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Sample records for hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum

  1. Detection of acaricidal resistance in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum from Banaskantha district, Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Gelot, I S; Jyoti; Bhat, S A; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, Veer

    2015-09-01

    The resistance status in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum collected from Banaskantha district, Gujarat (India) was estimated by larval packet test (LPT) with different concentrations of amitraz (125, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 ppm) and cypermethrin (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm). The regression graphs of mean mortality of larvae ticks were plotted against values of progressively increasing concentrations of amitraz and cypermethrin for the estimation of LC95 values and were determined as 1,529.39 and 351.84 ppm, respectively. Further a resistance of level I was determined against cypermethrin whereas, a comparatively higher resistance level (II) was recorded against amitraz. The current study appears to be the pioneer report of amitraz and cypermethrin resistance in H. a. anatolicum from the Gujarat state, India. PMID:26345072

  2. Virulence of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces lilacinus to the engorged female Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming; Ren, Qiaoyun; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Ma, Miling; Gou, Huitian; Chen, Ze; Li, Youquan; Liu, Aihong; Niu, Qingli; Yang, Jifei; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2011-08-25

    The tick is a common ectoparasite of livestock and humans, and is responsible for the transmission of pathogens among hosts. Direct and indirect impacts of ticks include limiting the sustainable development of the animal husbandry industry and detrimental effects on human health. Despite these negative effects, the main method of controlling ticks remains the application of chemical acaricides, which can lead to ambient pollution and the development of tick resistance to them. The biocontrol of ticks is one of the alternative control methods that has received recent research attention. The present study used Tenebrio moliter bait methods to collect 13 species of entomopathogenic fungi from different areas in China that were then tested to observe their effects on engorged female Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks. The results showed that more than half of the isolates had some pathogenic effects on the ticks; in particular, two Beauveria bassiana strains (B.bAT01, B.bAT17) and one Metarhizium anisopliae strain (M.aAT26) were highly virulent, causing up to 90% mortality. In addition, H. anatolicum anatolicum females were treated with B. bassiana B.bAT17 using different concentrations of the fungus. Results revealed that B. bassiana B.bAT17 is highly pathogenic against engorged H. anatolicum anatolicum females. This is the first report of the pathogenic effect of entomopathogenic fungi on engorged H. anatolicum anatolicum females. However, studies of the efficiency of this fungus against ticks in the field are required before it can be used for tick management in practice. PMID:21511397

  3. Identification and characterization of microRNAs by deep-sequencing in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin; Liu, Guang-Yuan; Chen, Ze; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun; Wang, Hui

    2015-06-15

    Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (H.a. anatolicum) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks are globally distributed ectoparasites with veterinary and medical importance. These ticks not only weaken animals by sucking their blood but also transmit different species of parasitic protozoans. Multiple factors influence these parasitic infections including miRNAs, which are non-coding, small regulatory RNA molecules essential for the complex life cycle of parasites. To identify and characterize miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing, bioinformatics and real-time PCR analysis. Here we report the use of this approach to identify miRNA expression, family distribution, and nucleotide characteristics, and discovered novel miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum. The result showed that miR-1-3p, miR-275-3p, and miR-92a were expressed abundantly. There was a strong bias on miRNA, family members, and nucleotide compositions at certain positions in H.a. anatolicum miRNA. Uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at positions 1, 6, 16, and 18, which were located approximately at the beginning, middle, and end of conserved miRNAs. Analysis of the conserved miRNAs indicated that miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum were concentrated along three diverse phylogenetic branches of bilaterians, insects and coelomates. Two possible roles for the use of miRNA in H.a. anatolicum could be presumed based on its parasitic life cycle: to maintain a large category of miRNA families of different animals, and/or to preserve stringent conserved seed regions with active changes in other places of miRNAs mainly in the middle and the end regions. These might help the parasite to undergo its complex life style in different hosts and adapt more readily to the host changes. The present study represents the first large scale characterization of H.a. anatolicum miRNAs, which could further the understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, as well as initiate miRNA studies in other related species such as Haemaphysalis longicornis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus of human and animal health significance. PMID:25592818

  4. Laboratory assessment of acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera extracts against deltamethrin resistant Hyalomma anatolicum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Kumar, Rajender; Dumka, V K

    2014-07-01

    Larval packet test was used for detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids, in the multi-host tick Hyalomma anatolicum collected from district Moga, Punjab (India). Results indicated the presence of level I resistance against deltamethrin (RF = 2.81), whereas the tick isolate was susceptible to cypermethrin (RF = 0.2). The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera along with roots of Vitex negundo were assessed for their acaricidal activity against the larvae of deltamethrin resistant H. anatolicum. The efficacy was assessed by measuring per cent larval mortality and determination of LC50 values. The various ethanolic extracts produced a concentration dependent increase in larval tick mortality, whereas the aqueous extracts exhibited a much lower mortality. The highest mortality (93.7 ± 0.66 %) was observed at the 5.0 % concentration of ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus and the lowest LC50 value (0.011 %) was recorded for ethanolic extracts of leaves of V. negundo. The results indicated that these plant extracts have potential to be developed as herbal acaricides. PMID:24647800

  5. [Differentiation of closely related species Hyalomma anatolicum and H. excavatum (Acari: Ixodidae) based on a study of all life cycle stages, throughout entire geographical range].

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, D A

    2003-01-01

    Species status is stated for Hyalomma anatolicum and H. excavatum, based on numerous material from the territory of their distribution. The differentiation of species is recovered for all stages of the life cycle. Diagnosis of Hyalomma anatolicum. Female: small tick--length of scutum commonly less than 2 mm; width of scutum commonly less than 1.9 mm; color of scutum, gnathosoma and coxae light, yellowish- or reddish-brown; whitish enameled pigment on scutum absent; posterolateral ledges of scutum weakly expressed or absent; cervical and lateral grooves more shallow (than in H. excavatum) (fig. 1); setae of scutum, alloscutum, sternal setae and ventromedian setae of second article of palpae more tapering to the apex, narrow rounded or acute (fig. 2, 1, 2, 5, 8). Male: small tick--length of conscutum, as a rule, less than 4 mm; width of scutum, as a rule, less than 2.3 mm; shape of conscutum marrow oval (fig. 3), widest in the midlevel; color of conscutum, anal shields, gnathosoma and coxae light, yellowish- or reddish-brown; whitish enameled pigment on conscutum absent; caudal depression with less dense and more large punctuations (than in H. excavatum); ridges lateral to caudal field less high and sharp (than in H. excavatum); posteromedian groove separated from parma by contiguous punctuations or smooth non high area; setae of conscutum conus-like, more sharpening (fig. 4, 1-3); posterior dorsal margin of gnathosoma straight or slightly concave (fig. 4, 8); segments of leg IV not swallowed. Nymph: large tick (see description). Scutum more narrow. Dorsal tale of spiracular plates clear expressed, marginal perforations distant from margin of spiracular plates at the base of tale (fig. 5, 3); anterolateral side of basis capituli approximately equal to half of gnathosoma width; ventrally lateral projections of gnathosoma situated in posterior half of capitulum base (fig. 5, 4, 5). Hypostome more longer and narrow (fig. 5, 5). Larva: large tick (see description). Diagnosis of Hyalomma excavatum. Female: large tick--length of scutum commonly more than 2 mm; width of scutum commonly more than 1.9 mm; color of scutum, gnathosoma and coxae dark, reddish- or black-brown; whitish enameled pigment commonly present; posterolateral ledges of scutum clearly expressed; cervical and lateral grooves more dipper (than in H. anatolicum) (fig. 7). Setae of scutum, alloscutum, sternal setae and ventromedian setae of second article of palpae more stick-like, more widely obtuse (fig. 8, 1-5). Male: large tick--length of conscutum more than 4 mm; width of scutum more than 2.3 mm; shape of conscutum wide oval (fig. 9), widest in posterior half of length; color of conscutum, anal shields, gnathosoma and coxae dark, reddish- or black-brown; whitish enameled pigment often present; caudal depression with more dense and more small punctuations (than in H. anatolicum); ridges lateral to caudal field more high and sharp (than in H. anatolicum); posteromedian groove separated from parma by strong elevations fused with paraparmal festoons; setae of conscutum more obtuse, often stick-like (fig. 10, 1, 2); posterior dorsal margin of gnathosoma straight or lightly concave. (fig. 10, 3); segments of leg IV swallowed. Nymph: small tick (see description). Scutum more wide. Dorsal tale of spiracular plates weakly expressed, marginal perforations not distant from margin of spiracular plates at the base of tale (fig. 11, 3); anterolateral side of basis capituli clearly shorter than half of gnathosoma width; ventrally lateral projections situated in the middle of or anterior half of capitulum base (fig. 11, 4, 5). Hypostome more shorter and wider (fig. 5, 5). Larva: small tick (see description). Established taxonomical independence of H. anatolicum and H. excavatum is confirmed by several criteria: external morphology (see diagnoses); morphometrical data (see diagnoses and fig. 12, 13); size inversion: larva and nymph of H. anatolicum are large, but females and males are small; while H. excavatum vise versa--larva and nymph are small, but adults--large; host speci

  6. [Host-parasite relationships of the genus Hyalomma Koch, 1844 (Acari, Ixodidae) and their connection with microevolutionary process].

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, D A

    2004-01-01

    Host-parasite relationships of Hyalomma species of the world fauna are analyzed. The majority of species infests predominately various mammals. Birds and reptiles are used as preferred hosts by several Hyalomma species, and only on certain stage: adults of H. aegyptium parasitize tortoises; immature stages of H. marginatum parasitize birds. It is hypothesized that relationships of H. aegyptium adults (subgenus Hyalomma s. str.) with reptiles are secondarily in origin. Immature stages of H. aegyptium retain the primary wide diapason of hosts, which are various small mammals, birds and reptiles. The life cycle of this species is the three-host type that is considered as a primary type in ixodid ticks. A typical scheme of relationships with their hosts in all well-examined Hyalommina species has following features: the adult stage parasitize large and medium sized mammals, immature stages parasitize small mammals, three-host life cycle. A variety of preferred hosts and types of life cycle is observed in the subgenus Euhyalomma. All species of this subgenus can be arranged into two groups. In the first group, the immature stages infest only small mammals and birds, and the adults parasitize large mammals; this type of host preferences is probably primary host-parasite relationships of Hyalomma. This group includes: H. albiparmatum, H. asiaticum, H. excavatum, H. franchinii, H. impeltatum, H. impressum, H. lusitanicum, H. marginatum, H. nitidum, H. schulzei, and H. truncatum. Hyalomma marginatum and H. schulzei are two-host species; H. excavatum is two- or three-host tick. All the remaining species (except H. albiparmatum, which life cycle is unknown) are three-host ticks. In the second group, the immature stages as well as the adult stage parasitize large mammals. This group includes: H. dromedarii, H. anatolicum, and H. scupense. These species are two- or one-host ticks. PMID:15656094

  7. Species Diversity and Distribution of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Zabol County, Eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ganjali, Maryam; Dabirzadeh, Mansour; Sargolzaie, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. They are considered as main vectors for transmission of many viral, bacterial, rickettsial and parasitical pathogens. The aim of the present study was to find out species diversity of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in Zabol County, Eastern Iran in 2012. Methods: Ticks were selected randomly from sheep, goats, cattle and camels. The ticks were collected from the body of infested animals and stored in 70% ethanol, then transported to the laboratory of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. Following examinations under stereomicroscope, ticks were identified using available taxonomic keys. Results: In this study, a total number of 469 adult ticks (381 males and 88 females) were collected. Ticks were classified into 2 genera and 9 species including: Hyalomma dromedarii (17.3%), Hy. schulzei (1.8%), Hy. marginatum (0.5%), Hy. anatolicum excavatum (12.60%), Hy. anatolicum anatolicum (11.2%), Hy. asiaticum asiaticum (11.0%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (21.2%), Rh. bursa (10.2%) and Rh. turacunis (13.911%). The frequency of genus Hyalomma (54.6%) was higher than Rhipicephalus. Rh. sanguineus was the predominant tick species and accounted for 21.26% of the ticks. The ratio of males was more than the female ticks. Conclusion: Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus species are commonly distributed in the study area. Further investigations are needed to identify the role of above tick species as vectors of pathogenic organisms. PMID:26114136

  8. Laboratory Study on Biological Control of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) by Entomopathogenic Indigenous Fungi (Beauveria bassiana)

    PubMed Central

    Abdigoudarzi, M; Esmaeilnia, K; Shariat, N

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chemical control method using different acaricides as spray, dipping solution or pour-on is routinely used for controlling ticks. Biological control agents are favorable due to their safety for animals and environment. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are well known for controlling ticks. In this study, two Iranian indigenous strains of B. bassiana (B. bassiana 5197 and B. bassiana Evin) were selected and grown on specific media. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of two Iranian Ixodidae members (H. anatolicum anatolicum Koch 1844, and H. marginatum Koch 1844) by dipping method. Methods: Two Iranian strains of Beauveria bassiana (Beauveria bassiana 5197 and Beauveria bassiana Evin) were selected and were grown successfully on specific media. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of Iranian Ixodidae members such as, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and H. marginatum by dipping method (these ticks were grown up at laboratory conditions during 2002 up to 2003 and still it is continued) . Results: There was no effect of strain 5197 on mortality or fecundity rates for ticks. There was acute phase sign of paralysis in test group after dipping ticks in suspension made from Evin strain of B. bassiana. In addition, the test groups were totally died after four months, but the control groups survived for six months. Conclusion: High concentration of fungal spores is needed for inducing fungal infection. Additional study using different strains and fungi on Iranian ticks is proposed. PMID:22808380

  9. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Clade IV (Asia 1) in Ticks of Western Iran.

