation can provide a source for spin capacitance—the bias-dependent nonequilibrium spin accumulation—or for spin-polarized current in bipolar spin-polarized solar cells. In magnetic junctions, the nonequilibrium spin polarization generated by spin orientation in the proximity of an equilibrium magnetization gives rise to the spin-voltaic effect (a realization of the Silsbee-Johnson coupling), enabling efficient control of electrical properties such as the I-V characteristics of the junctions by magnetic and optical fields. This paper reviews the main results of investigations of spin-polarized and magnetic pn junctions, from spin capacitance to the spin-voltaic effect.

  3. Comparison of bipolar and unipolar ionic diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Vlassiouk, Ivan V

    2010-01-01

    Nanoporous ionic diodes, as well as devices for manipulating ions and molecules in a solution, have attracted a great deal of interest from researchers in various fields from the fundamental point of view. Ionic diodes allow the ions to be transported in one direction and block the transport in the other. There are two types of diodes that have been realized experimentally. A bipolar diode contains a junction between two zones of the pore walls with positive and negative surface charges. A unipolar diode contains a zone that is neutral and a zone that is charged. In this paper we discuss differences in operation of the diodes with a special emphasis on the sensitivity of their performance to the lengths of the charged and neutral zones. We also show that a bipolar diode offers more asymmetric current-voltage curves than a unipolar diode.

  4. Current Propagation in Narrow Bipolar Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, S. S.; Marshall, T. C.

    2005-12-01

    We model the observed electric fields of a particular narrow bipolar pulse (NBP) published in Eack [2004]. We assume an exponential growth of current carriers due to a runaway breakdown avalanche and show that this leads to a corresponding increase in current. With specific input values for discharge altitude, length, current, and propagation velocity, the model does a good job of reproducing the observed near and far electric field. The ability of the model to reproduce the observed electric fields is an indication that our assumptions concerning the runaway avalanche may be correct, and this indication is further strengthened by the inability of the simple transmission line model to reproduce simultaneously both the near and far electric fields. Eack, K. B. (2004), Electrical characteristics of narrow bipolar events, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L20102, doi:10.1029/2004/GL021117.

  5. Bipolar membranes with fluid distribution passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Archer, Shivaun (Inventor); Tennakoon, Charles L. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a bipolar membrane and methods for making and using the membrane. The bipolar membrane comprises a cation-selective region, an anion-selective region, an interfacial region between the anion-selective region and the cation-selective region, and means for delivering fluid directly into the interfacial region. The means for delivering fluid includes passages that may comprise a fluid-permeable material, a wicking material, an open passage disposed within the membrane or some combination thereof. The passages may be provided in many shapes, sizes and configurations, but preferably deliver fluid directly to the interfacial region so that the rate of electrodialysis is no longer limited by the diffusion of fluid through the cation- or anion-selective regions to the interfacial region.

  6. Bipolar switching in chalcogenide phase change memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocchini, N.; Laudato, M.; Boniardi, M.; Varesi, E.; Fantini, P.; Lacaita, A. L.; Ielmini, D.

    2016-07-01

    Phase change materials based on chalcogenides are key enabling technologies for optical storage, such as rewritable CD and DVD, and recently also electrical nonvolatile memory, named phase change memory (PCM). In a PCM, the amorphous or crystalline phase affects the material band structure, hence the device resistance. Although phase transformation is extremely fast and repeatable, the amorphous phase suffers structural relaxation and crystallization at relatively low temperatures, which may affect the temperature stability of PCM state. To improve the time/temperature stability of the PCM, novel operation modes of the device should be identified. Here, we present bipolar switching operation of PCM, which is interpreted by ion migration in the solid state induced by elevated temperature and electric field similar to the bipolar switching in metal oxides. The temperature stability of the high resistance state is demonstrated and explained based on the local depletion of chemical species from the electrode region.

  7. Subjective experiences in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Arduini, Luca; Kalyvoka, Artemis; Stratta, Paolo; Gianfelice, Daniela; Rinaldi, Osvaldo; Rossi, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    Studies comparing 'subjective experiences' in schizophrenic and affective disorders have reached inconclusive results. We investigated the pattern of 'subjective perceived cognitive disturbances' in a group of 55 schizophrenic patients and 39 bipolar patients hospitalized for an index psychotic episode. The assessment of the subjective experiences was made using the Frankfurter Beschwerde-Fragebogen (FBF). Comparing the two groups on the four FBF factors, schizophrenic patients showed significantly higher scores in the areas of 'central cognitive disturbances', 'perception and motility' other than a significantly higher FBF total score. Our results suggest that cognitive, perception and motility disturbances are the most characteristic subjective experiences of schizophrenic patients in comparison with bipolar patients. This finding need to be further explored in light of the issue of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:12056578

  8. Bipolar switching in chalcogenide phase change memory.

    PubMed

    Ciocchini, N; Laudato, M; Boniardi, M; Varesi, E; Fantini, P; Lacaita, A L; Ielmini, D

    2016-01-01

    Phase change materials based on chalcogenides are key enabling technologies for optical storage, such as rewritable CD and DVD, and recently also electrical nonvolatile memory, named phase change memory (PCM). In a PCM, the amorphous or crystalline phase affects the material band structure, hence the device resistance. Although phase transformation is extremely fast and repeatable, the amorphous phase suffers structural relaxation and crystallization at relatively low temperatures, which may affect the temperature stability of PCM state. To improve the time/temperature stability of the PCM, novel operation modes of the device should be identified. Here, we present bipolar switching operation of PCM, which is interpreted by ion migration in the solid state induced by elevated temperature and electric field similar to the bipolar switching in metal oxides. The temperature stability of the high resistance state is demonstrated and explained based on the local depletion of chemical species from the electrode region. PMID:27377822

  9. Bipolar switching in chalcogenide phase change memory

    PubMed Central

    Ciocchini, N.; Laudato, M.; Boniardi, M.; Varesi, E.; Fantini, P.; Lacaita, A. L.; Ielmini, D.

    2016-01-01

    Phase change materials based on chalcogenides are key enabling technologies for optical storage, such as rewritable CD and DVD, and recently also electrical nonvolatile memory, named phase change memory (PCM). In a PCM, the amorphous or crystalline phase affects the material band structure, hence the device resistance. Although phase transformation is extremely fast and repeatable, the amorphous phase suffers structural relaxation and crystallization at relatively low temperatures, which may affect the temperature stability of PCM state. To improve the time/temperature stability of the PCM, novel operation modes of the device should be identified. Here, we present bipolar switching operation of PCM, which is interpreted by ion migration in the solid state induced by elevated temperature and electric field similar to the bipolar switching in metal oxides. The temperature stability of the high resistance state is demonstrated and explained based on the local depletion of chemical species from the electrode region. PMID:27377822

  10. Bipolar disorder dynamics: affective instabilities, relaxation oscillations and noise

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Holmes, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic, recurrent mental illness characterized by extreme episodes of depressed and manic mood, interspersed with less severe but highly variable mood fluctuations. Here, we develop a novel mathematical approach for exploring the dynamics of bipolar disorder. We investigate how the dynamics of subjective experience of mood in bipolar disorder can be understood using a relaxation oscillator (RO) framework and test the model against mood time-series fluctuations from a set of individuals with bipolar disorder. We show that variable mood fluctuations in individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder can be driven by the coupled effects of deterministic dynamics (captured by ROs) and noise. Using a statistical likelihood-based approach, we show that, in general, mood dynamics are described by two independent ROs with differing levels of endogenous variability among individuals. We suggest that this sort of nonlinear approach to bipolar disorder has neurobiological, cognitive and clinical implications for understanding this mental illness through a mechacognitive framework. PMID:26577592

  11. [Bipolar disorder and psychoanalytical concepts of depression and mania].

    PubMed

    Solimano, Alberto; Manfredi, Clelia

    2006-01-01

    The categorical diagnostic model of bipolar disorders (DSM IV) has brought about increasing questioning, since its use gains troubles related not only to clinical experience, but to epidemiological studies as well. Regarding this, other models have emerged, such as the bipolar spectrum by Akiskal that covers the classic bipolar disorder on one side to unipolar disorder on the other, including soft bipolar disorders as well. The authors start from this notion of bipolar spectrum to set out the relationship between bipolar disease and psychoanalytical concepts of depression and mania. They develop Freud's basic theories and those of the British School that constitute a strong and coherent theoretical structure. Psychoanalysis proposes a unitary psychopathological model that manifests itself as depression or maniac reaction as secondary defense, to account for both the clinical expression and the psychodynamic comprehension of mood disorders. PMID:17088955

  12. Studies of offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kiki; Steiner, Hans; Ketter, Terence

    2003-11-15

    Children and adolescents who are the biological offspring of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) (bipolar offspring) represent a population rich in potential for revealing important aspects in the development of BD. Multiple cross-sectional assessments of psychopathology in bipolar offspring have confirmed high incidences of BD, as well as mood and behavioral disorders, and other psychopathology in this population. Longitudinal studies of offspring have begun to shed light on precursors of BD development. Other assessments of bipolar offspring have included dimensional reports of psychiatric and psychosocial functioning, temperament assessments, and descriptions of family environments and parenting styles. Neurobiological studies in bipolar offspring are just beginning to yield findings that may be related to the underlying neuropathophysiology of BD. The future holds promise for longitudinal studies of bipolar offspring incorporating all of these facets, including genetic analyses, to further elucidate the factors involved in the evolution of BD. PMID:14601034

  13. The developmental stages of Bipolar Disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Fatima Imam; Verdolini, Norma; Agius, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a developing disorder; its early stages are sometimes misdiagnosed as anxiety or depressive disorders. At the same time, these disorders are often in comorbidity with bipolar disorder. This complex symptomatology can lead to misinterpretation and underdiagnosis of bipolar disorders, mainly at the earliest stages. Consequently, one of the most important challenges for clinicians is to recognize the non specific early symptoms with the aid of clinical information, for example a family history of bipolar disorder. Furthermore, it is well-known that comorbid anxiety disorders can lead to a worse prognosis in bipolar patients but it is not exactly clear to what extent. A deeper understanding of the relationship between these comorbidities and their stage of development will hopefully lead to better care of patients with bipolar disorder from a younger age. PMID:26417761

  14. Brain hemodynamic activity during viewing and re-viewing of comedy movies explained by experienced humor.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Pajula, Juha; Tohka, Jussi; Lee, Hsin-Ju; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Humor is crucial in human social interactions. To study the underlying neural processes, three comedy clips were shown twice to 20 volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Inter-subject similarities in humor ratings, obtained immediately after fMRI, explained inter-subject correlation of hemodynamic activity in right frontal pole and in a number of other brain regions. General linear model analysis also indicated activity in right frontal pole, as well as in additional cortical areas and subcortically in striatum, explained by humorousness. The association of the right frontal pole with experienced humorousness is a novel finding, which might be related to humor unfolding over longer time scales in the movie clips. Specifically, frontal pole has been shown to exhibit longer temporal receptive windows than, e.g., sensory areas, which might have enabled processing of humor in the clips based on holding information and reinterpreting that in light of new information several (even tens of) seconds later. As another novel finding, medial and lateral prefrontal areas, frontal pole, posterior-inferior temporal areas, posterior parietal areas, posterior cingulate, striatal structures and amygdala showed reduced activity upon re-viewing of the clips, suggesting involvement in processing of humor related to novelty of the comedic events. PMID:27323928

