Owing to the need to combat the spread of chemical acaricide resistance in ticks, we evaluated the efficacy of a mixture of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana AT17 and acaricides for the control of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in China. A mixture of B. bassiana AT17 at the concentration of 108conidia\\/mL and the synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin at concentrations of 2500, 250,
Ming Sun; Qiaoyun Ren; Zhijie Liu; Guiquan Guan; Huitian Gou; Miling Ma; Youquan Li; Aihong Liu; Jifei Yang; Hong Yin; Jianxun Luo
This study investigated the comparative efficacy of ivermectin and cypermethrin pour-on, for the treatment of Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum infestations in bovines. For examining acaricidal efficacy, 480 ticks were exposed in vitro to graded doses of both the acaricides\\u000a and in vivo efficacy was examined in 360 tick-infested bovines treated at the recommended doses of ivermectin (IVM) and cypermethrin\\u000a (CYM)
Muhammad S. Sajid; Zafar Iqbal; Muhammad N. Khan; Ghulam Muhammad
This study investigated the comparative efficacy of ivermectin and cypermethrin pour-on, for the treatment of Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum infestations in bovines. For examining acaricidal efficacy, 480 ticks were exposed in vitro to graded doses of both the acaricides and in vivo efficacy was examined in 360 tick-infested bovines treated at the recommended doses of ivermectin (IVM) and cypermethrin (CYM) pour-on. The comparative quantitative assessment of tick burden was done on days 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 after treatment using "finger counting." The results of the tick survival assay indicated both compounds were effective in vitro against H. a. anatolicum. The arc transformed mean surviving ticks, 24 h post immersion, was 2.66 and zero in groups treated with the highest dilutions of IVM and CYM, respectively. At 15 days post-treatment, the CYM pour-on showed a higher in vivo efficacy (no surviving ticks) compared to IVM (mean of 20 surviving ticks). A single dose of CYM and IVM was found effective for 20 and 15 days post-treatment, respectively. Additionally, a questionnaire was used to gather information from 30 small holder dairy farms on the farmer's approach toward the control of ticks. The majority (90%) of respondents were using acaricides incorrectly along with poor husbandry practices on their farms. Overuse of IVM in the tested area of Pakistan may be the reason the IVM is not as effective as expected. These results provide useful tools for the decision making in tick control, as well as providing the basis for testing the findings on provincial and national levels in future studies. PMID:19562374
Sajid, Muhammad S; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad N; Muhammad, Ghulam
The use of acaricides had limited efficacy in reducing tick infestations and is often accompanied by serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide resistant ticks, contamination of environment, and milk and meat products with drug residues. The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum canum Sims (Labiatae) against the larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum Koch, 1844 and Hyalomma marginatum (m.) isaaci Sharif, 1928 (Acari: Ixodidae). The synthesized AgNPs results were recorded from UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The production of the AgNPs synthesized from the leaf extract of O. canum was evaluated through UV-visible spectrophotometer in a range of wavelength from 300 to 600 nm. This revealed a peak at 426 nm in leaf extracts of O. canum, indicating the production of AgNPs. The XRD spectrum compared with the standard confirmed spectrum of silver particles formed in the present experiments were in the form of nanocrystals, as evidenced by the peaks at 2? values of 27.71°, 32.16°, 38.08°, 46.15°, 54.70° and 57.35°. