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Sample records for hvof sprayed inconel

  1. Mechanical Property of HVOF Inconel 718 Coating for Aeronautic Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyphout, Christophe; Fasth, Angelica; Nylen, Per

    2014-02-01

    The module of elasticity is one of the most important mechanical properties defining the strength of a material which is a prerequisite to design a component from its early stage of conception to its field of application. When a material is to be thermally sprayed, mechanical properties of the deposited layers differ from the bulk material, mainly due to the anisotropy of the highly textured coating microstructure. The mechanical response of the deposited layers significantly influences the overall performance of the coated component. It is, therefore, of importance to evaluate the effective module of elasticity of the coating. Conventional experimental methods such as microindentation, nanoindentation and four-point bending tests have been investigated and their results vary significantly, mainly due to inhomogeneous characteristics of the coating microstructure. Synchrotron radiation coupled with a tensile test rig has been proposed as an alternative method to determine the coating anisotropic elastic behavior dependence on crystallographic orientations. The investigation was performed on Inconel 718 (IN718) HVOF coatings sprayed on IN718 substrates. Combining these experimental techniques yield a deeper understanding of the nature of the HVOF coating Young's modulus and thus a tool for Design Practice for repair applications.

  2. A new HVOF thermal spray concept

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, J.A.; Matus, R.J.; Richter, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    HVOF plays an important role in the commercial production of thermal spray coatings from powder. Initially, both the chamber and duct modes were used. Today, the best coatings are produced by high-pressure chamber guns with some manufacturers having switched their designs from the duct to the chamber mode. There has been little or no spraying of wire with HVOF equipment. A new HVOF process -- the shock-stabilized mode -- compliments chamber powder spraying by offering the user a very simple device for wire use. Calculations show that the much higher jet velocities of the chamber mode make that design the better suited for use with powder. Conversely, the greatly increased jet temperatures offered by shock-stabilized combustion give extremely high wire melt-off rates.

  3. Manual HVOF thermal spray repair of nickel aluminum bronze castings

    SciTech Connect

    Brenna, R.T.; McCaw, R.L.; Pugh, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    Manual high velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) thermal spray repairs were accomplished on a large nickel aluminum bronze propeller castings. The repairs were done on three different configurations of surface defects of up to 100 square inches and as deep as 90 mils. Nickel aluminum bronze alloy powder, sieve sized for the HVOF process, was sprayed. High quality, high coating density, repairs were achieved even on porous areas of the castings. Prior to performance of the repairs, a procedure was qualified in accordance with MIL-STD-1687 and a mock-up simulating the repair was produced. After HVOF spraying of the mock-up, the sprayed surface was sanded, milled, and drilled to determine how finishing of the actual castings would be done. After successful procedure qualification, the HVOF equipment was moved to the job site, metal masking was devised for the spray areas and grit blasting and manual HVOF spraying was done. Results of HVOF coating chemical analyses, bend tests, coating tensile bond strength tests, coating microscopic examinations, and mock-up evaluations are reported along with the spray procedures and techniques used in the repairs.

  4. Erosion/corrosion of HVOF sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Simard, S.; Arsenault, B.; Legoux, J.G.; Hawthorne, H.M.

    1999-11-01

    Cermet based materials are known to have an excellent performance under several different wear conditions. High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying technology allows the deposition of such hard materials in the form of protective coatings onto different surfaces. Under slurry erosion, the performance of the coating is influenced by the occurrence of corrosion reactions with the metallic matrix. Slurry erosion tests were conducted with a jet impingement rig with a 9.1wt% alumina particle/water slurry. Indeed, wet conditions promote the dissolution of metallic binder resulting in a potential synergy between the corrosion and wear mechanisms. Coatings based on tungsten carbide embedded in four different metallic binders were evaluated with regard to wear and corrosion. Depending on the composition of the metallic binder, different degradation rates were observed.

  5. Oxidation in HVOF-sprayed steel

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.F.; Neiser, R.A.; Dykhuizen, R.C.

    1997-08-01

    It is widely held that most of the oxidation in thermally sprayed coatings occurs on the surface of the droplet after it has flattened. The evidence in this paper suggests that, for the conditions studied here, oxidation of the top surface of flattened droplets is not the dominant oxidation mechanism. In this study, a mild steel wire (AISI 1025) was sprayed using a high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) torch onto copper and aluminum substrates. Ion milling and Auger spectroscopy were used to examine the distribution of oxides within individual splats. Conventional metallographic analysis was also used to study oxide distributions within coatings that were sprayed under the same conditions. An analytical model for oxidation of the exposed surface of a splat is presented. Based on literature data, the model assumes that diffusion of iron through a solid FeO layer is the rate limiting factor in forming the oxide on the top surface of a splat. An FeO layer only a few thousandths of a micron thick is predicted to form on the splat surface as it cools. However, the experimental evidence shows that the oxide layers are typically 100x thicker than the predicted value. These thick, oxide layers are not always observed on the top surface of a splat. Indeed, in some instances the oxide layer is on the bottom, and the metal is on the top. The observed oxide distributions are more consistently explained if most of the oxide formed before the droplets impact the substrate.

  6. HVOF and plasma sprayed molybdenum coatings -- microstructure and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, S.; Kreye, H.

    1995-12-31

    High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and plasma spray experiments were carried out to investigate the oxidation mechanism of molybdenum in the spray process and to determine how the various process parameters affect the microstructure and properties of the coatings. HVOF coatings exhibit their highest hardness and wear resistance at an oxygen content of 6 to 8% by weight. Such an oxygen level can be achieved with Mo and Mo-MoO{sub 2} composite powders as well. In the plasma spray process oxidation of molybdenum is less pronounced and Mo-MoO{sub 2} composite powders containing 6 to 8% oxygen have to be used to obtain similar properties as compared to HVOF-coatings. When Mo-Mo{sub 2}C composite powders are used oxidation of molybdenum becomes greatly reduced and highly wear resistant coatings are obtained at a low hardness level in both spray processes.

  7. On the gas dynamics of HVOF thermal sprays. [HVOF (High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel)

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, C.M.; Settles, G.S.; Miller, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study has been performed on the gas dynamic aspects of the HVOF thermal spray process. A commercially-available HVOF gun (Hobart Tafa JP-5000) is used in this study. Optical diagnostic techniques including microsecond-exposure schlieren and shadowgraph imaging are applied to visualize the hot supersonic jet produced by this equipment without any particle injection. Rapid turbulent mixing of the jet with the surrounding atmosphere is observed, which is an issue of concern in coating quality because of the possibility of oxidation of the sprayed particles. This mixing appears principally to be a function of the density ratio between the hot jet and the cold atmosphere, rather than depending upon the combustion-chamber pressure or barrel length. The supersonic core of the HVOF jet dissipates rapidly due to the, mixing, so that the jet is no longer supersonic when it impinges upon the target surface being sprayed. Secondary issues also observed in this study include strong jet-noise radiation from the HVOF plume and the entrainment and induced bulk motion of the surrounding air. All these issues have a background in the field of gas dynamics which has not been previously applied to thermal spray technology.

  8. Chromium coatings by HVOF thermal spraying: Simulation and practical results

    SciTech Connect

    Knotek, O.; Lugscheider, E.; Jokiel, P.; Schnaut, U.; Wiemers, A.

    1994-12-31

    Within recent years High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying has been considered an asset to the family of thermal spraying processes. Especially for spray materials with melting points below 3,000 K it has proven successful, since it shows advantages when compared to coating processes that produce similar qualities. In order to enlarge the fields of thermal spraying applications into regions with rather low thickness, e.g. about 50--100 {micro}m, especially HVOF thermally sprayed coatings seem to be advantageous. The usual evaluation of optimized spraying parameters, including spray distance, traverse speed, gas flow rates etc. is, however, based on numerous and extensive experiments laid out by trial-and-error or statistical experimental design and thus being expensive: man-power and material is required, spray systems are occupied for experimental works and the optimal solution is questioned, for instance, when a new powder fraction or nozzle is used. In this paper the possibility of reducing such experimental efforts by using modeling and simulation is exemplified for producing thin chromium coatings with a CDS{trademark}-HVOF system. The aim is the production of thermally sprayed chromium coatings competing with galvanic hard chromium platings, which are applied to reduce friction and corrosion but are environmentally disadvantageous during their production.

  9. Comparison of the characteristics of HVOF and plasma thermal spray

    SciTech Connect

    Fincke, J.R.; Swank, W.D.; Haggard, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    In spraying oxygen sensitive materials, such as WC:Co it is often observed that the carbide fraction present in the deposit is significantly less than in the original particles. This lowers the hardness of the coating, resulting in inferior wear resistance. The cause is the in-flight, high temperature decomposition of carbides by reaction with entrained oxygen. The degree of decomposition is determined by a combination of particle temperature, residence time and entrainment characteristics of the jet. The fundamental differences between HVOF and plasma thermal spray are examined in this context. Even though the HVOF process may actually subject a particle to greater oxygen exposure than plasma spraying, the lower particle temperatures experienced lead to coatings which exhibit less carbide loss than plasma sprayed coatings fabricated in air.

  10. HVOF thermal spraying: An alternative to hard chrome plating

    SciTech Connect

    Bolles, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    In recent years pressure to find alternatives to chromium electroplating has accelerated dramatically. While it is not likely that the process will be banned completely, the trend points to severe limitations. Industries must now look closely at their applications, and actively consider alternatives to hard chrome plaint. One of the most viable alternatives in thermal spraying. Recent advances in high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) technology offer an environmentally safer, cleaner and less-expensive alternative to chromium plating. It has been shown here that HVOF coatings can be used as chromium plating alternatives for many different applications. The HVOF process offers several advantages over chromium plaint including thicker coating capability, no part size restrictions and no hazardous waste products. A number of HVOF coatings have had excellent results in laboratory and field testing, and can be considered as effective replacements for hard chrome. The choice for a suitable replacement can only be made after careful assessment of the conditions associated with the application in question.

  11. Research On HVOF Thermal Sprays. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Settles, G. S.

    2003-04-02

    Independent control of particle velocity and temperature in the HVOF process has been achieved in this research, allowing the variables to change by 170 m/s and 200{degree}C, respectively. The independence was achieved using a specially designed nozzel with multiple axial injection ports, and with an inert diluent added to the oxygen used for combustion. With these changes, notable changes in splat morphology, porosity, and coating oxidation are readily apparent. Increased particle velocity correlates with improved splat deformation, but appears to have little effect on porosity or oxidation. Particle temperature, however, correlates strongly with splat deformation, porosity, and oxidation. In fact, highly dense coatings that have little oxidation can be formed with relatively low velocity particles that have average temperatures in the vicinity of the melting point of the material. This surprising result suggests particle temperature control is the key to creating dense, low-oxide HVOF-sprayed coatings.

  12. Assessment HVOF sprayed coatings for reducing wear on pump components

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufold, R.; McCaul, C.; Brunhouse, S.

    1994-12-31

    Long-term pump efficiency and durability are directly related to the wear and corrosion resistance of materials used to manufacture pump components. Conventional OEM design materials often do not provide long-term resistance to wear caused by abrasive grains, particle erosion, corrosion, and cavitation. As a result, pump components can fail prematurely causing pump downtime and interrupting service life. Thermal-sprayed coatings, in particular, those deposited by HVOF, can help prevent this loss by reducing premature pump failure resulting from accelerated wear. The intent of this paper is to assess the degree of wear protection provided by various materials deposited by HVOF as compared to those coatings accepted by pump manufacturers. The materials tested ranged from tungsten carbide to chromium carbide to nickel-base alloys. The coating properties were analyzed by metallographic characterization, abrasive wear, corrosive wear, and anti-galling.

  13. HVOF thermal spray process for internal diameter applications

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, M.W.

    1994-12-31

    Thermal spray has been selected as the coating process of choice for many OEM and repair/restoration applications. Although the thermal spray process has historically been limited to coating `line-of-sight` surfaces, advances in thermal spray equipment design now allow protective and/or restorative coatings to be applied to deep internal diameters utilizing state-of-the-art HVOF processing. The advanced designs include both `standard` and `mini` torches to coat rotating components, plus a rotating extension for coating stationary ID`s. In addition, a wide range of coating materials has been developed and engineered to combat the deleterious effects of wear found in severe service environments. The resultant coatings have exceptionally high bond strength with no interconnected porosity and low residual stress. This unique process provides an important adjunct to the field of thermal spray process capabilities.

  14. Microstructure and Stresses in HVOF-Sprayed Iron Aluminide Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Totemeier, Terry Craig; Wright, Richard Neil; Swank, William David

    2002-09-01

    The microstructure and state of stress present in Fe3Al coatings produced by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying in air at varying particle velocities were characterized using metallography, curvature measurements, x-ray analysis, and microhardness measurements. Sound coatings were produced for all conditions. The microstructures of coatings prepared at higher velocities showed fewer unmelted particles and a greater extent of deformation. Residual stresses in the coatings were compressive and varied from nearly zero at the lowest velocity to approximately -450 MPa at the highest velocity. X-ray line broadening analyses revealed a corresponding increase in the extent of cold work present in the coating, which was also reflected in increased microhardness. Values of mean coefficient of thermal expansion obtained for as-sprayed coatings using x-ray analysis were significantly lower than those for powder and bulk alloy.

  15. Numerical Modeling of Suspension HVOF Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadidi, M.; Moghtadernejad, S.; Dolatabadi, A.

    2016-02-01

    A three-dimensional two-way coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian scheme is used to simulate suspension high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying process. The mass, momentum, energy, and species equations are solved together with the realizable k-ɛ turbulence model to simulate the gas phase. Suspension is assumed to be a mixture of solid particles [mullite powder (3Al2O3·2SiO2)], ethanol, and ethylene glycol. The process involves premixed combustion of oxygen-propylene, and non-premixed combustion of oxygen-ethanol and oxygen-ethylene glycol. One-step global reaction is used for each mentioned reaction together with eddy dissipation model to compute the reaction rate. To simulate the droplet breakup, Taylor Analogy Breakup model is applied. After the completion of droplet breakup, and solvent evaporation/combustion, the solid suspended particles are tracked through the domain to determine the characteristics of the coating particles. Numerical simulations are validated against the experimental results in the literature for the same operating conditions. Seven or possibly eight shock diamonds are captured outside the nozzle. In addition, a good agreement between the predicted particle temperature, velocity, and diameter, and the experiment is obtained. It is shown that as the standoff distance increases, the particle temperature and velocity reduce. Furthermore, a correlation is proposed to determine the spray cross-sectional diameter and estimate the particle trajectories as a function of standoff distance.

  16. CDS HVOF sprayed coatings: Influence of process variables on coating characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.; Smith, R.W.; Lugscheider, E.

    1994-12-31

    High velocity, oxyfuel (HVOF) coating processes are fast becoming one of today`s dominant thermal spray areas, particularly for the deposition of carbide coatings where HVOF spray can produce results comparable, or even superior, to vacuum and air plasma spray processes. Results and analysis of NiCr, WC/Co, and Cr3C2NiCr coatings sprayed with the continuous detonation system (CDS) HVOF gun are presented. The investigation focused the influence of spray distance, gun/part relative speed, and fuel:oxygen ratio on coating microstructure, microhardness, and phase content. Coatings were sprayed using oxygen and propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) fuel, at typical flow rates of 420 I/min, and 55 I/min, respectively. Coatings were sprayed onto 25 x 75 mm (1 in. x 3in.) 1018-steel substrates, nominally 3 mm (01.25 in.) thick. The coating materials were (-45 {mu}m + 10 {mu}) 80/20 NiCr, (-45 {mu} + 11 {mu}) 88/12 WC/Co, and (-45 {mu} + 11 {mu}m) 75/25 Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}/NiCr. The CDS HVOF sprayed coatings were analyzed by optical microscopy, microhardness (VHN{sub 300}) and X-ray diffraction techniques to determine the effects of variations in process parameters on the microstructure and characteristics of the coatings and to investigate phase changes in the coating material caused by the HVOF process.

  17. The functional TiO2-biodegradable plastic composite material produced by HVOF spraying process.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hee-Seon; Bang, Han-Sur; Lee, Yoon-Ki

    2007-11-01

    Photocatalytic TiO2 coatings on bio-degradable plastic(polybutylene succinate: PBS) were prepared by HVOF spraying using three kinds of agglomerated powders (P200: 200 nm, P30: 30 nm, P7: 7 nm). The microstructures of the coatings were characterized with SEM and XRD analysis, and the photocatalytic efficiency of the coatings was evaluated by photo degradation of gaseous acetaldehyde. For both the HVOF sprayed P200 and P30 coatings, high anatase ratio of 100% was achieved, regardless of the fuel gas pressure. On the other hand, for the HVOF sprayed P7 coating, the anatase ratio decreased from 100% to 49.1% with increasing fuel gas pressure. This decrease may be attributed to the much higher susceptibility to heat of the 7 nm agglomerated powders than the 30 nm and 200 nm agglomerated powders. In terms of the photocatalytic efficiency, HVOF sprayed P200 and P30 coatings seemed to outperform the P7 coatings because of their higher anatase ratios. However, the HVOF sprayed P7 coatings did not show photocatalytic activity possibly because of the extremely small reaction surface area to the photo-catalytic activity and low anatase ratio. Therefore, the present study found that functional PBS plastic with photocatalytic performance could be produced by spraying of ceramics such as TiO2. PMID:18047069

  18. The HVOF process - the hottest topic in the thermal spray industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.W. . Center for the Plasma Processing of Materials); Irving, B.; Knight, R.

    1993-07-01

    High-velocity combustion or oxyfuel spraying started up more than 35 years ago with the development of the detonation gun or D-Gun process. Described as the newest and fastest growing member of the family of coating, or surfacing, technologies known collectively as thermal spray'', HVOF processes have carved out a significant, specialized niche in the thermal spray coating business, particularly for the deposition of wear-resistant carbide coatings. HVOF processes are able to deposit very dense coatings, typically with reduced changes in the phase composition of the material, compared with plasma arc spray processes. HVOF also offers a number of potential advantages over, and alternatives to, competing processes, including lower capital costs, portability, and ease of use in the field.

  19. Application of commercially pure titanium coatings using HVOF thermal spray for machinery component restoration

    SciTech Connect

    McCaw, R.L.; Hays, R.A.; Brenna, R.T.

    1994-12-31

    Alloy 625 has been shown to be susceptible to crevice corrosion under tight metal to nonmetal crevices in both natural and treated seawater. Under similar conditions, commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) has been shown to be immune. Therefore, coating alloy 625 sealing areas with CP Ti is a potentially effective crevice corrosion countermeasure. Specialized thermal spray techniques were developed utilizing the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process to apply coatings of CP Ti to alloy 625 substrates in atmosphere. Coating quality was similar to plasma sprayed coatings of other less reactive, metals. Crevice corrosion tests were conducted and issues relating to implementation of HVOF thermal spraying on a production basis were considered.

  20. Effect of particle state on the adhesive strength of HVOF sprayed metallic coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chang-Jiu; Wang, Yu-Yue

    2002-12-01

    NiCrBSi and Ni-50Cr coatings were deposited using the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray process under different spray parameters with two powders of different sizes to clarify the influence of the melting state of spray particles on the adhesive strength of the coating. The adhesive strength of the coating was estimated according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C633-79. The melting state of the spray droplet was examined from the coating microstructure. It was found that the melting state of spray particles had a significant effect on the adhesive strength of HVOF sprayed Ni-based coatings. The significant melting of the spray particle did not contribute to the increase in the adhesion of HVOF metallic coatings. On the other hand, the deposition of a partially melted large particle contributed to the substantial improvement of adhesive strength of the HVOF coating. The subsequent coating presented a dense microstructure and yielded an adhesive strength of more than 76 MPa, which was double that of the coating deposited with completely molten particles. It can be suggested that the good melting of the spray particle is mainly related to the mechanical interlocking effect, which reaches the limited and approximately defined adhesive strength up to 40 50 MPa.

  1. Effect of Spray Parameters on the Corrosion Behavior of HVOF Sprayed WC-Co-Cr Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sheng; Wu, Yuping; Zheng, Yugui; Wang, Bo; Gao, Wenwen; Li, Gaiye; Ying, Guobing; Lin, Jinran

    2014-04-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coatings were deposited on the substrate of AISI 1045 steel by using high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying process. The Taguchi method including the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to optimize the porosity and, in turn, the corrosion resistance of the coatings. The spray parameters evaluated in this study were spray distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow. The results indicated that the important sequence of spray parameters on the porosity of the coatings was spray distance > oxygen flow > kerosene flow, and the spray distance was the only significant factor. The optimum spraying condition was 300 mm for the spray distance, 1900 scfh for the oxygen flow, and 6.0 gph for the kerosene flow. The results showed the significant influence of the microstructure on the corrosion resistance of the coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that the WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coating obtained by the optimum spraying condition with the lowest porosity exhibits the best corrosion resistance and seems to be an alternative to hard chromium coating.

  2. Interface bonding between particle and substrate during HVOF spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ce; Guo, Lei; Lu, Guanxiong; Lv, Yanbing; Ye, Fuxing

    2014-10-01

    The impact processes of Ni particles at initial temperature of 900 K on Al, Cu and Steel substrates were numerically analyzed by using ANSYS/LS-DYNA. Initial kinetic energy of the particle dissipated to particle and substrate simultaneously, the proportion of which was defined as energy distribution coefficient (K). The K values for Ni/Al, Ni/Cu and Ni/steel combinations were approximated to 4, 0.4 and 0.1, respectively. Individual Ni60 particles were deposited experimentally onto 6061-T6 aluminum alloy, copper and 304 stainless steel by High Velocity Oxy-fuel (HVOF) spraying. The contact between Ni particles and three substrates was not perfect. The bonding ratio, which is the effective contact area divided by total area, for Ni/Cu combination is 55.41%, larger than those for Ni/Al (40.78%) and Ni/steel (32.70%) combinations, indicating that moderate K value is beneficial for interface bonding between particle and substrate.

  3. Calculation of the limiting parameters for oxide ceramic particles during HVOF spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyrov, V.; Evdokimenko, Y.; Kisel, V.; Kadyrov, E.

    1994-12-31

    The authors analyze numerically gas-dynamical schemes peculiar for HVOF spraying equipment and present methods to calculate velocity and thermal state of sprayed particles which allow one to find the limiting values of these parameters and to define the applicability limitations of modern HVOF spraying apparatus. The method includes gas dynamical calculations of gas flow in accelerating channel (AC) and calculations of sprayed particle motion and its thermal state (temperature and melted mass fraction). The calculations were performed for particles of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide with the size distributions of 10--80 {micro}m. Three different jet schemes were considered: with supersonic AC, with subsonic AC, and with combined gas dynamical path having functionally separated regions of heating and acceleration. Analysis of the results obtained at limiting parameters of jet operation suggests that energetic potentialities of HVOF method are not utilized completely. Although accelerated to a high speed the ceramic oxide particles have a thermal state which is far from optimal. It is possible to significantly increase the powder temperature and fraction of melted material by using new configuration solutions without essential constructive complications. The authors propose one of the possible solutions to optimize gas dynamical path. The results obtained for heating and acceleration in such a path suggest that the utilized approach is correct and allows one to predict the creation of a new family of more efficient HVOF torches and an expanded applicability of HVOF method.

  4. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the passive films formed on thermally sprayed and wrought Inconel 625

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakare, M. S.; Voisey, K. T.; Roe, M. J.; McCartney, D. G.

    2010-11-01

    There is a well known performance gap in corrosion resistance between thermally sprayed corrosion resistant coatings and the equivalent bulk materials. Interconnected porosity has an important and well known effect, however there are additional relevant microstructural effects. Previous work has shown that a compositional difference exists between the regions of resolidified and non-melted material that exist in the as-sprayed coatings. The resolidified regions are depleted in oxide forming elements due to formation of oxides during coating deposition. Formation of galvanic cells between these different regions is believed to decrease the corrosion resistance of the coating. In order to increase understanding of the details of this effect, this work uses X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study the passive films formed on thermally sprayed coatings (HVOF) and bulk Inconel 625, a commercially available corrosion resistant Ni-Cr-Mo-Nb alloy. Passive films produced by potentiodynamic scanning to 400 mV in 0.5 M sulphuric acid were compared with air-formed films. The poorer corrosion performance of the thermally sprayed coatings was attributed to Ni(OH) 2, which forms a loose, non-adherent and therefore non-protective film. The good corrosion resistance of wrought Inconel 625 is due to formation of Cr, Mo and Nb oxides.

  5. Theoretical investigation of the gas-powder particles transport phenomena in HVOF spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, V.V.; Guilemany, J.M.; Calero, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A mathematical model is developed to predict the particle velocity and temperature during High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF) spraying. This model accounts for fluid-particle interactions, variation of fluid parameters, internal heat conduction in powder particles, their heating, fusion, cooling and solidification, particle form influence on its thermal behavior and composite structure of the particles. The analytical results are obtained describing the particle velocity and temperature variations. The dependence of the fluid velocity on particles density and volume fraction is shown to exist. The obtained results agree well with the empirically established HVOF spraying practice.

  6. Effect of Plasma Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing on HVOF-Sprayed Stainless Steel Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Gayoung; Bae, Gyuyeol; Moon, Kyungil; Lee, Changhee

    2013-12-01

    In this work, the effects of plasma nitriding (PN) and nitrocarburizing on HVOF-sprayed stainless steel nitride layers were investigated. 316 (austenitic), 17-4PH (precipitation hardening), and 410 (martensitic) stainless steels were plasma-nitrided and nitrocarburized using a N2 + H2 gas mixture and the gas mixture containing C2H2, respectively, at 550 °C. The results showed that the PN and nitrocarburizing produced a relatively thick nitrided layer consisting of a compound layer and an adjacent nitrogen diffusion layer depending on the crystal structures of the HVOF-sprayed stainless steel coatings. Also, the diffusion depth of nitrogen increased when a small amount of C2H2 (plasma nitrocarburizing process) was added. The PN and nitrocarburizing resulted in not only an increase of the surface hardness, but also improvement of the load bearing capacity of the HVOF-sprayed stainless steel coatings because of the formation of CrN, Fe3N, and Fe4N phases. Also, the plasma-nitrocarburized HVOF-sprayed 410 stainless steel had a superior surface microhardness and load bearing capacity due to the formation of Cr23C6 on the surface.

  7. Significance of melt-fraction in HVOF sprayed hydroxyapatite particles, splats and coatings.

    PubMed

    Khor, K A; Li, H; Cheang, P

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure characterization and property evaluation of high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) splats and coatings were conducted in the present study as a function of the proportion of melting that occurred in HA particles during HVOF spray. In vitro behavior of single and folded HA splats in simulated body fluid was also investigated. Results showed that phase composition of as-sprayed HA coatings was influenced significantly by the melt fraction in HVOF sprayed particles. Melt fraction of the HA powders were experimentally determined from particle morphology analysis. It was found that the spray parameters and starting powder size influenced the melt fraction of the particles. In vitro investigation of individual HA splats made from different HA particles revealed decisive role of local phase composition in influencing their dissolution/precipitation behavior during the test. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy qualitative inspection on the sprayed HA particles (partial melted) revealed that thermal decomposition occurred within the melted part rather than the unmelted zone. Young's modulus and micro-hardness of the as-sprayed particles and coatings were determined using nano-indentation technique. The resolidified zone of the sprayed HA particles exhibited an average Young's modulus value of 41.25 GPa. The measured values ranged from 23.1 to 65.3 GPa. The unmelted part of the HA powders showed a markedly narrower range. Young's modulus value of 83.9 GPa (+/-9.4 GPa) was recorded for this region. This succinctly highlight the difference between the unmelted region and melted regions of a HA particle. Young's moduli values measured on HVOF coatings were found to mirror the trend found in the spheroidised particles and splats with apt fidelity. PMID:14643591

  8. Investigation of erosion-resistant chromium carbide coatings sprayed with the high pressure HVOF process

    SciTech Connect

    Irons, G.; Kratochvil, W.R.; Bullock, W.R.; Roy, A.

    1994-12-31

    Eight different chromium carbide materials were sprayed at various conditions with the high pressure HVOF process. The coatings were erosion tested with both high and low angle impingement of erodent. All of the materials, including a less-expensive blended powder, exhibited excellent erosion resistance compared to standard plasma sprayed coatings. Other evaluations included metallographic examinations, macro and microhardness tests, bond tests, X-ray diffraction and chemical analyses. Several important correlations were investigated, including the effects of powder size and heat treatment.

  9. Correlations between spraying conditions and microstructure for alumina coatings produced by HVOF and VPS

    SciTech Connect

    Ramm, D.A.J.; Clyne, T.W.; Sturgeon, A.J.; Dunkerton, S.

    1994-12-31

    Coatings have been produced on steel substrates by thermal spraying of alumina, using the High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) and Vacuum Plasma Spraying (VPS) techniques. Only fine powder ({approximately} 10 {micro}m) could be sprayed by HVOF, but VPS was carried out both with this powder and two coarser ones. Particle impact velocities were measured using a mechanical technique based on twin rotating cylinders. These were shown to be in the range 100--300 m s{sup {minus}1} for VPS, depending primarily on the chamber pressure. The limited data obtained to date indicate that velocities during HVOF are appreciably higher. The phase constitutions of the coatings were studied using three different techniques. The coatings were in all cases found to consist largely of {gamma}-alumina. The {alpha}-alumina content, attributable to the presence of unmolten particles, varied between about 10% and 30%. Porosity contents, determined using high precision densitometry, were in the range 2--8%. For the VPS coatings, higher impact velocities, lower {alpha} phase contents and lower porosity levels were found for the intermediate size ({approximately} 15 {micro}m) particles, the latter two being similar to those for the HVOF coatings. The erosion resistance of these two coatings were also found to be similar.

  10. Fabrication and corrosion resistance of HVOF-sprayed Ni2Si intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdian, M. M.; Raeissi, K.; Salehi, M.

    2013-05-01

    In this study, Ni2Si powders were deposited onto 420 stainless steel substrate using high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process. The coatings were characterized by X-ray diffractometery, optical and scanning electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. Tafel polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were employed to study corrosion performance of the coatings in 70% H2SO4 media at room temperature. Here, a dense sintered Ni2Si was used as reference material. The results showed the phase composition of HVOF coating is similar to that of feedstock powders. The corrosion rate of HVOF Ni2Si coatings was much lower than that of 420 stainless steel substrate but slightly higher than that of bulk Ni2Si. Further investigation showed that both thermally sprayed and sintered (reference) Ni2Si alloys exhibited similar anodic polarization behavior including a narrow active section followed by a wide passive region.

  11. Processing-microstructure-property relations in HVOF sprayed calcium phosphate based bioceramic coatings.

    PubMed

    Khor, K A; Li, H; Cheang, P

    2003-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) based bioceramic coatings were deposited onto titanium alloy substrates using the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray technique. This study aimed to reveal the relations among processing parameters, microstructure, and properties of the bioceramic coatings. The processing conditions were altered through changing the starting HA powder size, content of bioinert ceramic additives or composite powder preparation techniques. Coating structure was characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and the mechanical properties, Young's modulus and fracture toughness, of the coatings were evaluated through indentation techniques. Results demonstrated dominant influence of the melt state of HA powders on the phase composition of resultant coatings, and it was found that the HVOF HA coatings possess competitive mechanical properties. Furthermore, addition of titania or zirconia, as secondary phase in HA, showed promising effect on improving the mechanical properties of the HVOF HA-based coatings. Chemical reactions between HA and titania; and, HA and zirconia during coating deposition were revealed and characterized. Incorporation modes of the additives into HA and their reinforcing mechanisms were elucidated. The relationship among the processing, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the HVOF sprayed bioceramic coatings was summarily examined. PMID:12699659

  12. What Do We Know, What are the Current Limitations of Suspension HVOF Spraying?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killinger, A.; Müller, P.; Gadow, R.

    2015-10-01

    Suspension spraying has evolved during the past decades and now is at the threshold of a commercial utilization. Compared to standard powder spray methods, mainly DC plasma spraying and (high velocity) flame spraying, it is quite clear that suspension spraying will not replace these well-established technologies but can extend them by adding new coating properties. Still there remain many issues to be solved. Suspension interaction with the hot gas stream is much more complex than in ordinary powder spray processes. In case of HVOF when axial injection into the combustion chamber is used, a direct observation of the liquid flame interaction is not possible. This paper discusses the present status of suspension HVOF-spraying (high velocity suspension flame spraying) including torch concepts, torch configuration in case of a TopGun system as well as different injector concepts and their influence on suspension atomization. The role of suspensions is discussed regarding their rheological and thermodynamical properties, mainly given by the solvent type and the solid content. An overview of different available diagnostic methods and systems and the respective applicability is given. Coating properties are shown and discussed for several oxide ceramics in respect to their possible applications.