  15. Infant humor perception from 3- to 6-months and attachment at one year.

    PubMed

    Mireault, Gina; Sparrow, John; Poutre, Merlin; Perdue, Brittany; Macke, Laura

    2012-12-01

    Infancy is a critical time for the development of secure attachment, which is facilitated by emotionally synchronous interactions with parents. Humor development, which includes shared laughter and joint attention to an event, emerges concurrently with attachment, but little is known regarding the relationship, if any, between humor development and attachment in the first year. Thirty 3-month-old infants were videoed at home each month until they were 6-months old while their parents attempted to amuse them. Frequency of infants' smiles and laughs served as a measure of "state humor", and the smiling/laughing subscale of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised served as a measure of "trait humor". State and trait humor were not correlated. Lower trait humor as 6 months predicted higher attachment security on the Attachment Q-sort at 12-months (r=.46), suggesting that less good-humored infants elicit greater parental engagement, which works to the benefit of attachment, or vice versa. Future studies should examine the importance of smiling and laughter as they relate to other developmental phenomena in the first year. PMID:22982281

  16. Ocular pharmacokinetics of latamoxef and cefaclor in humans. Penetration into aqueous humor.

    PubMed

    Kitaura, T; Tsukiai, S; Arai, S; Miyake, K; Kimura, M; Fukuchi, H

    1989-01-01

    Penetrations of latamoxef (LMOX) and cefaclor (CCL) into the aqueous humor after intravenous or oral administration were investigated in patients admitted with cataract. Concentrations of antibiotics in plasma and aqueous humor were determined periodically by microbiological assay. LMOX disappeared from plasma in a monoexponential manner with a half-life of 2.7 h after intravenous administration at a dose of 1000 mg. The maximum concentration of LMOX in aqueous humor (4.7 micrograms/ml) was observed 2 h after administration. When CCL was administered orally at a dose of 500 mg, the maximum concentration of CCL in aqueous humor was 0.53 microgram/ml 2 h after administration, whereas the maximum plasma concentration of 8.4 micrograms/ml was observed at 1 h. Pharmacokinetic analysis (simultaneous simulation) of plasma and aqueous humor concentration-time courses was done by using the best-fitting compartment model examined (modified two-compartment model). Prediction of the concentration of antibiotics in aqueous humor from the plasma concentration profile was also examined using the same compartment model in a separate experiment. The predicted concentration in aqueous humor was proved to fit reasonably with the measured concentration. PMID:2724050

  17. Ocular pharmacokinetics of latamoxef and cefaclor in rabbits. Penetration into aqueous humor.

    PubMed

    Kitaura, T; Tsukiai, S; Arai, S; Miyake, K; Kimura, M; Fukuchi, H

    1988-10-01

    Penetrations of latamoxef (LMOX) and cefaclor (CCL) into the aqueous humor after intravenous or oral administration were investigated in rabbits. Concentrations of antibiotics in plasma and aqueous humor after administration were determined periodically by microbiological assay. LMOX disappeared from plasma in a monoexponential manner with a half-life of 43 min after intravenous administration at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The maximum concentration of LMOX in aqueous humor (6.4 micrograms/ml) was observed 1 h after administration. When CCL was administered orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg, the maximum concentration of CCL in aqueous humor was 1.00 microgram/ml 1.5 h after administration, whereas the maximum plasma concentration of 19.2 micrograms/ml was observed at 30 min. Pharmacokinetic analysis (simultaneous simulation) of plasma and aqueous humor concentration-time courses was made using the best fitted compartment model examined (modified two-compartment model). Prediction of the concentration of antibiotics in aqueous humor from the plasma concentration profile was also examined using the same compartment model in a separate experiment. The predicted concentration in aqueous humor was proved to coincide reasonably well with the measured concentration. PMID:3221302

  18. Brain hemodynamic activity during viewing and re-viewing of comedy movies explained by experienced humor

    PubMed Central

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Pajula, Juha; Tohka, Jussi; Lee, Hsin-Ju; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Humor is crucial in human social interactions. To study the underlying neural processes, three comedy clips were shown twice to 20 volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Inter-subject similarities in humor ratings, obtained immediately after fMRI, explained inter-subject correlation of hemodynamic activity in right frontal pole and in a number of other brain regions. General linear model analysis also indicated activity in right frontal pole, as well as in additional cortical areas and subcortically in striatum, explained by humorousness. The association of the right frontal pole with experienced humorousness is a novel finding, which might be related to humor unfolding over longer time scales in the movie clips. Specifically, frontal pole has been shown to exhibit longer temporal receptive windows than, e.g., sensory areas, which might have enabled processing of humor in the clips based on holding information and reinterpreting that in light of new information several (even tens of) seconds later. As another novel finding, medial and lateral prefrontal areas, frontal pole, posterior-inferior temporal areas, posterior parietal areas, posterior cingulate, striatal structures and amygdala showed reduced activity upon re-viewing of the clips, suggesting involvement in processing of humor related to novelty of the comedic events. PMID:27323928

  19. Composite bipolar plate for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Busick, Deanna N.

    2001-01-01

    A bipolar separator plate for fuel cells consists of a molded mixture of a vinyl ester resin and graphite powder. The plate serves as a current collector and may contain fluid flow fields for the distribution of reactant gases. The material is inexpensive, electrically conductive, lightweight, strong, corrosion resistant, easily mass produced, and relatively impermeable to hydrogen gas. The addition of certain fiber reinforcements and other additives can improve the properties of the composite material without significantly increasing its overall cost.

  20. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, C. W.; Applewhite, A. Z.; Hall, A. M.; Russell, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the bipolar Ni-H2 battery with other energy systems to be used in future high-power space systems is presented. The initial design for the battery under the NASA-sponsored program is described and the candidate stack components are evaluated, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte reservoir plate, and recombination sites. The compressibility of the cell elements, electrolyte activation, and thermal design are discussed. Manufacturing and prototype test results are summarized.

  1. Neural correlates of delusion in bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Radaelli, Daniele; Poletti, Sara; Gorni, Irene; Locatelli, Clara; Smeraldi, Enrico; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2014-01-30

    Approximately one-half of all patients affected by bipolar disorder present psychotic features at least in one occasion. This factor worsens the personal and social burden of the disease. Several studies find an altered brain activity in mesolimbic and prefrontal regions in relation to aberrant attribution of salience to stimuli in delusional patients. The aim of the present study is to investigate gray matter (GM) structural correlates of the past history of delusions in a sample of bipolar patients. The sample includes 34 delusional and 39 non-delusional bipolar patients. Brain-imaging volumetric sequences were acquired on a 3.0 T scanner. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) was performed comparing delusional and non-delusional patients. VBM analysis found significant (p=0.001) differences in prefrontal areas and in the insula where delusional patients show lower GM volume compared to non-delusional patients. The main finding of the present study is a reduction of gray matter volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and in the insula of delusional patients. This result supports the hypothesis of abnormalities in salience and executive-control networks of delusional patients, which could be associated with an aberrant assignment of salience to the elements of one's own experience that is linked to delusion and psychotic symptoms. PMID:24200366

  2. A Well-Defined Bipolar Outflow Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Taoling; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Patel, Nimesh

    1992-12-01

    A well-defined "eggplant-shaped" thin shell is revealed in the Mon R2 central core region by CO and (13) CO J=1-0 maps obtained with QUARRY. This thin shell outlines the extended blue lobe of the massive bipolar outflow. The projected length and width of the shell are about 5.7 pc and 2.5 pc respectively, and the averaged projected thickness of the shell is ~ 0.3 pc. The shape of this shell can be satisfactorily accounted for quantitatively in terms of limb-brightening within the framework of the Shu et al shell model with radially directed wind, although the model seems to be oversimplified with respect to the complexity that our data reveal. The outflow shell's symmetry axis is estimated to be inclined by ~ 70(deg) with respect to the line of sight. We suggest that the coincident blue- and red-shifted emission and the bending of the red-shifted lobe are the result of the red-shifted shell being compressed, rather than having a second bipolar outflow aligned roughly perpendicular to the axis of the first bipolar outflow.

  3. Levetiracetam, Calcium Antagonism, and Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Dubovsky, Steven L; Daurignac, Elsa; Leonard, Kenneth E; Serotte, Jordan C

    2015-08-01

    Hyperactive intracellular calcium ion (Ca) signaling in peripheral cells has been a reliable finding in bipolar disorder. Some established mood stabilizing medications, such as lithium and carbamazepine, have been found to normalize elevated intracellular Ca concentrations ([Ca]i) in platelets and lymphocytes from bipolar disorder patients, and some medications the primary effect of which is to attenuate increased [Ca]i have been reported to have mood stabilizing properties.Hyperactive intracellular Ca signaling has also been implicated in epilepsy, and some anticonvulsants have calcium antagonist properties. This study demonstrated that levetiracetam, an anticonvulsant that has been shown to block N and P/Q-type calcium channels in animal studies does not alter elevated [Ca]i in blood platelets of patients with bipolar disorder. Review of published clinical trials revealed no controlled evidence of efficacy as a mood stabilizer.This study underscores the possibility that pharmacologic actions of a medication in animals and normal subjects may not necessarily predict its pharmacologic or clinical effects in actual patients. Effects of treatments on pathophysiology that is demonstrated in clinical subtypes may be more likely to predict effectiveness in those subtypes than choosing medications based on structural similarities to established treatments. PMID:26050018

  4. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria.

    PubMed

    Mason, Brittany L; Brown, E Sherwood; Croarkin, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described "manic depressive insanity" and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored. PMID:27429010

  5. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation.

