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Sample records for hutton memorial medal

  1. VIEW OF CARILLON MEMORIAL WITH 5 SERVICE MEDALS IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CARILLON MEMORIAL WITH 5 SERVICE MEDALS IN FOREGROUND AND GETTYSBURG ADDRESS TABLET IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  2. 76 FR 36176 - Pricing for National September 11 Memorial & Museum Commemorative Medal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... United States Mint Pricing for National September 11 Memorial & Museum Commemorative Medal ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum..., Associate Director for Sales and Marketing; United States Mint; 801 9th Street, NW.; Washington, DC...

  3. President Reagan Presents Medals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan presents astronaut John Young with the Congressional Space Medal of Honor as well as NASA's Distinguished Service Medal. Astronaut Robert C. Crippen also received the Distinguished Service Medal and Dr. Alan Lovelace was presented with the President's Citizens Medal. From left to right: President Ronald Reagan Astronaut, John Young Astronaut, Robert Crippen Dr. Alan Lovelace Vice President George Bush

  4. Anders receives Hess Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.; Anders, Edward

    Edward Anders was awarded the Harry H. Hess Medal at the AGU Spring Meeting Honors Ceremony on May 31 in Baltimore. The Hess Medal recognizes outstanding achievements in research in the constitution and evolution of Earth and its sister planets. The award citation and Anders' response are given here.

  5. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  6. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of Ms. Cleary's Newbery medal acceptance speech in which she gives personal history concerning her development as a writer and her response to the letters she receives from children. (CRH)

  7. Caldecott Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provensen, Alice; Provensen, Martin

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of the Provensens' Caldecott medal acceptance speech in which they describe their early interest in libraries and literature, the collaborative aspect of their work, and their current interest in aviation. (CRH)

  8. Parade field, looking from corner of south Hutton St. And ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Parade field, looking from corner of south Hutton St. And Charlie Kelly Blvd. To the northeast towards the 400 series quarters. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  9. ATS Presents Two Silver Medals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambleton, Robert

    At the ATS convention at Bath, England, two medals were awarded. The Hans Lippershey medal was awarded to Dr. Henry C. King for The History of the Telescope. The Issac Newton medal was awarded to Robert Hambleton for his dedication to publishing the ATS Journal.

  10. National Medal of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The nation's highest honor for American scientists and engineers, the National Medal of Science is awarded annually by the president of the United States to individuals who have made outstanding contributions to or for the total impact of their work on the current state of chemical, physical, biological, social or behavioral sciences; mathematics; or engineering. Anyone can submit a nomination. Submit a short description of the nominee's contribution and three letters of support to http://www.nsf.gov/od/nms/medal.jsp by 1 May 2014.

  11. National Medal of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nineteen scientists and engineers were awarded the nation's highest scientific honor, the National Medal of Science, by President Ronald Reagan in late February in a ceremony held in the East Room of the White House. Among the recipients were two AGU members.

  12. Dalgarno receives Fleming Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, Michael B.; Dalgarno, Alexander

    The John Adam Fleming Medal, given for original research and technical leadership in geomagnetism, atmospheric electricity, aeronomy, and related sciences, was presented to Alexander Dalgarno at the AGU Spring Meeting Honor Ceremony on May 31 in Baltimore. The award citation and Dalgarno's response are given here.

  13. Dessler receives Fleming Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Thomas W.; Dessler, Alex

    Alexander J. Dessler was presented with the John Adam Fleming Medal at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore last May. The award recognizes original research and technical leadership in geomagnetism, atmospheric electricity, aeronomy, and related sciences. The citation was delivered by Thomas W. Hill.

  14. Fuselier receives Macelwane Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelley, Edward G.; Fuselier, Stephen A.

    The 1995 James B. Macelwane Medal, given by AGU for significant contributions to the geophysical sciences by a young scientist of outstanding ability, was presented to Stephen A. Fuselier at the AGU Fall Meeting Honor Ceremony on December 13, 1995, in San Francisco. The award citation and Fuselier's response are given here.On behalf of Don Gurnett and the other distinguished members of AGU who supported this nomination, it is a privilege and a pleasure to introduce one of this year's James B. Macelwane Medal recipients, Stephen A. Fuselier of the Lockheed Martin Palo Alto Research Laboratory. Fuselier has established himself as an exceptional young scientist through the broad range of significant contributions that he has already made to space plasma physics.

  15. Langley Medal awarded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Robert Thomas Jones, senior scientist at the Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., was awarded the distinguished Langley Medal by the Smithsonian Institution for his ‘extensive contributions in theoretical aerodynamics, particularly with regard to development of the swept wing, supersonic area rule and, more recently, the oblique wing.’ Jones is an internationally acclaimed expert on aerodynamics, optics, and biomechanics as well as an applied mathematician, astronomer, inventor, author, and violin maker.The Langley award has been given to just 16 recipients since it was established 73 years ago. Past recipients include Wilbur and Orville Wright, Charles Lindbergh, and Richard Byrd. Named for Samuel Pierpont Langley, aeronautical pioneer and third secretary of the Smithsonian, the medal honors ‘especially meritorious investigations in the field of aerospace science.’

  16. 58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Photographic copy of historic medal, The Yellow Fever Medal, presented to the Portsmouth Naval Hospital by the Town Council of Portsmouth, 1856. (Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Museum, Portsmouth, VA) - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  17. Fukushima to receive Smith Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 1990 Waldo E. Smith Medal for extraordinary service to geophysics will be given to Naoshi Fukushima, who earned an international reputation for his pioneering work in geomagnetic disturbance and ionospheric electric currents. Now retired from the University of Tokyo, Japan, Fukushima is being cited for his public service to international geophysics, and, in particular, his contributions to the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, of which he was Secretary General from September 1975 to August 1983.The Smith Medal will be presented as part of the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Night festivities, Wednesday, December 5, in San Francisco, Calif. Three James B. Macelwane Medals, the John Adam Fleming Medal, and the Maurice Ewing Medal will also be presented (see Eos, February 20, 1990, p. 294).

  18. 75 FR 14257 - Pricing for Bronze Medals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    .... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 1\\5/16\\- inch bronze medals, 1\\1/2\\-inch bronze medals and three-inch bronze medals. Beginning March 25, 2010, the 1\\5/16\\-inch bronze medals will be priced at $5.50 each; 1\\1/2\\-inch bronze medals will be priced at $6.00...

  19. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  20. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  1. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  2. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  3. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  4. ULTRA-SHARP solution of the Smith-Hutton problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, B. P.; Mokhtari, Simin

    1992-01-01

    Highly convective scalar transport involving near-discontinuities and strong streamline curvature was addressed in a paper by Smith and Hutton in 1982, comparing several different convection schemes applied to a specially devised test problem. First order methods showed significant artificial diffusion, whereas higher order methods gave less smearing but had a tendency to overshoot and oscillate. Perhaps because unphysical oscillations are more obvious than unphysical smearing, the intervening period has seen a rise in popularity of low order artificially diffusive schemes, especially in the numerical heat transfer industry. The present paper describes an alternate strategy of using non-artificially diffusive high order methods, while maintaining strictly monotonic transitions through the use of simple flux limited constraints. Limited third order upwinding is usually found to be the most cost effective basic convection scheme. Tighter resolution of discontinuities can be obtained at little additional cost by using automatic adaptive stencil expansion to higher order in local regions, as needed.

  5. 1983 Maurice Ewing Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shor, George G., Jr.; Spiess, Fred Noel

    The Maurice Ewing Medal is presented jointly by the U.S. Navy and AGU for significant contributions to one or more of the following areas: the understanding of physical, geophysical, and geological processes in the ocean; significant original contributions to scientific ocean engineering, technology, and instrumentation; and outstanding service to marine sciences. Fred Noel Spiess has done all of these things superlatively.If one is to work successfully in the oceans, it is useful (although not strictly necessary) to enjoy being at sea—Samuel Johnson, Charles Darwin and Lord Nelson notwithstanding. Fred Spiess combines this enjoyment of seagoing with a logical nature that leads him to the physical heart of a problem, an inventiveness that makes it natural to develop the tools that he needs when they don't exist, an ability to work well with others in a wide variety of disciplines, and leadership that persuades others to work on significant problems.

  6. Knauss Receives 2006 Waldo E. Smith Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinrad, Richard W.; Knauss, John A.

    2007-01-01

    John A. Knauss was awarded the Waldo E. Smith Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting honors ceremony, which was held on 13 December 2006 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal recognizes extraordinary service to geophysics.

  7. Indian Peace Medals in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prucha, Francis Paul

    Silver medals played an important role in American Indian policy for more than a century. Following a practice of the French, Spanish, and British in the New World, the United States government presented Indian peace medals to important chiefs and warriors as symbols of attachment to the new nation. In addition, the medals were marks of rank…

  8. RAS Awards and Prizes: RAS Awards 2009; Gold Medal: Prof. David Williams; Gold Medal: Prof. Eric Priest; Price Medal: Prof. Malcolm Sambridge; Eddington Medal: Prof. James Pringle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    Each year the RAS recognizes outstanding achievement in astronomy and geophysics by the award of medals and prizes. Candidates are nominated by Fellows and the awards made by a committee of Fellows, ensuring that these scientists have earned the respect and admiration of their peers in the research community. The Gold Medal for Astronomy is awarded to Prof. David Williams of University College London. The Gold Medal for Geophysics is awarded to Prof. Eric Priest of the University of St Andrews. The Price Medal is awarded to Prof. Malcolm Sambridge of the Australian National University. The Eddington Medal is given to Prof. James Pringle of the University of Cambridge.

  9. James Hutton's Geological Tours of Scotland: Romanticism, Literary Strategies, and the Scientific Quest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furniss, Tom

    2014-03-01

    Rather than focussing on the relationship between science and literature, this article attempts to read scientific writing as literature. It explores a somewhat neglected element of the story of the emergence of geology in the late eighteenth century—James Hutton's unpublished accounts of the tours of Scotland that he undertook in the years 1785-1788 in search of empirical evidence for his theory of the earth. Attention to Hutton's use of literary techniques and conventions highlights the ways these texts dramatise the journey of scientific discovery and allow Hutton's readers to imagine that they were virtual participants in the geological quest, conducted by a savant whose self-fashioning made him a reliable guide through Scotland's geomorphology and the landscapes of deep time.

  10. James Hutton's Geological Tours of Scotland: Romanticism, Literary Strategies, and the Scientific Quest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furniss, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Rather than focussing on the relationship between science and literature, this article attempts to read scientific writing as literature. It explores a somewhat neglected element of the story of the emergence of geology in the late eighteenth century--James Hutton's unpublished accounts of the tours of Scotland that he undertook in the years…

  11. Pulkkinen receives James B. Macelwane Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.

    Tuija I. Pulkkinen was awarded the James B. Macelwane Medal at the AGU Spring Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on May 27, 1998, in Boston, Massachusetts. The James B. Macelwane Medal recognizes young scientists of outstanding ability who have made significant contributions to the geophysical sciences.

  12. Sleep receives Walter H. Bucher medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaula, William M.; Sleep, Norman

    Norman H. Sleep was awarded the Walter H. Bucher Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony which was held on December 8, 1998, in San Francisco, California. The medal recognizes original contributions to the basic knowledge of the Earth's crust.

  13. Seeking Nominations for COSPAR Awards and Medals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) is seeking candidates to be nominated for COSPAR awards and medals. These awards and medal recognize the outstanding achievements of space scientists throughout the world in a number of areas. It is important to honor the contributions of your colleagues. Therefore, please take a moment to consider nominees for the following:

  14. Purdy Awarded 2006 Maurice Ewing Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdy, G. Michael; Detrick, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    G. Michael Purdy was awarded the Maurice Ewing Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting honors ceremony, which was held on 13 December 2006 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal recognizes significant original contributions to the scientific understanding of the processes in the ocean; for the advancement of oceanographic engineering technology and instrumentation; or outstanding service to marine science.

  15. Cecil Green receives Smith Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, Frank; Green, Cecil

    The Waldo E. Smith Medal, which is awarded for extraordinary service to geophysics, was presented to Cecil H. Green at the 1994 AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony on December 7, 1994 in San Francisco. The award citation and Green's response are given here.“It would take a book to do justice to Cecil Green's extraordinary contributions to the geophysics and electronics industries, to the training of scientists, physicians, and engineers, and to strengthening education and research institutions. In fact, such a book has been written about Cecil's multiple lives as engineer, geophysicist, cofounder of Texas Instruments, and partner with his wife, Ida, in international philanthropy.

  16. 33 CFR 13.01-45 - Replacement of medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-45 Replacement of medals and bars. The Gold or Silver Lifesaving Medal or...

  17. 33 CFR 13.01-45 - Replacement of medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-45 Replacement of medals and bars. The Gold or Silver Lifesaving Medal or...

  18. 33 CFR 13.01-45 - Replacement of medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-45 Replacement of medals and bars. The Gold or Silver Lifesaving Medal or...

  19. 33 CFR 13.01-45 - Replacement of medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-45 Replacement of medals and bars. The Gold or Silver Lifesaving Medal or...

  20. 33 CFR 13.01-45 - Replacement of medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-45 Replacement of medals and bars. The Gold or Silver Lifesaving Medal or...

  1. Solomon Receives 2005 Harry H. Hess Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdy, G. Michael; Solomon, Sean C.

    2006-02-01

    Sean C. Solomon received the Harry H. Hess Medal at the 2005 Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 7 December in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is given for outstanding achievements in research on the constitution and evolution of the Earth and other planets. It is a privilege to present Sean C. Solomon as the American Geophysical Union's Harry H. Hess Medal recipient. During more than 30 years of accomplished research he has established himself as one of the remarkable leadersin geophysical research today.

  2. National Medal of Science nominations sought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) is accepting nominations for the 2013 National Medal of Science until 1 April 2013. Congress established the medal in 1959 as a presidential award for individuals "deserving of special recognition by reason of their outstanding contributions to knowledge in the physical, biological, mathematical, or engineering sciences." Later, Congress expanded the recognition to include the social and behavioral sciences. NSF notes, "We are especially interested in identifying women, members of minority groups, and persons with disabilities for consideration." More information is available at http://www.nsf.gov/od/nms/medal.jsp and http://www.nsf.gov/od/nms/nsf_2013nationalmedalofscience_callfornominations.pdf. For more details, contact the Medal of Science program manager at nms@nsf.gov or 703-292-8040.

  3. Wigner Medal 2010 - Laudatio for Michio Jimbo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielanowski, Piotr

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the Wigner Medal is to recognize outstanding contributions to the understanding of physics through group theory. The Wigner Medal was established in 1977/78 and is administered by the Group Theory and Fundamental Physics Foundation, a publicly supported organization. The 2010 International Selection Committee consisting of J Patera (Canada) - Chairman, M del Olmo (Spain), W Schleich (Germany), J-B Zuber (France) and A Bohm (USA) awarded the 2010 Wigner Medal to Michio JimboUniversity of Tokyo for his introduction of quantum groups and his study of affine Lie algebras in connection with classical and quantum integrable systems. Further information about the Wigner Medal and the Laudatio for Professor Michio Jimbo, presented by Fedor Smirnov, are included in the PDF.

  4. Armstrong Receives Space Medal of Honor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong receives the first Congressional Space Medal of Honor from President Jimmy Carter, assisted by Captain Robert Peterson. Armstrong, one of six astronauts to be presented the medal during ceremonies held in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), was awarded for his performance during the Gemini 8 mission and the Apollo 11 mission when he became the first human to set foot upon the Moon.

  5. Armstrong Awarded Space Medal of Honor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong receives the first Congressional Space Medal of Honor from President Jimmy Carter, assisted by Captain Robert Peterson. Armstrong, one of six astronauts to be presented the medal during ceremonies held in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), was awarded for his performance during the Gemini 8 mission and the Apollo 11 mission when he became the first human to set foot upon the Moon.

  6. 28 CFR 50.22 - Young American Medals Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Young American Medals Program. 50.22 Section 50.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) STATEMENTS OF POLICY § 50.22 Young American Medals Program. (a) Scope. There are hereby established two medals, one to be known as the...

  7. 28 CFR 0.12 - Young American Medals Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Young American Medals Committee. 0.12... Office of the Attorney General § 0.12 Young American Medals Committee. There shall be in the Office of the Attorney General a Young American Medals Committee, which shall be composed of four members,...

  8. 28 CFR 50.22 - Young American Medals Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Young American Medals Program. 50.22 Section 50.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) STATEMENTS OF POLICY § 50.22 Young American Medals Program. (a) Scope. There are hereby established two medals, one to be known as the...

  9. 28 CFR 50.22 - Young American Medals Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Young American Medals Program. 50.22 Section 50.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) STATEMENTS OF POLICY § 50.22 Young American Medals Program. (a) Scope. There are hereby established two medals, one to be known as the...

  10. 28 CFR 50.22 - Young American Medals Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Young American Medals Program. 50.22 Section 50.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) STATEMENTS OF POLICY § 50.22 Young American Medals Program. (a) Scope. There are hereby established two medals, one to be known as the...

  11. 28 CFR 0.12 - Young American Medals Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Young American Medals Committee. 0.12... Office of the Attorney General § 0.12 Young American Medals Committee. There shall be in the Office of the Attorney General a Young American Medals Committee, which shall be composed of four members,...

  12. 28 CFR 0.12 - Young American Medals Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Young American Medals Committee. 0.12... Office of the Attorney General § 0.12 Young American Medals Committee. There shall be in the Office of the Attorney General a Young American Medals Committee, which shall be composed of four members,...

  13. 28 CFR 0.12 - Young American Medals Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Young American Medals Committee. 0.12... Office of the Attorney General § 0.12 Young American Medals Committee. There shall be in the Office of the Attorney General a Young American Medals Committee, which shall be composed of four members,...

  14. 28 CFR 0.12 - Young American Medals Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Young American Medals Committee. 0.12... Office of the Attorney General § 0.12 Young American Medals Committee. There shall be in the Office of the Attorney General a Young American Medals Committee, which shall be composed of four members,...

  15. 33 CFR 13.01-5 - Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-5 Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals. Lifesaving Medals may be awarded to any person...

  16. 33 CFR 13.01-5 - Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-5 Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals. Lifesaving Medals may be awarded to any person...

  17. 33 CFR 13.01-5 - Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-5 Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals. Lifesaving Medals may be awarded to any person...

  18. 33 CFR 13.01-5 - Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-5 Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals. Lifesaving Medals may be awarded to any person...

  19. 33 CFR 13.01-5 - Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-5 Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals. Lifesaving Medals may be awarded to any person...

  20. Gilbert receives 1999 William Bowie Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turekian, Karl K.; Gilbert, J. Freeman

    J. Freeman Gilbert was awarded the William Bowie Medal at the AGU Spring Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on June 2, 1999, in Boston, Massachusetts. The medal recognizes outstanding contributions to fundamental geophysics and unselfish cooperation in research.Freeman Gilbert was a geophysical pioneer, even as a student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he used the Whirlwind computer to apply computational methods to seismic problems. Later at the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP),at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he began his professional university career, he wrote a series of papers on the computation of synthetic seismograms in simple media.

  1. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  2. Psychology and the National Medal of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Robert P.; Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    When Congress created the National Medal of Science in 1959 to be awarded by the president of the United States, psychology was not among the eligible sciences. A concerted lobbying effort in the late 1970s changed that situation, adding social and behavioral sciences to the listing of eligible disciplines. This article describes how the award…

  3. Emeritus trio scoops the 2013 Dirac Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2013-09-01

    The 2013 Dirac Medal has been awarded to three scientists whose wide-ranging work has brought profound advances in cosmology, astrophysics and fundamental physics. Thomas Kibble, James Peebles and Martin Rees all receive the honour, which is bestowed annually by the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, Italy.

  4. 75 FR 69631 - National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination Evaluation Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Patent and Trademark Office National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination Evaluation Committee.... SUMMARY: The National Medal of Technology and Innovation (NMTI) Nomination Evaluation Committee will meet... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Maulsby, Program Manager, National Medal of Technology and...

  5. 76 FR 68167 - National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination Evaluation Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination... meeting. SUMMARY: The National Medal of Technology and Innovation (NMTI) Nomination Evaluation Committee... Medal of Technology and Innovation Program, United States Patent and Trademark Office, 600 Dulany...

  6. Morel Receives 2005 Maurice Ewing Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrag, Daniel P.; Morel, François M. M.

    2006-02-01

    François M. M. Morel received the Ewing Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 7 December 2005, in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is given for significant original contributions to the scientific understanding of the processes in the ocean; for the advancement of oceanographic engineering, technology, and instrumentation; and for outstanding service to marine sciences. François Morel has led the search to understand the role of metals in the ocean, starting with a focus on inorganic processes and aquatic chemistry, and leading to a blend of geochemistry, microbiology, biochemistry, and genetics. His influence comes from his research and from the way he has educated an entire community of scientists with his textbooks, with his teaching, and through his former students and postdocs who hold faculty positions at universities throughout the world.

  7. The 2013 Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal

    PubMed Central

    Jinks-Robertson, Sue; Hieter, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The Genetics Society of America annually honors members who have made outstanding contributions to genetics. The Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal recognizes a lifetime contribution to the science of genetics. The Genetics Society of America Medal recognizes particularly outstanding contributions to the science of genetics over the past 32 years. The George W. Beadle Award recognizes distinguished service to the field of genetics and the community of geneticists. The Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education recognizes individuals or groups who have had a significant, sustained impact on genetics education at any level, from kindergarten through graduate school and beyond. The Novitski Prize recognizes an extraordinary level of creativity and intellectual ingenuity in solving significant problems in biological research through the application of genetic methods. We are pleased to announce the 2013 awards. PMID:23633133

  8. 33 CFR 13.01-25 - Description of Gold Lifesaving Medal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Description of Gold Lifesaving... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-25 Description of Gold Lifesaving Medal. (a) The Gold Lifesaving Medal is...

  9. 33 CFR 13.01-25 - Description of Gold Lifesaving Medal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Description of Gold Lifesaving... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-25 Description of Gold Lifesaving Medal. (a) The Gold Lifesaving Medal is...

  10. 33 CFR 13.01-25 - Description of Gold Lifesaving Medal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Description of Gold Lifesaving... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-25 Description of Gold Lifesaving Medal. (a) The Gold Lifesaving Medal is...

  11. 33 CFR 13.01-25 - Description of Gold Lifesaving Medal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Description of Gold Lifesaving... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-25 Description of Gold Lifesaving Medal. (a) The Gold Lifesaving Medal is...

  12. 33 CFR 13.01-25 - Description of Gold Lifesaving Medal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of Gold Lifesaving... SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-25 Description of Gold Lifesaving Medal. (a) The Gold Lifesaving Medal is...

  13. 31 CFR 92.1 - Manufacture of medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Numismatic Operations § 92.1 Manufacture of medals. With the approval of the Director of the Mint, dies for medals of a national character designated by Congress may be executed at the Philadelphia Mint, and struck in such field office of the...

  14. 31 CFR 92.1 - Manufacture of medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Numismatic Operations § 92.1 Manufacture of medals. With the approval of the Director of the Mint, dies for medals of a national character designated by Congress may be executed at the Philadelphia Mint, and struck in such field office of the...

  15. 31 CFR 92.1 - Manufacture of medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacture of medals. 92.1 Section 92.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Numismatic Operations § 92.1 Manufacture of medals. With the approval of...

  16. Lobell, Rickaby, and Vrugt Receive 2010 James B. Macelwane Medals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, Steven M.; Lobell, David B.; Elderfield, Harry; Rickaby, Rosalind; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Vrugt, Jasper A.

    2011-03-01

    David B. Lobell, Rosalind E. Rickaby, and Jasper A. Vrugt were awarded the 2010 James B. Macelwane Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 15 December 2010 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for “significant contributions to the geophysical sciences by an outstanding young scientist.”

  17. John Glenn: Presented with NASA Distinguished Service Medal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    John Glenn tours with his family, meets JFK and is presented with the NASA distinguished Service Medal. From: The John Glenn Story: Summary of astronaut John Glenn's flying career, from naval aviation training to space flight. The Mercury project is featured as John Glenn flies the Friendship 7 spacecraft. President John F. Kennedy presents the NASA Distinguished service Medal to Astronaut John Glenn.

  18. Steven C. Wofsy Receives 2012 Roger Revelle Medal: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Steven C. Wofsy was awarded the 2012 Roger Revelle Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 5 December 2012 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for "outstanding contributions in atmospheric sciences, atmosphere-ocean coupling, atmosphere-land coupling, biogeochemical cycles, climate, or related aspects of the Earth system."

  19. 2009 National Medal for Museum and Library Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper features the winners of this year's National Medals for Museum and Library Service, the nation's highest honor for libraries and museums. The award celebrates libraries and museums that make a difference for individuals, families, and communities. Medal winners are selected from nationwide nominations for institutions that demonstrate…

  20. Williams and Doney receive 2000 James B. Macelwane medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Thome; Williams, Quentin C.

    Quentin C. Williams and Scott C. Doney were awarded the James B. Macelwane Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on December 17, 2000 in San Francisco, California. The medal recognizes significant contributions to the geophysical sciences by a young scientist of outstanding ability.

  1. The Readability of the Newbery Medal Books (1974-1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Paul J.

    Noting that research indicating Newbery Medal books are not popular with elementary students in spite of their unquestioned superiority in plot, characterization, and style, a study examined the readability level of Newbery Medal winners from 1974 to 1986. Three readability formulas were used to assess readability: Gunning's Fog Index, Fry…

  2. Clement, Hardebeck, and Nimmo Receive 2007 James B. Macelwane Medals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cane, Mark A.; Clement, Amy C.; Michael, Andrew; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.; Stevenson, Dave; Nimmo, Francis

    2008-02-01

    Amy C. Clement, Jeanne L. Hardebeck, and Francis Nimmo were awarded the 2007 James B. Macelwane Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 12 December 2007 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is ``for significant contributions to the geophysical sciences by a young scientist of outstanding ability.''

  3. Hutton to Horton: views of sequence, progression and equilibrium in geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Barbara A.

    1992-08-01

    The papers by Strahler (1952) and Chorley (1962) strongly advocated the adoption of a "dynamic" as opposed to an "historical" approach to geomorphology. The opinion of some later workers—notably Simpson (1963) and Mayr (1982) —is, however, that any advance in the historical natural sciences depends upon the combined appreciation of immanent and configurational elements (Simpson's terminology); and the view that events may have an essential historical or timebound component is now accepted even in "experimental" sciences such as chemistry (Prigogine, 1978). In the light of these contrasting approaches to earth science, an attempt is made to analyse the mjor lines of thought concerning change, progression and equilibrium in the work of six leading precursors of modern geomorphology: James Hutton, Charles Lyell, Charles Darwin, James Dwight Dana, Grove Karl Gilbert and Robert E. Horton. Despite their perceived general adherence to the Uniformitarian tradition, it is suggested that the work of the six reveals two contrasting attitudes to ideas of change and of equilibrium, It is argued that those authors — Lyell, Dana, Horton—who are primarily concerned to demonstrate that the present state of the earth is in some sense the normal or optimum, tend at the same time to accept the existence or desirability of some equilibrium state and, paradoxically, to overstate the role of "unusual", "cataclysmic" or "catastrophic" events in creating and sustaining this equilibrium. The views of Horton, in particular, lend themselves to the description "punctuated equilibrium". In contrast, it is contended that Hutton, Darwin and Gilbert have no ideological commitment to the present state of the earth as anything other than one moment in time. Their ideas are considered to focus upon the entire sequence of changes which may be inferred to create the phenomena viewed at any time or place. As a consequence, the concept of equilibrium has only a minor role in the works of these

  4. 77 FR 14600 - Pricing for 2012 Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags and Rolls, Bronze Medals, the First Spouse Bronze Medal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags and Rolls, Bronze Medals, the First Spouse Bronze Medal Set and the Birth Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing 2012 pricing for Kennedy Half-Dollar bags and rolls,...