    PubMed

    Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Chinikar, Sadegh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Jalali, Tahmineh; Hosseini-Chegeni, Asadolah; Naghizadeh, Ali; Niedrig, Matthias; Fooks, Anthony R; Shahhosseini, Nariman

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus (CCHFV) is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, or by direct contact with CCHFV-infected patients' blood or the products of infected livestock. In 2012, ticks were collected in eight regions of Lorestan Province, Iran. In total, 434 ticks were collected. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of CCHFV RNA. Of 434 ticks, 419 (96.6%) ticks were from the family Ixodidae (hard ticks) and 15 (3.5%) ticks were from the family Argasidae (soft ticks). The presence of CCHFV RNA was detected in 29 (6.7%) of 434 ticks. The infected tick species include Hyalomma asiaticum (n?=?7, 7.4%), Hyalomma anatolicum (n?=?12, 13.2%), Hyalomma marginatum (n?=?1, 16.7%), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n?=?9, 4.3%). These empirical data demonstrated that the majority of CCHFV-positive ticks belonged to the Ixodidae. None of the Argasidae and Haemaphysalis sulcata species was infected with CCHFV. The phylogenetic analyses of the tick-derived CCHFV strains revealed that all 29 viral strains fell in clade IV (Asia 1). The most abundant species of tick collected in this study was R. sanguineus followed by different species of Hyalomma. Given the infection rate among collected ticks, H. marginatum was the most abundant infected tick species (16.7%) followed by H. anatolicum (13.2%), H. asiaticum (7.4%), and R. sanguineus (4.3%). PMID:26336221

  10. Detection of Naturally Infected Vector Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) by Different Species of Babesia and Theileria Agents from Three Different Enzootic Parts of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic study of vector ticks for different pathogens transmitted specifically have been done by Iranian old scientists working on the basis of biological transmission of pathogens. In this study we decided to confirm natural infection of different collected ticks from three different provinces of Iran. Methods: Ticks were collected from livestock (sheep, goats and cattle) during favorable seasons (April to September 2007 and 2008). Slide preparations were stained by Giemsa and Feulgen and were studied searching for any trace of infection. Positive DNA from infected blood or tissue samples was provided and was used as positive control. First, PCR optimization for positive DNA was done, and then tick samples were subjected to specific PCR. Results: Eleven pairs of primers were designed for detection of Theileria, Babesia and Anaplasma spp. Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus turanicus from Fars Province were infected with T. lestoquardi at two different places. Hyalomma detritum was infected with T. lestoquardi in Lorestan Province and Rh. turanicus was infected to Ba. ovis from Fars Province. Conclusion: Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Every sample is regarded with host-environment related factors. Since there are complex relations of vectors and their relevant protozoa, different procedures are presented for future studies. PMID:24409442

  11. Ticks (Ixodidae) on migrating birds in Egypt, spring and fall 1962*

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstraal, Harry; Traylor, Melvin A.; Gaber, Sobhy; Malakatis, George; Guindy, Ezzat; Helmy, Ibrahim

    1964-01-01

    Over a number of years studies have been carried out in Egypt on the transport by migrating birds of ticks that may transmit pathogens of man and animals. In continuation of these investigations 11 036 birds migrating southwards through Egypt were examined for ticks during the fall of 1962. The 881 infested birds (comprising 24 species and sub-species represented by 10 612 individuals) yielded 1442 ticks. Tick-host relationships were similar to those of previous years except that in 1962 the prevalence of infestation was almost invariably much higher than the averages for 1959-61. Five species of birds were added to the previous list of 40 infested forms. Previously unrecorded tick species taken during 1962 were Ixodes redikorzevi (a species from Asia very occasionally found in rodent burrows in Egypt), the rare Haemaphysalis inermis, and Hyalomma a. anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum and H. dromedarii, which may have been carried from Asia or have attached themselves to the birds at the time of netting. During the spring of 1962, altogether 1774 birds migrating northwards through Egypt were also examined. The 56 tick-infested birds (comprising 13 species represented by 867 individuals) yielded 186 ticks. As in previous years, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes was the chief species (89.25%) parasitizing spring migrants. A single specimen of Amblyomma variegatum was taken on Anthus cervinus and 19 specimens of Ixodes?sp. nov. were collected from Sylvia c. communis and Motacilla a. alba. PMID:14163959

  12. Efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Chung, Ill-Min; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Karthikeyan, Viswanathan

    2015-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are considered to be among the best photocatalytic materials due to their long-term thermodynamic stability, strong oxidizing power, and relative non-toxicity. Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. The present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) against hematophagous parasites. The anti-parasitic activity of TiO2 NPs against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were assessed. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by UV-Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, SEM, and TEM. The XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed the dominant peak at 2? value of 27.81 which matched the 110 crystallographic plane of the rutile structure indicating the crystal structure. The FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,448 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. The SEM images of TiO2 NPs displayed spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The TEM micrograph showed agglomerates, round and slight elongation with an average size of 30?±?5 nm. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized TiO2 NPs against the larvae of R. microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, A. subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 value of 28.56, 33.17, 23.81, 5.84, and 4.34 mg/L, respectively. In the present study, a novel, simple, and eco-friendly approach has been suggested to control blood-feeding parasites. PMID:25403378

  13. Theileria infectivity of Hyalomma ticks in Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, A K; Chhabra, M B; Samantaray, S

    1986-08-01

    Theileria infection of Hyalomma ticks collected from three districts of Haryana was assessed in whole salivary glands by the methyl-green pyronin staining method. Of 1,662 ticks screened, 546 (32.8%) were found Theileria positive. Infection rate in 935 female ticks (36.9%) was more than that of 727 male ticks (27.6%). Density of Theileria infection (number of infected acini per infected tick) was also higher in female ticks. Theileria infection rate of ticks varied greatly in the three districts viz. only 12.0% in Rohtak, 25.8% in Hisar and 48.3% in Karnal. Per cent infection rate was high (63.7%) in ticks from indigenous cattle and low (18.6%) in those collected from buffaloes. However, the intensity of infection in infected ticks from cross-bred cattle was comparatively much higher. Frequency distribution of Theileria positive acini in infected ticks revealed a low density of infection per infected tick. This points to the largely stable endemic situation prevailing in Haryana. Only a single salivary acinus was found infected in 16.6% of the infected ticks, about 70% had up to 10 infected acini while only about 10% had over 25 infected acini per tick. The masses in acini presumed to be Theileria were confirmed by demonstrating parasitic masses on staining one of a pair of salivary glands and inoculating the suspension of the other half of the gland into two cross-bred cow calves which developed clinical signs and lesions typical of theileriosis. PMID:3094214

  14. Detection, Isolation and Confirmation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Human, Ticks and Animals in Ahmadabad, India, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Yadav, Pragya D.; Shete, Anita M.; Gurav, Yogesh K.; Raut, Chandrashekhar G.; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Pawar, Shailesh D.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mishra, Akhilesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Background In January 2011, human cases with hemorrhagic manifestations in the hospital staff were reported from a tertiary care hospital in Ahmadabad, India. This paper reports a detailed epidemiological investigation of nosocomial outbreak from the affected area of Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India. Principal Findings Samples from 3 suspected cases, 83 contacts, Hyalomma ticks and livestock were screened for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus by qRT-PCR of which samples of two medical professionals (case C and E) and the husband of the index case (case D) were positive for CCHFV. The sensitivity and specificity of indigenous developed IgM ELISA to screen CCHFV specific antibodies in human serum was 75.0% and 97.5% respectively as compared to commercial kit. About 17.0% domestic animals from Kolat, Ahmadabad were positive for IgG antibodies while only two cattle and a goat showed positivity by qRT-PCR. Surprisingly, 43.0% domestic animals (Buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat) showed IgG antibodies in the adjoining village Jivanpara but only one of the buffalo was positive for CCHFV. The Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks were positive in PCR and virus isolation. CCHFV was isolated from the blood sample of case C, E in Vero E-6 cells and Swiss albino mice. In partial nucleocapsid gene phylogeny from CCHFV positive human samples of the years 2010 and 2011, livestock and ticks showed this virus was similar to Tajikistan (strain TAJ/H08966), which belongs in the Asian/middle east genetic lineage IV. Conclusions The likely source of CCHFV was identified as virus infected Hyalomma ticks and livestock at the rural village residence of the primary case (case A). In addition, retrospective sample analysis revealed the existence of CCHFV in Gujarat and Rajasthan states before this outbreak. An indigenous developed IgM ELISA kit will be of great use for screening this virus in India. PMID:22616022

  15. Salvage of Theileria infected calves with clinical manifestation of exophthalmia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shanker K; Sudan, Vikrant; Sachan, Pratibha; Srivastava, Ashish

    2015-09-01

    Two crossbred female calves aged between 30 and 35 days were presented with bilateral exophthalmia, inappetence, pyrexia and cachexia since last 15 days. Clinical examination revealed mainly bilateral exophthalmia with dry and pulpy cornea, generalized enlargement of superficial lymph nodes, pallor mucous, petechiae, high rectal temperature and sternal recumbency. The calves were severely infested with Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks and thin layer blood smears revealed presence of piroplasm in the RBCs, while lymph nodes aspirate smear examination revealed presence schizonts in the mononuclear cells. The calves were treated with buparvaquone; meloxicam, nandrolone decanoate and vitamins A, D3, E and H. From day second post-therapy a remarkable improvement in the clinical condition was noticed and substantial reduction in the both protruded eyeballs was noticed by 7 days post-therapy in the both calves. Further at day 47 post-therapy the one calf was free from the parasite on blood smear examination and right eye was retracted in its orbits with full of sight. Moreover the left eye was also retracted in its orbit but there was loss of sight and opacity developed in this eye. While, the other calf also revealed remarkable improvement in the clinical condition and both eye balls retracted completely into the orbit at day 30 post-therapy. But, at day 86 the calf developed microphthalmia and complete loss of sight in both eyes. It can be concluded that adjunction of antioxidants and hematopoietic agents may salvage the calves suffering from fatal theileriosis. PMID:26345050

  16. Tick Cell Lines for Study of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Other Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Alain; Bente, Dennis A.; Fazakerley, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Continuous cell lines derived from many of the vectors of tick-borne arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance are now available. Their role as tools in arbovirus research to date is reviewed and their potential application in studies of tick cell responses to virus infection is explored, by comparison with recent progress in understanding mosquito immunity to arbovirus infection. A preliminary study of propagation of the human pathogen Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in tick cell lines is reported; CCHFV replicated in seven cell lines derived from the ticks Hyalomma anatolicum (a known vector), Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and Ixodes ricinus, but not in three cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Ornithodoros moubata. This indicates that tick cell lines can be used to study growth of CCHFV in arthropod cells and that there may be species-specific restriction in permissive CCHFV infection at the cellular level. PMID:21955214

  17. Morphological Characteristics of Normal and Gynandromorphic Hyalomma asiaticum Schulze and Schlottke, 1930

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ze; Li, You-quan; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Luo, Jin; Hu, Yonghong; Li, Kai; Liu, Guang-Yuan; Luo, Jian-xun; Liu, Jingze; Yin, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Gynandromorphic ticks are extremely rare, and often attract parasitologists’ attention. During our examination of tick specimens, an engorged gynandromorph of Hyalomma asiaticum was noticed. This is the first record of gynandromorphic ticks from China. In this study, several important morphological structures of normal and gynandromorphic H. asiaticum were analyzed. Comparing to the normal H. asiaticum, the gynandromorphic specimen was a typical bipartite protogynander. Its right side showed normal female characteristics, whereas the left side had normal male traits. Different from other gynandromorphic ticks containing 1 anus, this tick reported here had 2 complete anuses, and the anus of the male part had a single adanal plate. PMID:26174833

  18. A review of Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae) in the Maghreb region: from biology to control

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Aziz Darghouth, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Hyalomma scupense (syn. Hyalomma detritum) is a two-host domestic endophilic tick of cattle and secondarily other ungulates in the Maghreb region (Africa). This species transmits several pathogens, among which two are major livestock diseases: Theileria annulata and Theileria equi. Various other pathogens are also transmitted by this tick species, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia bovis. Hyalomma scupense is common in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of several regions in the world, mainly in the Maghreb region. In this region, adults attach to animals during the summer season; larvae and nymphs attach to their hosts during autumn, but there is a regional difference in H. scupense phenology. There is an overlap between immature and adult ticks, leading in some contexts to a dramatic modification of the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. This tick species attaches preferentially to the posterior udder quarters and thighs. Tick burdens can reach 130 ticks per animal, with a mean of 60 ticks. Calves are 70 times less infested than adult cattle. The control can be implemented through six options: (i) rehabilitation of the farm buildings by roughcasting and smoothing the outer and inner surfaces of the enclosures and walls. This control option should be recommended to be combined with a thorough cleaning of the farm and its surrounding area. With regard to Theileria annulata infection, this control option is the most beneficial. (ii) Acaricide application to animals during the summer season, targeting adults. (iii) Acaricide application during the autumn period for the control of the immature stages. (iv) Acaricide application to the walls: many field veterinarians have suggested this option but it is only partially efficient since nymphs enter deep into the cracks and crevices. It should be used if there is a very high tick burden or if there is a high risk of tick-borne diseases. (v) Manual tick removal: this method is not efficient since the ticks can feed on several other animal species in the farm. This control option can lead to a reduction of the tick population, but not a decrease in tick-borne disease incidence. (vi) Vaccination: this control option consists of injecting the protein Hd86; trials have shown a partial effect on nymphs, with no effect on adult ticks. Combination of two of these control options is recommended in regions where there are high burdens of important tick vectors. Further studies are needed to improve our knowledge on this tick species in the Maghreb region, since the number of published studies on Hyalomma scupense in this region is very limited. PMID:24507485

  19. Hard ticks (Ixodidae) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in south west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifinia, Narges; Rafinejad, Javad; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Chinikar, Sadegh; Piazak, Norayer; Baniardalan, Mojgan; Biglarian, Akbar; Sharifinia, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Ticks are vectors of some important arthropod-borne diseases in both fields of veterinary and medicine, such as Lyme, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and some types of encephalitis as well as Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). Iran is known as one of the main foci of CCHF in west of Asia. This study was conducted in DarrehShahr County because of the development of animal husbandry in this area to detect the fauna and viral infection of the hard ticks of livestock. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2011-2012 with random sampling in four villages. A sample of ticks was subjected to RT-PCR method for detection of viral infection. During the study period, 592 Ixodidae ticks were collected and identified as seven species of Hyalomma asiaticum, Hy. marginatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. detritum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rh. sanguineus. More than 20% of these ticks were examined to detect the genome of CCHF virus while 6.6% were positive. All species of Hyalomma were found to be positive. A high rate of livestock was found to be infected with hard ticks, which can act as the vectors of the CCHF disease. Regarding infection of all five Hyalomma species captured in this area, this genus should be considered as the main vector of CCHF. Planning control program can be performed based on the obtained data on seasonal activity of Ixodidae to prevent animal infestation as well as to reduce the risk of CCHF transmission. PMID:25796025

  20. The efficacies of 5 insecticides against hard ticks Hyalomma asiaticum, Haemaphysalis longicornis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haiyan; Ren, Qiaoyun; Li, Youquan; Liu, Junlong; Niu, Qingli; Yin, Hong; Meng, Qingling; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun