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 818, 1,045, 1,381 and 1,616 in the region 500-3,000 cm(-1). The peaks correspond to the presence of a C-H vibration of the aromatic ring, stretch vibration of C-O, carbonyl groups and flavanones. SEM analyses of the synthesized AgNPs were clearly distinguishable, which measured 25-110 nm in size. It is clear that the rod and cylindrical structures have an average size of 95 nm. The EDX spectra showed the purity of the material and the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of O. canum and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The acaricidal activities of aqueous crude leaf extracts of O. canum against the larvae of H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci have LC(50) and LC(90) values of 15.31 and 13.85 mg/L, and 62.41 and 48.86 mg/L, respectively. The efficacies of 1 mM AgNO(3) solution against H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci were LC(50) = 12.25 and 12.17 mg/L, LC(90) = 49.17 and 46.52 mg/L, respectively, and the maximum efficacy was observed in the synthesized AgNPs against H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 0.78 and 1.00 mg/L, and 1.51 and 1.68 mg/L, respectively. This method is considered as an innovative alternative approach to control parasites. PMID:21789583
Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul
A study to evaluate cypermethrin resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum collected from Muktsar and Mansa districts of Punjab state, India, was conducted by using adult immersion test (AIT). The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentrations of cypermethrin was utilized for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), and the resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on variables (mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index, and percentage inhibition of oviposition), the resistance levels were categorized. Resistance to cypermethrin was categorized as level II and I in R. (B.) microplus collected from Muktsar and Mansa districts, respectively, whereas, H. anatolicum from both locations showed a susceptible status. The RF values of Muktsar and Mansa field samples of engorged R. (B.) microplus (5.48 and 2.18, respectively) were much higher as those of engorged H. anatolicum (1.12 and 0.82, respectively) indicating a lower level and slower rate of development of cypermethrin resistance in multi-host ticks. The data generated in the current study might be of immense help in formulating suitable control measures against ticks and tick-borne diseases of animals. PMID:24252261
Singh, Nirbhay K; Jyoti; Haque, Manjurul; Singh, Harkirat; Rath, Shitanshu S; Ghosh, Srikant
Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum tick is widely distributed in many parts of Iran and while the commercial vaccines based on the application of midgut-derived recombinant Bm86 antigen are used for its control, limited information about the efficiency of this vaccination in Iran is available. Herein, with the final aim of evaluation of Bm86-based heterologous vaccination, as the primary step the Bm86 homologue of the H. a. anatolicum (Hao3) from an Iranian isolate was characterized and compared with the commercialized Bm86 and other Bm86 homologoue sequences available in GenBank. Our in silico predictions resulted in the identification of seven epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains, one hydrophobic transmembrane region, one leader sequence and several glycosylation sites within the structure of both Hao3 and Bm86 proteins, which suggested the pattern of extracellular membrane-bound glycoproteins with the role of regulation in cell growth for both proteins. Moreover, while the nucleotide and amino acid sequences corresponding to Bm86 homologue showed a high level of conservation among the Iranian isolates (Hao3, Hao3-1 and Hao3-2, more than 99%), the Hao3 amino acid sequence had a homology of around 89%, 64% and 65% with that of Indian, Australian and Argentinean isolates, respectively. This indicated a considerable variation between commercial Bm86 antigen and H. a. anatolicum Bm86-like protein of Iranian and Indian isolates. Taking together, these results imply that the efficiency of commercial Bm86-based vaccine against the Iranian H. a. anatolicum may be under the question and indicates the value of the development of Hao3-based recombinant vaccines and further planning for their in vivo evaluation. PMID:20599993
Ebrahimi, Seyyed Mahmoud; Paykari, Habib; Memarnejadian, Arash
In Hyalomma (H.) anatolicum excavatum Koch, germinal differentiation begins in the feeding nymph. Sex is recognized in unfed larvae by the presence of one female genital mass and 2 connected male masses. Females have one U-shaped ovary with 3 germinative ...