  5. Evaluating the (your country here) olympic medal count.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    An Olympic Games is a measurable test of a nation´s sporting power. Medal counts are the object of intense scrutiny after every Olympiad. Most countries celebrate any medal with national glee, since 60% of competing countries will win none. In 2012, 10% of the competing countries won 75% of all medals. Despite this concentration among a few countries, more countries are winning more medals now than 20 years ago, thanks in part to athlete-support and -development programs arising around the globe. Small strong sporting countries like Norway are typified by fairly large variation in medal results from Olympiad to Olympiad and a high concentration of results in a few sports. These are important factors to consider when evaluating national performance and interpreting the medal count. Medal conversion, podium placements relative to top 8 placements, may provide a measure of the competitiveness of athlete-support programs in this international zero sum game where the cost of winning Olympic gold keeps rising whether measured in dollars or human capital.  PMID:23428493

  6. Warren Receives 2004 Maurice Ewing Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speer, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Bruce A. Warren received the Ewing Medal at the 2004 Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony on 15 December, in San Francisco, California. The medal is given for significant original contributions to the scientific understanding of the processes in the ocean; for the advancement of oceanographic engineering, technology, and instrumentation; and for outstanding service to marine sciences. Citation. Bruce Warren is a physical oceanographer and scientist emeritus at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, where he has spent his entire career. Few can claim to have personally unearthed so many distinct elements of the World Ocean circulation as Bruce. At the beginning of his career, oceanographers were working out the implications of the still relatively fresh idea that the large-scale circulation tends to concentrate flow at the western boundary of ocean basins in strong western boundary currents like the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio. During his Ph.D. years, Stommel and Arons published their simple but far-reaching dynamical framework for deep circulation in the ocean, and these concepts and extensions were nowhere better tested than in Bruce's field investigations of deep circulation in almost every major ocean basin in the world. Bruce never failed to point out how, for good reason, other explanations were usually less compelling. His application of Occam's Razor to all work, including his own, is fierce and famous.

  7. Dahlen Receives 2003 Inge Lehmann Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolet, Guust; Dahlen, Francis A., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    ``I feel honored and pleased to cite my friend and Princeton colleague Tony Dahlen for the Inge Lehmann medal. Given Tony's wide range of important contributions, there is actually a choice of AGU honors one might cite him for; his influence extends well beyond those fields that are primarily associated with the Lehmann Medal. ``Tony started his scientific journey as an undergraduate at Caltech. By the time he moved on to graduate studies with George Backus and Freeman Gilbert at Scripps he was already applying his many talents to geophysics. He soon pioneered a series of papers on normal modes that represent the first substantial step away from Earth's spherical symmetry. In fact, all of the current research on the use of low-frequency seismic data for the determination of the Earth's three-dimensional structure is based on this early work, its extension to an inverse problem, and subsequent research with Martin Smith and John Woodhouse. His interest in the theory of global tomography has survived until this day: Recently he developed a very elegant and efficient theory to include the frequency-dependent effects of diffraction into body wave tomography, a theoretical improvement that was almost immediately rewarded by the imaging of a large number of mantle plumes. These represent the first concrete seismological evidence that many hot spots originate deep in the mantle, confirming Jason Morgan's long-standing hypothesis.

  8. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  9. In Brief: Nominations requested for U.S. science medals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-02-01

    Scientists can help recognize the contributions of colleagues by submitting nominations for the National Medal of Science and the National Medal of Technology and Innovation, which are the highest honors the president bestows in science, technology, and innovation. The National Medal of Science, the nation's highest honor for American scientists and engineers, is given to individuals deserving special recognition for outstanding contributions to knowledge, or the total impact of their work, in the chemical, physical, biological, mathematical, engineering, or behavioral sciences. Nominations and three letters of support must be submitted by 31 March. For more information, contact program manager Mayra Montrose at nms@nsf.gov or +1-703-292-8040, or visit http://www.nsf.gov/od/nms/medal.jsp.

  10. Interview With the 2002 Caldecott Medal Winner, David Wiesner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses David Wiesner, the 2002 Caldecott Medal Winner, and includes excerpts of an interview with him. Notes that Wiesner's books appeal to the imagination and often use art elements such as scale. Details the winning book, "The Three Pigs." (PM)

  11. In Brief: National Medal of Science nomination deadline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    The deadline for nominations for the 2010 U.S. National Medal of Science is 31 March 2010. The Medal of Science, which is presented annually by the president of the United States to distinguished scientists and engineers, is the nation's highest honor for American scientists and engineers. For more information, visit http://www.nsf.gov/od/nms/nominations.jsp or contact Mayra Montrose at the U.S. National Science Foundation, mmontros@nsf.gov.

  12. 32 CFR 901.13 - Children of Medal of Honor recipients category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements § 901.13 Children of Medal of Honor recipients category. (a) The child of any Medal of Honor... defined as the natural children of a parent and adopted children whose adoption proceedings were...

  13. 14 CFR 1221.201 - Basis for award of the medal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis for award of the medal. 1221.201 Section 1221.201 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR The Congressional Space Medal of Honor § 1221.201 Basis for award of the medal. (a)...

  14. 14 CFR 1221.201 - Basis for award of the medal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Basis for award of the medal. 1221.201 Section 1221.201 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR The Congressional Space Medal of Honor § 1221.201 Basis for award of the medal. (a)...

  15. 33 CFR 13.01-30 - Description of Silver Lifesaving Medal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Description of Silver Lifesaving Medal. 13.01-30 Section 13.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals,...

  16. 33 CFR 13.01-30 - Description of Silver Lifesaving Medal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Description of Silver Lifesaving Medal. 13.01-30 Section 13.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals,...

  17. 33 CFR 13.01-30 - Description of Silver Lifesaving Medal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Description of Silver Lifesaving Medal. 13.01-30 Section 13.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals,...

  18. 76 FR 37375 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office...: This is an announcement of a meeting via conference call of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor... Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42 U.S.C. 15202....

  19. 76 FR 56226 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office... meeting via conference call of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to vote of the... Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42...

  20. 75 FR 54915 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office... meeting/conference call of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to vote on recommendations for the 2009-2010 Medal of Valor nominations, review issues relevant to the nomination...

  1. 78 FR 25476 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Bureau... announcement of a meeting (via conference call-in) of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to... Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42 U.S.C. 15202....

  2. 75 FR 30859 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office... meeting via conference call of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to vote on the... . ] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those...

  3. 77 FR 26790 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office... Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board (``Board'') to vote on the position of Board Chairperson... Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42...

  4. 77 FR 51826 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Bureau.... SUMMARY: This is an announcement of a meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to review and vote on recommendations for the 2011-2012 Medal of Valor nominations, consider issues...

  5. 78 FR 43227 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office.... SUMMARY: This is an announcement of a meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to review and vote on recommendations for the 2012-2013 Medal of Valor nominations, consider issues...

  6. 75 FR 8043 - National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination Evaluation Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination... requesting nominations of individuals to serve on the National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination..., National Medal of Technology and Innovation Program, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O....

  7. 76 FR 76388 - National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Patent and Trademark Office National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination Application ACTION....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The National Medal of Technology and Innovation is the highest honor for... innovation, and development of the Nation's technological manpower. The purpose of the National Medal...

  8. 78 FR 35604 - National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination Evaluation Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination... closed meeting. SUMMARY: The National Medal of Technology and Innovation (NMTI) Nomination Evaluation..., National Medal of Technology and Innovation Program, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O....

  9. 76 FR 80901 - National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination Evaluation Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination... requesting nominations of individuals to serve on the National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination...: Nominations must be submitted to: Program Manager, National Medal of Technology and Innovation Program,...

  10. 75 FR 3203 - National Medal of Technology and Innovation Call for 2010 Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office National Medal of Technology and Innovation Call for 2010... nominations for its National Medal of Technology and Innovation (NMTI). Since establishment by Congress in 1980, the President of the United States has awarded the National Medal of Technology and...

  11. 33 CFR 13.01-30 - Description of Silver Lifesaving Medal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Description of Silver Lifesaving Medal. 13.01-30 Section 13.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals,...

  12. 33 CFR 13.01-30 - Description of Silver Lifesaving Medal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of Silver Lifesaving Medal. 13.01-30 Section 13.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals,...

  13. 31 CFR 92.2 - Sale of “list” medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of âlistâ medals. 92.2 Section 92.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Numismatic Operations § 92.2 Sale of “list” medals. Medals on the regular Mint...

  14. 14 CFR § 1221.201 - Basis for award of the medal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Basis for award of the medal. § 1221.201 Section § 1221.201 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR The Congressional Space Medal of Honor...

  15. 14 CFR 1221.201 - Basis for award of the medal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basis for award of the medal. 1221.201 Section 1221.201 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR The Congressional Space Medal of Honor §...

  16. The 2012 Thomas Hunt Morgan medal: Kathryn V. Anderson.

    PubMed

    Wolfner, Mariana F; Schedl, Tim

    2012-06-01

    The Genetics Society of America annually honors members who have made outstanding contributions to genetics. The Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal recognizes a lifetime contribution to the science of genetics. The Genetics Society of America Medal recognizes particularly outstanding contributions to the science of genetics over the past 31 years. The George W. Beadle Medal recognizes distinguished service to the field of genetics and the community of geneticists. The Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education recognizes individuals or groups who have had a significant, sustained impact on genetics education at any level, from kindergarten through graduate school and beyond. The Novitski Prize recognizes an extraordinary level of creativity and intellectual ingenuity in solving significant problems in biological research through the application of genetic methods. We are pleased to announce the 2012 awards. PMID:22701044

  17. In Brief: Rita Colwell receives National Medal of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2007-07-01

    Rita Colwell, director of the U.S. National Science Foundation from 1998 to 2004, was awarded a U.S. National Medal of Science in a White House ceremony on 27 July 2007. Colwell, currently a professor of microbiology and biotechnology at the University of Maryland at College Park and a professor at Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, received the award for her research on global infectious diseases and marine microbes, specifically the bacterium that causes pandemic cholera. The National Medal of Science is the United States' highest honor for scientific achievement. Colwell currently serves on AGU's development board.

  18. 28 CFR 50.22 - Young American Medals Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Young American Medals Program. 50.22 Section 50.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) STATEMENTS OF POLICY § 50.22 Young... Administration, Member; (3) Director of the U.S. Marshals Service, Member; and (4) Assistant Attorney...

  19. The Gold Medal Fitness Program: A Model for Teacher Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jan; Konza, Deslea; Hearne, Doug; Okely, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Background: Following the 2000 Sydney Olympics, the NSW Premier, Mr Bob Carr, launched a school-based initiative in NSW government primary schools called the "Gold Medal Fitness Program" to encourage children to be fitter and more active. The Program was introduced into schools through a model of professional development, "Quality Teaching and…

  20. Dr. Shawn Mehlenbacher 2012 Wilder Silver Medal Recipient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dr. Shawn Mehlenbacher, Oregon State University, was awarded the 2012 Wilder Medal by the American Pomological Society for his contributions to hazelnut genetics and cultivar development. Dr. Mehlenbacher took over the leadership of the Oregon State University hazelnut breeding program in 1986 aft...

  1. 31 CFR 92.1 - Manufacture of medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manufacture of medals. 92.1 Section 92.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Numismatic Operations §...

  2. 31 CFR 92.1 - Manufacture of medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manufacture of medals. 92.1 Section 92.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Numismatic Operations §...

  3. 33 CFR 1.26-5 - Replacement of medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 937; 14 U.S.C. 501, 633; 49 U.S.C. 1655(b)(1); 49 CFR 1.46(b)) ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Replacement of medals. 1.26-5 Section 1.26-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  4. 33 CFR 1.26-5 - Replacement of medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 937; 14 U.S.C. 501, 633; 49 U.S.C. 1655(b)(1); 49 CFR 1.46(b)) ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replacement of medals. 1.26-5 Section 1.26-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  5. 33 CFR 1.26-5 - Replacement of medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 937; 14 U.S.C. 501, 633; 49 U.S.C. 1655(b)(1); 49 CFR 1.46(b)) ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Replacement of medals. 1.26-5 Section 1.26-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  6. 33 CFR 1.26-5 - Replacement of medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 937; 14 U.S.C. 501, 633; 49 U.S.C. 1655(b)(1); 49 CFR 1.46(b)) ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Replacement of medals. 1.26-5 Section 1.26-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  7. 33 CFR 1.26-5 - Replacement of medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 937; 14 U.S.C. 501, 633; 49 U.S.C. 1655(b)(1); 49 CFR 1.46(b)) ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Replacement of medals. 1.26-5 Section 1.26-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  8. Our Magnetic Planet (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    It is a great honour to receive the Arthur Holmes Medal, certainly the highest scientific award of my life. My first thoughts and deep gratitude are with the people who have contributed to me being here today, from my PhD mentors, Pierre Berge and Pierre Pério, later Jacques Labeyrie, my colleagues and students and last, but not least, the members of the Committee on Education of EGU, with whom I have shared over 10 years of a wonderful educational activity. In this presentation, among the various scientific arguments in which I have been involved, I will recall only those mentioned in my letter of nomination to the Holmes Medal, trying to replace them in what was known at the time. After a PhD in Solid State Physics, working in a laboratory of the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, I obtained a post doctoral research position for the the study of liquid binary critical fluids, and worked on this topics for 5 years. I then joined the Centre des Faibles Radioactivités, a CNRS-CEA Institute dedicated to the study of geological-environmental phenomena. My first task there has been to develop a paleomagnetic laboratory, dedicated to the study of Earth Sciences, through the study of the magnetic properties of sediments and igneous rocks. From there on, my entire scientific activity has been devoted to the study of our "Magnetic Planet". My first project in Geophysics dealt with the geodynamical evolution of the Aegean Arc. At the time, only a few paleomagnetic studies existed in the Mediterranean realm, and none in the Aegean region. Moreover all of them dealt with rather old geological formations, so that almost nothing was known about the recent post-cretaceous evolution. The originality of our study was to start from the most recent to the older formations, in order to precisely describe "retro-tectonically" the different phases of rotational deformation. This intensive study (over 700 sampling sites, over 10,000 samples spread over continental Greece, the Aegean

  9. Our Magnetic Planet (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    It is a great honour to receive the Arthur Holmes Medal, certainly the highest scientific award of my life. My first thoughts and deep gratitude are with the people who have contributed to me being here today, from my PhD mentors, Pierre Berge and Pierre Pério, later Jacques Labeyrie, my colleagues and students and last, but not least, the members of the Committee on Education of EGU, with whom I have shared over 10 years of a wonderful educational activity. In this presentation, among the various scientific arguments in which I have been involved, I will recall only those mentioned in my letter of nomination to the Holmes Medal, trying to replace them in what was known at the time. After a PhD in Solid State Physics, working in a laboratory of the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, I obtained a post doctoral research position for the the study of liquid binary critical fluids, and worked on this topics for 5 years. I then joined the Centre des Faibles Radioactivités, a CNRS-CEA Institute dedicated to the study of geological-environmental phenomena. My first task there has been to develop a paleomagnetic laboratory, dedicated to the study of Earth Sciences, through the study of the magnetic properties of sediments and igneous rocks. From there on, my entire scientific activity has been devoted to the study of our "Magnetic Planet". My first project in Geophysics dealt with the geodynamical evolution of the Aegean Arc. At the time, only a few paleomagnetic studies existed in the Mediterranean realm, and none in the Aegean region. Moreover all of them dealt with rather old geological formations, so that almost nothing was known about the recent post-cretaceous evolution. The originality of our study was to start from the most recent to the older formations, in order to precisely describe "retro-tectonically" the different phases of rotational deformation. This intensive study (over 700 sampling sites, over 10,000 samples spread over continental Greece, the Aegean

  10. The 2013 Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal: Thomas Douglas Petes.

    PubMed

    Jinks-Robertson, Sue; Hieter, Philip

    2013-05-01

    The Genetics Society of America annually honors members who have made outstanding contributions to genetics. The Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal recognizes a lifetime contribution to the science of genetics. The Genetics Society of America Medal recognizes particularly outstanding contributions to the science of genetics over the past 32 years. The George W. Beadle Award recognizes distinguished service to the field of genetics and the community of geneticists. The Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education recognizes individuals or groups who have had a significant, sustained impact on genetics education at any level, from kindergarten through graduate school and beyond. The Novitski Prize recognizes an extraordinary level of creativity and intellectual ingenuity in solving significant problems in biological research through the application of genetic methods. We are pleased to announce the 2013 awards. PMID:23633133

  11. John Tyndall and the Royal Medal that was never struck

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Just once in its long history has a Royal Medal been awarded but not presented. John Tyndall FRS (1820–93) was the chosen recipient in 1853 for his early work on diamagnetism but declined to accept it. The story of why Tyndall felt compelled to turn down this considerable honour sheds light on the scientific politics and personal relationships of the time, on the importance given to the study of magnetism, and on Tyndall's own character and career. PMID:24921107

  12. Darwin Medal presentation: Corals-seeking the big picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, J. E. N.

    2006-03-01

    Recipients of Darwin Medals from the International Society of Reef Studies are requested to write an overview of the work that led to their award. This account is a personal perspective of thirty-five years work on corals. The fields of taxonomy, biogeography, palaeontology, molecular biology, and evolution are presented in an historical context. Emphasis is given to the changing relevance of these fields to today’s world of information technology and the ever-increasing conservation needs.

  13. Bowen, Dufek, and Shelly Receive 2012 James B. Macelwane Medals: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachos, James

    2013-01-01

    Gabriel J. Bowen, Josef Dufek, and David Richard Shelly were awarded the 2012 James B. Macelwane Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 5 December 2012 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for "significant contributions to the geophysical sciences by an outstanding young scientist".

  14. 78 FR 78838 - National Medal of Technology and Innovation Call for 2014 Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office National Medal of Technology and Innovation Call for 2014... nominations for the National Medal of Technology and Innovation (NMTI). Since establishment by Congress in the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, the President of the United States has awarded...

  15. 31 CFR 92.2 - Sale of “list” medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Numismatic Operations § 92.2 Sale of “list” medals. Medals on the regular Mint list, when available, are sold to the public at a charge... available for sale and their selling prices may be obtained from the Director of the Mint, Washington, DC....

  16. 31 CFR 92.2 - Sale of “list” medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Numismatic Operations § 92.2 Sale of “list” medals. Medals on the regular Mint list, when available, are sold to the public at a charge... available for sale and their selling prices may be obtained from the Director of the Mint, Washington, DC....

  17. Character Traits Depicted in Newbery Medal Books from the 1920s through the 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Kimberly; Parker, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Readers readily identify with characters in literature; therefore, educators must be acutely aware of the overt and underlying messages conveyed in Newbery Medal books. In this quantitative content analysis with a qualitative component, the researchers employed nonparametric measurements to examine Newbery Medal books from the 1920s to the 2000s…

  18. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology: Walter C. Borman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the…

  19. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology: Marcia K. Johnson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the…

  20. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest: Bernice Lott

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in…

  1. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology: Charles Silverstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the…

  2. A Guide to Newbery Medal Winners and Honor Books, 1977-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinman, Judith R.; Henderson, Darwin L.

    Intended for use by teachers, librarians, and parents, this guide analyzes Newbery Award Medal and honor winning books (1977 through 1984) for sexism. Following a statement of criteria, established by the American Library Association concerning the type of book that should receive the medal and honor citations, and the guidelines used to determine…

  3. 77 FR 15997 - National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination Evaluation Committee Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination... Technology and Innovation Nomination Evaluation Committee on March 1, 2012. DATES: The Charter for the National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination Evaluation Committee was renewed on March 1,...

  4. Bradford H. Hager Receives 2013 Inge Lehmann Medal: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovica, Jerry X.

    2014-01-01

    In the post-plate tectonics world, efforts to map the structure of Earth's interior broadened to include a growing preoccupation with the underlying dynamics. Students of global geophysics recognize the important role that previous recipients of the Inge Lehmann Medal played in this effort, but they would also understand the reasons that Bradford Hager of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology must be included in this honored list. Brad has been a central figure in mantle dynamics for the last 30 years, responsible for many fundamental advances in our understanding of mantle structure and flow and their connection to the geological record.

  5. Steven C. Wofsy Receives 2012 Roger Revelle Medal: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wofsy, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Modern views of the Earth's climate, oceans and atmosphere, and appreciation of human impacts on these systems, are relatively new. Less than a decade before I started my professional career, a small nucleus of pioneering scientists, including many previous recipients of the Revelle Medal, began to discern unexpected changes in atmospheric composition and to assess the implications for the global environment. They initially did not imagine that global environmental changes would be observed in their lifetimes: The Earth system was thought to be too massive compared with human endeavors.

  6. Spiro K. Antiochos Receives 2013 John Adam Fleming Medal: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2014-01-01

    Thank you, Jim Klimchuk, for this far too generous citation, and thank you very much, my AGU colleagues, for honoring me with the Fleming Medal. When I consider the list of excellent scientists who have been awarded the Fleming Medal, I am humbled that you have included me in their company. I am especially proud that this award is from AGU because only later in my career did I change my science focus and join AGU. This was the best professional decision I have ever made. As a result, I have met many wonderful colleagues. I've always loved doing research, but my colleagues in AGU have made it so much more enjoyable. Also, moving to AGU gave me the opportunity to participate in truly exciting science. My present position is that of senior scientist for space weather at NASA Goddard. It is interesting to note that the field of space weather science did not even exist when I started my career. I was very fortunate to be part of the beginning of a new field and, as a result, to be able to participate in the explosive advances of space weather science over the past 2 decades.

  7. 1983 William Bowie Medal to Syun-iti Akimoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebermann, Robert C.; Akimoto, Syun-iti

    The 45th William Bowie Medal is awarded to Syun-iti Akimoto for his pioneering work in the application of high-pressure, high-temperature research to geophysical problems. It is a great honor and personal pleasure for me to present to you this warm and generous man, whom I have admired and respected for many years, to receive AGU's most prestigious award. Akimoto joins the ranks of other distinguished scientists in the field of mineral physics who have received the William Bowie Medal: Leason Adams in 1950, Francis Birch in 1960, and A. E. Ringwood in 1974.High-pressure geophysics research was virtually nonexistent in Japan before 1960. In the 22 years since he joined the faculty of the Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP) of the University of Tokyo, Akimoto has played the leading role in building Japanese high-pressure research as applied to the earth's mantle up to the level where, according to Ted Ringwood, Japan leads the world. Ringwood further attests that, “Akimoto has accomplished this by the example of scientific excellence which he has set in all his research and by his generous encouragement of younger workers.”

  8. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article announces the 2007 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology: Irving I. Gottesman. A brief biography, highlighting areas of special focus in Gottesman's work, is provided.

  9. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Announces the 2007 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology: McCay Vernon. A brief biography, highlighting areas of special focus in Vernon's work, is provided.

  10. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Announces the 2007 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology: Patricia M. Bricklin. A brief biography, highlighting areas of special focus in Bricklin's work, is provided.

  11. National Medal of Technology Awarded to NCI Drs. Lowy and Schiller

    Cancer.gov

    President Obama announced that two NCI scientists would be recipients of the National Medal of Technology and Innovation -- the nation's highest honor for technological achievement. The honorees, John Schiller, Ph.D., Laboratory of Cellular Oncology (LCO)

  12. NCI’s Douglas R. Lowy and John T. Schiller awarded Sabin Medal

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists whose discovery provided the technology for commercially developed HPV vaccines were honored with the prestigious Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal Award at a ceremony held at the Sabin Vaccine Institute, May 18, 2011.

  13. NCI Scientists Awarded National Medal of Technology and Innovation by President Obama | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Two NCI scientists received the National Medal of Technology and Innovation, the nation’s highest honor for technological achievement. The award was announced by President Obama in October. The honorees, John Schiller, Ph.D., Laboratory of Cellular Oncology (LCO), Center for Cancer Research, NCI, and Douglas Lowy, M.D., also from LCO and NCI deputy director, received their medals at a White House ceremony on Nov. 20.

  14. Patera in Aere. Symbols of the goddess of health on coins and medals.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    2000-06-01

    The numismatic record, coins and medals, portrays many of the symbols of health. The oldest symbol which portrays health, as a positive state of physical well-being, is the patera. First associated with Hygeia, it extended to that of the Roman Goddess of Health, Salus, imparting to the concept of health the additional themes of safety and security. Ancient and modern coins and medals, which portray the patera, are included in this account. PMID:11624589

  15. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APA) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2008 recipient of the American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology is Florence W. Kaslow. A citation, biography, and selected bibliography for Florence W. Kaslow are provided in this article. PMID:18665668

  16. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APA) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2008 recipient of the American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is Raymond D. Fowler. A citation, biography, and selected bibliography for Raymond D. Fowler are provided in this article. PMID:18665669

  17. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APA) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2008 recipient of the American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology is Theodore Millon. A citation, biography, and selected bibliography for Theodore Millon are provided in this article. PMID:18665667

  18. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APA) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2008 recipient of the American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology is Alice H. Eagly. A citation, biography, and selected bibliography for Alice H. Eagly are provided in this article. PMID:18665670

  19. NCI Scientists Awarded National Medal of Technology and Innovation by President Obama | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Two NCI scientists received the National Medal of Technology and Innovation, the nation’s highest honor for technological achievement. The award was announced by President Obama in October. The honorees, John Schiller, Ph.D., Laboratory of Cellular Oncology (LCO), Center for Cancer Research, NCI, and Douglas Lowy, M.D., also from LCO and NCI deputy director, received their medals at a White House ceremony on Nov. 20.

  20. Mike Fuller Receives 2012 John Adam Fleming Medal: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Thank you, Chris and Subir, for nominating me for the Fleming Medal and for your very kind comments on my research. In looking back over the medalists since 1962, it is hard to believe that I could be lucky enough to join such distinguished company. Yet, I have been very lucky through life. First, I was lucky to go to Christ's Hospital and Cambridge University. Second, my Aunt Marjorie married a physicist, Johnnie Clegg, who was an excellent teacher and inspiration for me. Third, to be born in England in the mid-1930s was to be a member of a fortunate generation of scientists. Providing one safely negotiated World War II, one joined the academic world at a time of great excitement, of expansion, and support for science.

  1. Kuo-Nan Liou Receives 2013 Roger Revelle Medal: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutsaert, Wilfried H.

    2014-01-01

    The Revelle Medal is awarded for "outstanding contributions in atmospheric sciences, atmosphere-ocean coupling, atmosphere-land coupling, biogeochemical cycles, climate, or related aspects of the Earth system." It also celebrates the man Roger Revelle, who through his broad interests, his awareness of global change, and his national and international service, was a true statesman of science. Dr. Kuo-Nan Liou's accomplishments in research and leadership service are the perfect embodiment of this ideal. He made trailblazing contributions in radiation, the prime driver in the Earth's energy budget, and in cloud physics; both are fundamental to our understanding of climate dynamics and atmosphere-surface interactions. Moreover, his leadership successively as chair of two departments and as director of two separate Institutes and his outreach initiatives in spearheading hydrologic-atmospheric experimentation and in founding the Joint Institute for Regional Earth System Science and Engineering at UCLA reveal him to be a true leader in the image of Roger Revelle.

  2. Bernard J. Wood Receives 2013 Harry H. Hess Medal: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    President Finn, friends, and colleagues, I am truly delighted to accept the Hess Medal for 2013. It is difficult to express one's feelings adequately on receipt of such a prestigious award, but a mixture of pride, humility, and thankfulness for a long and lucky career all occur. It did not start propitiously as my high school grades would only ensure undergraduate entry into the Northern Polytechnic, a second-tier institution in London. Nevertheless, I was enthused by several great teachers, including John Charalambous (inorganic chemistry) and Stephen Morel, a field geologist who had worked for many years in Malawi. They pushed me into trying for graduate school, and I was fortunate to find the eclectic Roger Strens my supervisor at Newcastle.

  3. Nicholson Medal for Human Outreach Talk: Physics Outreach: Social Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benczer-Koller, Noemie

    2011-04-01

    Physics constitutes a scientific endeavour that has benefited particularly from the globalization of our planet and the international character of its practitioners. The Medal Award was created by friends of Dwight Nicholson to highlight achievements in humanitarian service, special mentorship of students and junior colleagues while motivating interest in physics in the general public, outreach to the larger community of scientists and nonscientists, and work towards achieving gender and minority equity in the work force. While these are broad goals, they uniquely match the interests of practicing physicists as they weave seamlessly with their scientific work. Examples of the variety of such engagement in the physics community in the present time as well as in the past will be presented.