    PubMed

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Owen, Adrian M

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR) and facial electromyography (EMG). Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others. PMID:26332843

  6. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Fiacconi, Chris M.; Owen, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR) and facial electromyography (EMG). Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological “moment of insight” that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others. PMID:26332843

  7. The Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder: An Integrated Approach.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Ather

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a heterogeneous condition with myriad clinical manifestations and many comorbidities leading to severe disabilities in the biopsychosocial realm. The objective of this review article was to underline recent advances in knowledge regarding the neurobiology of bipolar disorder. A further aim was to draw attention to new therapeutic targets in the treatment of bipolar disorder. To accomplish these goals, an electronic search was undertaken of the PubMed database in August 2015 of literature published during the last 10 years on the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. A wide-ranging evaluation of the existing work was done with search terms such as "mood disorders and biology," "bipolar disorder and HPA axis," "bipolar disorder and cytokines," "mood disorders and circadian rhythm," "bipolar disorder and oxidative stress," etc. This endeavor showed that bipolar disorder is a diverse condition sharing neurobiological mechanisms with major depressive disorder and psychotic spectrum disorders. There is convincing evidence of crosstalk between different biological systems that act in a deleterious manner causing expression of the disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Inflammatory mediators act in concert with oxidative stress to dysregulate hormonal, metabolic, and circadian homeostasis in precipitating and perpetuating the illness. Stress, whether biologically or psychologically mediated, is responsible for the initiation and progression of the diathesis. Bipolar spectrum disorders have a strong genetic component; severe life stresses acting through various paths cause the illness phenotype. PMID:26865997

  8. The Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder: An Integrated Approach

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a heterogeneous condition with myriad clinical manifestations and many comorbidities leading to severe disabilities in the biopsychosocial realm. The objective of this review article was to underline recent advances in knowledge regarding the neurobiology of bipolar disorder. A further aim was to draw attention to new therapeutic targets in the treatment of bipolar disorder. To accomplish these goals, an electronic search was undertaken of the PubMed database in August 2015 of literature published during the last 10 years on the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. A wide-ranging evaluation of the existing work was done with search terms such as "mood disorders and biology," "bipolar disorder and HPA axis," "bipolar disorder and cytokines," "mood disorders and circadian rhythm," "bipolar disorder and oxidative stress," etc. This endeavor showed that bipolar disorder is a diverse condition sharing neurobiological mechanisms with major depressive disorder and psychotic spectrum disorders. There is convincing evidence of crosstalk between different biological systems that act in a deleterious manner causing expression of the disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Inflammatory mediators act in concert with oxidative stress to dysregulate hormonal, metabolic, and circadian homeostasis in precipitating and perpetuating the illness. Stress, whether biologically or psychologically mediated, is responsible for the initiation and progression of the diathesis. Bipolar spectrum disorders have a strong genetic component; severe life stresses acting through various paths cause the illness phenotype. PMID:26865997

  9. Types of bipolar cells in the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Krishna K; Bujan, Sascha; Haverkamp, Silke; Feigenspan, Andreas; Wässle, Heinz

    2004-01-26

    We studied the morphology of bipolar cells in fixed vertical tissue sections (slices) of the mouse retina by injecting the cells with Lucifer Yellow and Neurobiotin. Nine different cone bipolar cell types and one rod bipolar cell type were distinguished. The major criteria for classifying the cells were the branching pattern and stratification level of their axon terminals in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). To assess this, the IPL was subdivided into five strata of equal width. The slices were immunostained for calretinin, which labels three horizontal bands serving as a standard measure for the precise localization of the axon terminals. Immunostaining the retina with antibodies against the G-protein Ggamma13, a marker for ON-bipolar cells, made it possible to separate OFF- and ON-bipolar cells. At least two OFF-cone bipolar cells (Types 1 and 2) were immunolabeled with antibodies against the neurokinin 3 receptors (NK3R). A further OFF- and an ON-cone bipolar cell (Types 3 and 5) were immunostained with antibodies against the calcium-binding protein CaB5. The bipolar cell types described here were compared with previous schemes of rat and primate bipolar cells. Homologous types between the three species are discussed. PMID:14689473

  10. Assessment of basic symptoms in schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Ricca, V; Galassi, F; La Malfa, G; Mannucci, E; Barciulli, E; Cabras, P L

    1997-01-01

    In order to evaluate the basic symptoms differences of schizophrenics, schizoaffectives and bipolar patients, a consecutive series of 72 outpatients participated in the study. According to DSM III-R criteria, 28 had a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 29 of bipolar disorder and 15 of schizoaffective disorder. The assessment of basic symptoms was performed using the Frankfurter Beschwerde-Fragebogen (FBF). Data obtained suggest that perception and thought disturbances are the most characteristic experiences of schizophrenic patients in comparison with bipolar patients. The FBF questionnaire did not highlight a characteristic basic symptoms profile of schizoaffective disorder, when compared with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:9042683

  11. Effective treatment of bipolar depression: monotherapy and combination strategies.

    PubMed

    Manning, J Sloan

    2015-11-01

    Managing patients with bipolar disorder remains a challenge due to its chronic nature. In addition, bipolar depression remains understudied even though patients spend more time in depressive episodes than in manic ones. Effective treatment requires an accurate and timely diagnosis, psychoeducation, psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and implementation of elements of the chronic care model. Pharmacologic strategies for treating bipolar depression differ from those for bipolar mania as well as those for unipolar depression and require knowledge of the efficacy and safety of agents including mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, and antidepressants both as monotherapy and in combination. PMID:26646048

  12. Review of Evidence for Use of Antidepressants in Bipolar Depression

    PubMed Central

    McInerney, Shane J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Depressive episodes predominate over the course of bipolar disorder and cause considerable functional impairment. Antidepressants are frequently prescribed in the treatment of bipolar depression, despite concerns about efficacy and risk of switching to mania. This review provides a critical examination of the evidence for and against the use of antidepressants in bipolar depression. Data Sources: English-language peer-reviewed literature and evidence-based guidelines published between January 1, 1980, and March 2014, were identified using PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO/PsycLIT, and EMBASE. All searches contained the terms antidepressants, bipolar depression, depressive episodes in bipolar disorder, and treatment guidelines for bipolar depression. Meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and practice guidelines were included. Bibliographies from these publications were used to identify additional articles of interest. Data Extraction: Studies involving treatment of bipolar depression with antidepressant monotherapy, adjunctive use of antidepressant with a mood stabilizer, and meta-analysis of such studies combined were reviewed. Conclusions: The body of evidence on the use of antidepressant monotherapy to treat patients with bipolar depression is contentious, but the recommendations from evidence-based guidelines do not support antidepressant monotherapy for bipolar depression. Only when mood stabilizer or atypical antipsychotic monotherapy has failed should adjunctive treatment with an antidepressant be considered. PMID:25667812

  13. Modeling of single-event upset in bipolar integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of work done on the quantitative characterization of single-event upset (SEU) in bipolar random-access memories (RAMs) have been obtained through computer simulation of SEU in RAM cells that contain circuit models for bipolar transistors. The models include current generators that emulate the charge collected from ion tracks. The computer simulation results are compared with test data obtained from a RAM in a bipolar microprocessor chip. This methodology is applicable to other bipolar integrated circuit constructions in addition to RAM cells.

  14. Essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) augments the humoral immune response but decreases cell mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of the essential oil isolated from the buds of Eugenia caryophyllata on some immunological parameters. Humoral immunity was assessed by measuring the hemagglutination titre to sheep red blood cells and delayed type hypersensitivity was assessed by measuring foot pad thickness. Clove oil administration produced a significant increase in the primary as well as secondary humoral immune response. In addition, it also produced a significant decrease in foot pad thickness compared with the control group. Thus, these results suggest that clove oil can modulate the immune response by augmenting humoral immunity and decreasing cell mediated immunity. PMID:21796701

  15. Bipolar polygenic loading and bipolar spectrum features in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wiste, Anna; Robinson, Elise B; Milaneschi, Yuri; Meier, Sandra; Ripke, Stephan; Clements, Caitlin C; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Rietschel, Marcella; Penninx, Brenda W; Smoller, Jordan W; Perlis, Roy H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Family and genetic studies indicate overlapping liability for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this shared genetic liability influences clinical presentation. Methods A polygenic risk score for bipolar disorder, derived from a large genome-wide association meta-analysis, was generated for each subject of European–American ancestry (n = 1,274) in the Sequential Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study (STAR*D) outpatient major depressive disorder cohort. A hypothesis-driven approach was used to test for association between bipolar disorder risk score and features of depression associated with bipolar disorder in the literature. Follow-up analyses were performed in two additional cohorts. Results A generalized linear mixed model including seven features hypothesized to be associated with bipolar spectrum illness was significantly associated with bipolar polygenic risk score [F = 2.07, degrees of freedom (df) = 7, p = 0.04). Features included early onset, suicide attempt, recurrent depression, atypical depression, subclinical mania, subclinical psychosis, and severity. Post-hoc univariate analyses demonstrated that the major contributors to this omnibus association were onset of illness at age ≤ 18 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2, p = 0.003], history of suicide attempt (OR = 1.21, p = 0.03), and presence of at least one manic symptom (OR = 1.16, p = 0.02). The maximal variance in these traits explained by polygenic score ranged from 0.8–1.1%. However, analyses in two replication cohorts testing a five feature model did not support this association. Conclusions Bipolar genetic loading appeared to be associated with bipolar-like presentation in major depressive disorder in the primary analysis. However, results are at most inconclusive because of lack of replication. Replication efforts are challenged by different ascertainment and assessment strategies in the different cohorts

  16. Differential function of Gγ13 in rod bipolar and ON cone bipolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Hariharasubramanian; Dhingra, Anuradha; Tummala, Shanti R; Fina, Marie E; Li, Jian J; Lyubarsky, Arkady; Vardi, Noga

    2015-01-01

    Key points The G-protein-mediated metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) signalling cascade is critical for light responses in all retinal ON bipolar cells. The present study evaluates the role of G-protein subunit Gγ13 in ON bipolar cells by deleting the mouse Gng13 gene. Gγ13 is a partner of Gβ3 in all types of retinal ON bipolar cells, and contributes to generating the light response. Gγ13 also contributes to maintenance because, in its absence, the light response decreases with age. Three independent functionality assessments (i.e. light response as measured by electroretinogram b-waves, localization of GTPase activating proteins and deterioration of the light response with age) show that the contribution of Gγ13 is much greater in rod bipolar cells than in ON cone bipolar cells. Our data also suggest that the contribution of Gγ13 to coupling mGluR6 to its effector is smaller than its contribution to maintaining GTPase activating protein localization. Abstract Heterotrimeric G-proteins (comprising Gα and Gβγ subunits) are critical for coupling of metabotropic receptors to their downstream effectors. In the retina, glutamate released from photoreceptors in the dark activates metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) receptors in ON bipolar cells; this leads to activation of Go, closure of transient receptor potential melastatin 1 channels and hyperpolarization of these cells. Go comprises Gαo, Gβ3 and a Gγ. The best Gγ candidate is Gγ13, although functional data to support this are lacking. Thus, we tested Gγ13 function by generating Gng13−/− knockout (KO) mice, recording electroretinograms (ERG) and performing immunocytochemical staining. The amplitude of scotopic ERG b-waves in KO mice was lower than in wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, in both KO and WT mice, the ERG b-wave decreased with age; this decrease was much more pronounced in KO mice. By contrast, the photopic ERG b-waves in KO mice were hardly affected at any age. In KO mice