    2015-10-01

    At present, chemical-based tick control strategies are still the most efficient and widely used methods in control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. In this study, the efficacies of lambda-cyhalothrin, beta-cypermethrin, emamectin benzoate, spirotetramat and hexaflumuron in vitro were evaluated against Hyalomma asiaticum, Haemaphysalis longicornis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus that are widespread and able to transmit a variety of human and animal diseases in China. The results showed that the LC (lethal concentration) 50 of lambda-cyhalothrin, beta-cypermethrin, emamectin benzoate, spirotetramat and hexaflumuron were 22.05, 107.35, 287.62, 432.25 and over 6250 mg/L to Hy. asiaticum engorged nymphs, respectively. The LC50 of lambda-cyhalothrin and beta-cypermethrin were each to 100.69 mg/L and 340.05 mg/L against Hy. asiaticum unfed adults. In addition, 50 mg/L of lambda-cyhalothrin could completely inhibit engorged females of the 3 tick species to lay eggs. These results indicate that lambda-cyhalothrin has the highest efficacy and broadest spectrum for against the 3 tick species. The present study provides some information for selecting chemical acaricides in control ticks and tick-borne-diseases, as well for preparing acaricide mixtures to improve killing efficacy, and retard the advent of tick-resistance of acaricides in China. PMID:26115939

  1. Ticks of the Hyalomma marginatum complex transported by migratory birds into Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Capek, Miroslav; Literak, Ivan; Kocianova, Elena; Sychra, Oldrich; Najer, Tomas; Trnka, Alfred; Kverek, Pavel

    2014-09-01

    Hyalomma ticks are well-known vectors transmitting infectious agents, which can result in severe and potentially fatal diseases in humans. Migratory birds may carry infected ticks over long distances. Here, we report on records of ticks of the H. marginatum complex in birds from Central Europe during the spring migration in 2008-2012. A total of 1172 birds belonging to 32 species, 16 families, and 3 orders was examined for ticks. Sixteen individuals of 6 passerine species were found to transport 30 ticks, identified as individuals belonging to the H. marginatum species complex (consisting of H. isaaci, H. marginatum sensu stricto, H. rufipes, H. turanicum, and H. glabrum) during 5 spring seasons. Infested bird species included the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus, the Eurasian reed warbler A. scirpaceus, the marsh warbler A. palustris, the sedge warbler A. schoenobaenus, Savi's warbler Locustella luscinioides, and the common nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos. All of these Central European breeders are migratory species wintering in Africa. To our knowledge, this is the first study to record ticks of the H. marginatum complex on the great reed warbler and Savi's warbler. PMID:24877976

  2. Molecular detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Nigeria, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamani, J; Baneth, G; Apanaskevich, D A; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Harrus, S

    2015-06-01

    Several species of the spotted fever group rickettsiae have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including in Africa. In this study, 197 Hyalomma ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) collected from 51 camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kano, northern Nigeria, were screened by amplification and sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA), outer membrane protein A (ompA) and 17-kDa antigen gene fragments. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments were detected in 43.3% (42/97) of the tick pools tested. Rickettsial ompA gene fragments (189 bp and 630 bp) were detected in 64.3% (n = 27) and 23.8% (n = 10) of the gltA-positive tick pools by real-time and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. The amplicons were 99-100% identical to Rickettsia aeschlimannii TR/Orkun-H and R.?aeschlimannii strain EgyRickHimp-El-Arish in GenBank. Furthermore, 17-kDa antigen gene fragments of 214 bp and 265 bp were detected in 59.5% (n = 25) and 38.1% (n = 16), respectively, of tick pools, and sequences were identical to one another and 99-100% identical to those of the R.?aeschlimannii strain Ibadan A1 in GenBank. None of the Hyalomma impressum ticks collected were positive for Rickettsia sp. DNA. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments (133 bp) were detected in 18.8% of camel blood samples, but all samples were negative for the other genes targeted. This is the first report to describe the molecular detection of R.?aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels in Nigeria. PMID:25565180

  3. A survey of ixodid tick species and molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Munir

    2014-03-01

    This study was undertaken in two different climatic areas of Turkey to determine the presence of tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. The ticks were removed from humans, pooled according to species and developmental stages, and analyzed by PCR, reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing. Of the 2333 removed ticks from 10 species, 1238 (53.06%) were obtained from the arid cold zone, and the remaining 1095 (46.93%) were obtained from the humid zone. The removed ticks were identified as Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma detritum, Hyalomma excavatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis sulcata, Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis and Ixodes spp. nymphs. The dominant species was I. ricinus (61.27%) in the humid zone, whereas the Haemaphysalis spp. nymph dominated (30.29%) in the arid zone. Infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 169 pools tested, 49 (28.99%) were found to be infected with the pathogens, and the overall MLE of the infection rate was calculated as 2.44% (CI 1.88-3.17). The MLE of the infection varied among tick species, ranging from 0.85% (CI 0.23-2.34) in Haemaphysalis spp. nymph to 17.93% (CI 6.94-37.91) in D. marginatus. Pathogens identified in ticks included Theileria annulata, Babesia ovis, Babesia crassa, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma ovis, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon felis. Most tick pools were infected with a single pathogen. However, four pools infected with H. canis displayed infections with B. crassa, A. phagocytophilum and E. canis. The sequencing indicated that Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. was 100% identical to the sequence of Ehrlichia sp. Firat 2 and 3 previously identified from Hyalomma anatolicum. PMID:24424312

  4. A tick B-cell inhibitory protein from salivary glands of the hard tick, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Da; Liang Jiangguo; Yu Haining; Wu Haifeng; Xu Chunhua; Liu Jingze . E-mail: jzliu21@heinfo.net; Lai Ren . E-mail: rlai72@njau.edu.cn

    2006-05-05

    Some studies done to date suggest that B-cell inhibitory factor occurred in tick saliva. In this study, a novel protein having B-cell inhibitory activity was purified and characterized from the salivary glands of the hard tick, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. This protein was named B-cell inhibitory factor (BIF). The cDNA encoding BIF was cloned by cDNA library screening. The predicted protein from the cDNA sequence is composed of 138 amino acids including the mature BIF. No similarity was found by Blast search. The lipopolysaccharide-induced B-cell proliferation was inhibited by BIF. This is First report of the identification and characterization of B-cell inhibitory protein from tick. The current study facilitates the study of identifying the interaction among tick, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and host.

  5. Vectors of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Chinikar, Sadegh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Faghihi, Faezeh; Hosseini-Chegeni, Asadollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ticks are important vectors and reservoirs of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) virus. Human beings may be infected whenever the normal life cycle of the infected ticks on non-human vertebrate hosts is interrupted by the undesirable presence of humans in the cycle. A total of 26 species of Argasid and Ixodid ticks have been recorded in Iran; including nine Hyalomma, two Rhipicephalus, two Dermacentor, five Haemaphysalis, two Boophilus, one Ixodes and two Argas as well as three Ornithodoros species as blood sucking ectoparasites of livestock and poultries. The present paper reviews tick vectors of CCHF virus in Iran, focusing on the role of ticks in different provinces of Iran using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Methods: During ten years study, 1054 tick specimens; including two species of Argasidae and 17 species of Ixodidae were examined for their infection to CCHF virus genome. The output of all studies as well as related publications were discussed in the current paper. Results: The results show that Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, H. anatolicum, H. asiaticum and H. dromedarii were known as the most frequent species which were positive for CCHF virus. Conclusion: The status of ticks which were positive for CCHF virus revealed that unlike the most common idea that Hyalomma species are the most important vectors of CCHF virus, other ticks including Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis and Dermacentor can be reservoir of this virus; thus, considering geographical distribution, type of host and environmental conditions, different tick control measurements should be carried out in areas with high incidence of CCHF disease. PMID:26623426

  6. Importation of Hyalomma marginatum, vector of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, into the United Kingdom by migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Jameson, Lisa J; Morgan, Peter J; Medlock, Jolyon M; Watola, George; Vaux, Alexander G C

    2012-04-01

    Hyalomma marginatum ticks are an important vector of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus which can result in a severe and potentially fatal disease in humans. Given the continued emergence of clinical cases in Eurasia and focalised upsurges of H. marginatum populations in Europe, it seemed prudent to assess the potential of this vector species to be introduced into the United Kingdom. Immature forms of H. marginatum are frequent ectoparasites of passerine birds many of which migrate from Africa to the UK each spring. Incoming birds were inspected for ticks during the spring migration in 2010 and 2011. A total of 68 ticks was collected from 971 birds (29 bird species), 21% (14) of the ticks were identified as H. marginatum. Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern wheatear) and Sylvia communis (Whitethroat) were found to be infested by this tick in both years and with multiple ticks. Single specimens were also removed from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (Sedge warbler) and Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Common redstart) in 2010. This study provides the first contemporary evidence for substantial importation of this tick species into the UK. PMID:22300969

  7. Hidden threat of tortoise ticks: high prevalence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in ticks Hyalomma aegyptium in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Široký, Pavel; B?lohlávek, Tomáš; Papoušek, Ivo; Jandzik, David; Mikulí?ek, Peter; Kubelová, Michaela; Zdražilová-Dubská, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    It is the first time that Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), causing potentially lethal disease of humans, has been reported from the Middle East region and from the tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium from a tortoise host, whose epidemiological significance may have remained almost completely overlooked so far. We used RT-PCR to screen for 245 ticks collected from 38 Testudo graeca tortoise individuals. Results of our genetic screening provide unambiguous evidence of occurrence of CCHFV in this region and host, suggesting a potentially important role of H. aegyptium in CCHF epidemiology. PMID:24618184

  8. The Impact of Climate Trends on a Tick Affecting Public Health: A Retrospective Modeling Approach for Hyalomma marginatum (Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peńa, Agustín; de la Fuente, José; Latapia, Tamara; Ortega, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate trends during the period 1901–2009 on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum in Europe was modeled to assess changes in the physiological processes of this threat to public health. Monthly records of temperature and water vapour at a resolution of 0.5° and equations describing the life cycle processes of the tick were used. The climate in the target region affected the rates of the life cycle processes of H. marginatum: development rates increased, mortality rates in molting stages decreased, and the survival rates of questing ticks decreased in wide territories of the Mediterranean basin. The modeling framework indicated the existence of critical areas in the Balkans, central Europe, and the western coast of France, where the physiological processes of the tick improved to extents that are consistent with the persistence of populations if introduced. A spatially explicit risk assessment was performed to detect candidate areas where active surveys should be performed to monitor changes in tick density or persistence after a hypothetical introduction. We detected areas where the critical abiotic (climate) and biotic (host density) factors overlap, including most of the Iberian peninsula, the Mediterranean coast of France, eastern Turkey, and portions of the western Black Sea region. Wild ungulate densities are unavailable for large regions of the territory, a factor that might affect the outcome of the study. The risk of successfully establishing H. marginatum populations at northern latitudes of its current colonization range seems to be still low, even if the climate has improved the performance of the tick in these areas. PMID:25955315

  9. An assessment of the distribution and spread of the tick Hyalomma marginatum in the western Palearctic under different climate scenarios.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peńa, Agustín; Sánchez, Nely; Estrada-Sánchez, Adrián

    2012-09-01

    We applied a process-driven model to evaluate the impact of climate scenarios for the years 2020, 2050, and 2080 on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum ticks in the western Palearctic. The net growth rate of the tick populations increased in every scenario tested compared to the current climate baseline. These results support the expectations of increased tick survival and increased population turnover in future climate scenarios. We included a basic evaluation of host movement based on rules connected to altitude, slope, size of the near patches, and inter-patch distances in the real landscape over the target area. Data on landscape were obtained from medium-resolution MODIS satellite imagery, which allowed us to test the potential spread of the populations. Such a model of host dispersal linked to the process-driven life cycle model demonstrated that eastern (Turkey, Russia, and Balkans) populations of H. marginatum currently are well separated and have little mixing with western (Italy, Spain, and northern Africa) populations. The northern limit is marked by the cold areas in the Balkans, Alps, and Pyrenees. Under the warmer conditions predicted by the climate scenarios, the exchange of ticks throughout new areas, previously free of the vector, is expected to increase, mainly in the Balkans and southern Russia, over the limit of the mountain ranges. Therefore, the northern limit of the tick range would increase. Additional studies are necessary to understand the implications of host changes in range and abundance for H. marginatum and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. PMID:22448680

  10. Zoonotic pathogens associated with Hyalomma aegyptium in endangered tortoises: evidence for host-switching behaviour in ticks?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hyalomma aegyptium is a hard-tick with a typical three-host life cycle. The main hosts are Palearctic tortoises of genus Testudo. However, other hosts can be used by immature ticks for feeding in natural conditions. Given this complex ecology and multiple host use, the circulation of pathogens by H. aegyptium between various hosts can be important from epidemiological point of view. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of H. aegyptium as natural carrier of four important zoonotic pathogens. Methods From 2008 to 2011, 448 H. aegyptium ticks were collected from 45 Spur-thighed tortoises, Testudo graeca in Romania. DNA was extracted individually from each tick using a commercial kit. DNA was examined for the presence of specific sequences of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis and Coxiella burnetii by PCR, according to previously described protocols. Results PCR analysis of H. aegyptium revealed the presence of A. phagocytophilum (18.8%), E. canis (14.1%) and C. burnetii (10%). 32.4% of the ticks were infected with at least one pathogen and 9.8% had co-infections. The stages most frequently infected were nymphs (50%) followed by males (33.9%) and females (27%). The number of tortoises which harboured infected ticks was 27/45 examined (60%). From all tested T. graeca, 40% harboured ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum, 46.7% had ticks infected with E. canis and 33.3% had ticks with C. burnetii. This study reports for the first time the presence of A. phagocytophilum and E. canis in H. aegyptium. Conclusions The presence and relatively high prevalence of three important zoonotic pathogens in H. aegyptium raises the question of their epidemiologic importance in disease ecology. As tortoises are unlikely to be reservoir hosts for A. phagocytophilum and E. canis and both these pathogens are common in H. aegyptium, this is an important indication for (1) a possible increased host-switching behaviour of these ticks to competent reservoir hosts (i.e. hedgehogs) and (2) transstadial transmission. Furthermore, if we consider also the presence of C. burnetii, we conclude that T. graeca and its ticks should be evaluated more seriously when assessing the eco-epidemiology of zoonotic diseases. PMID:23273169

  11. Acaricidal activity of Satureja thymbra L. essential oil and its major components, carvacrol and gamma-terpinene against adult Hyalomma marginatum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Cetin, H; Cilek, J E; Oz, E; Aydin, L; Deveci, O; Yanikoglu, A

    2010-06-24

    The acaricidal activity of a volatile essential oil hydrodistillate of Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiaceae) and its major constituents, carvacrol and gamma-terpinene, were evaluated against field-collected unfed adult Hyalomma marginatum. The distillate was tested against this tick species at 5, 10, 20, and 40 microL/L while the two major components were each tested at 10 microL/L. Generally, tick mortality to the S. thymbra distillate increased with concentration and exposure time. Ticks exposed to vapors from cotton wicks containing at least 40 microL/L resulted in complete (100%) mortality at 3h. The lower concentrations provided >or=90% mortality at 3h post treatment with complete mortality at 24h. Knockdown was observed only in the carvacrol and gamma-terpinene treatments. Ticks exposed to carvacrol-treated wicks produced >93% knockdown at 3h but at 24h approximately 57% were dead. The gamma-terpinene treatment produced >or=90% knockdown at 105 min through 3h but at 24h only about 87% of the ticks were dead. PMID:20303667

  12. Phylogeny, Diversity, Distribution, and Host Specificity of Haemoproteus spp. (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) of Palaearctic Tortoises.