  4. Nominations sought for U.S. National Medal of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Nominations are now being accepted for the 2012 U.S. National Medal of Science, which is the nation's highest honor for American scientists and engineers, presented annually by the president. The award is given to individuals “deserving of special recognition by reason of their outstanding cumulative contributions to knowledge” in the physical, biological, chemical, mathematical, engineering, or behavioral or social sciences, in combination with exemplary service to the nation, according to the program, which is administered by the National Science Foundation (NSF) on behalf of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. A note in NSF's call for nominations states, “We are especially interested in identifying women, members of minority groups, and persons with disabilities for consideration.”

  5. "Remember to Hand out Medals": Peer Rating and Expertise in a Question-and-Answer Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study of giving medals as part of a peer rating system in a question-and-answer (Q&A) study group on Python, a programming language. There are no professional teachers tutoring learners. The study aimed to understand whether and how medals, awarded to responses in a peer-based learning environment, can…

  6. 50 years of space science (Jean Dominique Cassini Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Roger-Maurice

    2013-04-01

    The launch of Sputnik-1 triggered my fascination for space at the age of 20. The past 50 years have allowed me to study the Sun with sounding rockets and satellites, revealing the complexity of our star, contributing to the understanding of its physics, and offering surprising manifestations of its behavior and of its effects on Earth. Building instruments for space astronomy, managing teams of space scientists and engineers, led me to become the science director of the European space agency between 1983 and 2001 where I formulated and managed the Horizon 2000 program, which led Europe to occupy the front row of world space science. The Jean Dominique Cassini Medal Lecture offers me an opportunity, to describe the most spectacular achievements of this long-term plan and to outline some basic principles for reaching success, including the essential role of international cooperation with shared partnership. The Lecture also identifies key problems and controversial issues that space astronomy and exploration will face in the 21st century.

  7. Fiber optic displacement sensor for medal detection using fiber bundled probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, M.; Samian, Supadi, Pujiyanto, Yhuwana, Y. G. Yhun

    2016-03-01

    A simple fiber optic displacement sensor (FODS) based on intensity modulation technique is investigated using a bundle multimode plastic fiber as a probe for various medals detection. The sensor consists of a light source, a probe, and photodiode detector. The sensor is capable of measuring displacements of flat medals ranging from 0.05 to 4.2 mm using a red light source of wavelength 630 nm. The highest sensitivity of the sensor is found to be 0.0048 mV/μm over 50-650 µm for the gold medal. The sensor is highly sensitive at the front slope and very useful for close distance target. The simplicity of the design, high sensitivity, long dynamic range and the low cost of the fabrication make it suitable for wider applications in industries as position control and micro displacement measurement in the hazardous region.

  8. Gold medal award for life achievement in the application of psychology.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology is Stuart Oskamp. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 117th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 7, 2009, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2009 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; William Howell, vice president/secretary; Archie L. Turner, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Charles L. Brewer; Anthony Jackson; Steven E. James; Ronald F. Levant; Gerald Koocher; Sandra Shullman; and Rosie Phillips Bingham, APA Board of Directors liaison. PMID:19618969

  9. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology: David W. Johnson.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology. The 2016 recipient of Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology is David W. Johnson. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2016, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2016 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; David H. Barlow, vice president; Melba J. T. Vasquez, secretary; Richard C. McCarty, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Cynthia Belar; Camilla Benbow; Rosie Phillips Bingham; Connie S. Chan; Anthony Jackson; Terence M. Keane; Archie L. Turner; W. Bruce Walsh; and Bonnie Markham and Rick McGraw, APA Board of Directors liaisons. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504568

  10. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology: Sandra L. Shullman.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology. The 2016 recipient of Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology is Sandra L. Shullman. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2016, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2016 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; David H. Barlow, vice president; Melba J. T. Vasquez, secretary; Richard C. McCarty, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Cynthia Belar; Camilla Benbow; Rosie Phillips Bingham; Connie S. Chan; Anthony Jackson; Terence M. Keane; Archie L. Turner; W. Bruce Walsh; and Bonnie Markham and Rick McGraw, APA Board of Directors liaisons. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504569

  11. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology: Richard E. Nisbett.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology. The 2016 recipient of Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology is Richard E. Nisbett. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2016, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2016 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; David H. Barlow, vice president; Melba J. T. Vasquez, secretary; Richard C. McCarty, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Cynthia Belar; Camilla Benbow; Rosie Phillips Bingham; Connie S. Chan; Anthony Jackson; Terence M. Keane; Archie L. Turner; W. Bruce Walsh; and Bonnie Markham and Rick McGraw, APA Board of Directors liaisons. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504571

  12. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest: Beatrice A. Wright.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in 4 areas of psychology. The 2016 recipient of Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is Beatrice A. Wright. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2016, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2016 APF Board of Trustees are: Dorothy W. Cantor, president; David H. Barlow, vice president; Melba J. T. Vasquez, secretary; Richard C. McCarty, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Cynthia Belar; Camilla Benbow; Rosie Phillips Bingham; Connie S. Chan; Anthony Jackson; Terence M. Keane; Archie L. Turner; W. Bruce Walsh; and Bonnie Markham and Rick McGraw, APA Board of Directors liaisons. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504570

  13. Riccardo Giacconi to Receive National Medal of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    Riccardo Giacconi, very recently retired President of Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), will be awarded the National Medal of Science by President George W. Bush on March 14, according to the White House. Giacconi, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2002, will be honored for his pioneering research in X-ray astronomy and for his visionary leadership of major astronomy facilities. Established by Congress in 1959, the National Medal of Science is the Nation's highest honor for American scientists and is awarded annually by the President of the United States to individuals "deserving of special recognition for their outstanding contributions to knowledge." "We are extremely proud that Riccardo Giacconi has been selected to receive the nation's highest award for scientific achievement," said current AUI President Ethan J. Schreier, a long-term colleague of Dr. Giacconi. "It is another fitting recognition for an outstanding scientific career that has enhanced our basic understanding of the universe," Schreier added. Giacconi, known as the father of X-ray astronomy, used X-ray detectors launched on rockets to discover the first cosmic X-ray source in 1962. Because X-ray radiation is absorbed in Earth's atmosphere, space-based instruments are necessary to study it. Giacconi outlined a methodical program to investigate this new X-ray universe and, working with his research group at American Science and Engineering, Inc. in Cambridge, Massachusetts, developed the first space satellite dedicated to the new field of X-ray astronomy. Named Uhuru, this X-ray satellite observatory was launched in 1970 and subsequently discovered hundreds of X-ray sources. The ground-breaking work of Giacconi and his group led to the discovery of black holes, which to that point had been hypothesized but never seen. Giacconi was also the first to prove that the universe contains background radiation of X-ray light. Riccardo Giacconi has played a key role in many other landmark

  14. 1988 Horton Medal presented to Peter S. Eagleson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Eagleson, Peter S.

    It is indeed a great honor for me, and also a great pleasure, to present to you the 1988 recipient of the Robert E. Horton Medal, Peter S. Eagleson. Shortly after it became public that Pete was the winner of this year's medal, I commented to my wife that, although I had never given a citation for an AGU medalist, this was one I would really love to give. The reason is simple: there is no one in the world who better represents the standards of excellence that a hydrologist hopes to achieve and that hydrologists hope our discipline will attain than Peter Eagleson.Pete did not start his research career in hydrology. In fact, his Ph.D. thesis in 1956 and his research up to 1965 were mainly in the field of sediment sorting and transport by waves on beaches. During this period he also investigated problems related to flow-induced vibrations of plates. His research in these areas was extremely successful, producing three chapters in books and about 20 journal papers in addition to many technical reports and journal discussions. Indeed, Pete had made his mark in wave theory and sediment transport, but it was good fortune for our field that starting about 1964 his interest in hydrology overcame all his past experience and assured a reputation in the waves and sediment field, and thus he embarked on a new adventure—bringing into hydrology the scientific rigor that existed in more academically established disciplines. With his strong fluid mechanics background—he still teaches that subject to undergraduates at MIT—Pete was ideally suited to lead the field toward new problems and also toward new approaches to old problems . . . and this he did indeed! Just in 1967 he and his students published six papers, most of them in Water Resources Research, which had a strong, an almost immediate impact on the field of hydrology. Here was somebody who was tackling the modeling of overland flow with the scientific standards of fluid mechanics. At the same time, finally somebody had

  15. Localization of α-adrenoceptors: JR Vane Medal Lecture

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, John C

    2015-01-01

    This review is based on the JR Vane Medal Lecture presented at the BPS Winter Meeting in December 2011 by J.C. McGrath. A recording of the lecture is included as supporting information. It covers his laboratory's work from 1990 to 2010 on the localization of vascular α1-adrenoceptors in native tissues, mainly arteries. Main points: (i) α1-adrenoceptors are present on several cell types in arteries, not only on medial smooth muscle, but also on adventitial, endothelial and nerve cells; (ii) all three receptor subtypes (α1A, α1B, α1D) are capable of binding ligands at the cell surface, strongly indicating that they are capable of function and not merely expressed. (iii) all of these cell types can take up an antagonist ligand into the intracellular compartments to which endocytosing receptors move; (iv) each individual subtype can exist at the cell surface and intracellularly in the absence of the other subtypes. As functional pharmacological experiments show variations in the involvement of the different subtypes in contractions of different arteries, it is concluded that the presence and disposition of α1-adrenoceptors in arteries is not a simple guide to their involvement in function. Similar locations of the subtypes, even in different cell types, suggest that differences between the distribution of subtypes in model systems do not directly correlate with those in native tissues. This review includes a historical summary of the alternative terms used for adrenoceptors (adrenergic receptors, adrenoreceptors) and the author's views on the use of colours to illustrate different items, given his partial colour-blindness. PMID:25377869

  16. Emergency department visits during an Olympic gold medal television broadcast

    PubMed Central

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Vermeulen, Marian J

    2011-01-01

    Background Practice pattern variations are often attributed to physician decision-making with no accounting for patient preferences. Objective To test whether a mass media television broadcast unrelated to health was associated with changes in the rate and characteristics of visits for acute emergency care. Design Time-series analysis of emergency department visits for any reason. Subjects Population-based sample of all patients seeking emergency care in Ontario, Canada. Measures The broadcast day was defined as the Olympic men’s gold medal ice hockey game final. The control days were defined as the 6 Sundays before and after the broadcast day. Results A total of 99 447 visits occurred over the 7 Sundays, of which 13 990 occurred on the broadcast day. Comparing the broadcast day with control days, we found no significant difference in the hourly rate of visits before the broadcast (544 vs 537, p = 0.41) or after the broadcast (647 vs 639, p = 0.55). In contrast, we observed a significant reduction in hourly rate of visits during the broadcast (647 vs 783, p < 0.001), equal to an absolute decrease of 409 patients, a relative decrease of 17% (95% confidence interval 13–21), or about 136 fewer patients per hour. The relative decrease during the broadcast was particularly large for adult men with low triage severity. The greatest reductions were for patients with abdominal, musculoskeletal or traumatic disorders. Conclusion Mass media television broadcasts can influence patient preferences and thereby lead to a decrease in emergency department visits. PMID:21915235

  17. Spiro K. Antiochos Receives 2013 John Adam Fleming Medal: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2014-01-01

    The John Adam Fleming Medal is awarded for "original research and technical leadership in geomagnetism, atmospheric electricity, aeronomy, space physics, and related sciences." Originality and technical leadership are exactly the characteristics that distinguish the research of Spiro K. Antiochos. Spiro possesses a truly unique combination of physical insight, creativity, and mastery of the concepts and mathematical and numerical tools of space physics. These talents have allowed him to develop completely original theories for major observational problems and to test and refine those theories using sophisticated numerical simulation codes that he himself helped to develop. Spiro's physical insight is especially impressive. He has an uncanny ability to identify the fundamental aspects of complex problems and to see physical connections where others do not. This can sometimes involve ideas that may initially seem counterintuitive to those with less creativity. Many of Spiro's revolutionary advances have opened up whole new areas of study and shaped the course of space physics. Examples include the breakout model for coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the S-web model for the slow solar wind, and the thermal nonequilibrium model for solar prominences. The breakout model is of special significance to AGU as it strives to promote science for the betterment of humanity. CMEs are enormous explosions on the Sun that can have major "space weather" impacts here on Earth. They affect technologies ranging from communication and navigation systems to electrical power grids. Breakout is the leading theory for why CMEs occur and may one day be the foundation for more accurate space weather forecasting.

  18. The William Houston Gold Medal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh 2014, orthodontic cases.

    PubMed

    Almuzian, Mohammed

    2015-09-01

    The William Houston Medal is awarded to the individual achieving the highest mark at, the Membership in Orthodontics (MOrth) examination at the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. As part of the examination the candidate must submit five clinical cases. Details of two cases treated by the winning candidate are presented in this paper. PMID:26082385

  19. 77 FR 61644 - President's Committee on the National Medal of Science Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION President's Committee on the National Medal of Science Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, as amended), the National Science Foundation announces...

  20. 76 FR 34103 - President's Committee on the National Medal of Science; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION President's Committee on the National Medal of Science; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, as amended), the National Science Foundation announces...

  1. 75 FR 61520 - President's Committee on the National Medal of Science; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION President's Committee on the National Medal of Science; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, as amended), the National Science Foundation announces...

  2. 77 FR 59992 - Announcement of Humanities Medal Design Competition Under the America COMPETES Reauthorization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... the idea of the humanities--the study of literature, philosophy, history, and other subjects--into a... fields of art, sculpture, minting, and cultural management, along with 2-3 representatives of NEH. Judges..., history, philosophy--need to be conveyed in the design of the medal. This may be done through a...

  3. An Examination of Newbery Medal Books from the 1920s through the 2000s: Biblical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis was conducted to determine the frequency of the presence of positive Biblical virtues and paired opposite traits across 18 Newbery Medal books from the 1920s through the 2000s because the Newbery Award is a prestigious honor bestowed upon children's literature, and the criteria for selection among books specifically precludes…

  4. Discourse following award of Kepler Gold Medal. [Kepler Laws, planetary astronomy and physics, and Jupiter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    Kuiper briefly reviews Kepler's contributions to the field of planetary astronomy and physics, along with references to his own background in the study of stars, planets, and the solar system. He mentions his participation in NASA programs related to planetary astronomy. He concludes his remarks with thanks for being honored by the award of the Kepler Gold Medal.

  5. Andreas Vesalius and the Occo medals of Augsburg. Evidence of a professional friendship.

    PubMed

    Houtzager, H L

    2000-06-01

    The friendly connection that existed between Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) and his learned friends in Augsburg comprised three periods in the life of the emperor's court physician. The close ties that must have connected Adolphus Occo II and III and Vesalius are expressed in a number of medals carrying their images. PMID:11624585

  6. Benjamin Franklin's Commemorative Medal "Libertas Americana": A Study in Rhetorical Iconology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lester C.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the underlying rhetorical functions of how Benjamin Franklin used the medal to praise the national characters of France and the United States in those two countries, while he also used it to influence government policy in Malta and to vindicate himself from criticism in England. (KEH)

  7. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology: Edwin A. Fleishman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology was awarded to Edwin A. Fleishman, for his significant contributions to the science and applications of psychology, which he has sustained over his remarkable career. He is cited for his research, which has had a profound influence on our understanding of human…

  8. The Newbery and Caldecott Awards: A Guide to the Medal and Honor Books. 2000 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Each year the Newbery and Caldecott Medals are awarded by the American Library Association for the most distinguished American children's books published the previous year. With its annotations for all winning titles and honor books since the inception of the awards (Newbery in 1922 to be awarded annually to the author of the most distinguished…

  9. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology: Janet Taylor Spence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology is awarded to Janet Taylor Spence. She is recognized for her outstanding scientific contributions that have had a profound theoretical and empirical impact on two areas of inquiry: Her early seminal research on the motivational properties of trait anxiety led the way to…

  10. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is awarded to Florence L. Denmark. She is recognized for her efforts to help legitimize the psychology of women by teaching the first doctoral psychology course in the field and through her scholarly texts and articles. She continues to have an impact on the…

  11. Milton M. Holland: Panola County Recipient of the Medal of Honor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This publication features an article about Milton M. Holland, a black American from East Texas, who is credited with being the first black Texan to have won the Congressional Medal of Honor during the U.S. Civil War. The articles in the issue concern Milton Holland and other black Americans who served in the Civil War. The articles include:…

  12. 32 CFR 901.13 - Children of Medal of Honor recipients category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Children of Medal of Honor recipients category. 901.13 Section 901.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Nomination Procedures...

  13. 31 CFR 92.2 - Sale of “list” medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sale of âlistâ medals. 92.2 Section 92.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Numismatic Operations § 92.2 Sale...

  14. 31 CFR 92.2 - Sale of “list” medals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sale of âlistâ medals. 92.2 Section 92.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Numismatic Operations § 92.2 Sale...

  15. From evaporating pans to transpiring plants (John Dalton Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roderick, Michael

    2013-04-01

    observations that win. That is the basis of science. In this Dalton Medal lecture we first examine pan evaporation observations and show why pan evaporation has declined. Armed with that knowledge we then investigate the consequences for plant water use and how this is directly coupled to the catchment water balance.

  16. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  17. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  18. Bowen, Dufek, and Shelly Receive 2012 James B. Macelwane Medals: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardbeck, Jeanne; Hill, David

    2013-01-01

    David R. Shelly is awarded the 2012 Macelwane Medal for his revolutionary advances in understanding the nature of tectonic tremor and its role in the earthquake preparation process. His innovations in the study of this subtle "noise" from deep within the Earth has opened a new window into the processes governing the earthquake cycle on major plate boundary faults and the magmatic systems beneath active volcanoes.

  19. Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr., Winnebago Medal of Honor Recipient, 1924-1950. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students tells about Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr. (Winnebago), an American Indian Army corporal who received a Congressional Medal of Honor for bravery in the Korean War. Photographs of Corporal Red Cloud and his gravesite are included. A teaching guide following the bibliography contains information on the Medal of…

  20. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... different parts. Some of them are important for memory. The hippocampus (say: hih-puh-KAM-pus) is one of the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, are ...

  1. [Memory systems and memory disorders].

    PubMed

    Van der Linden, Martial; Juillerat, Anne-Claude

    2003-02-15

    Recent cognitive models suggest that memory has a complex structure, composed of several independent systems (working memory, and four long-term memory systems: episodic memory, semantic memory, perceptual representation system, and procedural memory). Furthermore, neuropsychological studies show that a brain lesion can selectively impair some systems or some particular process in a system, while others are spared. In this theoretical context, the objective of assessment is to detect the impaired memory systems and processes as well as those, which remain intact. To do this, the clinician has to use various-tests specifically designed to assess the integrity of each memory system and process. PMID:12708274

  2. The SEAD global efficiency medal competition: accelerating market transformation for efficient televisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, Kavita; Bennich, Peter; Cockburn, John; Doi, Naoko; Garg, Sandeep; Garnaik, S.P.; Holt, Shane; Walker, Mike; Westbrook-Trenholm, Elizabeth; Lising, Anna; Pantano, Steve; Khare, Amit; Park, Won Young

    2013-10-15

    The Global Efficiency Medal competition, a cornerstone activity of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative, is an awards program that encourages the production and sale of super-efficient products. SEAD is a voluntary multinational government collaboration of the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM). This winner-takes-all competition recognizes products with the best energy efficiency, guides early adopter purchasers towards the most efficient product choices and demonstrates the levels of energy efficiency achievable by commercially available and emerging technologies. The first Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to the most energy-efficient flat panel televisions; an iconic consumer purchase. SEAD Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to televisions that have proven to be substantially more energy efficient than comparable models available at the time of the competition (applications closed in the end of May 2012). The award-winning TVs consume between 33 to 44 percent less energy per 2 unit of screen area than comparable LED-backlit LCD televisions sold in each regional market and 50 to 60 percent less energy than CCFL-backlit LCD TVs. Prior to the launch of this competition, SEAD conducted an unprecedented international round-robin test (RRT) to qualify TV test laboratories to support verification testing for SEAD awards. The RRT resulted in increased test laboratory capacity and expertise around the world and ensured that the test results from participating regional test laboratories could be compared in a fair and transparent fashion. This paper highlights a range of benefits resulting from this first SEAD awards competition and encourages further investigation of the awards concept as a means to promote energy efficiency in other equipment types.

  3. Rhythm Analyses Of Melodies Used To Obtain Women Marathon Gold Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacano, Munecazu; Yokokura, Saburo; Kajiwara, Yoko; Pavelka, Jan; Tanuma, Nobuhisa; Uemura, Tatsuhisa; Hashiguchi, Sumihisa; Sikula, Josef

    2005-11-01

    In Athena Olympics in 2004 a Japanese girl got the gold medal in Women Marathon games. Just before the beginning, she was listening to some domestic melodies in order to concentrate on the race. The rhythm or power of that music is found to have the typical 1/f noise characteristics. The 1/f music is found effective to concentrate as well as to relax themselves for a fairly long time range, while some short time trial runner uses a kind of white noise like music.

  4. Memory Palaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a lesson called Memory Palaces. A memory palace is a memory tool used to remember information, usually as visual images, in a sequence that is logical to the person remembering it. In his book, "In the Palaces of Memory", George Johnson calls them "...structure(s) for arranging knowledge. Lots of connections to language arts,…

  5. 45 CFR 2102.11 - Scope and content of submissions for proposed medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope and content of submissions for proposed medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like. 2102.11 Section 2102.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating..., insignia, coins, seals, and the like. Each submission of the design for a proposed item which is within...

  6. 45 CFR 2102.11 - Scope and content of submissions for proposed medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope and content of submissions for proposed medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like. 2102.11 Section 2102.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating..., insignia, coins, seals, and the like. Each submission of the design for a proposed item which is within...

  7. [Webometrics – on the occasion of the awarding of the Derek John de Solla Price Medal, 2015].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2015-09-01

    The most significant recognition in scientometrics, the Derek John de Solla Price Medal was awarded in 2015 to Mike Thelwall. Thelwall is a dominant personality in webometrics studying the internet presence of scientific research with quantitative methods. In this paper the emergence, standing and directions of webometrics are briefly reviewed. PMID:26320601

  8. 45 CFR 2102.11 - Scope and content of submissions for proposed medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope and content of submissions for proposed medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like. 2102.11 Section 2102.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating..., insignia, coins, seals, and the like. Each submission of the design for a proposed item which is within...

  9. Learning Strategies in Play during Basic Training for Medal of Honor and Call of Duty Video Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziaeehezarjeribi, Yadi

    2010-01-01

    This study, based on experiential play methodology was used to explore student engagement while playing "Medal of Honor (2002)" and "Call of Duty (2003)". It identifies some of the key issues related to the use of video games and simulations during the training phase of game play. Research into the effects of gaming in education has been extremely…

  10. Memory systems.

    PubMed

    Wolk, David A; Budson, Andrew E

    2010-08-01

    Converging evidence from patient and neuroimaging studies suggests that memory is a collection of abilities that use different neuroanatomic systems. Neurologic injury may impair one or more of these memory systems. Episodic memory allows us to mentally travel back in time and relive an episode of our life. Episodic memory depends on the hippocampus, other medial temporal lobe structures, the limbic system, and the frontal lobes, as well as several other brain regions. Semantic memory provides our general knowledge about the world and is unconnected to any specific episode of our life. Although semantic memory likely involves much of the neocortex, the inferolateral temporal lobes (particularly the left) are most important. Procedural memory enables us to learn cognitive and behavioral skills and algorithms that operate at an automatic, unconscious level. Damage to the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor area often impair procedural memory. PMID:22810510

  11. Cognitive memory.

    PubMed

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA

  12. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  13. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  14. Declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended. PMID:25977084

  15. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  16. Ferroelectric memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    The current status of developments in the field of ferroelectric memory devices has been considered. The rapidly growing market of non-volatile memory devices has been analyzed, and the current state of the art and prospects for the scaling of parameters of non-volatile memory devices of different types have been considered. The basic constructive and technological solutions in the field of the design of ferroelectric memory devices, as well as the "roadmaps" of the development of this technology, have been discussed.

  17. Childhood Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Kathy Everts

    1989-01-01

    Provides numerous ideas for helping students write about special memories in the following categories: growing up--future dreams; authors and illustrators; family history; special places; and special memories. Describes how to write a "bio poem," and includes a bibliography of children's books that enhance and enrich student learning and writing.…

  18. Memory Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Thomas G.; Nowak, Norman

    This paper outlines several "tricks" that aid students in improving their memories. The distinctions between operational and figural thought processes are noted. Operational memory is described as something that allows adults to make generalizations about numbers and the rules by which they may be combined, thus leading to easier memorization.…

  19. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  20. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  1. On the importance of debate in (geo-)scientific research (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, V.

    2012-04-01

    It is of course a great honor to receive the Holmes medal from EGU. As past (founding) treasurer and later president of EUG, the medal carries special significance for me. It may be a good time to look back on the scientific path I have followed, pursuing research in the geosciences, with outstanding support from a number of family members (foremost my wife Michèle), mentors, colleagues and students. Chance, not planning, led me to attend a French school that trained mining engineers, then a US University that made me fall in love with geophysics and plate tectonics at a time when this scientific revolution was still going on, and finally the marvelous Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), where I have spent the rest of my career to this day. To pursue on this path, I selected the rather separate fields of paleomagnetism (then linked to geology) and geomagnetism (then linked to physics). I have devoted much of my time to make sure that the two specialties would closely interact, including in the structure of our groups at IPGP. Geo- and paleo-magnetism have turned out (in a way reminiscent of geochemistry) to be powerful tools to explore a broad range of exciting scientific questions. Equipped with them, I have had the pleasure and good fortune to navigate from the discovery of geomagnetic secular variation impulses (with Jean-Louis Le Mouël), now inelegantly called "geomagnetic jerks", to that of propagating rifting of continents in the Afar depression, to fascinating work on the India-Asia collision in the Tibetan plateau and the Cenozoic paleogeography of the Indian ocean bordering continents, to the reconstruction of synthetic apparent polar wander paths for major continental masses (with Jean Besse) that have been widely used, to the understanding of the significance of the volume, age and short duration of massive flood basalt volcanism in the Deccan traps of India and their potential link to the biological mass extinction at the Cretaceous

  2. Melba Newell Phillips Medal Lecture 2013: Discipline-Based Education Research—A View From Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie McDermott, Lillian

    2014-08-01

    Preface: In thanking AAPT for the Melba Newell Phillips Medal, I want to emphasize that the accomplishments that have been recognized by this award have resulted from many contributions over many years by past and present members of the UW Physics Education Group. Support by the National Science Foundation has been critical. On a more personal level, I am also very much honored to have my name associated with Melba Newell Phillips through this award. I remember her warm welcome at my first AAPT meeting many years ago. Although we had not met before, she did not seem too busy to express interest in my work and to offer encouragement. I was impressed then (and still am) by her accomplishments in research and teaching, her political courage, and her service to the physics academic community. Abstract: This article presents an overview of research in physics education (PER) as it has been conducted by the Physics Education Group at the University of Washington. Examples from introductory physics illustrate the nature of our investigations and the application of our findings in the development of research-based and research-validated curriculum for university students and K-12 teachers. The results from our research provide strong evidence of the ongoing need for research on the learning and teaching of physics that is strongly discipline-based.

  3. Universality, Limits and Predictability of Gold-Medal Performances at the Olympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the Games held in ancient Greece, modern Olympics represent the world’s largest pageant of athletic skill and competitive spirit. Performances of athletes at the Olympic Games mirror, since 1896, human potentialities in sports, and thus provide an optimal source of information for studying the evolution of sport achievements and predicting the limits that athletes can reach. Unfortunately, the models introduced so far for the description of athlete performances at the Olympics are either sophisticated or unrealistic, and more importantly, do not provide a unified theory for sport performances. Here, we address this issue by showing that relative performance improvements of medal winners at the Olympics are normally distributed, implying that the evolution of performance values can be described in good approximation as an exponential approach to an a priori unknown limiting performance value. This law holds for all specialties in athletics–including running, jumping, and throwing–and swimming. We present a self-consistent method, based on normality hypothesis testing, able to predict limiting performance values in all specialties. We further quantify the most likely years in which athletes will breach challenging performance walls in running, jumping, throwing, and swimming events, as well as the probability that new world records will be established at the next edition of the Olympic Games. PMID:22808137

  4. Memory loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually include asking questions of family members and friends. For this reason, they should come to the appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term ...

  5. [The Carabinieri Vice-Brigadiere Salvo D'Acquisto Gold Medal for Military Valour. Champion of justice and social solidarity].