  13. Laser fusing of HVOF thermal sprayed alloy 625 on nickel-aluminum bronze

    SciTech Connect

    Brenna, R.T.; Pugh, J.L.; Denney, P.E.

    1994-12-31

    A preliminary study has been conducted to determine the feasibility of laser fusing alloy 625 onto nickel-aluminum-bronze base metal. Laser fusing was performed by melting a pre-coated surface of alloy 625 that had been applied by the high velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) thermal spray process. The laser fusing was successful in producing a metallurigical bond between alloy 625 and the substrate. Minor modification to the heat-affected zone of the base metal was observed by microhardness measurements, and defect-free interfaces were produced between alloy 625 and nickel-aluminum-bronze by the process. The laser is a high energy density source that can be used for precise thermal processing of materials including surface modification. Laser fusing is the full or partial melting of a coating material that has been previously applied in some fashion to the substrate. Thermal spray coating of nickel-aluminum-bronze material with alloy 625 was conducted at the David Taylor Research Center. Nickel-aluminum-bronze specimens 2 x 3-in. by 1/2-in. thick were coated with alloy 25 utilizing the HVOF equipment. Coating thicknesses of approximately 0.014-in. (0.3 mm) were produced for subsequent laser fusing experiments. A preliminary study has been conducted to determine the feasibility of laser fusing a HVOF thermal sprayed alloy 625 coating onto nickel-aluminum-bronze base metal. Conclusions of this investigation were as follows: (1) Laser fusing was successful in producing a metallurgical bond between HVOF thermal sprayed alloy 625 and the nickel-aluminum-bronze. (2) Only minor microstructural modification to the heat-affected zone of the base metal ws observed by microhardness measurements. (3) Defect-free interfaces were produced between thermal sprayed alloy 625 and nickel-aluminum-bronze by laser fusing.

  14. Optimizing HVOF Spray Parameters to Maximize Bonding Strength of WC-CrC-Ni Coatings on AISI 304L Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiruvikraman, C.; Balasubramanian, V.; Sridhar, K.

    2014-06-01

    High velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF)-sprayed cermet coatings are extensively used to combat erosion-corrosion in naval applications and in slurry environments. HVOF spray parameters such as oxygen flow rate, fuel flow rate, powder feed rate, carrier gas flow rate, and spray distance have significant influence on coating characteristics like adhesion bond strength and shear strength. This paper presents the use of statistical techniques in particular response surface methodology (RSM), analysis of variance, and regression analysis to develop empirical relationships to predict adhesion bond strength and lap shear bond strength of HVOF-sprayed WC-CrC-Ni coatings. The developed empirical relationships can be effectively used to predict adhesion bond strength and lap shear bond strength of HVOF-sprayed WC-CrC-Ni coatings at 95% confidence level. Response graphs and contour plots were constructed to identify the optimum HVOF spray parameters to attain maximum bond strength in WC-CrC-Ni coatings.

  15. HVOF-Sprayed Nano TiO2-HA Coatings Exhibiting Enhanced Biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, R. S.; Dimitrievska, S.; Bureau, M. N.; Marple, B. R.; Petit, A.; Mwale, F.; Antoniou, J.

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical thermal spray coatings produced via high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) from nanostructured titania (n-TiO2) and 10 wt.% hydroxyapatite (HA) (n-TiO2-10wt.%HA) powders have been engineered as possible future alternatives to HA coatings deposited via air plasma spray (APS). This approach was chosen due to (i) the stability of TiO2 in the human body (i.e., no dissolution) and (ii) bond strength values on Ti-6Al-4V substrates more than two times higher than those of APS HA coatings. To explore the bioperformance of these novel materials and coatings, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured from 1 to 21 days on the surface of HVOF-sprayed n-TiO2 and n-TiO2-10 wt.%HA coatings. APS HA coatings and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V substrates were employed as controls. The profiles of the hMSCs were evaluated for (i) cellular proliferation, (ii) biochemical analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, (iii) cytoskeleton organization (fluorescent/confocal microscopy), and (iv) cell/substrate interaction via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The biochemical analysis indicated that the hMSCs cultured on n-TiO2-10 wt.%HA coatings exhibited superior levels of bioactivity than hMSCs cultured on APS HA and pure n-TiO2 coatings. The cytoskeleton organization demonstrated a higher degree of cellular proliferation on the HVOF-sprayed n-TiO2-10wt.%HA coatings when compared to the control coatings. These results are considered promising for engineering improved performance in the next generation of thermally sprayed biomedical coatings.

  16. Computational fluid dynamic analysis of a High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray torch

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, B.; Oberkampf, W.L.; Neiser, R.A.; Roemer, T.J.

    1995-09-01

    The gas dynamics of a High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) torch are analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The thermal spray device analyzed is similar to a Metco Diamond Jet torch with powder feed. The injection nozzle is assumed to be axisymmetric with premixed fuel and oxygen fed from an annulus, and air cooling injected along the interior surface of the aircap. The aircap, a cronically converging nozzle, achieves choked flow conditions at the exit and a supersonic, under-expanded jet develops externally. Finite difference equations for mass, momentum, and energy conservation are solved for the gas dynamics. The combustion process is modeled using a single-step and a 12-step quasi-global finite-rate chemistry model with dissociation of the gas and a total of nine species. Turbulent flow inside the aircap and in the free-jet decay is modeled using a two-equation k-{epsilon} model. An iterative, implicit, finite volume numerical method is used to solve the gas dynamic equations inside and outside the torch . The CFD results are compared with recent experimental measurements of pressure inside the HVOF aircap. Comparisons are made for two flow rates of premixed fuel and oxygen and air cooling. This paper presents the first published comparisons of CFD predictions and experimental measurements for HVOF tbermal spraying.

  17. Simulation of gas particle flow in a HVOF torch

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.H.; Moore, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    A transient two-dimensional numerical simulation of Inconel spraying in an HVOF torch barrel has been performed. The gas flow is treated as a continuum multicomponent chemically reacting flow, while particles are modeled using a stochastic particle spray model, fully coupled to the gas flow. The calculated results agree well with experimental data, and show important statistical aspects of particle flow in the torch.

  18. Microstructure and Sliding Wear Behavior of Fe-Based Coatings Manufactured with HVOF and HVAF Thermal Spray Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanti, A.; Matikainen, V.; Bolelli, G.; Koivuluoto, H.; Lusvarghi, L.; Vuoristo, P.

    2016-06-01

    The microstructure and micromechanical behavior of thermally sprayed Fe-based coatings manufactured with high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) and high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) processes were investigated. Fe-Cr-Ni-Si-B-C and Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Si-B-C powders were used as the feedstock materials. The coatings showed a highly dense microstructure with near-zero oxidation. The microstructure of the feedstock powders was better retained when sprayed with HVAF process. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed two small exothermic peaks at about 600 °C for the HVOF-sprayed coatings, without any increase in weight in thermogravimetric analysis. It suggested the re-precipitation of carbides that were dissolved during spraying due to the higher particle temperature reported by spray diagnostics system during the HVOF process (≈1800 °C) compared to the HVAF one (≈1400 °C). Micro- and nano-indentations helped to show the difference in inter-lamellar cohesive strength and, in turn, in the particle deposition mechanism. Coatings sprayed with Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Si-B-C composition possessed higher sliding wear resistance than that of Fe-Cr-Ni-Si-B-C due to higher nano-hardness. More specifically, HVOF-sprayed Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Si-B-C coating showed the largest intra-lamellar hardness, the largest elasticity, and high quality of particle interfaces which resulted in lower sliding wear rate.

  19. Microstructure and Sliding Wear Behavior of Fe-Based Coatings Manufactured with HVOF and HVAF Thermal Spray Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanti, A.; Matikainen, V.; Bolelli, G.; Koivuluoto, H.; Lusvarghi, L.; Vuoristo, P.

    2016-04-01

    The microstructure and micromechanical behavior of thermally sprayed Fe-based coatings manufactured with high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) and high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) processes were investigated. Fe-Cr-Ni-Si-B-C and Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Si-B-C powders were used as the feedstock materials. The coatings showed a highly dense microstructure with near-zero oxidation. The microstructure of the feedstock powders was better retained when sprayed with HVAF process. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed two small exothermic peaks at about 600 °C for the HVOF-sprayed coatings, without any increase in weight in thermogravimetric analysis. It suggested the re-precipitation of carbides that were dissolved during spraying due to the higher particle temperature reported by spray diagnostics system during the HVOF process (≈1800 °C) compared to the HVAF one (≈1400 °C). Micro- and nano-indentations helped to show the difference in inter-lamellar cohesive strength and, in turn, in the particle deposition mechanism. Coatings sprayed with Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Si-B-C composition possessed higher sliding wear resistance than that of Fe-Cr-Ni-Si-B-C due to higher nano-hardness. More specifically, HVOF-sprayed Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Si-B-C coating showed the largest intra-lamellar hardness, the largest elasticity, and high quality of particle interfaces which resulted in lower sliding wear rate.

  20. Analysis of a High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray torch. Part 2, Computational results

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, W.L.; Talpallikar, M.

    1993-12-31

    The fluid dynamics inside and outside a High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) torch are analyzed using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques. The thermal spray device analyzed is similar to a Metco Diamond Jet torch with powder injection. The spray nozzle is axisymmetric with powder injected on the centerline, premixed fuel and oxygen fed from an annulus, and air cooling injected along the interior surface of the aircap choked flow conditions occur at the exit of the aircap and a supersonic, under-expanded jet develops externally. The details of the CFD simulation are given in a companion paper. This paper describes the general gas dynamic features of HVOF spraying and then gives a detailed discussion of the computational predictions of the present analysis. The gas velocity, temperature, pressure and Mach number distributions are presented for various locations inside and outside the torch. Characteristics of the metal spray particle velocity, temperature, Mach number, trajectory, and phase state (solid or liquid) are also presented and discussed. Extensive numerical flow visualization is provided to show flow features such as mixing layers, shock waves, and expansion waves.

  1. Numerical modeling of in-flight characteristics of inconel 625 particles during high-velocity oxy-fuel thermal spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, S.; McCartney, D. G.; Eastwick, C. N.; Simmons, K.

    2004-06-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to predict particle dynamic behavior in a high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun in which premixed oxygen and propylene are burnt in a combustion chamber linked to a long, parallel-sided nozzle. The particle transport equations are solved in a Lagrangian manner and coupled with the two-dimensional, axisymmetric, steady state, chemically reacting, turbulent gas flow. Within the particle transport model, the total flow of the particle phase is modeled by tracking a small number of particles through the continuum gas flow, and each of these individual particles is tracked independently through the continuous phase. Three different combustion chamber designs were modeled, and the in-flight particle characteristics of Inconel were 625 studied. Results are presented to show the effect of process parameters, such as particle injection speed and location, total gas flow rate, fuel-to-oxygen gas ratio, and particle size on the particle dynamic behavior for a parallel-sided, 12 mm long combustion chamber. The results indicate that the momentum and heat transfer to particles are primarily influenced by total gas flow. The 12 mm long chamber can achieve an optimum performance for Inconel 625 powder particles ranging in diameter from 20 to 40 µm. At a particular spraying distance, an optimal size of particles is observed with respect to particle temperature. The effect of different combustion chamber dimensions on particle dynamics was also investigated. The results obtained for both a 22 mm long chamber and also one with a conical, converging design are compared with the baseline data for the 12 mm chamber.

  2. Optimization of the laser remelting process for HVOF-sprayed Stellite 6 wear resistant coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciubotariu, Costel-Relu; Frunzăverde, Doina; Mărginean, Gabriela; Șerban, Viorel-Aurel; Bîrdeanu, Aurel-Valentin

    2016-03-01

    Cobalt base alloys are used in all industrial areas due to their excellent wear resistance. Several studies have shown that Stellite 6 coatings are suitable not only for protection against sliding wear, but also in case of exposure to impact loading. In this respect, a possible application is the protection of hydropower plant components affected by cavitation. The main problem in connection with Stellite 6 is the deposition procedure of the protective layers, both welding and thermal spraying techniques requesting special measures in order to prevent the brittleness of the coating. In this study, Stellite 6 layers were HVOF thermally sprayed on a martensitic 13-4 stainless steel substrate, as usually used for hydraulic machinery components. In order to improve the microstructure of the HVOF-sprayed coatings and their adhesion to the substrate, laser remelting was applied, using a TRUMPF Laser type HL 124P LCU and different working parameters. The microstructure of the coatings, obtained for various remelting conditions, was evaluated by light microscopy, showing the optimal value of the pulse power, which provided a homogenous Stellite 6 layer with good adhesion to the substrate.

  3. Development of HVOF Sprayed Erosion/Oxidation Resistant Coatings for Composite Structural Components in Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, R.; Ivosevic, M.; Twardowski, T. E.; Kalidindi, S. R.; Sutter, James K.; Kim, D. Y.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings are being studied and developed as methods of enabling lightweight composites to be used more extensively as structural components in propulsion applications in order to reduce costs and improve efficiency through weight reductions. The primary goal of this work is the development of functionally graded material [FGM] polymer/metal matrix composite coatings to provide improved erosion/oxidation resistance to polyimide-based polymer matrix composite [PMC] substrates. The goal is to grade the coating composition from pure polyimide, similar to the PMC substrate matrix on one side, to 100 % WC-Co on the other. Both step-wise and continuous gradation of the loading of the WC-Co reinforcing phase are being investigated. Details of the coating parameter development will be presented, specifically the high velocity oxy-fuel [HVOF] combustion spraying of pure PMR-11 matrix material and layers of various composition PMR-II/WC-Co blends onto steel and PMR-15 composite substrates. Results of the HVOF process optimization, microstructural characterization, and analysis will be presented. The sprayed coatings were evaluated using standard metallographic techniques - optical and scanning electron microscopy [SEM]. An SEM + electron dispersive spectroscopy [EDS] technique has also been used to confirm retention of the PMR-II component. Results of peel/butt adhesion testing to determine adhesion will also be presented.

  4. Development of HVOF Sprayed Erosion/Oxidation Resistant Coatings for Composite Structural Components in Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivosevic, M.; Twardowski, T.; Kalidindi, S.; Knight, R.; Sutter, J.; Kim, D. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings are being studied and developed as methods of enabling lightweight composites to be used more extensively as structural components in propulsion applications in order to reduce costs and improve efficiency through weight reductions. The primary goal of this work is the development of functionally graded material [FGM] polymer/metal matrix composite coatings to provide improved erosion/oxidation resistance to polyimide-based polymer matrix composite [PMC] substrates. The goal is to grade the coating composition from pure polyimide, similar to the PMC substrate matrix on one side, to 100% WC-Co on the other. Both step-wise and continuous gradation of the loading of the WC-Co reinforcing phase are being investigated, Details of the coating parameter development will be presented, specifically the high velocity oxy-fuel [HVOF] combustion spraying of pure PMR-I1 matrix material and layers of various composition PMR-II/WC-Co blends onto steel and PMR-15 composite substrates. Results of the HVOF process optimization, microstructural characterization, and analysis will be presented. The sprayed coatings were evaluated using standard metallographic techniques - optical and scanning electron microscopy [SEMI. An SEM + electron dispersive spectroscopy [EDS] technique has also been used to confirm retention of the PMR-I1 component. Results of peel/butt adhesion testing to determine adhesion will also be presented.

  5. Iron-Based Amorphous Coatings Produced by HVOF Thermal Spray Processing-Coating Structure and Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Beardsley, M B

    2008-03-26

    The feasibility to coat large SNF/HLW containers with a structurally amorphous material (SAM) was demonstrated on sub-scale models fabricated from Type 316L stainless steel. The sub-scale model were coated with SAM 1651 material using kerosene high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) torch to thicknesses ranging from 1 mm to 2 mm. The process parameters such as standoff distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow, were optimized in order to improve the corrosion properties of the coatings. Testing in an electrochemical cell and long-term exposure to a salt spray environment were used to guide the selection of process parameters.

  6. Analysis of the porosity formation during HVOF spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, V.V.; Guilemany, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    On the basis of the proposed physical and mathematical models the formation of the gas and shrinkage porosity during the thermal spraying is investigated. The gas porosity model takes into account the parameters of spraying, powder particle material and substrate, droplet flattening and solidification heat and mass transfer processes and pores interaction. A model of the shrinkage porosity development includes the equations describing its formation under the solidification of the coating layers of the different shapes on account of the melt tension with the shrinkage. The shrinkage porosity microzones are shown to be formed near the crystals of the different shapes and its macrozones are established to be developed in the surface parts of the coating layers. The porosity parameters evolution is studied. The obtained results agree well with the tendencies of the gas and shrinkage porosity behavior observed experimentally.

  7. Corrosion behavior of HVOF coated sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Abdul-Aleem, B. J.; Khalid, M.

    2003-12-01

    High velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating finds application in industry due to its superior resistance to corrosion and thermal loading. In the HVOF process, the metallic powders at elevated temperature are sprayed at supersonic speed onto a substrate material. The powder granules sprayed impact onto each other, forming a mechanical bonding across the coating layer. In most of the cases, the distances among the particles (powder granules sprayed) are not the same, which in turn results in inhomogeneous structure across the coating layer. Moreover, the rate of oxidation of the powder granules during the spraying process varies. Consequently, the electrochemical response of the coating layer surfaces next to the base material and free to atmosphere differs. In the current study, the electrochemical response of a coating sheet formed during HVOF thermal spraying was investigated. NiCrMoNb alloy (similar to Inconel 625) wass used for the powder granules. Thermal spraying was carried out onto a smooth surface of stainless steel workpiece (without grid blasting), and later the coating layer was removed from the surface to obtain the coating sheet for the electrochemical tests. It was found that the corrosion rate of the smooth surface (surface next to the stainless steel surface before its removal) is considerably larger than that corresponding to the rough surface (free surface) of the coating sheet, and no specific patterns were observed for the pit sites.

  8. Characterization and High-Temperature Erosion Behaviour of HVOF Thermal Spray Cermet Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2016-01-01

    High-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray, carbide-cermet-based coatings are usually employed in high-temperature erosive and erosive-corrosive environments. Extensive literature is available on high-temperature erosion performance of HVOF coatings under moderate to low particle flux and velocities for application in boiler tubes. This research work presents the characterization and high-temperature erosion behaviour of Cr3C2-25NiCr and WC-10Co-4Cr HVOF-sprayed coatings. Coatings were formulated on the substrate steel of type AISI 304, commonly used for the fabrication of pulverized coal burner nozzles (PCBN). Erosion testing was carried out in high-temperature air-jet erosion tester after simulating the conditions akin to that prevailing in PCBN in the boiler furnace. The coatings were tested for erosion behaviour at different angles and temperatures by freezing other test parameters. Brittle erosion behaviour was depicted in erosion testing, and the coatings couldn't restrain the erodent attacks to protect the substrate. High particle velocity and high particle flux were attributed to be the reasons of extensive erosive weight loss of the coatings. The surface morphology of the eroded specimens was analysed from back-scattered electron images to depict the probable mechanism of material removal. The coatings were characterized with optical microscopy, SEM-EDS analysis, XRD analysis, micro-hardness testing, porosity measurements, surface roughness testing and bond strength testing. The work was undertaken to investigate the performance of the selected coatings in highly erosive environment, so as to envisage their application in PCBNs for protection against material degradation. The coatings could only sustain in oblique impact erosion at room temperature and depleted fully under all other conditions.

  9. Investigation of Properties and Wear Behavior of HVOF Sprayed TiC-Strengthened Fe Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, Kirsten; Schlaefer, Thomas; Richardt, Katharina; Warda, Thomas; Reisel, Guido

    2009-12-01

    High-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) sprayed carbide based coatings (such as Cr3C2/NiCr) are industrially well established for wear protection applications. Due to their high carbide content of typically 75 wt.% and more, they provide very high hardness and excellent wear resistance. Unfortunately, costs for matrix materials such as nickel underlie strong fluctuations and are normally well above the prices for iron. Therefore an alternative concept to conventional carbides is based on TiC-strengthened low-cost Fe-base materials, which are already used for sintering processes. Depending on the carbon content, the Fe-base material can additionally offer a temperable matrix for enhanced wear behavior. The sprayability of TiC-strengthened Fe-powders with a gaseous and a liquid fuel driven HVOF system was investigated in this study. The resulting coatings were analyzed with respect to microstructure, hardness, and phase composition and compared with galvanic hard chrome, NiCrBSi, and Cr3C2/NiCr (80/20) coatings as well as with sintered Fe/TiC reference materials. Furthermore, the Fe/TiC coatings were heat treated to proof the retained temperability of the Fe matrix after thermal spray process. Tribometer tests (pin-on-disk tests) were conducted to determine wear properties.

  10. Microstructure and Properties of HVOF-Sprayed Ni-50Cr Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Joel A. Simpson; Terry C. Totemeier; Richard N. Wright

    2006-06-01

    Thermal spray coatings represent a potential cost-effective means of protecting structural components in advanced fossil energy systems. Previous work at the INL has focused on relationships between thermal spray processing conditions, structure, and properties in alumina- and silica-forming coatings, namely Fe3Al, FeAl, and Mo-Si-B alloys. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of chromia-forming Ni-50%Cr coatings, an alloy similar to the INCOCLAD 671 cladding, which has shown excellent performance in the Niles Plant service tests. The structure and properties of Ni-50Cr coatings are similar to other HVOF-sprayed metallic coatings: a typical lamellar microstructure is observed with essentially no porosity and little oxide. The microhardness and compressive residual stress both increase with increased spray particle velocity. Corrosion tests were performed on a variety of free-standing coatings (removed from the substrate, wrought Fe3Al alloy, and Grade 91 steel in a simulated coal combustion gas (N2-10%CO-5%CO2-2%H2O-0.12%H2S) and gas-slag environments (same gas, with iron sulfide powder in contact with the coating surface). The coatings tested included Fe3Al, FeAl, and Ni-50Cr alloys sprayed at different velocities. In these tests the iron aluminides in wrought and coating form showed the best performance, with Ni-50Cr coatings slightly worse; the Grade 91 steel was severely attacked.

  11. HVOF particle flow field characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Swank, W.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Haggard, D.C.; Irons, G.; Bullock, R.

    1994-12-31

    The effect of varying fuel/oxygen mixture ratio and combustion chamber pressure on the sprayed particle temperature and velocity in the supersonic, high pressure HVOF process is examined. Particle temperature is shown to correlate to the fuel/oxygen mixture and particle velocity is a function of combustion chamber pressure. inconel 718 coatings were fabricated at the same conditions as the particle measurements. High particle velocities resulted in high micro hardness. Deposition efficiency is a function of both particle temperature and velocity. The optimal deposition efficiency occurs at an average particle temperature which is below the melting point of Inconel 718 and the lowest velocity investigated. Oxide content is a function of substrate temperature and not entrained air or excess combustion oxygen.

  12. Mechanical and Physical Properties of HVOF-Sprayed Iron Aluminide Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Totemeier, Terry Craig; Wright, Richard Neil; Swank, William David

    2003-10-01

    Tensile tests and thermal-expansion measurements were performed on free-standing, high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed Fe3Al coatings produced at spray-particle velocities of 390, 560, and 620 m/s. To examine the relationship between properties and spray conditions, the microstructures of the coatings were characterized in terms of the fractions of unmelted particles, porosity, and oxide inclusions, as well as the dislocation density assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) line-broadening analysis. Residual coating stresses were determined as a function of coating thickness using curvature measurements. The tensile behavior was entirely brittle at room temperature; fracture strengths increased with spray-particle velocity; and the increase in fracture-strength results from decreasing fractions of microstructural defects and better interparticle bonding. The mean thermal-expansion coefficients for the coatings were lower than those for an equivalent wrought material; the differences were attributed to a 7 to 15 vol pct fraction of oxide inclusions.

  13. Quality optimization of thermally sprayed coatings produced by the JP-5000 (HVOF) gun using mathematical modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawfik, Hazem

    1994-01-01

    Currently, thermal barrier coatings (TBC) of gas-turbine blades and similar applications have centered around the use of zirconia as a protective coating for high thermal applications. The advantages of zirconia include low thermal conductivity and good thermal shock resistance. Thermally sprayed tungsten carbide hardface coatings are used for a wide range of applications spanning both the aerospace and other industrial markets. Major aircraft engine manufacturers and repair facilities use hardface coatings for original engine manufacture (OEM), as well as in the overhaul of critical engine components. The principle function of these coatings is to resist severe wear environments for such wear mechanisms as abrasion, adhesion, fretting, and erosion. The (JP-5000) thermal spray gun is the most advanced in the High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) systems. Recently, it has received considerable attention because of its relative low cost and its production of quality coatings that challenge the very successful but yet very expensive Vacuum Plasma Spraying (VPS) system. The quality of thermal spray coatings is enhanced as porosity, oxidation, residual stress, and surface roughness are reduced or minimized. Higher densification, interfacial bonding strength, hardness and wear resistance of coating are desirable features for quality improvement.

  14. Erosion Performance of HVOF-Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Gang-Chang; Li, Chang-Jiu; Wang, Yu-Yue; Li, Wen-Ya

    2007-12-01

    Cr3C2-NiCr coatings were deposited by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying process under spray conditions of different flows of oxygen and propane gases, and spray distances. The orthogonal regression experimental design method was used for systematic investigation of the influence of spray parameters on the erosion performance of Cr3C2-NiCr coatings. Erosion tests were performed at different jet angles of abrasive particles. The erosion mechanism of Cr3C2-NiCr coatings was examined through the surface morphology and cross-sectional microstructure of the eroded coatings. The correlations of the carbide particle size and carbide content with the erosion rate were examined. It was found that the erosion occurred dominantly by spalling of splats from the lamellar interfaces. The spalling resulted from the propagation of cracks parallel to the interfaces between the lamellae exposed to the surface and underlying coating. The carbide particle size and content in the coating influenced significantly the erosion performance of Cr3C2-NiCr coatings.

  15. Influence of the Spray Angle on the Properties of HVOF Sprayed WC-Co Coatings Using (-10 + 2 μm) Fine Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, W.; Baumann, I.; Hollingsworth, P.; Laemmerhirt, I.-A.

    2013-03-01

    The application of fine powders in thermal spray technology represents an innovative approach to apply dense and smooth near-net shape coatings on tools with complex geometry. However, this aim can only be achieved as long as the influence of the handling parameters of the spray process, such as the spray angle, is sufficiently understood. In this study, the influence of the spray angle on the deposition rate as well as on the coating properties (microhardness, roughness, and porosity) of HVOF-sprayed, fine-structured coatings are investigated. A fine, agglomerated, and sintered WC-12Co powder (agglomerate size: 2-10 μm, WC-particle Fisher sub-sieve size = 400 nm) was used as feedstock material. It has been shown that HVOF spraying of fine powders is less susceptible to an alteration of the spray angle than most other thermal spray processes such as plasma- or arc-spraying. The reduction of the spray angle results in a decrease in the deposition rate, while no significant degradation of the coating properties is found up to 30°. However, at spray angles below 30° the coating strength is negatively affected by the formation of pores and cracks.

  16. Effect of substrate roughness on splatting behavior of HVOF sprayed polymer particles: Modeling and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivosevic, M.; Gupta, V.; Knight, R.; Cairncross, R. A.; Baldoni, J. A.; Twardowski, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    A three-dimensional model of particle splatting on rough surfaces has been developed for high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) sprayed polymer particles and related to experimentally observed polymer splats. Fluid flow and particle deformation were predicted using a volume of fluid (VoF) method using Flow-3D software. Splatting behavior and final splat shapes were simulated on a realistic rough surface, generated by optical interferometry of an actual grit-blasted steel surface. Predicted splat shapes were compared with scanning electron microscopy images of nylon 11 splats deposited onto grit-blasted steel substrates. Rough substrates led to the formation of fingers and other asymmetric three-dimensional instabilities that are seldom observed in simulations of polymer splatting on smooth substrates.

  17. Sliding Wear Properties of HVOF Thermally Sprayed Nylon-11 and Nylon-11/Ceramic Composites on Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, L.; Ivosevic, M.; Knight, R.; Cairncross, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Polymer and polymer/ceramic composite coatings were produced by ball-milling 60 μm Nylon-11 together with nominal 10 vol.% of nano and multiscale ceramic reinforcements and by HVOF spraying these composite feedstocks onto steel substrates to produce semicrystalline micron and nanoscale reinforced polymer matrix composites. Room temperature dry sliding wear performance of pure Nylon-11, Nylon-11 reinforced with 7 nm silica, and multiscale Nylon-11/silica composite coatings incorporating 7-40 nm and 10 μm ceramic particles were characterized using a pin-on-disk tribometer. Coefficient of friction and wear rate were determined as a function of applied load and coating composition. Surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize and analyze the coatings and wear scars. The pure Nylon-11 coating experienced less wear than the composites due to the occurrence of two additional wear mechanisms: abrasive and fatigue wear.

  18. Coating of High-Alloyed, Ledeburitic Cold Work Tool Steel Applied by HVOF Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekaran, B.; Mauer, G.; Vassen, R.; Röttger, A.; Weber, S.; Theisen, W.

    2010-03-01

    This study demonstrates the processing of a cold work tool steel (X220CrVMo13-4) coating using HVOF spraying. The coating formation was analyzed based on microstructure, phase, hardness, porosity, oxidation, and adhesion characteristics. An online diagnostic tool was utilized to find out the in-flight characteristics of powder such as temperature and velocity during the coating process to identify the influencing parameters to achieve dense cold work tool steel coatings with low oxidation. The influence of powder size, process parameters, and in-flight characteristics on the formation of cold work tool steel coatings was demonstrated. The results indicated that thick and dense cold work tool steel coatings with low oxidation can be obtained by the selection of appropriate powder size and process parameters.

  19. Thermal interaction between WC-Co coating and steel substrate in process of HVOF spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Guilemany, J.M.; Sobolev, V.V.; Nutting, J.; Dong, Z.; Calero, J.A. . Metalurgia Fisica-Ciencia de Materials)

    1994-10-01

    The WC-Co powders can be used to produce good adhesive and wear resistant HVOF thermal spray coatings on steel and light alloys substrates. In order to understand the properties of this kind of coating, the phases which are present in the coatings and structure changes during post heat treatments have been investigated. Although the coating properties depend very much on the structure developed in the substrate-coating interfacial region it has not been yet investigated in detail. The present study is devoted to the experimental and theoretical analysis of this interfacial region. The structure characterization has been performed mainly through the use of transmission electron microscopy. To provide a theoretical investigation a realistic prediction model of the process has been developed and on its base the mathematical simulation of the substrate-coating thermal interaction has been undertaken.

  20. In vitro behavior of HVOF sprayed calcium phosphate splats and coatings.

    PubMed

    Khor, K A; Li, H; Cheang, P; Boey, S Y

    2003-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings and splats deposited by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray technique was investigated in vitro. HA coatings prepared from two different HA powder size range (30+/-5 and 50 +/-5 microm) were immersed in a simulated body fluid with various incubation periods of maximum 6 weeks. The dissolution/precipitation behavior was studied and the degradation of HA coatings caused by in vitro ageing was demonstrated by measuring the changes in flexural modulus through a 3-point bend test. It was found that the dissolution and precipitation behavior of the coatings was significantly dependent upon the incipient coating phase composition and the precipitation of bone-like hydroxyapatite on the coating's surface was found to be directly related to the dissolution process. Higher dissolution rates of tricalcium phosphate, tetracalcium phosphate and amorphous calcium phosphate relative to HA, resulted in accelerated precipitation. Furthermore, analysis of coatings' surface morphology demonstrated that advanced precipitation invariably occurred at regions where dissolution took place. Results showed that the changes in flexural modulus of investigated HA coatings accompanying different incubation duration was not systematic but was found to be dependent upon changes of coating structure and other factors brought about by in vitro ageing. In vitro investigation of individual HA splats collected from different HA particle sizes revealed, after 3 days ageing, that the rate ratio of precipitation to dissolution was directly determined by the local phase composition, and this phenomenon could be effectively used to explain the behavior of thermally sprayed HA coatings in vitro. It implied that the precipitation was strongly dependent on the first molecule attachment. To achieve rapid precipitation in vitro, partial molten state of HA particles during HVOF coating deposition was recommended. PMID:12485791

  1. Analysis of a High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray torch. Part 1, Numerical formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, W.L.; Talpallikar, M.