  17. Is impulsivity a common trait in bipolar and unipolar disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Henna, Elaine; Hatch, John P; Nicoletti, Mark; Swann, Alan C; Zunta-Soares, Giovana; Soares, Jair C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Impulsivity is increased in bipolar and unipolar disorders during episodes and is associated with substance abuse disorders and suicide risk. Impulsivity between episodes predisposes to relapses and poor therapeutic compliance. However, there is little information about impulsivity during euthymia in mood disorders. We sought to investigate trait impulsivity in euthymic bipolar and unipolar disorder patients, comparing them to healthy individuals and unaffected relatives of bipolar disorder patients. Methods Impulsivity was evaluated by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11A) in 54 bipolar disorder patients, 25 unipolar disorder patients, 136 healthy volunteers, and 14 unaffected relatives. The BIS-11A mean scores for all four groups were compared through the Games–Howell test for all possible pairwise combinations. Additionally, we compared impulsivity in bipolar and unipolar disorder patients with and without history of suicide attempt and substance abuse disorder. Results Bipolar and unipolar disorder patients scored significantly higher than the healthy controls and unaffected relatives on all measures of the BIS-11A except for attentional impulsivity. On the attentional impulsivity measures there were no differences among the unaffected relatives and the bipolar and unipolar disorder groups, but all three of these groups scored higher than the healthy participant group. There was no difference in impulsivity between bipolar and unipolar disorder subjects with and without suicide attempt. However, impulsivity was higher among bipolar and unipolar disorder subjects with past substance use disorder compared to patients without such a history. Conclusions Questionnaire-measured impulsivity appears to be relatively independent of mood state in bipolar and unipolar disorder patients; it remains elevated in euthymia and is higher in individuals with past substance abuse. Elevated attentional and lower non-planning impulsivity in unaffected relatives of

  18. How does psychopathy relate to humor and laughter? Dispositions toward ridicule and being laughed at, the sense of humor, and psychopathic personality traits.

    PubMed

    Proyer, René T; Flisch, Rahel; Tschupp, Stefanie; Platt, Tracey; Ruch, Willibald

    2012-01-01

    This scoping study examines the relation of the sense of humor and three dispositions toward ridicule and being laughed at to psychopathic personality traits. Based on self-reports from 233 adults, psychopathic personality traits were robustly related to enjoying laughing at others, which most strongly related to a manipulative/impulsive lifestyle and callousness. Higher psychopathic traits correlated with bad mood and it existed independently from the ability of laughing at oneself. While overall psychopathic personality traits existed independently from the sense of humor, the facet of superficial charm yielded a robust positive relation. Higher joy in being laughed at also correlated with higher expressions in superficial charm and grandiosity while fearing to be laughed at went along with higher expressions in a manipulative life-style. Thus, the psychopathic personality trait could be well described in its relation to humor and laughter. Implications of the findings are highlighted and discussed with respect to the current literature. PMID:22559907

  19. Dissecting Polyclonal Vaccine-Induced Humoral Immunity against HIV Using Systems Serology.

    PubMed

    Chung, Amy W; Kumar, Manu P; Arnold, Kelly B; Yu, Wen Han; Schoen, Matthew K; Dunphy, Laura J; Suscovich, Todd J; Frahm, Nicole; Linde, Caitlyn; Mahan, Alison E; Hoffner, Michelle; Streeck, Hendrik; Ackerman, Margaret E; McElrath, M Juliana; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Pau, Maria G; Baden, Lindsey R; Kim, Jerome H; Michael, Nelson L; Barouch, Dan H; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Alter, Galit

    2015-11-01

    While antibody titers and neutralization are considered the gold standard for the selection of successful vaccines, these parameters are often inadequate predictors of protective immunity. As antibodies mediate an array of extra-neutralizing Fc functions, when neutralization fails to predict protection, investigating Fc-mediated activity may help identify immunological correlates and mechanism(s) of humoral protection. Here, we used an integrative approach termed Systems Serology to analyze relationships among humoral responses elicited in four HIV vaccine trials. Each vaccine regimen induced a unique humoral "Fc fingerprint." Moreover, analysis of case:control data from the first moderately protective HIV vaccine trial, RV144, pointed to mechanistic insights into immune complex composition that may underlie protective immunity to HIV. Thus, multi-dimensional relational comparisons of vaccine humoral fingerprints offer a unique approach for the evaluation and design of novel vaccines against pathogens for which correlates of protection remain elusive. PMID:26544943

  20. Laugh Away the Fat? Therapeutic Humor in the Control of Stress-induced Emotional Eating.

    PubMed

    Bast, Elizabeth S; Berry, Elliot M

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are also involved in eating behavior. Finally, we present a novel hypothesis that people may be trained to use humor as a "food substitute" at best, or to blunt hunger stimuli, to achieve similar advantages, without the side effect of weight gain. PMID:24498514

  1. Stability of ethanol in postmortem blood and vitreous humor in long-term refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Theresa; Hearn, W Lee

    2003-10-01

    Ethanol concentrations in postmortem blood and vitreous humor samples collected at the Miami-Dade Medical Examiner Department over 5-6 years ago were reexamined to assess whether vitreous humor is a more reliable specimen for the analysis of ethanol in samples stored long term. The average change in 50-mL polypropylene tubes containing blood was 0.06 gm/dL (35% loss). On the other hand, vitreous humor samples collected in 10-mL gray-top Vacutainer tubes yielded an average change of 0.01 gm/dL (6.1% loss). This study demonstrates that vitreous humor may be a reliable matrix for ethanol analysis following prolonged refrigerated storage of the samples. PMID:14607009

  2. Laugh Away the Fat? Therapeutic Humor in the Control of Stress-induced Emotional Eating

    PubMed Central

    Bast, Elizabeth S.; Berry, Elliot M.

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are also involved in eating behavior. Finally, we present a novel hypothesis that people may be trained to use humor as a “food substitute” at best, or to blunt hunger stimuli, to achieve similar advantages, without the side effect of weight gain. PMID:24498514

  3. Humor: a research and practice tool for nurse scholar-supervisors, practitioners, and educators.

    PubMed

    Yura-Petro, H

    1991-06-01

    The nurse scholar, whether a supervisor, an educator, or a practitioner, has a lifetime of research opportunities as well as personal experiences related to the human need for humor. We need to develop the means to assess the individual's and group's response to humor. Nurse scholars, particularly the nurse supervisor, can make a significant contribution in the search to harness some of the energy we use in laughing and direct it toward helping us heal our human conditions. PMID:10110633

  4. Humor, laughter, and the cerebellum: insights from patients with acute cerebellar stroke.

    PubMed

    Frank, B; Andrzejewski, K; Göricke, S; Wondzinski, E; Siebler, M; Wild, B; Timmann, D

    2013-12-01

    Extent of cerebellar involvement in cognition and emotion is still a topic of ongoing research. In particular, the cerebellar role in humor processing and control of laughter is not well known. A hypermetric dysregulation of affective behavior has been assumed in cerebellar damage. Thus, we aimed at investigating humor comprehension and appreciation as well as the expression of laughter in 21 patients in the acute or subacute state after stroke restricted to the cerebellum, and in the same number of matched healthy control subjects. Patients with acute and subacute cerebellar damage showed preserved comprehension and appreciation of humor using a validated humor test evaluating comprehension, funniness and aversiveness of cartoons ("3WD Humor Test"). Additionally, there was no difference when compared to healthy controls in the number and intensity of facial reactions and laughter while observing jokes, humorous cartoons, or video sketches measured by the Facial Action Coding System. However, as depression scores were significantly increased in patients with cerebellar stroke, a concealing effect of accompanying depression cannot be excluded. Current findings add to descriptions in the literature that cognitive or affective disorders in patients with lesions restricted to the cerebellum, even in the acute state after damage, are frequently mild and might only be present in more sensitive or specific tests. PMID:23661243

  5. Depressive Episode May Not Always Follow Mania in Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5.7 million Americans have bipolar disorder, which causes cycles of mania (elevated or irritable mood) and depression. The new findings stem from an analysis of data from more than 34,000 American adults with bipolar disorder. "Although it has long been ...

  6. Psychiatric Disorders in Preschool Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin; Monk, Kelly; Kalas, Catherine; Obreja, Mihaela; Hickey, Mary Beth; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Shamseddeen, Wael; Diler, Rasim; Kupfer, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate lifetime prevalence and specificity of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and severity of depressive and manic symptoms at intake in preschool offspring of parents with Disorder I–II. Methods 121 offspring ages 2–5 years old of 83 parents with Bipolar Disorder and 102 offspring of 65 demographically matched control parents (29 with non-Bipolar psychiatric disorders and 36 without any lifetime psychopathology) were recruited. Parents with Bipolar Disorder were recruited through advertisement and adult outpatient clinics and control parents were ascertained at random from the community. Subjects were evaluated with standardized instruments. All staff were blind to parental diagnoses. Results After adjusting for within-family correlations and both biological parents’ non-Bipolar psychopathology, compared to the offspring of the control parents, offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder, particularly those older than 4 years old, showed an 8-fold increased life-time prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and significantly higher rates of ≥ 2 psychiatric disorders. While only 3 offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder had mood disorders, offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder, especially those with ADHD and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder, had significantly more severe current manic and depressive symptomatology than the offspring of the controls. Conclusions Preschool offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder are at increased risk for ADHD and demonstrate increased subthreshold manic and depressive symptomatology. Longitudinal follow-up is warranted to evaluate whether these children are at high-risk to develop mood and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:20080982

  7. Generalization of Moll Ross relations for heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, S. Noor

    2002-04-01

    Moll-Ross relations for the current flow through the base region of a bipolar transistor, and for the base transit time, have been generalized for heterojunction bipolar transistors with a nonuniform energy bandgap in the base region. The effect of both heavy doping and carrier degeneracy has been taken into account.

  8. Pharmacological Management of Bipolar Disorder in a Youth with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelBello, Melissa P.; Correll, Christoph U.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Carlson, Harold E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, four clinicians respond to the following case vignette: A 12-year-old girl with insulin-dependent diabetes presents for treatment of her newly diagnosed bipolar disorder. How would you address the bipolar disorder pharmacologically, and how would the presence of diabetes affect your selection of medication and clinical management?