    PubMed

    Javanbakht, Hossein; Kvi?erová, Jana; Dvo?áková, Nela; Mikulí?ek, Peter; Sharifi, Mozafar; Kautman, Matej; Maršíková, Aneta; Široký, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A complex wide-range study on the haemoproteid parasites of chelonians was carried out for the first time. Altogether, 811 samples from four tortoise species from an extensive area between western Morocco and eastern Afghanistan and between Romania and southern Syria were studied by a combination of microscopic and molecular-genetic methods. Altogether 160 Haemoproteus-positive samples were gathered in the area between central Anatolia and eastern Afghanistan. According to variability in the cytochrome b gene, two monophyletic evolutionary lineages were distinguished; by means of microscopic analysis it was revealed that they corresponded to two previously described species-Haemoproteus anatolicum and Haemoproteus caucasica. Their distribution areas overlap only in a narrow strip along the Zagros Mts. range in Iran. This fact suggests the involvement of two different vector species with separated distribution. Nevertheless, no vectors were confirmed. According to phylogenetic analyses, H. caucasica represented a sister group to H. anatolicum, and both of them were most closely related to H. pacayae and H. peltocephali, described from South American river turtles. Four unique haplotypes were revealed in the population of H. caucasica, compared with seven haplotypes in H. anatolicum. Furthermore, H. caucasica was detected in two tortoise species, Testudo graeca and Testudo horsfieldii, providing evidence that Haemoproteus is not strictly host-specific to the tortoise host species. PMID:25939459

  13. [Genetic characterization of the Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) (Picornaviridae, Cardiovirus) isolated from the blood of the patients and ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum (Hyalomminae), Dermacentor daghestanicus (Rhipicephalinae) (Ixodidae) and Ornithodoros coniceps (Argasidae) in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovski?, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    The Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) was originally isolated from the blood of the patient with fever in the Kyzylorda province, Kazakhstan, in July 1973 and was classified to the Cardiovirus genus (fam. Picornaviridae). Later, SDVFV was isolated from the ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1929 (Hyalomminae) (1 strain) and Dermacentor daghestanicus Olenev, 1929 (Rhipicephalinae) (7 strains), collected in the floodplains of the Syr-Darya river and the Ili river. In this paper, complet genome of the SDVFV (strain LEIV-Tur2833) was sequenced using the next-generation sequencing approach (GenBank ID: KJ191558). It was demonstrated that, phylogenetically, the SDVFV is closely related closest to the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) and Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VMEV). The similarity of the SDVFV with VHEV and TMEV based on P1 region of the polyprotein-precursor (structural proteins VP1-VP4), reaches 75% and 91% for nucleotide sequences and 80% and 93% for putative amino acid sequences, respectively. For nonstructural proteins regions P2 (2A-2C) and P3 (3A-3D) similarity of SDVFV with TMEV and VHEV is 96%-98%. PMID:25549463

  14. A biological/medical review of alien tick species (Acari: Ixodida) accidentally transferred to Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Alien tick species of the genera Ixodes, Amblyomma, Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus are sporadically transferred to the territories of the Central European countries. A biological-medical review of the following alien tick species transferred to Poland is presented: Ixodes eldaricus, Ixodes festai, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma exornatumn, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma transversale, Amblyomma varanense, Hyalomma aegyptium, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus rossicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The transfers of tick species out of the areas of natural distribution are divided into natural transfers (e.g., migration of ticks on hosts) and accidental transfers (e.g., resulting from the transport of livestock animals, trade in exotic animals, and transfers on animals during travel). It is important to monitor occurrence of unknown tick species on hosts in Poland. PMID:24930246

  15. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected from Wild Animals in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Leitner, Moshe; Din, Adi Beth; Wikswo, Mary E.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D.; Shanas, Uri; King, Roni; Waner, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    We report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in Israel. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma detritum while Rickettsia massiliae was present in Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. Furthermore, a novel uncultured SFGR was detected in Haemaphysalis adleri and Haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. The pathogenicity of the novel SFGR for humans is unknown; however, the presence of multiple SFGR agents should be considered when serological surveillance data from Israel are interpreted because of significant antigenic cross-reactivity among Rickettsia. The epidemiology and ecology of SFGR in Israel appear to be more complicated than was previously believed. PMID:22049050

  16. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from wild animals in Israel.

    PubMed

    Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E; Leitner, Moshe; Din, Adi Beth; Wikswo, Mary E; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D; Shanas, Uri; King, Roni; Waner, Trevor

    2011-11-01

    We report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in Israel. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma detritum while Rickettsia massiliae was present in Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. Furthermore, a novel uncultured SFGR was detected in Haemaphysalis adleri and Haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. The pathogenicity of the novel SFGR for humans is unknown; however, the presence of multiple SFGR agents should be considered when serological surveillance data from Israel are interpreted because of significant antigenic cross-reactivity among Rickettsia. The epidemiology and ecology of SFGR in Israel appear to be more complicated than was previously believed. PMID:22049050

  17. Football - Individuals - 1900s - 2 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2006-05-26

    ISLANDS see NEW GUINEA AFGHANISTAN Aponomma latum (Santos Dias, J. ?. ?. , (1961A), 1- 18) AFGHANISTAN -- Continued. Haemaphysalis sulcata (Anastos, G., (1956?), 18-19) Hyalomma aegyptium (Anastos, G., (1954C) 1?.9-174\\ (Chasma-Obeh, Adaraskand..., ?., (1963A), 130-139) Boophilus microplus (Santos Dias, J. A. T., (1959C), 1-16) (Cheva (vale de Konar)) Boophilus microplus (Santos Dias, J. A. T., (1961A), 1-18) Dermacentor marginatus (Anastos, G. , (1956A), 18-19) Dermacentor marginatus (Santos...

  18. Reverse transcription PCR-based detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus isolated from ticks of domestic ruminants in Kurdistan province of Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Golmohammadi, Parvaneh; Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Azizi, Kourosh; Davari, Behrooz; Alipour, Hamzeh; Ahmadnia, Sara; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2012-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal viral vector-borne zoonosis which has a mortality rate of up to 30% without treatment in humans. CCHF virus is transmitted to humans by ticks, predominantly from the Hyalomma genus. Following the report of two confirmed and one suspected death due to CCHF virus in Kurdistan province of Iran in 2007, this study was undertaken to determine the fauna of hard ticks on domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats) and their possible infection with CCHF virus using reverse transcription PCR technique. This is the first detection of CCHF virus in ticks from the Kurdistan province of Iran. Overall, 414 ixodid ticks were collected from two districts in this province. They represented four genera from which 10 separate species were identified. The Hyalomma genus was the most abundant tick genus (70%). It was the only genus shown to be infected with the CCHF virus using RT-PCR technique. The number of ticks positive for CCHF virus was 5 out of 90 (5.6%) adult ticks. The three remaining genera (Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, and Dermacentor) were all negative following molecular survey. Four of the five virally-infected ticks were from cattle mainly in the Sanandaj district. We concluded that CCHF virus is present in the Hyalomma ticks on domestic ruminants (cattle) in Kurdistan province of Iran. PMID:22651389

  19. An update on the ecological distribution of the Ixodidae ticks in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Madder, Maxime; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji

    2015-06-01

    In total 7657 ticks were collected from 121 dip tanks in 12 districts representative of Zimbabwe's five ecological regions between September 2013 and May 2014. Based on morphological traits four genera and 13 species of ticks were identified. Amblyomma hebraeum (60.3 %), Rhipicephalus microplus (58.7 %), Rhipicephalus decoloratus (47.1 %), Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (56.2 %), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (67.8 %), Rhipicephalus (near) punctatus (13.2 %), Hyalomma truncatum (38 %) and Hyalomma rufipes (46.3 %) were found in all the ecological regions of the country. Amblyomma variegatum and Rhipicephalus compositus (0.8 %) were only found in the north central part of the country while Rhipicephalus simus (5 %) had a sparse distribution. The Haemaphysalis leachi group (1.7 %) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (1.7 %) were found whenever dogs were sampled suggesting these could be widespread throughout the country. The study confirmed the continued limited distribution of A. variegatum (3.3 %) in the north central parts of the country, whereas A. hebraeum was found to have a wide distribution also encroaching areas of high rainfall and lower temperatures where it was not previously recorded. A parapatric relationship existed between these two Amblyomma species. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was also widely distributed although its presence was dominant in the cooler and wetter parts of the country. The traditionally held view that Hyalomma species and R. evertsi evertsi can survive well under diverse conditions is upheld in this study. Rhipicephalus microplus was also present in dry regions but its adaptability to these regions requires further investigation. PMID:25721256

  20. First molecular detection of R. conorii, R. aeschlimannii, and R. massiliae in ticks from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bitam, I; Parola, P; Matsumoto, K; Rolain, J M; Baziz, B; Boubidi, S C; Harrat, Z; Belkaid, M; Raoult, Didier

    2006-10-01

    Ticks collected in Northern Algeria between May 2001 and November 2003 were tested by PCR for the presence of Rickettsia spp. DNA using primer amplifying gltA and OmpA genes. Three different spotted fever group rickettsias were amplified from these ticks: R. Conorii subsp. P. conorii strain Malish in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum, and R. massiliae in Rhipicephalus turanicus. Our results confirm the presence of R. conorii in ticks in Algeria and provide the first detection of R. aeschlimannii and R. massiliae in Algeria. PMID:17114743

  1. Emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Amreli District of Gujarat State, India, June to July 2013.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pragya D; Gurav, Yogesh K; Mistry, Madhulika; Shete, Anita M; Sarkale, Prasad; Deoshatwar, Avinash R; Unadkat, Vishwa B; Kokate, Prasad; Patil, Deepak Y; Raval, Dinkar K; Mourya, Devendra T

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) etiology was detected in a family cluster (nine cases, including two deaths) in the village of Karyana, Amreli District, and also a fatal case in the village of Undra, Patan District, in Gujarat State, India. Anti-CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in domestic animals from Karyana and adjoining villages. Hyalomma ticks from households were found to be positive for CCHF viral RNA. This confirms the emergence of CCHFV in new areas and the wide spread of this disease in Gujarat State. PMID:24211848

  2. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) parasitizing humans in Corum and Yozgat provinces, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Adem; Keskin, Aysun; Bursali, Ahmet; Tekin, Saban

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify ticks infesting humans in Corum and Yozgat provinces in Turkey, a total of 2110 ticks representing 14 species were collected on humans, between June and September 2009. Of those, 1551 (687?, 450?, 407 nymphs, 7 larvae) were collected from Corum and 559 (330?, 180?, 49 nymphs) were collected from Yozgat. The majority of ticks (n = 1121, 53.1 %) was Hyalomma marginatum. Other common ticks infesting humans were Dermacentor marginatus (n = 209, 9.9 %) and Rhipicephalus turanicus sensu lato (n = 145, 6.9 %) in the study area. In addition, a total of 386 immature Hyalomma were found on humans in Corum (335 nymphs, 7 larvae) and Yozgat (44 nymphs). Ixodes laguri and Haemaphysalis erinacei taurica were recorded for the first time in Corum. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first detailed investigation on ticks infesting humans in Corum and Yozgat, except individual or incidental records. The present study provides useful information for those concerned with ticks and tick-borne diseases in Turkey. PMID:26385209

  3. The international trade in reptiles (Reptilia)--the cause of the transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) to Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Magdalena

    2010-05-11

    The problem of the unnatural transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland is presented. In the period from 2003 to 2007, 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to Poland from Ghana in Africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius. As a result of the investigations, the transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland was confirmed. There were 2104 specimens of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Donitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum (Schulze, 1941), Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma sp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Amblyomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed in the ticks A. flavomaculatum, A. latum and H. aegyptium. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological considerations, and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland. PMID:20153933

  4. Ticks (Ixodidae) on birds migrating from Europe and Asia to Africa, 1959-61*

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstraal, Harry; Kaiser, Makram N.; Traylor, Melvin A.; Guindy, Ezzat; Gaber, Sobhy

    1963-01-01

    The need for imaginative thinking and research in the epidemiology of diseases transmitted by arthropods is made manifest by new views of the longevity and host ranges of arthropod-borne viruses, as well as by other biological and medical phenomena. Among these is the intercontinental transport of ticks by migrating birds. During the fall migration periods of 1959, 1960 and 1961, 32 086 birds (comprising 72 forms) were examined for ticks in Egypt while en route from Asia and eastern Europe to tropical Africa. Of these, 40 forms, represented by 31 434 birds, were tick-infested. The bird hosts, numbering 1040 (3.31% of the tick-infested bird forms examined), bore 1761 ticks, or 1.69 ticks per host. Common ticks taken were Hyalomma m. marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, and Ixodes ricinus. Ixodes frontalis and Hyalomma aegyptium were less common and Haemaphysalis sulcata, H. otophila, and H. pavlovskyi were rare. The common tick species are known to be reservoirs and vectors of pathogens causing a number of human and animal diseases in Europe and Asia. Several of the bird hosts have also been incriminated as reservoirs in their summer ranges. Over 20 strains of pathogenic viruses were isolated from these birds and their ticks in Egypt in the 1961 fall migration period. The most difficult problems in investigations such as this in many parts of the world are taxonomic ones: the correct identification of bird hosts, of immature stages of ticks and of viruses. PMID:13961632

  5. Patterns of tick infestation and their Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in wild birds in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Norte, A C; da Silva, L P; Tenreiro, P J Q; Felgueiras, M S; Araújo, P M; Lopes, P B; Matos, C; Rosa, A; Ferreira, P J S G; Encarnaçăo, P; Rocha, A; Escudero, R; Anda, P; Núncio, M S; Lopes de Carvalho, I

    2015-09-01

    Wild birds may act as reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens and may be mechanical carriers of pathogen infected vector ticks through long distances during migration. The aim of this study was to assess tick infestation patterns in birds in Portugal and the prevalence of tick infection by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. using PCR techniques. Seven tick species were collected from birds including Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma spp., Ixodes acuminatus, Ixodes arboricola, Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes ventalloi. We found that I. frontalis and Hyalomma spp. were the most common ticks infesting birds of several species and that they were widespread in Portugal. Turdus merula was the bird species that presented the highest diversity of infesting ticks and had one of the highest infestation intensities. B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 7.3% (37/505) of Ixodidae ticks derived from birds. The most common genospecies was Borrelia turdi (6.9%), detected in ticks collected from Parus major, T. merula and Turdus philomelos, but Borrelia valaisiana (0.2%) and one Borrelia sp. (0.2%) similar to Borrelia bissettii (96% of similarity of the flaB gene in Blastn) were also detected. This study contributed to a better knowledge of the Ixodidae tick fauna parasitizing birds in Western Europe and to the assessment of the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. associated with birds and their ticks. PMID:26159798

  6. Hormonal interference with pheromone systems in parasitic acarines, especially ixodid ticks. Annual technical report No. 4, 1 May 1983-30 April 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Sonenshine, D.E.; Oliver, J.H. Jr.; Homsher, P.J.