    1994-01-01

    The fluid and particle dynamics of a High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) torch are analyzed using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques. The thermal spray device analyzed is similar to a Metco Diamond Jet torch with powder injection. The spray nozzle is axisymmetric with powder injection on the centerline, premixed fuel and oxygen fed from an annulus, and air cooling injected along the interior surface of the aircap. Choked flow conditions occur at the exit of the aircap and a supersonic, under-expanded jet develops externally. The CFD simulation assumes three injection streams (solid metal particles with argon as a carrier gas, premixed oxygen/fuel, and air) inside the aircap and solves the combusting two-phase flow until the external spray stream decays to sonic conditions. The numerical formulation solves the mass, momentum, and energy transfer for both the gas and particle phase and strongly couples each phase. The combustion process is modeled using approximate equilibrium chemistry with dissociation of the gas with a total of nine species. Melting and re-solidification of the metal panicles is modeled as a lumped-mass system. Turbulent flow is modeled by a two equation k-{epsilon} turbulence model, including compressibility effects on turbulent dissipation. A time iterative, implicit, finite volume numerical method is used to solve the partial differential equations. A companion paper [10] presents the results of the numerical simulation and gives a detailed discussion of the gas and panicle dynamics.

  2. Corrosion, erosion-corrosion and wear resistance of HVOF sprayed WC type coatings with a corrosion resistant binder

    SciTech Connect

    Rogne, T.; Berget, J.; Solem, T.

    1999-07-01

    WC based coatings with high alloy binders were investigated with respect to structure, corrosion and wear. The coatings were made by HVOF spraying of different powders. All powders studied were made by agglomeration/sintering, i.e. agglomeration of metal particles with WC particles with subsequent sintering. Some powders were made using pre-alloyed metal particles. A blend of ceramic-metallic powder and pure metallic powder was also studied. Different methods were used for characterization of the powders and coatings.

  3. Fireside Corrosion Behavior of HVOF and Plasma-Sprayed Coatings in Advanced Coal/Biomass Co-Fired Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, T.; Dudziak, T.; Simms, N. J.; Nicholls, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a systematic evaluation of coatings for advanced fossil fuel plants and addresses fireside corrosion in coal/biomass-derived flue gases. A selection of four candidate coatings: alloy 625, NiCr, FeCrAl and NiCrAlY were deposited onto superheaters/reheaters alloy (T91) using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and plasma spraying. A series of laboratory-based fireside corrosion exposures were carried out on these coated samples in furnaces under controlled atmosphere for 1000 h at 650 °C. The tests were carried out using the "deposit-recoat" test method to simulate the environment that was anticipated from air-firing 20 wt.% cereal co-product mixed with a UK coal. The exposures were carried out using a deposit containing Na2SO4, K2SO4, and Fe2O3 to produce alkali-iron tri-sulfates, which had been identified as the principal cause of fireside corrosion on superheaters/reheaters in pulverized coal-fired power plants. The exposed samples were examined in an ESEM with EDX analysis to characterize the damage. Pre- and post-exposure dimensional metrologies were used to quantify the metal damage in terms of metal loss distributions. The thermally sprayed coatings suffered significant corrosion attack from a combination of aggressive combustion gases and deposit mixtures. In this study, all the four plasma-sprayed coatings studied performed better than the HVOF-sprayed coatings because of a lower level of porosity. NiCr was found to be the best performing coating material with a median metal loss of ~87 μm (HVOF sprayed) and ~13 μm (plasma sprayed). In general, the median metal damage for coatings had the following ranking (in the descending order: most to the least damage): NiCrAlY > alloy 625 > FeCrAl > NiCr.

  4. Titanium dioxide reinforced hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Khor, K A; Cheang, P

    2002-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings with titania addition were produced by the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray process. Mechanical properties of the as-sprayed coatings in terms of adhesive strength, shear strength and fracture toughness were investigated to reveal the effect of the titania reinforcement on HA. Qualitative phase analysis with X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that mutual chemical reaction between TiO2 and HA, that formed CaTiO3 occurred during coating formation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of the starting powders showed that the mutual chemical reaction temperature was approximately 1410 degrees C and the existence of TiO2 can effectively inhibit the decomposition of HA at elevated temperatures. The positive influence of TiO2 addition on the shear strength was revealed. The incorporation of 10 vol% TiO2 significantly improved the Young's modulus of HA coatings from 24.82 (+/- 2.44) GPa to 43.23 (+/- 3.20) GPa. It decreased to 38.51 (+/- 3.65) GPa as the amount of TiO2 increased to 20 vol%. However, the addition of TiO2 has a negative bias on the adhesive strength of HA coatings especially when the content of TiO2 reached 20 vol%. This is attributed to the weak chemical bonding and brittle phases existing at the splats' interface that resulted from mutual chemical reactions. The fracture toughness exhibited values of 0.48 (+/- 0.08) MPa m0.5, 0.60 (+/- 0.07) MPa m0.5 and 0.67 (+/- 0.06) MPa m0.5 for the HA coating, 10 vol% TiO2 blended HA coating and 20 vol% TiO2 blended HA coating respectively. The addition of TiO2 in HA coating with the amount of less than 20 vol% is suggested for satisfactory toughening effect in HVOF HA coating. PMID:11762858

  5. Characterization and electrochemical properties of Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 multiphase coatings prepared by HVOF spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdian, M. M.; Raeissi, K.; Salehi, M.

    2012-11-01

    Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 powders were produced by mechanical alloying (MA) of Ni-25 at.% Si powder mixture. Then, the as-milled powders were sprayed onto copper substrate using high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process. The phase composition and microstructure of the coatings were examined by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were also employed to study corrosion performance of the coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results showed that although single phase Ni3Si was formed during annealing of Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 powders, but, only Ni(Si) and Ni5Si2 are present in HVOF coatings and no new phase has been formed during spraying. The coatings had microhardness up to 746 HV0.05. Further investigations showed the corrosion performance of multiphase coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution was better than that of copper substrate. The phase transitions during MA, HVOF and annealing processes were discussed in association with Ni-Si phase diagram and nature of each process.

  6. Comparative High-Temperature Corrosion Behavior of Ni-20Cr Coatings on T22 Boiler Steel Produced by HVOF, D-Gun, and Cold Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Gagandeep; Bala, Niraj; Kaur, Narinder; Singh, Harpreet; Prakash, Satya

    2014-01-01

    To protect materials from surface degradations such as wear, corrosion, and thermal flux, a wide variety of materials can be deposited on the materials by several spraying processes. This paper examines and compares the microstructure and high-temperature corrosion of Ni-20Cr coatings deposited on T22 boiler steel by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF), detonation gun spray, and cold spraying techniques. The coatings' microstructural features were characterized by means of XRD and FE-SEM/EDS analyses. Based upon the results of mass gain, XRD, and FE-SEM/EDS analyses it may be concluded that the Ni-20Cr coating sprayed by all the three techniques was effective in reducing the corrosion rate of the steel. Among the three coatings, D-gun spray coating proved to be better than HVOF-spray and cold-spray coatings.

  7. High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of HVOF-sprayed Coatings for Use in Thixoextrusion Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Picas, J. A.; Punset, M.; Menargues, S.; Campillo, M.; Baile, M. T.; Forn, A.

    2011-05-04

    The dies used for the thixoextrusion of steels have to be capable of withstanding complex thermal and mechanical loads, while giving a sufficient wear resistance against abrasion and adhesion at very high temperatures. In order to improve the wear resistance and reduce the heating of the extrusion die it can be protected with a hard cermet coating. The purpose of this work is to study the high-temperature performance of CrC-CoNiCrAlY coating and explore the potential application of this coating to improve dies used in thixoextrusion processes. A two-layer 75CrC-25CoNiCrAlY coating with a CoNiCrAlY bond-coating was fabricated by the HVOF thermal spray process on a steel substrate. Coatings were heat-treated at a range of temperatures between 900 deg. C and 1100 deg. C. The microstructural characterization of the coatings before and after heat treatment was conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The mechanical properties of coatings were determined as a function of the temperature of heat treatment. The bond coat effect on the thermal shock resistance of CrC-CoNiCrAlY coating was analyzed.

  8. High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of HVOF-sprayed Coatings for Use in Thixoextrusion Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picas, J. A.; Punset, M.; Menargues, S.; Campillo, M.; Baile, M. T.; Forn, A.

    2011-05-01

    The dies used for the thixoextrusion of steels have to be capable of withstanding complex thermal and mechanical loads, while giving a sufficient wear resistance against abrasion and adhesion at very high temperatures. In order to improve the wear resistance and reduce the heating of the extrusion die it can be protected with a hard cermet coating. The purpose of this work is to study the high-temperature performance of CrC-CoNiCrAlY coating and explore the potential application of this coating to improve dies used in thixoextrusion processes. A two-layer 75CrC-25CoNiCrAlY coating with a CoNiCrAlY bond-coating was fabricated by the HVOF thermal spray process on a steel substrate. Coatings were heat-treated at a range of temperatures between 900 °C and 1100 °C. The microstructural characterization of the coatings before and after heat treatment was conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The mechanical properties of coatings were determined as a function of the temperature of heat treatment. The bond coat effect on the thermal shock resistance of CrC-CoNiCrAlY coating was analyzed.

  9. Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Fe-Based Amorphous Metallic Coatings Prepared by HVOF Thermal Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Wang, L.; He, D. Y.; Wang, F. C.; Liu, Y. B.

    2010-12-01

    Amorphous metallic coatings with a composition of Fe48Cr15Mo14C15B6Y2 were fabricated by means of high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying process. The microstructure and wear performance of the coatings were characterized simultaneously in this article. It is found that the coatings present a dense layered structure with the porosity below 1.5%. The coatings primarily consist of amorphous matrix and some precipitated nanocrystals, though a fraction of Fe-rich phases and oxide stringers also formed during deposited process. High thermal stability enables the amorphous coatings to work below 920 K temperature without crystallization. Depending on the structural advantage, the amorphous coatings exhibit high average microhardness of 997.3 HV0.2, and excellent wear resistance during dry frictional wear process. The dominant wear mechanism of amorphous coating under this condition is fatigue wear, leading to partial or entire flaking off of the lamellae. In addition, the appearance of oxidative wear accelerates the failure of fatigue wear.

  10. Sliding and Rolling Wear Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed Coatings Derived from Conventional, Fine and Nanostructured WC-12Co Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, W.; Baumann, I.; Hollingsworth, P. S.; Hagen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fine structured and nanostructured materials represent a promising class of feedstock for future applications, which has also attracted increasing interest in the thermal spray technology. Within the field of wear protection, the application of fine structured or nanostructured WC-Co powders in the High Velocity Oxy-Fuel flame spraying technique (HVOF) provides novel possibilities for the manufacturing of cermet coatings with improved mechanical and tribological characteristics. In this study the tribological behavior of HVOF sprayed coatings derived from conventional, fine and nanostructured WC-12Co powders under sliding and rolling wear are investigated and the results are compared to C45 steel (Mat.-No. 1.0503). In addition, sliding and rolling wear effects on a microscopic level are scrutinized. It has been shown that under optimized spray conditions the corresponding fine and nanostructured WC-12Co coatings are able to obtain higher wear resistances and lower friction coefficients than the conventional coatings. This can be attributed to several scaling effects of the microstructure and to the phase evolution of the coating, which are discussed.

  11. Influence of particle velocity and molten phase on the chemical and mechanical properties of HVOF-sprayed structural coatings of alloy 316L

    SciTech Connect

    Voggenreiter, H.; Huber, H.; Beyer, S.; Spies, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    The HP/HVOF spraying process allows the production of oxide-low, thick coatings with low porosity. This fact implies the feasibility of load-bearing HP/HVOF-sprayed structures. Optimum mechanical properties are required for structural applications of HP/HVOF-sprayed iron base alloy 316L. Process-parameter-dependent particle properties like temperature and velocity strongly influence the microstructure and the chemical and mechanical properties of HP/HVOF-sprayed alloy 316L. Results of metallographical and chemical analysis and laser-optic-aided particle velocity measurement lead to a new understanding of particle oxidation based on a high volume fraction of liquid phase and high particle impact velocity. The volume fraction of oxides greatly affects the mechanical properties of homogenized HP/HVOF-316 L. Optimum process parameters result in reduced oxide content less than 0.9% and consequently in strength and elongation comparable to that of wrought alloy 316L. Additionally to these excellent mechanical properties, a low porosity level of about 0.1 to 0.2% is achieved. These fundamental results were transferred successfully to a new type of combustion chamber for hypersonic aircraft with reduced complexity and weight.

  12. Supplementary Microstructural Features Induced During Laser Surface Melting of Thermally Sprayed Inconel 625 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Nauman; Voisey, K. T.; McCartney, D. G.

    2014-02-01

    Laser surface melting of thermally sprayed coatings has the potential to enhance their corrosion properties by incorporating favorable microstructural changes. Besides homogenizing the as-sprayed structure, laser melting may induce certain microstructural modifications (i.e., supplementary features) in addition to those that directly improve the corrosion performance. Such features, being a direct result of the laser treatment process, are described in this paper which is part of a broader study in which high velocity oxy-fuel sprayed Inconel 625 coatings on mild-steel substrates were treated with a diode laser and the modified microstructure characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The laser treated coating features several different zones, including a region with a microstructure in which there is a continuous columnar dendritic structure through a network of retained oxide stringers.

  13. The characteristics of alumina scales formed on HVOF-sprayed MCrAlY coatings[High Velocity Oxygen Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Toma, D.; Brandl, W.; Koester, U.

    2000-02-01

    HVOF MCrAlY (M = Ni, Co) coatings were isothermally oxidized in synthetic air between 850 and 1050 C for times up to 167 hr. During thermal spraying, aluminum and yttrium oxidized to form a fine oxide dispersion. The HVOF MCrAlY coatings exhibited a microstructure similar to ODS alloys. The fine dispersion consisted of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and aluminum-yttrium oxides. The oxidation experiments showed that the oxidation rate of HVOF coatings was two times slower than the oxidation rate of VPS MCrAlY coatings. The oxidation mechanism changed mainly in the transient-stage (no metastable modification of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed) and it was assumed that the oxide dispersion hindered diffusion of various elements from the bulk material during oxidation. The formation of the fine oxide dispersion also influenced the adherence of the oxide scale. The microstructures of the transient oxide scales were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  14. Cracking and Spalling Behavior of HVOF Thermally Sprayed WC-Co-Cr Coating in Bend and Axial Fatigue Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, M.; Eybel, R.; Asselin, B.; Monerie-Moulin, F.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, WC-10Co-4Cr coating was sprayed by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) process on Almen strip and axial fatigue coupon. Three-point bend test was used to bend Almen strip coating specimens with tensile and compressive stress applied to the coating. Axial fatigue coating specimens were tested at a load stress of 1250 MPa and a stress ratio of R = -1. Process condition of Thermal spraying was found to have an effect on spalling performance of the coating in the fatigue test. The mechanism of cracking and spalling process in the coating was studied in bend and fatigue conditions. Based on deformation difference between the coating and the substrate, the factors, especially coating thickness, to impact the coating spalling behavior in axial fatigue test are discussed. HVOF-sprayed WC-10Co-4Cr coating matches the deformation of base substrate by cracking when tensile stress is applied in bend and fatigue tests because the coating has very limit deformation capability. In axial fatigue test of WC-10Co-4Cr coating specimen, the substrate works in a stress-to-strain manner; however the coating works in a strain-to-stress manner and is stressed due to the substrate deformation.

  15. Corrosion behavior of an HVOF-sprayed Fe3Al coating in a high-temperature oxidizing/sulfidizing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Shrestha, S.; Harvey, D.

    2005-01-01

    An iron aluminide (Fe3Al) intermetallic coating was deposited onto a F22 (2.25Cr-1Mo) steel substrate using a JP-5000 high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray system. The as-sprayed coating was examined by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction and was characterized in terms of oxidation and adhesion. Fe3Al-coated steel specimens were exposed to a mixed oxidizing/sulfidizing environment at 500, 600, 700, and 800DGC for approximately seven days. The gaseous environment consisted of N2-10%CO-5%CO2-2%H2O-0.12%H2S (by volume). All specimens gained mass after exposure to the environment and the mass gains were found to be inversely proportional to temperature increases. Representative specimens exposed at each temperature were cross-sectioned and subjected to examination under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray mapping. Results are presented in terms of corrosion weight gain and corrosion product formation. The purpose of the research presented here was to evaluate the effectiveness of an HVOF-sprayed Fe3Al coating in protecting a steel substrate exposed to a fossil energy environment.

  16. A new high-velocity oxygen fuel process for making finely structured and highly bonded inconel alloy layers from liquid feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X. Q.; Roth, J.; Gandy, D. W.; Frederick, G. J.

    2006-12-01

    High-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray processes are used in applications requiring the highest density and adhesion strength, which are not achievable in most other thermal spray processes. Similar to other thermal spray processes, however, a normal HVOF process is unable to apply fine powders less than 10 µm via a powder feeder. The advantages of using smaller and even nanosized particles in a HVOF process include uniform microstructure, higher cohesion and adhesion, full density, lower internal stress, and higher deposition efficiency. In this work, a new process has been developed for HVOF forming of fine-grained Inconel 625 alloy layers using a liquid feedstock containing small alloy particles. Process investigations have shown the benefits of making single and duplex layered coatings with full density and high bond strength, which are attributed to the very high kinetic energy of particles striking on the substrates and the better melting of the small particles.

  17. Influence of HVOF sprayed WC/Co coatings on the high-cycle fatigue strength of mild steel

    SciTech Connect

    Steffens, H.D.; Wilden, J.; Nassenstein, K.; Moebus, S.

    1995-12-31

    HVOF thermally sprayed WC/Co coatings are applied onto components which are exposed to wear caused by abrasion, erosion, fretting and sliding. Beside wear attacks and static stresses in lots of cases alternating mechanical stresses caused by dynamic loads occur additionally. Therefore, the fatigue resistance of WC/Co 88/12 and WC/Co 83/17 coated specimens was investigated by high-cycle fatigue tests (HCF). The results of the fatigue tests were documented in statistically ascertained Woehler-diagrams (S-N-curves). Furthermore, the mechanisms of failure are discussed.

  18. HVOF-Sprayed Coatings Engineered from Mixtures of Nanostructured and Submicron Al2O3-TiO2 Powders: An Enhanced Wear Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, R. S.; Moreau, C.; Marple, B. R.

    2007-12-01

    In previous studies, it has been demonstrated that nanostructured Al2O3-13 wt.%TiO2 coatings deposited via air plasma spray (APS) exhibit higher wear resistance when compared to that of conventional coatings. This study aimed to verify if high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF)-sprayed Al2O3-13 wt.%TiO2 coatings produced using hybrid (nano + submicron) powders could improve even further the already recognized good wear properties of the APS nanostructured coatings. According to the abrasion test results (ASTM G 64), there was an improvement in wear performance by a factor of 8 for the HVOF-sprayed hybrid coating as compared to the best performing APS conventional coating. When comparing both hybrid and conventional HVOF-sprayed coatings, there was an improvement in wear performance by a factor of 4 when using the hybrid material. The results show a significant antiwear improvement provided by the hybrid material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at low/high magnifications showed the distinctive microstructure of the HVOF-sprayed hybrid coating, which helps to explain its excellent wear performance.

  19. Improvement on mechanical properties and wear resistance of HVOF sprayed WC-12Co coatings by optimizing feedstock structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ning; Guo, Lei; Cheng, Zhenxiong; Wu, Huantao; Ye, Fuxing; Zhang, Keke

    2014-11-01

    WC-12Co powders with a bimodal size distributed WC particles were used to produce coating by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spraying (B coating), and HVOF sprayed WC-12Co coatings from microstructured, submicrostructured and nanostructured powders were also fabricated for comparison. The phase constitution, microstructure, mechanical properties and wear performance of the coatings were investigated. Decarburization occurred during coatings preparation, and the carbide retention of B coating was 0.934, higher than that of nanostructured coating. B coating exhibited typical multimodal microstructure, and had considerably high microhardness and the highest fracture toughness among the four coatings, with the values of 1291 HV0.1 and 10.76 MPa m1/2, respectively. When sliding against GCr15 ring in block-on-ring configuration, B coating exhibited the lowest wear rate and relatively lower friction coefficient compared with other coatings, with the average values of 0.94 × 10-7 mm3 N-1 m-1 and 0.63 at 245 N load, respectively, which could be attributed to the concrete-like structure.

  20. Deposition behavior and microstructural development of TiNi powder particles in low temperature-HVOF spraying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Q. S.; Zhou, K. S.; Deng, C. M.; Liu, M.; Xiao, X. L.; Deng, C. G.

    2013-10-01

    TiNi alloy particles were deposited at high velocity on Q235 steel substrate in thermally softened solid state by the modified high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying process (so called low temperature HVOF). Microstructural developments and deposition behaviors of a deposited single particle were observed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A single TiNi particle sprayed onto the substrate was severely deformed and the jetting-out phenomenon occurred in the margin of the splat. Extremely fine grains were observed along the interfacial boundary of the deposited particles where the most severe deformation had taken place. The grain refinement at the high deformed region of a splat was arisen from dynamic recrystallization of heavily deformed grain during deformation.

  1. Influence of the HVOF Gas Composition on the Thermal Spraying of WC-Co Submicron Powders (-8 + 1 μm) to Produce Superfine Structured Cermet Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, W.; Vogli, E.; Baumann, I.; Matthaeus, G.; Ostrowski, T.

    2008-12-01

    Thermal spraying technology represents a novel and promising approach to protect forming tools with complex surfaces and highest shape accuracy against abrasive wear and galling. However, due to high or nonuniform layer thicknesses or inappropriate surface roughness conventional coarse-structured coatings are not suitable to achieve this aim. The application of novel submicron or nanoscaled feedstock materials in the thermal spray process can provide the deposition of cermet coatings with significantly improved characteristics and is recently of great interest in science and industry. In this collaborative study, the feeding and HVOF spraying of WC-Co submicron powders (-8 + 1 μm) have been investigated to manufacture superfine structured, wear resistant, near-net-shape coatings with improved macroscopic properties and smooth surfaces. The influences of varying HVOF gas compositions on the spray process and the coating properties have been analyzed.

  2. Progress in fabrication of large magnetic sheilds by using extended YBCO thick films sprayed on stainless steel with the HVOF technique

    SciTech Connect

    Pavese, F.; Bergadano, E.; Ferri, D.

    1997-06-01

    Fabricating a full box-type magnetic shield, by spraying a thick film of commercial YBCO powder on stainless steel with the oxygen-fuel high-velocity technique (HVOF, also referred to as {open_quotes}continuous detonation spray{close_quotes} (CDS)), requires the solution of several specific problems since the design stage of the project. The design problems of this type of shield are examined and the results obtained in the early stages of the realization are discussed.

  3. Analytical methods to characterize heterogeneous raw material for thermal spray process: cored wire Inconel 625

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, T.; Bonebeau, S.; Drehmann, R.; Grund, T.; Pawlowski, L.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    In wire arc spraying, the raw material needs to exhibit sufficient formability and ductility in order to be processed. By using an electrically conductive, metallic sheath, it is also possible to handle non-conductive and/or brittle materials such as ceramics. In comparison to massive wire, a cored wire has a heterogeneous material distribution. Due to this fact and the complex thermodynamic processes during wire arc spraying, it is very difficult to predict the resulting chemical composition in the coating with sufficient accuracy. An Inconel 625 cored wire was used to investigate this issue. In a comparative study, the analytical results of the raw material were compared to arc sprayed coatings and droplets, which were remelted in an arc furnace under argon atmosphere. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis were used to determine the chemical composition. The phase determination was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results were related to the manufacturer specifications and evaluated in respect to differences in the chemical composition. The comparison between the feedstock powder, the remelted droplets and the thermally sprayed coatings allows to evaluate the influence of the processing methods on the resulting chemical and phase composition.

  4. Deposition Mechanisms and Oxidation Behaviors of Ti-Ni Coatings Deposited in Low-Temperature HVOF Spraying Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Q. S.; Zhou, K. S.; Deng, C. M.; Liu, M.; Xu, L. P.; Deng, C. G.

    2014-08-01

    Three kinds of Ti-Ni powders were deposited on 316L stainless steel by low-temperature high-velocity oxygen fuel (LT-HVOF) spraying process, respectively. Deposition mechanisms and oxidation behaviors of the coatings were researched in this paper. The coating deposited from TiNi intermetallic powder had obvious laminar structure and the oxygen content was the highest among the three kinds of coatings. The oxygen content of the coating deposited from small-sized Ni-clad Ti powder was still high due to the melting of parts of particles. However, most of the coarse Ni-clad Ti powder was deposited in solid states without changes of chemical compositions and phase compositions. The oxygen content of the coating deposited from coarse Ni-clad Ti powder was the lowest among the three kinds of coatings. It indicated that the deposition behavior of the coating could effectively preserve the inner titanium from oxidation. The results of the present research demonstrated that it is entirely feasible to deposit active metal materials such as titanium and titanium alloy through the optimizing selection of powder in the LT-HVOF process.

  5. Physicochemical Characteristics of Dust Particles in HVOF Spraying and Occupational Hazards: Case Study in a Chinese Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haihong; Li, Haijun; Li, Xinyu

    2016-06-01

    Dust particles generated in thermal spray process can cause serious health problems to the workers. Dust particles generated in high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spraying WC-Co coatings were characterized in terms of mass concentrations, particle size distribution, micro morphologies, and composition. Results show that the highest instantaneous exposure concentration of dust particles in the investigated thermal spray workshop is 140 mg/m3 and the time-weighted average concentration is 34.2 mg/m3, which are approximately 8 and 4 times higher than the occupational exposure limits in China, respectively. The large dust particles above 10 μm in size present a unique morphology of polygonal or irregular block of crushed powder, and smaller dust particles mainly exist in the form of irregular or flocculent agglomerates. Some heavy metals, such as chromium, cobalt, and nickel, are also found in the air of the workshop and their concentrations are higher than the limits. Potential occupational hazards of the dust particles in the thermal spray process are further analyzed based on their characteristics and the workers' exposure to the nanoparticles is assessed using a control banding tool.

  6. The microstructure and wear mechanisms of wire-arc sprayed Inconel 625 coatings on 319 aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Popoola, O.; McCune, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    The direct formation of valve seats on aluminum cylinder heads provides enhanced conductive cooling of the valves and the opportunity to redesign the head for larger valves and improved engine performance. A two-wire arc-spray process was used to deposit coatings from Inconel 625 feedstock wire onto 319 cast aluminum test pieces, simulating the situation in an engine head. The microstructure and apparent wear mechanisms in dry sliding against a 4620 steel counterpiece were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis. Wear tests were conducted using the ASTM G66-77 block-on-ring test with wear volume measured using 3D laser probe profilometer. The wear mechanisms of this tribosystem are principally adhesive and delamination wear.

  7. HVOF Spraying of Fe-Based MMC Coatings with In Situ Formation of Hard Particles by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röttger, A.; Weber, S. L.; Theisen, W.; Rajasekaran, B.; Vaßen, R.

    2012-03-01

    Thick (2-3 mm) Fe-base coatings with admixed ferrotitanium (Fe30Ti70) were applied to austenitic steel by a high-velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF). Hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) was carried out to the decrease porosity and to increase the material strength, wear resistance, and adhesive bond strength of the deposited coating to the substrate material. SEM and XRD investigations confirmed the formation of hard titanium carbide (TiC) particles during HIP treatment as a result of strong carbon diffusion out of the metal matrix and into the Fe30Ti70 particles. The mechanical and wear properties of the densified coatings were investigated by means of shear tests, hardness measurements, and abrasive wear tests. A comparison of the coatings in the as-sprayed and the HIPed state showed a large increase in the wear resistance due to in situ TiC formation.

  8. High Power Diode Laser-Treated HP-HVOF and Twin Wire Arc-Sprayed Coatings for Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, B. S.

    2013-08-01

    This article deals with high power diode laser (HPDL) surface modification of twin wire arc-sprayed (TWAS) and high pressure high velocity oxy-fuel (HP-HVOF) coatings to combat solid particle erosion occurring in fossil fuel power plants. To overcome solid particle impact wear above 673 K, Cr3C2-NiCr-, Cr3C2-CoNiCrAlY-, and WC-CrC-Ni-based HVOF coatings are used. WC-CoCr-based HVOF coatings are generally used below 673 K. Twin wire arc (TWA) spraying of Tafa 140 MXC and SHS 7170 cored wires is used for a wide range of applications for a temperature up to 1073 K. Laser surface modification of high chromium stainless steels for steam valve components and LPST blades is carried out regularly. TWA spraying using SHS 7170 cored wire, HP-HVOF coating using WC-CoCr powder, Ti6Al4V alloy, and high chromium stainless steels (X20Cr13, AISI 410, X10CrNiMoV1222, 13Cr4Ni, 17Cr4Ni) were selected in the present study. Using robotically controlled parameters, HPDL surface treatments of TWAS-coated high strength X10CrNiMoV1222 stainless steel and HP-HVOF-coated AISI 410 stainless steel samples were carried out and these were compared with HPDL-treated high chromium stainless steels and titanium alloy for high energy particle impact wear (HEPIW) resistance. The HPDL surface treatment of the coatings has improved the HEPIW resistance manifold. The improvement in HPDL-treated stainless steels and titanium alloys is marginal and it is not comparable with that of HPDL-treated coatings. These coatings were also compared with "as-sprayed" coatings for fracture toughness, microhardness, microstructure, and phase analyses. The HEPIW resistance has a strong relationship with the product of fracture toughness and microhardness of the HPDL-treated HP-HVOF and TWAS SHS 7170 coatings. This development opens up a possibility of using HPDL surface treatments in specialized areas where the problem of HEPIW is very severe. The HEPIW resistance of HPDL-treated high chromium stainless steels and

  9. A Study on Wear Resistance of HVOF-Sprayed Ni-MoS2 Self-Lubricating Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. L.; Jeng, M. C.; Hwang, J. R.; Chang, C. H.

    2015-02-01

    Composite coating techniques are becoming increasingly popular owing to their peculiar performances. In this study, the wear resistance of thermally sprayed Ni-MoS2 composite coatings on an AISI 1020 steel substrate was investigated. Ni-MoS2 composite powder (size: 60-90 μm) containing 25 wt.% of dispersed MoS2 was prepared by electroless plating. Ni-MoS2 composite coatings were then prepared by HVOF thermal spraying. The coatings were characterized by structural, surface morphological, and compositional analyses by means of microhardness tests, SEM/EDS, XRD, and ICP-AES. For the evaluation of their anti-wear properties, the composites were subjected to ball-on-disk dry wear tests based on the ASTM G99 standard at room temperature. Experimental results showed that some of the MoS2 content dispersed in the Ni-based composite coating burnt away during the high-temperature spraying process, thereby reducing the MoS2 concentration in the coating. In the wear test, the weight loss in the Ni-MoS2 composite coating was minimal under a low load (<15 N) but increased rapidly with increasing load (>30 N). The average wear rate of the coatings was found to be ~1/40 times that of a Ni coating, showing that the wear resistance of the composite coatings was significantly improved by MoS2 addition.

  10. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Properties of HVOF-Sprayed Co-Cr-W Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdková, Šárka; Smazalová, Eva; Pala, Zdeněk

    2016-02-01

    Co-Cr-W HVOF-sprayed protective coatings are used for their high oxidation and wear resistance. Apart from the oxidation resistance, the stability of their mechanical properties in relation to thermal loading is crucial with respect to the most common high-temperature application areas. This work is focused mainly on evaluation of the heat-induced changes in the phase composition and related mechanical properties. It was shown that the original powder, composed fully from face-centered cubic Co-based alloy, partly changes its phase composition during spraying to a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure. The annealing further increases the ratio of the hcp phase in the structure. The heat-induced phase changes are accompanied by an increase in the coatings' hardness and cohesion strength. The abrasive and adhesive wear behavior was evaluated. While the coatings' heat treatment had a positive effect on the coefficient of friction, the abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of annealed coating was lower compared to as-sprayed coating.