    PubMed

    Richero, G

    2006-01-01

    The paper recalls the life and the altruistic sacrifice that led Salvo D'Acquisto to be known and remebered as a hero. On the 23rd September 1943 the Carabinieri Vice-Brigadiere D'Acquisto saved 22 human lifes accusing himself of a presumed attack against the German occupants, although he was innocent. On the first anniversary of his execution by shooting, he was made gold medal for military valour. The cause for his beatification is currently under examination by the Holy See. PMID:16705888

  6. Memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Squire, Larry R; Genzel, Lisa; Wixted, John T; Morris, Richard G

    2015-08-01

    Conscious memory for a new experience is initially dependent on information stored in both the hippocampus and neocortex. Systems consolidation is the process by which the hippocampus guides the reorganization of the information stored in the neocortex such that it eventually becomes independent of the hippocampus. Early evidence for systems consolidation was provided by studies of retrograde amnesia, which found that damage to the hippocampus-impaired memories formed in the recent past, but typically spared memories formed in the more remote past. Systems consolidation has been found to occur for both episodic and semantic memories and for both spatial and nonspatial memories, although empirical inconsistencies and theoretical disagreements remain about these issues. Recent work has begun to characterize the neural mechanisms that underlie the dialogue between the hippocampus and neocortex (e.g., "neural replay," which occurs during sharp wave ripple activity). New work has also identified variables, such as the amount of preexisting knowledge, that affect the rate of consolidation. The increasing use of molecular genetic tools (e.g., optogenetics) can be expected to further improve understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying consolidation. PMID:26238360

  7. Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C

    2016-04-01

    Fear memory is the best-studied form of memory. It was thoroughly investigated in the past 60 years mostly using two classical conditioning procedures (contextual fear conditioning and fear conditioning to a tone) and one instrumental procedure (one-trial inhibitory avoidance). Fear memory is formed in the hippocampus (contextual conditioning and inhibitory avoidance), in the basolateral amygdala (inhibitory avoidance), and in the lateral amygdala (conditioning to a tone). The circuitry involves, in addition, the pre- and infralimbic ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the central amygdala subnuclei, and the dentate gyrus. Fear learning models, notably inhibitory avoidance, have also been very useful for the analysis of the biochemical mechanisms of memory consolidation as a whole. These studies have capitalized on in vitro observations on long-term potentiation and other kinds of plasticity. The effect of a very large number of drugs on fear learning has been intensively studied, often as a prelude to the investigation of effects on anxiety. The extinction of fear learning involves to an extent a reversal of the flow of information in the mentioned structures and is used in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder and fear memories in general. PMID:26983799

  8. Memory clinics

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, D; Benbow, S M; Grizzell, M

    2006-01-01

    Memory clinics were first described in the 1980s. They have become accepted worldwide as useful vehicles for improving practice in the identification, investigation, and treatment of memory disorders, including dementia. They are provided in various settings, the setting determining clientele and practice. All aim to facilitate referral from GPs, other specialists, or by self referral, in the early stages of impairment, and to avoid the stigma associated with psychiatric services. They bring together professionals with a range of skills for the benefit of patients, carers, and colleagues, and contribute to health promotion, health education, audit, and research, as well as service to patients. PMID:16517802

  9. "Is This a Boy or a Girl?": Rethinking Sex-Role Representation in Caldecott Medal-Winning Picturebooks, 1938-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Thomas; Hiller, Brittany

    2011-01-01

    A number of previous studies have addressed gender role-stereotyping in Caldecott Award-winning picturebooks. Building upon the extensive scholarship examining representations of females in Caldecott books, this current study offers a critical investigation of how gender is represented in Caldecott Medal-winning literature from 1938 to 2011 by…

  10. Memory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Amici, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Memory is the cognitive ability that allows to acquire, store and recall information; its dysfunction is called amnesia and can be a presentation of unilateral ischemic stroke in the territory of the posterior cerebral and anterior choroidal artery as well as subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22377863

  11. Retracing Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2005-01-01

    There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

  12. Memory Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassebaum, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In four decades of teaching college English, the author has watched many good teaching jobs morph into second-class ones. Worse, she has seen the memory and then the expectation of teaching jobs with decent status, security, and salary depart along with principles and collegiality. To help reverse this downward spiral, she contends that what is…

  13. Fueling Memories

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan D.; Pollizzi, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of the adaptive immune response is rapid and robust activation upon rechallenge. In the current issue of Immunity van der Windt et al. (2012) provide an important link between mitochondrial respiratory capacity and the development of CD8+ T cell memory. PMID:22284413

  14. Mechanisms of Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Larry R.

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on the brain processes and brain systems involved in learning and memory from a neuropsychological perspective of analysis. Reports findings related to the locus of memory storage, types of memory and knowledge, and memory consolidation. Models of animal memory are also examined. An extensive reference list is included. (ML)

  15. Memory effects in turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, J. O.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the wake flow of a hemisphere and cylinder show that such memory effects can be substantial and have a significant influence on momentum transport. Memory effects are described in terms of suitable memory functions.

  16. Accelerating progress on the road to safer sports: based on remarks of NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell in the Neurosurgical Society of America (NSA) medal lecture.

    PubMed

    Goodell, Roger; Batjer, H Hunt; Ellenbogen, Richard G

    2014-10-01

    Roger Goodell was invited by the Neurosurgical Society of America (NSA) to give the keynote speech as the NSA Medalist 2013. As President of the NSA, and Co-Chairs of the National Football league's Head Neck and Spine Committee, we provided the introduction for Goodell. He was cited for his tireless advocacy on behalf of professional and student athletes. We noted that the National Football League has been a world leader in funding traumatic brain injury research and a catalyst for safety in youth and professional sports. Mr Goodell's national leadership in thinking and acting boldly on the subject of traumatic brain injury prevention and treatment was the primary motivation for awarding him the NSA medal. What follows is a transcript of his NSA Medal Lecture to the Neurosurgical Society of America. PMID:25232876

  17. A Beginner's Guide to Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    1981-01-01

    This article is designed to equip the reader with the information needed to deal with questions of computer memory. Discussed are core memory; semiconductor memory; size of memory; expanding memory; charge-coupled device memories; magnetic bubble memory; and read-only and read-mostly memories. (KC)

  18. Memory Retrieval and Interference: Working Memory Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been suggested as a factor that is involved in long-term memory retrieval, particularly when that retrieval involves a need to overcome some sort of interference (Bunting, Conway, & Heitz, 2004; Cantor & Engle, 1993). Previous work has suggested that working memory is related to the acquisition of information during…

  19. Optical memory

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  20. Order-memory and association-memory.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Two highly studied memory functions are memory for associations (items presented in pairs, such as SALT-PEPPER) and memory for order (a list of items whose order matters, such as a telephone number). Order- and association-memory are at the root of many forms of behaviour, from wayfinding, to language, to remembering people's names. Most researchers have investigated memory for order separately from memory for associations. Exceptions to this, associative-chaining models build an ordered list from associations between pairs of items, quite literally understanding association- and order-memory together. Alternatively, positional-coding models have been used to explain order-memory as a completely distinct function from association-memory. Both classes of model have found empirical support and both have faced serious challenges. I argue that models that combine both associative chaining and positional coding are needed. One such hybrid model, which relies on brain-activity rhythms, is promising, but remains to be tested rigourously. I consider two relatively understudied memory behaviours that demand a combination of order- and association-information: memory for the order of items within associations (is it William James or James William?) and judgments of relative order (who left the party earlier, Hermann or William?). Findings from these underexplored procedures are already difficult to reconcile with existing association-memory and order-memory models. Further work with such intermediate experimental paradigms has the potential to provide powerful findings to constrain and guide models into the future, with the aim of explaining a large range of memory functions, encompassing both association- and order-memory. PMID:25894964

  1. Memory loss.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Leon A; Ford, Andrew H; Beer, Christopher D; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2012-02-01

    Most older people with memory loss do not have dementia. Those with mild cognitive impairment are at increased risk of progressing to dementia, but no tests have been shown to enhance the accuracy of assessing this risk. Although no intervention has been convincingly shown to prevent dementia, data from cohort studies and randomised controlled trials are compelling in indicating that physical activity and treatment of hypertension decrease the risk of dementia. There is no evidence that pharmaceutical treatment will benefit people with mild cognitive impairment. In people with Alzheimer's disease, treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine (an N-methyl- D-aspartate receptor antagonist) may provide symptomatic relief and enhance quality of life, but does not appear to alter progression of the illness. Non-pharmacological strategies are recommended as first-line treatments for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, which are common in Alzheimer's disease. Atypical antipsychotics have modest benefit in reducing agitation and psychotic symptoms but increase the risk of cardiovascular events. The role of antidepressants in managing depressive symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment is uncertain and may increase the risk of delirium and falls. PMID:22304604

  2. Memory Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Memry used its NASA-acquired expertise to produce a line of home and industrial safety products, and refined the technology in the mid-1990s. Among the new products they developed are three MemrySafe units which prevent scalding from faucets. Each system contains a small valve that reacts to temperature, not pressure. When the water reaches dangerous temperatures, the unit reduces the flow to a trickle; when the scalding temperature subsides, the unit restores normal flow. Other products are the FIRECHEK 2 and 4, heat-activated shutoff valves for industrial process lines, which sense excessive heat and cut off pneumatic pressure. The newest of these products is Memry's Demand Management Water Heater which shifts the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak demands, conserving energy and money.

  3. Memory beyond expression.

    PubMed

    Delorenzi, A; Maza, F J; Suárez, L D; Barreiro, K; Molina, V A; Stehberg, J

    2014-01-01

    The idea that memories are not invariable after the consolidation process has led to new perspectives about several mnemonic processes. In this framework, we review our studies on the modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation. We propose that during both memory consolidation and reconsolidation, neuromodulators can determine the probability of the memory trace to guide behavior, i.e. they can either increase or decrease its behavioral expressibility without affecting the potential of persistent memories to be activated and become labile. Our hypothesis is based on the findings that positive modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation occurs even if memories are behaviorally unexpressed. This review discusses the original approach taken in the studies of the crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata, which was then successfully applied to test the hypothesis in rodent fear memory. Data presented offers a new way of thinking about both weak trainings and experimental amnesia: memory retrieval can be dissociated from memory expression. Furthermore, the strategy presented here allowed us to show in human declarative memory that the periods in which long-term memory can be activated and become labile during reconsolidation exceeds the periods in which that memory is expressed, providing direct evidence that conscious access to memory is not needed for reconsolidation. Specific controls based on the constraints of reminders to trigger reconsolidation allow us to distinguish between obliterated and unexpressed but activated long-term memories after amnesic treatments, weak trainings and forgetting. In the hypothesis discussed, memory expressibility--the outcome of experience-dependent changes in the potential to behave--is considered as a flexible and modulable attribute of long-term memories. Expression seems to be just one of the possible fates of re-activated memories. PMID:25102126

  4. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory.

    PubMed

    Sligte, Ilja G; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail) of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a change detection task that measures the capacity of all three forms of VSTM, and we added an identification display after each change trial that required people to identify the "pre-change" object. Accurate change detection plus pre-change identification requires subjects to have a high-resolution representation of the "pre-change" object, whereas change detection or identification only can be based on the hunch that something has changed, without exactly knowing what was presented before. We observed that people maintained 6.1 objects in iconic memory, 4.6 objects in fragile VSTM, and 2.1 objects in visual working memory. Moreover, when people detected the change, they could also identify the pre-change object on 88% of the iconic memory trials, on 71% of the fragile VSTM trials and merely on 53% of the visual working memory trials. This suggests that people maintain many high-resolution representations in iconic memory and fragile VSTM, but only one high-resolution object representation in visual working memory. PMID:21897823

  5. Studying Vadose Zone Flow and Transport Processes: A Personal Look Back, ... and Forward (John Dalton Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Genuchten, Martinus Th.

    2010-05-01

    In this presentation, to be given at the occasion of my receipt of the John Dalton Medal from the European Geophysical Union, I provide a personal look back of studying subsurface flow and transport processes. Looking back, it is clear that tremendous advances have been made from the time I first started as a student some 40 years ago. Actually, compared to the thousands of years during which humans tried to manipulate the earth's surface for improved agricultural and engineering practices, it is truly amazing that Darcy's law for saturated flow was first formulated only some 150 years ago, and the Richards equation for unsaturated flow less than 80 years ago. In this presentation I will focus especially on alternative formulations for modeling fluid flow and contaminant transport in the subsurface, including the use of dual-porosity and dual-permeability models for nonequilibrium transport. The various approaches are illustrated by means of a large number of examples, from transport through well-controlled laboratory soil columns to flow and contaminant transport at the larger field scale. Looking forward, I will also give a personal view of what I believe comes next, and the topics I would work on if I could somehow start now all over again.

  6. Computer memory access technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zottarelli, L. J.

    1967-01-01

    Computer memory access commutator and steering gate configuration produces bipolar current pulses while still employing only the diodes and magnetic cores of the classic commutator, thereby appreciably reducing the complexity of the memory assembly.

  7. Understanding Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... memory problems—causes and treatments Help for serious memory problems What you need to know Where can I get more information? Words to know ... of Health U.S. Department of Health & Human Services USA.gov

  8. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  9. Make-believe memories.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2003-11-01

    Research on memory distortion has shown that postevent suggestion can contaminate what a person remembers. Moreover, suggestion can lead to false memories being injected outright into the minds of people. These findings have implications for police investigation, clinical practice, and other settings in which memory reports are solicited. PMID:14609374

  10. Make-Believe Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2003-01-01

    Research on memory distortion has shown that postevent suggestion can contaminate what a person remembers. Moreover, suggestion can lead to false memories being injected outright into the minds of people. These findings have implications for police investigation, clinical practice, and other settings in which memory reports are solicited.

  11. Attending to auditory memory.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Attention to memory describes the process of attending to memory traces when the object is no longer present. It has been studied primarily for representations of visual stimuli with only few studies examining attention to sound object representations in short-term memory. Here, we review the interplay of attention and auditory memory with an emphasis on 1) attending to auditory memory in the absence of related external stimuli (i.e., reflective attention) and 2) effects of existing memory on guiding attention. Attention to auditory memory is discussed in the context of change deafness, and we argue that failures to detect changes in our auditory environments are most likely the result of a faulty comparison system of incoming and stored information. Also, objects are the primary building blocks of auditory attention, but attention can also be directed to individual features (e.g., pitch). We review short-term and long-term memory guided modulation of attention based on characteristic features, location, and/or semantic properties of auditory objects, and propose that auditory attention to memory pathways emerge after sensory memory. A neural model for auditory attention to memory is developed, which comprises two separate pathways in the parietal cortex, one involved in attention to higher-order features and the other involved in attention to sensory information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26638836

  12. Music, memory and emotion.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  13. Generation and Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Lozito, Jeffrey P.; Rosner, Zachary A.

    2006-01-01

    Generation enhances memory for occurrence but may not enhance other aspects of memory. The present study further delineates the negative generation effect in context memory reported in N. W. Mulligan (2004). First, the negative generation effect occurred for perceptual attributes of the target item (its color and font) but not for extratarget…

  14. Memory and the Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2005-01-01

    The Self-Memory System (SMS) is a conceptual framework that emphasizes the interconnectedness of self and memory. Within this framework memory is viewed as the data base of the self. The self is conceived as a complex set of active goals and associated self-images, collectively referred to as the "working self." The relationship between the…

  15. The Bush Memorial Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamline University Bulletin, 1971

    1971-01-01

    The Bush Memorial Library was formally dedicated on October 9, 1971. As part of Hamline University in St. Paul, Minnesota, the Bush Memorial Library has a reading room, audio booths, and audio-visual classroom as well as an audio control room. The Bush Memorial Library is a member of the Cooperating Libraries in Consortium which is a cooperative…

  16. Associative Memory Acceptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Roger

    The properties of an associative memory are examined in this paper from the viewpoint of automata theory. A device called an associative memory acceptor is studied under real-time operation. The family "L" of languages accepted by real-time associative memory acceptors is shown to properly contain the family of languages accepted by one-tape,…

  17. Acceptance of the Samuel Epstein Medal and Science Innovation Award by James Farquhar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquhar, James

    2015-06-01

    Thank you Mark for your kind introduction. I am deeply honored to receive this award and to be here to honor the memory of Sam Epstein. If I think back to my time as a graduate student, I remember reading many articles by Sam Epstein and those who worked with him. What I saw was an incredible breadth of applications and a willingness to let the science guide and to address all sorts of questions - questions that extend from understanding animals, plants, the oceans, partitioning at high temperature, fluids in the crust, nebular chemistry, the list goes on and on and on. As a graduate student I struggled and did my best to hang on, but I had dreams of being able to do science following a model specifically like the one he saw Sam had pursued. I had one time to meet Sam and speak with him, and I saw curiosity, decency, and an interested positive outlook that I imagine was part of what led to his enormous impact on the field.

  18. A Darwinian mystery: fluctuations in runoff from the la Plata basin (Alexander von Humboldt Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, R. T.

    2012-04-01

    During the voyage of HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin sailed in a small boat along the River Paraná, a major tributary of the la Plata drainage system. He wrote about the occurrence of severe droughts (the latest of which had been termed the "gran seco") alternating with periods of severe flooding. From reports received, he concluded that these events appeared to be cyclic with a period "of about fifteen years". Because extended periods of low flow in Brazilian rivers are of immense economic importance, the presentation describes a search for the material which led Darwin to this conclusion. A prolonged period of low flow in another la Plata tributary - the River Paraguay - not unlike the "gran seco" reported by Darwin, has occurred more recently; if such low flows were to recur in the future, the consequences would be severe for a region where more than 70% of energy is supplied by hydropower. A priori considerations suggest the use of statistical long-memory models for predicting River Paraguay water-levels, and some preliminary results from their use are presented.

  19. Memory: sins and virtues

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Memory plays an important role in everyday life but does not provide an exact and unchanging record of experience: research has documented that memory is a constructive process that is subject to a variety of errors and distortions. Yet these memory “sins” also reflect the operation of adaptive aspects of memory. Memory can thus be characterized as an adaptive constructive process, which plays a functional role in cognition but produces distortions, errors, or illusions as a consequence of doing so. PMID:23909686

  20. A multiplexed quantum memory.

    PubMed

    Lan, S-Y; Radnaev, A G; Collins, O A; Matsukevich, D N; Kennedy, T A; Kuzmich, A

    2009-08-01

    A quantum repeater is a system for long-distance quantum communication that employs quantum memory elements to mitigate optical fiber transmission losses. The multiplexed quantum memory (O. A. Collins, S. D. Jenkins, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060502 (2007)) has been shown theoretically to reduce quantum memory time requirements. We present an initial implementation of a multiplexed quantum memory element in a cold rubidium gas. We show that it is possible to create atomic excitations in arbitrary memory element pairs and demonstrate the violation of Bell's inequality for light fields generated during the write and read processes. PMID:19654771

  1. Immunological memory is associative

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S.; Perelson, A.S.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  2. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R. )

    1992-01-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  3. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R.

    1992-09-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  4. Stochastic memory: Memory enhancement due to noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO2 thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  5. Memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Yu, Li-Zhen; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices, the structure of [top Au anode/9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) active layer/bottom Au cathode] was deposited using a thermal deposition system. The Au atoms migrated into the ADN active layer was observed from the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The density of 9.6×1016 cm-3 and energy level of 0.553 eV of the induced trapping centers caused by the migrated Au atoms in the ADN active layer were calculated. The induced trapping centers did not influence the carrier injection barrier height between Au and ADN active layer. Therefore, the memory bistable behaviors of the organic memory devices were attributed to the induced trapping centers. The energy diagram was established to verify the mechanisms.

  6. Overdistribution in source memory.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Holliday, R E; Nakamura, K

    2012-03-01

    Semantic false memories are confounded with a second type of error, overdistribution, in which items are attributed to contradictory episodic states. Overdistribution errors have proved to be more common than false memories when the 2 are disentangled. We investigated whether overdistribution is prevalent in another classic false memory paradigm: source monitoring. It is. Conventional false memory responses (source misattributions) were predominantly overdistribution errors, but unlike semantic false memory, overdistribution also accounted for more than half of true memory responses (correct source attributions). Experimental control of overdistribution was achieved via a series of manipulations that affected either recollection of contextual details or item memory (concreteness, frequency, list order, number of presentation contexts, and individual differences in verbatim memory). A theoretical model was used to analyze the data (conjoint process dissociation) that predicts that (a) overdistribution is directly proportional to item memory but inversely proportional to recollection and (b) item memory is not a necessary precondition for recollection of contextual details. The results were consistent with both predictions. PMID:21942494

  7. Autosuggestibility in memory development.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F

    1995-02-01

    Autosuggestibility is a potentially common source of false memories in children. We studied a form of autosuggestibility in which children's answers to memory tests were shifted in the direction of their illogical solutions to reasoning problems. In Experiments 1 and 2, illogic-consistent shifts were identified in children's memories of the numerical inputs on class-inclusion problems. The magnitudes of the shifts declined with age, and they appeared to be due to the intrusion of inappropriate gist on memory probes rather than retroactive interference from illogical reasoning. A model of how gist intrusion causes autosuggestibility was investigated in Experiments 3-5. The model assumes that children retrieve and process inappropriate gist when memory tests supply cues that are inadequate to permit access to verbatim memories. PMID:7895469

  8. Optical mass memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Optical and magnetic variants in the design of trillion-bit read/write memories are compared and tabulated. Components and materials suitable for a random access read/write nonmoving memory system are examined, with preference given to holography and photoplastic materials. Advantages and deficiencies of photoplastics are reviewed. Holographic page composer design, essential features of an optical memory with no moving parts, fiche-oriented random access memory design, and materials suitable for an efficient photoplastic fiche are considered. The optical variants offer advantages in lower volume and weight at data transfer rates near 1 Mbit/sec, but power drain is of the same order as for the magnetic variants (tape memory, disk memory). The mechanical properties of photoplastic film materials still leave much to be desired.

  9. Does fascia hold memories?

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    The idea that tissues may possess some sort of memory is a controversial topic in manual medicine, calling for research and clinical exploration. Many bodyworkers, at some point in their practice, have experienced phenomena that may be interpreted as representing a release of memory traces when working on dysfunctional tissues. This feeling may have been accompanied by some type of sensory experience, for the therapist and/or the patient. In some cases, early traumatic experiences may be recalled. When this happens, the potency of the memory may be erased or eased, along with restoration of tissue function. Hence the questions: can memories be held in the fascia? And: are these memories accessible during manual fascial work? Modern research has proposed a variety of different interpretations as to how memory might be stored in soft tissues, possibly involving other forms of information storage not exclusively processed neurologically (Box 1). PMID:24725795

  10. Emotional Memory in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Herbener, Ellen S.

    2008-01-01

    Emotional memories play an important role in our day-to-day experience, informing many of our minute-to-minute decisions (eg, where to go for dinner, what are the likely consequences of not attending a meeting), as well as our long-term goal setting. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in memory for emotional experiences, particularly over longer delay periods, which may contribute to deficits in goal-related behavior and symptoms of amotivation and anhedonia. This article reviews factors that are known to influence emotional memory in healthy subjects, applies these factors to results from emotional memory studies with individuals with schizophrenia, and then uses extant neurobiological models of emotional memory formation to develop hypotheses about biological processes that might particularly contribute to emotional memory impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:18632728

  11. Shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  12. A generalized memory test algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milner, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    A general algorithm for testing digital computer memory is presented. The test checks that (1) every bit can be cleared and set in each memory work, and (2) bits are not erroneously cleared and/or set elsewhere in memory at the same time. The algorithm can be applied to any size memory block and any size memory word. It is concise and efficient, requiring the very few cycles through memory. For example, a test of 16-bit-word-size memory requries only 384 cycles through memory. Approximately 15 seconds were required to test a 32K block of such memory, using a microcomputer having a cycle time of 133 nanoseconds.

  13. Magnetic bubble domain memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ypma, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Some attractive features of Bubble Domain Memory and its relation to existing technologies are discussed. Two promising applications are block access mass memory and tape recorder replacement. The required chip capabilities for these uses are listed, and the specifications for a block access mass memory designed to fit between core and HPT disk are presented. A feasibility model for a tape recorder replacement is introduced.

  14. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  15. Sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system.

  16. Sparse distributed memory

    SciTech Connect

    Kanerva, P.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system. 63 refs.

  17. Memory Golf Clubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Memory Corporation's investigation of shape memory effect, stemming from Marshall Space Flight Center contracts to study materials for the space station, has aided in the development of Zeemet, a proprietary, high-damping shape memory alloy for the golf industry. The Nicklaus Golf Company has created a new line of golf clubs using Zeemet inserts. Its superelastic and high damping attributes translate into more spin on the ball, greater control, and a solid feel.

  18. Building synthetic memory

    PubMed Central

    Inniss, Mara C.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Cellular memory – conversion of a transient signal into a sustained response – is a common feature of biological systems. Synthetic biologists aim to understand and reengineer such systems in a reliable and predictable manner. Synthetic memory circuits have been designed and built in vitro and in vivo based on diverse mechanisms such as oligonucleotide hybridization, recombination, transcription, phosphorylation, and RNA editing. Thus far, building these circuits has helped us explore the basic principles required for stable memory and ask novel biological questions. Here we discuss strategies for building synthetic memory circuits, their use as research tools, and future applications of these devices in medicine and industry. PMID:24028965

  19. Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1997-11-29

    Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. Posthypnotic amnesia is not an instance of state-dependent memory, but it does seem to involve a disruption of retrieval processes similar to the functional amnesias observed in clinical dissociative disorders. Implicit memory, however, is largely spared, and may underlie subjects' ability to recognize events that they cannot recall. Hypnotic hypermnesia refers to improved memory for past events. However, such improvements are illusory: hypermnesia suggestions increase false recollection, as well as subjects' confidence in both true and false memories. Hypnotic age regression can be subjectively compelling, but does not involve the ablation of adult memory, or the reinstatement of childlike modes of mental functioning, or the revivification of memory. The clinical and forensic use of hypermnesia and age regression to enhance memory in patients, victims and witnesses (e.g. recovered memory therapy for child sexual abuse) should be discouraged. PMID:9415925

  20. The future of memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinella, M.

    In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (< 100 ns read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (< 10 pJ per switch). The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has recently evaluated several potential candidates SCM technologies, including Resistive (or Redox) RAM, Spin Torque Transfer RAM (STT-MRAM), and phase change memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

  1. Building synthetic memory.

    PubMed

    Inniss, Mara C; Silver, Pamela A

    2013-09-01

    Cellular memory - conversion of a transient signal into a sustained response - is a common feature of biological systems. Synthetic biologists aim to understand and re-engineer such systems in a reliable and predictable manner. Synthetic memory circuits have been designed and built in vitro and in vivo based on diverse mechanisms, such as oligonucleotide hybridization, recombination, transcription, phosphorylation, and RNA editing. Thus far, building these circuits has helped us explore the basic principles required for stable memory and ask novel biological questions. Here we discuss strategies for building synthetic memory circuits, their use as research tools, and future applications of these devices in medicine and industry. PMID:24028965

  2. Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.