    1984-05-01

    The most important result of recent project research was the demonstration of the juvenoid JH III by radioimmunoassay. This assay revealed an estimated 78 pg/tick in the hemolymph of partially fed Hyalomma dromedarii females, and an estimated 3 pg/tick in the hemolymph of partially fed D. variabilis. Other studies, especially digestion of tritium labelled JH III, provided additional evidence suggesting the presence of this hormone in adult ticks. The implications of these findings for our understanding of sex pheromone regulation in ticks is discussed. Other studies described in this report deal with the source of ecdysteroid in teh camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, and the soft tick, Ornithodoros parkeri. Studies done at ODU, using radioimmunoassay high performance liquid chromatography, and autoradiography, provide new evidence implicating the tick synganglion - lateral nerve plexus as an important site of ecdysteroid activity in the ixodid ticks. Other studies with ecdysteriods suggest that metabolism of ecdysone or 20-hydroxyecdysone (or both) to inactive metabolites, possibly including polar conjugates. If confirmed, these findings indicate the presence of only a single active ecdysteriod hormone in ticks, 20-hydroxyecdysone.

  7. Ticks of Poland. Review of contemporary issues and latest research.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Siuda, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents current knowledge of ticks occurring in Poland, their medical importance, and a review of recent studies implemented in the Polish research centres on ticks and their significance in the epidemiology of transmissible diseases. In the Polish fauna there are 19 species of ticks (Ixodida) recognized as existing permanently in our country: Argas reflexus, Argas polonicus, Carios vespertilionis, Ixodes trianguliceps, Ixodes arboricola, Ixodes crenulatus, Ixodes hexagonus, Ixodes lividus, Ixodes rugicollis, Ixodes caledonicus, Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes simplex, Ixodes vespertilionis, Ixodes apronophorus, Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis concinna, Dermacentor reticulatus. Occasionally, alien species of ticks transferred to the territory of Poland are recorded: Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma transversale, Amblyomma varanensis, Amblyomma spp., Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma aegyptium, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes eldaricus, Ixodes festai, Rhipicephalus rossicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The most common species of the highest medical and veterinary importance in Poland is invariably Ixodes ricinus. The review also sets out information on the risks of tickborne diseases in recreational areas of large cities in Poland, ticks as the cause of occupational diseases and dangerous species of ticks attacking people outside the Polish borders. Selected problems of the biology of ticks, the spread of alien species transferred on hosts and prevention of tick attacks have also been presented. The Polish studies on ticks are a valuable contribution to global research on the Ixodida. PMID:23444797

  8. Biogeography of Tick-Borne Bhanja Virus (Bunyaviridae) in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hubálek, Zdenek

    2009-01-01

    Bhanja virus (BHAV) is pathogenic for young domestic ruminants and also for humans, causing fever and affections of the central nervous system. This generally neglected arbovirus of the family Bunyaviridae is transmitted by metastriate ticks of the genera Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Boophilus, and Amblyomma. Geographic distribution of BHAV covers southern and Central Asia, Africa, and southern (partially also central) Europe. Comparative biogeographic study of eight known natural foci of BHAV infections in Europe (in Italy, Croatia, Bulgaria, Slovakia) has revealed their common features. (1) submediterranean climatic pattern with dry growing season and wet mild winter (or microlimatically similar conditions, e.g., limestone karst areas in central Europe), (2) xerothermic woodland-grassland ecosystem, with plant alliances Quercetalia pubescentis, Festucetalia valesiacae, and Brometalia erecti, involving pastoral areas, (3) presence of at least one of the tick species Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus bursa, and/or Hyalomma marginatum, and (4) presence of ?60% of the 180 BHAV bioindicator (157 plant, 4 ixodid tick, and 19 vertebrate spp.). On that basis, Greece, France (southern, including Corsica), Albania, Spain, Hungary, European Turkey, Ukraine (southern), Switzerland (southern), Austria (southeastern), Germany (southern), Moldova, and European Russia (southern) have been predicted as additional European regions where BHAV might occur. PMID:20182535

  9. Tick-Borne Rickettsioses, Neglected Emerging Diseases in Rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Fenollar, Florence; Sokhna, Cheikh; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background Rickettsioses are one of the most important causes of systemic febrile illness among travelers from developed countries, but little is known about their incidence in indigenous populations, especially in West Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings Overall seroprevalence evaluated by immunofluorescence using six rickettsial antigens (spotted fever and typhus group) in rural populations of two villages of the Sine-Saloum region of Senegal was found to be 21.4% and 51% for spotted fever group rickettsiae for Dielmo and Ndiop villages, respectively. We investigated the role of tick-borne rickettsiae as the cause of acute non-malarial febrile diseases in the same villages. The incidence of rickettsial DNA in 204 blood samples from 134 (62M and 72F) febrile patients negative for malaria was studied. DNA extracted from whole blood was tested by two qPCR systems. Rickettsial DNA was found in nine patients, eight with Rickettsia felis (separately reported). For the first time in West Africa, Rickettsia conorii was diagnosed in one patient. We also tested 2,767 Ixodid ticks collected in two regions of Senegal (Niakhar and Sine-Saloum) from domestic animals (cows, sheep, goats, donkeys and horses) by qPCR and identified five different pathogenic rickettsiae. We found the following: Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (51.3% and 44.8% in Niakhar and Sine-Saloum region, respectively), in Hyalomma truncatum (6% and 6.8%) and in Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (0.5%, only in Niakhar); R. c. conorii in Rh. e. evertsi (0.4%, only in Sine-Saloum); Rickettsia massiliae in Rhipicephalus guilhoni (22.4%, only in Niakhar); Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in Hyalomma truncatum (13.5%, only in Sine-Saloum); and Rickettsia africae in Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (0.7% and 0.4% in Niakhar and Sine-Saloum region, respectively) as well as in Rhipicephalus annulatus (20%, only in Sine-Saloum). We isolated two rickettsial strains from H. truncatum: R. s. mongolitimonae and R. aeschlimannii. Conclusions/Significance We believe that together with our previous data on the high prevalence of R. africae in Amblyomma ticks and R. felis infection in patients, the presented results on the distribution of pathogenic rickettsiae in ticks and the first R. conorii case in West Africa show that the rural population of Senegal is at risk for other tick-borne rickettsioses, which are significant causes of febrile disease in this area. PMID:20856858

  10. First phylogenetic analysis of a Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus genome in naturally infected Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Naddaf-Sani, Ali Asghar; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Azizi, Kourosh; Ahmadnia, Sara; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2015-05-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal systemic viral disease in many parts of the world, including Iran. The nationwide incidence of human CCHF in endemic areas was 870 confirmed cases with 126 deaths (case fatality rate, CFR = 17.6 %) in the decade leading to 2012. The detection of the CCHF virus (CCHFV) genome in tick vectors is of fundamental importance for identifying these ticks as potential reservoirs of CCHFV infection. From May to October 2013, following detection of four new clinical cases resulting in two deaths in the city of Mashhad (northeast Iran), hard ticks were recovered from infested livestock in 40 villages in Khorasan-Razavi province and examined by the microscopic method for species identification. About a quarter of the ticks were then subjected to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the CCHFV genome. The PCR products were then sequenced, and their phylogenetic lineages were determined. A total of 407 hard ticks were captured, representing seven different species in two distinct genera. Members of the genus Hyalomma were widely distributed in all but two of the villages studied, and this was also the most frequent (83.3 %) tick genus. Of 105 adult ticks subjected to RT-PCR, four (3.8 %) ticks were found positive for the CCHFV genome. One brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, was found to be naturally infected for the first time anywhere in the world. Ticks of Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, and Rhipicephalus turanicus were also found to be naturally infected with CCHFV. CCHFV found in these four different tick species were clustered in the same lineage with the Matin and SR3 strains from Pakistan and some other strains from Iran, indicating that these tick species were naturally infected with genetically closely related CCHFV in the region. The presence of CCHFV infection in four different hard tick species was confirmed using RT-PCR in northeast Iran. Part of this infection was attributed to Rh. appendiculatus, which is thus a potential new natural vector of CCHFV in Iran. It is also confirmed by phylogenetic analysis that CCHFV in this region is genetically closely related, even in the different tick species. PMID:25742932

  11. Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in Ticks in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Waner, Trevor; Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Din, Adi Beth; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; King, Roni; Atiya-Nasagi, Yafit

    2014-01-01

    DNA of several spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in ticks in Israel. The findings include evidence for the existence of Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in ticks in Israel. The DNA of R. africae was detected in a Hyalomma detritum tick from a wild boar and DNA of C. Rickettsia barbariae was detected in Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from vegetation. The DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was found in Rh. sanguineus and Haemaphysalis erinacei, whereas DNA of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Clinicians should be aware that diseases caused by a variety of rickettsiae previously thought to be present only in other countries outside of the Middle East may infect residents of Israel who have not necessarily traveled overseas. Furthermore, this study reveals again that the epidemiology of the spotted fever group rickettsiae may not only involve Rickettsia conorii but may include other rickettsiae. PMID:24615133

  12. First description of the immature stages and redescription of the adults of Cosmiomma hippopotamensis (Acari: Ixodidae) with notes on its bionomics.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Walker, Jane B; Heyne, Heloise; Bezuidenhout, J Dürr; Horak, Ivan G

    2013-07-01

    Cosmiomma hippopotamensis (Denny, 1843) is one of the most unusual, beautiful, and rare tick species known to the world. All stages of this species possess a unique morphology, on the one hand making them easy to identify, while on the other they exhibit similarities to certain species of Amblyomma Koch, 1844, Dermacentor Koch, 1844, and Hyalomma Koch, 1844. Adults of C. hippopotamensis have been collected on only two occasions from their hosts, namely Hippopotamus amphibius L. and Diceros bicornis (L.), and have been recorded from only a few widely separated localities in East and southern Africa. Here, the larva and nymph are described and illustrated for the first time, while the male and female are illustrated and redescribed. Data on hosts, geographic distribution, and life cycle of C. hippopotamensis are also provided. PMID:23926768

  13. Ixodid tick infestation in cattle and wild animals in Maswa and Iringa, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kwak, You Shine; Kim, Tae Yun; Nam, Sung-Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Pyo; Mduma, Simon; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2014-10-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are important in human and livestock health worldwide. In November 2012, ixodid ticks were collected and identified morphologically from cattle and wild animals in the Maswa district and Iringa urban, Tanzania. Amblyomma gemma, A. lepidum, and A. variegatum were identified from Maswa cattle, and A. variegatum was the predominant species. A. marmoreum, Hyalomma impeltatum, and Rhipicephalus pulchellus were identified from Iringa cattle in addition to the above 3 Amblyomma species, and A. gemma was the most abundant species. Total 4 Amblyomma and 6 Rhipicephalus species were identified from wild animals of the 2 areas. A. lepidum was predominant in Maswa buffaloes, whereas A. gemma was predominant in Iringa buffaloes. Overall, A. variegatum in cattle was predominant in the Maswa district and A. gemma was predominant in Iringa, Tanzania. PMID:25352709

  14. Ixodid Tick Infestation in Cattle and Wild Animals in Maswa and Iringa, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, You Shine; Kim, Tae Yun; Nam, Sung-Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Pyo; Mduma, Simon; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are important in human and livestock health worldwide. In November 2012, ixodid ticks were collected and identified morphologically from cattle and wild animals in the Maswa district and Iringa urban, Tanzania. Amblyomma gemma, A. lepidum, and A. variegatum were identified from Maswa cattle, and A. variegatum was the predominant species. A. marmoreum, Hyalomma impeltatum, and Rhipicephalus pulchellus were identified from Iringa cattle in addition to the above 3 Amblyomma species, and A. gemma was the most abundant species. Total 4 Amblyomma and 6 Rhipicephalus species were identified from wild animals of the 2 areas. A. lepidum was predominant in Maswa buffaloes, whereas A. gemma was predominant in Iringa buffaloes. Overall, A. variegatum in cattle was predominant in the Maswa district and A. gemma was predominant in Iringa, Tanzania. PMID:25352709

  15. Ticks parasitizing humans in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Xanthopoulou, Kyriaki; Papaioakim, Miltiadis; Papanastasiou, Sofia; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2011-05-01

    In summer 2008, two fatal cases were observed in Northeastern Greece: a Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) case (first report in Greece) and a Mediterranean spotted fever case. In total, 537 ticks removed from humans who referred for this reason to the two hospitals of the region during June-September 2008 were identified. The vast majority of them (81.5%) were Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which is the main vector of Rickettsia conorii, while Hyalomma marginatum, the main vector of CCHF virus, accounted for 5.2%. The increased aggressiveness of R. sanguineus might be related to the weather conditions occurred during 2007-2008, while a variety of factors, including climate, might play a role in CCHF emergence. PMID:20925519

  16. A survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodida) infesting some wild animals from Sivas, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bursali, Ahmet; Keskin, Adem; ?im?ek, Eray; Keskin, Aysun; Tekin, Saban

    2015-06-01

    In order to determine the species composition of infesting ticks, between 2011 and 2012 a total of 1118 wild animals were captured from various regions of Zara, Sivas province, Turkey. A total of 138 ticks were obtained from the 58 host animals. Ticks were identified as Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer), Haemaphysalis erinacei taurica Pospelova-Shtrom, Haemaphysalis parva (Neumann), Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini and Fanzago, Haemaphysalis sulcata Canestrini and Fanzago, Hyalomma marginatum Koch, Ixodes laguri Olenev, Ixodes ricinus (L.), Ixodes vespertilionis Koch and Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev. To the best of our knowledge, there are several new host records for D. marginatus, H. e. taurica and I. laguri. In addition, I. vespertilionis was recorded for the first time in the Central Anatolian Region in Turkey, whereas I. laguri and H. e. taurica are firstly reported in Sivas. PMID:25784071