  11. Nano-Borides and Silicide Dispersed Composite Coating on AISI 304 Stainless Steel by Laser-Assisted HVOF Spray Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prashant; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2014-10-01

    The study concerned a detailed microstructural investigation of nano-borides (Cr2B and Ni3B) and nano-silicide (Ni2Si) dispersed γ-nickel composite coating on AISI 304 stainless steel by HVOF spray deposition of the NiCrBSi precursor powder and subsequent laser surface melting. A continuous wave diode laser with an applied power of 3 kW and scan speed of 20 mm/s in argon shroud was employed. The characterization of the surface in terms of microstructure, microtexture, phases, and composition were carried out and compared with the as-coated (high-velocity oxy-fuel sprayed) surface. Laser surface melting led to homogenization and refinement of microstructures with the formation of few nano-silicides of nickel along with nano-borides of nickel and chromium (Ni3B, Cr2B, and Cr2B3). A detailed microtexture analysis showed the presence of no specific texture in the as-sprayed and laser-melted surface of Cr2B and Ni3B phases. The average microhardness was improved to 750-900 VHN as compared to 250 VHN of the as-received substrate. Laser surface melting improved the microhardness further to as high as 1400 VHN due to refinement of microstructure and the presence of silicides.

  12. Study of the HVOF Ni-Based Coatings' Corrosion Resistance Applied on Municipal Solid-Waste Incinerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilemany, J. M.; Torrell, M.; Miguel, J. R.

    2008-06-01

    Oxidation of exchanger steel tubes causes important problems in Municipal Solid-Waste Incinerator (MSWI) plants. The present paper shows a possible solution for this problem through High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings. A comparative study was carried out between powder and wire Ni-based thermal spray coatings (with the same composition). These optimized coatings were compared based on their microstructure, wear properties (ASTM G99-90, ASTM G65-91), and erosion-corrosion (E-C) resistance. An E-C test designed in the Thermal Spray Centre was performed to reproduce the mechanisms that take place in a boiler. Studying the results of this test, the wire HVT Inconel coating sprayed by propylene appears to be the best alternative. A commercial bulk material with a composition similar to Ni-based coatings was tested to find the products of the oxidation reactions. The protective mechanisms of these materials were assessed after studying the results obtained for HVOF coatings and the bulk material where the presence of nickel and chromium oxides as a corrosion product can be seen. Kinetic evolution of the Ni-based coatings can be studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The protection that Inconel coatings give to the tube through the difference of the gain mass can be seen. Ni-based HVOF coatings by both spray conditions are a promising alternative to MSWI protection against chlorine environments, and their structures have a very important role.

  13. Effects of Rare Earth Elements on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of HVOF-Sprayed WC-Co Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Gou, Guoqing; Wang, Xiaomin; Jia, Qiang; Chen, Hui; Tu, Mingjing

    2014-10-01

    Rare earth has been widely used in materials manufacturing to improve hardness and toughness. In this paper, conventional, nanostructured, and rare earth CeO2-doped WC-12Co powders were sprayed by using HVOF spraying technology. Microstructure, hardness, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness of the three coatings were investigated. The results showed that nanostructured WC-12Co coatings possessed the densest microstructure and excellent combination of strength and toughness. The WC particles with the size ranging from 50 to 500 nm distributed uniformly in the nanostructured WC-12Co coating. The average free path of Co matrix in rare earth-doped WC-12Co coating was shorter than that of conventional WC-12Co coating. XRD results showed no obvious decarburization in all three coatings. The addition of rare earth could improve the mechanical properties of the coating compared with that without rare earth. The hardness value of nanostructured WC-12Co coating (12.2 GPa) was similar to that of rare earth-doped WC-12Co coating (12.2 GPa), which was 15.1% higher than that of conventional WC-12Co coating. The elastic modulus and fracture toughness of nanostructured WC-12Co coating were the highest, and that of conventional WC-12Co coating was the lowest.

  14. Characterization of the bone-like apatite precipitated on high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed calcium phosphate deposits.

    PubMed

    Khor, K A; Li, H; Cheang, P

    2003-02-01

    Bone-like apatite was precipitated on the surface of thermal sprayed calcium phosphate coatings following in vitro incubation in a simulated body fluid. The coatings were initially deposited on titanium alloy substrates by the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray technique. Structural characterization and mechanical evaluation of the precipitated apatite layer were conducted. Results showed that the precipitation rate was directly influenced by the local Ca(2+) concentration in the vicinity of the coating's surface and that preferential dissolution of certain phases was found to accelerate the precipitation of the bone-like apatite. The dense precipitates exhibited a competitive Young's modulus value of approximately 120GPa, which was obtained through nanoindentation. This compared favorably to the calcium phosphate matrix. Differences in microstructure at various locations within the layer resulted in altered Young's modulus and microhardness values. Precipitation mechanism investigation was carried out through a comparative experiment. Chemical analysis showed that the precipitation of bone-like apatite on the calcium phosphate coating was quite conceivably a partial diffusion-controlled process. PMID:12485795

  15. Properties of heat-treated calcium phosphate coatings deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Khor, K A; Cheang, P

    2002-05-01

    The influence of crystallization, upon heat treatment, on the properties of high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings was investigated. The characterization of the HA coating was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) was employed to determine the crystallization temperature of the amorphous phase in an as-sprayed HA coating. The study demonstrated the effect of crystallization on the coating properties by considering the changes in materials chemistry, crystallinity level, and mechanical performance. Results showed that complete crystallization of the amorphous phase occurred at approximately 700 degrees C and the crystallization temperature was dependent on sample heating rate in the DSC test. The changes of ion groups were detected by FTIR, before and after the phase transformation. The crystallization of the coating after annealing at 750 degrees C resulted in a significant increase of the coatings' adhesive strength and shear strength, which attained maximum values 34 +/- 3 and 14.1 -/+ 0.8 MPa, respectively. Young's modulus increased from 21 +/- 1 to 25 +/- 2 GPa. Microhardness measurements confirmed the changes in coating properties. It is also found that the transformation from the amorphous phase has crystalline HA as the only resultant phase detected by XRD. PMID:11962650

  16. The influence of WC-Co HVOF thermal spraying on the microstructure of an Al-4 Cu alloy substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Guilemany, J.M.; Nutting, J.; Dong, Z.; Paco, J.M. de

    1995-10-01

    The High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying process can be used to produce a dense hard coating onto a metallic surface with a good bond between the coating and the substrate. Having developed techniques for the examination of the coating substrate interfacial regions with steel it was thought appropriate to examine the interfacial structure with other substrates. An aluminium copper alloy was chosen for this study for the following reasons: (1) There had been little earlier work on substrate reactions when using aluminium alloys, the published data was chiefly concerned with characterizing the coatings. (2) Aluminium alloys have a much lower melting point than steel, hence the substrate melted zone was likely to be much greater than that found in steel. (3) The structural characteristics of aged aluminium copper alloys have been well described and hence the structural changes produced in the alloy by thermal spraying could be compared with clearly established structural data so giving markers for the temperature profile well below the immediate interface region. As in the previous investigation the transmission electron microscope was used to examine thin foils prepared from the interface region and at various depths below the interface into the substrate.

  17. Effect of High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) Thermal Spraying on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Type 316 Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Terry C. Totemeier

    2005-09-01

    Data on the microstructural, physical, and mechanical characteristics of high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF)-sprayed type 316 stainless steel coatings are presented and compared with properties of wrought 316 stainless steel. Coatings were prepared at three different spray particle velocities; coating characteristics are presented as a function of velocity. The coatings had relatively low porosity and oxide contents and were significantly harder than annealed, wrought 316 stainless steel. The hardness difference is primarily attributed to high dislocation densities resulting from peening imparted by high-velocity spray particles. The coating hardness increased with increasing spray particle velocity, reflecting increased peening effects. The elastic modulus of the coatings was essentially identical to wrought material. The mean coefficient of thermal expansion of as-sprayed coatings was lower than wrought material, but the expansion of annealed coatings matched the wrought behavior.

  18. Investigations on the Behavior of HVOF and Cold Sprayed Ni-20Cr Coating on T22 Boiler Steel in Actual Boiler Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Niraj; Singh, Harpreet; Prakash, Satya; Karthikeyan, J.

    2012-01-01

    High temperature corrosion accompanied by erosion is a severe problem, which may result in premature failure of the boiler tubes. One countermeasure to overcome this problem is the use of thermal spray protective coatings. In the current investigation high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and cold spray processes have been used to deposit commercial Ni-20Cr powder on T22 boiler steel. To evaluate the performance of the coatings in actual conditions the bare as well as the coated steels were subjected to cyclic exposures, in the superheater zone of a coal fired boiler for 15 cycles. The weight change and thickness loss data were used to establish kinetics of the erosion-corrosion. X-ray diffraction, surface and cross-sectional field emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS) and x-ray mapping techniques were used to analyse the as-sprayed and corroded specimens. The HVOF sprayed coating performed better than its cold sprayed counterpart in actual boiler environment.

  19. Assessment of Abrasive Wear of Nanostructured WC-Co and Fe-Based Coatings Applied by HP-HVOF, Flame, and Wire Arc Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, C. R. C.; Libardi, R.; Camargo, F.; Fals, H. C.; Ferraresi, V. A.

    2014-10-01

    Thermal spray processes have been widely used to minimize losses caused by wear mechanisms. Sprayed deposits using conventional wire and powder materials have been long solving tribological problems in engineering equipment. More recently, the option for new different technologies and consumables like nanostructured powder materials and nanocomposite cored wires have expanded the possibilities for technical solutions. Cored wire technology allows the use of compositions that cannot be drawn into wire form like carbides in metallic matrix and high-temperature materials, thus, intensifying the use of spraying processes with low operating cost to demanding wear and corrosion applications. The objective of this work was to study the mechanical characteristics and wear performance of coatings obtained by Flame, Wire Arc, and HVOF spraying using selected nanostructured WC10Co4Cr, WC12Co, and Fe-based 140 MXC powder and wire materials. Abrasive wear performance of the coatings was determinate following the ASTM G-65 standard. Based on the results, a higher abrasive wear resistance was found for the HVOF-sprayed WC10Co4Cr nanostructured coating.

  20. Effect of Spray Particle Velocity on Cavitation Erosion Resistance Characteristics of HVOF and HVAF Processed 86WC-10Co4Cr Hydro Turbine Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R. K.; Kamaraj, M.; Seetharamu, S.; Pramod, T.; Sampathkumaran, P.

    2016-06-01

    The hydro plants utilizing silt-laden water for power generation suffer from severe metal wastage due to particle-induced erosion and cavitation. High-velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF)-based coatings is widely applied to improve the erosion life. The process parameters such as particle velocity, size, powder feed rate, temperature, affect their mechanical properties. The high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) technology, with higher particle velocities and lower spray temperatures, gives dense and substantially nonoxidized coating. In the present study, the cavitation resistance of 86WC-10Co4Cr-type HVOF coating processed at 680 m/s spray particle velocity was compared with HVAF coatings made at 895, 960, and 1010 m/s. The properties such as porosity, hardness, indentation toughness, and cavitation resistance were investigated. The surface damage morphology has been analyzed in SEM. The cohesion between different layers has been examined qualitatively through scratch depth measurements across the cross section. The HVAF coatings have shown a lower porosity, higher hardness, and superior cavitation resistance. Delamination, extensive cracking of the matrix interface, and detachment of the WC grains were observed in HVOF coating. The rate of metal loss is low in HVAF coatings implying that process parameters play a vital role in achieving improved cavitation resistance.

  1. Effect of Spray Particle Velocity on Cavitation Erosion Resistance Characteristics of HVOF and HVAF Processed 86WC-10Co4Cr Hydro Turbine Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R. K.; Kamaraj, M.; Seetharamu, S.; Pramod, T.; Sampathkumaran, P.

    2016-08-01

    The hydro plants utilizing silt-laden water for power generation suffer from severe metal wastage due to particle-induced erosion and cavitation. High-velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF)-based coatings is widely applied to improve the erosion life. The process parameters such as particle velocity, size, powder feed rate, temperature, affect their mechanical properties. The high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) technology, with higher particle velocities and lower spray temperatures, gives dense and substantially nonoxidized coating. In the present study, the cavitation resistance of 86WC-10Co4Cr-type HVOF coating processed at 680 m/s spray particle velocity was compared with HVAF coatings made at 895, 960, and 1010 m/s. The properties such as porosity, hardness, indentation toughness, and cavitation resistance were investigated. The surface damage morphology has been analyzed in SEM. The cohesion between different layers has been examined qualitatively through scratch depth measurements across the cross section. The HVAF coatings have shown a lower porosity, higher hardness, and superior cavitation resistance. Delamination, extensive cracking of the matrix interface, and detachment of the WC grains were observed in HVOF coating. The rate of metal loss is low in HVAF coatings implying that process parameters play a vital role in achieving improved cavitation resistance.

  2. Formation Mechanisms, Structure, and Properties of HVOF-Sprayed WC-CoCr Coatings: An Approach Toward Process Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varis, T.; Suhonen, T.; Ghabchi, A.; Valarezo, A.; Sampath, S.; Liu, X.; Hannula, S.-P.

    2014-08-01

    Our study focuses on understanding the damage tolerance and performance reliability of WC-CoCr coatings. In this paper, the formation of HVOF-sprayed tungsten carbide-based cermet coatings is studied through an integrated strategy: First-order process maps are created by using online-diagnostics to assess particle states in relation to process conditions. Coating properties such as hardness, wear resistance, elastic modulus, residual stress, and fracture toughness are discussed with a goal to establish a linkage between properties and particle characteristics via second-order process maps. A strong influence of particle state on the mechanical properties, wear resistance, and residual stress stage of the coating was observed. Within the used processing window (particle temperature ranged from 1687 to 1831 °C and particle velocity from 577 to 621 m/s), the coating hardness varied from 1021 to 1507 HV and modulus from 257 to 322 GPa. The variation in coating mechanical state is suggested to relate to the microstructural changes arising from carbide dissolution, which affects the properties of the matrix and, on the other hand, cohesive properties of the lamella. The complete tracking of the coating particle state and its linking to mechanical properties and residual stresses enables coating design with desired properties.

  3. The effect of spraying parameters on micro-structural properties of WC-12%Co coating deposited on copper substrate by HVOF process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathwara, Nishit; Jariwala, C.; Chauhan, N.; Raole, P. M.; Basa, D. K.

    2015-08-01

    High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal sprayed coatingmade from Tungsten Carbide (WC) isconsidered as one of the most durable materials as wear resistance for industrial applications at room temperature. WC coating offers high wear resistance due to its high hardness and tough matrix imparts. The coating properties strongly depend on thermal spray processing parameters, surface preparation and surface finish. In this investigation, the effect of variousHVOF process parameters was studied on WC coating properties. The WC-12%Co coating was produced on Copper substrate. Prior to coating, theCopper substrate surface was prepared by grit blasting. WC-12%Co coatings were deposited on Coppersubstrates with varying process parameters such as Oxygen gas pressure, Air pressure, and spraying distance. Microstructure of coating was examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and characterization of phasespresentin the coating was examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Microhardness of all coatingswas measured by VickerMicrohardness tester. At low Oxygen Pressure(10.00 bar), high Air pressure (7bar) and short nozzle to substrate distance of 170mm, best coating adhesion and porosity less structure isachieved on Coppersubstrate.

  4. The effect of spraying parameters on micro-structural properties of WC-12%Co coating deposited on copper substrate by HVOF process

    SciTech Connect

    Sathwara, Nishit; Jariwala, C. Chauhan, N.; Raole, P. M.; Basa, D. K.

    2015-08-28

    High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal sprayed coatingmade from Tungsten Carbide (WC) isconsidered as one of the most durable materials as wear resistance for industrial applications at room temperature. WC coating offers high wear resistance due to its high hardness and tough matrix imparts. The coating properties strongly depend on thermal spray processing parameters, surface preparation and surface finish. In this investigation, the effect of variousHVOF process parameters was studied on WC coating properties. The WC-12%Co coating was produced on Copper substrate. Prior to coating, theCopper substrate surface was prepared by grit blasting. WC-12%Co coatings were deposited on Coppersubstrates with varying process parameters such as Oxygen gas pressure, Air pressure, and spraying distance. Microstructure of coating was examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and characterization of phasespresentin the coating was examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Microhardness of all coatingswas measured by VickerMicrohardness tester. At low Oxygen Pressure(10.00 bar), high Air pressure (7bar) and short nozzle to substrate distance of 170mm, best coating adhesion and porosity less structure isachieved on Coppersubstrate.

  5. Heat treatment effects on the tribological performance of HVOF sprayed Co-Mo-Cr-Si coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolelli, G.; Lusvarghi, L.

    2006-12-01

    The tribological behavior of high-velocity oxyfuel sprayed Co-28%Mo-17%Cr-3%Si coatings, both assprayed and after heat treatments at 200, 400, and 600 °C for 1 h, has been studied. The as-sprayed coating contains oxide stringers and is mostly amorphous. It has low hardness (˜6.7 GPa) and toughness and undergoes adhesive wear against 100Cr6 steel. The friction coefficient increases up to ˜0.9, so the flash temperature reaches a critical oxidation value; then, friction decreases and increases again. This phenomenon occurs periodically. Much adhesive wear occurs in the first stage. Abrasive wear prevails against alumina pin: the coating wear rate is lower because it possesses good plasticity. Thermal effects still occur. The 600 °C treatment causes formation of submicrometric crystals. Hardness increases (˜8.8 GPa), adhesive wear is prevented, the friction coefficient has no peaks. Against the alumina pin, wear rates remain similar to the as-sprayed case. Nevertheless, the friction coefficient has no peaks and its final value is lowered (from 0.84 to 0.75).

  6. Mechanical property changes in HVOF sprayed nano-structured WC-17wt.%Ni(80/20)Cr coating with varying substrate roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mahmud, Tarek A.; Saha, Gobinda C.; Khan, Tahir I.

    2014-06-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings developed by use of high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process are known for their superior wear characteristics. In many industrial applications, new parts as well as repaired and refurbished parts coated with WC-Co microstructured coatings have shown enhanced erosion-corrosion and abrasive resistant properties when compared with other surface modification technologies such as chrome replacement, fusion welding, and cladding. This research has been further directed towards the development of HVOF technique to deposit dense nanostructured ceramic-metallic composites. The mechanism of plastic deformation, which determines the strength and ductility of materials, in nanostructured materials are different, thereby leading to novel mechanical properties. Various parameters can influence these properties, but the substrate surface preparation by grit blasting before thermal spraying is one critical parameter. The grit blasting process generates a surface roughness, which ensures mechanical anchoring between the coating and the substrate surface. In this work, the sliding wear behavior and microhardness of WC-17wt.%Ni(80/20)Cr cermet coatings deposited onto carbon steel substrates are examined as a function of three different surface roughness values under different loads. The results show that as-prepared surface with different blasting profiles have a direct influence on the surface roughness and wear performance of the coatings. The sliding wear resistance of the coatings increased as the substrate surface roughness increased. The wear depth decreased with increasing surface roughness.

  7. Study of the Splat Formation for HVOF Sprayed NiCr on Stainless Steel Substrates and the Effects of Heating and Boiling Pre-Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossard, S.; Munroe, P. R.; Hyland, M. M.

    2010-09-01

    The HVOF process is a widely applied thermal spray technique used to form dense coatings with high bond strength. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which the coating forms and adheres to the substrate. The present study investigates the splat formation process by examining the morphology and microstructure of NiCr single splats sprayed on to stainless steel, using a range of electron microscopy techniques. Notable features include evidence of the deformation of the steel substrate by the impacting particle, the presence of porosity towards the centre of the splat, and under the rim due to the curling-up of the splat, and the identification of several oxide phases, including Cr2O3, FeO and NiO. From these observations, a description of the splat formation process is proposed. Effects of the substrate surface chemistry were studied by comparing the morphology of the splats on several substrates having undergone various pre-treatments.

  8. Effect of Mn on the Formation of Oxide Buildups Upon HVOF-Sprayed MCrAlY-Ceramic-Type Cermet Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tsai-Shang

    2011-03-01

    Thermal spray coatings have been widely used on hearth rolls in a continuous annealing line to improve steel sheet quality and to prolong the roll service life. One of the common defects formed on a working hearth roll is the oxide buildup. HVOF-sprayed CoCrAlY-CrB2-Y2O3 coating was used in this study to duplicate buildups by reacting with Fe and Mn oxides. The reaction was performed in a furnace at 900 °C with inert gases flowing through. After reacting for 8 days, large Mn-rich buildups were formed on the coating while the buildups without Mn were very small. Mn was shown to enhance the formation of buildups. Buildups from a hearth roll were also examined and compared with the laboratory ones.

  9. Bond Strength of Multicomponent White Cast Iron Coatings Applied by HVOF Thermal Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maranho, Ossimar; Rodrigues, Daniel; Boccalini, Mario; Sinatora, Amilton

    2009-12-01

    Multicomponent white cast iron is a new alloy that belongs to system Fe-C-Cr-W-Mo-V, and because of its excellent wear resistance it is used in the manufacture of hot rolling mills rolls. To date, this alloy has been processed by casting, powder metallurgy, and spray forming. The high-velocity oxyfuel process is now also considered for the manufacture of components with this alloy. The effects of substrate, preheating temperature, and coating thickness on bond strength of coatings have been determined. Substrates of AISI 1020 steel and of cast iron with preheating of 150 °C and at room temperature were used to apply coatings with 200 and 400 μm nominal thickness. The bond strength of coatings was measured with the pull-off test method and the failure mode by scanning electron microscopic analysis. Coatings with thickness of 200 μm and applied on substrates of AISI 1020 steel with preheating presented bond strength of 87 ± 4 MPa.

  10. Development and Application of HVOF Sprayed Spinel Protective Coating for SOFC Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, O.; Pihlatie, M.; Rautanen, M.; Himanen, O.; Lagerbom, J.; Mäkinen, M.; Varis, T.; Suhonen, T.; Kiviaho, J.

    2013-06-01

    Protective coatings are needed for metallic interconnects used in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks to prevent excessive high-temperature oxidation and evaporation of chromium species. These phenomena affect the lifetime of the stacks by increasing the area-specific resistance (ASR) and poisoning of the cathode. Protective MnCo2O4 and MnCo1.8Fe0.2O4 coatings were applied on ferritic steel interconnect material (Crofer 22 APU) by high velocity oxy fuel spraying. The substrate-coating systems were tested in long-term exposure tests to investigate their high-temperature oxidation behavior. Additionally, the ASRs were measured at 700 °C for 1000 h. Finally, a real coated interconnect was used in a SOFC single-cell stack for 6000 h. Post-mortem analysis was carried out with scanning electron microscopy. The deposited coatings reduced significantly the oxidation of the metal, exhibited low and stable ASR and reduced effectively the migration of chromium.

  11. Application of high velocity oxygen fuel flame (HVOF) spraying to fabrication of La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3 electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan-Lin; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu; Yang, Guan-Jun; Liu, Meilin

    2016-01-01

    La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3 (LSGM) is considered a promising electrolyte for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) due to its high ionic conductivity and stability under fuel cell operating conditions. Here we report our findings in investigating the feasibility of using a high velocity oxygen fuel flame (HVOF) spraying process for cost-effective fabrication of dense LSGM electrolyte membranes. The flame and in-flight particle behavior were simulated numerically to optimize the microstructure and phase compositions of the LSGM deposits. The measured gas leakage rate of an LSGM deposit is ∼7 × 10-7 cm4gf-1 s-1. The single cell assembled with 50-55 μm HVOF-sprayed LSGM electrolyte shows open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.08 V at 800 °C, suggesting that the as-sprayed LSGM deposit is dense enough for direct application as SOFC electrolyte. At 800 °C, the ionic conductivity of the sprayed LSGM deposit is ∼0.04 S cm-1, indicating that the HVOF spraying is a promising process for low-temperature fabrication of dense LSGM electrolyte membranes for IT-SOFCs.

  12. Structure and Tribological Characteristics of HVOF Coatings Sprayed from Powder Blends of Cr3C2-25NiCr and NiCrBSi Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Määttä, A.; Kanerva, U.; Vuoristo, P.

    2011-01-01

    HVOF spraying was used to prepare coatings from mechanical blends of Cr3C2-25NiCr and NiCrBSi powders. The aim of this study is to study the tribological behavior of coatings prepared from such powder blends. The coatings were studied under dry sliding conditions particularly at high temperatures. Tribological properties of the coatings were characterized using a specific hot-button tribological tester at the temperature of 300 °C in air, and a pin-on-disk test at room temperature. Addition of NiCrBSi resulted in coatings, which showed low coefficient of friction in high temperatures, and in high levels of contact pressure and sliding speed.

  13. Effect of ultrasonic cavitation erosion on corrosion behavior of high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) sprayed near-nanostructured WC-10Co-4Cr coating.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sheng; Wu, Yuping; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Yugui; Qin, Yujiao; Lin, Jinran

    2015-11-01

    The effect of ultrasonic cavitation erosion on electrochemical corrosion behavior of high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) sprayed near-nanostructured WC-10Co-4Cr coating in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, was investigated using free corrosion potential, potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in comparison with stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti. The results showed that cavitation erosion strongly enhanced the cathodic current density, shifted the free corrosion potential in the anodic direction, and reduced the magnitude of impedance of the coating. The impedance of the coating decreased more slowly under cavitation conditions than that of the stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti, suggesting that corrosion behavior of the coating was less affected by cavitation erosion than that of the stainless steel. PMID:26186856

  14. High-Temperature Exposure Studies of HVOF-Sprayed Cr3C2-25(NiCr)/(WC-Co) Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harpreet; Kaur, Manpreet; Prakash, Satya

    2016-08-01

    In this research, development of Cr3C2-25(NiCr) + 25%(WC-Co) composite coating was done and investigated. Cr3C2-25(NiCr) + 25%(WC-Co) composite powder [designated as HP2 powder] was prepared by mechanical mixing of [75Cr3C2-25(NiCr)] and [88WC-12Co] powders in the ratio of 75:25 by weight. The blended powders were used as feedstock to deposit composite coating on ASTM SA213-T22 substrate using High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) spray process. High-temperature oxidation/corrosion behavior of the bare and coated boiler steels was investigated at 700 °C for 50 cycles in air, as well as, in Na2SO4-82%Fe2(SO4)3 molten salt environment in the laboratory. Erosion-corrosion behavior was investigated in the actual boiler environment at 700 ± 10 °C under cyclic conditions for 1500 h. The weight-change technique was used to establish the kinetics of oxidation/corrosion/erosion-corrosion. X-ray diffraction, field emission-scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and EDS elemental mapping techniques were used to analyze the exposed samples. The uncoated boiler steel suffered from a catastrophic degradation in the form of intense spalling of the scale in all the environments. The oxidation/corrosion/erosion-corrosion resistance of the HVOF-sprayed HP2 coating was found to be better in comparison with standalone Cr3C2-25(NiCr) coating. A simultaneous formation of protective phases might have contributed the best properties to the coating.

  15. Mechanical and Tribological Properties of HVOF-Sprayed (Cr3C2-NiCr+Ni) Composite Coating on Ductile Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiazek, Marzanna; Boron, Lukasz; Radecka, Marta; Richert, Maria; Tchorz, Adam

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the investigations was to compare the microstructure, mechanical, and wear properties of Cr3C2-NiCr+Ni and Cr3C2-NiCr coatings deposited by HVOF technique (the high-velocity oxygen fuel spray process) on ductile cast iron. The effect of nickel particles added to the chromium carbide coating on mechanical and wear behavior in the system of Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr+Ni/ductile cast iron was analyzed in order to improve the lifetime of coated materials. The structure with particular emphasis of characteristic of the interface in the system of composite coating (Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr+Ni)/ductile cast iron was studied using the optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopes, as well as the analysis of chemical and phase composition in microareas. Experimental results show that HVOF-sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr+Ni composite coating exhibits low porosity, high hardness, dense structure with large, partially molten Ni particles and very fine Cr3C2 and Cr7C3 particles embedded in NiCr alloy matrix, coming to the size of nanocrystalline. The results were discussed in reference to examination of bending strength considering cracking and delamination in the system of composite coating (Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr+Ni)/ductile cast iron as well as hardness and wear resistance of the coating. The composite structure of the coating provides the relatively good plasticity of the coating, which in turn has a positive effect on the adhesion of coating to the substrate and cohesion of the composite coating (Cr3C2-NiCr+Ni) in wear conditions.

  16. Mechanical and Tribological Properties of HVOF-Sprayed (Cr3C2-NiCr+Ni) Composite Coating on Ductile Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiazek, Marzanna; Boron, Lukasz; Radecka, Marta; Richert, Maria; Tchorz, Adam

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the investigations was to compare the microstructure, mechanical, and wear properties of Cr3C2-NiCr+Ni and Cr3C2-NiCr coatings deposited by HVOF technique (the high-velocity oxygen fuel spray process) on ductile cast iron. The effect of nickel particles added to the chromium carbide coating on mechanical and wear behavior in the system of Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr+Ni/ductile cast iron was analyzed in order to improve the lifetime of coated materials. The structure with particular emphasis of characteristic of the interface in the system of composite coating (Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr+Ni)/ductile cast iron was studied using the optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopes, as well as the analysis of chemical and phase composition in microareas. Experimental results show that HVOF-sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr+Ni composite coating exhibits low porosity, high hardness, dense structure with large, partially molten Ni particles and very fine Cr3C2 and Cr7C3 particles embedded in NiCr alloy matrix, coming to the size of nanocrystalline. The results were discussed in reference to examination of bending strength considering cracking and delamination in the system of composite coating (Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr+Ni)/ductile cast iron as well as hardness and wear resistance of the coating. The composite structure of the coating provides the relatively good plasticity of the coating, which in turn has a positive effect on the adhesion of coating to the substrate and cohesion of the composite coating (Cr3C2-NiCr+Ni) in wear conditions.

  17. High-Temperature Exposure Studies of HVOF-Sprayed Cr3C2-25(NiCr)/(WC-Co) Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harpreet; Kaur, Manpreet; Prakash, Satya

    2016-06-01

    In this research, development of Cr3C2-25(NiCr) + 25%(WC-Co) composite coating was done and investigated. Cr3C2-25(NiCr) + 25%(WC-Co) composite powder [designated as HP2 powder] was prepared by mechanical mixing of [75Cr3C2-25(NiCr)] and [88WC-12Co] powders in the ratio of 75:25 by weight. The blended powders were used as feedstock to deposit composite coating on ASTM SA213-T22 substrate using High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) spray process. High-temperature oxidation/corrosion behavior of the bare and coated boiler steels was investigated at 700 °C for 50 cycles in air, as well as, in Na2SO4-82%Fe2(SO4)3 molten salt environment in the laboratory. Erosion-corrosion behavior was investigated in the actual boiler environment at 700 ± 10 °C under cyclic conditions for 1500 h. The weight-change technique was used to establish the kinetics of oxidation/corrosion/erosion-corrosion. X-ray diffraction, field emission-scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and EDS elemental mapping techniques were used to analyze the exposed samples. The uncoated boiler steel suffered from a catastrophic degradation in the form of intense spalling of the scale in all the environments. The oxidation/corrosion/erosion-corrosion resistance of the HVOF-sprayed HP2 coating was found to be better in comparison with standalone Cr3C2-25(NiCr) coating. A simultaneous formation of protective phases might have contributed the best properties to the coating.

  18. Characterization and Evaluation of Cyclic Hot Corrosion Resistance of Detonation-Gun Sprayed Ni-5Al Coatings on Inconel-718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saladi, Sekar; Menghani, Jyoti V.; Prakash, Satya

    2015-06-01

    The high temperature hot corrosion behavior of bare and detonation-gun-sprayed Ni-5Al coatings on Ni-based superalloy Inconel-718 is comparatively discussed in the present study. Hot corrosion studies were carried out at 900 °C for 100 cycles in Na2SO4-60% V2O5 molten salt environment under cyclic heating and cooling conditions. The thermo-gravimetric technique was used to establish the kinetics of hot corrosion. X-ray diffraction, SEM/EDAX, and X-ray mapping techniques were used to analyze the hot corrosion products of bare and coated superalloys. The results indicate that Ni-5Al-coated superalloy showed very good hot corrosion resistance. The overall weight gain and parabolic rate constant of Ni-5Al-coated superalloy were less in comparison with the bare superalloy. The D-gun-sprayed Ni-5Al coating was found to be uniform, adherent, and dense in hot corrosion environment. The formation of nickel- and aluminum-rich oxide scale might have contributed for the better hot corrosion resistance of the coated superalloy.

  19. Corrosion and Wear Studies of Cr3C2NiCr-HVOF Coatings Sprayed on AA7050 T7 Under Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, M.; Suegama, P. H.; Espallargas, N.; Fugivara, C. S.; Dosta, S.; Guilemany, J. M.; Benedetti, A. V.