    PubMed Central

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1997-01-01

    Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. Posthypnotic amnesia is not an instance of state-dependent memory, but it does seem to involve a disruption of retrieval processes similar to the functional amnesias observed in clinical dissociative disorders. Implicit memory, however, is largely spared, and may underlie subjects' ability to recognize events that they cannot recall. Hypnotic hypermnesia refers to improved memory for past events. However, such improvements are illusory: hypermnesia suggestions increase false recollection, as well as subjects' confidence in both true and false memories. Hypnotic age regression can be subjectively compelling, but does not involve the ablation of adult memory, or the reinstatement of childlike modes of mental functioning, or the revivification of memory. The clinical and forensic use of hypermnesia and age regression to enhance memory in patients, victims and witnesses (e.g. recovered memory therapy for child sexual abuse) should be discouraged. PMID:9415925

  3. Sparse distributed memory overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raugh, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

  4. Precipitation and dissolution of calcium carbonate: key processes bridging the bio- and geosciences (Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattuso, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    In this Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky medal lecture, I will focus on the biogeochemical cycle of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) which is arguably one of the best example of a set processes that bridge the bio- and geosciences. The main reactions involved are calcification and dissolution that, respectively, manufacture and destroy calcium carbonate. Biology is intimately involved in these two processes which are key controls of the Earth's climate and leave remains that are of great use to human societies (as building materials) and geoscientists. I will illustrate the bridge between the bio- and geosciences by providing brief examples for each of the following four issues. (1) The marine cycle of CaCO3 and its relationship with climate. The release of CO2 by the precipitation of calcium carbonate and the uptake of CO2 by its dissolution are important controls of atmospheric CO2 and climate. The vertical distribution of Ψ, the ratio of CO2 released/used per CaCO3 precipitated/dissolved in the ocean will be shown to be consistent with the Högbom-Urey reactions. (2) The use of CaCO3 in paleooceanography. The remains of calcium carbonate shells and skeletons are wonderful archives of past environmental changes. Their isotopic composition and the concen-tration of trace elements are invaluable in the reconstruction of past climate. I will address the challenge of calibrating one of the proxies used to reconstruct past ocean pH. (3) The challenge of understanding calcification. Despite having been investigated for decades, many aspects of the physiological and molecular processes involved in calcification by marine organisms remain obscure. Recent breakthroughs, mostly on reef-building corals, will be briefly reviewed. (4) The response of calcification and dissolution to environmental change. The critical importance of CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution as climate controls makes it vital to understand their response to global environmental changes such as ocean warming and

  5. The Biology of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arehart-Treichel, Joan

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the conflicting evidence and points of view presented by scientists involved in research on the nature of memory. The research of one group supports a chemical basis for memory, while the other group presents evidence supporting an electro-physiological basis. (JR)

  6. Memory technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola, CMOS, GaAs, and Magnetic Bubble devices are discussed.

  7. How Misinformation Alters Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Daniel B.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    1998-01-01

    Notes that a multitude of studies have demonstrated that misleading postevent information affects people's memories. Contents that the fuzzy-trace theory is a positive step toward understanding the malleability of memory. Discusses fuzzy-trace theory in terms of three primary areas of study: altered response format, maximized misinformation…

  8. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  9. An Exceptional Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Ian M. L.

    1977-01-01

    An account is given of the exceptional memory of the late Professor A. C. Aitken who was also a distinguished mathematician and mental calculator. Compared with Shereshevskii, another man with exceptional memory, he shows the scholar's reliance on conceptual mapping rather than the mnemonist's reliance on perceptual chaining. (Editor)

  10. A Space for Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article I examine the possibilities of reparation in an era of privatisation and de-industrialisation. I examine the effect of a recent project Sunshine Memory Space, a space, designed to evoke memories of a de-industrialised urban Melbourne suburb Sunshine. This project offered the opportunity for the effects of industrial change to be…

  11. Working Memory and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

  12. Memory Metals (Marchon Eyewear)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Another commercial application of memory metal technology is found in a "smart" eyeglass frame that remembers its shape and its wearer's fit. A patented "memory encoding process" makes this possible. Heat is not required to return the glasses to shape. A large commercial market is anticipated.

  13. Human Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  14. Human Memory: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  15. Memory and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcia K.

    2006-01-01

    Although it may be disconcerting to contemplate, true and false memories arise in the same way. Memories are attributions that we make about our mental experiences based on their subjective qualities, our prior knowledge and beliefs, our motives and goals, and the social context. This article describes an approach to studying the nature of these…

  16. Measuring Transient Memory Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanner, Eric; Shiner, Sandra

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which subjects performed simple mental arithmetic problems which were presented visually in a sequential fashion. At some point in the presentation of each problem, the sequential display was interrupted and a memory task introduced. The purpose was to validate a measure of transient memory load. (Author/RM)

  17. Experimental Optoelectronic Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1992-01-01

    Optoelectronic associative memory responds to input image by displaying one of M remembered images. Which image to display determined by optoelectronic analog computation of resemblance between input image and each remembered image. Does not rely on precomputation and storage of outer-product synapse matrix. Size of memory needed to store and process images reduced.

  18. Major memory for microblogs.

    PubMed

    Mickes, Laura; Darby, Ryan S; Hwe, Vivian; Bajic, Daniel; Warker, Jill A; Harris, Christine R; Christenfeld, Nicholas J S

    2013-05-01

    Online social networking is vastly popular and permits its members to post their thoughts as microblogs, an opportunity that people exploit, on Facebook alone, over 30 million times an hour. Such trivial ephemera, one might think, should vanish quickly from memory; conversely, they may comprise the sort of information that our memories are tuned to recognize, if that which we readily generate, we also readily store. In the first two experiments, participants' memory for Facebook posts was found to be strikingly stronger than their memory for human faces or sentences from books-a magnitude comparable to the difference in memory strength between amnesics and healthy controls. The second experiment suggested that this difference is not due to Facebook posts spontaneously generating social elaboration, because memory for posts is enhanced as much by adding social elaboration as is memory for book sentences. Our final experiment, using headlines, sentences, and reader comments from articles, suggested that the remarkable memory for microblogs is also not due to their completeness or simply their topic, but may be a more general phenomenon of their being the largely spontaneous and natural emanations of the human mind. PMID:23315488

  19. Eavesdropping without quantum memory

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

    2006-04-15

    In quantum cryptography the optimal eavesdropping strategy requires that the eavesdropper uses ancillas and quantum memories in order to optimize her information. What happens if the eavesdropper has no quantum memory? It is shown that in this case the eavesdropper obtains a better information/disturbance trade-off by adopting the simple intercept/resend strategy.

  20. Memory Efficient Ranking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Alistair; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes an approximate document ranking process that uses a compact array of in-memory, low-precision approximations for document length. Combined with another rule for reducing the memory required by partial similarity accumulators, the approximation heuristic allows the ranking of large document collections using less than one byte of memory…

  1. Memories of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidwell, Amy M.; Walls, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore college students' autobiographical memories of physical education (PE). Questionnaires were distributed to students enrolled in undergraduate Introduction to PE and Introduction to Communications courses. The 261 participants wrote about memories of PE. These students recalled events from Grades…

  2. Regret as Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ian M.; Feeney, Aidan

    2008-01-01

    We apply an autobiographical memory framework to the study of regret. Focusing on the distinction between regrets for specific and general events we argue that the temporal profile of regret, usually explained in terms of the action-inaction distinction, is predicted by models of autobiographical memory. In two studies involving participants in…

  3. Memory systems interaction in the pigeon: working and reference memory.

    PubMed

    Roberts, William A; Strang, Caroline; Macpherson, Krista

    2015-04-01

    Pigeons' performance on a working memory task, symbolic delayed matching-to-sample, was used to examine the interaction between working memory and reference memory. Reference memory was established by training pigeons to discriminate between the comparison cues used in delayed matching as S+ and S- stimuli. Delayed matching retention tests then measured accuracy when working and reference memory were congruent and incongruent. In 4 experiments, it was shown that the interaction between working and reference memory is reciprocal: Strengthening either type of memory leads to a decrease in the influence of the other type of memory. A process dissociation procedure analysis of the data from Experiment 4 showed independence of working and reference memory, and a model of working memory and reference memory interaction was shown to predict the findings reported in the 4 experiments. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25734757

  4. Is random access memory random?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor addressing rate with memory service rate. These include interleaved and cached memory. A very high fraction of a processor's address requests can be satified from the cache without reference to the main memory. The cache requests information from main memory in blocks that can be transferred at the full memory speed. Programmers who organize algorithms for locality can realize the highest performance from these computers.

  5. Animal models of source memory.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-01-01

    Source memory is the aspect of episodic memory that encodes the origin (i.e., source) of information acquired in the past. Episodic memory (i.e., our memories for unique personal past events) typically involves source memory because those memories focus on the origin of previous events. Source memory is at work when, for example, someone tells a favorite joke to a person while avoiding retelling the joke to the friend who originally shared the joke. Importantly, source memory permits differentiation of one episodic memory from another because source memory includes features that were present when the different memories were formed. This article reviews recent efforts to develop an animal model of source memory using rats. Experiments are reviewed which suggest that source memory is dissociated from other forms of memory. The review highlights strengths and weaknesses of a number of animal models of episodic memory. Animal models of source memory may be used to probe the biological bases of memory. Moreover, these models can be combined with genetic models of Alzheimer's disease to evaluate pharmacotherapies that ultimately have the potential to improve memory. PMID:26609644

  6. Neuromodulation for restoring memory.

    PubMed

    Bick, Sarah K B; Eskandar, Emad N

    2016-05-01

    Disorders of learning and memory have a large social and economic impact in today's society. Unfortunately, existing medical treatments have shown limited clinical efficacy or potential for modification of the disease course. Deep brain stimulation is a successful treatment for movement disorders and has shown promise in a variety of other diseases including psychiatric disorders. The authors review the potential of neuromodulation for the treatment of disorders of learning and memory. They briefly discuss learning circuitry and its involvement in Alzheimer disease and traumatic brain injury. They then review the literature supporting various targets for neuromodulation to improve memory in animals and humans. Multiple targets including entorhinal cortex, fornix, nucleus basalis of Meynert, basal ganglia, and pedunculopontine nucleus have shown a promising potential for improving dysfunctional memory by mechanisms such as altering firing patterns in neuronal networks underlying memory and increasing synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Significant work remains to be done to translate these findings into durable clinical therapies. PMID:27132526

  7. Computer memory management system

    DOEpatents

    Kirk, III, Whitson John

    2002-01-01

    A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

  8. Making Memories Matter

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Paul E.; Korol, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews some of the neuroendocrine bases by which emotional events regulate brain mechanisms of learning and memory. In laboratory rodents, there is extensive evidence that epinephrine influences memory processing through an inverted-U relationship, at which moderate levels enhance and high levels impair memory. These effects are, in large part, mediated by increases in blood glucose levels subsequent to epinephrine release, which then provide support for the brain processes engaged by learning and memory. These brain processes include augmentation of neurotransmitter release and of energy metabolism, the latter apparently including a key role for astrocytic glycogen. In addition to up- and down-regulation of learning and memory in general, physiological concomitants of emotion and arousal can also switch the neural system that controls learning at a particular time, at once improving some attributes of learning and impairing others in a manner that results in a change in the strategy used to solve a problem. PMID:23264764

  9. Cosmological memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert M.

    2016-08-01

    The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to memory depends only on the cosmological scale factor at the source and observation events, not on the detailed expansion history of the universe. In particular, for sources at the same luminosity distance, the memory effect in a spatially flat FLRW spacetime is enhanced over the Minkowski case by a factor of (1 +z ).

  10. The Edward Teller medal lecture: The evolution toward indirect drive and two decades of progress toward ICF ignition and burn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindl, John D.

    1994-10-01

    A memorial lecture reviews the achievements of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the indirect drive for the inertial confinement fusion from 1972 to 1994. The main subjects have been the target physics (the laser and ion drive) in various geometries, the study of instabilities, and the gain calculations. The results allow to achieve extremely reproducible implosions at the Nova facilities. (AIP)

  11. Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

  12. The Unobtrusive Memory Allocator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-03-31

    This library implements a memory allocator/manager which ask its host program or library for memory refions to manage rather than requesting them from the operating system. This allocator supports multiple distinct heaps within a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The GNU mmalloc library has been modified in such a way that its allocation algorithms have been preserved, but the manner in which it obtains regions to managemore » has been changed to request memory from the host program or library. Additional modifications allow the allocator to manage each heap as either upward or downward-growing. By allowing the hosting program or library to determine what memory is managed, this package allows a greater degree of control than other memory allocation/management libraries. Additional distinguishing features include the ability to manage multiple distinct heaps with in a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The most common use of this library is in conjunction with the Berkeley Unified Parallel C (UPC) Runtime Library. This package is a modified version of the LGPL-licensed "mmalloc" allocator from release 5.2 of the "gdb" debugger's source code.« less

  13. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

  14. The Composition of Episodic Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Benton J.; And Others

    This study examined the interrelationships among a number of episodic memory tasks and among various attributes of memory. A sample of 200 college students was tested for ten sessions; 28 different measures of episodic memory were obtained. In addition, five measures of semantic memory were available. Results indicated that episodic and semantic…

  15. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW Nanoscale memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Andy; Deen, Jamal; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Meyyappan, M.

    2010-10-01

    This article reviews the current status and future prospects for the use of nanomaterials and devices in memory technology. First, the status and continuing scaling trends of the flash memory are discussed. Then, a detailed discussion on technologies trying to replace flash in the near-term is provided. This includes phase change random access memory, Fe random access memory and magnetic random access memory. The long-term nanotechnology prospects for memory devices include carbon-nanotube-based memory, molecular electronics and memristors based on resistive materials such as TiO2.

  17. Prospective memory: A comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Wilson, A. George

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review selected approaches from the human literature on prospective memory to identify targets for development of animal models of prospective memory. PMID:25101562

  18. Working Memory and Neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    YuLeung To, Eric; Abbott, Kathy; Foster, Dale S; Helmer, D'Arcy

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in working memory are typically associated with impairments in other cognitive faculties such as attentional processes and short-term memory. This paper briefly introduces neurofeedback as a treatment modality in general, and, more specifically, we review several of the current modalities successfully used in neurofeedback (NF) for the treatment of working memory deficits. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how neurofeedback is applied in treatment. The development of Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) and its application in neurofeedback now makes it possible to specifically target deep cortical/subcortical brain structures. Developments in neuroscience concerning neural networks, combined with highly specific yet practical NF technologies, makes neurofeedback of particular interest to neuropsychological practice, including the emergence of specific methodologies for treating very difficult working memory (WM) problems. PMID:27191218

  19. Memory on time

    PubMed Central

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Considerable recent work has shown that the hippocampus is critical for remembering the order of events in distinct experiences, a defining feature of episodic memory. Correspondingly, hippocampal neuronal activity can ‘replay’ sequential events in memories and hippocampal neuronal ensembles represent a gradually changing temporal context signal. Most strikingly, single hippocampal neurons – called time cells – encode moments in temporally structured experiences much as the well-known place cells encode locations in spatially structured experiences. These observations bridge largely disconnected literatures on the role of the hippocampus in episodic memory and spatial mapping, and suggest that the fundamental function of the hippocampus is to establish spatio-temporal frameworks for organizing memories. PMID:23318095

  20. Medications for Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... memory loss, confusion, and problems with thinking and reasoning) of Alzheimer's disease. As Alzheimer’s progresses, brain cells ... the latest Alzheimer's medications available today, and the clinical trials that may bring us closer to new ...

  1. Planfulness and Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogoff, Barbara; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A study of recorded and analyzed inspection times in a picture recognition memory task involving three different delays between inspection and test. Subjects were 108 4-, 6-, and 8-year-old children. (Author/SDH)

  2. Making a Memory Book

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Narrator: Another project you and your loved one can do together is make a memory book. Hattie Grossman is 93 years ... grandchildren. This afternoon they're working on a project with University of Pittsburgh researcher, Michelle Bourgeois. Bourgeois: ...

  3. Memory Circuit Fault Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; McClure, Tucker

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft are known to experience significant memory part-related failures and problems, both pre- and postlaunch. These memory parts include both static and dynamic memories (SRAM and DRAM). These failures manifest themselves in a variety of ways, such as pattern-sensitive failures, timingsensitive failures, etc. Because of the mission critical nature memory devices play in spacecraft architecture and operation, understanding their failure modes is vital to successful mission operation. To support this need, a generic simulation tool that can model different data patterns in conjunction with variable write and read conditions was developed. This tool is a mathematical and graphical way to embed pattern, electrical, and physical information to perform what-if analysis as part of a root cause failure analysis effort.

  4. Coping with Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... either using computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – can help to identify strokes and tumors, which can sometimes cause memory loss. “The goal is to rule out factors ...

  5. Computational principles of memory.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Rishidev; Fiete, Ila

    2016-03-01

    The ability to store and later use information is essential for a variety of adaptive behaviors, including integration, learning, generalization, prediction and inference. In this Review, we survey theoretical principles that can allow the brain to construct persistent states for memory. We identify requirements that a memory system must satisfy and analyze existing models and hypothesized biological substrates in light of these requirements. We also highlight open questions, theoretical puzzles and problems shared with computer science and information theory. PMID:26906506

  6. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

    1972-01-01

    The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

  7. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. PMID:27402055

  8. Memory T Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianqian; Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunological memory is a key feature of adaptive immunity. It provides the organism with long-lived and robust protection against infection. In organ transplantation, memory T cells pose a significant threat by causing allograft rejection that is generally resistant to immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of memory T cell biology is needed to improve the survival of transplanted organs without compromising the host’s ability to fight infections. This review will focus on the mechanisms by which memory T cells migrate to the site where their target antigen is present, with particular emphasis on their migration to transplanted organs. First, we will define the known subsets of memory T cells (central, effector, and tissue resident) and their circulation patterns. Second, we will review the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which memory T cells migrate to inflamed and non-inflamed tissues and highlight the emerging paradigm of antigen-driven, trans-endothelial migration. Third, we will discuss the relevance of this knowledge to organ transplantation and the prevention or treatment of allograft rejection. PMID:26483794

  9. [Antidepressive agents and memory].

    PubMed

    Danion, J M

    1993-07-01

    It is important that antidepressants, now increasingly used in ambulatory treatment of many patients, should not be detrimental to cognition and memory. It is difficult to assess these effects. One must make a distinction between the direct effects of antidepressants on cognition, related to their intrinsic properties, and indirect effects secondary to mood improvement. The tests used in studies essentially focus on psychomotricity and do not accurately evaluate the effects on cognition itself. Indeed, there are different kinds of memory which would require specific investigations. It has nevertheless been demonstrated that acute administration of sedative antidepressants with a marked anticholinergic component are detrimental to the memory processes. However, following prolonged administration, tolerance may develop within 1 to 3 weeks. Some antidepressants, however, especially serotonergics, do not cause any disturbances of memory. In depressed subjects, it seems that, overall, long-term antidepressant treatment improves cognitive functions. This effect is due to the combination of drug tolerance and of the indirect effects secondary to mood improvement. Elderly subjects appear to be more sensitive to the detrimental effects on memory and they develop drug tolerance more slowly. Lastly, two studies have reported that serotonin re-uptake inhibitors might have beneficial effects on memory disorders secondary to acute or chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:8281908

  10. The Edward Teller medal lecture: The evolution toward indirect drive and two decades of progress toward ICF ignition and burn

    SciTech Connect

    Lindl, J.D. Eleventh International Workshop on Laser Interaction, Monterey California )

    1994-10-05

    A memorial lecture reviews the achievements of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the indirect drive for the inertial confinement fusion from 1972 to 1994. The main subjects have been the target physics (the laser and ion drive) in various geometries, the study of instabilities, and the gain calculations. The results allow to achieve extremely reproducible implosions at the Nova facilities. (AIP) [copyright] [ital American] [ital Institute] [ital of] [ital Physics] 1994

  11. Dillion Medal Prize Lecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Venkat

    2009-03-01

    Many aspects of polymer research have undergone a paradigm shift in the past decade, with an increased emphasis on technological applications which propose the use of materials and devices created by controlling matter from the atomic scales to the bulk commodity level. This talk will focus on multicomponent polymeric materials (block copolymers, rod-coil polymers and mixtures like polymer blends and polymer nanocomposites), which have played a central role in enabling this paradigm shift in the context of polymeric materials. In this talk, I will discuss our recent researches on developing simulation tools that can predict the structure, morphology and flow behavior of such multicomponent polymers. In contrast to conventional (``particle-based'') Monte Carlo and Molecular dynamics approaches, our methods work at a coarse-grained description of the system to predict the thermodynamics and dynamics of such multicomponent polymers. This talk will focus on an outline of the simulation strategies and present some results concerning both the equilibrium and dynamical properties of such materials.

  12. A Gold Medal Finish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 1999, Darryl Mitchell of Goddard Space Flight Center's Technology Commercialization Office (TCO) met with the U.S. Olympic Committee at the official training facility in Colorado Springs, Colorado, to offer assistance in transferring NASA technologies applicable to Olympic sports. Following the meeting with the Olympic committee, Mitchell was approached by U.S. Speedskating Long Track Program Director Finn Halvorsen, who eagerly voiced his interest in working with NASA to identify a means of improving performance for his team. According to Halvorsen, 'If (NASA) can put a man on the moon, surely they can help our skaters.' Mitchell and Halvorsen went to work uncovering NASA technologies that could boost the U.S. team's skating capabilities. Mitchell received a crash course in speedskating, and as a result, generated a lengthy list of promising NASA developments that could benefit the sport. From this list, he and his Goddard TCO partner, Joe Famiglietti, deliberated over whether a NASA mirror-polishing technique could possibly be adapted to the athletes speedskates. The polishing technique, developed by Jim Lyons, a 16-year optical engineering veteran of Goddard, was derived from the same principles used to create the optics for NASA's science observatories, such as the Hubble Space Telescope (highly polished optics are required by NASA to obtain sharp, clear images in space).

  13. Music evokes vivid autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Amy M; Karlan, Brett; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Music is strongly intertwined with memories-for example, hearing a song from the past can transport you back in time, triggering the sights, sounds, and feelings of a specific event. This association between music and vivid autobiographical memory is intuitively apparent, but the idea that music is intimately tied with memories, seemingly more so than other potent memory cues (e.g., familiar faces), has not been empirically tested. Here, we compared memories evoked by music to those evoked by famous faces, predicting that music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) would be more vivid. Participants listened to 30 songs, viewed 30 faces, and reported on memories that were evoked. Memories were transcribed and coded for vividness as in Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. [2002. Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677-689]. In support of our hypothesis, MEAMs were more vivid than autobiographical memories evoked by faces. MEAMs contained a greater proportion of internal details and a greater number of perceptual details, while face-evoked memories contained a greater number of external details. Additionally, we identified sex differences in memory vividness: for both stimulus categories, women retrieved more vivid memories than men. The results show that music not only effectively evokes autobiographical memories, but that these memories are more vivid than those evoked by famous faces. PMID:26259098

  14. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. PMID:23639921

  15. Embodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories

    PubMed Central

    Arminjon, Mathieu; Preissmann, Delphine; Chmetz, Florian; Duraku, Andrea; Ansermet, François; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Since Damasio introduced the somatic markers hypothesis in Damasio (1994), it has spread through the psychological community, where it is now commonly acknowledged that somatic states are a factor in producing the qualitative dimension of our experiences. Present actions are emotionally guided by those somatic states that were previously activated in similar experiences. In this model, somatic markers serve as a kind of embodied memory. Here, we test whether the manipulation of somatic markers can modulate the emotional evaluation of negative memories. Because facial feedback has been shown to be a powerful means of modifying emotional judgements, we used it to manipulate somatic markers. Participants first read a sad story in order to induce a negative emotional memory and then were asked to rate their emotions and memory about the text. Twenty-four hours later, the same participants were asked to assume a predetermined facial feedback (smiling) while reactivating their memory of the sad story. The participants were once again asked to fill in emotional and memory questionnaires about the text. Our results showed that participants who had smiled during memory reactivation later rated the text less negatively than control participants. However, the contraction of the zygomaticus muscles during memory reactivation did not have any impact on episodic memory scores. This suggests that manipulating somatic states modified emotional memory without affecting episodic memory. Thus, modulating memories through bodily states might pave the way to studying memory as an embodied function and help shape new kinds of psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:26074833

  16. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-chuan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A new read gate design for the vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory is disclosed which offers larger operating margin than the existing read gate designs. In the existing read gate designs, a current is applied to all the stripes. The stripes that contain a VBL pair are chopped, while the stripes that do not contain a VBL pair are not chopped. The information is then detected by inspecting the presence or absence of the bubble. The margin of the chopping current amplitude is very small, and sometimes non-existent. A new method of reading Vertical Bloch Line memory is also disclosed. Instead of using the wall chirality to separate the two binary states, the spatial deflection of the stripe head is used. Also disclosed herein is a compact memory which uses vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement in the form of stacks of VBL memory layers is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. High data transfer rate is achieved by operating all the layers in parallel. Using Hall effect sensing, and optical sensing via the Faraday effect to access the data from within the three-dimensional packages, an even higher data transfer rate can be achieved due to parallel operation within each layer.

  17. Nanoporous silicon oxide memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gunuk; Yang, Yang; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Abramova, Vera; Fei, Huilong; Ruan, Gedeng; Thomas, Edwin L; Tour, James M

    2014-08-13

    Oxide-based two-terminal resistive random access memory (RRAM) is considered one of the most promising candidates for next-generation nonvolatile memory. We introduce here a new RRAM memory structure employing a nanoporous (NP) silicon oxide (SiOx) material which enables unipolar switching through its internal vertical nanogap. Through the control of the stochastic filament formation at low voltage, the NP SiOx memory exhibited an extremely low electroforming voltage (∼ 1.6 V) and outstanding performance metrics. These include multibit storage ability (up to 9-bits), a high ON-OFF ratio (up to 10(7) A), a long high-temperature lifetime (≥ 10(4) s at 100 °C), excellent cycling endurance (≥ 10(5)), sub-50 ns switching speeds, and low power consumption (∼ 6 × 10(-5) W/bit). Also provided is the room temperature processability for versatile fabrication without any compliance current being needed during electroforming or switching operations. Taken together, these metrics in NP SiOx RRAM provide a route toward easily accessed nonvolatile memory applications. PMID:24992278

  18. Memory function and supportive technology

    PubMed Central

    Charness, Neil; Best, Ryan; Souders, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Episodic and working memory processes show pronounced age-related decline, with other memory processes such as semantic, procedural, and metamemory less affected. Older adults tend to complain the most about prospective and retrospective memory failures. We introduce a framework for deciding how to mitigate memory decline using augmentation and substitution and discuss techniques that change the user, through mnemonics training, and change the tool or environment, by providing environmental support. We provide examples of low-tech and high-tech memory supports and discuss constraints on the utility of high-tech systems including effectiveness of devices, attitudes toward memory aids, and reliability of systems. PMID:24379752

  19. MEMORIAL WALK WITH MEMORIALS, TOWARD ENTRANCE GATE. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MEMORIAL WALK WITH MEMORIALS, TOWARD ENTRANCE GATE. VIEW TO WEST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. Aging accelerates memory extinction and impairs memory restoration in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nannan; Guo, Aike; Li, Yan

    2015-05-15

    Age-related memory impairment (AMI) is a phenomenon observed from invertebrates to human. Memory extinction is proposed to be an active inhibitory modification of memory, however, whether extinction is affected in aging animals remains to be elucidated. Employing a modified paradigm for studying memory extinction in fruit flies, we found that only the stable, but not the labile memory component was suppressed by extinction, thus effectively resulting in higher memory loss in aging flies. Strikingly, young flies were able to fully restore the stable memory component 3 h post extinction, while aging flies failed to do so. In conclusion, our findings reveal that both accelerated extinction and impaired restoration contribute to memory impairment in aging animals. PMID:25842205

  1. Integrated Solid Earth Science: the right place and time to discover the unexpected? (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, Sierd

    2013-04-01

    go. Not only on a national level, such as pursued by the Netherlands Research School of Integrated Solid Earth Science (ISES), but also on a full European scale, such as the TOPO-EUROPE research program. This goes hand in hand with setting the stage for a pan-European research infrastructure for solid earth science by the European Plate Observing System (EPOS). Much of the unexpected remains to be discovered. The Holmes medal awarded by the European Geosciences Union, itself an example of the immense progress European earth scientists have made in joining forces, means a lot to me. I share it with my co-workers in my group, the close to 70 PhD students who worked with us, and other numerous colleagues and friends that all contributed immensely to the unexpected.

  2. Schizotypy and false memory.

    PubMed

    Dagnall, Neil; Parker, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm the present study examined the relationship between schizotypy and recognition memory. Participants scoring in the upper and lower quartile ranges for schizotypy (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire brief version; SPQ-B) and on each of the SPQ-B subscales (cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal and disorganized) were compared on true and false memory performance. Participants scoring in the lower quartile range on the cognitive-perceptual subscale recognised a higher proportion of both true and false memories than those scoring in the higher quartile range. Participants scoring in the upper quartile on the interpersonal factor recognised fewer true items than those in the lower quartile range. No differences were found for overall schizotypy or on the disorganized subscale. PMID:18817907

  3. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  4. Flexible memory networks.