  17. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi as well as the identification of associated ticks in sympatric Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Elaine; Kock, Richard; McKeever, Declan; Gakuya, Francis; Musyoki, Charles; Chege, Stephen M; Mutinda, Mathew; Kariuki, Edward; Davidson, Zeke; Low, Belinda; Skilton, Robert A; Njahira, Moses N; Wamalwa, Mark; Maina, Elsie

    2015-01-01

    The role of equine piroplasmosis as a factor in the population decline of the Grevy's zebra is not known. We determined the prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in cograzing Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya and identified the associated tick vectors. Blood samples were taken from 71 donkeys and 16 Grevy's zebras from March to May 2011. A nested PCR reaction using 18s ribosomal (r)RNA primers on 87 blood spots showed 72% (51/71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 60.4-81.0%) of donkeys and 100% (16/16; 95% CI, 77.3-100%) of Grevy's zebras were T. equi positive. No samples were positive for B. caballi. Sequence comparison using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's basic local alignment search tool identified homologous 18s rRNA sequences with a global geographic spread. The T. equi-derived sequences were evaluated using Bayesian approaches with independent Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo runs. The sequences clustered with those found in Sudan, Croatia, Mongolia, and the US, with statistical support greater than 80% for the two main clades. Hyalomma tick species were found on both donkeys and Grevy's zebras, whereas Rhipicephalus pulchellus was found exclusively on Grevy's zebras and Hyalomma marginatum rupfipes on donkeys. The prevalence of T. equi was 100% in Grevy's zebras and 72% in donkeys with common tick vectors identified. Our results suggest that donkeys and Grevy's zebras can be asymptomatic carriers and that piroplasmosis is endemic in the study area. PMID:25380362

  18. Isolation of Tick and Mosquito-Borne Arboviruses from Ticks Sampled from Livestock and Wild Animal Hosts in Ijara District, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service–protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne. PMID:23805790

  19. Ectoparasites of hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Senlik, Bayram; Aydin, Levent; Cirak, Veli Y

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal, spiny-coated animals that have been growing in popularity as exotic pets. However, these animals are host to a wide variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, some of which are of zoonotic character. Thus, because hedgehogs have a potential role to transmit zoonoses including arthropod-borne diseases, we examined them for their ectoparasites. The study was carried out on hedgehogs found dead mainly due to road casualties in the Bursa province of Turkey. The ectoparasites were collected by both insecticide spraying of the body and inspection on a white paper carefully. Totally three species of ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma aegyptium, Haemophysalis parvo) and one flea species (Archeopsylla erinacei) were detected. The prevalence of mixed infestation with both ticks and fleas was 45.5%. Haemaphysalis parva was reported for the first time from hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Turkey. The occurrence of ectoparasites and their potential role as vectors of certain zoonotic diseases are briefly discussed. PMID:26281445

  20. Environmental correlates of crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever incidence in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral disease transmitted by ixodid tick bites, mainly of Hyalomma spp., or through contact with blood/tissues from infected people or animals. CCHF is endemic in the Balkan area, including Bulgaria, where it causes both sporadic cases and community outbreaks. Methods We described trends of CCHF in Bulgaria between 1997 and 2009 and investigated the associations between CCHF incidence and a selection of environmental factors using a zero-inflated modelling approach. Results A total of 159 CCHF cases (38 women and 121 men) were identified between 1997 and 2009. The incidence was 0.13 cases per 100,000 population/year with a fatality rate of 26%. An epidemic peak was detected close to the Turkish border in the summer of 2002. Most cases were reported between April and September. Increasing mean temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), savannah-type land coverage or habitat fragmentation increased significantly the incidence of CCHF in the CCHF-affected areas. Similar to that observed in Turkey, we found that areas with warmer temperatures in the autumn prior to the case-reporting year had an increased probability of reporting zero CCHF cases. Conclusions We identified environmental correlates of CCHF incidence in Bulgaria that may support the prospective implementation of public health interventions. PMID:23270399

  1. Hard ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) of Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Kr?mar, Stjepan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The present paper is based on original and literature data. In Croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. The number of tick species recorded in Croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. A total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in Croatia. Ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. Haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by Rhipicephalus with four species. Dermacentor and Hyalomma are represented by two species each. The ticks were collected on 47 different host species. Eleven tick species were collected on Bos taurus and Ovis aries, followed by Capra hircus and Equus caballus with 8 species and Canis lupus familiaris with 6 species. On the remaining 42 host species one, two or three tick species were collected. The most widespread tick is Ixodes ricinus which was found on 25 different host species. PMID:23372407

  2. Ticks (Ixodoidea) on birds migrating from Africa to Europe and Asia*

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstraal, Harry; Kaiser, Makram N.; Traylor, Melvin A.; Gaber, Sobhy; Guindy, Ezzat

    1961-01-01

    Hyalomma marginatum marginatum of Europe and Asia and H. marginatum rufipes of Africa, both reservoirs and vectors of organisms pathogenic to humans and animals, have not infrequently been found as incidental specimens or established populations far from their normal endemic geographical boundaries. Owing to ticks' unique ability to transmit or harbour for long periods a variety of pathogens of man and animals, their potential epidemiological role is suspected wherever they occur. Evidence that birds, in themselves hosts of several viruses causing human disease, actually transport the African H. marginatum rufipes northwards was obtained in Egypt by capture of infested migrants during spring passage from East Africa to Europe and Asia. Between 1956 and 1960, 340 birds representing 22 forms (species and subspecies) were found infested by 1025 immature ticks, all but seven of which were or appear to be H. marginatum rufipes. The period of attachment of immature stages of rufipes to their host is sufficient to suggest that many of these ticks are carried some distance into Europe and Asia. PMID:13715709

  3. Epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever viruses in xinjiang, china.

    PubMed

    Sun, Surong; Dai, Xiang; Aishan, Muhetaer; Wang, Xinhui; Meng, Weiwei; Feng, Conghui; Zhang, Fuchun; Hang, Changshou; Hu, Zhihong; Zhang, Yujiang

    2009-08-01

    In 2004 and 2005, an epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was conducted in Xinjiang, China. A total of 5,629 serum samples of human and livestock were collected and tested for the CCHFV antibody, and 17,319 ticks were collected for viral identification. Reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition assays showed that the average prevalence of CCHFV antibody was 1.7% for the humans and 12.7% for the livestock. A relatively high antibody prevalence, ranging from 19.1% to 23.4%, was found in the livestock of the northwest, southwest, and northeast parts of the Tarim Basin. When the ticks were pooled to inoculate suckling mice, followed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to detect CCHFV RNA, the average RT-PCR-positive rates for Hyalomma asiaticum kozlovi and H. asiaticum asiaticum were 12.9% and 2.6%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the antibody prevalence in the livestock and the CCHFV prevalence in H. asiaticum of the same geographic region. No CCHFV RNA was detected in Dermacentor nivenus, Rhipicephalus turanius, or Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A total of 27 partial S segments of CCHFVs were sequenced and used for phylogeny analysis. All but one Chinese isolate grouped into the Asia 1 clade, which contains the strains from Xinjiang and Uzbekistan, while the other strain, Fub90009, grouped with strains from the Middle East. PMID:19553586

  4. Detection of tick-borne Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma centrale in Spain.

    PubMed

    Palomar, A M; Portillo, A; Santibáńez, P; Mazuelas, D; Roncero, L; García-Álvarez, L; Santibáńez, S; Gutiérrez, Ó; Oteo, J A

    2015-09-01

    The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) includes species of medical and veterinary importance. The presence of Anaplasma spp. in ticks from birds, as well as in Haemaphysalis punctata (Ixodida: Ixodidae) specimens collected from cattle and vegetation in northern Spain was investigated. A total of 336 ticks from birds [174 Ixodes frontalis (Ixodida: Ixodidae), 108 H.?punctata, 34 Hyalomma marginatum (Ixodida: Ixodidae), 17 Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and three Ixodes spp.], and 181 H.?punctata specimens collected from cattle (n?=?71) and vegetation (n?=?110) were analysed. Anaplasma bovis was detected in five H.?punctata, including two from birds (1.9%) and three from vegetation (2.7%). Four I.?frontalis (2.3%) (one co-infected with 'Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii') and one I.?ricinus (5.9%) removed from birds, as well as four H.?punctata (5.6%) collected from cattle showed Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. In addition, Anaplasma centrale was found in two H.?punctata, one from a cow (1.4%) and the other from vegetation (0.9%). This study represents the first evidence of the presence of A.?bovis in European ticks, and reports the first detection of A.?bovis and A.?centrale in H.?punctata, and the first finding of A.?phagocytophilum and 'Ca. Midichloria mitochondrii' in I.?frontalis. PMID:26111122

  5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of antibody to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in the sera of livestock and wild vertebrates.

    PubMed Central

    Burt, F. J.; Swanepoel, R.; Braack, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    IgM antibody response to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus was monitored in experimentally infected sheep and cattle by an IgM capture enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Specific binding of antigen was detected by a rabbit anti-CCHF horseradish peroxidase conjugate or a sandwich technique with hyperimmune mouse anti-CCHF ascitic fluid and commercially available anti-mouse immunoglobulin peroxidase conjugate. The persistence of IgM antibody activity was found to be of shorter duration than in humans, and this may be a function of the relative lack of susceptibility of these animals to infection with CCHF virus. IgG antibody responses in the sheep could be monitored by sandwich ELISA using commercially available anti-sheep immunoglobulin peroxidase conjugates. Total antibody activity in the sera of experimentally infected sheep, cattle and small mammals could be monitored in a competitive ELISA (CELISA) using rabbit anti-CCHF peroxidase conjugate. The CELISA was applied to the sera of 960 wild vertebrates from a nature reserve in South Africa, and the prevalence of antibody was found to be greatest in large mammals such as rhinoceros, giraffe and buffalo, which are known to be the preferred hosts of the adult tick (Hyalomma) vectors of the virus. PMID:8270014

  6. Molecular detection of piroplasms in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Signorini, Manuela; Teshale, Sori; Tessarin, Cinzia; Duguma, Reta; Ayana, Dinka; Martini, Marco; Cassini, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia, ticks and tick-borne diseases are widely distributed and contribute to important economic losses. Several studies investigated the prevalence and species composition of ticks infesting ruminants; however, data on tick-borne pathogens are still scarce. During the study period from October 2010 to April 2011, a total of 1,246 adult ticks and 264 nymphs were collected from 267 cattle and 45 sheep in Bako District, western Oromia, Ethiopia. The study showed infestation of 228/267 (85.4 %) cattle and 35/45 (77.8 %) sheep with adult ticks. Overall, eight tick species, belonging to three genera (Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma), were identified and Amblyomma cohaerens (n?=?577), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (n?=?290), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (n?=?287), and Amblyomma variegatum (n?=?85) were the more prevalent species. A statistically significant host preference in A. cohaerens for cattle and R. evertsi evertsi for sheep was noticed. Molecular detection of piroplasms, performed only for adult ticks of two species of the genus Rhipicephalus (R. evertsi evertsi and R. decoloratus), revealed an overall prevalence of 4 % (8/202) Theileria buffeli/sergenti/orientalis, 0.5 % (1/202) Theileria velifera, and 2 % (4/202) Theileria ovis. The study showed that tick infestation prevalence is considerably high in both cattle and sheep of the area, but with a low intensity of tick burden and a moderate circulation of mildly pathogenic piroplasm species. PMID:23846769

  7. Occurrence and Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii in Ixodid Ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Almeras, Lionel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 to address the occurrence and genotypes of Coxiella burnetii using molecular methods in ticks collected from domestic animals in Ethiopia. Ticks were tested for C. burnetii by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting two different genes followed by multispacer sequence typing (MST). An overall prevalence of 6.4% (54/842) of C. burnetii was recorded. C. burnetii was detected in 28.6% (14/49) of Amblyomma gemma, 25% (31/124) of Rhipicephalus pulchellus, 7.1% (1/14) of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, 3.2% (2/62) of Am. variegatum, 3.1% (4/128) of Am. cohaerens, 1.6% (1/63) of Rh. praetextatus, and 0.6% (1/153) of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus. Significantly higher overall frequencies of C. burnetii DNA were observed in Am. gemma and Rh. pulchellus than in other tick species (Mantel-Haenszel [MH], P < 0.0001). The overall frequency of C. burnetii was significantly higher (MH, P < 0.0001) in ticks from southeastern districts (Arero, Moyale, and Yabelo) than that from other districts. This study demonstrated the presence of C. burnetii genotype MST 18 in ticks in southeastern districts and genotype MST 20 in ticks in central districts. This study highlights the importance of ticks in the epidemiology of C. burnetii in Ethiopia. PMID:26392155

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES OF CRIMEAN-CONGO HEMORRHAGIC FEVER IN GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Vashakidze, E; Mikadze, I

    2015-10-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus transmitted to humans by Hyalomma ticks or by direct contact with the blood of infected humans or domestic animals. The most common clinical signs of CCHF are fever, nausea, headache, diarrhea, myalgia, petechial rash, and bleeding. CCHF is a severe disease in humans with a fatality rate up to 15-85%. This study was undertaken to determine the predictors of fatality among patients with CCHF based on epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory findings. 34 patients were enrolled in the study, aged 4 to 77; 17 - male and 17 female. 3 of them were fatal cases. All of them were from Shua Kartli: Khashuri, Gori and Kaspi districts, involved in farming/handling livestock and the history of tick bite was present in most of patients. Evaluation of the epidemiological characteristics of this cases showed that the female to male ratio was nearly similar. The disease is common in the rural areas of the region, mostly in the actively working age group and almost all patients were farmers. The results of our study show that the most cardinal clinical and laboratory features of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever are - acute beginning of disease, high fever, intoxication and hemorrhagic symptoms, thrombocytopenia, high level of aminotransferases and creatine. Predictors of fatality are: an altered mental status, in early stage of disease dramatic decreased thrombocytes count and significantly high level of aspartate aminotransferase, also longer the mean prothrombin time and INR. PMID:26483375

  9. Fatal cases of Theileria annulata infection in calves in Portugal associated with neoplastic-like lymphoid cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Branco, Sandra; Orvalho, Joăo; Leităo, Alexandre; Pereira, Isadora; Malta, Manuel; Mariano, Isabel; Carvalho, Tânia; Baptista, Rui; Shiels, Brian R; Peleteiro, Maria C

    2010-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate fifteen cases of acute lethal infection of calves (Hyalomma) was intense. Theileria was seen in blood and lymph node smears, and T. annulata infection was confirmed by isolation of schizont-transformed cells and sequencing of hypervariable region 4 of the 18S rRNA gene. At necropsy, hemorrhagic nodules or nodules with a hemorrhagic halo were seen, particularly in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal and cardiac muscles, pharynx, trachea and intestinal serosa. Histologically, nodules were formed by large, round, lymphoblastoid neoplastic-like cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) identified these cells as mostly CD3 positive T lymphocytes and MAC387 positive macrophages. A marker for B lymphocytes (CD79alphacy) labeled very few cells. T. annulata infected cells in these nodules were also identified by IHC through the use of two monoclonal antibodies (1C7 and 1C12) which are diagnostic for the parasite. It was concluded that the pathological changes observed in the different organs and tissues were caused by proliferation of schizont-infected macrophages, which subsequently stimulate a severe uncontrolled proliferation of uninfected T lymphocytes. PMID:20195062

  10. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus: new outbreaks, new discoveries.