    2009-09-01

    In this work, cermet coatings were prepared by high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) technique using a Diamalloy 3007 powder. The influence of the spray parameters on corrosion, friction, and abrasive wear resistance was studied. The samples were obtained using the standard conditions (253 L/min of oxygen and 375 L/min of compressed air), higher oxygen flux (341 L/min), and higher carrier gas flux (500 L/min). The coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray diffraction and SEM studies showed well-bounded coating/substrate interface, pores, metallic matrix, chromium oxides, carbides, and carbides dissolution into the matrix. In comparison with the standard condition, the sample prepared using higher oxygen flux showed the highest carbide dissolution because of the high temperature achieved in the spray process. When the carrier gas flux was increased, the sample showed denser structure because of the higher particle velocity. The friction and abrasive wear resistance of the coatings were studied using rubber wheel and ball-on-disk tests. All samples showed similar sliding and abrasive behavior, and all of them showed better performance than the aluminum alloy. The electrochemical behavior was evaluated using open-circuit potential ( E OC) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic polarization curves. The coating prepared with higher carrier gas flux showed the highest corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution and probably no pitting attack to the substrate occurred even after around 26 h of test. Tests performed for longer immersion times showed that the total impedance values significantly decreased (6 and 4 times) for samples sprayed using standard and higher oxygen flux, and no great change for sample sprayed using higher carrier gas flux was observed. The last sample presents a corrosion resistance around 200 times higher than the others.

  20. Effect of composition and corrosion properties of the metallic matrix on the erosion-corrosion behavior of HVOF sprayed WC-coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rogne, T.; Solem, T.; Berget, J.

    1998-12-31

    In corrosive media the wear resistance of ceramic-metallic coatings is dependent on the corrosion resistance of the metal matrix. Other factors that will affect the coating deterioration are the corrosivity of the medium and any galvanic interaction from the surrounding material. This paper presents results from a study where different types of WC(Co/Cr/Mo/Ni) powders have been sprayed by HVOF, Diamond Jet 2600 Hybrid equipment. The properties of the sprayed coatings have been verified by metallographic studies and by erosion-corrosion testing both under corrosive and non-corrosive conditions. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of having a metal matrix at least as corrosion resistance as the surrounding materials. When wear exposed components in pipe systems, pumps or valves are coated with a WC type coating, the corrosion resistance of the metal matrix should be compatible to the material of the rest of the system. This is especially important when the surrounding materials are corrosion resistant alloys as stainless steels, where the coatings otherwise will act as an anode. This work is relevant for field production equipment in the oil and gas industry.

  1. Influence of Fine Powder Feedstock (-10 + 2 μm) on the HVOF Spraying Characteristics, Coating Morphology, and Properties of WC-CoCr 86-10-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, W.; Nebel, J.; Piotrowski, W.

    2013-03-01

    The use of fine feedstock powder can extend the feasibility and scope of HVOF coatings to new fields of applications. Especially for the purpose of near-net-shape coatings, these powders facilitate homogeneous layer morphologies, and smooth coating surfaces. However, the small particle sizes also lead to several challenges. One major issue is the in-flight behavior which is distinctly affected by the low mass and relatively large specific surface of the particles. In this paper, the in-flight and coating characteristics of WC-CoCr 86-10-4 (-10 + 2 μm) were investigated. It was determined that the fine powder feedstock shows a high sensitivity to the gas flow, velocity, and temperature of the spray jet. Because of their low mass inertia, their velocity, for example, is actually influenced by local pressure nodes (shock diamonds) in the supersonic flow. Additionally, the relatively large specific surface of the particles promotes partial overheating and degradation. Nevertheless, the morphological and mechanical properties of the sprayed layer are hardly affected. In fact, the coatings feature a superior surface roughness, porosity, hardness, and wear resistance.

  2. The effect of HVOF sprayed coatings on the elevated temperature high cycle fatigue behavior of a martensitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    This study reports the influence of three High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) applied coatings on the high cycle fatigue resistance of a martensitic stainless steel substrate at room and elevated temperatures. It was found that chromium carbide and tungsten carbide coated specimens exhibited significantly lower fatigue capability compared to the substrate material at elevated temperatures while IN625 coated specimens exhibited a small beneficial effect. An attempt is made to explain the observed behavior in terms of elastic modulus mismatch, thermal expansion mismatch, residual stress and coating/substrate properties. It is concluded that coated metallic components must be analyzed as composite structures and that data generated for design properties must be performed on specimens which represent the geometry and characteristics of intended component.

  3. Effect of Water Vapor on the 1100oC Oxidation Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed TBCs with HVOF NiCoCrAlX Bond Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, James A; Unocic, Kinga A; Pint, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    With the goal of investigating the reported detrimental effect of water vapor on thermal barrier coating (TBC) performance, furnace cycle experiments were conducted in dry O2 and air with 10 and 50% water vapor at 1100 C. The TBC systems evaluated were air plasma-sprayed (APS), yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coatings with high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF)-deposited NiCoCrAlY or NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coating. Average TBC lifetime was reduced by ~30% in air with 10% water vapor compared to cycling in dry O2, using 1h cycle durations. Superalloy substrates with Y and La additions also were investigated but showed no statistical change in the average TBC lifetime compared to the base CMSX4 superalloy. In all cases, the bond coating with Hf and Si additions increased YSZ lifetime by 20% or more. Experiments that increased water vapor to 50% showed no further decrease in TBC lifetime. Increasing the cycle frequency to 100h resulted in a large increase in TBC lifetime, especially for the NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coatings. Co-doping the NiCoCrAl bond coat with Y and Hf was beneficial to TBC lifetime, but did not mitigate the detrimental impact of water vapor.

  4. Synergistic effect of ultrasonic cavitation erosion and corrosion of WC-CoCr and FeCrSiBMn coatings prepared by HVOF spraying.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sheng; Wu, Yuping; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Yugui; Zheng, Yuan; Lin, Jinran

    2016-07-01

    The high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) spraying process was used to fabricate conventional WC-10Co-4Cr coatings and FeCrSiBMn amorphous/nanocrystalline coatings. The synergistic effect of cavitation erosion and corrosion of both coatings was investigated. The results showed that the WC-10Co-4Cr coating had better cavitation erosion-corrosion resistance than the FeCrSiBMn coating in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. After eroded for 30 h, the volume loss rate of the WC-10Co-4Cr coating was about 2/5 that of the FeCrSiBMn coating. In the total cumulative volume loss rate under cavitation erosion-corrosion condition, the pure cavitation erosion played a key role for both coatings, and the total contribution of pure corrosion and erosion-induced corrosion of the WC-10Co-4Cr coating was larger than that of the FeCrSiBMn coating. Mechanical effect was the main factor for cavitation erosion-corrosion behavior of both coatings. PMID:26964984

  5. Ultrasonic cavitation erosion of high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) sprayed near-nanostructured WC-10Co-4Cr coating in NaCl solution.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sheng; Wu, Yuping; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Yugui; Qin, Yujiao; Lin, Jinran

    2015-09-01

    The high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) spraying process was used to prepare near-nanostructured WC-10Co-4Cr coating. The cavitation erosion behavior and mechanism of the coating in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the amorphous phase and WC grain were present in the coating. The cavitation erosion resistance of the coating was about 1.27 times that of the stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti under the same testing conditions. The effects of erosion time on the microstructural evolution were discussed. It was revealed that cracks initiated at the edge of pre-existing pores and propagated along the carbide-binder interface, leading to the pull-out of carbide particle and the formation of pits and craters on the surface. The main failure mechanism of the coating was erosion of the binder phases, brittle detachment of hard phases and formation of pitting corrosion products. PMID:25617967

  6. Evaluation of Cyclic Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed WC-Co/NiCrAlY Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somasundaram, B.; Kadoli, Ravikiran; Ramesh, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    Corrosion of metallic structural materials at an elevated temperature in complex multicomponent gas environments are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. Combating these problems involves a number of approaches, one of which is the use of protective coatings. The high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) process has been used to deposit WC-Co/NiCrAlY composite powder on two types of Fe-based alloys. Thermocyclic oxidation behavior of coated alloys was investigated in the static air as well as in molten salt (Na2SO4-60%V2O5) environment at 700 °C for 50 cycles. The thermogravimetric technique was used to approximate the kinetics of oxidation. WC-Co/NiCrAlY coatings showed a lower oxidation rate in comparison to uncoated alloys. The oxidation resistance of WC-Co/NiCrAlY coatings can be ascribed to the oxide layer of Al2O3 and Cr2O3 formed on the outermost surface. Coated alloys extend a protective oxide scale composed of oxides of Ni and Cr that are known to impart resistance to the hot corrosion in the molten salt environment.

  7. Erosion behaviour of WC-10Co-4Cr coating on 23-8-N nitronic steel by HVOF thermal spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kumar, Avnish; Sharma, Ashok; Goel, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr coating was deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process on cast and solution treated (1220 °C/150 min) 23-8-N nitronic steel substrates. Solution treated substrate has shown higher toughness, ductility and impact energy with a marginal reduction in hardness as compared to cast substrate. This influence the coating deposition efficiency and erosion behaviour. Erosion resistance of coatings was evaluated by air jet erosion tester on two different impact angles (30° and 90°). Phases, microstructure and eroded surface of the coating were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) respectively. It is observed that coating on solution treated substrate was superior to cast substrate. The reason being that coating has dense and well-bonded structure with low porosity, less decarburization and inter-splat oxidation. Higher erosion resistance of coated solution treated 23-8-N nitronic steel was attributed to combination of high fracture toughness and hardness of coating including optimum mechanical properties of the substrate. FESEM analysis reveals that erosion response of WC-10Co-4Cr coating also dependent on the relative size of the impact crater with respect to the WC grain size. Coating is removed by combined mode of ductile and brittle erosion.

  8. Thermal spraying of nanocrystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Maggy L.

    The present research addresses the fundamental synergism between thermal spray synthesis, microstructural evolution and mechanical behavior of Ni, Inconel 718 and Fe based 316-stainless steel nanocrystalline materials. Nanocrystalline Ni powders produced by mechanical milling in liquid nitrogen were investigated under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Significant grain growth occurred in the case of cryomilled Ni powders even when annealing at lower temperatures (equivalent to about 0.17 Tm), indicating the poor thermal stability of these powders. The activation energy for grain growth was calculated to be 146.2 kJ/mol. The values of the time exponent, n, were very close to 4.0, implying that grain growth was controlled by grain boundary diffusion mechanism. The grain growth behavior of the nanocrystalline Ni powders under non-isothermal annealing conditions showed good correspondence between the experimental results and the theoretical simulation. The grain growth behavior of the milled Inconel 718 powders and coatings, under isothermal annealing indicated that the nanocrystalline powders and coatings exhibited thermal stability against grain growth up to 1073 K (0.67Tm). The average grain sizes of methanol milled powders after annealing at 1273 K for 1 hr, cryomilled powders, HVOF coating of the methanol milled powders and HVOF coatings of the cryomilled Inconel 718 powders were 91, 84, 137 and 102 nm, respectively. In the present study, Zener pinning of nanoscale oxides of (Cr,Fe) contributed to the stability against grain growth during thermal annealing of the nanocrystalline Inconel 718 powders and coatings. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. Computational analysis of a three-dimensional High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) Thermal Spray torch

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, B.; Lopez, A.R.; Oberkampf, W.L.

    1995-07-01

    An analysis of a High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel Thermal Spray torch is presented using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Three-dimensional CFD results are presented for a curved aircap used for coating interior surfaces such as engine cylinder bores. The device analyzed is similar to the Metco Diamond Jet Rotating Wire torch, but wire feed is not simulated. To the authors` knowledge, these are the first published 3-D results of a thermal spray device. The feed gases are injected through an axisymmetric nozzle into the curved aircap. Argon is injected through the center of the nozzle. Pre-mixed propylene and oxygen are introduced from an annulus in the nozzle, while cooling air is injected between the nozzle and the interior wall of the aircap. The combustion process is modeled assuming instantaneous chemistry. A standard, two-equation, K-{var_epsilon} turbulence model is employed for the turbulent flow field. An implicit, iterative, finite volume numerical technique is used to solve the coupled conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations for the gas in a sequential manner. Flow fields inside and outside the aircap are presented and discussed.

  10. Hot Corrosion Studies of HVOF-Sprayed Coating on T-91 Boiler Tube Steel at Different Operating Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Singh, Hazoor; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the usefulness of high velocity oxy fuel-sprayed 75% Cr3C2-25% (Ni-20Cr) coating to control hot corrosion of T-91 boiler tube steel at different operating temperatures viz 550, 700, and 850 °C. The deposited coatings on the substrates exhibit nearly uniform, adherent and dense microstructure with porosity less than 2%. Thermogravimetry technique is used to study the high temperature hot corrosion behavior of uncoated and coated samples. The corrosion products of the coating on the substrate are analyzed by using XRD, SEM, and FE-SEM/EDAX to reveal their microstructural and compositional features for the corrosion mechanisms. It is found that the coated specimens have shown minimum weight gain at all the operating temperatures when compared with uncoated T-91 samples. Hence, coating is effective in decreasing the corrosion rate in the given molten salt environment. Oxides and spinels of nickel-chromium may be the reason for successful resistance against hot corrosion.

  11. Microstructural Characterization and Tribological Behavior of HVOF Sprayed NiMoAl Coating from 20 to 800 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Zhou, Huidi; Zhao, Xiaoqin; Chen, Jianmin; An, Yulong; Yan, Fengyuan

    2015-02-01

    NiMoAl coating was deposited by high velocity oxy-fuel spraying from gas-atomized powders and its tribological properties from 20 to 800 °C under unlubricated conditions were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the coating and corresponding wear tracks to determine the lubrication mechanisms. The friction coefficient of NiMoAl coating that decreased gradually with the increase of temperature exhibited the highest value of 0.8 at 20 °C and the lowest value of 0.29 at 800 °C. Meanwhile, NiMoAl coating also possessed an excellent anti-wear property and the wear rate of the coating maintained at a relatively low value at all test temperatures. Characterizations of worn surfaces revealed that the coating suffered abrasive wear at the low temperature. When the temperature elevated to 600 and 800 °C, molybdenum oxide and nickel molybdate that were formed through tribo-chemistry reactions acted as lubricants at the high temperature. In addition, NiMoAl coating experienced no obvious oxidation or phase transition on the unrubbed surface during the friction test at 800 °C, indicating that the coating performed both thermal stability and lubrication function at the high temperature.

  12. Microstructure and Properties of HVOF-Sprayed NiCrAlY Coatings Modified by Rare Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. F.; Liu, S. Y.; Wang, Y.; Sun, X. G.; Zou, Z. W.; Li, X. W.; Wang, C. H.

    2014-06-01

    Rare earth (RE)-modified NiCrAlY powders were prepared by ultrasonic gas atomization and deposited on stainless steel substrate by high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying. The effects of the RE on the microstructure, properties, and thermal shock resistance of the NiCrAlY coatings were investigated. The results showed that the NiCrAlY powders were refined and distributed uniformly after adding RE, while the number of unmelted particles in the coatings was reduced. Moreover, the RE-modified coatings showed improved microhardness and distribution uniformity. The microhardness of the coating reached a maximum after adding 0.9 wt.% RE, being 34.4 % higher than that of coatings without RE. The adhesive strength increased and reached a maximum after adding 0.6 wt.% RE, being 18.8 % higher than that of coatings without RE. Excessive RE decreased the adhesive strength. The thermal cycle life of NiCrAlY coatings increased drastically with RE addition. The coating with 0.9 wt.% RE showed optimum thermal shock resistance, being 21.2 % higher than that of coatings without RE.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wire-feed, high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray torch

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.R.; Hassan, B.; Oberkampf, W.L.; Neiser, R.A.; Roemer, T.J.

    1996-09-01

    The fluid and particle dynamics of a High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel Thermal Spray torch are analyzed using computational and experimental techniques. Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results are presented for a curved aircap used for coating interior surfaces such as engine cylinder bores. The device analyzed is similar to the Metco Diamond Jet Rotating Wire (DJRW) torch. The feed gases are injected through an axisymmetric nozzle into the curved aircap. Premixed propylene and oxygen are introduced from an annulus in the nozzle, while cooling air is injected between the nozzle and the interior wall of the aircap. The combustion process is modeled using a single-step finite-rate chemistry model with a total of 9 gas species which includes dissociation of combustion products. A continually-fed steel wire passes through the center of the nozzle and melting occurs at a conical tip near the exit of the aircap. Wire melting is simulated computationally by injecting liquid steel particles into the flow field near the tip of the wire. Experimental particle velocity measurements during wire feed were also taken using a Laser Two-Focus (L2F) velocimeter system. Flow fields inside and outside the aircap are presented and particle velocity predictions are compared with experimental measurements outside of the aircap.

  14. A Study on the Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of Detonation-Gun-Sprayed Ni-5Al Coatings on Inconel-718 at 900 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saladi, Sekar; Menghani, Jyoti; Prakash, Satya

    2014-12-01

    Cyclic oxidation behavior of detonation-gun-sprayed Ni-5Al coating on Inconel-718 is discussed in the present study. Oxidation studies were carried out on both bare and coated superalloy substrates in air at 900 °C for 100 cycles. The thermogravimetric technique was used to establish kinetics of oxidation. X-ray diffraction, FESEM/EDAX, and x-ray mapping techniques were used to analyze the oxidation products of bare and coated samples. The weight gain of bare superalloy was higher than the Ni-5Al-coated superalloy. Both bare and Ni-5Al-coated superalloys followed nearly parabolic oxidation behavior. The Ni-5Al coating was able to reduce the overall weight gain by 26.2% in comparison with bare superalloy in the given environment. The better oxidation resistance of Ni-5Al coating may be due the formation of protective oxides phases such as NiO, Al2O3, and NiAl2O4 on the oxidized coating and Cr2O3 at the coating-substrate interface. The Ni-5Al coatings obtained from detonation-gun-spraying process showed very little porosity and low surface roughness values.

  15. HVOF: Particle, flame diagnostics and coating characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalsky, K.A.; Marantz, D.R. ); Smith, M.F.; Oberkampf, W.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Dual focus laser velocimetry (L2F), photographic techniques, and pressure measurements were used to investigate particle and flame characteristics of a high velocity oxygen/fuel (HVOF) flame spray gun known as CDS''. Velocities of alumina, tungsten carbide, and Triballoy particles within the HVOF effluent stream have been measured using L2F techniques. Photographs of the exiting gases were used to determine the local Mach numbers within the gas stream. Measurements of Mach angles in the photographs were used to determine the actual gas velocity in the free jet of the device. Pressure measurements were made on the HVOF device which enabled calculations of the gas content, R, and the specific heat ratio, {kappa}. These calculations combined with estimates of gas temperature are used to calculate gas velocities at Mach 1 (nozzle exit). The HVOF device was used to produce dense WC/12 wt. % Co and Triballoy T-400 coatings. For the two gas flow conditions examined, higher hardness values and densities were observed for coatings deposited at the higher gas flow rates. 1 ref., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. A pragmatic analysis and comparison of HVOF processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, M. L.; Richter, H. J.

    1992-06-01

    A number of high-velocity oxygen-fuel flame (HVOF) systems have evolved during the last 9 years. The most advanced is now challenging the coating qualities produced by the very successful detonation (D-Gun) process. The fundamentals of these various processes are described and compared. A mathematical analysis of an established HVOF gun is profiled. Gas and particle temperatures, velocities, pressures, and Mach numbers are calculated and plotted at various points within the gun and spray stream. Significantly, all measured values were in close agreement with calculated and predicted values. Flow patterns and shock-wave phenomena are also described and compared with actual observations.

  17. In-Service Evaluation of HVOF Coated Main Landing Gear on Navy P-3 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, jon L.; Forrest, Clint

    2008-01-01

    Due to the environmental and health concerns with Electroplated Hard Chrome (EHC), the Hard Chrome Alternatives Team (HCAT) has been working to provide an alternative wear coating for EHC. The US Navy selected Tungsten-Carbide Cobalt (WC- 17Co) High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating for this purpose and completed service evaluations on select aircraft components to support the HCAT charter in identifying an alternative wear coating for chrome plating. Other benefits of WC-Co thermal spray coatings over EHC are enhanced corrosion resistance, improved durability, and exceptional wear properties. As part of the HCAT charter and to evaluate HVOF coatings on operational Navy components, the P-3 aircraft was selected for a service evaluation to determine the coating durability as compared to chrome plating. In April 1999, a VP-30 P-3 aircraft was outfitted with a right-hand Main Landing Gear (MLG) shock strut coated with WCCo HYOF thermal spray applied to the piston barrel and four axle journals. The HVOF coating on the piston barrel and axle journals was applied by Southwest United Industries, Inc. This HVOF coated strut assembly has since completed 6,378 landings. Teardown analysis .for this WC-Co HVOF coated MLG asset is significant in assessing the durability of this wear coating in service relative to EHC and to substantiate Life Cycle Cost (LCC) data to support a retrograde transition from EHC to HVOF thermal spray coatings. Findings from this teardown analysis may also benefit future transitions to HVOF thermal spray coatings by identifying enhancements to finishing techniques, mating bearing and liner material improvements, improved seal materials, and improvements in HVOF coating selection.

  18. HVOF repair of steering rams for the USS Saipan

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, A.L.; Jones, S.A.; Wykle, R.J.; McCaw, B.; Hays, R.

    1995-12-31

    The steering rams aboard the USS Saipan (LHA-2) were badly corroded after 18 years of service. These rams are hydraulically operated and change the angle of the ship`s rudder. This corrosion allowed excessive leaking of hydraulic fluid into the machinery space. Permanent repairs were required as the ship has more than 20 years of service life remaining. Two methods of repair were considered, chrome plating and a HVOF applied coating. The size, 13 in. diameter and 15 ft in length, posed a significant problem for either process. The cost of the repair was similar but the time for completion was better with the HVOF process since chrome plating would have to be accomplished off yard. The HVOF process was not available within the shipyard at the time and the process and material to be used had not been approved. Extensive testing was required to get approval to proceed, a facility to accomplish the work had to be built, and the operators and HVOF procedure had to be qualified. After completion of spraying, single point machining and honing was used to obtain the required surface finish. This was the largest single HVOF coating applied by the Navy and great interest to all concerned.

  19. Development of Processing Windows for HVOF Carbide-Based Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Andrew Siao Ming; Howse, Hugo; Wade, Scott A.; Berndt, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Optimized processing windows for spraying high-quality metal carbide-based coatings are developed using particle diagnostic technology. The cermet coatings were produced via the high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray process and are proposed for service applications such as marine hydraulics. The traditional "trial and error" method for developing coating process parameters is not technically robust, as well as being costly and time consuming. Instead, this contribution investigated the use of real-time monitoring of parameters associated with the HVOF flame jets and particles using in-flight particle diagnostics. Subsequently, coatings can be produced with knowledge concerning the molten particle size, temperature, and velocity profile. The analytical results allow identification of optimized coating process windows, which translate to coatings of lower porosity and improved mechanical performance.

  20. High temperature intermetallic binders for HVOF carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, K.G.; Gruninger, M.F.; Jarosinski, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Gas turbines technology has a long history of employing the desirable high temperature physical attributes of ceramic-metallic (cermet) materials. The most commonly used coatings incorporate combinations of WC-Co and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr, which have also been successfully utilized in other non-turbine coating applications. Increased turbine operating temperatures and other high temperature service conditions have made apparent the attractive notion of increasing the temperature capability and corrosion resistance of these coatings. In this study the intermetallic binder NiAl has been used to replace the cobalt and NiCr constituents of conventional WC and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} cermet powders. The composite carbide thermal spray powders were fabricated for use in the HVOF coating process. The structure of HVOF deposited NiAl-carbide coatings are compared directly to the more familiar WC-Co and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coatings using X-ray diffraction, back-scattered electron imaging (BEI) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Hardness variations with temperature are reported and compared between the NiAl and Co/NiCr binders.

  1. High-Power Diode Laser Surface Treated HVOF Coating to Combat High Energy Particle Impact Wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, B. S.; Arya, Vivek; Pant, B. K.

    2013-07-01

    High-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF)-sprayed coatings have performed exceptionally well in low-energy particle impact wear and are accepted worldwide. However, their application for high-energy particle impact wear (HEPIW) requires a different approach and more efforts. HVOF-coating systems typically use WC-Co, WC-Co-Cr, WC-Ni-Cr, and FeCrAlY-Cr3C2 powders. WC-Co-Cr powders are preferred when there is a high demand for corrosion resistance. WC-10Co-4Cr coating powder has been selected in the current study. To improve coating properties such as microhardness, fracture toughness, and HEPIW resistance, a new approach of surface treatment with robotically controlled high-power diode laser (HPDL) is attempted. The robotically controlled HVOF-coating deposition and laser surface treatment were monitored using real-time diagnostic control. The HPDL-treated coating has been compared with "as-sprayed" HVOF coating for HEPIW resistance, fracture toughness, microhardness and microstructure. The coating characteristics and properties after laser surface treatment have improved many times compared with "as-sprayed" HVOF coating. This is due to the elimination of pores in the coating and formation of a metallurgical bond between coating and substrate. This new development opens up a possibility of using such laser treatments in specialized areas where HEPIW damages are acute. The fracture toughness and HEPIW resistance along with optical micrographs of HPDL-treated and untreated HVOF coatings are discussed and reported in this article. HEPIW resistance is observed to be proportional to the product of fracture toughness and microhardness of the HVOF coating.

  2. Characteristics of MCrAlY coatings sprayed by high velocity oxygen-fuel spraying system

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Y.; Saitoh, M.; Tamura, M.

    2000-01-01

    High velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) spraying system in open air has been established for producing the coatings that are extremely clean and dense. It is thought that the HVOF sprayed MCrAlY (M is Fe, Ni and/or Co) coatings can be applied to provide resistance against oxidation and corrosion to the hot parts of gas turbines. Also, it is well known that the thicker coating can be sprayed in comparison with any other thermal spraying systems due to improved residual stresses. However, thermal and mechanical properties of HVOF coatings have not been clarified. Especially, the characteristics of residual stress, that are the most important property from the view point of production technique, have not been made clear. In this paper, the mechanical properties of HVOF sprayed MCrAlY coatings were measured in both the case of as-sprayed and heat-treated coatings in comparison with a vacuum plasma sprayed MCrAlY coatings. It was confirmed that the mechanical properties of HVOF sprayed MCrAlY coatings could be improved by a diffusion heat treatment to equate the vacuum plasma sprayed MCrAlY coatings. Also, the residual stress characteristics were analyzed using a deflection measurement technique and a X-ray technique. The residual stress of HVOF coating was reduced by the shot-peening effect comparable to that of a plasma spray system in open air. This phenomena could be explained by the reason that the HVOF sprayed MCrAlY coating was built up by poorly melted particles.

  3. Particle velocity measurements in HVOF and APS systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.; Smith, R.W.; Xiao, Z.; Hoffman, T.T.

    1994-12-31

    Production of reliable, repeatable coatings requires precise control of the process used to deposit them. Significant advances have recently been made in controlling the inputs to thermal spray processes, however, much work remains to be done to control process outputs and to correlate these with coatings characteristics. Thermal spray processes comprise the heating/melting, acceleration, impact, rapid solidification and incremental build-up of a large number of individual particles. Particle velocity is a key process parameter in determining coating properties such as density/porosity, bond strength and residual stress. Laser Stroboscopy and optical image analysis techniques have been used to image particles traveling in high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and air plasma spray (APS) jets. Results indicate that these techniques can be used to measure particle velocity, trajectory and velocity distribution(s) in thermal spray jets. mean particle velocities of {approximately}400 m/s and {approximately}100 m/s have been measured for HVOF and APS respectively.

  4. Oxygen partial pressure measurement in the HVOF gun tail flame

    SciTech Connect

    Korpiola, K.; Hirvonen, J.P.; Jalkanen, H.; Laas, L.; Rossi, F.

    1995-12-31

    An important aspect of the HVOF thermal spray process is the turbulent mixing of the spray jet with the surrounding air. The air mixing into the jet causes undesirable oxidation of the sprayed coating. In this paper a low cost and accurate method to determine the degree of air mixing is presented. This method was used to measure for the first time the partial pressure of oxygen in the thermal spray flame. The measuring method is based on electrochemical determination of oxygen potential in the tail flame using a solid electrolyte cell. The oxygen partial pressure in the HVOF-gun tail flame was measured with the fuel-to-oxygen ratio, the fuel flow rate and the stand-off distance as variables. The oxygen content of the tail flame was measured and found to vary between 4 to 17% depending on fuel to oxygen ratios and stand-off distances. Such high oxygen contents are several magnitudes too high if serious oxidation in the coating is to be avoided.

  5. Numerical simulation of gas and particle flow field characteristics in HVOF guns

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.; Eidelman, S.; Lottati, I.

    1995-12-31

    The particle flow field characteristics in an HVOF gun are examined using numerical simulation techniques. The authors consider the particle injection, acceleration, convection heat transfer, and particle barrel interaction processes in a TAFA JP-5000 HVOF gun. Details of particle trajectories and temperature history as a function of particle size and other parameters are simulated and analyzed. A parameter study is conducted for different particle size, particle injection direction, and particle velocity. The number of distinct particle injection regimes was predicted and analyzed. Particle velocity and temperature at the exit of the barrel are listed. Using numerical simulation, the injection condition can be designed as a function of the set of flow parameters as well as particle properties, including particle size and material properties, to optimize the thermal spray process. A companion paper by the same authors in this proceedings presents a comprehensive analysis of the gas flow conditions for the HVOF gun.

  6. Laser Surface Treatment of Stellite 6 Coating Deposited by HVOF on 316L Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoja-Razavi, Reza

    2016-07-01

    This research aimed to study the effects of laser glazing treatment on microstructure, hardness, and oxidation behavior of Stellite 6 coating deposited by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying. The as-sprayed Stellite 6 coating (ST-HVOF) was subjected to single-pass and multiple-pass laser treatments to achieve the optimum glazing parameters. Microstructural characterizations were performed by x-ray diffractometry and field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Two-step optimization showed that laser treatment at the power of 200 W with a scan rate of 4 mm/s causes a surface layer with a thickness of 208 ± 32 µm to be remelted, while the underlying layers retain the original ST-HVOF coating structure. The obtained sample (ST-Glazing) exhibited a highly dense and uniform structure with an extremely low porosity of ~0.3%, much lower than that of ST-HVOF coating (2.3%). The average microhardness of ST-Glazing was measured to be 519 Hv0.3 indicating a 17% decrease compared to ST-HVOF (625 Hv0.3) due to the residual stress relief and dendrite coarsening from submicron size to ~3.4 µm after laser treatment. The lowest oxidation mass gain was obtained for ST-Glazing by 2 mg/cm2 after 8 cycles at 900 °C indicating 52 and 84% improvement in oxidation resistance in comparison to ST-HVOF and bare 316L steel substrates, respectively.

  7. Laser Surface Treatment of Stellite 6 Coating Deposited by HVOF on 316L Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoja-Razavi, Reza

    2016-05-01

    This research aimed to study the effects of laser glazing treatment on microstructure, hardness, and oxidation behavior of Stellite 6 coating deposited by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying. The as-sprayed Stellite 6 coating (ST-HVOF) was subjected to single-pass and multiple-pass laser treatments to achieve the optimum glazing parameters. Microstructural characterizations were performed by x-ray diffractometry and field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Two-step optimization showed that laser treatment at the power of 200 W with a scan rate of 4 mm/s causes a surface layer with a thickness of 208 ± 32 µm to be remelted, while the underlying layers retain the original ST-HVOF coating structure. The obtained sample (ST-Glazing) exhibited a highly dense and uniform structure with an extremely low porosity of ~0.3%, much lower than that of ST-HVOF coating (2.3%). The average microhardness of ST-Glazing was measured to be 519 Hv0.3 indicating a 17% decrease compared to ST-HVOF (625 Hv0.3) due to the residual stress relief and dendrite coarsening from submicron size to ~3.4 µm after laser treatment. The lowest oxidation mass gain was obtained for ST-Glazing by 2 mg/cm2 after 8 cycles at 900 °C indicating 52 and 84% improvement in oxidation resistance in comparison to ST-HVOF and bare 316L steel substrates, respectively.

  8. Particle melting behavior during high-velocity oxygen fuel thermal spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Ice, M.; Lavernia, E.