G. M. Khalil
Hard ticks have great importance because of blood feeding and transmitting dangerous human and animal diseases. Each year, they cause a lot of economical damage to the livestock industry. Control of ticks and tick-borne diseases is a major priority in most parts of the world and many studies have been done in this field. We know that studying haemoparasites and assessing the effect of different compounds on ticks requires a lot of money, support and sometimes it is time consuming. Considering all of these problems, today, in some research laboratories throughout the world, artificial in vitro feeding of ticks has become common. Development and application of such methods provide a cheap and accessible background for investigating haemoparasitic diseases under controlled conditions. For the first time we report successful in vitro feeding of two important ixodid ticks of the genus Hyalomma. PMID:21474247
Tajeri, S; Razmi, G R
In this study, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum male ticks were subjected to gamma radiation with a dose of 10 Gy emitted by a gamma-ray source of Caesium 137. Female ticks were divided into 3 groups and placed in rabbit ears to feed. In the first group, the females fed with normal and irradiated males, in the second group females fed only with irradiated males and in last group females fed with normal males. Biological parameters such as the feeding period, weights, period of time from dropping until egg-laying began, the number of eggs and the number of larva hatching from eggs were recorded. With the results of statistical analysis it was found that the average egg laying period of females in the second group was clearly less (22.77 days) than other groups and the difference between these groups was statistically important (P < 0.05). After evaluation of numbers of larva, also there was a statistically important difference between the groups and the average number of larva was clearly higher (2519.30) in third group than other groups. In conclusion, in this study it was found that irradiated males could not compete with normal males in mating with females and because of this they couldn't affect the feeding and reproductivity of females. PMID:19367545
Karaer, Zafer; Kar, Sirri; Düzgün, Ali; Güven, Esin; Cakmak, Ay?e; Emre, Zi?an; Nalbanto?lu, Serpil; Sariba?, Taner; Akçay, Aytaç
In the Sudan, ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (TBDs) with subsequent costs of control and treatment are causing substantial economic loss. Control of ticks is mainly by chemical insecticides. The rising environmental hazards and problem of resistance has motivated research on biological agents as alternative methods of control. The present study aims at controlling livestock ticks using fungi for their unique mode of action besides their ability to adhere to the cuticle, to germinate and penetrate enzymatically. The study was conducted to evaluate the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for tick control as an alternative mean to chemical acaricides. Pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on different developmental stages of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum. The fungus induced high mortality to flat immature stages. It, also, affected reproductive potential of the females. Egg laid, hatching percent, fertility and moulting percent of immature stages were significantly (p < or = 0.05) reduced. It was, also, shown that the fungus had ability to adhere to the cuticle and penetrate the integument of the tick. Conidia of the fungus were isolated from their internal tissues. This phenomenon is important in considering fungi as bioinsecticides. Infection of eggs laid by treated engorged female ticks, with the fungus might demonstrate suggesting transovarian transmission. The use of M. anisopliae to control ticks is discussed. PMID:24517010
Suleiman, Elham A; Shigidi, M T; Hassan, S M
Larval packet test was used for detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids, in the multi-host tick Hyalomma anatolicum collected from district Moga, Punjab (India). Results indicated the presence of level I resistance against deltamethrin (RF = 2.81), whereas the tick isolate was susceptible to cypermethrin (RF = 0.2). The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera along with roots of Vitex negundo were assessed for their acaricidal activity against the larvae of deltamethrin resistant H. anatolicum. The efficacy was assessed by measuring per cent larval mortality and determination of LC50 values. The various ethanolic extracts produced a concentration dependent increase in larval tick mortality, whereas the aqueous extracts exhibited a much lower mortality. The highest mortality (93.7 ± 0.66 %) was observed at the 5.0 % concentration of ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus and the lowest LC50 value (0.011 %) was recorded for ethanolic extracts of leaves of V. negundo. The results indicated that these plant extracts have potential to be developed as herbal acaricides. PMID:24647800
Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Kumar, Rajender; Dumka, V K
The tick is a common ectoparasite of livestock and humans, and is responsible for the transmission of pathogens among hosts. Direct and indirect impacts of ticks include limiting the sustainable development of the animal husbandry industry and detrimental effects on human health. Despite these negative effects, the main method of controlling ticks remains the application of chemical acaricides, which can