  9. Seasonal variation of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Ahmed; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Zhang, Tao; Potash, James B.; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Solomon, David A.; Coryell, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Analyses of seasonal variation of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder in retrospective studies examining admission data have yielded conflicting results. We examined seasonal variation of mood symptoms in a prospective cohort with long-term follow-up: The Collaborative Depression Study (CDS). Methods The CDS included participants from five academic centers with a prospective diagnosis of bipolar I or II disorder. The sample was limited to those who were followed for at least 10 years of annual or semi-annual assessments. Time series analyses and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used assess seasonal patterns of manic and depressive symptoms. Results A total of 314 individuals were analyzed [bipolar I disorder: (n = 202) and bipolar II disorder: (n = 112)] with both disorders exhibiting the lowest depressive symptoms in summer and highest around the winter solstice, though the winter peak in symptoms was statistically significant only with bipolar I disorder. Variation of manic symptoms was more pronounced in bipolar II disorder, with a significant peak in hypomanic symptomatology in the months surrounding the fall equinox. Conclusions Significant seasonal variation exists in bipolar disorder with manic/hypomanic symptoms peaking around the fall equinox and depressive symptoms peaking in months surrounding the winter solstice in bipolar I disorder. PMID:23621686

  10. The Ebers-Moll model for magnetic bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, Jaroslav; Žutić, Igor

    2005-03-01

    The equivalent electrical circuit of the Ebers-Moll-type is introduced for magnetic bipolar transistors. In addition to conventional diodes and current sources, the new circuit comprises two novel elements due to spin-charge coupling. A classification scheme of the operating modes of magnetic bipolar transistors in the low bias regime is presented.

  11. Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Of Bipolar Digital Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Ronnie D.; Ubele, John L., II

    1994-01-01

    In system, bipolar digital data transmitted by use of wavelength-division multiplexing on single optical fiber. Two different wavelengths used to transmit pulses signifying "positive" or "negative" bipolar digital data. Simultaneous absence of pulses at both wavelengths signifies digital "zero."

  12. The CBCL Bipolar Profile and Attention, Mood, and Behavior Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerfler, Leonard A.; Connor, Daniel F.; Toscano, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Biederman and colleagues reported that a CBCL profile identified youngsters who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Some studies found that this CBCL profile does not reliably identify children who present with bipolar disorder, but nonetheless this CBCL does identify youngsters with severe dysfunction. However, the nature of the impairment of…

  13. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Prodromal States and Early Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luby, Joan L.; Navsaria, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Background: Childhood bipolar disorder remains a controversial but increasingly diagnosed disorder that is associated with significant impairment, chronic course and treatment resistance. Therefore, the search for prodromes or early markers of risk for later childhood bipolar disorder may be of great importance for prevention and/or early…

  14. The Enigma of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchett, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a proliferation in the number of children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Except in rare cases, the young people who receive this diagnosis do not meet the strict diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder I or II in the DSM-IV-TR. Many pediatric psychiatrists insist there are important development…

  15. Bipolar Disorder in Children: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quattlebaum, Patricia D.; Grier, Betsy C.; Klubnik, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, bipolar disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis in children, and these children can present with severe behavior problems and emotionality. Many studies have documented the frequent coexistence of behavior disorders and speech-language disorders. Like other children with behavior disorders, children with bipolar disorder…

  16. Treatment Guidelines for Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowatch, Robert A.; Fristad, Mary; Birmaher, Boris; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Findling, Robert L.; Hellander, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Clinicians who treat children and adolescents with bipolar disorder desperately need current treatment guidelines. These guidelines were developed by expert consensus and a review of the extant literature about the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric bipolar disorders. The four sections of these guidelines include diagnosis, comorbidity, acute…

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  18. Olfactocentric Paralimbic Cortex Morphology in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fei; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Womer, Fay Y.; Edmiston, Erin E.; Chepenik, Lara G.; Chen, Rachel; Spencer, Linda; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2011-01-01

    The olfactocentric paralimbic cortex plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional and neurovegetative functions that are disrupted in core features of bipolar disorder. Adolescence is thought to be a critical period in both the maturation of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex and in the emergence of bipolar disorder pathology. Together,…

  19. Commentary: Treatment Guidelines for Child and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Once considered rare in children, pediatric bipolar disorder is now widely diagnosed in the United States. The illness has become a cultural phenomenon, adorning the cover of Time magazine and headlining national news broadcasts. Kowatch and colleagues, in compiling consensus recommendations for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, have…

  20. Star formation and the nature of bipolar outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Frank H.; Ruden, Steven P.; Lada, Charles J.; Lizano, Susana

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a simple physical model for the bipolar molecular outflows that frequently accompany star formation. The model forges an intrinsic link between the bipolar flow phenomenon and the process of star formation, and it helps to explain many of the systematics known for existing sources.

  1. People-Things and Data-Ideas: Bipolar Dimensions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Louis; Su, Rong; Rounds, James

    2011-01-01

    We examined a longstanding assumption in vocational psychology that people-things and data-ideas are bipolar dimensions. Two minimal criteria for bipolarity were proposed and examined across 3 studies: (a) The correlation between opposite interest types should be negative; (b) after correcting for systematic responding, the correlation should be…

  2. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  3. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance.

    PubMed

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Allen, Joseph A

    2014-11-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor-performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understanding of the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter during 54 regular organizational team meetings. Performance ratings were obtained immediately following the team meetings as well as at a later time point from the teams' supervisors. At the behavioral unit level within the team interaction process, lag sequential analysis identified humor and laughter patterns occurring above chance (e.g., a joke followed by laughter, followed by another joke). Moreover, humor patterns triggered positive socioemotional communication, procedural structure, and new solutions. At the team level, humor patterns (but not humor or laughter alone) positively related to team performance, both immediately and 2 years later. Team-level job insecurity climate was identified as a boundary condition: In low job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns were positively related to performance, whereas in high job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns did not relate to team performance. The role of job insecurity as a boundary condition persisted at both time points. These findings underscore the importance of studying team interactions for understanding the role of humor in organizations and considering team-level boundary conditions over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25314363

  4. [Obesity and dyslipidemia in Tunisian bipolar subjects].

    PubMed

    Ezzaher, Asma; Haj Mouhamed, Dhouha; Mechri, Anwar; Neffati, Fadoua; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of obesity and overweight and their association with lipid parameters in bipolar patients. Our study included 130 patients with bipolar disorder and 130 control subjects aged respectively 37.9 +/- 12.1 and 37.2 +/- 13.1 years. Obesity was evaluated by body mass index (BMI). Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, cLDL and cHDL were determined by enzymatic methods and ApoA1, ApoB and Lp(a) by techniques immunoturbidimetric. The prevalence of obesity in patients is 30.1% vs 12.3% in controls. A significant increase in BMI was noted in patients compared with controls regardless of sex and tobacco status and in patients aged less than 35 years and those consumers of alcohol. The majority of obese and overweight patients are treated with valproic acid. We found increase in cholesterol (4.41 +/- 1.02 vs 3.90 +/- 0.98 mmol/L), in cLDL (2.13 +/- 1.09 vs 1.29 +/- 0.56 mmol/L) and in Lp(a) (236 +/- 207 vs 163 +/- 150 mg/L) and decrease in HDLc (0.98 +/- 0.28 vs 1.09 +/- 0.36 mmol/L), more frequent at the obese patients and those presenting an overweight. In conclusion, in bipolar patients, obesity and overweight are frequent and associated with perturbations in lipid profile particularly an increase in total cholesterol, cLDL and Lp(a) and decrease in cHDL that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:20478770

  5. Kinetics of humoral responsiveness in severe thermal injury.

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, F T; Bachvaroff, R J

    1976-01-01

    Severe thermal injury has the capacity to increase the rate of generation of antibody-forming cells in mice. The intensity of stimulation appears to be proportional to the extent of injury. The effect has been observed in animals burned within 1 hr before or after sensitization with test antigen(s), and persists up to 14 days after injury. Thereafter, the stimulatory effect wanes, and disappears by the 21st day after burning. Responses to T-cell (thymus derived lymphocytes) dependent antigens (sheep erythrocytes; sheep erythrocytes coupled to TNP) and to antigens not requiring T and B-cell (bone marrow derived lymphocytes) cooperation (DNP-Ficoll) appear to be equally affected by thermal injury. The mechanisms underlying this form of enhanced antibody response are not clear. The data, however, support the possibility that the burn wound may release factor(s) capable of enhancing humoral responsiveness in the injured animal. Such factor(s) do not appear to be endotoxins. PMID:945719

  6. Humoral and cellular autoimmune responses in stiff person syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Tobias; Londei, Marco; Hawa, Mohammed; Leslie, R David G

    2003-09-01

    Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a chronic autoimmune disease associated with humoral and cellular immune responses to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65. Another chronic autoimmune disease, type 1 diabetes (T1D), is also associated with autoimmune responses to this antigen, but T1D patients develop SPS only extremely rarely and only a third of SPS patients develop T1D (mostly mild manifestations in adulthood). In a previous study, we described important differences between T1D and SPS in the autoimmune response to GAD 65: (1) T cells of SPS patients recognize epitopes in the middle of GAD 65 (amino residues 81-171 and 313-403), whereas patients with T1D preferentially recognize another middle (161-243) and a C-terminal region (473-555); and (2) GAD antibodies (Abs) were nearly exclusively of the Th1-associated IgG1 type in T1D, whereas SPS patients had both Th1- and Th2-associated IgG4 and IgE GAD Abs. These differences were not simply related to different HLA alleles. Fine epitope mapping revealed further distinct T cell epitopes in both diseases despite similar HLA background. Therefore, a single autoantigen can elicit different immune responses causing distinct chronic autoimmune diseases possibly related to a Th1 or Th2 bias of the disease. PMID:14592879

  7. Age-dependent humoral responses of children to mycobacterial antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Fairchok, M P; Rouse, J H; Morris, S L

    1995-01-01

    In the United States, disseminated infection with environmental mycobacteria, including the Mycobacterium avium complex, is the most common opportunistic bacterial infection seen in AIDS patients. However, the source and relative degree of exposure to environmental mycobacteria during childhood are unknown. To examine the age-related exposure to mycobacteria, we obtained serum samples from 150 children ranging in age from 6 months to 18 years. Each sample was tested against both M. avium (serovar 1) sonic extracts and mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All serum samples were also subjected to immunoblot analysis with the sonic extract antigen. These studies established that elevated ELISA values (P < 0.0001) and increased immunoblot reactivity (P < 0.0001) against mycobacterial antigens were both associated with increasing age. The seroreactivity differences were most striking when comparing the age groups of children below the age of 6 with the older age groups. Our results suggest that the development of humoral immune responses to mycobacterial antigens in children correlates with increasing age and that there may be an environmental factor predisposing to mycobacterial exposure which is related to advancing age. PMID:7583921

  8. [History of scrofula: from humoral dyscrasia to consumption].