    2001-03-01

    Particle melting behavior during high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying was investigated using Inconel 625 powders. The powder characteristics and coating properties were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray, and microhardness studies. Results indicated that the volume fraction of unmelted particles in the coatings was dependent on the proportion of powder within a specified size range, in these experiments, 30 to 50 µm. This particle size range was primarily determined by the particle temperature, which was measured during spraying. Particle temperature significantly decreased as particle size increased. The microhardness values for the coatings containing unmelted particles were predicted by a simple rule-of-mixtures equation for the case of a low volume fraction of unmelted particles. However, for the condition of high volume fraction of unmelted particles, the measured microhardness values did not compare favorably with the calculated values, probably due to the presence of porosity, which occurred in the form of voids found among unmelted particles. The microstructure and characteristics of the feedstock powder were retained in the corresponding coating under certain spray conditions.

  9. Influence of the multilayer coating obtained by the HVOF method on behavior of the steel barrier at dynamic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchenko, Pavel; Radchenko, Andrey; Batuev, Stanislav

    2013-06-01

    The high velocity (supersonic) oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray technology is a rather recent addition to family of thermal spray processes. This technique is considered most modern of technologies of spraying. The increase in velocity of the particles at lower temperatures allowed reducing level of oxidation of the particles and to increase the density of a powder coating. In HVOF dry dusting applicators of the first and second generations was used the cylindrical nozzle, whereas in the third generation expanding Laval nozzles are used. This method allows the velocity of a gas flow to exceed to 2000 m/sec, and the velocities of the powder particles 800 m/sec. Recently many results on elastic and strength properties of the multilayer coatings obtained by supersonic flame spraying method are received. But the main part of works on research of the coating obtained by the HVOF method is devoted to research of their stress-strain state at static loadings. In this work the behavior of the steel barrier with the multilayer coating applied by HVOF is researched, at dynamic loading of projectile structure at different velocities of interaction. The problem was solved numerically within Lagrangian approach, a finite element method with the use of the explicit finite difference scheme of G. Johnson.

  10. Hot corrosion behavior of Ni based Inconel 617 and Inconel 738 superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Awadi, G. A.; Abdel-Samad, S.; Elshazly, Ezzat S.

    2016-08-01

    Superalloys are extensively used at high temperature applications due to their good oxidation and corrosion resistance properties in addition to their high stability were made at high temperature. Experimental measurements of hot corrosion at high temperature of Inconel 617 and Inconel 738 superalloys. The experiments were carried out at temperatures 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C for different exposure times to up to 100 h. The corrosive media was NaCl and Na2SO4 sprayed on the specimens. Seven different specimens were used at each temperature. The corrosion process is endothermic and the spontaneity increased by increasing temperature. The activation energy was found to be Ea = 23.54 and Ea = 25.18 KJ/mol for Inconel 738 and Inconel 617 respectively. X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) was used to analyze the formed scale. The morphology of the specimen and scale were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the major corrosion products formed were NiCr2O4, and Co Cr2O4 spinles, in addition to Cr2O3.

  11. Carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum nanocomposite via plasma and high velocity oxy-fuel spray forming.

    PubMed

    Laha, T; Liu, Y; Agarwal, A

    2007-02-01

    Free standing structures of hypereutectic aluminum-23 wt% silicon nanocomposite with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) reinforcement have been successfully fabricated by two different thermal spraying technique viz Plasma Spray Forming (PSF) and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) Spray Forming. Comparative microstructural and mechanical property evaluation of the two thermally spray formed nanocomposites has been carried out. Presence of nanosized grains in the Al-Si alloy matrix and physically intact and undamaged carbon nanotubes were observed in both the nanocomposites. Excellent interfacial bonding between Al alloy matrix and MWCNT was observed. The elastic modulus and hardness of HVOF sprayed nanocomposite is found to be higher than PSF sprayed composites. PMID:17450788

  12. Analytical and mechanical testing of high velocity oxy-fuel thermal sprayed and plasma sprayed calcium phosphate coatings.

    PubMed

    Haman, J D; Chittur, K K; Crawmer, D E; Lucas, L C

    1999-01-01

    Plasma spraying (PS) is the most frequently used coating technique for implants; however, in other industries a cheaper, more efficient process, high-velocity oxy-fuel thermal spraying (HVOF), is in use. This process provides higher purity, denser, more adherent coatings than plasma spraying. The primary objective of this work was to determine if the use of HVOF could improve the mechanical properties of calcium phosphate coatings. Previous studies have shown that HVOF calcium phosphate coatings are more crystalline than plasma sprayed coatings. In addition, because the coatings are exposed to more complex loading profiles in vivo than standard ASTM tensile tests provide, a secondary objective of this study was to determine the applicability of four-point bend testing for these coatings. Coatings produced by HVOF and PS were analyzed by profilometry, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, four-point bend, and ASTM C633 tensile testing. HVOF coatings were found to have lower amorphous calcium phosphate content, higher roughness values, and lower ASTM C633 bond strengths than PS coatings; however, both coatings had similar crystal unit cell sizes, phases present (including hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and tetracalcium phosphate), and four-point bend bond strengths. Thus, the chemical, structural, and mechanical results of this study, in general, indicate that the use of HVOF to produce calcium phosphate coatings is equivalent to those produced by plasma spraying. PMID:10556851

  13. The elevated temperature erosion behavior of HVOF tungsten carbide cermet coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.Q.

    1995-12-31

    A series of elevated temperature erosion tests was carried out on HVOF Wc-17Co cermet coating specimens at 300 C and 450 C at particle velocities of 30 m/s and 60 m/s and at impact angles of 30{degree} and 90{degree}, using bed ashes and fly ashes retrieved from operating CFBC boilers. The elevated temperature erosion behavior of HVOF WC-17Co coatings was compared with those of AISI 1018 steel, and other thermal sprayed coatings including a HVOF 75%Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-25%NiCr cermet coating, an arc-sprayed FeCrSiB metallic coating and a flame-sprayed Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-6SiO{sub 2}-4Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic coating. The morphologies of specimens were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microhardness of the surface of the specimens was measured. It was found that the hardness of the coatings had no direct relationship with erosion-corrosion wastage and the erosion behavior of coatings is closely related to their microstructure and composition. In general, the coatings with larger splat size, coarse and heterogeneous structure, higher porosity and the presence of craze cracks or inclusions have the higher erosion wastage. However, the effect of microstructure of coatings on the erosion behavior varied with erosion test conditions.

  14. Properties of ``Sonarc`` sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Steffens, H.D.; Wilden, J.; Nassenstein, K.

    1995-12-31

    The combination of electric arc and HVOF-spraying offers a lot of opportunities to enlarge the field of application for thermal spray technology. If hard material powders are processed by HVOF and simultaneously metal wires by arc spraying, metal matrix composites (MMC) can be formed out. NiCr8020 and aluminum coatings were reinforced by applying various contents of SiC and tested by a taber abraser device. Beside the investigations of the microstructure and the determination of the volume percentage of the hard particle content bond strength tests according European standard EN 582 were carried out. Furthermore, the coatings were tested by corrosion tests. The results are compared to other coating systems and discussed in relation to the obtained microstructure.

  15. Rolling contact fatigue characteristics of thermal sprayed tungsten carbide coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Nieminen, R.; Vuoristo, P.; Niemi, K.; Maentylae, T.

    1995-12-31

    The rolling contact fatigue (RCF) behavior of tungsten carbide (WC) based cermet coatings (WC-12% Co) deposited by plasma and HVOF spraying was studied. The RCF testing was carried out with a two-roll configuration testing machine under unlubricated rolling conditions without sliding. Loads applied in the tests resulted to Hertzian contact pressures of 420--600 MPa. The influence of spraying method on the RCF behavior of the coatings was studied as a function of Hertzian contact stress. Plasma sprayed coating showed severe surface roughening and subsurface cracking of the coating under all studied load levels. HVOF sprayed coating behavior was clearly different from the plasma coating with smaller structural changes. HVOF coating retained its original surface roughness but vertical cracks penetrating the coating appeared in this coating.

  16. Current Status and Future Prospects of Warm Spray Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Seiji; Watanabe, Makoto; Kim, Keehyun; Katanoda, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    A modification of high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process named as warm spray (WS) has been developed. By injecting room temperature inert gas into the combustion gas jet of HVOF, the temperature of the propellant gas can be controlled in a range approximately from 2300 to 1000 K so that many powder materials can be deposited in thermally softened state at high impact velocity. In this review, the characteristics of WS process were analyzed by using gas dynamic simulation of the flow field and heating/acceleration of powder particles in comparison with HVOF, cold spray (CS), and high-velocity air-fuel (HVAF) spray. Transmission electron microscopy of WS and CS titanium splats revealed marked differences in the microstructures stemming from the different impact temperatures. Mechanical properties of several metallic coatings formed under different WS and CS conditions were compared. Characteristics of WC-Co coatings made by WS were demonstrated for wear resistant applications.

  17. Synthesis and Microstructural Evolution of Amorphous/Nanocrystalline Steel Coatings by Different Thermal-Spray Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadaraajan, V.; Guduru, Ramesh K.; Mohanty, P. S.

    2013-04-01

    Amorphous/nanocrystalline coatings are useful in high strength and wear-resistant applications. In the present study, the microstructural evolution of a nanocrystalline high performance steel coatings developed by different spray processes along with a novel "hybrid thermal spray" technique was studied. The hybrid-spray process combines arc and high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) techniques, in which the molten metal at the arcing tip is atomized and rapidly propelled toward the substrate by HVOF jet. This so-called hybrid concept offers the benefits of productivity of electric arc spray combined with improved coating densities of HVOF. The microstructural characterization of the hybrid-spray coatings was performed by x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry, and then compared with coatings of the similar material developed by plasma-, HVOF-, and arc-spray processes individually. The HVOF- and plasma-spray coatings showed amorphous structures with very fine nanocrystals embedded, whereas hybrid- and arc-spray techniques yielded completely crystalline coatings with grain size in the range of several nanometers. The final microstructures in different spray processes could be attributed to the precursor materials employed, process temperatures, and cooling rates during the deposition process.

  18. HVOF gas flow field characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Swank, W.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Haggard, D.C.; Irons, G.

    1994-12-31

    The effects of combustion chamber pressure and fuel/oxygen mixture ratio on the characteristics of a high pressure, supersonic HVOF gun are examined experimentally and theoretically. The measured temperature, velocity and entrained air fraction are obtained from an enthalpy probe/mass spectrometer system. Predictions of combustion chamber flame temperature and composition are calculated with an equilibrium combustion model. Nozzle and barrel exit conditions are calculated using a one-dimensional rocket performance model. The calculations are bounded by the assumption of frozen and equilibrium compositions. Comparisons between measurements and the predictions indicate that the flow field is far from chemical equilibrium. The aerodynamic force available for accelerating a particle is primarily controlled by the chamber pressure while the composition and temperature of the gas surrounding the particles is controlled by the mixture ratio.

  19. Method of producing thermally sprayed metallic coating

    DOEpatents

    Byrnes, Larry Edward; Kramer, Martin Stephen; Neiser, Richard A.

    2003-08-26

    The cylinder walls of light metal engine blocks are thermally spray coated with a ferrous-based coating using an HVOF device. A ferrous-based wire is fed to the HVOF device to locate a tip end of the wire in a high temperature zone of the device. Jet flows of oxygen and gaseous fuel are fed to the high temperature zone and are combusted to generate heat to melt the tip end. The oxygen is oversupplied in relation to the gaseous fuel. The excess oxygen reacts with and burns a fraction of the ferrous-based feed wire in an exothermic reaction to generate substantial supplemental heat to the HVOF device. The molten/combusted metal is sprayed by the device onto the walls of the cylinder by the jet flow of gases.

  20. Microfissuring of Inconel 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A tentative mathematical computer model of the microfissuring process during electron beam welding of Inconel 718 has been constructed. Predictions of the model are compatible with microfissuring tests on eight 0.25-in. thick test plates. The model takes into account weld power and speed, weld loss (efficiency), parameters and material characteristics. Besides the usual material characteristics (thermal and strength properties), a temperature and grain size dependent critical fracture strain is required by the model. The model is based upon fundamental physical theory (i.e., it is not a mere data interpolation system), and can be extended to other metals by suitable parameter changes.

  1. Effects of Laser Re-melting on the Corrosion Properties of HVOF Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Toor, I. H.; Patel, F.; Baig, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    HVOF coating of Inconel 625 powder on carbon steel is carried out. Laser melting of the resulting coating is realized to improve coating structural integrity. Morphological and microstructural changes are examined in the coating prior and after laser treatment process using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The residual stress developed is measured on the surface vicinity of the laser-treated coating using the XRD technique. The corrosion resistance of the laser-treated and untreated coating surfaces is measured, incorporating the potentiodynamic tests in 0.5 M NaCl aqueous solution. It is found that laser treatment reduces the pores and produces cellular structures with different sizes and orientations in the coating. Laser-controlled melting improves the corrosion resistance of the coating surface.

  2. Laser Treatment of HVOF Coating: Modeling and Measurement of Residual Stress in Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, A. F. M.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2008-10-01

    High-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coating of diamalloy 1005 (similar to Inconel 625 alloy) onto the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is considered and laser-controlled melting of the coating is examined. The residual stress developed after the laser treatment process is modeled using the finite element method (FEM). The experiment is conducted to melt the coating using a laser beam. The residual stress measurement in the coating after the laser treatment process is realized using the XRD technique. The morphological and metallurgical changes in the coating are examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It is found that the residual stress reduces at the coating-base material interface and the residual stress predicted agrees with the XRD measurements. A compact and crack-free coating is resulted after the laser treatment process.

  3. HVOF-Deposited WCCoCr as Replacement for Hard Cr in Landing Gear Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüero, A.; Camón, F.; García de Blas, J.; Del Hoyo, J. C.; Muelas, R.; Santaballa, A.; Ulargui, S.; Vallés, P.

    2011-12-01

    WCCoCr coatings deposited by HVOF can replace hard Cr on landing gear components. Powders with two different WC particle sizes (micro and nano-) and geometries have been employed to study the effects on the coating's properties. Moreover, coatings produced employing two sets of parameters resulting in high and low flame temperatures have been evaluated. Minor differences in microstructure and morphology were observed for the two powders employing the same spraying parameters, but the nano-sized powder exhibited a higher spraying efficiency. However, more significant microstructural changes result when the low- and high-energy spray parameters are used. Moreover, results of various tests which include adhesion, wear, salt fog corrosion resistance, liquid immersion, and axial fatigue strength, indicate that the coatings produced with high-energy flame are similar in behavior. On the other hand, the nanostructured low-energy flame coating exhibited a significantly lower salt fog corrosion resistance.

  4. Deposition of WC-Co Coatings by a Novel High Pressure HVOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Fukanuma, Hirokata

    2013-03-01

    WC-Co coatings are primarily deposited using the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray process. However, the decomposition and decarburization of carbides during spraying affects the wear performance and fracture toughness of the coatings. In this paper, a novel high pressure HVOF was developed to achieve lower particle temperature and higher particle velocity. It enables combustion chamber pressures up to 3.0 MPa. The influence of combustion chamber pressure and oxygen/fuel ratio on WC-Co particle velocity and temperature levels were analyzed by numerical simulation. The experimental results show that the combustion chamber pressure and the oxygen/fuel ratio have a significant influence on particle velocity and melting degree, as well as on the microstructure and microhardness of the coating. High velocity WC-Co particles in different states, i.e., molten, semi-molten, and non-molten can be readily obtained by changing the spraying conditions. A comparison to the conventional JP-5000 was also performed.

  5. The erosion-oxidation behavior of HVOF Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr cermet coating

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.Q.; Luer, K.

    1994-12-31

    DenSys DS-200 coating is a proprietary HVOF Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr cermet coating used in elevated temperature service environments including fluidized bed boilers, coal-fired boilers and municipal waste incinerators. The elevated temperature erosion-corrosion (oxidation) behavior of this HVOF Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coating was investigated using a range of test temperatures, impact angles, erodents, and particle velocities. The erosion-corrosion behavior of HVOF Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coatings was compared with 1018 steel and other thermal-spray coatings including FeCrSiB (Armacor M), Ni-base, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-6SiO{sub 2}-4Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Rokide C), Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-12SiO{sub 2}-2Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-4MgO (Rokide MBC), and WC-NiCrCo (SMI 712). It was found that the erosion-oxidation resistance of HVOF Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coating was higher than 1018 steel and other coatings at both impact angles 30{degree} and 90{degree}. The erosion-oxidation behavior of coatings was well related to their morphology. The high erosion-oxidation resistance of the HVOF Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coating was attributed to its low porosity, fine grain structure and homogeneous distribution of hard carbides/oxides which form a skeletal network within a ductile and corrosion-resistant metal binder.

  6. The future of thermal spray technology

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.W. ); Fast, R.D. )

    1994-07-01

    Thermal spray technology is emerging as an important processing tool for both surface protection and advanced materials forming. Despite the technology having been in use for over 100 years, much of its advancement, driven by aerospace applications, has occurred in the past 15 years. Increased understanding of process/structure/property relationships has resulted in the growing application of thermal spray coating technology resulting in new processes; for example, low-pressure plasma spray, high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) spray and reactive plasma spray. New equipment, automation and materials have been introduced. This article reviews many of the commercial thermal spray processes, borrowing from educational programs at ASM International and the Hobart Institute of Welding Technology, and reviews the applications and growth potential for emerging thermal spray processing technologies. A review of the needs in education and standardization and comparisons to programs on other countries is also presented.

  7. Strength of Rewelded Inconel 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, E.; Lovoy, C. V.; Mcllwain, M. C.; Munafo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Inconel 718, nickel-based alloy used extensively for high-temperature structural service, welded repeatedly without detriment to its strength. According to NASA report, tests show 12 repairs on same weld joint do not adversely affect ultimate tensile strenth, yield strength, fatigue strength, metallurgical grain structures, or ability of weld joint to respond to post weld heat treatments.

  8. HVOF coatings of Diamalloy 2002 and Diamalloy 4010 onto steel: Tensile and bending response of coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Shehri, Y. A.; Hashmi, M. S. J.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2011-01-17

    HVOF coating of Diamalloy 2002 powders and Diamalloy 4010 powders as well as two-layered coatings consisting of these powders is carried out. In the two-layered structure, Diamalloy 4010 is sprayed at the substrate surface while Diamalloy 2002 is sprayed on the top of Diamalloy 4010 coating. The mechanical properties of the coatings are examined through tensile and three-point bending tests. The coating microstructure and morphology are examined using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that the coating produced is free from defects including voids and cracks. The failure mechanism of coating during tensile and three-point bending tests is mainly crack formation and propagation in the coating. The elastic modulus of coating produced from Diamalloy 2002 is higher than that of Diamalloy 4010 coating, which is due to the presence of 12% WC in the coating.

  9. The effect of gas parameters on HVOF coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Creffield, G.K.; Cole, M.A.; White, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    The use of propane as a fuel gas for HVOF has been investigated in a series of spray tests to determine the effect of gas related parameters on the performance of WC-Co coatings. The effects of total gas flow (oxygen plus fuel gas) and oxygen/fuel ratio have been related to coating microstructure, oxide content, microhardness and abrasive wear resistance. The use of alternative fuel gas supply options for propane (or propylene) i.e. vapor withdrawal and liquid withdrawal via a vaporizer unit, have demonstrated potential problems with the former system. Reduced pressures resulting from the temperature reduction caused during vaporization in the vapor withdrawal method would lead to inferior coating performance. Additionally, vapor withdrawal will result in a changing composition of the gas supply as the cylinder contents are used up. This would be especially relevant to mixed fuel gas systems or fuels containing significant levels of other hydrocarbon impurities such as in the case of butane in propane. The liquid withdrawal supply option ensures adequate and consistent fuel gas pressure and flow rate and constant composition.

  10. Wear and impact resistance of HVOF sprayedceramic matrix composites coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prawara, B.; Martides, E.; Priyono, B.; Ardy, H.; Rikardo, N.

    2016-02-01

    Ceramic coating has the mechanical properties of high hardness and it is well known for application on wear resistance, but on the other hand the resistance to impact load is low. Therefore its use is limited to applications that have no impact loading. The aim of this research was to obtain ceramic-metallic composite coating which has improved impact resistance compared to conventional ceramic coating. The high impact resistance of ceramic-metallic composite coating is obtained from dispersed metallic alloy phase in ceramic matrix. Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) powder with chrome carbide (Cr3C2) base and ceramic-metal NiAl-Al2O3 with various particle sizes as reinforced particle was deposited on mild steel substrate with High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating. Repeated impact test showed that reinforced metallic phase size influenced impact resistance of CMC coating. The ability of CMC coating to absorb impact energy has improved eight times and ten times compared with original Cr3C2 and hard chrome plating respectively. On the other hand the high temperature corrosion resistance of CMC coating showed up to 31 cycles of heating at 800°C and water quenching cooling.

  11. Plasma spray processing of TBC`s

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, H.; Berndt, C.C.

    1995-10-01

    Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effectively apply TBC`s for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by vacuum plasma spray or HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Therefore, although the plasma spray of TBCs has been largely successful, it is clear that a major step forward in terms of reliability and performance can be gained by a fundamental understanding of the TBC microstructure with respect to the processing technology and operating environment.

  12. Thermal spray processing

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, H.; Berndt, C.C.

    1995-03-01

    Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effecticely apply TBC`s for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by plasma spray and HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Modeling the process, process-induced residual stresses, and thermal conductivity will be discussed in light of a new understanding of porosity and its anisotropy. Microcracking can be understood using new approaches, allowing a fuller view of the processing-performance connection. Detailed electron microscopic, novel neutron diffraction and fracture analysis of the deposits can lead to a better understanding of how overall microstructure can be controlled to influence critical properties of the deposited TBC system.

  13. Thermal spray processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, H.; Berndt, C. C.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effecticely apply TBC's for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by plasma spray and HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Modeling the process, process-induced residual stresses, and thermal conductivity will be discussed in light of a new understanding of porosity and its anisotropy. Microcracking can be understood using new approaches, allowing a fuller view of the processing-performance connection. Detailed electron microscopic, novel neutron diffraction and fracture analysis of the deposits can lead to a better understanding of how overall microstructure can be controlled to influence critical properties of the deposited TBC system.

  14. High-temperature corrosion and wear properties of HVOF coatings of cobalt-based (CoCr) surfacing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Raghu, D.; Lee, D.A.; Singh, P.M.

    1999-07-01

    High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying is extensively used in industry to produce high-density, low porosity functional coatings to resist severe wear and corrosion. Increasingly there is a need to provide high-quality coatings that resist both wear and corrosion at high temperatures at the same time. Very few engineering data exist on such coatings. In this paper, a study of HVOF coatings of Co-Cr-Mo alloys, that relies on Laves phases or on carbides for wear and corrosion resistance is reported. The paper covers the basic metallurgy of the alloys, their design and microstructure. The oxidation and sulfidation resistances of the coatings are evaluated at 600 C. The high-temperature hardness and the room-temperature abrasion resistance, hardness and bond strengths are compared to assess their utility in high-temperature corrosion and wear-resistant applications. The test results indicate that these alloys are strong candidate materials for providing protection in the form of HVOF coatings, in high-temperature wear and corrosion environments.

  15. Characterization of carbon deposits from jet fuel on Inconel 600 and Inconel X surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Altin, O.; Eser, S.

    2000-03-01

    Flow reactor experiments were conducted to study carbon deposit formation from decomposition of a jet fuel (JP-8) at 500 C and 500 psig for 5 h on the surface of two superalloys, Inconel 600 and Inconel X. The deposits collected on superalloy surfaces were characterized by temperature-programmed oxidation, size exclusion microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Significantly lower deposition on Inconel X compared to that on Inconel 600 was attributed to the presence of minor elemental compounds, such as Al, T, Nb, and Ta in the Inconel X alloy.

  16. Parameter study of HP/HVOF deposited WC-Co coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Villiers Lovelock, H. L.; Richter, P. W.; Benson, J. M.; Young, P. M.

    1998-03-01

    The deposition parameters of WC-17% Co coatings produced using the JP-5000 liquid-fuel HP/HVOF system (Eutectic TAFA) were investigated with the initial purpose of parameter improvement and optimization. The coating microstructures, porosities, phase compositions, and abrasion resistance were characterized. Preliminary work using the Taguchi statistical experimental design method aimed at optimizing the spray parameters in terms of the microstructure and phase composition was unsuccessful. The variations in the measured properties were too small to be correlated with the spray parameters. Subsequent experiments showed this was primarily due to the fact that the properties, particularly the abrasion resistance, of the WC-Co coatings were not primarily influenced by variations in the spray parameters, but were more dependent on the powder composition, particle size range, and manufacturing route. Hence, the application of Taguchi techniques would have been more effective over a much wider parameter space than was originally used. This result is valuable because it suggests that this process is robust and can be used for WC-Co coatings without large investments in spray parameter optimization and control once the coating and powder type have been fixed.

  17. FeAI and Mo-Si-B Intermetallic Coatings Prepared by Thermal Spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Terry C. Totemeier; Richard N. Wright; W. David Swank

    2004-12-01

    FeAl and Mo–Si–B intermetallic coatings for elevated temperature environmental resistance were prepared using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and air plasma spray (APS) techniques. For both coating types, the effect of coating parameters (spray particle velocity and temperature) on the microstructure and physical properties of the coatings was assessed. Fe–24Al (wt%) coatings were prepared using HVOF thermal spraying at spray particle velocities varying from 540 to 700 m/s. Mo–13.4Si–2.6B coatings were prepared using APS at particle velocities of 180 and 350 m/s. Residual stresses in the HVOF FeAl coatings were compressive, while stresses in the APS Mo–Si–B coatings were tensile. In both cases, residual stresses became more compressive with increasing spray particle velocity due to increased peening imparted by the spray particles. The hardness and elastic moduli of FeAl coatings also increased with increasing particle velocity. For Mo–Si–B coatings, plasma spraying at 180 m/s resulted in significant oxidation of the spray particles and conversion of the T1 phase into amorphous silica and a-Mo. The T1 phase was retained after spraying at 350 m/s.

  18. FeAl and Mo-Si-B Intermetallic Coatings Prepared by Thermal Spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Totemeier, T.C.; Wright, R.N.; Swank, W.D.

    2003-04-22

    FeAl and Mo-Si-B intermetallic coatings for elevated temperature environmental resistance were prepared using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and air plasma spray (APS) techniques. For both coating types, the effect of coating parameters (spray particle velocity and temperature) on the microstructure and physical properties of the coatings was assessed. Fe-24Al (wt.%) coatings were prepared using HVOF thermal spraying at spray particle velocities varying from 540 m/s to 700 m/s. Mo-13.4Si-2.6B coatings were prepared using APS at particle velocities of 180 and 350 m/s. Residual stresses in the HVOF FeAl coatings were compressive, while stresses in the APS Mo-Si-B coatings were tensile. In both cases, residual stresses became more compressive with increasing spray particle velocity due to increased peening imparted by the spray particles. The hardness and elastic moduli of FeAl coatings also increased with increasing particle velocity, again due to an increased peening effect. For Mo-Si-B coatings, plasma spraying at 180 m/s resulted in significant oxidation of the spray particles and conversion of the T1 phase into amorphous silica and {alpha}-Mo. The T1 phase was retained after spraying at 350 m/s.

  19. A Numerical Study on Gas Phase Dynamics of High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Jae-Sang; Park, Sun-Kyu; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2008-08-01

    The high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray is used for a particulate deposition process in which micro-sized particles are propelled and heated in a supersonic combusting gas stream. It is characterized by high gas velocity and high density and is being used in an increasing variety of coating applications, such as ceramic and composite coatings, to improve wear and abrasion resistance. The particle temperature and velocity are two of the most important parameters in HVOF thermal spraying, which affect the quality of the coatings. To understand the particle dynamics, it is necessary to study, first, the thermal flow characteristics in the HVOF system. In this study, a numerical analysis is performed to predict the gas dynamic behaviors, and the effect of the geometrical parameter is studied to optimize the nozzle design.

  20. Residual Strain and Fracture Response of Al2O3 Coatings Deposited via APS and HVOF Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, R.; Faisal, N. H.; Paradowska, A. M.; Fitzpatrick, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to nondestructively evaluate the residual stress profile in two commercially available alumina/substrate coating systems and relate residual stress changes with the fracture response. Neutron diffraction, due to its high penetration depth, was used to measure residual strain in conventional air plasma-sprayed (APS) and finer powder high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF (θ-gun))-sprayed Al2O3 coating/substrate systems. The purpose of this comparison was to ascertain if finer powder Al2O3 coatings deposited via θ-gun can provide improved residual stress and fracture response in comparison to conventional APS coatings. To obtain a through thickness residual strain profile with high resolution, a partially submerged beam was used for measurements near the coating surface, and a beam submerged in the coating and substrate materials near the coating-substrate interface. By using the fast vertical scanning method, with careful leveling of the specimen using theodolites, the coating surface and the coating/substrate interface were located with an accuracy of about 50 μm. The results show that the through thickness residual strain in the APS coating was mainly tensile, whereas the HVOF coating had both compressive and tensile residual strains. Further analysis interlinking Vickers indentation fracture behavior using acoustic emission (AE) was conducted. The microstructural differences along with the nature and magnitude of the residual strain fields had a direct effect on the fracture response of the two coatings during the indentation process.

  1. Measuring of residual stresses in thermal sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, O.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Modified Almen Method (MAM) uses the deformation of test samples for measuring the residual stress and with small mathematical expenditure it yields the distribution in the coating. This paper presents the basic theory of MAM and the boundary conditions for using this method for the classification of thermal sprayed coatings with respect to the residual stress. The residual stress distribution of different HVOF coatings are shown in this work. Typical spray parameters are compared. The results are also compared with the ones calculated with other methods for the determination of the residual stress in thermal sprayed coatings.

  2. Characterization of thermal spray coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Schorr, B.S.; Stein, K.J.; Marder, A.R.

    1999-02-01

    The ability to characterize fully the microstructure of a coating is paramount for understanding the in-service properties and eventual optimization of the coating. This article discusses sample preparation and subsequent analytical techniques (LOM, SEM, XRD, WDS, and QIA) for several cermet thermal spray coatings and provides a detailed analysis of as-sprayed microstructures in addition to processing trends for several FeCrAIY-carbide coatings. It was found that the splats produced in these high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings tended to exhibit a predominantly dendritic structure most likely retained from the gas atomization process that produced the original powder. Chemical analysis showed that the carbides tend to break down during spraying producing a complex mixture of oxides and various carbides. Finally, image analysis revealed that as the carbides in the pre-sprayed powder were increased, more carbides and oxides with less FeCrAIY and thinner coatings were found. These techniques allow the thorough characterization of thermal spray cermet coatings, which in turn should further the understanding of the thermal spray processes and help provide superior coatings in the future.

  3. Method and apparatus for the application of thermal spray coatings onto aluminum engine cylinder bores

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnes, L.; Kramer, M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents background and detail information concerning the application of thermally sprayed metal alloy coatings onto the I.D. surfaces of aluminum block engine cylinder bores using a rotating extension HVOF spray gun. A fixturing method that provides block temperature stabilization and the elimination of fixture cleaning and part masking is described. A new approach and technique that replaces grit blasting for surface preparation is also discussed.

  4. Superior Performance of High-Velocity Oxyfuel-Sprayed Nanostructured TiO2 in Comparison to Air Plasma-Sprayed Conventional Al2O3-13TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, R. S.; Marple, B. R.

    2005-09-01

    Air plasma-sprayed conventional alumina-titania (Al2O3-13wt.%TiO2) coatings have been used for many years in the thermal spray industry for antiwear applications, mainly in the paper, printing, and textile industries. This work proposes an alternative to the traditional air plasma spraying of conventional aluminatitania by high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) spraying of nanostructured titania (TiO2). The microstructure, porosity, hardness (HV 300 g), crack propagation resistance, abrasion behavior (ASTM G65), and wear scar characteristics of these two types of coatings were analyzed and compared. The HVOF-sprayed nanostructured titania coating is nearly pore-free and exhibits higher wear resistance when compared with the air plasma-sprayed conventional alumina-titania coating. The nanozones in the nanostructured coating act as crack arresters, enhancing its toughness. By comparing the wear scar of both coatings (via SEM, stereoscope microscopy, and roughness measurements), it is observed that the wear scar of the HVOF-sprayed nanostructured titania is very smooth, indicating plastic deformation characteristics, whereas the wear scar of the air plasma-sprayed alumina-titania coating is very rough and fractured. This is considered to be an indication of a superior machinability of the nanostructured coating.