    PubMed

    Ergonul, Onder

    2012-04-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a fatal viral infection described in Asia, Africa and Europe. Humans become infected through the bites of ticks, by contact with a patient with CCHF during the acute phase of infection, or by contact with blood or tissues from viremic livestock. The occurrence of CCHF closely approximates the known world distribution of Hyalomma spp. ticks. The novel studies of phylogenetic analyses reveal the interesting relations between the strains from distant outbreaks. The clinical features show common dramatic progress characterized by hemorrhage, myalgia, and fever. Besides the direct infection of endothelium, indirect damage by viral or virus mediated host-derived soluble factors that cause endothelial activations and dysfunction occur. In diagnosis, enzyme linked immunoassay and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction are used. Early diagnosis is critical for the patient and potential nosocomial infections. Supportive therapy is the essential part of the case management. Ribavirin was suggested as an effective drug in recent studies, and it was found to be beneficial. The health care workers are under serious risk of transmission of the infection, particularly during the follow-up of the patient, with hemorrhages from the nose, mouth, gums, vagina, and injection sites. PMID:22482717

  11. Ticks infesting humans in Italy and associated pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks may transmit a large variety of pathogens, which cause illnesses in animals and humans, commonly referred to as to tick-borne diseases (TBDs). The incidence of human TBDs in Italy is underestimated because of poor surveillance and the scant amount of studies available. Methods Samples (n =?561) were collected from humans in four main geographical areas of Italy (i.e., northwestern, northeastern, southern Italy, and Sicily), which represent a variety of environments. After being morphologically identified, ticks were molecularly tested with selected protocols for the presence of pathogens of the genera Rickettsia, Babesia, Theileria, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Borrelia and Anaplasma. Results Ticks belonged to 16 species of the genera Argas, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, with Ixodes ricinus (59.5%) being the species most frequently retrieved, followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (21.4%). Nymphs were the life stage most frequently retrieved (41%), followed by adult females (34.6%). The overall positivity to any pathogen detected was 18%. Detected microorganisms were Rickettsia spp. (17.0%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (0.8%), Borrelia afzelii (0.5%), Borrelia valaisiana (0.3%), C. N. mikurensis (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.6%). Conclusions Results indicate that people living in the Italian peninsula are at risk of being bitten by different tick species, which may transmit a plethora of TBD causing pathogens and that co-infections may also occur. PMID:25023709

  12. Consensus report: Preventive measures for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever during Eid-al-Adha festival.

    PubMed

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Bodur, Hurrem; Ozkul, Aykut; Gucukoglu, Ali; Chinikar, Sadegh; Hasan, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Eurasian countries such as, Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. CCHF virus is spread by the Hyalomma tick, which is found mainly on cattle and sheep. Muslim countries, in which these animals are sacrificed during Eid-Al-Adha, are among the countries where CCHF is endemic, and it has been observed that CCHF is associated with practices surrounding the Eid-ad-Adha festival. The dates for Eid-Al-Adha drift 10 days earlier in each year according to Georgian calendar. In previous years Eid-al-Adha occurred in autumn-winter months however in the next 10-15 years it will be take place in the summer months when CCHF is more prevalent. This may lead to a rise in the number of cases due to increased dissemination of CCHF virus with uncontrolled animal movements in and between countries. This consensus report focuses on the variable practices regarding animal handling in different regions and possible preventative measures to reduce the incidence of CCHF. Environmental hygiene and personal protection are essential parts of prevention. There is a need for international collaborative preparedness and response plans for prevention and management of CCHF during Eid-Al-Adha in countries where the disease is prevalent. PMID:26183413

  13. A GIS framework for the assessment of tick impact on human health in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peńa, Agustin; Venzal, José M

    2007-05-01

    A framework to evaluate the impact of ticks on human health under various scenarios of climate change is proposed. The purpose is not to provide a comprehensive plan (e.g. the economic impact of ticks on human society is not included), instead we wish to describe a series of indices that would be helpful by obtaining homogeneous comparisons of impact and vulnerability exerted by ticks in different regions, countries or continents, using normalized sets of population, vegetation, climate and physical attributes of the territory. Three tick species, i.e. Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Hyalomma marginatum, have been traced over the territory of Spain to further explain the computation of these indices. The discussion is based on tick habitat suitability, used as a measure of the abiotic (climate) fitness of the habitat for the species in question, and the sensitivity of each tick species to the rate of change of habitat suitability with respect to climate change. The impact is the rate of change in habitat suitability weighted with a fuzzy logic function evaluating the total number of people in an area, percent of rural population and accessibility of the geographical divisions (expressed as hexagons with a 10 km radius) used in the study. The different climate scenarios evaluated in relation to ticks show that the north-western part of Spain would suffer the greatest impact in case the mean temperature would increase, while the Mediterranean region would suffer the highest impact if temperatures decreased. Vulnerability, based on the sanitary structure of the territory and on the impact on human activities due to the change in tick distribution and abundance, is proposed as a measure of adaptation of society to these climate scenarios. The cost is evaluated as a function of land use and tick habitat suitability in a buffer zone surrounding each geographic division. All indices proposed have been obtained by search of common and/or publicly available data sets. PMID:18686241

  14. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

  15. Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.

    PubMed

    Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations and dispersal in regions where deer are relevant hosts for these ectoparasites. PMID:22079077

  16. Altitudinal and seasonal differences of tick communities in dogs from pastoralist tribes of Northern Kenya.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Gianluca; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Široký, Pavel; Albrechtová, Kate?ina; Sloboda, Michal; Dom?a, Cristian; Sándor, Attila D; Balázsi, Robert; Kanyari, Paul W N; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2015-09-15

    Studies regarding the distribution and ecology of ticks in dogs from Eastern Africa are scarce. Our research was based on a long-term screening of ticks parasitising the domestic dogs living with indigenous people around Lake Turkana, Mt. Kulal and Mt. Nyiru areas, Northern Kenya. A total of 9977 ticks were collected from 1464 dogs of all ages and both sexes. Identification was performed using morphological keys and data were analyzed using the Repeated Measures ANOVA, post-hoc Scheffe test and F test, relating independent variables as seasons and regions. Final results were translated to maps using GIS software. Five species of ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus pulchellus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.), Rhipicephalus armatus, Amblyomma gemma and Hyalomma truncatum. Our results suggest a statistical difference of the tick community structure related to seasonal and altitudinal distribution. Parasitism with R. armatus and R. pulchellus was higher in September-October than in January, whereas, R. sanguineus s.l. was not influenced by the season. Rhipicephalus armatus was present exclusively on dogs living in semi-desert areas, while R. sanguineus s.l. was the dominant species present on the shores of Lake Turkana. Although R. pulchellus was present in the all studied areas, this species had a significantly higher abundance in the afromontane region of Mt. Kulal and montane xeromorphic forest of Mt. Nyiru; these regions are characterized by elevated humidity and cooler climate. Similar geo-climatic distribution is typical also for A. gemma, which was found in dogs exclusively in Mt. Kulal afromontane area. The current work represents the most extensive study performed on the tick community structure of dogs in Eastern Africa. The results showed a relatively limited tick species diversity, with clear seasonal differences and altitudinal distribution. PMID:26343303

  17. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low. Nevertheless, veterinary control is still to be reinforced for collecting more data. PMID:25913453

  18. Identification and Mechanistic Analysis of a Novel Tick-Derived Inhibitor of Thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Jablonka, Willy; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Mizurini, Daniella M.; Monteiro, Robson Q.; Lukszo, Jan; Drake, Steven K.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Andersen, John F.

    2015-01-01

    A group of peptides from the salivary gland of the tick Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, a vector of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever show weak similarity to the madanins, a group of thrombin-inhibitory peptides from a second tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis. We have evaluated the anti-serine protease activity of one of these H. marginatum peptides that has been given the name hyalomin-1. Hyalomin-1 was found to be a selective inhibitor of thrombin, blocking coagulation of plasma and inhibiting S2238 hydrolysis in a competitive manner with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 12 nM at an ionic strength of 150 mM. It also blocks the thrombin-mediated activation of coagulation factor XI, thrombin-mediated platelet aggregation, and the activation of coagulation factor V by thrombin. Hyalomin-1 is cleaved at a canonical thrombin cleavage site but the cleaved products do not inhibit coagulation. However, the C-terminal cleavage product showed non-competitive inhibition of S2238 hydrolysis. A peptide combining the N-terminal parts of the molecule with the cleavage region did not interact strongly with thrombin, but a 24-residue fragment containing the cleavage region and the C-terminal fragment inhibited the enzyme in a competitive manner and also inhibited coagulation of plasma. These results suggest that the peptide acts by binding to the active site as well as exosite I or the autolysis loop of thrombin. Injection of 2.5 mg/kg of hyalomin-1 increased arterial occlusion time in a mouse model of thrombosis, suggesting this peptide could be a candidate for clinical use as an antithrombotic. PMID:26244557

  19. Development of three quantitative real-time PCR assays for the detection of Rickettsia raoultii, Rickettsia slovaca, and Rickettsia aeschlimannii and their validation with ticks from the country of Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ju; You, Brian J; Liu, Evan; Apte, Anisha; Yarina, Tamasin R; Myers, Todd E; Lee, John S; Francesconi, Stephen C; O'Guinn, Monica L; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Vephkhvadze, Nino; Babuadze, Giorgi; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Kokhreidze, Maka; Donduashvili, Marina; Onashvili, Tinatin; Ismayilov, Afrail; Agayev, Nigar; Aliyev, Mubariz; Muttalibov, Nizam; Richards, Allen L

    2012-12-01

    A previous surveillance study of human pathogens within ticks collected in the country of Georgia showed a relatively high infection rate for Rickettsia raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii. These 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae are human pathogens: R. raoultii and R. slovaca cause tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA), and R. aeschlimannii causes an infection characterized by fever and maculopapular rash. Three quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, Rraoul, Rslov, and Raesch were developed and optimized to detect R. raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii, respectively, by targeting fragments of the outer membrane protein B gene (ompB) using species-specific molecular beacon or TaqMan probes. The 3 qPCR assays showed 100% specificity when tested against a rickettsiae DNA panel (n=20) and a bacteria DNA panel (n=12). The limit of detection was found to be at least 3 copies per reaction for all assays. Validation of the assays using previously investigated tick nucleic acid preparations, which included Rickettsia-free tick samples, tick samples that contain R. raoultii, R. slovaca, R. aeschlimannii, and other Rickettsia spp., gave 100% sensitivity for all 3 qPCR assays. In addition, a total of 65 tick nucleic acid preparations (representing 259 individual ticks) collected from the country of Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2009 was tested using the 3 qPCR assays. R. raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii were not detected in any ticks (n=31) from the Republic of Azerbaijan, but in the ticks from the country of Georgia (n=228) the minimal infection rate for R. raoultii and R. slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus was 10% and 4%, respectively, and for R. aeschlimannii in Haemaphysalis sulcata and Hyalomma spp. it was 1.9% and 20%, respectively. PMID:23182543

  20. Isolation and characterization of Babesia pecorum sp. nov. from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Jouglin, Maggy; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; de la Cotte, Nathalie; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Gortázar, Christian; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Bastian, Suzanne; de la Fuente, José; Malandrin, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of Babesia species infecting cervids in parts of central and southern Spain was analyzed by collecting blood from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Babesia sp. was isolated in vitro from two red deer herds in Cádiz and Ciudad Real. The number of Babesia sp. carriers differed between the two herds: 36/77 in Cádiz and 1/35 in Ciudad Real. Hyalomma lusitanicum was the most prevalent tick species identified on the Cádiz farm vegetation and on sampled animals, and is therefore a candidate vector. The molecular characteristics of 21 isolates were determined by complete (8 isolates) or partial (13 isolates) 18S rRNA gene sequencing. The sequences were highly similar (over 99.4% identity) and 6 sequence types were identified at the level of one herd only, demonstrating a rather high genetic diversity. They formed a monophyletic clade, and members of the three main sequence types shared a similar morphology and the same erythrocyte susceptibility pattern. This clade also included Babesia sp. Xinjiang isolated from sheep in China and Babesia sp. identified in giraffe in South Africa, with identities higher than 98.3% and statistically relevant phylogenetic support. None of the biological properties analyzed for both Babesia from red deer and Babesia sp. Xinjiang allowed their differentiation (ability to develop in vitro in erythrocytes from cattle and sheep, as well as in erythrocytes from different cervids, unsuccessful infection of calves). We propose the Babesia isolated from red deer as a new species named B. pecorum. Whether Babesia sp. Xinjiang and the Babesia characterized in South Africa belong to the same species is debated. PMID:25155988

  1. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Clades V and VI (Europe 1 and 2) in Ticks in Kosovo, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Muji, Skender; Robaj, Avni; Ahmeti, Salih; Jakupi, Xhevat; Emmerich, Petra; Krüger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Despite being a small country, Kosovo represents one of the few foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Europe. The distribution of Kosovar tick vectors and the evolution of CCHF virus in ticks are both as yet unknown. A better description of the extent and the genetic diversity of CCHFV in ticks from endemic settings is essential, in order to be controlled. We investigated the 2012 distribution of Kosovar ticks alongside the prevalence and the phylogeography of tick-derived CCHFV. Hyalomma marginatum dominated in the endemic municipalities with 90.2% versus 24.3% in the non-endemic regions. Of 1,102 tested ticks, 40 (3.6%) were CCHFV-positive, belonging to H. marginatum (29), Rhipicephalus bursa (10), and Ixodes ricinus (1). The virus strains clustered with clade V and VI related sequences. They fell into two lineages: Kosovo I and II. Kosovo I comprised strains recovered exclusively from R. bursa ticks and was closely related to AP92 prototype strain. Kosovo II clustered into Kosovo IIa, including human-derived strains, and IIb including only strains detected in H. marginatum and I. ricinus. Our phylogeographic reconstruction suggests two temporally distinct CCHFV introductions: the most probable location of the most recent common ancestor of Kosovo I lineage was in Greece (63 years ago) and that of lineages IIa-b in Turkey (35 years ago). After each CCHFV introduction into Kosovo, subsequent lineage expansions suggest periods of in situ evolution. The study provides the first insight into the genetic variability and the origin of CCHFV in ticks from Kosovo. Our findings indicate the spreading of CCHFV to non-endemic areas, which underlines the importance of further studies in order to monitor and predict future CCHF outbreaks in Kosovo. The AP92-like strains appear to be more widespread than previously thought and may provide a promising target for experimental studies due to their assumed low pathogenicity. PMID:25255381