    PubMed

    Curto, Carina; Degeratu, Anda; Itskov, Vladimir

    2012-03-01

    Networks of neurons in some brain areas are flexible enough to encode new memories quickly. Using a standard firing rate model of recurrent networks, we develop a theory of flexible memory networks. Our main results characterize networks having the maximal number of flexible memory patterns, given a constraint graph on the network's connectivity matrix. Modulo a mild topological condition, we find a close connection between maximally flexible networks and rank 1 matrices. The topological condition is H (1)(X;ℤ)=0, where X is the clique complex associated to the network's constraint graph; this condition is generically satisfied for large random networks that are not overly sparse. In order to prove our main results, we develop some matrix-theoretic tools and present them in a self-contained section independent of the neuroscience context. PMID:21826564

  5. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

  6. Negative Affect Impairs Associative Memory but Not Item Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine…

  7. Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huet, Nathalie; Marquie, Jean-Claude; Bacon, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of…

  8. How misinformation alters memories.

    PubMed

    Wright, D B; Loftus, E F

    1998-11-01

    Over the past quarter of a century, hundreds of studies have demonstrated that misleading postevent information affects people's memories. Researchers have used several methods to try to understand this phenomenon and have also put forward different theories to account for the effect. Brainerd and Reyna's (1998, this issue) conjoint misinformation method and their fuzzy-trace theory are welcomed additions on both these fronts. We describe how their contribution fits with the other methods and theories which have been used to understand how misleading postevent information affects people's memory. PMID:9843620

  9. Making sense of memory.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M

    2005-09-01

    The current work explores how people make recognition and belief judgments in the presence of obvious repetition primes. In two experiments, subjects received a 200-ms prime ("cheetah"), either before or after reading a trivia question ("What is the fastest animal?") but always before being presented with the target answer ("cheetah"). Results showed that repetition priming decreased "old" claims (Recognition--Experiment 1), while it increased truth claims (Belief--Experiment 2). Furthermore, repetition prime placement affected recognition but not belief. Combined, these results suggest that dissociations in memory performance are a natural outcome of task and processing demands and reflect the dynamic, flexible nature of memory. PMID:16248499

  10. Shape memory polymer foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in shape memory polymer (SMP) foam research are reviewed. The SMPs belong to a new class of smart polymers which can have interesting applications in microelectromechanical systems, actuators and biomedical devices. They can respond to specific external stimulus changing their configuration and then remember the original shape. In the form of foams, the shape memory behaviour can be enhanced because they generally have higher compressibility. Considering also the low weight, and recovery force, the SMP foams are expected to have great potential applications primarily in aerospace. This review highlights the recent progress in characterization, evaluation, and proposed applications of SMP foams mainly for aerospace applications.

  11. Psychobiology of Active and Inactive Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Donald J.

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the distinction between short-term memory and long-term memory is no longer adequate for either human or animal memory data. Recommends additional research on the physiological brain processes underlying memory interference and retrieval. (MP)

  12. Memory and Forgetfulness: NIH Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Memory & Forgetfulness NIH Research Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... agency for research on Alzheimer's disease and related memory research. An analysis funded by the NIA finds ...

  13. Memory for syntax despite amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Victor S.; Bock, Kathryn; Wilson, Michael P.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2009-01-01

    Syntactic persistence is a tendency for speakers to reproduce sentence structures independently of accompanying meanings, words, or sounds. The memory mechanisms behind syntactic persistence are not fully understood. Though some properties of syntactic persistence suggest a role for procedural memory, current evidence suggests that procedural memory (unlike declarative memory) does not maintain the abstract, relational features that are inherent to syntactic structures. To evaluate the contribution of procedural memory to syntactic persistence, patients with anterograde amnesia and matched control speakers (a) reproduced prime sentences with different syntactic structures; (b) reproduced 0, 1, 6, or 10 neutral sentences; (c) described pictures that elicited the primed structures spontaneously; and (d) made recognition judgments for the prime sentences. Amnesic and control speakers showed significant and equivalent syntactic persistence, despite the amnesic speakers’ profoundly impaired recognition memory for primes. Syntax is thus maintained by procedural memory mechanisms, revealing that procedural memory is capable of supporting abstract, relational knowledge. PMID:18947361

  14. Alcohol and Memory: Retrieval Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Isabel M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The influence of alcohol intoxication on the retrieval of information from memory was investigated in nonalcoholic subjects Intoxicated subjects recalled fewer categories and words within categories. The retrieval stage of memory did not appear to be affected by alcohol. (SW)

  15. Quasi-Ideal Memory System.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junwei; Shen, Yi

    2015-07-01

    The definition for ideal memory system is so strict that some physical elements cannot exist in the real world. In this paper, an ideal memory system can be extended to generate 15 different kinds of quasi-ideal memory systems, which are included in memory systems as its special cases and are different from ideal memory system. For a system to be a quasi-ideal memory system, it should show three unique fingerprints: 1) the pinched hysteretic loop of a quasi-ideal memory system must be odd symmetrical in the plane; 2) the pinched hysteretic loop of a quasi-ideal memory system must be "self-crossing"; and 3) the slope of tangent line for the pinched hysteresis loop must be strictly monotone in a given period. PMID:25204007

  16. Shape memory polymer medical device

    DOEpatents

    Maitland, Duncan; Benett, William J.; Bearinger, Jane P.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Ortega, Jason M.; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M.

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  17. Black phosphorus nonvolatile transistor memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dain; Choi, Yongsuk; Hwang, Euyheon; Kang, Moon Sung; Lee, Seungwoo; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2016-04-28

    We demonstrated nanofloating gate transistor memory devices (NFGTMs) using mechanically-exfoliated few-layered black phosphorus (BP) channels and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) charge trapping layers. The resulting BP-NFGTMs exhibited excellent memory performances, including the five-level data storage, large memory window (58.2 V), stable retention (10(4) s), and cyclic endurance (1000 cycles). PMID:27074903

  18. Play Memories and Place Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study examined play memories from childhood to adulthood of 478 university students between ages 20 and 62 as exhibited in drawings of play memories and questionnaire responses. The study focused on the role of the physical environment and place identity in play memories and individual identity development. Findings showed that…

  19. Dream recall and visual memory.

    PubMed

    Schredl, M; Frauscher, S; Shendi, A

    1995-08-01

    The present study estimated correlations for 50 subjects among frequency of dream recall, length of dream report, and visual memory. Whereas the results confirmed the previously found relationship between frequency of dream recall and visual memory, influence of visual memory on length of dream report was not found. PMID:8532466

  20. Motor Action and Emotional Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

  1. Memory Processes in Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Kathy

    1985-01-01

    Explores the role of memory in mediating mass communication effects. Examines (1) the nature of memory, (2) issues in retention and recall of media messages, (3) methods of promoting retention and recall of media messages, and (4) implications of memory processes for mass media effects. (PD)

  2. [Neural basis of procedural memory].

    PubMed

    Mochizuki-Kawai, Hiroko

    2008-07-01

    Procedural memory is acquired by trial and error. Our daily life is supported by a number of procedural memories such as those for riding bicycle, typing, reading words, etc. Procedural memory is divided into 3 types; motor, perceptual, and cognitive. Here, the author reviews the cognitive and neural basis of procedural memory according to these 3 types. It is reported that the basal ganglia or cerebellum dysfunction causes deficits in procedural memory. Compared with age-matched healthy participants, patients with Parkinson disease (PD), Huntington disease (HD) or spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) show deterioration in improvements in motor-type procedural memory tasks. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that motor-type procedural memory may be supported by multiple brain regions, including the frontal and parietal regions as well as the basal ganglia (cerebellum); this was found with a serial reaction time task (SRT task). Although 2 other types of procedural memory are also maintained by multiple brain regions, the related cerebral areas depend on the type of memory. For example, it was suggested that acquisition of the perceptual type of procedural memory (e.g., ability to read mirror images of words) might be maintained by the bilateral fusiform region, while the acquisition of cognitive procedural memory might be supported by the frontal, parietal, or cerebellar regions as well as the basal ganglia. In the future, we need to cleary understand the neural "network" related to the procedural memory. PMID:18646622

  3. Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

  4. Storing Memories of Recent Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... that come with normal aging and dementia. The hippocampus plays a critical role in memory. Much prior memory research has focused on semantic ... to a small number of neurons in the hippocampus; these neurons then fire when the memory is recalled. But how the brain forms episodic ...

  5. Memory Storage and Neural Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Daniel L.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates memory storage and molecular nature of associative-memory formation by analyzing Pavlovian conditioning in marine snails and rabbits. Presented is the design of a computer-based memory system (neural networks) using the rules acquired in the investigation. Reports that the artificial network recognized patterns well. (YP)

  6. Improving Memory in the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Linda M.; Pratt, Mary Alice

    This paper reports the results of an evaluation of a didactic-experiential program designed to improve memory functioning in healthy older adults with memory complaints, and to allay their concerns (in this case, largely unfounded) about the decline of their memory. The 7-week workshop met weekly for 2 hours, each session consisting of a lecture…

  7. First Words and First Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was…

  8. Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

  9. A Nimble Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Apoorva; Badre, David

    2016-08-01

    In this issue of Neuron, Sprague et al. (2016) report fMRI evidence that a degraded working memory representation can be restored by a later cue. The findings raise new questions about the neural mechanisms that underlie such dynamic representational shifts. PMID:27497219

  10. The Grammar of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This essay focuses on two sites of memory in my professional life. One is from my very early years of teaching, the second from about 10 years later. Each is centred on a moment of controversy in English curriculum in New South Wales, Australia, and each is to do with the teaching of writing and the supposed neglect of language study, including…

  11. High density associative memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moopenn, Alexander W. (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Lambe, John J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A multi-layered, thin-film, digital memory having associative recall. There is a first memory matrix and a second memory matrix. Each memory matrix comprises, a first layer comprising a plurality of electrically separated row conductors; a second layer comprising a plurality of electrically separated column conductors intersecting but electrically separated from the row conductors; and, a plurality of resistance elements electrically connected between the row condutors and the column conductors at respective intersections of the row conductors and the column conductors, each resistance element comprising, in series, a first resistor of sufficiently high ohmage to conduct a sensible element current therethrough with virtually no heat-generating power consumption when a low voltage as employed in thin-film applications is applied thereacross and a second resistor of sufficiently high ohmage to conduct no sensible current therethrough when a low voltage as employed in thin-film applications is applied thereacross, the second resistor having the quality of breaking down to create a short therethrough upon the application of a breakdown level voltage across the first and second resistors.

  12. Quantum Memory in Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellars, Matthew

    2008-05-01

    Quantum memories are likely to be critical components in any future long range quantum communication network. A method is described for storing light that operates by controlling the local group velocity of light in a crystal, using an applied electric field gradient to Stark shift an optical transition. Unlike other proposals for quantum memories no optical control pulses are required greatly simplifying the operation of the memory and improving its signal to noise. It is shown that the technique has the potential to operate with near 100% efficiency with little excess noise, making it suitable as a quantum memory. Preliminary experimental results will be presented demonstrating efficiencies up to 45%. These experiments utilized the ^3H4<->^1D2 optical transition (605.7 nm) in a 4 mm long crystal of Pr^3+:Y2SiO5 cooled to liquid helium temperatures. The experiments are well described by Maxwell-Bloch simulations and such simulations suggest efficiencies much closer to unity should be possible with only modest improvements to the experiment. This work was carried out in collaboration with G. Hetet, J. J. Longdell, A. L. Alexander, P. K. Lam and M. P. Hedges.

  13. Memory Loss and Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Underlying the generally oblivious attitude of teachers and learners towards the past is insufficient respect for the role of memory in giving meaning to experience and access to knowledge. We shape our identity by making sense of our past and its relationship to present and future selves, a process that should be intensively cultivated when we…

  14. Memorials: Art for Remembering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art to Zoo: Teaching With the Power of Objects, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Throughout history, in all parts of the world, people have struggled with the problem of loss. Moving words have been written and beautiful objects created to preserve the memory of people and their achievements. This theme issue explores the different ways that people have been praised and remembered in works of art. An introduction suggests a…

  15. Memory for Serial Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Murdock, Bennet B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    An extension to Murdock's Theory of Distributed Associative Memory, based on associative chaining between items, is presented. The extended theory is applied to several serial order phenomena, including serial list learning, delayed recall effects, partial report effects, and buildup and release from proactive interference. (TJH)

  16. Judgments of Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Judgments of associative memory (JAM) were indexed by ratings given to pairs of cue and response words. The normed probabilities, p(response|cue), were obtained from free association norms. The ratings were linearly related to the probabilities. The JAM functions were characterized by high intercepts (approximately 50 on a 100 point scale) and…

  17. Dreams Memories & Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  18. Advanced image memory architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercillo, Richard; McNeill, Kevin M.

    1994-05-01

    A workstation for radiographic images, known as the Arizona Viewing Console (AVC), was developed at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center in the Department of Radiology. This workstation has been in use as a research tool to aid us in investigating how a radiologist interacts with a workstation, to determine which image processing features are required to aid the radiologist, to develop user interfaces and to support psychophysical and clinical studies. Results from these studies have show a need to increase the current image memory's available storage in order to accommodate high resolution images. The current triple-ported image memory can be allocated to store any number of images up to a combined total of 4 million pixels. Over the past couple of years, higher resolution images have become easier to generate with the advent of laser digitizers and computed radiology systems. As part of our research, a larger 32 million pixel image memory for AVC has been designed to replace the existing image memory.

  19. Memory and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vain” to remember the first letters of the colors of the rainbow in order of their wave lengths: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.) Don’t buy into ageist stereotypes about memory decline. Studies have shown that having positive beliefs ...

  20. Antenatal memories and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Neighbour, Roger

    1981-01-01

    A case is described of suicidal impulses apparently stemming from the patient's experience before and during his birth. By using a technique of `rebirthing', antenatal memories were relived and their traumatic effects resolved. Theoretical and practical accounts of rebirthing are given, and its significance for general practitioners is discussed. PMID:7338871

  1. Comment on "Childhood Memories."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Critiques an article that focuses on how the analysis of memory offers a window into the cultural, social, linguistic, and ideological dimensions of people as a step toward the development of voice. Suggests the importance of dedicating teaching and research not merely to the development of students' empowerment, but also to connecting these…

  2. When Autobiographical Memory Begins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Courage, Mary L.; Edison, Shannon C.

    2003-01-01

    The authors review competing theories concerning the emergence and early development of autobiographical memory. It is argued that the differences between these accounts, although important, may be more apparent than real. The crux of these disagreements lies not in "what" processes are important, but rather, the role these different processes…

  3. Working Memory and Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goo, Jaemyung

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and think-alouds, focusing on the issue of reactivity. Two WM span tasks (listening span and operation span) were administered to 42 English-speaking learners of Spanish. Learner performance on reading comprehension and written production was measured under two…

  4. Memory blindness: Altered memory reports lead to distortion in eyewitness memory.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Kevin J; Greenspan, Rachel L; Bogart, Daniel F; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2016-07-01

    Choice blindness refers to the finding that people can often be misled about their own self-reported choices. However, little research has investigated the more long-term effects of choice blindness. We examined whether people would detect alterations to their own memory reports, and whether such alterations could influence participants' memories. Participants viewed slideshows depicting crimes, and then either reported their memories for episodic details of the event (Exp. 1) or identified a suspect from a lineup (Exp. 2). Then we exposed participants to manipulated versions of their memory reports, and later tested their memories a second time. The results indicated that the majority of participants failed to detect the misinformation, and that exposing witnesses to misleading versions of their own memory reports caused their memories to change to be consistent with those reports. These experiments have implications for eyewitness memory. PMID:26884087

  5. The role of stress during memory reactivation on intrusive memories.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jessica; Garber, Benjamin; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Intrusive memories are unwanted recollections that maintain distress in psychological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that memories that are reactivated through retrieval become temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, including changes in levels of circulating stress hormones. This study investigated the influence of stress during memory reactivation of an emotionally arousing trauma film on subsequent intrusive memories. Three groups of participants (N=63) viewed a trauma film depicting a serious car accident at baseline. Two days later (Time 2), one group received a reactivation induction following a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT; Stress/Reactivation condition), whilst the second group reactivated the memory after a control procedure (Reactivation condition). A third group underwent the SECPT but was not asked to reactivate memory of the trauma film (Stress condition). Two days later (Time 3), all participants received a surprise cued memory recall test and intrusions questionnaire which they completed online. Results showed that those in the Stress/Reactivation group had higher intrusions scores than the other two groups, suggesting that acute stress promotes intrusive memories only when the memory trace is reactivated shortly afterwards. Increased cortisol predicted enhanced intrusive experiences in the Stress/Reactivation condition but not in the other conditions. This pattern of results suggests that acute stress during the reactivation of emotional material impacts on involuntary emotional memories. These findings suggest a possible explanation for the mechanism underlying the maintenance of intrusive memories in clinical disorders. PMID:25911248

  6. Working memory capacity and controlled serial memory search.

    PubMed

    Mızrak, Eda; Öztekin, Ilke

    2016-08-01

    The speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT) procedure was used to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and the dynamics of temporal order memory retrieval. High- and low-span participants (HSs, LSs) studied sequentially presented five-item lists, followed by two probes from the study list. Participants indicated the more recent probe. Overall, accuracy was higher for HSs compared to LSs. Crucially, in contrast to previous investigations that observed no impact of WMC on speed of access to item information in memory (e.g., Öztekin & McElree, 2010), recovery of temporal order memory was slower for LSs. While accessing an item's representation in memory can be direct, recovery of relational information such as temporal order information requires a more controlled serial memory search. Collectively, these data indicate that WMC effects are particularly prominent during high demands of cognitive control, such as serial search operations necessary to access temporal order information from memory. PMID:27135712

  7. About Sleep's Role in Memory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  8. Recoverable distributed shared virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Kun-Lung; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1990-01-01

    The problem of rollback recovery in distributed shared virtual environments, in which the shared memory is implemented in software in a loosely coupled distributed multicomputer system, is examined. A user-transparent checkpointing recovery scheme and a new twin-page disk storage management technique are presented for implementing recoverable distributed shared virtual memory. The checkpointing scheme can be integrated with the memory coherence protocol for managing the shared virtual memory. The twin-page disk design allows checkpointing to proceed in an incremental fashion without an explicit undo at the time of recovery. The recoverable distributed shared virtual memory allows the system to restart computation from a checkpoint without a global restart.

  9. An upconverted photonic nonvolatile memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Chen, Xian; Wang, Feng; Tang, Yong-Bing; Roy, V. A. L.

    2014-08-01

    Conventional flash memory devices are voltage driven and found to be unsafe for confidential data storage. To ensure the security of the stored data, there is a strong demand for developing novel nonvolatile memory technology for data encryption. Here we show a photonic flash memory device, based on upconversion nanocrystals, which is light driven with a particular narrow width of wavelength in addition to voltage bias. With the help of near-infrared light, we successfully manipulate the multilevel data storage of the flash memory device. These upconverted photonic flash memory devices exhibit high ON/OFF ratio, long retention time and excellent rewritable characteristics.

  10. Individual differences in working memory.

    PubMed

    Jarrold, C; Towse, J N

    2006-04-28

    Working memory can be defined as the ability to hold in mind information in the face of potentially interfering distraction in order to guide behavior. The experimental manipulation of working memory tasks has shed considerable light on the probable structure of the human working memory system, and, to a lesser extent, the specific processes captured by working memory paradigms. However, individual differences research has also had a crucial role to play in the development of theories of working memory. In particular, correlational approaches have been particularly informative in three areas of working memory research, each of which is reviewed here. These are, first, the importance of working memory measures as correlates of high-level cognitive skills such as reading, mathematics, reasoning, and fluid intelligence; second, the extent to which human working memory relies on domain-general or domain-specific component subsystems, and third, the precise reasons why working memory measures do relate to other important indices of human cognitive functioning. The findings from each of these areas suggest that working memory depends on a combination of domain-specific representational systems and domain-general processing and control systems, and that working memory measures capture individuals' ability to combine maintenance and processing demands in a manner that limits information loss from forgetting or distraction. PMID:16325344

  11. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  12. Constructive memory: past and future

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory; (ii) the role of a constructive memory system in imagining or simulating possible future events; and (iii) differences between true and false memories that have been revealed by functional neuroimaging techniques. The article delineates the theoretical implications of relevant research, and also considers some clinical and applied implications. PMID:22577300

  13. Cognitive neuroscience of human memory.

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, J D

    1998-01-01

    Current knowledge is summarized about long-term memory systems of the human brain, with memory systems defined as specific neural networks that support specific mnemonic processes. The summary integrates convergent evidence from neuropsychological studies of patients with brain lesions and from functional neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Evidence is reviewed about the specific roles of hippocampal and parahippocampal regions, the amygdala, the basal ganglia, and various neocortical areas in declarative memory. Evidence is also reviewed about which brain regions mediate specific kinds of procedural memory, including sensorimotor, perceptual, and cognitive skill learning; perceptual and conceptual repetition priming; and several forms of conditioning. Findings are discussed in terms of the functional neural architecture of normal memory, age-related changes in memory performance, and neurological conditions that affect memory such as amnesia. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. PMID:9496622

  14. Memory T Cells in Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Charles A.; Fairchild, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Following infections and environmental exposures, memory T cells are generated that provide long-term protective immunity. Compared to their naïve T cell counterparts, memory T cells possess unique characteristics that endow them with the ability to quickly and robustly respond to foreign antigens. While such memory T cells are beneficial in protecting their hosts from recurrent infection, memory cells reactive to donor antigens pose a major barrier to successful transplantation and tolerance induction. Significant progress has been made over the past several decades contributing to our understanding of memory T cell generation, their distinct biology, and their detrimental impact in clinical and animal models of transplantation. This review focuses on the unique features which make memory T cells relevant to the transplant community and discusses potential therapies targeting memory T cells which may ameliorate allograft rejection. PMID:25435071

  15. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  16. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  17. Memory expression is independent of memory labilization/reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Karina A; Suárez, Luis D; Lynch, Victoria M; Molina, Víctor A; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    There is growing evidence that certain reactivation conditions restrict the onset of both the destabilization phase and the restabilization process or reconsolidation. However, it is not yet clear how changes in memory expression during the retrieval experience can influence the emergence of the labilization/reconsolidation process. To address this issue, we used the context-signal memory model of Chasmagnathus. In this paradigm a short reminder that does not include reinforcement allows us to evaluate memory labilization and reconsolidation, whereas a short but reinforced reminder restricts the onset of such a process. The current study investigated the effects of the glutamate antagonists, APV (0.6 or 1.5 μg/g) and CNQX (1 μg/g), prior to the reminder session on both behavioral expression and the reconsolidation process. Under conditions where the reminder does not initiate the labilization/reconsolidation process, APV prevented memory expression without affecting long-term memory retention. In contrast, APV induced amnesic effects in the long-term when administered before a reminder session that triggers reconsolidation. Under the present parametric conditions, the administration of CNQX prior to the reminder that allows memory to enter reconsolidation impairs this process without disrupting memory expression. Overall, the present findings suggest that memory reactivation--but not memory expression--is necessary for labilization and reconsolidation. Retrieval and memory expression therefore appear not to be interchangeable concepts. PMID:24149057

  18. Method and apparatus for faulty memory utilization

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong; Andrade Costa, Carlos H.; Park, Yoonho; Rosenburg, Bryan S.; Ryu, Kyung D.

    2016-04-19

    A method for faulty memory utilization in a memory system includes: obtaining information regarding memory health status of at least one memory page in the memory system; determining an error tolerance of the memory page when the information regarding memory health status indicates that a failure is predicted to occur in an area of the memory system affecting the memory page; initiating a migration of data stored in the memory page when it is determined that the data stored in the memory page is non-error-tolerant; notifying at least one application regarding a predicted operating system failure and/or a predicted application failure when it is determined that data stored in the memory page is non-error-tolerant and cannot be migrated; and notifying at least one application regarding the memory failure predicted to occur when it is determined that data stored in the memory page is error-tolerant.

  19. Developmental dissociation between the maturation of procedural memory and declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Finn, Amy S; Kalra, Priya B; Goetz, Calvin; Leonard, Julia A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-02-01

    Declarative memory and procedural memory are known to be two fundamentally different kinds of memory that are dissociable in their psychological characteristics and measurement (explicit vs. implicit) and in the neural systems that subserve each kind of memory. Declarative memory abilities are known to improve from childhood through young adulthood, but the developmental maturation of procedural memory is largely unknown. We compared 10-year-old children and young adults on measures of declarative memory and working memory capacity and on four measures of procedural memory that have been strongly dissociated from declarative memory (mirror tracing, rotary pursuit, probabilistic classification, and artificial grammar). Children had lesser declarative memory ability and lesser working memory capacity than adults, but children exhibited learning equivalent to adults on all four measures of procedural memory. Therefore, declarative memory and procedural memory are developmentally dissociable, with procedural memory being adult-like by age 10years and declarative memory continuing to mature into young adulthood. PMID:26560675

  20. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  1. Optoelectronic associative memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An associative optical memory including an input spatial light modulator (SLM) in the form of an edge enhanced liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) and a pair of memory SLM's in the form of liquid crystal televisions (LCTV's) forms a matrix array of an input image which is cross correlated with a matrix array of stored images. The correlation product is detected and nonlinearly amplified to illuminate a replica of the stored image array to select the stored image correlating with the input image. The LCLV is edge enhanced by reducing the bias frequency and voltage and rotating its orientation. The edge enhancement and nonlinearity of the photodetection improves the orthogonality of the stored image. The illumination of the replicate stored image provides a clean stored image, uncontaminated by the image comparison process.

  2. Learning, Memory, and Synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    People with color-grapheme synesthesia experience color when viewing written letters or numerals, usually with a particular color evoked by each grapheme. Here we report on 11 color-grapheme synesthetes with startlingly similar color-grapheme pairings traceable to childhood toys containing colored letters. These data are the first and only to show learned synesthesia of this kind in a group larger than a single case. While some researchers have focused on genetic and perceptual aspects of synesthesia, these results indicate that a complete explanation of synesthesia must also incorporate a central role for learning and memory. We argue that these two positions can be reconciled by thinking of synesthesia as the automatic retrieval of highly specific mnemonic associations, where perceptual contents are brought to mind, akin to mental imagery or the perceptual reinstatement effects found in the memory literature. PMID:23307940

  3. Reversible Shape Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jing; Li, Qiaoxi; Turner, Sara; Brosnan, Sarah; Tippets, Cary; Carrillo, Jan-Michael; Nykypnachuk, Dmytro; Gang, Oleg; Dobrynin, Andrey; Lopez, Rene; Ashby, Valerie; Sheiko, Sergei

    2014-03-01

    Reversible shape memory has been achieved on various shapes, e.g. hairpin, origami, coil, robotic gripper and flow rate control device, allowing for multiple switching between encoded shapes without applying any external force. Also, the reversible photonic structure molded in dielectric elastomers has been designed. Maximum reversibility can be achieved by tuning the crosslinking density and the degree of crystallinity of semi-crystalline elastomers. Different crystallization protocols including isothermal and cooling crystallization have been applied to develop a universal picture integrating different shape memory (SM) behaviors: conventional one-way SM, two-way reversible SM, and one-way reversible SM. Acknowledge financial support from the NSF DMR-1122483, DMR- 1004576, and DMR-1206957.

  4. The Memory Jog Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimakis, Nikolaos; Soldatos, John; Polymenakos, Lazaros; Sturm, Janienke; Neumann, Joachim; Casas, Josep R.

    The CHIL Memory Jog service focuses on facilitating the collaboration of participants in meetings, lectures, presentations, and other human interactive events, occurring in indoor CHIL spaces. It exploits the whole set of the perceptual components that have been developed by the CHIL Consortium partners (e.g., person tracking, face identification, audio source localization, etc) along with a wide range of actuating devices such as projectors, displays, targeted audio devices, speakers, etc. The underlying set of perceptual components provides a constant flow of elementary contextual information, such as “person at location x0,y0”, “speech at location x0,y0”, information that alone is not of significant use. However, the CHIL Memory Jog service is accompanied by powerful situation identification techniques that fuse all the incoming information and creates complex states that drive the actuating logic.