Ming Sun; Qiaoyun Ren; Guiquan Guan; Zhijie Liu; Miling Ma; Huitian Gou; Ze Chen; Youquan Li; Aihong Liu; Qingli Niu; Jifei Yang; Hong Yin; Jianxun Luo
Experiments were undertaken to determine the mode of transmission to cattle of an unnamed Babesia sp. by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma detritum, Hy. rufipes koch, Haemaphysalis longicornis and Boophilus microplus. The unnamed Babesia species designated Babesia U sp. was isolated by infesting cattle with nymphs from female Hy. a. anatolicum ticks collected from Xinjiang province. Adults of laboratory reared Hy. a. anatolicum, Hy. detritum and Hy. rufipes koch were infected with Babesia U sp. by feeding on infected cattle, isolated with nymphal ticks of Hy. a. anatolicum derived from females collected from field. The experiments revealed that Hy. a. anatolicum was capable of transmitting Babesia U sp. transovarially in larval (2 of 4 calves), nymphal (6 of 6 calves) and adult (3 of 8 calves) stages, with prepatent periods of 16, 12, and 8 days, respectively, and that this Babesia was also transovarially transmitted by both the nymphal and adult stages of Hy. detritum and Hy. rufipes. Attempts to transmit this Babesia U sp. transovarially with Hae. longicornis and B. microplus, and transstadially with Hyalomma spp., were carried out, and the results proved to be negative. PMID:14519316
Luo, Jianxun; Chen, Fuyan; Lu, Wenshun; Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Yin, Hong
The use of tick vaccine in controlling ticks and tick borne diseases has been proved effective in integrated tick management format. For the control of H. a. anatolicum, Bm86 ortholog of H. a. anatolicum was cloned and expressed as fusion protein in E. coli as E. coli-pETHaa86. The molecular weight of the rHaa86 was 97 kDa with a 19 kDa fusion tag of thioredoxin protein. The expressed protein was characterized immunologically and vaccine efficacy was evaluated. After 120 hours of challenge, only 26% tick could successfully fed on immunized animals. Besides significant reduction in feeding percentages, a significant reduction of 49.6 mg; P < .01 in the weight of fed females in comparison to the females fed on control animals was recorded. Following oviposition, a significant reduction of 68.1 mg; P < .05 in the egg masses of ticks fed on immunized animals in comparison to the ticks fed on control animals was noted. The reduction of number of females, mean weight of eggs, adult females and efficacy of immunogen were 73.8%, 31.3%, 15.8%, and 82.3%, respectively. The results indicated the possibility of development of rHaa86 based vaccine as a component of integrated control of tick species.
Azhahianambi, P.; Ray, D. D.; Chaudhuri, Pallab; Gupta, Rohita; Ghosh, Srikanta
The use of acaricides had limited efficacy in reducing tick infestations and is often accompanied by serious drawbacks, including\\u000a the selection of acaricide resistant ticks, contamination of environment, and milk and meat products with drug residues. The\\u000a present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles\\u000a (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous leaf extract
Chidambaram Jayaseelan; Abdul Abdul Rahuman
To assess the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks from Egypt, we collected ticks from domestic and peridomestic animals between June 2002 and July 2003. DNA extracts from 1019 ticks were tested, using PCR and sequencing, for Anaplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp., and Rickettsia spp. Ticks included: 29 Argas persicus, 10 Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, 55 Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, 174 Hyalomma dromedarii, 2 Hyalomma impeltatum, 3 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, 55 unidentified nymphal Hyalomma, 625 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, 49 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 17 Rhipicephalus turanicus. Ticks were collected predominantly (>80%) from buffalo, cattle, and camels, with smaller numbers from chicken and rabbit sheds, sheep, foxes, a domestic dog, a hedgehog, and a black rat. We detected Anaplasma marginale, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia aeschlimannii, and four novel genotypes similar to: "Anaplasma platys," Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia spp. reported from Asian ticks, and a Rickettsiales endosymbiont of Ixodes ricinus. PMID:17004028
Loftis, Amanda D; Reeves, Will K; Szumlas, Daniel E; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Moriarity, John R; Dasch, Gregory A
A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle in Mazandaran province, Iran. A total of 953 ticks were collected from 86 infested cattle during activating seasons of ticks during 2004-2005. Nine species were identified: Boophilus annulatus (51.3%), Rhipicephalus bursa (16.8%), Haemaphysalis punctata (6.3%), Ixodes ricinus (6.8%), Hyalomma marginatum (12.5%), Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (5.2%), Hyalomma asiaticum (0.6%), Hyalomma detritum (0.2 %), and Dermacentor spp. (0.1%). The results show that Boophilus annulatus, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Hyalomma species are dominant tick species in the surveyed area.