  2. Circulation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Revealed by Screening of Cattle Sera Using a Novel Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Marc; Vatansever, Zati; Mrenoshki, Slavcho; Krstevski, Kiril; Stefanovska, Jovana; Djadjovski, Igor; Cvetkovikj, Iskra; Farkas, Robert; Schuster, Isolde; Donnet, Fabien; Comtet, Loic; Tordo, Noël; Ben Mechlia, Mohamed; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Mitrov, Dine; Groschup, Martin H.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are only few assays available for the detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV)-specific antibodies in animals, and data about diagnostic sensitivity and specificity are incompletely documented for most of these tests. This is unfortunate since CCHFV antibodies in animals can be used as indicator for virus circulation in a geographic area and therewith potential risk of human exposure. This paper therefore reports on a novel ELISA for the detection of CCHFV-specific antibodies in cattle and on its application for testing ruminant sera from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Principal Findings A highly sensitive and specific ELISA was developed to detect CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle. The assay was validated by using 503 negative serum samples from a country where CCHFV has never been detected until now, and by using 54 positive serum samples. The positive sera were verified by using two commercially available assays (for testing human serum) which we have adapted for use in animals. The sensitivity of the novel ELISA was 98% and its specificity 99%. The presence of Hyalomma ticks was demonstrated in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and depending on the region antibody prevalence rates up to 80% were detected in the cattle population. Conclusion This article describes a fully validated, highly sensitive and specific ELISA for the detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle. Using this assay, CCHFV-specific antibodies were detected for the first time in cattle in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, giving evidence for an active circulation of this virus in the country. Supporting this conclusion, the occurrence of the main vector of CCHFV was demonstrated in the present work for the first time in Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. PMID:25742017

  3. Protozoan and bacterial pathogens in tick salivary glands in wild and domestic animal environments in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Berggoetz, M; Schmid, M; Ston, D; Wyss, V; Chevillon, C; Pretorius, A-M; Gern, L

    2014-03-01

    A total of 7364 ticks belonging to 13 species was collected from 64 game animals (belonging to 11 species) and from 64 livestock animals (cattle and sheep) living in close vicinity at 6 localities in 3 South African Provinces (Free State, Mpumalanga, and Limpopo). The geographic distribution of all tick species was congruent with the literature except for Haemaphysalis silacea. From each infested host, a maximum of 10 males and 10 females of each tick species were dissected to isolate the salivary glands. Salivary glands were screened for tick-borne pathogens using polymerase chain reaction followed by reverse line blotting and sequencing. This approach allowed us to evaluate the exposure of wild and domestic hosts to tick-borne pathogens in their respective environments. Among the 2117 examined ticks, 329 (15.5%), belonging to 8 species, were infected and harboured 397 infections. Among those, 57.7% were identified to species level and were assigned to 23 pathogen species of the genera Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia. In 3 out of 6 localities, salivary glands from ticks infesting wild ruminants displayed significantly higher infection prevalence and pathogen mean density than salivary glands from ticks infesting livestock animals. Four piroplasm species [Theileria bicornis, Babesia sp. (sable), Theileria sp. (giraffe), and Theileria sp. (kudu)] were detected for the first time in ticks. The tick species Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Hyalomma rufipes, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, and Amblyomma hebraeum were associated with a broader pathogen range than previously known, and thus new vector-pathogen combinations are described. In addition, previously unknown coinfection patterns in tick salivary glands are reported. PMID:24378080

  4. Control of Tick Infestations in Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) With Spinosad Under Laboratory and Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    ValcÁrcel, Félix; SÁnchez, J L Pérez; Jaime, J M Tercero; Basco-Basco, P I; Guajardo, S C Cota; Cutuli, M T; GonzÁlez, J; Olmeda, A S

    2015-03-01

    Because of great economic loss in the world's livestock industry, and the serious risks to human health, the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases is one of the most important health management issues today. Current methodology involves integrated tick control for preventing the development of resistance. Rabbits are hosts for immature stages of the three-host tick Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch; so, we focus on this host as a strategy to interrupt the tick life cycle. Spinosad is an insecticide-acaricide, produced by the fermentation of metabolites of the actinomycete bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa. We administered spinosad orally by force-feeding naturally and artificially infested rabbits, and under field conditions by administering treated food via a hopper during the period of peak infestation and reinfestation risk for rabbits. No living larvae were recovered from treated laboratory rabbits. In naturally infested rabbits, the number of live ticks collected from treated rabbits (mean = 0.62 ticks per ear) was significantly lower than those recovered from untreated rabbits (mean?=?7.27; P?

  5. Vector identification and clinical, hematological, biochemical, and parasitological characteristics of camel (Camelus dromedarius) theileriosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Shereen Youssef; Yasien, Safaa; Mousa, Waheed Mohamed Ali; Nasr, Soad Mohamed; El-Kelesh, Eman Ahmed Mohamed; Mahran, Khalid Mohamed; Abd-El-Rahman, Azza Hassan

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify a possible tick vector and to determine the prevalence of camel theileriosis in Egypt using blood smears stained with Giemsa's stain and PCR assay. Hemogram and serum biochemical constituents were also investigated. A total of 243 camels, aged 3-5 years, were examined. The results revealed that 75 (30.86 %) camels were infected with Theileria spp. of Giemsa-stained blood smears. Hyalomma dromedarii was identified as the carrier tick of Theileria spp. Multinucleated sporoblast and free sporozoite were observed in the salivary gland smears from collecting ticks. PCR result revealed that Theileria annulata was the most abundant in camels (60 %) followed by Theileria spp. (10 %). Macrocytic hypochromic anemia was recorded in the infected camels with T. annulata. Leukocytosis, neutrophilia, eosinophilia, and lymphopenia were also observed in the infected group. In the serum of infected camels, total proteins, albumin, ?-globulin, and A/G ratio were significantly decreased (P?

  6. Detection of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. in Ticks Associated with Exotic Reptiles and Amphibians Imported into Japan

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, Masako; Sakata, Akiko; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiromi; Une, Yumi; Goka, Koichi; Kishimoto, Toshio; Ando, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    One of the major routes of transmission of rickettsial and ehrlichial diseases is via ticks that infest numerous host species, including humans. Besides mammals, reptiles and amphibians also carry ticks that may harbor Rickettsia and Ehrlichia strains that are pathogenic to humans. Furthermore, reptiles and amphibians are exempt from quarantine in Japan, thus facilitating the entry of parasites and pathogens to the country through import. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined the presence of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. genes in ticks associated with reptiles and amphibians originating from outside Japan. Ninety-three ticks representing nine tick species (genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma) were isolated from at least 28 animals spanning 10 species and originating from 12 countries (Ghana, Jordan, Madagascar, Panama, Russia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Uzbekistan, and Zambia). None of the nine tick species are indigenous in Japan. The genes encoding the common rickettsial 17-kDa antigen, citrate synthase (gltA), and outer membrane protein A (ompA) were positively detected in 45.2% (42/93), 40.9% (38/93), and 23.7% (22/93) of the ticks, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genes encoding ehrlichial heat shock protein (groEL) and major outer membrane protein (omp-1) were PCR-positive in 7.5% (7/93) and 2.2% (2/93) of the ticks, respectively. The p44 gene, which encodes the Anaplasma outer membrane protein, was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that several of the rickettsial and ehrlichial sequences isolated in this study were highly similar to human pathogen genes, including agents not previously detected in Japan. These data demonstrate the global transportation of pathogenic Rickettsia and Ehrlichia through reptile- and amphibian-associated ticks. These imported animals have potential to transfer pathogens into human life. These results highlight the need to control the international transportation of known and potential pathogens carried by ticks in reptiles, amphibians, and other animals, in order to improve national and international public health. PMID:26207382

  7. Assessing the effects of variables and background selection on the capture of the tick climate niche

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modelling the environmental niche and spatial distribution of pathogen-transmitting arthropods involves various quality and methodological concerns related to using climate data to capture the environmental niche. This study tested the potential of MODIS remotely sensed and interpolated gridded covariates to estimate the climate niche of the medically important ticks Ixodes ricinus and Hyalomma marginatum. We also assessed model inflation resulting from spatial autocorrelation (SA) and collinearity (CO) of covariates used as time series of data (monthly values of variables), principal components analysis (PCA), and a discrete Fourier transformation. Performance of the models was measured using area under the curve (AUC), autocorrelation by Moran’s I, and collinearity by the variance inflation factor (VIF). Results The covariate spatial resolution slightly affected the final AUC. Consistently, models for H. marginatum performed better than models for I. ricinus, likely because of a species-derived rather than covariate effect because the former occupies a more limited niche. Monthly series of interpolated climate always better captured the climate niche of the ticks, but the SA was around 2 times higher and the maximum VIF between covariates around 30 times higher in interpolated than in MODIS-derived covariates. Interpolated or remotely sensed monthly series of covariates always had higher SA and CO than their transformations by PCA or Fourier. Regarding the effects of background point selection on AUC, we found that selection based on a set of rules for the distance to the core distribution and the heterogeneity of the landscape influenced model outcomes. The best selection relied on a random selection of points as close as possible to the target organism area of distribution, but effects are variable according to the species modelled. Conclusion Testing for effects of SA and CO is necessary before incorporating these covariates into algorithms building a climate envelope. Results support a higher SA and CO in an interpolated climate dataset than in remotely sensed covariates. Satellite-derived information has fewer drawbacks compared to interpolated climate for modelling tick relationships with environmental niche. Removal of SA and CO by a harmonic regression seems most promising because it retains both biological and statistical meaning. PMID:24069960

  8. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical syndrome and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Bente, Dennis A; Forrester, Naomi L; Watts, Douglas M; McAuley, Alexander J; Whitehouse, Chris A; Bray, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most important tick-borne viral disease of humans, causing sporadic cases or outbreaks of severe illness across a huge geographic area, from western China to the Middle East and southeastern Europe and throughout most of Africa. CCHFV is maintained in vertical and horizontal transmission cycles involving ixodid ticks and a variety of wild and domestic vertebrates, which do not show signs of illness. The virus circulates in a number of tick genera, but Hyalomma ticks are the principal source of human infection, probably because both immature and adult forms actively seek hosts for the blood meals required at each stage of maturation. CCHF occurs most frequently among agricultural workers following the bite of an infected tick, and to a lesser extent among slaughterhouse workers exposed to the blood and tissues of infected livestock and medical personnel through contact with the body fluids of infected patients. CCHFV is the most genetically diverse of the arboviruses, with nucleotide sequence differences among isolates ranging from 20% for the viral S segment to 31% for the M segment. Viruses with diverse sequences can be found within the same geographic area, while closely related viruses have been isolated in far distant regions, suggesting that widespread dispersion of CCHFV has occurred at times in the past, possibly by ticks carried on migratory birds or through the international livestock trade. Reassortment among genome segments during co-infection of ticks or vertebrates appears to have played an important role in generating diversity, and represents a potential future source of novel viruses. In this article, we first review current knowledge of CCHFV, summarizing its molecular biology, maintenance and transmission, epidemiology and geographic range. We also include an extensive discussion of CCHFV genetic diversity, including maps of the range of the virus with superimposed phylogenetic trees. We then review the features of CCHF, including the clinical syndrome, diagnosis, treatment, pathogenesis, vaccine development and laboratory animal models of CCHF. The paper ends with a discussion of the possible future geographic range of the virus. For the benefit of researchers, we include a Supplementary Table listing all published reports of CCHF cases and outbreaks in the English-language literature, plus some principal articles in other languages, with total case numbers, case fatality rates and all CCHFV strains on GenBank. PMID:23906741

  9. Ostrich diseases.

    PubMed

    Verwoerd, D J

    2000-08-01

    Scientific knowledge of ostrich diseases is incomplete and very fragmented, with specific details on technical aspects of diagnostic and/or screening tests completely absent in most cases. Salmonella Typhimurium is common in multispecies collections and causes mortality in chicks younger than three months on commercial farms, but is rarely found in chicks older than six months, or slaughter birds of twelve to fourteen months in southern Africa. Campylobacter jejuni and Chlamydia psittaci are occasionally reported, mainly in young ostriches, but both remain a diagnostic challenge. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever is transmitted to domestic animals including ostriches, principally by ticks of the genus Hyalomma. In the ostrich, the disease causes no clinical symptoms during a viraemia of approximately four days. Spongiform encephalopathy has not been reliably reported in ostriches, while anthrax has occurred rarely in modern times but was reportedly an important cause of death approximately 100 years ago in South Africa. Salmonella Gallinarum and S. Pullorum are unknown in ostriches. Pasteurella multocida occurs but is easily contained with antibiotics. Mycoplasma spp. are regularly found in an upper respiratory disease syndrome complicated by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Ostriches of all ages are susceptible to challenge by velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV), but standard inactivated La Sota poultry vaccines can stimulate protective immunity lasting over six months. The viraemic period in vaccinated slaughter ostriches is between nine and eleven days and there are no indications of a carrier state or presence of the virus in the meat or any other tissues after this period, with peak immunoglobulin G response reached on day fourteen post infection. Haemagglutination inhibition tests are significantly less sensitive and less specific than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cloacal and choanal swabs used for direct virological screening in clinically affected cases (field and experimental) could not detect NDV. All avian influenza isolates reported from ostriches have been non-pathogenic to poultry, even the H5 and H7 subtypes. Some of the latter have been associated with mortality of ostrich chicks in localised outbreaks during periods of inclement weather and with significant wild bird (waterfowl) contact. Borna disease causes a nervous syndrome in ostrich chicks, but to date, has only been reported in Israel. Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitides cause fatal disease in ostriches and other ratites, with mortality ranging from less than 20% to over 80% in affected flocks. These diseases are present in North, Central and South America where the associated ornithophilic mosquito vectors occur. Equine and human vaccines are apparently safe and efficacious in ratites. Wesselsbron disease, infectious bursal disease (type 2), adenovirus and coronavirus infections have been reported from ostriches but the significance of these diseases is unclear. Due to the paucity of data regarding ostrich diseases and the unvalidated state of most poultry tests in this unique group of birds, strict observation of a pre-slaughter quarantine of thirty days is strongly advised, whilst live exports and fertile eggs should be screened through the additional use of sentinel chickens and/or young ostriches. PMID:10935285