  5. Misaligned feeding impairs memories

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Dawn H; Jami, Shekib A; Flores, Richard E; Truong, Danny; Ghiani, Cristina A; O’Dell, Thomas J; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Robust sleep/wake rhythms are important for health and cognitive function. Unfortunately, many people are living in an environment where their circadian system is challenged by inappropriate meal- or work-times. Here we scheduled food access to the sleep time and examined the impact on learning and memory in mice. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that the molecular clock in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is unaltered while the molecular clock in the hippocampus is synchronized by the timing of food availability. This chronic circadian misalignment causes reduced hippocampal long term potentiation and total CREB expression. Importantly this mis-timed feeding resulted in dramatic deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Our findings suggest that the timing of meals have far-reaching effects on hippocampal physiology and learned behaviour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09460.001 PMID:26652002

  6. TED KYCIA MEMORIAL SYMPOSIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    LITTENBERG, L.; RUBINSTEIN, R.; SAMIOS, N.; LI, K.; GIACOMELLI, G.; MOCKETT, P.; CARROLL, A.; JOHNSON, R.; BRYMAN, D.; TIPPENS, B.

    2000-05-19

    On the afternoon of May 19 2000, a Memorial Seminar was held in the BNL physics Large Seminar Room to honor the memory of Ted Kyeia, a prominent particle physicist who had been a member of the BNL staff for 40 years. Although it was understandably a somewhat sad occasion because Ted was no longer with us, nevertheless there was much for his colleagues and friends to celebrate in recalling the outstanding contributions that he had made in those four decades. The Seminar speakers were all people who had worked with Ted during that period; each discussed one aspect of his career, but also included anecdotes and personal reminiscences. This booklet contains the Seminar program, listing the speakers, and also copies of transparencies of the talks (and one paper which was a later expansion of a talk); sadly, not all of the personal remarks appeared on the transparencies.

  7. Basic memory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietze, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    Construction and electrical characterization of the 4096 x 2-bit Basic Memory Module (BMM) are reported for the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC) program. The module uses four 2K x 1-bit N-channel FET, random access memory chips, called array chips, and two sense amplifier chips, mounted and interconnected on a ceramic substrate. Four 5% tolerance power supplies are required. At the Module, the address, chip select, and array select lines require a 0-8.5 V MOS signal level. The data output, read-strobe, and write-enable lines operate at TTl levels. Although the module is organized as 4096 x 2 bits, it can be used in a 8196 x 1-bit application with appropriate external connections. A 4096 x 1-bit organization can be obtained by depopulating chips.

  8. Sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    Sparse distributed memory was proposed be Pentti Kanerva as a realizable architecture that could store large patterns and retrieve them based on partial matches with patterns representing current sensory inputs. This memory exhibits behaviors, both in theory and in experiment, that resemble those previously unapproached by machines - e.g., rapid recognition of faces or odors, discovery of new connections between seemingly unrelated ideas, continuation of a sequence of events when given a cue from the middle, knowing that one doesn't know, or getting stuck with an answer on the tip of one's tongue. These behaviors are now within reach of machines that can be incorporated into the computing systems of robots capable of seeing, talking, and manipulating. Kanerva's theory is a break with the Western rationalistic tradition, allowing a new interpretation of learning and cognition that respects biology and the mysteries of individual human beings.

  9. Epigenetic memory in plants

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Mayumi; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in patterns of gene expression that occur without alterations in DNA sequence. The epigenetic mechanisms involve covalent modifications of DNA and histones, which affect transcriptional activity of chromatin. Since chromatin states can be propagated through mitotic and meiotic divisions, epigenetic mechanisms are thought to provide heritable ‘cellular memory’. Here, we review selected examples of epigenetic memory in plants and briefly discuss underlying mechanisms. PMID:25104823

  10. Memory metal actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A mechanical actuator can be constructed by employing a plurality of memory metal actuator elements in parallel to control the amount of actuating force. In order to facilitate direct control by digital control signals provided by a computer or the like, the actuating elements may vary in stiffness according to a binary relationship. The cooling or reset time of the actuator elements can be reduced by employing Peltier junction cooling assemblies in the actuator.

  11. Shape memory alloy actuator

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  12. Fuzzy associative memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosko, Bart

    1991-01-01

    Mappings between fuzzy cubes are discussed. This level of abstraction provides a surprising and fruitful alternative to the propositional and predicate-calculas reasoning techniques used in expert systems. It allows one to reason with sets instead of propositions. Discussed here are fuzzy and neural function estimators, neural vs. fuzzy representation of structured knowledge, fuzzy vector-matrix multiplication, and fuzzy associative memory (FAM) system architecture.

  13. Short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  14. Sudoku associative memory.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiann-Ming; Hsu, Pei-Hsun; Liou, Cheng-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    This work presents bipolar neural systems for check-rule embedded pattern restoration, fault-tolerant information encoding and Sudoku memory construction and association. The primitive bipolar neural unit is generalized to have internal fields and activations, which are respectively characterized by exponential growth and logistic differential dynamics, in response to inhibitory and excitatory stimuli. Coupling extended bipolar units induces multi-state artificial Potts neurons which are interconnected with inhibitory synapses for Latin square encoding, K-alphabet Latin square encoding and Sudoku encoding. The proposed neural dynamics can generally restore Sudoku patterns from partial sparse clues. Neural relaxation is based on mean field annealing that well guarantees reliable convergence to ground states. Sudoku associative memory combines inhibitory interconnections of Sudoku encoding with Hebb's excitatory synapses of encoding conjunctive relations among active units over memorized patterns. Sudoku associative memory is empirically shown reliable and effective for restoring memorized patterns subject to typical sparse clues, fewer partial clues, dense clues and perturbed or damaged clues. On the basis, compound Sudoku patterns are further extended to emulate complex topological information encoding. PMID:24981308

  15. Ferroelectric random access memories.

    PubMed

    Ishiwara, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) is a nonvolatile memory, in which data are stored using hysteretic P-E (polarization vs. electric field) characteristics in a ferroelectric film. In this review, history and characteristics of FeRAMs are first introduced. It is described that there are two types of FeRAMs, capacitor-type and FET-type, and that only the capacitor-type FeRAM is now commercially available. In chapter 2, properties of ferroelectric films are discussed from a viewpoint of FeRAM application, in which particular attention is paid to those of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3, SrBi2Ta2O9, and BiFeO3. Then, cell structures and operation principle of the capacitor-type FeRAMs are discussed in chapter 3. It is described that the stacked technology of ferroelectric capacitors and development of new materials with large remanent polarization are important for fabricating high-density memories. Finally, in chapter 4, the optimized gate structure in ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors is discussed and experimental results showing excellent data retention characteristics are presented. PMID:23421123

  16. When learning met memory.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Colin M

    2010-12-01

    The first sentence of the introduction to Hebb's (1949) classic monograph, The organization of behavior, is "It might be argued that the task of the psychologist, the task of understanding behaviour and reducing the vagaries of human thought to a mechanical process of cause and effect, is a more difficult one than that of any other scientist" (p. xi). Nowhere is this more true than in the realm of human learning and memory, given our truly remarkable ability to acquire and retain prodigious amounts of information. This article is divided into two parts. The first part sketches my lifelong fascination with learning that led me to study first memory, then attention, and then their interplay, with examples of a few interesting findings along that path. The second part details recent work in my laboratory exploring a simple yet quite powerful encoding technique: Saying things aloud improves memory for them. This benefit, which we call the production effect, likely occurs by enhancing the distinctiveness of the things said aloud, and may constitute a beneficial study method. Understanding how we learn and remember is ultimately a crucial step in understanding ourselves. PMID:21186907

  17. Dielectric elastomer memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; McKay, Thomas G.; Xie, Sheng Q.; Calius, Emilio P.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2011-04-01

    Life shows us that the distribution of intelligence throughout flexible muscular networks is a highly successful solution to a wide range of challenges, for example: human hearts, octopi, or even starfish. Recreating this success in engineered systems requires soft actuator technologies with embedded sensing and intelligence. Dielectric Elastomer Actuator(s) (DEA) are promising due to their large stresses and strains, as well as quiet flexible multimodal operation. Recently dielectric elastomer devices were presented with built in sensor, driver, and logic capability enabled by a new concept called the Dielectric Elastomer Switch(es) (DES). DES use electrode piezoresistivity to control the charge on DEA and enable the distribution of intelligence throughout a DEA device. In this paper we advance the capabilities of DES further to form volatile memory elements. A set reset flip-flop with inverted reset line was developed based on DES and DEA. With a 3200V supply the flip-flop behaved appropriately and demonstrated the creation of dielectric elastomer memory capable of changing state in response to 1 second long set and reset pulses. This memory opens up applications such as oscillator, de-bounce, timing, and sequential logic circuits; all of which could be distributed throughout biomimetic actuator arrays. Future work will include miniaturisation to improve response speed, implementation into more complex circuits, and investigation of longer lasting and more sensitive switching materials.

  18. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Brendon O.; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called “sharp-wave ripple” seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep–REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity–might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function. PMID:26097242

  19. Solvent-driven temperature memory and multiple shape memory effects.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rui; Guo, Jingkai; Safranski, David L; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-05-28

    Thermally-activated temperature memory and multiple shape memory effects have been observed in amorphous polymers with a broad glass transition. In this work, we demonstrate that the same shape recovery behaviors can also be achieved through solvent absorption. We investigate the recovery behaviors of programmed Nafion membranes in various solvents and compare the solvent-driven and temperature-driven shape recovery response. The results show that the programming temperature and solvent type have a corresponding strong influence on the shape recovery behavior. Specifically, lower programming temperatures induce faster initial recovery rates and larger recovery, which is known as the temperature memory effect. The temperature memory effect can be used to achieve multi-staged and multiple shape recovery of specimens programmed at different temperatures. Different solvents can also induce different shape recovery, analogous to the temperature memory effect, and can also provide a mechanism for multi-staged and multiple shape memory recovery. PMID:25890998

  20. Predicting confidence in flashbulb memories.

    PubMed

    Day, Martin V; Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Years after a shocking news event many people confidently report details of their flashbulb memories (e.g., what they were doing). People's confidence is a defining feature of their flashbulb memories, but it is not well understood. We tested a model that predicted confidence in flashbulb memories. In particular we examined whether people's social bond with the target of a news event predicts confidence. At a first session shortly after the death of Michael Jackson participants reported their sense of attachment to Michael Jackson, as well as their flashbulb memories and emotional and other reactions to Jackson's death. At a second session approximately 18 months later they reported their flashbulb memories and confidence in those memories. Results supported our proposed model. A stronger sense of attachment to Jackson was related to reports of more initial surprise, emotion, and rehearsal during the first session. Participants' bond with Michael Jackson predicted their confidence but not the consistency of their flashbulb memories 18 months later. We also examined whether participants' initial forecasts regarding the persistence of their flashbulb memories predicted the durability of their memories. Participants' initial forecasts were more strongly related to participants' subsequent confidence than to the actual consistency of their memories. PMID:23496003

  1. Pharmacological disruption of maladaptive memory.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jane R; Torregrossa, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by intrusive, distracting, and disturbing memories that either perpetuate the illness or hinder successful treatment. For example, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves such strong reemergence of memories associated with a traumatic event that the individual feels like the event is happening again. Furthermore, drug addiction is characterized by compulsive use and repeated relapse that is often driven by internal memories of drug use and/or by exposure to external stimuli that were associated with drug use. Therefore, identifying pharmacological methods to weaken the strength of maladaptive memories is a major goal of research efforts aimed at finding new treatments for these disorders. The primary mechanism by which memories could be pharmacologically disrupted or altered is through manipulation of memory reconsolidation. Reconsolidation occurs when an established memory is remembered or reactivated, reentering a labile state before again being consolidated into long-term memory storage. Memories are subject to disruption during this labile state. In this chapter we will discuss the preclinical and clinical studies identifying potential pharmacological methods for disrupting the integrity of maladaptive memory to treat mental illness. PMID:25977090

  2. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  3. The evolution of episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2013-01-01

    One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

  4. Unifying Memory and Database Transactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Ricardo J.; Lourenço, João M.

    Software Transactional Memory is a concurrency control technique gaining increasing popularity, as it provides high-level concurrency control constructs and eases the development of highly multi-threaded applications. But this easiness comes at the expense of restricting the operations that can be executed within a memory transaction, and operations such as terminal and file I/O are either not allowed or incur in serious performance penalties. Database I/O is another example of operations that usually are not allowed within a memory transaction. This paper proposes to combine memory and database transactions in a single unified model, benefiting from the ACID properties of the database transactions and from the speed of main memory data processing. The new unified model covers, without differentiating, both memory and database operations. Thus, the users are allowed to freely intertwine memory and database accesses within the same transaction, knowing that the memory and database contents will always remain consistent and that the transaction will atomically abort or commit the operations in both memory and database. This approach allows to increase the granularity of the in-memory atomic actions and hence, simplifies the reasoning about them.

  5. Shape memory polyurethane nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Feina

    Shape memory polymers are smart materials which can remember their original shapes. However, the low recovery stress and low mechanical strength limit the commercial applications of shape memory polymers. In this study, nanoclays were introduced to shape memory polyurethanes (SMPU) to augment these properties by enhance the network of SMPU. Several factors which influence the shape recovery stress were evaluated, including the nature of polymer chain by using different monomers, type of clay particles, extent of filler dispersion, clay content and deformation conditions. It was found that only reactive clay particles were well dispersed into polyurethane matrix by the tethering between --CH2CH 2OH functional groups in clay surfactants and polyurethane chains. Two different shape memory polyurethanes (Systems I & II) prepared by bulk polymerization were compared. The shape memory effect of System I was triggered by melting of the soft segment crystals, while that of System II was by glass transition of the soft segments. It was seen that the reactive clay particles dispersed well in both polyurethane matrices and augmented the recovery stress, e.g., 20% increase with 1 wt % nanoclay in System I and 40% increase with 5 wt % nanoclay in System II were observed. In System I, clay particles interfered with soft segment crystallization, and promoted phase mixing between the hard and soft segments, thus affecting the fixity and recovery ratio. Nevertheless, the soft segment crystallinity was still enough and in some cases increased due to stretching to exhibit excellent shape fixity and shape recovery ratio. The higher loading of clay particles accelerated the stress relaxation, resulting in reduction of recovery stress. In System II, no significant effect of clay particles in phase separation was observed, so there was no influence of clay on shape fixity and recovery ratio. The recovery stress increased with reactive nanoclay content. It was also found that the recovery

  6. Investigating Memory Development in Children and Infantile Amnesia in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemi Tari, Somayeh

    2008-01-01

    Although many researchers have worked on memory development, still little is known about what develops in memory development. When one reviews the literature about memory, she encounters many types of memories such as short term vs. long term memory, working memory, explicit vs. implicit memory, trans-saccadic memory, autobiographical memory,…

  7. Memory lane and morality: how childhood memories promote prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Desai, Sreedhari D

    2012-04-01

    Although research has established that autobiographical memory affects one's self-concept, little is known about how it affects moral behavior. We focus on a specific type of autobiographical memory: childhood memories. Drawing on research on memory and moral psychology, we propose that childhood memories elicit moral purity, which we define as a psychological state of feeling morally clean and innocent. In turn, heightened moral purity leads to greater prosocial behavior. In Experiment 1, participants instructed to recall childhood memories were more likely to help the experimenter with a supplementary task than were participants in a control condition, and this effect was mediated by moral purity. In Experiment 2, the same manipulation increased the amount of money participants donated to a good cause, and both implicit and explicit measures of moral purity mediated the effect. Experiment 3 provides further support for the process linking childhood memories and prosocial behavior through moderation. In Experiment 4, we found that childhood memories led to punishment of others' ethically questionable actions. Finally, in Experiment 5, both positively valenced and negatively valenced childhood memories increased helping compared to a control condition. PMID:22181000

  8. Towards Terabit Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Memories have been the major yardstick for the continuing validity of Moore's law. In single-transistor-per-Bit dynamic random-access memories (DRAM), the number of bits per chip pretty much gives us the number of transistors. For decades, DRAM's have offered the largest storage capacity per chip. However, DRAM does not scale any longer, both in density and voltage, severely limiting its power efficiency to 10 fJ/b. A differential DRAM would gain four-times in density and eight-times in energy. Static CMOS RAM (SRAM) with its six transistors/cell is gaining in reputation because it scales well in cell size and operating voltage so that its fundamental advantage of speed, non-destructive read-out and low-power standby could lead to just 2.5 electrons/bit in standby and to a dynamic power efficiency of 2aJ/b. With a projected 2020 density of 16 Gb/cm², the SRAM would be as dense as normal DRAM and vastly better in power efficiency, which would mean a major change in the architecture and market scenario for DRAM versus SRAM. Non-volatile Flash memory have seen two quantum jumps in density well beyond the roadmap: Multi-Bit storage per transistor and high-density TSV (through-silicon via) technology. The number of electrons required per Bit on the storage gate has been reduced since their first realization in 1996 by more than an order of magnitude to 400 electrons/Bit in 2010 for a complexity of 32Gbit per chip at the 32 nm node. Chip stacking of eight chips with TSV has produced a 32GByte solid-state drive (SSD). A stack of 32 chips with 2 b/cell at the 16 nm node will reach a density of 2.5 Terabit/cm². Non-volatile memory with a density of 10 × 10 nm²/Bit is the target for widespread development. Phase-change memory (PCM) and resistive memory (RRAM) lead in cell density, and they will reach 20 Gb/cm² in 2D and higher with 3D chip stacking. This is still almost an order-of-magnitude less than Flash. However, their read-out speed is ~10-times faster, with as yet

  9. Functional neuroimaging of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Roberto; St Jacques, Peggy

    2007-05-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of autobiographical memory have grown dramatically in recent years. These studies are important because they can investigate the neural correlates of processes that are difficult to study using laboratory stimuli, including: (i) complex constructive processes, (ii) recollective qualities of emotion and vividness, and (iii) remote memory retrieval. Constructing autobiographical memories involves search, monitoring and self-referential processes that are associated with activity in separable prefrontal regions. The contributions of emotion and vividness have been linked to the amygdala and visual cortex respectively. Finally, there is evidence that recent and remote autobiographical memories might activate the hippocampus equally, which has implications for memory-consolidation theories. The rapid development of innovative methods for eliciting personal memories in the scanner provides the opportunity to delve into the functional neuroanatomy of our personal past. PMID:17382578

  10. Black phosphorus nonvolatile transistor memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dain; Choi, Yongsuk; Hwang, Euyheon; Kang, Moon Sung; Lee, Seungwoo; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrated nanofloating gate transistor memory devices (NFGTMs) using mechanically-exfoliated few-layered black phosphorus (BP) channels and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) charge trapping layers. The resulting BP-NFGTMs exhibited excellent memory performances, including the five-level data storage, large memory window (58.2 V), stable retention (104 s), and cyclic endurance (1000 cycles).We demonstrated nanofloating gate transistor memory devices (NFGTMs) using mechanically-exfoliated few-layered black phosphorus (BP) channels and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) charge trapping layers. The resulting BP-NFGTMs exhibited excellent memory performances, including the five-level data storage, large memory window (58.2 V), stable retention (104 s), and cyclic endurance (1000 cycles). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02078j

  11. Roadside memorials in northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Erik

    In Thailand spirit houses are often established at places of fatal accidents, but these are generally anonymous. Personalized roadside memorials for accident victims are rare. This article analyses three roadside memorials, located on main roads in northeastern Thailand, in a comparative framework. Like in the contemporary West, such memorials commemorate a suddenly and violently killed person, but manifest a dynamics very different from that of Western roadside memorials: rather than private and temporary, these are permanent shrines, in which the spirit of the deceased is worshipped and supplicated by members of the public. The spirits and their shrines tend to become incorporated into the popular Thai magico-religious complex. While the literature offers a binary distinction between formal public monuments and informal, private and temporary (roadside) memorials, it is suggested that the informal, but public and permanent memorial shrines in Thailand exemplify a third type of edifices to commemorate the deceased in road accidents. PMID:23785985

  12. Memory Dynamics in Attractor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoqi; Ramanathan, Kiruthika; Ning, Ning; Shi, Luping; Wen, Changyun

    2015-01-01

    As can be represented by neurons and their synaptic connections, attractor networks are widely believed to underlie biological memory systems and have been used extensively in recent years to model the storage and retrieval process of memory. In this paper, we propose a new energy function, which is nonnegative and attains zero values only at the desired memory patterns. An attractor network is designed based on the proposed energy function. It is shown that the desired memory patterns are stored as the stable equilibrium points of the attractor network. To retrieve a memory pattern, an initial stimulus input is presented to the network, and its states converge to one of stable equilibrium points. Consequently, the existence of the spurious points, that is, local maxima, saddle points, or other local minima which are undesired memory patterns, can be avoided. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25960737

  13. Memory dynamics in attractor networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqi; Ramanathan, Kiruthika; Ning, Ning; Shi, Luping; Wen, Changyun

    2015-01-01

    As can be represented by neurons and their synaptic connections, attractor networks are widely believed to underlie biological memory systems and have been used extensively in recent years to model the storage and retrieval process of memory. In this paper, we propose a new energy function, which is nonnegative and attains zero values only at the desired memory patterns. An attractor network is designed based on the proposed energy function. It is shown that the desired memory patterns are stored as the stable equilibrium points of the attractor network. To retrieve a memory pattern, an initial stimulus input is presented to the network, and its states converge to one of stable equilibrium points. Consequently, the existence of the spurious points, that is, local maxima, saddle points, or other local minima which are undesired memory patterns, can be avoided. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25960737

  14. Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.; Guerin, Scott A.; St. Jacques, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    Memory is prone to distortions that can have serious consequences in everyday life. Here we integrate emerging evidence that several types of memory distortions – imagination inflation, gist-based and associative memory errors, and post-event misinformation – reflect adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory, but produce distortions as a consequence of doing so. We consider recent cognitive and neuroimaging studies that link these distortions with adaptive processes, including simulation of future events, semantic and contextual encoding, creativity, and memory updating. We also discuss new evidence concerning factors that can influence the occurrence of memory distortions, such as sleep and retrieval conditions, as well as conceptual issues related to the development of an adaptive perspective. PMID:21908231

  15. Computational Cognitive Neuroscience of Early Memory Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munakata, Yuko

    2004-01-01

    Numerous brain areas work in concert to subserve memory, with distinct memory functions relying differentially on distinct brain areas. For example, semantic memory relies heavily on posterior cortical regions, episodic memory on hippocampal regions, and working memory on prefrontal cortical regions. This article reviews relevant findings from…

  16. The Source for Learning & Memory Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Regina G.

    This book is a comprehensive guide to learning and memory strategies for all students and especially those with learning problems. Chapter 1, on memory and the brain, explains brain cells, the cortex, function of the cerebral lobes, and other brain structures. Chapter 2 examines the memory process and discusses sensory memory, short-term memory,…

  17. The Japanese Emperor bestows Medal with Purple Ribbon on antioxidants and redox signaling editor Hideo Utsumi for contributions to redox biology.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Toshihiko; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro

    2012-03-01

    On November 15, 2011, the Japanese Emperor bestowed the Medal with Purple Ribbon on Professor Hideo Utsumi for contributions to redox biology. Professor Utsumi was awarded Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Sciences from University of Tokyo in 1976, and started his professional career as Assistant Professor at Teikyo University. He visited Cologne University as fellow during 1978-1980. In 1982, he moved to Showa University as Associate Professor. In 1994, he moved to Kyushu University as Professor. During 2008-2010, he served as vice president of Kyushu University. From 2007 to now he serves as the Director of Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation. Beginning 2010 he serves as the Executive Director of the Center for Product Evaluation, Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. Professor Utsumi was the first to develop in vivo electron spin resonance (ESR; also known as electron paramagnetic resonance) imaging system in Japan and commercialized it to promote redox research. Over 30 in vivo ESR systems are currently used in Japan today. A compact or high-resolution Overhauser-enhanced MRI system has been developed by his group and will be available next year. His translational research activities have uniquely covered instrumentation, organic synthesis, and disease model applications. He synthesized many redox-sensitive compounds, and collaborated with clinicians to understand mechanisms underlying disease systems caused by redox imbalance using his compounds as tools. Thus, Professor Hideo Utsumi contributed a novel technology to investigate in vivo redox status in disease models. This technology platform has immense potential for bedside application to humans. PMID:22124212

  18. Dreaming and Offline Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, Erin J.

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections. PMID:24477388

  19. Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to characterize the memory system that supports sentence comprehension have historically drawn extensively on short-term memory as a source of mechanisms that might apply to sentences. The focus of these efforts has changed significantly in the past decade. As a result of changes in models of short-term working memory (ST-WM) and developments in models of sentence comprehension, the effort to relate entire components of an ST-WM system, such as those in the model developed by Baddeley (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 829–839, 2003) to sentence comprehension has largely been replaced by an effort to relate more specific mechanisms found in modern models of ST-WM to memory processes that support one aspect of sentence comprehension—the assignment of syntactic structure (parsing) and its use in determining sentence meaning (interpretation) during sentence comprehension. In this article, we present the historical background to recent studies of the memory mechanisms that support parsing and interpretation and review recent research into this relation. We argue that the results of this research do not converge on a set of mechanisms derived from ST-WM that apply to parsing and interpretation. We argue that the memory mechanisms supporting parsing and interpretation have features that characterize another memory system that has been postulated to account for skilled performance—long-term working memory. We propose a model of the relation of different aspects of parsing and interpretation to ST-WM and long-term working memory. PMID:23319178

  20. Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2014-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

  1. Adaptive bidirectional associative memories.

    PubMed

    Kosko, B

    1987-12-01

    Bidirectionality, forward and backward information flow, is introduced in neural networks to produce two-way associative search for stored stimulus-response associations (A(i),B(i)). Two fields of neurons, F(A) and F(B), are connected by an n x p synaptic marix M. Passing information through M gives one direction, passing information through its transpose M(T) gives the other. Every matrix is bidirectionally stable for bivalent and for continuous neurons. Paired data (A(i),B(i)) are encoded in M by summing bipolar correlation matrices. The bidirectional associative memory (BAM) behaves as a two-layer hierarchy of symmetrically connected neurons. When the neurons in F(A) and F(B) are activated, the network quickly evolves to a stable state of twopattern reverberation, or pseudoadaptive resonance, for every connection topology M. The stable reverberation corresponds to a system energy local minimum. An adaptive BAM allows M to rapidly learn associations without supervision. Stable short-term memory reverberations across F(A) and F(B) gradually seep pattern information into the long-term memory connections M, allowing input associations (A(i),B(i)) to dig their own energy wells in the network state space. The BAM correlation encoding scheme is extended to a general Hebbian learning law. Then every BAM adaptively resonates in the sense that all nodes and edges quickly equilibrate in a system energy local minimum. A sampling adaptive BAM results when many more training samples are presented than there are neurons in F(B) and F(B), but presented for brief pulses of learning, not allowing learning to fully or nearly converge. Learning tends to improve with sample size. Sampling adaptive BAMs can learn some simple continuous mappings and can rapidly abstract bivalent associations from several noisy gray-scale samples. PMID:20523473

  2. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R.; Wu, J.; Stadler, H.

    1990-01-01

    Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid-state, block-access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1Gbit/sq cm real storage density, gigabit per second data rates, and sub-millisecond average access times simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBL's are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of VBL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single-chip memory using 25Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. This paper describes the current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results which are used to assist the design process. The current design architecture uses three metal layers, two ion implantation steps for modulating the thickness of the magnetic layer, one ion implantation step for assisting propagation in the major line track, one NiFe soft magnetic layer, one CoPt hard magnetic layer, and one reflective Cr layer for facilitating magneto-optic observation of magnetic structure. Data are stored in a series of elongated magnetic domains, called stripes, which serve as storage sites for arrays of VBL pairs. The ends of these stripes are placed near conductors which serve as VBL read/write gates. A major line track is present to provide a source and propagation path for magnetic bubbles. Writing and reading, respectively, are achieved by converting magnetic bubbles to VBL's and vice versa. The output function is effected by stretching a magnetic bubble and detecting it magnetoresistively. Experimental results from the past design cycle created four design goals for the current design cycle. First, the bias field ranges

  3. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  4. Porous Shape Memory Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Hearon, Keith; Singhal, Pooja; Horn, John; Small, Ward; Olsovsky, Cory; Maitland, Kristen C.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2013-01-01

    Porous shape memory polymers (SMPs) include foams, scaffolds, meshes, and other polymeric substrates that possess porous three-dimensional macrostructures. Porous SMPs exhibit active structural and volumetric transformations and have driven investigations in fields ranging from biomedical engineering to aerospace engineering to the clothing industry. The present review article examines recent developments in porous SMPs, with focus given to structural and chemical classification, methods of characterization, and applications. We conclude that the current body of literature presents porous SMPs as highly interesting smart materials with potential for industrial use. PMID:23646038

  5. Nonvolatile Analog Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A nonvolatile analog memory uses pairs of ferroelectric field effect transistors (FFETs). Each pair is defined by a first FFET and a second FFET. When an analog value is to be stored in one of the pairs, the first FFET has a saturation voltage applied thereto, and the second FFET has a storage voltage applied thereto that is indicative of the analog value. The saturation and storage voltages decay over time in accordance with a known decay function that is used to recover the original analog value when the pair of FFETs is read.