    PubMed

    Duarte G, Ignacio; Chuaqui F, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The term “scrofula” was used for a long time to designate a chronic swelling of cervical lymph nodes. This paper outlines the prevalent ideas on the nature, pathogenesis and the treatment of this disorder, from classical Greek medicine up to the 18th century. A Hippocratic treatise regarded scrofula as produced by an accumulation of phlegm, with a consequent imbalance or dyscrasia of the body humors. It was believed that it could heal spontaneously; but it could also soften, open through the skin and have an obstinate course. The treatment consisted mainly on local applications, incision to evacuate the soft content, or extirpation of the abnormal mass. In France and England, crowds of scrofulous patients were touched by the kings who were supposed to have a hereditary miraculous power to cure the disease. A Medieval text mentioned that scrofula could also affect other parts of the body. In the 17th century, scrofula was reputed as a frequent condition and was attributed to blood acrimony which coagulated in spongy organs. It was associated to phthisis or consumption due to the lethal outcome in some patients and to a cheese-like appearance of the pulmonary and the scrofulous lesions. PMID:27401383

  9. Humoral and Cellular Immune Response in Canine Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Miller, J; Popiel, J; Chełmońska-Soyta, A

    2015-07-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine diseases in dogs and is generally considered to be autoimmune in nature. In human hypothyroidism, the thyroid gland is destroyed by both cellular (i.e. autoreactive helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes) and humoral (i.e. autoantibodies specific for thyroglobulin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine) effector mechanisms. Other suggested factors include impaired peripheral immune suppression (i.e. the malfunction of regulatory T cells) or an additional pro-inflammatory effect of T helper 17 lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunological changes in canine hypothyroidism. Twenty-eight clinically healthy dogs, 25 hypothyroid dogs without thyroglobulin antibodies and eight hypothyroid dogs with these autoantibodies were enrolled into the study. There were alterations in serum proteins in hypothyroid dogs compared with healthy controls (i.e. raised concentrations of α-globulins, β2- and γ-globulins) as well as higher concentration of acute phase proteins and circulating immune complexes. Hypothyroid animals had a lower CD4:CD8 ratio in peripheral blood compared with control dogs and diseased dogs also had higher expression of interferon γ (gene and protein expression) and CD28 (gene expression). Similar findings were found in both groups of hypothyroid dogs. Canine hypothyroidism is therefore characterized by systemic inflammation with dominance of a cellular immune response. PMID:25958183

  10. Kinetics of humoral responsiveness in severe thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Rapaport, F T; Bachvaroff, R J

    1976-07-01

    Severe thermal injury has the capacity to increase the rate of generation of antibody-forming cells in mice. The intensity of stimulation appears to be proportional to the extent of injury. The effect has been observed in animals burned within 1 hr before or after sensitization with test antigen(s), and persists up to 14 days after injury. Thereafter, the stimulatory effect wanes, and disappears by the 21st day after burning. Responses to T-cell (thymus derived lymphocytes) dependent antigens (sheep erythrocytes; sheep erythrocytes coupled to TNP) and to antigens not requiring T and B-cell (bone marrow derived lymphocytes) cooperation (DNP-Ficoll) appear to be equally affected by thermal injury. The mechanisms underlying this form of enhanced antibody response are not clear. The data, however, support the possibility that the burn wound may release factor(s) capable of enhancing humoral responsiveness in the injured animal. Such factor(s) do not appear to be endotoxins. PMID:945719

  11. Dose Rate Effects in Linear Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Allan; Swimm, Randall; Harris, R. D.; Thorbourn, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Dose rate effects are examined in linear bipolar transistors at high and low dose rates. At high dose rates, approximately 50% of the damage anneals at room temperature, even though these devices exhibit enhanced damage at low dose rate. The unexpected recovery of a significant fraction of the damage after tests at high dose rate requires changes in existing test standards. Tests at low temperature with a one-second radiation pulse width show that damage continues to increase for more than 3000 seconds afterward, consistent with predictions of the CTRW model for oxides with a thickness of 700 nm.

  12. Total Dose Effects in Conventional Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. H.; Swift, G. W.; Rax, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines various factors in bipolar device construction and design, and discusses their impact on radiation hardness. The intent of the paper is to improve understanding of the underlying mechanisms for practical devices without special test structures, and to provide (1) guidance in ways to select transistor designs that are more resistant to radiation damage, and (2) methods to estimate the maximum amount of damage that might be expected from a basic transistor design. The latter factor is extremely important in assessing the risk that future lots of devices will be substantially below design limits, which are usually based on test data for older devices.

  13. Bipolar Depression: Pregnancy, Postpartum, and Lactation.

    PubMed

    Wald, Marla F; Muzyk, Andrew J; Clark, Drue

    2016-03-01

    Medication management of bipolar depression in pregnancy and lactation is best done by assessing each patient's and family's needs in detail. Keeping pregnant patients as psychiatrically stable as possible is the most important principle for clinicians. Unfortunately, there is no risk-free situation for patients with psychiatric illness. This is often the most difficult and hard to accept reality for these patients, families, and clinicians. Clinicians serve these patients best by being as transparent as possible about the risk/benefit analysis of each patient's situation with the realization that ultimately the decisions are made by the patient and family. PMID:26876318

  14. A new bipolar Qtrim power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, C.; Bruno, D.; Drozd, J.; Nolan, T.; Orsatti, F.; Heppener, G.; Di Lieto, A.; Schultheiss, C.; Samms, T.; Zapasek, R.; Sandberg, J.

    2015-05-03

    This year marks the 15th run of RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) operations. The reliability of superconducting magnet power supplies is one of the essential factors in the entire accelerator complex. Besides maintaining existing power supplies and their associated equipment, newly designed systems are also required based on the physicist’s latest requirements. A bipolar power supply was required for this year’s main quadruple trim power supply. This paper will explain the design, prototype, testing, installation and operation of this recently installed power supply system.

  15. Perpendicular transport in superlattice bipolar transistors (SBT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibille, A.; Palmier, J. F.; Minot, C.; Harmand, J. C.; Dubon-Chevallier, C.

    Diffusion-limited electron transport in superlattices is studied by gain measurements on heterojunction bipolar transistors with a {GaAs}/{GaAlAs} superlattice base. In the case of thin barriers, Bloch conduction is observed, while hopping between localized levels prevails for large barriers. A transition occurs between these two regimes, localization being achieved when the energy broadening induced by the electron-phonon coupling added to the disorder due to imperfect growth is of the order of the miniband width. This interpretation is supported by temperature dependence measurements of the perpendicular mobilities in relation with theoretical calculations of these mobilities.

  16. NGC 6334-V - An infrared bipolar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, P. M.; Wilking, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    High angular resolution infrared mapping of the enigmatic far-infrared source NGC 6334-V shows it to have a bipolar structure at 1-4 microns. This structure together with the near-infrared colors and previous observations of H2 emission suggests a model for the source (IRS 4) in which a single luminous star is embedded in a dust cloud with a disklike geometry. Photometry of near-infrared sources within 0.5 pc of IRS 4 is also presented. These data suggest that there are at least four lower luminosity members of a young, dense cluster associated with the dominant source.

  17. Animal models of recurrent or bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Kasahara, T; Kubota-Sakashita, M; Kato, T M; Nakajima, K

    2016-05-01

    Animal models of mental disorders should ideally have construct, face, and predictive validity, but current animal models do not always satisfy these validity criteria. Additionally, animal models of depression rely mainly on stress-induced behavioral changes. These stress-induced models have limited validity, because stress is not a risk factor specific to depression, and the models do not recapitulate the recurrent and spontaneous nature of depressive episodes. Although animal models exhibiting recurrent depressive episodes or bipolar depression have not yet been established, several researchers are trying to generate such animals by modeling clinical risk factors as well as by manipulating a specific neural circuit using emerging techniques. PMID:26265551

  18. Multikilowatt Bipolar Nickel/Hydrogen Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    High energy densities appear feasible. Nickel/hydrogen battery utilizing bipolar construction in common pressure vessel, addressing needs for multikilowatt storage for low-Earth-orbit applications, designed and 10-cell prototype model tested. Modular-concept-design 35-kW battery projected energy densities of 20 to 24 Wh/b (160 to 190 kj/kg) and 700 to 900 Wh/ft3 (90 to 110 MJ/m3) and incorporated significant improvements over state-of-the-art storage systems.

  19. Progress and challenges in bipolar lead-acid battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    1995-05-01

    Bipolar lead-acid batteries have higher power densities than any other aqueous battery system. Predicted specific powers based on models and prototypes range from 800 kW/kg for 100 ms discharge times to 1.6 kW/kg for 10 s. A 48 V automotive bipolar battery could have 2 1/2 times the cold cranking rate of a monopolar 12 V design in the same size. Problems which have precluded the development of commercial bipolar designs include the instability of substrate materials and enhanced side reactions. Design approaches include pseudo-bipolar configurations, as well as true bipolar designs in planar and tubular configurations. Substrate materials used include lead and lead alloys, carbons, conductive ceramics, and tin-oxide-coated glass fibers. These approaches are reviewed and evaluated.

  20. Suicide risk factors in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Jolin, Edith M; Weller, Elizabeth B; Weller, Ronald A

    2007-04-01

    Suicidal behavior in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder is a major public health problem that remains understudied. Most research on suicidal behavior in bipolar disorder has been conducted in older adolescents and adults and is limited by retrospective design. Although preliminary research suggests that the early onset of bipolar disorder is associated with increased suicide risk, few studies have prospectively examined the effects of prior suicidal behavior, clinical course, comorbid psychiatric disorders, familial suicidality, and psychosocial factors on suicidal behavior in bipolar youths. More systematic research is needed to better understand suicidal behavior in bipolar children and adolescents. Increased knowledge of the risk factors that contribute to suicidal behavior should lead to better prevention and treatment. PMID:17389121

  1. Design concepts of high power bipolar rechargeable lithium battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H.; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    The present study shows that current bipolar Li/TiS2 batteries using a 0.38 mm thick TiS2 bipolar plate can yield moderate specific power and also high specific energy battery. The computer design studies project that a 100 V, 10 A h bipolar Li/TiS2 battery can achieve 150 W h/kg, 210 W h/l, and 150 W/kg. The unoptimized experimental bipolar Li/TiS2 batteries (3 cells, 90 mA h) exhibited 47 W h/kg, 90 W h/l, and 140 W/kg. Preliminary results on the cycleability of the bipolar batteries are demonstrated. The results also show that enhanced rate capability can be achieved by using pulse discharge and longer rest period between pulses.

  2. A linkage study of bipolar disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsoe, J.R.; Sadovnick, A.D.; Remick, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    We are currently surveying the genome with polymorphic DNA markers in search of loci linked to bipolar disorder (manic-depressive illness) in three populations: 20 families (175 subjects) from the general North American population from San Diego (UCSD) and Vancouver (UBC); 3 Icelandic families (55 subjects); and an Old Order Amish pedigree 110 (118 subjects). Over 50 markers on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 11, 17, 18, 20 and 21 have been examined. All markers have been tested in the Amish and Icelandic families, and a portion of them in the UCSD/UBC families, which we have only recently begun genotyping. The following candidate genes have been examined: {beta}-TSH, dopamine transporter (HDAT), {beta}2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), glucocorticoid type II receptor (GRL), D2 dopamine receptor, serotonin transporter (HSERT), and G{alpha}s G protein subunit (GNAS1). Linkage analysis was conducted using an autosomal dominant model with age-dependent reduced penetrance. Subjects with bipolar, schizoaffective, or recurrent major depressive disorders were considered affected. No significant evidence for linkage was obtained. Mildly positive lods ranging between 1.1 and 1.6 were obtained for three loci: D11S29, HDAT, and GRL.