  5. Comparison of the Mechanical and Electrochemical Properties of WC-25Co Coatings Obtained by High Velocity Oxy-Fuel and Cold Gas Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, M.; Dosta, S.; Fernández, J.; Guilemany, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Cold gas spray (CGS) coatings were previously produced by spraying WC-25Co cermet powders onto Al7075-T6 and low-carbon steel substrates. Unlike conventional flame spray techniques (e.g., high-velocity oxy-fuel; HVOF), no melting of the powder occurs; the particles are deformed and bond together after being sprayed by a supersonic jet of compressed gas, thereby building up several layers and forming a coating. WC-Co cermets are used in wear-resistant parts, because of their combination of mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. XRD tests were previously run on the initial powder and the coatings to determine possible phase changes during spraying. The bonding strength of the coatings was measured by adhesion tests. Here, WC-25Co coatings were also deposited on the same substrates by HVOF spraying. The wear resistance and fracture toughness of the coatings obtained previously by CGS and the HVOF coatings obtained here were studied. Their corrosion resistance was determined by electrochemical measurements. It was possible to achieve thick, dense, and hard CGS coatings on Al7075-T6 and low-carbon steel substrates, with better or the same mechanical and electrochemical properties as those of the HVOF coatings; making the former a highly competitive method for producing WC-25Co coatings.

  6. Effects of the Modification of Processing Parameters on Mechanical Properties of HVOF Cr2C3-25NiCr Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Báez, Israel; Poblano Salas, Carlos Agustín; Muñoz Saldaña, Juan; Trápaga Martínez, Luís Gerardo

    2015-08-01

    The present work shows that some mechanical properties of Cr2C3-25NiCr coatings processed by HVOF thermal spraying such as elastic modulus, hardness, fracture toughness, and wear resistance are closely linked to selected processing parameters as well as to chemistry, structure, and morphology of the feedstock material. Optimization of processing parameters was based on oxygen concentration measurements inside the flame, studied by a contour plot, and curvature data recorded during spraying. The increase in velocity of in-flight particles strongly affected the interfacial fracture toughness of the coatings, as a maximum K IC of 3.71 MPa m1/2 was reached when particle velocity increased to ~765 m/s. The micro-hardness of Cr2C3-25NiCr coatings was widely varied by changing the HVOF spray conditions, i.e., the amount of reinforcing phases and inter-splat adhesion were quite sensitive to any modification of the processing parameters. It was also found that coatings having a high inter-splat adhesion and/or low degradation of reinforcing hard phases showed reduced weight loss during erosive wear tests. Finally, from the experimental evidence reported in this work, a correlation between the elastic bending modulus of coatings and indentation crack length was also found.

  7. Effect of HVOF Processing Parameters on the Properties of NiCoCrAlY Coatings by Design of Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Luna, H.; Lozano-Mandujano, D.; Alvarado-Orozco, J. M.; Valarezo, A.; Poblano-Salas, C. A.; Trápaga-Martínez, L. G.; Espinoza-Beltrán, F. J.; Muñoz-Saldaña, J.

    2014-08-01

    The effect of three principal, independent, high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF)-processing parameters on the properties of NiCoCrAlY coatings deposited using commercial powders is reported here. The design of experiments (DoE) technique at a two-level factorial and a central composite rotatable design was used to analyze and optimize the HVOF spraying process. The deposition parameters investigated were (1) fuel flow, (2) oxygen flow, and (3) stand-off distance. The effect of these processing variables was evaluated using selected responses, including porosity and oxide content, residual stresses, and deposition efficiency. Coatings with low porosity as well as with low residual stress were obtained using high fuel-rich conditions at a stand-off distance between 250 and 300 mm. At shorter and longer stand-off distances, respectively, either excessive flattening of splats or un-molten condition occurred, resulting in high levels of porosity and residual stress. The response surface, the empirical relationships among the variables, and the response parameters allowed the selection of optimum deposition parameters and the improvement of coating properties.

  8. Introduction to High-Velocity Suspension Flame Spraying (HVSFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadow, Rainer; Killinger, Andreas; Rauch, Johannes

    2008-12-01

    High-velocity suspension flame spraying (HVSFS) has been developed to thermally spray suspensions containing micron, submicron, and nanoparticles with hypersonic speed. For this purpose, the suspension is introduced directly into the combustion chamber of a modified HVOF torch. The aim in mind is to achieve dense coatings with a refined microstructure. Especially from nanostructured coatings superior physical properties are expected for many potential applications. Direct spraying of suspensions offers flexibility in combining and processing different materials. It is a cost-saving process and allows the allocation of entirely new application fields. The paper gives an overview of the HVSFS spray method and will present some actual results that have been achieved by spraying the nanooxide ceramic materials Al2O3, TiO2, 3YSZ, and Cr2O3.

  9. Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

    2015-01-01

    There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

  10. Effect of Operating Parameters on a Dual-Stage High Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammed N.; Shamim, Tariq

    2014-08-01

    High velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray systems are being used to apply coatings to prevent surface degradation. The coatings of temperature sensitive materials such as titanium and copper, which have very low melting points, cannot be applied using a single-stage HVOF system. Therefore, a dual-stage HVOF system has been introduced and modeled computationally. The dual-spray system provides an easy control of particle oxidation by introducing a mixing chamber. In addition to the materials being sprayed, the thermal spray coating quality depends to a large extent on flow behavior of reacting gases and the particle dynamics. The present study investigates the influence of various operating parameters on the performance of a dual-stage thermal spray gun. The objective is to develop a predictive understanding of various parameters. The gas flow field and the free jet are modeled by considering the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy with the turbulence and the equilibrium combustion sub models. The particle phase is decoupled from the gas phase due to very low particle volume fractions. The results demonstrate the advantage of a dual-stage system over a single-stage system especially for the deposition of temperature sensitive materials.

  11. Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

    2014-09-01

    There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

  12. Corrosion properties of stainless steel coatings made by different methods of thermal spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Siitonen, P.; Konos, T.; Kettunen, P.O.

    1994-12-31

    The corrosion protection ability of thermally sprayed stainless steel coatings in aggressive environments is considerably limited as compared to bulk materials of the same composition. The two main reasons for the decrease in corrosion resistance are the porosity in the coatings and the oxidation of elements, particularly chromium, during spraying process. The corrosion resistance and structure of stainless steel coatings, ANVAL 254 SMO, made by different methods of thermal spraying were evaluated in this work. The coatings were produced by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), atmospheric plasma spraying using gas shielding around the plasma (APS/S), low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS), detonation gun spraying (DGS) and high velocity oxyfuel spraying (HVOF). Electrochemical methods were used for determining the corrosion protection ability of coatings in 3.5% NaCl-solution and in sulfur acid solution (pH 3 and 1). The structure and composition of coatings were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analysator (SEM/EDS). The porosity of the coatings was determined by water impregnation method, optical microscopy and mercury porosimeter. The results showed that the best coating quality can be achieved by LPPS- and HVOF-coatings. Oxidation and porosity restrict the use of APS-coatings in corrosive environments. The oxidation can be avoided by using argon gas shield around the plasma flame during spraying. Due to porosity all studied coatings suffered crevice corrosion in chloride solution. Despite high Mo-alloying the best coatings reached only the corrosion resistance of AISI 316.

  13. Structure Property Relationship of Suspension Thermally Sprayed WC-Co Nanocomposite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, R.; Faisal, N. H.; Al-Anazi, Nayef M.; Al-Mutairi, S.; Toma, F.-L.; Berger, L.-M.; Potthoff, A.; Polychroniadis, E. K.; Sall, M.; Chaliampalias, D.; Goosen, M. F. A.

    2015-02-01

    Tribomechanical properties of nanostructured coatings deposited by suspension high velocity oxy-fuel (S-HVOF) and conventional HVOF (Jet Kote) spraying were evaluated. Nanostructured S-HVOF coatings were obtained via ball milling of the agglomerated and sintered WC-12Co feedstock powder, which were deposited via an aqueous-based suspension using modified HVOF (TopGun) process. Microstructural evaluations of these hardmetal coatings included transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The nanohardness and modulus of the coated specimens were investigated using a diamond Berkovich nanoindenter. Sliding wear tests were conducted using a ball-on-flat test rig. Results indicated that low porosity coatings with nanostructured features were obtained. High carbon loss was observed, but coatings showed a high hardness up to 1000 HV2.9N. S-HVOF coatings also showed improved sliding wear and friction behavior, which were attributed to nanosized particles reducing ball wear in three-body abrasion and support of metal matrix due to uniform distribution of nanoparticles in the coating microstructure.

  14. Tensile strength as a function of thermal history of Inconel 718 and Inconel 625 alloys for glass-ceramic headers

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, M.C.; Henderson, W.R.

    1982-06-11

    Tensile strength tests were conducted on Inconel 718 specimens following a variety of heat treatments, and on as-received and heat-treated specimens of Inconel 625. A heat treatment cycle for Inconel 718 was found that represents an acceptable compromise between a thermal cycle that yields the strongest metal and one that least taxes a glass-ceramic material to which the Inconel 718 is bonded. Heat treating resulted in a moderate decrease in the tensile strength of the as-received Inconel 625.

  15. Improved nickel plating of Inconel X-750

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, M. E.; Feeney, J. E.; Kuster, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Electroplating technique with acid pickling provides a method of applying nickel plating on Inconel X-750 tubing to serve as a wetting agent during brazing. Low-stress nickel-plating bath contains no organic wetting agents that cause the nickel to blister at high temperatures.

  16. The Gas Dynamics of High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Thermal Sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackett, Charles Marcou

    An experimental study of the gas dynamics of the High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process has been performed. With this process, a hot, combustion-driven, supersonic jet is used to propel particles onto a surface, thus forming metal coatings that provide wear, temperature, and corrosion resistance. The fundamental physics of the spray process were studied and several key areas of interest were identified for in-depth study. Optical diagnostic techniques, including microsecond -exposure schlieren and shadowgraph imaging, were used to visualize the hot supersonic jet produced during the spray process. Energetic turbulent mixing of the jet with the surrounding atmosphere was observed. Measurements of oxide levels in aluminum and mild steel coatings sprayed for a range of conditions indicated that the turbulent mixing influences coating oxidation. However, experiments conducted with a low-speed coaxial shroud of inert gas demonstrated that coating oxide formation can be effectively controlled during the spray process. A simple numerical model was developed to predict the behavior of a spray particle in the HVOF jet. The results of computations indicated that independent control of spray particle velocity and temperature was possible through systematic variations in combustion chamber pressure and particle injection location within the nozzle. This hypothesis was confirmed through a series of experiments in which stainless steel particle velocity and temperature were measured using trace velocimetry and two-color radiative pyrometry, respectively. Combustion chamber pressure had a strong effect on particle velocity. Injection location was used to control the residence time of a particle within the flow, thus allowing manipulation of particle temperature without a measurable effect on velocity. Thus, the results of these experiments revealed that the gas dynamics--the behavior of the compressible gas flow--of the HVOF spray process strongly influenced spray

  17. Characterization of Thermal Sprayed Aluminum and Stainless Steel Coatings for Clean Laser Enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R; Decker, T A; Gansert, R V; Gansert, D

    2000-04-06

    Surfaces of steel structures that enclose high-fluence, large-beam lasers have conventional and unconventional requirements. Aside from rust prevention, the surfaces must resist laser-induced degradation and the contamination of the optical components. The latter requires a surface that can be precision cleaned to low levels of particulate and organic residue. In addition, the surface treatment for the walls should be economical to apply because of the large surface areas involved, and accommodating with intricate joint geometries. Thermal sprayed coatings of aluminum (Al) and stainless steel are candidate surface materials. Coatings are produced and characterized for porosity, smoothness, and hardness. These properties have a bearing on the cleanliness of the coating. The laser resistance of Al and 3 16L coatings are given. The paper summarizes the characterization of twin-wire-arc deposited Al, high-velocity-oxygen-fueled (HVOF) deposited Al, flame-sprayed 316L, and HVOF deposited316L. The most promising candidate coating is that of HVOF Al. This Al coating has the lowest porosity (8%) compared the other three coatings and relatively low hardness (100 VHN). The as-deposited roughness (Ra) is 433 pinches, but after a quick sanding by hand, the roughness decreased to 166 pinches. Other post-coat treatments are discussed. HVOF aluminum coatings are demonstrated. Al coatings are corrosion barriers for steel, and this work shows promising resistance to laser damage and low particulation rates.

  18. Increased Lifetime for Biomass and Waste to Energy Power Plant Boilers with HVOF Coatings: High Temperature Corrosion Testing Under Chlorine-Containing Molten Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksa, Maria; Tuurna, Satu; Varis, Tommi

    2013-06-01

    Heat exchanger surfaces of waste to energy and biomass power plant boilers experience often severe corrosion due to very aggressive components in the used fuels. High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings offer excellent protection for boiler tubes against high temperature corrosion due to their high density and good adherence to the substrate material. Several thermal spray coatings with high chromium content were sprayed with HVOF technique. Their mechanical properties and high temperature corrosion resistance were tested and analyzed. The coating materials included NiCr, IN625, Ni-21Cr-10W-9Mo-4Cu, and iron-based partly amorphous alloy SHS9172 (Fe-25Cr-15W-12Nb-6Mo). High temperature corrosion testing was performed in NaCl-KCl-Na2SO4 salt with controlled H2O atmosphere at 575 and 625 °C. The corrosion test results of the coatings were compared to corrosion resistance of tube materials (X20, Alloy 263 and Sanicro 25).

  19. Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of HVOF Bond Coatings Deposited on La- and Y-doped Superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A; Bestor, Michael A; Haynes, James A

    2011-01-01

    One suggested strategy for improving the performance of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems used to protect hot section components in gas turbines is the addition of low levels of dopants to the Ni-base superalloy substrate. To quantify the benefit of these dopants, the oxidation behavior of three commercial superalloys with different Y and La contents was evaluated with and without a NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coating deposited by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying. Cyclic oxidation experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} at 1050, 1100 and 1150 C. At the highest temperature, the bare superalloy without La showed more attack due to its lower Al content but no difference in oxidation rate or scale adhesion was noted at lower temperatures. With a bond coating, the alumina scale was non-uniform in thickness and spalled at each temperature. Among the three coated superalloys, no clear difference in oxide growth rate or scale adhesion was observed. Evaluations with a YSZ top coat and a bond coating without Hf are needed to better determine the effect of superalloy dopants on high temperature oxidation performance.

  20. Parametric Study to Correlate the Applied Factors and Abrasive Wear Resistance of HVOF Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Satpal

    2012-12-01

    Co-Ni-base powder was modified with the addition of CeO2 to study the effect of CeO2 addition on microstructure, hardness, and abrasive wear behavior of the unmodified (without CeO2) and modified (with CeO2) HVOF sprayed coatings. To investigate the abrasive wear behavior of coatings statistical response surface methodology (RSM) with four factors such as load, abrasive size, sliding distance, and temperature with three levels of each factor were used. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to determine the significant factors and their interactions. Thus abrasive wear model was developed in terms of main factors and their significant interactions. The validity of the model was evaluated by conducting experiments under different wear conditions. A comparison of modeled and experimental results showed 2-8% error. The wear resistance of coatings increased with the addition of CeO2. This is due to increase in hardness with the addition of CeO2 in Co-Ni-base coatings.

  1. Preliminary Tuft Testing of Metallic Bristles Versus PS212, PS300, and HVOF300

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Turbine engine brush seals are designed with sacrificial brushes and hard shaft coatings to minimize shaft wear and reduce the cost of engine overhauls. Replacing a worm seal is more cost and time effective than refinishing an engine shaft. However, this tribological design causes excessive brush wear and reduces long term seal efficiency. An alternative approach is to coat the shaft with a solid lubricant and allow the bristles to wear into the shaft coating similar to traditional abradable labyrinth seals. This approach can result in reduced seal leakage by forcing the leakage to flow through the seal bristle pack or through a more tortuous shaft wear track. Key to this approach is limiting the shaft wear to an acceptable level were surface refinishing would not be required during every engine overhaul. Included in this paper are brush seal tuft test results for four metallic bristles (nickel-chrome or cobalt-chrome based superalloys) tested against three solid lubricant coatings (NASA's PS212, PS300, and HVOF300). These test results are also compared to previous baseline tests conducted with plasma sprayed chrome carbide. Compared to the baseline results, no tribological benefit was achieved with the metallic bristle/solid lubricant tribopairs tested. To improve the performance of the solid lubricant coatings, issues regarding lubricant phase sizes (homogeneity), and composition need to be addressed.

  2. A comparison of two laser-based diagnostics for analysis of particles in thermal spray streams

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.F.; O`Hern, T.J.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1995-07-01

    This paper discusses two commercially-available laser diagnostics that have been used in thermal spray research at Sandia National Laboratories: (1) a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) and (2) a Laser Two-Focus (L2F) velocimeter. The PDPA provides simultaneous, correlated measurements of particle velocity and particle size distributions; but, particle sizing doesn`t work well with non-spherical particles or particles with rough surfaces. The L2F is used to collect particle velocity and number density distributions, and it can readily distinguish and separately measure particles with off-axis velocity vectors. PDPA and L2F principles of operation are presented along with potential advantages and limitations for thermal spray research. Four experiments were conducted to validate and compare measurement results with the PDPA and L2F instruments: (1) spinning wire, (2) powder in a High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) jet, (3) powder in a cold jet, and (4) droplets in a wire-fed HVOF jet. TWO DIFFERENT TYPES of commercially-available laser velocimeter systems, a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer and a Laser-Two-Focus velocimeter have been used in the Thermal Spray Research Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories. Each of these techniques has inherent advantages and limitations for thermal spray, and each involves assumptions that may not be valid for some experimental conditions. This paper describes operating principles and possible sources of measurement error for these two diagnostic systems. Some potential advantages and limitations are also presented. Four types of experiments were also conducted to validate and compare PDPA and L2F measurement results: (1) spinning wire, (2) powder in a High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) jet, (3) powder in a cold jet, and (4) droplets in a wire-fed HVOF jet. We also offer a few observations related to practical issues such as ease-of-use, reliability, and effects of dust and vibration in a thermal spray lab.

  3. Optimal Substrate Preheating Model for Thermal Spray Deposition of Thermosets onto Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivosevic, M.; Knight, R.; Kalidindi, S. R.; Palmese, G. R.; Tsurikov, A.; Sutter, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed, functionally graded polyimide/WC-Co composite coatings on polymer matrix composites (PMC's) are being investigated for applications in turbine engine technologies. This requires that the polyimide, used as the matrix material, be fully crosslinked during deposition in order to maximize its engineering properties. The rapid heating and cooling nature of the HVOF spray process and the high heat flux through the coating into the substrate typically do not allow sufficient time at temperature for curing of the thermoset. It was hypothesized that external substrate preheating might enhance the deposition behavior and curing reaction during the thermal spraying of polyimide thermosets. A simple analytical process model for the deposition of thermosetting polyimide onto polymer matrix composites by HVOF thermal spray technology has been developed. The model incorporates various heat transfer mechanisms and enables surface temperature profiles of the coating to be simulated, primarily as a function of substrate preheating temperature. Four cases were modeled: (i) no substrate preheating; (ii) substrates electrically preheated from the rear; (iii) substrates preheated by hot air from the front face; and (iv) substrates electrically preheated from the rear and by hot air from the front.

  4. Gas detonation gun for thermal spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyrov, E.; Kadyrov, V.

    1995-08-01

    High-velocity oxy-fuel and gas detonation are competing spray coating processes well known for providing premium quality coatings with low porosity and high adhesion. They are favored for applications in environments of extreme wear, heat, and aggressive corrosion. Nevertheless, they both have limitations. For the HVOF process, these include excessive gas consumption, high rate of heat transfer to the sprayed substrate, and the short life of the (supersonic) Laval nozzle. On the other hand, the traditional gas detonation gun also has drawbacks, and the purpose of this article is to outline some factors that led to the design of an improved gas detonation coating process called Demeton, produced by Demeton USA Inc., Garden City Park, N.Y.

  5. Microstructural Evolution of Inconel 625 and Inconel 686CPT Weld Metal for Clad Carbon Steel Linepipe Joints: A Comparator Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltin, Charles A.; Galloway, Alexander M.; Mweemba, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Microstructural evolution of Inconel 625 and Inconel 686CPT filler metals, used for the fusion welding of clad carbon steel linepipe, has been investigated and compared. The effects of iron dilution from the linepipe parent material on the elemental segregation potential of the filler metal chemistry have been considered. The results obtained provide significant evidence to support the view that, in Inconel 686CPT weld metal, the segregation of tungsten is a function of the level of iron dilution from the parent material. The data presented indicate that the incoherent phase precipitated in the Inconel 686CPT weld metal has a morphology that is dependent on tungsten enrichment and, therefore, iron dilution. Furthermore, in the same weld metal, a continuous network of finer precipitates was observed. The Charpy impact toughness of each filler metal was evaluated, and the results highlighted the superior impact toughness of the Inconel 625 weld metal over that of Inconel 686CPT.

  6. Mechanical property and wear performance dependence on processing condition for cold-sprayed WC-(nanoWC-Co)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guan-Jun; Gao, Pei-Hu; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2015-03-01

    WC-(nanoWC-Co) with micro-WC reinforcing particles in nanoWC-Co cermet matrix was cold-sprayed by using WC-Co with bimodal sized WC particles (with both micro-sized WC particles and nano-sized WC particles). The effect of spray powder property and post-spray treatment on the mechanical properties and wear performance of cold-sprayed WC-(nanoWC-Co) coating were examined in comparison to the conventional high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF)-sprayed WC-Co coating. Results showed that both hardness and toughness were influenced by the spray powder properties and the post-spray heat treatment. Compared to the HVOF-sprayed WC-Co coating with micro-sized WC particles, WC-(nanoWC-Co) exhibited much higher hardness and toughness and thereby much higher wear resistance. The further toughening of WC-(nanoWC-Co) by post-spray heat treatment significantly doubled the wear performance. The excellent wear resistance of WC-(nanoWC-Co) is attributed to the simultaneous strengthening and toughening effects resulting from the microstructure design of bimodal WC particle size distribution composed of both micro-sized and nano-sized WC particles.

  7. Particle In-Flight and Coating Properties of Fe-Based Feedstock Materials Sprayed with Modern Thermal Spray Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, Kirsten; Kopp, Nils; Warda, Thomas; Petkovic, Ivica; Schaefer, Marcel; Landes, Klaus Dieter; Forster, Guenter; Zimmermann, Stephan; Marques, Jose-Luis; Kirner, Stefan; Kauffeldt, Marina; Schein, Jochen

    2013-03-01

    New developments in the field of thermal spraying systems (increased particle velocities, enhanced process stability) are leading to improved coatings. Innovations in the field of feedstock materials are supporting this trend. The combination of both has led to a renaissance of Fe-based feedstocks. Using modern APS or HVOF systems, it is now possible to compete with classical materials for wear and corrosion applications like Ni-basis or metal-matrix composites. This study intends to give an analysis of the in-flight particle and spray jet properties achievable with two different modern thermal spraying systems using Fe-based powders. The velocity fields are measured with the Laser Doppler Anemometry. Resulting coatings are analyzed and a correlation with the particle in-flight properties is given. The experiments are accompanied by computational fluid dynamics simulations of spray jet and particle velocities, leading to a comprehensive analysis of the achievable particle properties with state-of-the-art HVOF and APS systems.

  8. Development of WC-Co Coatings Deposited by Warm Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivavibul, Pornthep; Watanabe, Makoto; Kuroda, Seiji; Kawakita, Jin; Komatsu, Masayuki; Sato, Kazuto; Kitamura, Junya

    2008-12-01

    The high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process is commonly used to deposit WC-Co coatings. There are some problems with this process; especially the decomposition and decarburization of WC during spraying make a coating brittle. To suppress such degradation, the warm spray (WS) process was applied to deposit WC-Co coatings, which is capable of controlling the flame temperature in the range of 500-2000 °C. The microstructure and phases of the deposited coatings were characterized by using SEM and XRD, and the mechanical properties such as hardness, fracture toughness, and wear properties were also investigated. WS process successfully suppressed the formation of the detrimental phases such as W2C and W, which are usually observed in HVOF coatings. The WS coatings showed the similar trend of the hardness variation for Co content with a sintered bulk material. Improvement of toughness and wear behavior was also observed in WS coatings.

  9. Erosion Resistance of High Velocity Oxy-Fuel WC-Co-Cr Thermal Spray Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imeson, Chris

    Thermal spray coatings have been incorporated in oil and gas extraction efforts for many years. Recently, High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) has become increasingly incorporated where erosive environments are present. This study investigates the microstructural and mechanical properties of HVOF WC-Co-Cr coatings deposited at SharkSkin Coatings ltd. The deposited coatings exhibited a low porosity with high adhesion strength, hardness, and superior erosion resistance. In this study, a recirculating solid particle erosion testing machine was designed and fabricated to simulate an erosive environment on a laboratory scale. This study was also aimed at improving microstructures and mechanical properties of the coatings by modifying the two coating deposition parameters e.g. standoff and pre-cycle heating. It was determined that pre-spray substrate heating negatively affected the coatings microstructures e.g. porosity, while reducing the stand-off distance positively influenced the coating microstructures and mechanical properties, e.g. erosion resistance.

  10. Sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffens, H. D.

    1980-03-01

    Thermal spraying is shown to be an efficient means for the protection of surface areas against elevated temperature, wear, corrosion, hot gas corrosion, and erosion in structural aircraft components. Particularly in jet engines, numerous parts are coated by flame, detonation, or plasma spraying techniques. The applied methods of flame, detonation, and plasma spraying are explained, as well as electric arc spraying. Possibilities for spray coatings which meet aircraft service requirements are discussed, as well as methods for quality control, especially nondestructive test methods. In particular, coating characteristics and properties obtained by different spray methods are described, and special attention is paid to low pressure plasma spraying.

  11. Problems encountered in welding Inconel 625 bridgewire material

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.G.

    1982-05-10

    Welding problems occurred while resistance welding Inconel 625 to Inconel 600 pins in the MC3462A header at Unidynamics/Phoenix (UPI). The bridgewire showed transverse and longitudinal cracks, a condition called hot cracking, at the weld area. Welding studies at Mound confirmed a best effort could not produce welds without hot cracking. Two new bridgewire materials, Tophet C and Alloy 800, were then introduced to replace Inconel 625. Samples of both bridgewired headers welded at Unidynamics were studied at Mound to determine which was the better material. Results showed that Alloy 800 was subject to the same hot cracking phenomenon as Inconel 625, whereas all samples of Tophet C except one showed no cracks. The only Tophet C sample showing cracks showed only minor cracks. Langley tests performed with Tophet C as the bridgewire showed that the no-fire characteristics can be met. Tophet C was therefore chosen to replace Inconel 625.

  12. Corrosion Performance of Inconel 625 in High Sulphate Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Azzura

    2016-05-01

    Inconel 625 (UNS N06625) is a type of nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media, being especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. However, in aggressive environment, Inconel 625 will suffer corrosion attack like other metals. This research compared the corrosion performance of Inconel 625 when exposed to higher sulphate content compared to real seawater. The results reveal that Inconel 625 is excellent in resist the corrosion attack in seawater. However, at increasing temperature, the corrosion resistance of this metal decrease. The performance is same in seawater with high sulphate content at increasing temperature. It can be concluded that sulphate promote perforation on Inconel 625 and become aggressive agents that accelerate the corrosion attack.

  13. Hot tensile tests of Inconel 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The physical metallurgy of near-solidus integranular cracking in Inconel 718 welds was investigated. The data, although inconclusive, suggest at least two mechanisms which might explain intergranular cracking (microfissuring) in the heat-affected zone of several high temperature alloys. One theory is based on the separation of intergranular liquid while the other involves mechanical failure of solid ligaments surrounded by intergranular liquid. Both mechanisms concentrate strain in the grain boundaries resulting in low strain (1%) intergranular brittleness. The mechanisms reported might also pertain to the physical metallurgy of casting, powder metallurgy sintering and hot isostatic pressing.

  14. Influence of gaseous hydrogen on Inconel 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, R. J.; Chandler, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    The embrittlement of Inconel 718 by exposure to 34.5 MN/sq m hydrogen at ambient temperature was found to be a function of both forming operation and heat treatment. The embrittlement, as measured by reduction of notch strength in hydrogen as compared to helium, was decreased by a fine-grain size and was most severe for coarse-grained structures containing a continuous or nearly continuous precipitate tentatively identified as Ni3Cb. Tests performed on unnotched specimens showed that the strain at which surface cracks initiate in 34.5 MN/sq m hydrogen was approximately 3% and was independent of prior forming operation or heat treatment.

  15. Rolling contact fatigue testing of thermally sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Maekelae, A.; Vuoristo, P.; Lahdensuo, M.; Niemi, K.; Maentylae, T.

    1994-12-31

    Two Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF) test systems have been developed in order to compare coatings according to their service lives under high-load rolling contact. Experimental testing facilities of the three-roller and the two-roller type RCF test equipment are presented and problems involved with testing of thermally sprayed coatings are discussed. The aim of this three-year-project is to study reasons for development of coating micropitting and delamination of high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) and detonation gun sprayed coatings. Some observations of rolling contact fatigue behavior of detonation gun sprayed WC+12% Co coating subjected to a nearly pure rolling line contact at cyclic Hertzian stress level of approximately 410 MPa are made, but interpreting the results requires still more work.

  16. High temperature sulfidation of Fe{sub 3}Al and NiCr thermal spray coatings at 600 C

    SciTech Connect

    Luer, K.; DuPont, J.; Marder, A.

    1999-11-01

    Three Fe{sub 3}Al and two Ni45Cr thermal spray coatings were tested in Ar-3.5H{sub 2}-0.1H{sub 2}S for 500h at 600 C and compared to AISI 1008 steel. The three Fe{sub 3}Al-type coatings were processed from the same lot of gas atomized Fe{sub 3}Al powder using a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process and an air plasma spray (APS) process. In general, the Fe{sub 3}Al-type composition displayed excellent resistance to sulfidation corrosion at 600 C which correlated with the reported literature on wrought Fe{sub 3}Al alloys. HVOF processing did not significantly degrade the composition of the consumable and produced coatings with low porosity, low oxide content, high sulfidation resistance, and high resistance to sulfur penetration. In contrast, APS processing caused significant degradation to the particles which reduced the sulfidation resistance of the coating and enabled local sulfidation attack at alloy depleted regions. The APS processed Fe{sub 3}Al coating also contained high porosity which enabled sulfur to fully penetrate the splat boundaries of the coating to the substrate. The two Ni45Cr-type coatings were produced using different processes and different consumables. One of the Ni45Cr coatings was processed using a proprietary wire combustion arc-spray (CAS) process. The second Ni45Cr coating was processed using a HVOF spray process. Both NiCr-type coatings reacted moderately with the sulfidizing gas at 600 C to form a mixed chromium oxide-sulfide scale despite marked differences in coating structure and composition. CAS processing caused significant degradation of the Ni45Cr consumable and produced a coating with low porosity and high oxide content. In contrast, HVOF processing caused negligible degradation of the Ni45Cr consumable and produced a coating with low porosity and moderate oxide content.

  17. Fatigue Behavior of Inconel 718 TIG Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, Nikolaos D.; Argyriou, Nikolaos; Stergiou, Vasillis; Kourkoulis, Stavros K.

    2014-08-01

    Mechanical behavior of reference and TIG-welded Inconel 718 specimens was examined in the present work. Tensile, constant amplitude fatigue, and fracture toughness tests were performed in ambient temperature for both, reference and welded specimens. Microstructure revealed the presence of coarse and fine-grained heat-affected zones. It has been shown that without any post-weld heat treatment, welded specimens maintained their tensile strength properties while their ductility decreased by more than 40%. It was found that the welded specimens had lower fatigue life and this decrease was a function of the applied fatigue maximum stress. A 30% fatigue life decrease was noticed in the high cycle fatigue regime for the welded specimens while this decrease exceeded 50% in the low cycle fatigue regime. Cyclic stress-strain curves showed that Inconel 718 experiences a short period of hardening followed by softening for all fatigue lives. Cyclic fatigue response of welded specimens' exhibited cyclically stable behavior. Finally, a marginal decrease was noticed in the Mode I fracture toughness of the welded specimens.

  18. Antistatic sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Antistatic sprays from several different manufacturers are examined. The sprays are examined for contamination potential (i.e., outgassing and nonvolatile residue), corrosiveness on an aluminum mirror surface, and electrostatic effectiveness. In addition, the chemical composition of the antistatic sprays is determined by infrared spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry, and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The results show that 12 of the 17 antistatic sprays examined have a low contamination potential. Of these sprays, 7 are also noncorrosive to an aluminum surface. And of these, only 2 demonstrate good electrostatic properties with respect to reducing voltage accumulation; these sprays did not show a fast voltage dissipation rate however. The results indicate that antistatic sprays can be used on a limited basis where contamination potential, corrosiveness, and electrostatic effectiveness is not critical. Each application is different and proper evaluation of the situation is necessary. Information on some of the properties of some antistatic sprays is presented in this document to aid in the evaluation process.