  6. Nanoparticle shuttle memory

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alex Karlwalter

    2012-03-06

    A device for storing data using nanoparticle shuttle memory having a nanotube. The nanotube has a first end and a second end. A first electrode is electrically connected to the first end of the nanotube. A second electrode is electrically connected to the second end of the nanotube. The nanotube has an enclosed nanoparticle shuttle. A switched voltage source is electrically connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby a voltage may be controllably applied across the nanotube. A resistance meter is also connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby the electrical resistance across the nanotube can be determined.

  7. Memory for Sentences: Implications for Human Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, Donald J.; Harwood, David A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper evaluates associative theories of sentence memory, based on the model of J.R. Anderson and G.H. Bower. A model of Human Associative Memory (HAM) is generalized and defined, and alternative models incorporating configural information are presented. (CK)

  8. On the Susceptibility of Adaptive Memory to False Memory Illusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Derbish, Mary H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority…

  9. Nanographene charge trapping memory with a large memory window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jianling; Yang, Rong; Zhao, Jing; He, Congli; Wang, Guole; Shi, Dongxia; Zhang, Guangyu

    2015-11-01

    Nanographene is a promising alternative to metal nanoparticles or semiconductor nanocrystals for charge trapping memory. In general, a high density of nanographene is required in order to achieve high charge trapping capacity. Here, we demonstrate a strategy of fabrication for a high density of nanographene for charge trapping memory with a large memory window. The fabrication includes two steps: (1) direct growth of continuous nanographene film; and (2) isolation of the as-grown film into high-density nanographene by plasma etching. Compared with directly grown isolated nanographene islands, abundant defects and edges are formed in nanographene under argon or oxygen plasma etching, i.e. more isolated nanographene islands are obtained, which provides more charge trapping sites. As-fabricated nanographene charge trapping memory shows outstanding memory properties with a memory window as wide as ∼9 V at a relative low sweep voltage of ±8 V, program/erase speed of ∼1 ms and robust endurance of >1000 cycles. The high-density nanographene charge trapping memory provides an outstanding alternative for downscaling technology beyond the current flash memory.

  10. Nanographene charge trapping memory with a large memory window.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jianling; Yang, Rong; Zhao, Jing; He, Congli; Wang, Guole; Shi, Dongxia; Zhang, Guangyu

    2015-11-13

    Nanographene is a promising alternative to metal nanoparticles or semiconductor nanocrystals for charge trapping memory. In general, a high density of nanographene is required in order to achieve high charge trapping capacity. Here, we demonstrate a strategy of fabrication for a high density of nanographene for charge trapping memory with a large memory window. The fabrication includes two steps: (1) direct growth of continuous nanographene film; and (2) isolation of the as-grown film into high-density nanographene by plasma etching. Compared with directly grown isolated nanographene islands, abundant defects and edges are formed in nanographene under argon or oxygen plasma etching, i.e. more isolated nanographene islands are obtained, which provides more charge trapping sites. As-fabricated nanographene charge trapping memory shows outstanding memory properties with a memory window as wide as ∼9 V at a relative low sweep voltage of ±8 V, program/erase speed of ∼1 ms and robust endurance of >1000 cycles. The high-density nanographene charge trapping memory provides an outstanding alternative for downscaling technology beyond the current flash memory. PMID:26489448

  11. Remaking Memories: Reconsolidation Updates Positively Motivated Spatial Memory in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bethany; Bukoski, Elizabeth; Nadel, Lynn; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    There is strong evidence that reactivation of a memory returns it to a labile state, initiating a restabilization process termed reconsolidation, which allows for updating of the memory. In this study we investigated reactivation-dependent updating using a new positively motivated spatial task in rodents that was designed specifically to model a…

  12. On the susceptibility of adaptive memory to false memory illusions.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Derbish, Mary H

    2010-05-01

    Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority effect for different types of processing and material, measuring accuracy more directly by comparing true and false recollection rates. Survival-related information and processing was examined using word lists containing backward associates of neutral, negative, and survival-related critical lures and type of processing (pleasantness, moving, survival) was varied using an incidental memory paradigm. Across four experiments, results showed that survival-related words were more susceptible than negative and neutral words to the false memory illusion and that processing information in terms of its relevance to survival independently increased this susceptibility to the false memory illusion. Overall, although survival-related processing and survival-related information resulted in poorer, not more accurate, memory, such inaccuracies may have adaptive significance. These findings are discussed in the context of false memory research and recent theories concerning the importance of survival processing and the nature of adaptive memory. PMID:20096406

  13. Reward disrupts reactivated human skill memory.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Eran; Laor-Maayany, Rony; Censor, Nitzan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence across species and memory domains shows that when an existing memory is reactivated, it becomes susceptible to modifications. However, the potential role of reward signals in these mechanisms underlying human memory dynamics is unknown. Leaning on a wealth of findings on the role of reward in reinforcing memory, we tested the impact of reinforcing a skill memory trace with monetary reward following memory reactivation, on strengthening of the memory trace. Reinforcing reactivated memories did not strengthen the memory, but rather led to disruption of the memory trace, breaking down the link between memory reactivation and subsequent memory strength. Statistical modeling further revealed a strong mediating role for memory reactivation in linking between memory encoding and subsequent memory strength only when the memory was replayed without reinforcement. We suggest that, rather than reinforcing the existing memory trace, reward creates a competing memory trace, impairing expression of the original reward-free memory. This mechanism sheds light on the processes underlying skill acquisition, having wide translational implications. PMID:27306380

  14. Reward disrupts reactivated human skill memory

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Eran; Laor-Maayany, Rony; Censor, Nitzan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence across species and memory domains shows that when an existing memory is reactivated, it becomes susceptible to modifications. However, the potential role of reward signals in these mechanisms underlying human memory dynamics is unknown. Leaning on a wealth of findings on the role of reward in reinforcing memory, we tested the impact of reinforcing a skill memory trace with monetary reward following memory reactivation, on strengthening of the memory trace. Reinforcing reactivated memories did not strengthen the memory, but rather led to disruption of the memory trace, breaking down the link between memory reactivation and subsequent memory strength. Statistical modeling further revealed a strong mediating role for memory reactivation in linking between memory encoding and subsequent memory strength only when the memory was replayed without reinforcement. We suggest that, rather than reinforcing the existing memory trace, reward creates a competing memory trace, impairing expression of the original reward-free memory. This mechanism sheds light on the processes underlying skill acquisition, having wide translational implications. PMID:27306380

  15. Memory in autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-05-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory impairments are more extensive in M-LFA than in HFA. Specifically, both groups have diminished memory for emotion- or person-related stimuli. Regarding memory for nonsocial stimuli, both groups probably have mental-age-appropriate nondeclarative memory, and within declarative memory, both groups have mental-age-appropriate immediate free recall of within-span or supraspan lists of unrelated items, as well as cued recall and paired associate learning. By contrast, recognition is largely unimpaired in HFA but moderately impaired in M-LFA, and free recall of meaningful or structured stimuli is moderately impaired in HFA but more severely impaired in M-LFA. Theoretical explanations of data on declarative memory in HFA identify problems in the integrative processing, or the consolidation and storage, of complex stimuli or a specific problem of recollection. Proposed neural substrates include the following: disconnectivity of primary sensory and association areas; dysfunctions of medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, or posterior parietal lobe; or combinations of these associated with neural disconnectivity. Hypothetically, perirhinal dysfunction might explain the more extensive declarative memory impairments in M-LFA. Foreseeable consequences of uneven memory abilities in HFA and M-LFA are outlined, including possible effects on language and learning in M-LFA. Finally, priorities for future research are identified, highlighting the urgent need for research on memory in lower functioning individuals. PMID:22409507

  16. Recoverable distributed shared virtual memory - Memory coherence and storage structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Kun-Lung; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of implementing rollback recovery in multicomputer distributed shared virtual memory environments, in which the shared memory is implemented in software and exists only virtually. A user-transparent checkpointing recovery scheme and new twin-page disk storage management are presented to implement a recoverable distributed shared virtual memory. The checkpointing scheme is integrated with the shared virtual memory management. The twin-page disk approach allows incremental checkpointing without an explicit undo at the time of recovery. A single consistent checkpoint state is maintained on stable disk storage. The recoverable distributed shared virtual memory allows the system to restart computation from a previous checkpoint due to a processor failure without a global restart.

  17. Animal cognition: bumble bees suffer 'false memories'.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Judith

    2015-03-16

    The existence of 'false memories', where individuals remember events that they have never actually experienced, is well established in humans. Now a new study reports that insects similarly form illusory memories through merging of memory traces. PMID:25784044

  18. Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Gabrieli, J. D.; Stebbins, G. T.; Sullivan, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed worse on all tests. Education, verbal intelligence, and immediate memory capacity did not account for deficits in working memory in schizophrenia patients. Reduced working memory capacity accounted for group differences in strategic memory but not in recognition memory. Working memory impairment may be central to the profile of impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia and is consistent with hypothesized frontal lobe dysfunction associated with this disease. Additional medial-temporal dysfunction may account for the recognition memory deficit.

  19. Learning and memory: do bees dream?

    PubMed

    Melnattur, Krishna; Dissel, Stephane; Shaw, Paul J

    2015-11-01

    In mammals, evidence for memory reactivation during sleep highlighted the important role that sleep plays in memory consolidation. A new study reports that memory reactivation is evolutionarily conserved and can also be found in the honeybee. PMID:26528745

  20. News Conference: Physics brings the community together Training: CERN trains physics teachers Education: World conference fosters physics collaborations Lecture: Physics education live at ASE Prize: Physics teacher wins first Moore medal Festival: European presidents patronize Science on Stage festival Videoconference: Videoconference brings Durban closer to the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-03-01

    Conference: Physics brings the community together Training: CERN trains physics teachers Education: World conference fosters physics collaborations Lecture: Physics education live at ASE Prize: Physics teacher wins first Moore medal Festival: European presidents patronize Science on Stage festival Videoconference: Videoconference brings Durban closer to the classroom

  1. Magnonic Holographic Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitun, Alexander; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Gertz, Frederick; Filimonov, Yuri

    2015-03-01

    Collective oscillation of spins in magnetic lattice known as spin waves (magnons) possess relatively long coherence length at room temperature, which makes it possible to build sub-micrometer scale holographic devices similar to the devices developed in optics. In this work, we present a prototype 2-bit magnonic holographic memory. The memory consists of the double-cross waveguide structure made of Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 with magnets placed on the top of waveguide junctions. Information is encoded in the orientation of the magnets, while the read-out is accomplished by the spin waves generated by the micro-antennas placed on the edges of the waveguides. The interference pattern produced by multiple spin waves makes it possible to build a unique holographic image of the magnetic structure and recognize the state of the each magnet. The development of magnonic holographic devices opens a new horizon for building scalable holographic devices compatible with conventional electronic devices. This work was supported in part by the FAME Center, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and by the National Science Foundation under the NEB2020 Grant ECCS-1124714.

  2. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics.

    PubMed

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories-episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities. PMID:26520084

  3. Actin Automata with Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Adamatzky, Andy

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in eukaryotic. The actin filaments play the roles of cytoskeleton, motility units, information processing and learning. We model actin filament as a double chain of finite state machines, nodes, which take states “0” and “1”. The states are abstractions of absence and presence of a subthreshold charge on actin units corresponding to the nodes. All nodes update their state in parallel to discrete time. A node updates its current state depending on states of two closest neighbors in the node chain and two closest neighbors in the complementary chain. Previous models of actin automata consider momentary state transitions of nodes. We enrich the actin automata model by assuming that states of nodes depend not only on the current states of neighboring node but also on their past states. Thus, we assess the effect of memory of past states on the dynamics of acting automata. We demonstrate in computational experiments that memory slows down propagation of perturbations, decrease entropy of space-time patterns generated, transforms traveling localizations to stationary oscillators, and stationary oscillations to still patterns.

  4. Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

  5. Self-Checking Memory Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sievers, M. W.; Rennels, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Memory-interface integrated circuit not only detects errors in data from other circuits but also detects errors within itself. Memory-interface chip encodes 16-bit words with Hamming code for single-error correction or double-error detection. Chip used in fault-tolerant computers under development by NASA.

  6. Memory in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory…

  7. Gender, Power, and Autobiographical Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakash-Eisikovits, Ora; Brody, Leslie R.; Sotoo, Naomi; Gonzalez, Karla

    This study explores the influence of gender and power on autobiographical memory following a brief social interaction. The hypothesis stated that gender and social role (that of leaders versus helpers) would interact in predicting the affective tone and themes (agency and communion) of an autobiographical memory for previous leadership…

  8. Memory dysfunction in mild aphasics.

    PubMed

    Rönnberg, J; Larsson, C; Fogelsjöö, A; Nilsson, L G; Lindberg, M; Angquist, K A

    1996-03-01

    The effect of mild aphasia (n = 9), as a result of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), was evaluated against one matched (sex, age, and education) control group suffering from SAH of unknown origin without aphasia, and against one matched healthy control group. According to aphasia testing (Reinvang & Engvik, 1980), criteria for a classical diagnosis were not met. Therefore, the patients were characterized as mild aphasics: They generally displayed intact audo-verbal comprehension and repetition abilities, and they demonstrated a fluent, spontaneous speech. However, they showed phonemic and semantic paraphasias, with self-corrections; a few patients displayed alexia and agraphia. Memory performance of these three groups was evaluated by a neuropsychological test battery, designed to tap various components of verbal memory function. From the results it was concluded that: (a) Short-term memory is impaired, as regards the phonological loop and the central executive in working memory, whereas maintenance rehearsal is unaffected, given that the demands on phonological coding is minimized, (b) long-term memory is also generally impaired, whereas long-term learning and forgetting by means of subject-performed tasks proceeds within a normal range. Impairments were hypothesized to reflect less efficient central executive functions of working memory, involving generation of less appropriate semantic codes and phonological representations, (c) mildly aphasic patients are not subjectively aware of their own memory deficits, and (d) aphasia classification by means of standard procedures do not sufficiently characterize the nature of a mildy aphasic patient's memory problems. PMID:8900819

  9. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  10. Garnet Random-Access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Random-access memory (RAM) devices of proposed type exploit magneto-optical properties of magnetic garnets exhibiting perpendicular anisotropy. Magnetic writing and optical readout used. Provides nonvolatile storage and resists damage by ionizing radiation. Because of basic architecture and pinout requirements, most likely useful as small-capacity memory devices.

  11. Circadian Rhythms in Human Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folkard, Simon; Monk, Timothy H.

    1980-01-01

    Two experiments are described that examined the influence of time-of-day of presentation on immediate and delayed retention and its potential effects on retrieval from long-term memory. Time of presentation was found to influence both immediate and delayed (28 day) retention, but not retrieval from long-term memory. (Author/SJL)

  12. A Synthetic Multicellular Memory Device.

    PubMed

    Urrios, Arturo; Macia, Javier; Manzoni, Romilde; Conde, Núria; Bonforti, Adriano; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc; Solé, Ricard

    2016-08-19

    Changing environments pose a challenge to living organisms. Cells need to gather and process incoming information, adapting to changes in predictable ways. This requires in particular the presence of memory, which allows different internal states to be stored. Biological memory can be stored by switches that retain information on past and present events. Synthetic biologists have implemented a number of memory devices for biological applications, mostly in single cells. It has been shown that the use of multicellular consortia provides interesting advantages to implement biological circuits. Here we show how to build a synthetic biological memory switch using an eukaryotic consortium. We engineered yeast cells that can communicate and retain memory of changes in the extracellular environment. These cells were able to produce and secrete a pheromone and sense a different pheromone following NOT logic. When the two strains were cocultured, they behaved as a double-negative-feedback motif with memory. In addition, we showed that memory can be effectively changed by the use of external inputs. Further optimization of these modules and addition of other cells could lead to new multicellular circuits that exhibit memory over a broad range of biological inputs. PMID:27439436

  13. Adaptive Memory: Thinking about Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Raoul; Röer, Jan P.; Buchner, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Rating the relevance of words for the imagined situation of being stranded in the grasslands without survival material leads to exceptionally good memory for these words. This survival processing effect has received much attention because it promises to elucidate the evolutionary foundations of memory. However, the proximate mechanisms of the…

  14. Infant Memory for Musical Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Loman, Michelle M.; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined memory of 7-month-olds after 2-week retention interval for passages of two Mozart movements heard daily for 2 weeks. Results suggested that the infants retained familiarized music in long-term memory and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical…

  15. Characterization of Spatial Memory Reconsolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jaeger, Xavier; Courtey, Julie; Brus, Maïna; Artinian, Julien; Villain, Hélène; Bacquié, Elodie; Roullet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Reconsolidation is necessary for the restabilization of reactivated memory traces. However, experimental parameters have been suggested as boundary conditions for this process. Here we investigated the role of a spatial memory trace's age, strength, and update on the reconsolidation process in mice. We first found that protein synthesis is…

  16. Optimal Foraging in Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Jones, Michael N.; Todd, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared…

  17. Demystifying the Beginnings of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Courage, Mary L.

    2004-01-01

    A longstanding issue in psychology has been, When does human memory begin? More particularly, when do we begin to remember personal experiences in a way that makes them accessible to recollection later in life? Current popular and scientific thinking would have us believe that memories are possible not only at the time of our birth, but also in…

  18. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  19. Turning Memory Development inside out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    These papers provide a useful progress report on how the mature and successful field of memory development is transcending traditional boundaries of populations, content, context, and design. Examining children's memory for distant as well as recent occurrences, for social interactions as well as individual experiences, for meaningful as well as…

  20. Modeling the Cray memory scheduler

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, K.L.; Litteer, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report documents the results of a project to evaluate low cost modeling and simulation tools when applied to modeling the Cray memory scheduler. The specific tool used is described and the basics of the memory scheduler are covered. Results of simulations using the model are discussed and a favorable recommendation is made to make more use of this inexpensive technology.

  1. Learning and Memory in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses important recent strides in the documentation and understanding of the infant's learning and memory capacity. Focuses on the psychobiology of learning, hedonic mediation of approach-avoidance and learned behavior, infant memory, and critical conditions of infancy and behavioral misadventures. (RJC)

  2. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  3. Professional Memory and English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarpey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article concerns the way that research into Professional Memory (PM) in English teaching might re-connect the school subject with constituencies--the individuals, communities and social values--it once served. By PM I mean the collective memories of a generation of English teachers which, when brought into conjunction with existing histories,…

  4. Using Photographs from American Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Laurel R., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication contains teaching ideas generated by classroom teachers. For grades K-4, elementary teacher Doris Waud and media specialist Gail Petri developed "Celebrate America with Symbols from American Memory," in which students explore the American memory and symbols. For grades 5-8, media specialist Mary Alice Anderson developed "Using…

  5. Information Processing in Memory Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William A.

    The intensity of information processing engendered in different phases of standard memory tasks was examined in six experiments. Processing intensity was conceptualized as system capacity consumed, and was measured via a divided-attention procedure in which subjects performed a memory task and a simple reaction-time (RT) task concurrently. The…

  6. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

  7. Stroke and episodic memory disorders.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P

    2009-12-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there are several important facets of memory impairment after stroke: (1) Every node of the limbic system implicated in memory may be damaged by stroke but very rarely in isolation and the combination of amnesia with the associated deficits often illuminates additional aspects of memory functions. (2) Stroke produces amnesia by damage to critical convergence white matter connections of the limbic system, and stroke is the only etiology of amnesia that can delineate the entire pathway of memory and critical convergence points. (3) Stroke also impairs memory, without causing classical amnesia, by damaging brain regions responsible for cognitive processes, some modality specific and some more generally strategic, that are essential for normal learning and recall. PMID:19666037

  8. Memory Strategies in Writing Melodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louhivuori, Jukka

    1999-01-01

    Examines knowledge about the structure of memory in order to understand the process of writing melodies. Focuses on a study of 25 students who were asked to write two melodies using a computer. Presents the results and offers an example of the function of memory in writing melodies. (CMK)

  9. Time, Language, and Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Christopher D. B.

    2008-01-01

    Life themes, general events, and event-specific episodes, together with autobiographical knowledge, form autobiographical memory. Each of these memory structures is described, and research that has investigated the storage and retrieval of temporal information for life events, such as place in time, duration, and order, is examined. The general…

  10. Poor Memory: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Malcolm L.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a case study of a person who had a cardiac arrest with some right-sided brain damage. Describes the effects of poor memory on cognition, personality, and interpersonal relationships based on personal observations during memory impairment. Highlights the course of rehabilitation over a two-year period. (PAS)

  11. Working Memory: A Selective Review.

    PubMed

    Kent, Phillip L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a selective overview of the evolution of the concept and assessment of working memory, and how its assessment has been confused with the assessment of some components of attention. A literature search using PsychNet Gold was conducted using the terms working memory. In addition, the writer reviewed recommendations from a sampling of recent neuropsychology texts in regard to the assessment of attention and working memory, as well as the two most recent editions of the Wechsler Memory Scale. It is argued that many clinicians have an incomplete understanding of the relationship between attention and working memory, and often conflate the two in assessment and treatment. Suggestions were made for assessing these abilities. PMID:27191213

  12. Ferroelectric memory based on nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingqiang; Liu, Yueli; Chen, Wen; Li, Jinchai; Liao, Lei

    2012-06-01

    In the past decades, ferroelectric materials have attracted wide attention due to their applications in nonvolatile memory devices (NVMDs) rendered by the electrically switchable spontaneous polarizations. Furthermore, the combination of ferroelectric and nanomaterials opens a new route to fabricating a nanoscale memory device with ultrahigh memory integration, which greatly eases the ever increasing scaling and economic challenges encountered in the traditional semiconductor industry. In this review, we summarize the recent development of the nonvolatile ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memory devices based on nanostructures. The operating principles of FeFET are introduced first, followed by the discussion of the real FeFET memory nanodevices based on oxide nanowires, nanoparticles, semiconductor nanotetrapods, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Finally, we present the opportunities and challenges in nanomemory devices and our views on the future prospects of NVMDs.

  13. Memory disorders and vocal performance.

    PubMed

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Tremblay-Champoux, Alexandra; Berkowska, Magdalena; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-04-01

    The ability to carry a tune, natural for the majority, is underpinned by a complex functional system (i.e., the vocal sensorimotor loop, VSL). The VSL involves various components, including perceptual mechanisms, auditory-motor mapping, motor control, and memory. The malfunction of one of these components can bring about poor-pitch singing. So far, disturbed perception and deficient sensorimotor mapping have been treated as important causes of poor singing. Yet, memory has been paid relatively little attention. Here, we review results obtained from both occasional singers and individuals suffering from congenital amusia, who were asked to produce from memory or imitate a well-known melody under conditions with different memory loads. The findings point to memory as a relevant source of impairment in poor-pitch singing and to imitation as a useful aid for poor singers. PMID:22524377

  14. Ferroelectric memory based on nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the past decades, ferroelectric materials have attracted wide attention due to their applications in nonvolatile memory devices (NVMDs) rendered by the electrically switchable spontaneous polarizations. Furthermore, the combination of ferroelectric and nanomaterials opens a new route to fabricating a nanoscale memory device with ultrahigh memory integration, which greatly eases the ever increasing scaling and economic challenges encountered in the traditional semiconductor industry. In this review, we summarize the recent development of the nonvolatile ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memory devices based on nanostructures. The operating principles of FeFET are introduced first, followed by the discussion of the real FeFET memory nanodevices based on oxide nanowires, nanoparticles, semiconductor nanotetrapods, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Finally, we present the opportunities and challenges in nanomemory devices and our views on the future prospects of NVMDs. PMID:22655750

  15. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Experimental Research in Televised Instruction. Memorial University of Newfoundland (Newfoundland, Canada, August 25-27, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggaley, Jon, Ed.

    The 11 papers in this collection focus on research in instructional television, the theme of a conference attended by media producers, researchers, and policy makers from Australia, Britain, Canada, France, West Germany, the Netherlands, South Africa, and the United States. The opening paper by Deane Hutton discusses two parallel but contrasting…

  16. Remembering, imagining, false memories & personal meanings.

    PubMed

    Conway, Martin A; Loveday, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The Self-Memory System encompasses the working self, autobiographical memory and episodic memory. Specific autobiographical memories are patterns of activation over knowledge structures in autobiographical and episodic memory brought about by the activating effect of cues. The working self can elaborate cues based on the knowledge they initially activate and so control the construction of memories of the past and the future. It is proposed that such construction takes place in the remembering-imagining system - a window of highly accessible recent memories and simulations of near future events. How this malfunctions in various disorders is considered as are the implication of what we term the modern view of human memory for notions of memory accuracy. We show how all memories are to some degree false and that the main role of memories lies in generating personal meanings. PMID:25592676

  17. Evolution of working memory.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Peter

    2013-06-18

    Working memory (WM) is fundamental to many aspects of human life, including learning, speech and text comprehension, prospection and future planning, and explicit "system 2" forms of reasoning, as well as overlapping heavily with fluid general intelligence. WM has been intensively studied for many decades, and there is a growing consensus about its nature, its components, and its signature limits. Remarkably, given its central importance in human life, there has been very little comparative investigation of WM abilities across species. Consequently, much remains unknown about the evolution of this important human capacity. Some questions can be tentatively answered from the existing comparative literature. Even studies that were not intended to do so can nonetheless shed light on the WM capacities of nonhuman animals. However, many questions remain. PMID:23754428

  18. Reversible shape memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheiko, Sergei; Zhou, Jing; White, Sarah; Ashby, Valerie

    2012-02-01

    An ``Achilles' heel'' of shape memory materials is that shape transformations triggered by an external stimulus are usually irreversible. Here we present a new concept of reversible transitions between two well-defined shapes by controlling hierarchic crystallization of a dual-network elastomer. The reversibility was demonstrated for different types of shape transformations including rod bending, winding of a helical coil, and widening an aperture. The distinct feature of the reversible shape alterations is that both counter-shapes are infinitely stable at a temperature of exploitation. Shape reversibility is highly desirable property in many practical applications such as non-surgical removal of a previously inserted catheter and handfree wrapping up of an earlier unraveled solar sail on a space shuttle.

  19. Shape memory heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzbrenner, R.

    1984-06-01

    The mechanical shape memory effect associated with a thermoelastic martensitic transformation can be used to convert heat directly into mechanical work. Laboratory simulation of two types of heat engine cycles (Stirling and Ericsson) has been performed to measure the amount of work available/cycle in a Ni-45 at. pct Ti alloy. Tensile deformations at ambient temperature induced martensite, while a subsequent increase in temperature caused a reversion to the parent phase during which a load was carried through the strain recovery (i.e., work was accomplished). The amount of heat necessary to carry the engines through a cycle was estimated from calorimeter measurements and the work performed/cycle. The measured efficiency of the system tested reached a maximum of 1.4 percent, which was well below the theoretical (Carnot) maximum efficiency of 35.6 percent.

  20. ELECTROSTATIC MEMORY SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Chu, J.C.

    1958-09-23

    An improved electrostatic memory system is de scribed fer a digital computer wherein a plarality of storage tubes are adapted to operate in either of two possible modes. According to the present irvention, duplicate storage tubes are provided fur each denominational order of the several binary digits. A single discriminator system is provided between corresponding duplicate tubes to determine the character of the infurmation stored in each. If either tube produces the selected type signal, corresponding to binazy "1" in the preferred embodiment, a "1" is regenerated in both tubes. In one mode of operation each bit of information is stored in two corresponding tubes, while in the other mode of operation each bit is stored in only one tube in the conventional manner.