  3. High-performance silicon nanowire bipolar phototransistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Siew Li; Zhao, Xingyan; Chen, Kaixiang; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Dan, Yaping

    2016-07-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have emerged as sensitive absorbing materials for photodetection at wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared. Most of the reports on SiNW photodetectors are based on photoconductor, photodiode, or field-effect transistor device structures. These SiNW devices each have their own advantages and trade-offs in optical gain, response time, operating voltage, and dark current noise. Here, we report on the experimental realization of single SiNW bipolar phototransistors on silicon-on-insulator substrates. Our SiNW devices are based on bipolar transistor structures with an optically injected base region and are fabricated using CMOS-compatible processes. The experimentally measured optoelectronic characteristics of the SiNW phototransistors are in good agreement with simulation results. The SiNW phototransistors exhibit significantly enhanced response to UV and visible light, compared with typical Si p-i-n photodiodes. The near infrared responsivities of the SiNW phototransistors are comparable to those of Si avalanche photodiodes but are achieved at much lower operating voltages. Compared with other reported SiNW photodetectors as well as conventional bulk Si photodiodes and phototransistors, the SiNW phototransistors in this work demonstrate the combined advantages of high gain, high photoresponse, low dark current, and low operating voltage.

  4. New ways of modeling bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Einat, Haim

    2014-01-01

    There is a well-known deficiency in valid animal models for bipolar disorder. Developing the single ideal model for the disorder-one that will represent its full scope-will probably not be possible until we have a much better understanding of the underlying pathology. Yet, intermediate models, even with partial validity, are critical in order to advance our knowledge and put us into position to develop even better models. The present article discusses the various efforts under way to develop the best models based on our current level of understanding. These efforts include (1) identifying new tests, (2) developing models based on the endophenotypes approach, (3) identifying the best rodent strains, (4) identifying the most appropriate species, (5) segregating susceptible versus resilient animals, and (6) segregating animals that respond or do not respond to treatment. It is suggested that a combined approach that includes these directions and others can result in better models with higher validity that will offer significant help in advancing research on bipolar disorder and developing new and better treatments. PMID:25377608

  5. An overview of bipolar qualitative decision rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefon, Jean-Francois; Dubois, Didier; Fargier, Hélène

    Making a good decision is often a matter of listing and comparing positive and negative arguments, as studies in cognitive psychology have shown. In such cases, the evaluation scale should be considered bipolar, that is, negative and positive values are explicitly distinguished. Generally, positive and negative features are evaluated separately, as done in Cumulative Prospect Theory. However, contrary to the latter framework that presupposes genuine numerical assessments, decisions are often made on the basis of an ordinal ranking of the pros and the cons, and focusing on the most salient features, i.e., the decision process is qualitative. In this paper, we report on a project aiming at characterizing several decision rules, based on possibilistic order of magnitude reasoning, and tailored for the joint handling of positive and negative affects, and at testing their empirical validity. The simplest rules can be viewed as extensions of the maximin and maximax criteria to the bipolar case and, like them, suffer from a lack of discrimination power. More decisive rules that refine them are also proposed. They account for both the principle of Pareto-efficiency and the notion of order of magnitude reasoning. The most decisive one uses a lexicographic ranking of the pros and cons. It comes down to a special case of Cumulative Prospect Theory, and subsumes the “Take the best” heuristic.

  6. The expanding pharmacopoeia for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Philip B; Malhi, Gin S

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of treatments available for bipolar disorder has undergone an extraordinary expansion. In that period, valproate and olanzapine have received regulatory approval in the United States for the acute treatment of mania, and carbamazepine has been indicated for this condition in many other countries. In addition to those agents, a number of other anticonvulsants (in particular lamotrigine, gabapentin, and topiramate) are in trials, as are the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and risperidone, and other novel compounds. This article critically reviews the evidence from controlled trials of these proposed "mood stabilizers," highlighting the strengths and limitations of the data for each compound. A major challenge to the field is the capacity to prove the prophylactic properties of agents for which effectiveness in acute mania and/or bipolar depression has been demonstrated. Finally, as the mechanisms of agents such as lithium are now becoming apparent, and the possibility of understanding the molecular defects underpinning the condition is no longer highly fanciful, the prospect of targeted therapies is considered feasible by both academia and the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:11818469

  7. Polyphosphonium-based ion bipolar junction transistors

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsson, Erik O.; Berggren, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e., ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2 μm, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example, addressable drug-delivery devices. PMID:25553192

  8. Eta Carinae, the most brutal binary bipolar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Icke, V.

    Eta Carinae, one of the most extreme and fascinating objects in our Galaxy, is a supermassive interacting binary at the centre of a bipolar nebula, expanding at about 500 km s^{-1}. Finding the mechanisms behind Eta's appearance, behaviour and evolution is the main goal of this investigation. I have constructed a large series of numerical models of dual-wind binary stars, of which I present here one that probably comes close to the Eta Carinae parameters. I presume that the gaseous `skirt' surrounding Eta is an equatorial `excretion disk' formed by the interacting binary, that the bipolar `Homunculus' nebula above and below this plane is due to the collision between the material ejected in the 1840 `Giant Eruption' and the disk, and the `Little Homunculus' similarly in the smaller 1890 eruption. I have extensively explored the general types of flow pattern expected here. My Theory Group is working towards 3D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for quantitative comparison with Eta, which many believe to be a key to understanding a variety of hitherto unexplained phenomena in and around massive stars, be they binary or single.

  9. The structural neuroimaging of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Emsell, Louise; McDonald, Colm

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing body of literature fuelled by advances in high-resolution structural MRI acquisition and image processing techniques which implicates subtle neuroanatomical abnormalities in the aetiopathogenesis of bipolar disorder. This account reviews the main findings from structural neuroimaging research into regional brain abnormalities, the impact of genetic liability and mood stabilizing medication on brain structure in bipolar disorder, and the overlapping structural deviations found in the allied disorders of schizophrenia and depression. The manifold challenges extant within neuroimaging research are highlighted with accompanying recommendations for future studies. The most consistent findings include preservation of total cerebral volume with regional grey and white matter structural changes in prefrontal, midline and anterior limbic networks, non-contingent ventriculomegaly and increased rates of white matter hyperintensities, with more pronounced deficits in juveniles suffering from the illness. There is increasing evidence that medication has observable effects on brain structure, whereby lithium status is associated with volumetric increase in the medial temporal lobe and anterior cingulate gyrus. However, research continues to be confounded by the use of highly heterogeneous methodology and clinical populations, in studies employing small scale, low-powered, cross-sectional designs. Future work should investigate larger, clinically homogenous groups of patients and unaffected relatives, combining both categorical and dimensional approaches to illness classification in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs in order to elucidate trait versus state mechanisms, genetic effects and medication/illness progression effects over time. PMID:20374145

  10. Sealed bipolar multi-cell battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A low maintenance battery comprises a sealed casing (102) having a cavity (204) receiving a stack (108) of monopolar and bipolar plates (110, 112) interspersed with mats (122) of fiberglass felt immobilizing electrolyte and forming a gas path for diffusion of oxygen to the negative electrode (112). The casing contains a single, resealable vent (202). During charging, oxygen generated at the positive plate (110) diffuses through the mat (122) and decomposes at the negative plate (112). The negative plate (112) has a larger capacity than the positive plate (110) to prevent evolution of hydrogen. Voltage potential is increased or decreased by placing one or more bipolar plates (120) in series relation between alternating positive and negative monopolar plates that are connected in parallel to respective positive and negative battery terminals (104, 106). The monoplates (110, 112) are connected in parallel to respective positive and negative battery terminals (104, 106) by way of bus plates (114, 116, 130, 132). The resealable vent permits operation by way of the oxygen cycle which prevents loss of electrolyte. The vent prevents invasion of oxygen from the ambient to discharge negative plates.

  11. Humor and College Adjustment: The Predictive Nature of Humor, Academic Achievement, Authoritative Parenting Styles on the Initial Adjustment of Male and Female First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Andrews, David W.

    2003-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire on academic achievement, birth order, and family structure; the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire; the Parental Authority Questionnaire; and the Coping Humor Scale were administered to 257 first-year college students. Researchers examined the relationships among (a) authoritative parenting style, (b) family…

  12. Meta-Analysis of Amygdala Volumes in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeifer, Jonathan C.; Welge, Jeffrey; Strakowski. Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2008-01-01

    The size of amygdala of bipolar youths and adults is investigated using neuroimaging studies. Findings showed that smaller volumes of amygdala were observed in youths with bipolar youths compared with children and adolescents without bipolar disorder. The structural amygdala abnormalities in bipolar youths are examined further.

  13. Rational polypharmacy in the bipolar affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Post, R M; Ketter, T A; Pazzaglia, P J; Denicoff, K; George, M S; Callahan, A; Leverich, G; Frye, M

    1996-01-01

    Bipolar affective illness represents a syndrome not readily treated by single agents. Approximately 50% of patients are inadequately responsive to lithium and the majority of patients require supplemental antidepressants, antimanic, antipsychotic or hypnotic medications. These traditional adjunctive medications are associated with potential problems. Antidepressants may precipitate mania (at a rate about double that of placebo) or cause cycle acceleration. Neuroleptics may be associated with either more profound or longer depressive phases, and clearly increase the risk of tardive dyskinesia, to which bipolar patients appear particularly predisposed. Moreover, there are subgroups of patients who are known to be poorly responsive to lithium. These include patients with rapid cycling, dysphoric mania, co-morbid drug or alcohol abuse, a pattern of depression-mania-well interval (D-M-I as opposed to the M-D-I pattern), and patients without a family history of bipolar illness in first-degree relatives. There is increasing recognition that the anticonvulsants carbamazepine and valproate are effective alternatives or adjuncts to lithium in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar illness. Ideally, one would want to assess whether patients who were unresponsive to lithium were responsive to an anticonvulsant alone prior to utilizing lithium in addition to anticonvulsant combination therapy. However, from the clinical perspective, it is often more expedient to use an anticonvulsant adjunctively to lithium to assess the efficacy of this combination and establish mood stabilization. When lithium is not discontinued, the increased morbidity during lithium withdrawal also would not occur and would not confound the evaluation of the new agent. We suggest the initial use of acute adjuncts to lithium with the anticonvulsants carbamazepine or valproate (instead of neuroleptics) so that their efficacy can be assessed in the individual's acute episode, with the likelihood of a