  19. Abrasion and erosion wear resistance of Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coatings prepared by plasma, detonation and high-velocity oxyfuel spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Vuoristo, P.; Niemi, K.; Maekelae, A.; Maentylae, T.

    1994-12-31

    Chromium carbide based cermet coatings (Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr) deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), detonation gun spraying (DGS), and high-velocity oxyfuel flame spraying (HVOF) methods were evaluated with the microstructure, microhardness, phase structure, room temperature abrasion wear and particle erosion wear resistance. The influence of some spray parameters, e.g, the use of different plasma gases (Ar-H{sub 2}, Ar-He) in plasma spraying, and fuel gas-to-oxygen ratio (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}) and diluent gas content in detonation gun spraying, were studied in order to optimize the wear resistance of the coatings. The results showed that Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coatings had different wear properties depending on the spray parameters and spray methods used. Highest wear resistance was obtained with coatings prepared by the high-velocity combustion processes, i.e. by HVOF and detonation gun spraying.

  20. Microstructure and properties of tungsten carbide coatings sprayed with various high-velocity oxygen fuel spray systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwetzke, R.; Kreye, H.

    1999-09-01

    This article reports on a series of experiments with various high-velocity oxygen fuel spray systems (Jet Kote, Top Gun, Diamond Jet (DJ) Standard, DJ 2600 and 2700, JP-5000, Top Gun-K) using different WC-Co and WC-Co-Cr powders. The microstructure and phase composition of powders and coatings were analyzed by optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Carbon and oxygen content of the coatings were determined to study the decarburization and oxidation of the material during the spray process. Coatings were also characterized by their hardness, bond strength, abrasive wear, and corrosion resistance. The results demonstrate that the powders exhibit various degrees of phase transformation during the spray process depending on type of powder, spray system, and spray parameters. Within a relatively wide range, the extent of phase transformation has only little effect on coating properties. Therefore, coatings of high hardness and wear resistance can be produced with all HVOF spray systems when the proper spray powder and process parameters are chosen.

  1. Vacuum plasma spray applications on liquid fuel rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckechnie, T. N.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Bryant, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The vacuum plasma spray process (VPS) has been developed by NASA and Rocketdyne for a variety of applications on liquid fuel rocket engines, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine. These applications encompass thermal barrier coatings which are thermal shock resistant for turbopump blades and nozzles; bond coatings for cryogenic titanium components; wear resistant coatings and materials; high conductivity copper, NaRloy-Z, combustion chamber liners, and structural nickel base material, Inconel 718, for nozzle and combustion chamber support jackets.

  2. Vacuum plasma spray applications on liquid fuel rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKechnie, T. N.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Bryant, M. A.

    1992-07-01

    The vacuum plasma spray process (VPS) has been developed by NASA and Rocketdyne for a variety of applications on liquid fuel rocket engines, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine. These applications encompass thermal barrier coatings which are thermal shock resistant for turbopump blades and nozzles; bond coatings for cryogenic titanium components; wear resistant coatings and materials; high conductivity copper, NaRloy-Z, combustion chamber liners, and structural nickel base material, Inconel 718, for nozzle and combustion chamber support jackets.

  3. Grain boundary niobium carbides in Inconel 718

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, M.; Wei, R.P.

    1997-12-15

    A coordinated, multidisciplinary investigation was conducted to determine the mechanisms and rate controlling processes for environmentally assisted crack growth under sustained (static) loading in Inconel 718 at elevated temperatures. The results showed that oxygen had a significant influence on crack growth, increasing the crack growth rate, for example, by nearly four orders of magnitude at 973 K. Based on results from the companion surface chemical and metallurgical studies, it was suggested that the mechanism for crack growth enhancement by oxygen was the formation and fracture of a brittle niobium oxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-type) film on the grain boundary surfaces. The Nb came principally from the oxidation and decomposition of NbC (or Nb-rich carbides) at the grain boundaries, and crack growth was controlled by the rate of oxidation and decomposition of these carbides. Because there was extensive oxidation of the primary NbC, these carbides were implicitly considered to be the primary source of Nb. Although these carbides were large and contained substantial amounts of Nb, they were too few and spaced too far apart to be of concern (averaging one NbC for two grain boundary facets and spaced about 25 {micro}m apart). To wit, whether the freed Nb could diffuse over such a large distance and be oxidized to support the postulated mechanism for crack growth? The presence of other Nb-rich carbides elsewhere on the grain boundaries, or other sources for Nb, therefore, needs to be re-examined and is the focus of this study. In this paper, the results of a study of grain boundary niobium carbides and their distribution in Inconel 718 are reported, and are discussed in terms of their contribution to crack growth.

  4. Process of high temperature synthesis in producing composite carbide powders for thermally sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymański, K.; Formanek, B.

    2011-05-01

    The paper presents the characterization of powders containing hard phases of chromium carbides in a NiCr matrix, intended for thermal spraying coatings. The synthesized composite powder containing hard phases and plastic matrix, produced in high-temperature synthesis with chosen powder metallurgy processes has been presented. Commercial materials, such as NiCr- CrxCy, are fabricated by means of agglomeration and sintering method. Processes of high temperature synthesis of Cr3C2, Cr7C3, Cr23C6 carbides combined with NiCr powder mechanical alloying are presented in the article. Parameters of the carbides synthesis were determined in the reactive -protective atmosphere. In the rotation- vibration mill, processes were conducted using grinding and appropriate mechanical alloying at variable amplitude. The standard and synthesized powders were thermally sprayed by HVOF method in Jet Kote II and Diamond Jet system. The structure and phase composition of the powders and coatings were determined by: light and scanning microscopy, X-ray phase analysis (RTG) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The structure and wear properties of HVOF sprayed coatings containing chromium carbides has been presented. The thermally sprayed coatings are characterized of wear resistance in abrasion and erosion tests. The sprayed coatings characterized high resistance in wear conditions.

  5. Increasing the Useful Life of Quench Reliefs with Inconel Bellows

    SciTech Connect

    Soyars, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    Reliable quench relief valves are an important part of superconducting magnet systems. Fermilab developed bellows-actuated cryogenic quench reliefs which have been in use since the early l 980's. The original design uses a stainless steel bellows. A high frequency, low amplitude vibration during relieving events has resulted in fatigue failures in the original design. To take advantage of the improved resistance to fatigue of Inconel, a nickel-chromium alloy, reliefs using Inconel 625 bellows were made. Design, development, and testing of the new version reliefs will be discussed. Tests show that relief valve lifetimes using Inconel bellows are more than five times greater than when using the original stainless steel bellows. Inconel bellows show great promise in increasing the lifetime of quench relief valves, and thus the reliability of accelerator cryogenic systems.

  6. Supersolidus Liquid Phase Sintering Modeling of Inconel 718 Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur, David; Brochu, Mathieu

    2016-02-01

    Powder metallurgy of Inconel 718 superalloy is advantageous as a near-net shape process for complex parts to reduce the buy-to-fly ratio and machining cost. However, sintering Inconel 718 requires the assistance of supersolidus liquid formation to achieve near full density and involves the risk of distortion at high temperatures. The present work is focused on modeling the onset of sintering and distortion as a function of temperature, grain size, and part geometry for Inconel 718. Using experimental sintering results and data available in the literature, the supersolidus liquid phase sintering of Inconel 718 was modeled. The model was used to define a processing window where part distortion would be avoided.

  7. Elevated temperature creep behavior of Inconel alloy 625

    SciTech Connect

    Purohit, A.; Burke, W.F.

    1984-07-01

    Inconel 625 in the solution-annealed condition has been selected as the clad material for the fuel and control rod housing assemblies of the Upgraded Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT Upgrade or TU). The clad is expected to be subjected to temperatures up to about 1100/sup 0/C. Creep behavior for the temperature range of 800/sup 0/C to 1100/sup 0/C of Inconel alloy 625, in four distinct heat treated conditions, was experimentally evaluated.

  8. High-temperature sulfidation of Fe{sub 3}Al thermal spray coatings at 600 C

    SciTech Connect

    Luer, K.R.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    2000-02-01

    Sulfidation behavior of Fe{sub 3}Al thermal spray coatings was studied in Ar-3.5% H{sub 2}-0.1{degree} hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) at 600 C for 500 h. Coatings were processed from the same lot of gas atomized Fe{sub 3}Al powder using a high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) process and an air plasma spray (APS) process. In general, the Fe{sub 3}Al-type composition displayed excellent resistance to sulfidation corrosion at 600 C, which correlated with the reported literature on wrought Fe{sub 3}Al alloys. However, the method of processing affected the corrosion response. Particle degradation and porosity were two important factors that affected corrosion resistance. HVOF processing did not degrade significantly the composition of the powder and produced coatings with low porosity, low oxide content, high sulfidation resistance, and high resistance to sulfur penetration. HVOF coatings produced from finer sized powders exhibited slightly more corrosion damage because a greater percentage of the consumable was degraded. In contrast, APS processing caused significant degradation to the consumable and created coatings with a significant quantity of alloy-depleted regions, high oxide content, and high porosity. As a result, sulfur attached alloy-depleted regions within the splats and permeated through the porous splat boundaries to the coating-substrate interface.

  9. Theory and Apparatus for Measurement of Emissivity for Radiative Cooling of Hypersonic Aircraft with Data for Inconel and Inconel X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Sullivan, William J , Jr; Wade, William R

    1957-01-01

    The importance of radiation as a means of cooling high-supersonic- and hypersonic-speed aircraft is discussed to show the need for measurements of the total hemispherical emissivity of surfaces. The theory underlying the measurement of the total hemispherical emissivity of surfaces is presented, readily duplicable apparatus for performing the measurements is described, and measurements for stably oxidized Inconel and Inconel X are given for the temperature range from 600 F to 2,000 F.

  10. High-Temperature Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Studies on NiCrAlY Coatings Deposited by Flame-Spray Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Nidhi; Mahapatra, Manas Mohan; Jayaganthan, R.; Prakash, Satya

    2015-06-01

    The NiCrAlY coatings deposited by flame-spray technique on the superalloy substrate were oxidized in the presence of air and Na2SO4 + V2O5 salt at 900 °C for 100 cycles. The kinetics of oxidation showed that the coatings deposited by flame-spray technique possess better oxidation resistance compared with coatings deposited by high-velocity oxy fuel (HVOF)-sprayed technique. The oxidized coatings were further characterized by XRD, FESEM/EDS, and x-ray mapping techniques. The mechanisms of the oxidation and hot corrosion were substantiated by analyzing the results obtained from the various characterization techniques.

  11. Adapting of the Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS) Technique in the Characterization of the Flow Regimes in Thermal Spraying Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, W.; Abdulgader, M.; Rademacher, H. G.; Anjami, N.; Hagen, L.

    2014-01-01

    In thermal spraying technique, the changes in the in-flight particle velocities are considered to be only a function of the drag forces caused by the dominating flow regimes in the spray jet. Therefore, the correct understanding of the aerodynamic phenomena occurred at nozzle out let and at the substrate interface is an important task in the targeted improvement in the nozzle and air-cap design as well as in the spraying process in total. The presented work deals with the adapting of an innovative technique for the flow characterization called background-oriented Schlieren. The flow regimes in twin wire arc spraying (TWAS) and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) were analyzed with this technique. The interfering of the atomization gas flow with the intersected wires causes in case of TWAS process a deformation of the jet shape. It leads also to areas with different aero dynamic forces. The configurations of the outlet air-caps in TWAS effect predominantly the outlet flow characteristics. The ratio between fuel and oxygen determine the dominating flow regimes in the HVOF spraying jet. Enhanced understanding of the aerodynamics at outlet and at the substrate interface could lead to a targeted improvement in thermal spraying processes.

  12. Aerodynamic study on supersonic flows in high-velocity oxy-fuel thermal spray process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katanoda, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Kuroda, Seiji; Kawakita, Jin; Fukanuma, Hirotaka; Matsuo, Kazuyasu

    2005-06-01

    To clarify the characteristics of gas flow in high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun, aerodynamic research is performed using a special gun. The gun has rectangular cross-sectional area and sidewalls of optical glass to visualize the internal flow. The gun consists of a supersonic nozzle with the design Mach number of 2.0 followed by a straight passage called barrel. Compressed dry air up to 0.78 MPa is used as a process gas instead of combustion gas which is used in a commercial HVOF gun. The high-speed gas flows with shock waves in the gun and jets are visualized by schlieren technique. Complicated internal and external flow-fields containing various types of shock wave as well as expansion wave are visualized.

  13. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

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  14. Effect of nano-crystallization of high velocity oxy-fuel-sprayed amorphous NiCrBSi alloy on properties of the coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chang-Jiu; Wang, Yu-Yue; Li, Hua

    2004-09-01

    NiCrBSi self-fluxing alloy coatings were deposited by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spraying. Annealing treatment was applied to the as-sprayed coatings to develop the microstructure of the Ni-based coating. The microstructure of the coating was characterized using optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The crystallization behavior of the amorphous coating was also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. The properties of the coating were characterized by microhardness and abrasive wear tests. The results showed that the as-sprayed HVOF coating deposited by well melted spray particles exhibited a dense microstructure of amorphous phase. It was revealed that the crystallization of the amorphous phase in HVOF NiCrBSi coating occurs at a temperature of about 502°C. Annealing at temperature a little higher than recrystallization temperature leads to the formation of the nano-crystalline microstructure. The subsequent nanostructured Ni-based coating presents higher microhardness and excellent wear performance. With the further increase in annealing temperature, the growth of the nano-crystalline grains occurs and, accordingly, the microhardness of the coating and the wear performance decrease. Thereafter, the microstructure and properties of the Ni-based self-fluxing alloy coating can be controlled through postannealing treatment.

  15. Process gases for high velocity oxy-fuel thermal spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Creffield, G.K.; Chapman, I.F.; Cole, M.A.; Page, W.J.; McDonough, T.

    1994-12-31

    The importance of fuel and other process gases for high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying and especially the delivery of them to the point of use is well recognized. Problems associated with the supply of liquid fuel gases, at the high flow rates and pressures required by this process, have been addressed. Considerable development work has gone into designing an appropriate liquid withdrawal and vaporizer system for propylene, which overcomes these previous difficulties and enables users to maintain adequate fuel gas flow rates in order to ensure optimum operating conditions for the production of high quality coatings. A feature of the thermal spray process is that the temperature of the workpiece is kept low, typically below 150 C, in order to reduce residual stresses in the coating and to protect heat sensitive substrates. Traditionally this has been by compressed air, however, improved cooling has been achieved using carbon dioxide. Specially designed equipment is now available which provides and directs a cold mixture of carbon dioxide gas and solid particles (snow) via suitable nozzles, on the workpiece. The position of the cooling stream can be varied, depending on the application. These developments emphasize the importance now attached to providing dedicated gas installation packages for HVOF.

  16. Process Control and Characterization of NiCr Coatings by HVOF-DJ2700 System: A Process Map Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valarezo, Alfredo; Choi, Wanhuk B.; Chi, Weiguang; Gouldstone, Andrew; Sampath, Sanjay

    2010-09-01

    The concept of ‘process maps’ has been utilized to study the fundamentals of process-structure-property relationships in high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed coatings. Ni-20%Cr was chosen as a representative material for metallic alloys. In this paper, integrated experiments including diagnostic studies, splat collection, coating deposition, and property characterization were carried out in an effort to investigate the effects of fuel gas chemistry (fuel/oxygen ratio), total gas flow, and energy input on particle states: particle temperature ( T) and velocity ( V), coating formation dynamics, and properties. Coatings were deposited on an in situ curvature sensor to study residual stress evolution. The results were reconciled within the framework of process maps linking torch parameters with particle states (1st order map) and relating particle state with deposit properties (2nd order map). A strong influence of particle velocity on induced compressive stresses through peening effect is discussed. The complete tracking of the coating buildup history including particle state, residual stress evolution and deposition temperature, in addition to single splat analysis, allows the interpretation of resultant coating microstructures and properties and enables coating design with desired properties.

  17. APS TBC performance on directionally-solidified superalloy substrates with HVOF NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coatings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lance, Michael J.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Haynes, James A.; Pint, Bruce A.

    2015-09-04

    Directionally-solidified (DS) superalloy components with advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) to lower the metal operating temperature have the potential to replace more expensive single crystal superalloys for large land-based turbines. In order to assess relative TBC performance, furnace cyclic testing was used with superalloys 1483, X4 and Hf-rich DS 247 substrates and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF)-NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coatings at 1100 °C with 1-h cycles in air with 10% H2O. With these coating and test conditions, there was no statistically-significant effect of substrate alloy on the average lifetime of the air plasma sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coatings onmore » small coupons. Using photo-stimulated luminescence piezospectroscopy maps at regular cycling intervals, the residual compressive stress in the α-Al2O3 scale underneath the YSZ top coating and on a bare bond coating was similar for all three substrates and delaminations occurred at roughly the same rate and frequency. As a result, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements collected from the bare bond coating surface revealed higher Ti interdiffusion occurring with the 1483 substrate, which contained the highest Ti content.« less

  18. APS TBC performance on directionally-solidified superalloy substrates with HVOF NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Michael J.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Haynes, James A.; Pint, Bruce A.

    2015-09-04

    Directionally-solidified (DS) superalloy components with advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) to lower the metal operating temperature have the potential to replace more expensive single crystal superalloys for large land-based turbines. In order to assess relative TBC performance, furnace cyclic testing was used with superalloys 1483, X4 and Hf-rich DS 247 substrates and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF)-NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coatings at 1100 °C with 1-h cycles in air with 10% H2O. With these coating and test conditions, there was no statistically-significant effect of substrate alloy on the average lifetime of the air plasma sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coatings on small coupons. Using photo-stimulated luminescence piezospectroscopy maps at regular cycling intervals, the residual compressive stress in the α-Al2O3 scale underneath the YSZ top coating and on a bare bond coating was similar for all three substrates and delaminations occurred at roughly the same rate and frequency. As a result, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements collected from the bare bond coating surface revealed higher Ti interdiffusion occurring with the 1483 substrate, which contained the highest Ti content.

  19. The Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed WC: Metal Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Liam P.; Pilkington, Antony

    2014-09-01

    WC-based cermet coatings containing various metallic binders such as Ni, Co, and Cr are known for their superior tribological properties, particularly abrasion resistance and enhanced surface hardness. Consequently, these systems are considered as replacements for traditional hard chrome coatings in critical aircraft components such as landing gear. The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a comparative study on the dry sliding wear behavior of three WC-based cermet coatings (WC-12Ni, WC-20Cr2C3-7Ni, and WC-10Co-4Cr), when deposited on carbon steel substrates. Ball on disk wear tests were performed on the coatings using a CSEM Tribometer (pin-on-disk) with a 6-mm ruby ball at 20 N applied load, 0.2 m/s sliding velocity, and sliding distances up to 2000 m. Analysis of both the coating wear track and worn ruby ball was performed using optical microscopy and an Alphastep-250 profilometer. The results of the study revealed both wear of the ruby ball and coated disks allowed for a comparison of both the ball wear and coating wear for the systems considered. Generally, the use of Co and Cr as a binder significantly improved the sliding wear resistance of the coating compared to Ni and/or Cr2C3.

  20. Microstructure characterization of WC-Ni coatings obtained by HVOF thermal spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Guilemany, J.M.; Nutting, J.; Miguel, J.R.; Dong, Z.

    1995-07-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to characterize the structure of WC-Ni coatings, which have become of interest in recent years. The WC-Ni powders used in these experiments have been well characterized, but the microstructure of the WC-Ni coating was not well established. In this paper, different techniques, including light optical microscopy, SEM, TEM-STEM, EDS, HRTEM, EPMA, X-ray diffraction, Image analysis and Elemental analysis technique, were used to characterize the WC-Ni coatings. The substrate at the interfacial region also undergoes phase transformations because of the thermal shock from the hot splats. Fine crystal zone, martensite transformation zone and recrystallization zone have been found at different depths of the steel substrate, which is very similar to WC-Co/steel system. These zones have been very well characterized and will be discussed in detail elsewhere.

  1. Deposition and Characterization of HVOF Thermal Sprayed Functionally Graded Coatings Deposited onto a Lightweight Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M.; Stokes, J.; Looney, L.; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2009-02-01

    There is a significant interest in lightweight materials (like aluminum, magnesium, titanium, and so on) containing a wear resistance coating, in such industries as the automotive industry, to replace heavy components with lighter parts in order to decrease vehicle weight and increase fuel efficiency. Functionally graded coatings, in which the composition, microstructure, and/or properties vary gradually from the bond coat to the top coat, may be applied to lightweight materials, not only to decrease weight, but also to enhance components mechanical properties by ensuring gradual microstructural (changes) together with lower residual stress. In the current work, aluminum/tool-steel functionally graded coatings were deposited onto lightweight aluminum substrates. The graded coatings were then characterized in terms of residual stress and hardness. Results show that residual stress increased with an increase in deposition thickness and a decrease in number of layers. However, the hardness also increased with an increase in deposition thickness and decrease in number of layers. Therefore, an engineer must compromise between the hardness and stress values while designing a functionally graded coating-substrate system.

  2. Brazing Inconel 625 Using the Copper Foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Shiang; Wang, Cheng-Yen; Shiue, Ren-Kae

    2013-12-01

    Brazing Inconel 625 (IN-625) using the copper foil has been investigated in this research. The brazed joint is composed of nanosized CrNi3 precipitates and Cr/Mo/Nb/Ni quaternary compound in the Cu/Ni-rich matrix. The copper filler 50 μm in thickness is enough for the joint filling. However, the application of Cu foil 100 μm in thickness has little effect on the shear strength of the brazed joint. The specimen brazed at 1433 K (1160 °C) for 1800 seconds demonstrates the best shear strength of 470 MPa, and its fractograph is dominated by ductile dimple fracture with sliding marks. Decreasing the brazing temperature slightly decreases the shear strength of the brazed joint due to the presence of a few isolated solidification shrinkage voids smaller than 15 μm. Increasing the brazing temperature, especially for the specimen brazed at 1473 K (1200 °C), significantly deteriorates the shear strength of the joint below 260 MPa because of coalescence of isothermal solidification shrinkage voids in the joint. The Cu foil demonstrates potential in brazing IN-625 for industrial application.

  3. Circular Vibration Planing of Inconel 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettiarachchi, Nandita Kalyanakumara; Moriwaki, Toshimichi; Shibasaka, Toshiro; Nakamoto, Keiichi

    Circular vibration milling (CVM) is achieved by vibrating a milling cutter about the machine tool spindle axis in a circular path, in addition to its rotary motion. CVM has been proven capable of producing better surface finishes on difficult to cut materials. However, the CVM process is far slower than conventional milling process. In circular vibration planing (CVP) process, the cutting tool is clamped without rotation and fed at a speed comparable to the feed speed of conventional milling. By superimposing circular vibration motion, necessary cutting speed could be achieved keeping the feed speed at realistic values. Inconel 718 was machined by CVP and conventional milling at a similar feed rate. It was observed that CVP could reduce tool wear and hence produce better surface finishes than conventional milling. A geometric simulation showed a major difference between uncut chip shapes of the two processes. The difference of uncut chip shapes suggests that in CVP process, less rubbing occurs between tool flank face and work before the tool penetrates in to the work to form a chip. The reduced rubbing of the flank face is proposed as the reson for reduced tool wear in CVP when compared with conventional milling.

  4. Magnetic susceptibility of Inconel alloys 718, 625, and 600 at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ira B.; Mitchell, Michael R.; Murphy, Allan R.; Goldfarb, Ronald B.; Loughran, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    After a hydrogen fuel bleed valve problem on the Discovery Space Shuttle was traced to the strong magnetization of Inconel 718 in the armature of the linear variable differential transformer near liquid hydrogen temperatures, the ac magnetic susceptibility of three samples of Inconel 718 of slightly different compositions, one sample of Inconel 625, and on sample of Inconel 600 were measured as a function of temperature. Inconel 718 alloys are found to exhibit a spin glass state below 16 K. Inconel 600 exhibits three different magnetic phases, the lowest-temperature state (below 6 K) being somewhat similar to that of Inconel 718. The magnetic states of the Inconel alloys and their magnetic susceptibilities appear to be strongly dependent on the exact composition of the alloy.

  5. Mechanical and Thermal Transport Properties of Suspension Thermal-Sprayed Alumina-Zirconia Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberste Berghaus, Jörg; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel; Moreau, Christian; Tarasi, Fariba; Chráska, Tomas

    2008-03-01

    Micro-laminates and nanocomposites of Al2O3 and ZrO2 can potentially exhibit higher hardness and fracture toughness and lower thermal conductivity than alumina or zirconia alone. The potential of these improvements for abrasion protection and thermal barrier coatings is generating considerable interest in developing techniques for producing these functional coatings with optimized microstructures. Al2O3-ZrO2 composite coatings were deposited by suspension thermal spraying (APS and HVOF) of submicron feedstock powders. The liquid carrier employed in this approach allows for controlled injection of much finer particles than in conventional thermal spraying, leading to unique and novel fine-scaled microstructures. The suspensions were injected internally using a Mettech Axial III plasma torch and a Sulzer-Metco DJ-2700 HVOF gun. The different spray processes induced a variety of structures ranging from finely segregated ceramic laminates to highly alloyed amorphous composites. Mechanisms leading to these structures are related to the feedstock size and in-flight particle states upon their impact. Mechanical and thermal transport properties of the coatings were compared. Compositionally segregated crystalline coatings, obtained by plasma spraying, showed the highest hardness of up to 1125 VHN3 N, as well as the highest abrasion wear resistance (following ASTM G65). The HVOF coating exhibited the highest erosion wear resistance (following ASTM G75), which was related to the toughening effect of small dispersed zirconia particles in the alumina-zirconia-alloyed matrix. This microstructure also exhibited the lowest thermal diffusivity, which is explained by the amorphous phase content and limited particle bonding, generating local thermal resistances within the structure.

  6. High temperature stability of aluminide-coated Inconel 617

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyun; Lee, Byeong Woo

    2015-03-01

    Aluminum diffusion coatings were applied to the Inconel 617 by a pack cementation. The effect of coatings on the thermal stability and wear resistance of the Inconel alloy after heat-treatment under an air and a helium atmosphere at 1000°C, 48 h has been studied. The aluminide-coated Inconel specimens are prepared at 850°C and 1000°C for 1 h. An aluminiding layer indexed as AlxNi1-x (x = 0.4-0.6) was formed near the surface region and it played a role as a barrier layer against the surface diffusion of Cr. The thin Cr2O3 film formed in situ on the alloy surface is protective inhibiting further oxidation at moderate temperatures. As the temperature increases further, the thermal stability of the Inconel alloy is limited by the instability of the Cr2O3 scale. The aluminide-coated Inconel 617 samples showed the better performances, the enhanced thermal stability and improved wear resistance, most likely due to the barrier layer formation with the reduced amount of Cr2O3 scale formation.

  7. Spray automated balancing of rotors: Methods and materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Anthony J.; Baldwin, Richard M.; Schick, Wilbur R.

    1988-01-01

    The work described consists of two parts. In the first part, a survey is performed to assess the state of the art in rotor balancing technology as it applies to Army gas turbine engines and associated power transmission hardware. The second part evaluates thermal spray processes for balancing weight addition in an automated balancing procedure. The industry survey reveals that: (1) computerized balancing equipment is valuable to reduce errors, improve balance quality, and provide documentation; (2) slow-speed balancing is used exclusively, with no forseeable need for production high-speed balancing; (3) automated procedures are desired; and (4) thermal spray balancing is viewed with cautious optimism whereas laser balancing is viewed with concern for flight propulsion hardware. The FARE method (Fuel/Air Repetitive Explosion) was selected for experimental evaluation of bond strength and fatigue strength. Material combinations tested were tungsten carbide on stainless steel (17-4), Inconel 718 on Inconel 718, and Triballoy 800 on Inconel 718. Bond strengths were entirely adequate for use in balancing. Material combinations have been identified for use in hot and cold sections of an engine, with fatigue strengths equivalent to those for hand-ground materials.

  8. Corrosion Test Results for Inconel 600 vs Inconel-Stainless UG Bellows

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, P.E.

    2002-09-11

    The Conversion Project (CP) of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involves converting slightly less than 40 kg of {sup 233}U to a stable form for safe storage. The operation is performed within a few vessels interconnected by valves and 1/2-in. metal tubing. During this conversion, a particularly toxic and corrosive by-product is formed, namely aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF). The production of HF is a result of the hydrolysis of UF{sub 6} and subsequent steam treatments of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}. For each mole of UF{sub 6} converted, 6 mol of HF are produced. The HF that forms during conversion combines with water to produce approximately 1.5 L of 33 wt % HF. As this mixture is transferred within the process system, the tubing and valves are exposed to high concentrations of HF in liquid and vapor form. Of particular concern in the system are the almost 30 valves that have the potential for exposure to HF. For these valves, a vendor-supplied UG valve was installed. UG valves consist of an Alloy 400 (Monel) body and stem tip and Alloy 600 (Inconel) bellows. These valves have been used under experimental conditions that simulate the CP. It has been established that they have a finite life when exposed to a HF and air environment. Most failures were seen around the flange at the bottom of the bellows, and it was suspected that this flange and the weld material were not Inconel. In December 2001, the vendor confirmed that this flange was not Inconel but instead was stainless steel 316. After discussions between the vendor and ORNL staff involved with the CP effort, it was decided that the entire wetted area of the bellows would be fabricated from Alloy 600. In March 2002, four newly fabricated bellows assemblies were received from the vendor for the purposes of corrosion testing in HF. This report presents results from the corrosion tests conducted to determine if the new design of the bellows would enhance their corrosion resistance.

  9. Optimization of the HOVF Spray Parameters by Taguchi Method for High Corrosion-Resistant Fe-Based Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yujiao; Wu, Yuping; Zhang, Jianfeng; Hong, Sheng; Guo, Wenmin; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Hao

    2015-07-01

    Taguchi method was used to optimize the parameters of the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray process and obtain the high corrosion-resistant Fe-based coatings. Based on the signal-to-noise ( S/ N) ratio and the analysis of variance, the significance of spray parameters in determining the porosity of the coatings was found to be in the order of spray distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow. Thus, the optimal parameters for the porosity of the HVOF sprayed Fe-based coating were determined as 280 mm for the spray distance, 963 scfh for the oxygen flow, and 28 gph for the kerosene flow. The potentiodynamic polarization and EIS tests indicated that the Fe-based coating prepared with the optimal parameters exhibited a higher corrosion potential ( E corr) of -196.14 mV, a lower corrosion current density ( i corr) of 0.14 μA/cm2, and a higher coating resistance ( R c) of 2.26 × 106 Ω cm2 than those of the hard chromium coating in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. This superior corrosion resistance could be attributed to the dense structure with low porosity and partially amorphous phases of the Fe-based coatings.

  10. Characterization of High-Velocity Solution Precursor Flame-Sprayed Manganese Cobalt Oxide Spinel Coatings for Metallic SOFC Interconnectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puranen, Jouni; Laakso, Jarmo; Kylmälahti, Mikko; Vuoristo, Petri

    2013-06-01

    A modified high-velocity oxy-fuel spray (HVOF) thermal spray torch equipped with liquid feeding hardware was used to spray manganese-cobalt solutions on ferritic stainless steel grade Crofer 22 APU substrates. The HVOF torch was modified in such a way that the solution could be fed axially into the combustion chamber through 250- and 300-μm-diameter liquid injector nozzles. The solution used in this study was prepared by diluting nitrates of manganese and cobalt, i.e., Mn(NO3)2·4H2O and Co(NO3)2·6H2O, respectively, in deionized water. The as-sprayed coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy operating in secondary electron mode. Chemical analyses were performed on an energy dispersive spectrometer. Coatings with remarkable density could be prepared by the novel high-velocity solution precursor flame spray (HVSPFS) process. Due to finely sized droplet formation in the HVSPFS process and the use of as delivered Crofer 22 APU substrate material having very low substrate roughness ( R a < 0.5 μm), thin and homogeneous coatings, with thicknesses lower than 10 μm could be prepared. The coatings were found to have a crystalline structure equivalent to MnCo2O4 spinel with addition of Co-oxide phases. Crystallographic structure was restored back to single-phase spinel structure by heat treatment.