  14. Polymeric penetration enhancers promote humoral immune responses to mucosal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Klein, Katja; Mann, Jamie F S; Rogers, Paul; Shattock, Robin J

    2014-06-10

    Protective mucosal immune responses are thought best induced by trans-mucosal vaccination, providing greater potential to generate potent local immune responses than conventional parenteral vaccination. However, poor trans-mucosal permeability of large macromolecular antigens limits bioavailability to local inductive immune cells. This study explores the utility of polymeric penetration enhancers to promote trans-mucosal bioavailability of insulin, as a biomarker of mucosal absorption, and two vaccine candidates: recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (CN54gp140) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Responses to vaccinating antigens were assessed by measurement of serum and the vaginal humoral responses. Polyethyleneimine (PEI), Dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD) and Chitosan enhanced the bioavailability of insulin following intranasal (IN), sublingual (SL), intravaginal (I.Vag) and intrarectal (IR) administration. The same penetration enhancers also increased antigen-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses to the model vaccine antigens in serum and vaginal secretions following IN and SL application. Co-delivery of both antigens with PEI or Chitosan showed the highest increase in systemic IgG and IgA responses following IN or SL administration. However the highest IgA titres in vaginal secretions were achieved after IN immunisations with PEI and Chitosan. None of the penetration enhancers were able to increase antibody responses to gp140 after I.Vag immunisations, while in contrast PEI and Chitosan were able to induce TT-specific systemic IgG levels following I.Vag administration. In summary, we present supporting data that suggest appropriate co-formulation of vaccine antigens with excipients known to influence mucosal barrier functions can increase the bioavailability of mucosally applied antigens promoting the induction of mucosal and systemic antibody responses. PMID:24657807

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Vitreous Humor in Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Michael; Dacheva, Ivanka; Nobl, Matthias; Siwy, Justyna; Schanstra, Joost P.; Mullen, William; Koch, Frank H. J.; Kopitz, Jürgen; Kretz, Florian T. A.; Auffarth, Gerd U.; Koss, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the protein profile of human vitreous of untreated patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Methods Sixty-eight vitreous humor (VH) samples (44 from patients with treatment naïve RVO, 24 controls with idiopathic floaters) were analyzed in this clinical-experimental study using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometer and tandem mass spectrometry. To define potential candidate protein markers of RVO, proteomic analysis was performed on RVO patients (n = 30) and compared with controls (n = 16). To determine validity of potential biomarker candidates in RVO, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was performed by using proteome data of independent RVO (n = 14) and control samples (n = 8). Results Ninety-four different proteins (736 tryptic peptides) could be identified. Sixteen proteins were found to be significant when comparing RVO and control samples (P = 1.43E-05 to 4.48E-02). Five proteins (Clusterin, Complement C3, Ig lambda-like polypeptide 5 (IGLL5), Opticin and Vitronectin), remained significant after using correction for multiple testing. These five proteins were also detected significant when comparing subgroups of RVO (central RVO, hemi-central RVO, branch RVO) to controls. Using independent samples ROC-Area under the curve was determined proving the validity of the results: Clusterin 0.884, Complement C3 0.955, IGLL5 1.000, Opticin 0.741, Vitronectin 0.786. In addition, validation through ELISA measurements was performed. Conclusion The results of the study reveal that the proteomic composition of VH differed significantly between the patients with RVO and the controls. The proteins identified may serve as potential biomarkers for pathogenesis induced by RVO. PMID:27362861

  16. Humoral immune response directed against LEDGF in patients with VKH.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Senju, S; Shinohara, T; Nakatsura, T; Murata, Y; Ishihara, M; Nakamura, S; Ohno, S; Negi, A; Nishimura, Y

    2001-10-01

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease is an autoimmune systemic disorder. In Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, inflammatory disorders occur in multiple organs containing melanocytes, including uvea (resulting in acute bilateral panuveitis), skin (resulting in vitiligo and alopecia), central nervous system (resulting in meningitis) and inner ears (resulting in hearing loss and tinnitus). These inflammatory aspects are attributed to the destruction of melanocytes through immunological mechanisms. Studies have been carried out to elucidate the exact etiology and target autoantigen in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, but much remains to be investigated. Identification of target autoantigen is important to understand the etiology of autoimmune diseases, and for development of antigen-specific immuno-modulation therapy. To identify the target autoantigens in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, we made use of an immunoscreening of a bovine uveal cDNA expression library with serum samples obtained from patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. We identified an immunoreactive cDNA clone that encodes bovine lens epithelium derived growth factor. mRNA of human lens epithelium derived growth factor was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and it was expressed in human uvea, retina and melanocytes. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies were quantitated in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using recombinant human lens epithelium derived growth factor. The prevalence of IgG anti-lens epithelium derived growth factor autoantibodies in patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (66.7% versus 21.6%, P<0.001). On the other hand, the prevalence of the autoantibody in patients with panuveitis of other etiology, Behçet's disease and sarcoidosis, was almost same as that in healthy controls. These results suggest that the humoral immune response agonist lens epithelium derived growth factor is not a mere secondary phenomena

  17. Humoral Immunity Links Candida albicans Infection and Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fradin, Chantal; Salleron, Julia; Damiens, Sébastien; Moragues, Maria Dolores; Souplet, Vianney; Jouault, Thierry; Robert, Raymond; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Sendid, Boualem; Colombel, Jean Fréderic; Poulain, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective The protein Hwp1, expressed on the pathogenic phase of Candida albicans, presents sequence analogy with the gluten protein gliadin and is also a substrate for transglutaminase. This had led to the suggestion that C. albicans infection (CI) may be a triggering factor for Celiac disease (CeD) onset. We investigated cross-immune reactivity between CeD and CI. Methods Serum IgG levels against recombinant Hwp1 and serological markers of CeD were measured in 87 CeD patients, 41 CI patients, and 98 healthy controls (HC). IgA and IgG were also measured in 20 individuals from each of these groups using microchips sensitized with 38 peptides designed from the N-terminal of Hwp1. Results CI and CeD patients had higher levels of anti-Hwp1 (p=0.0005 and p=0.004) and anti-gliadin (p=0.002 and p=0.0009) antibodies than HC but there was no significant difference between CeD and CI patients. CeD and CI patients had higher levels of anti-transglutaminase IgA than HC (p=0.0001 and p=0.0039). During CI, the increase in anti-Hwp1 paralleled the increase in anti-gliadin antibodies. Microchip analysis showed that CeD patients were more reactive against some Hwp1 peptides than CI patients, and that some deamidated peptides were more reactive than their native analogs. Binding of IgG from CeD patients to Hwp1 peptides was inhibited by γIII gliadin peptides. Conclusions Humoral cross-reactivity between Hwp1 and gliadin was observed during CeD and CI. Increased reactivity to Hwp1 deamidated peptide suggests that transglutaminase is involved in this interplay. These results support the hypothesis that CI may trigger CeD onset in genetically-susceptible individuals. PMID:25793717

  18. Humoral response against glial derived antigens in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Papuć, Ewa; Kurzepa, Jacek; Kurys-Denis, Ewa; Grabarska, Aneta; Krupski, Witold; Rejdak, Konrad

    2014-04-30

    To check whether glial cells have the ability to elicit adaptive immune response in Parkinson's disease and whether a change in this immune response can be observed over time. There is an increasing evidence that glial cells are involved in the neurodegenerative process in PD, in addition to neuronal structures. Measurement of autoantibodies against proteins of oligodendrocytes may serve as an indirect method to assess the level of glial cells activation or degeneration under in vivo conditions. Serum samples from 26 PD patients were collected twice, at baseline and after mean of 13 months. In addition, serum samples from 13 healthy controls matched for age and gender were assessed at one time point. IgG and IgM autoantibodies against myelin-oligodendrocyticglycoprotein (MOG), myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and proteolipoprotein (PLP) were measured in all investigated subjects by a commercially available ELISA system (Mediagnost, Germany). In a group of PD significant decrease of IgG titers was observed for anti-MAG autoantibodies over the investigated time period (p<0.05). For IgM antibodies, we observed statistically significant decrease in anti-MAG autoantibodies in the follow-up period (p<0.05) and increase in anti-MBP and anti-PLP autoantibodies (p<0.05). All antibody titers differed significantly between healthy control subjects and PD patients. Our study provides the evidence for the presence of humoral response against some glial derived antigens in PD. The increasing levels of anti MBP IgG and IgM might point to the value of this marker for monitoring disease progression. PMID:24594199

  19. Characterization of children of bipolar parents by parent report CBCL.

    PubMed

    Dienes, Kimberly A; Chang, Kiki D; Blasey, Christine M; Adleman, Nancy E; Steiner, Hans

    2002-01-01

    In past research the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) has differentiated among various diagnostic categories for children and adolescents. However, research has not been conducted on whether the CBCL differentiates among diagnostic categories for children at high risk for development of psychopathology. This study compares four diagnostic groups [bipolar disorder (BD), attention/deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Depressed/Anxious and No Diagnosis] within a cohort of 58 children of bipolar parents to determine whether their CBCL scores will replicate the scores of children not at high risk for bipolar disorder. The cohort of children of bipolar parents received elevated scores on the CBCL scales in comparison with non-clinical populations. In addition, the CBCL distinguished between children of bipolar parents with and without clinical disorders. Finally the BD group differed from the ADHD group only on the Aggressive Behaviors, Withdrawn and Anxious/Depressed subscales of the CBCL. Therefore the CBCL did not discriminate between the BD and ADHD groups as it had in previous studies of children with BD and unspecified family history. It is possible that this discrepancy is due to a group of children of bipolar parents with ADHD who are currently prodromal for bipolar disorder and therefore received higher scores on the CBCL based on prodromal symptomatology. A longitudinal follow-up of this cohort is necessary to ascertain whether this is the case. PMID:12127602

  20. Impulsivity and Risk Taking in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, L Felice; Lee, Junghee; Davis, Michael C; Altshuler, Lori; Glahn, David C; Miklowitz, David J; Green, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Impulsive risk taking contributes to deleterious outcomes among clinical populations. Indeed, pathological impulsivity and risk taking are common in patients with serious mental illness, and have severe clinical repercussions including novelty seeking, response disinhibition, aggression, and substance abuse. Thus, the current study seeks to examine self-reported impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale) and performance-based behavioral risk taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task) in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Participants included 68 individuals with bipolar disorder, 38 with schizophrenia, and 36 healthy controls. Self-reported impulsivity was elevated in the bipolar group compared with schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, who did not differ from each other. On the risk-taking task, schizophrenia patients were significantly more risk averse than the bipolar patients and controls. Aside from the diagnostic group differences, there was a significant effect of antipsychotic (AP) medication within the bipolar group: bipolar patients taking AP medications were more risk averse than those not taking AP medications. This difference in risk taking because of AP medications was not explained by history of psychosis. Similarly, the differences in risk taking between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were not fully explained by AP effects. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:23963117