Glinsharifodini, Meisam; Sarvi, Shaboddin
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay followed by partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was performed for the presence of Ehrlichia and/or Anaplasma. A total of 242 ixodid ticks were collected from domestic ruminants and their shelters, as well as humans, and their individual salivary glands were dissected out for DNA. From the 242 ticks analyzed, six (2.47%), comprising three Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, one Rhipicephalus bursa, and two Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were positive. Of these sequenced samples directly obtained from the PCR products, three sequences from H. a. anatolicum were identical to that of the gene of Ehrlichia spp. strains. One sequence identified in R. bursa was closely related to Anaplasma platys. The remaining two sequences detected in R. sanguineus were similar to that of the gene of Anaplasma ovis. The study presented here provides preliminary data regarding the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks in Turkey. PMID:19247690
Aktas, Munir; Altay, Kursat; Dumanli, Nazir; Kalkan, Ahmet
Unfed female Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii Koch in 3 different weight groups of 2.4 - 5.0, 5.3 - 10.0 and 10.3 - 14.5 mg, respectively, were investigated for the effect of unfed female weight (UFW) on certain biological parameters. The results showed tha...
G. M. Khalil A. E. Hagras
Continuous cell lines from the ticks Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Boophilus microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus were tested for ability to support growth of the rickettsial pathogen Ehrlichia (previously Cowdria) ruminantium. Five E.ruminantium isolates, from West Africa, South Africa and the French West Indies, were used. Twelve tick cell lines were inoculated with E.ruminantium derived either from cultures of a bovine endothelial cell strain designated BPC or from other tick cell lines. Successful infection resulted in either continuous growth (in which the pathogen/cell line system could be perpetuated through regular subculture on fresh, uninfected cells for many months or years) or finite growth (in which the pathogen disappeared after one or a few subcultures). Infection with E.ruminantium from BPC was established in I.scapularis, I.ricinus and A.variegatum cell lines; E.ruminantium was transferred from these infected cell lines to B.decoloratus, B.microplus and R. appendiculatus cell lines. H.a.anatolicum cells could not be infected with E.ruminantium by any procedure. All five E.ruminantium isolates grew continuously in at least one tick cell line at temperatures between 28 degrees C and 37 degrees C; three of the isolates were successfully re-established in BPC following prolonged maintenance in tick cells. This study demonstrates that E.ruminantium is not intrinsically restricted to growth in cells from ticks of the natural vector genus Amblyomma. PMID:15053931
Geographical distribution of ticks infesting farm animals in Sinai Peninsula revealed the presence of 12 tick species namely Hyalomma dromedarii, H. impeltatum, H. an anatolicum, H. an. excavatum, H. marginatum rufipes, H. m. turanicum, H. schulzei, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. turanicus, Boophilus annulatus, Ornithodors erraticus and Argas persicus. The distribution map of those species is given. The areas of Sinai could be arranged as regards the number of tick species in the following descending order, Beer Lehfin & St. Cathrine (9 spp.), Kosaimah & Nuweibah (8 spp.), Arish & Godirate (7 spp.), Firan (6 spp.) Beer El-Abd, Zowaid, Rafah, Quntara, Wadi Hadra & El Tur (5 spp.), Abu Redis, and Hammam Pharon (4 spp.). PMID:8376863
Shoukry, A; el-Kady, G A; Merdan, A I; el Said, S
Thirteen Neurosecretary Cell (NSC) types have been observed in the unfed female Hyalomma dromedarii synganglion. Distribution of these types was based on cell shape, size, and staining reaction of their contents. The NSC are grouped in 13 centers, namely ...
A. S. Marzouk G. M. Khalil Z. E. Darwish
In Lebanon the land tortoise, Testudo (Pseudotestudo) kleinmanni, is the primary host of Hyalomma (Hyalommasta) aegyptium (L.), while the agamid lizard, Agama stellio, and the Eurasian hedgehog, Erinaceus europaeus, are of secondary significance. Female t...
G. K. Sweatman
Nineteen species and subspecies of ixodid and argasid ticks, Hyalomma dromedarii, H. impeltatum, H. anatolicum excavatum, H. a. anatolicum, H. truncatum, H. m. marginatum, H. m. rufipes, H. m. turanicum, Boophilus annulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. turanicus, R. guilhoni, R. camicasi, Amblyomma lipidum, A. marmoreum, A. vareigatum, Argas persicus, A. hermanii and A. arboreus were collected from different localities in five governorates, Giza, Sharkia, Ismailia, El Beheira and Sinai. Hyalomma species were found on camels (98.6%) and cows (1.4%). B. annulatus was found only on cows (100%), Rhipicephalus species on dogs (89.8%), camels (8.2%) and sheep (2.0%), Amblyomma species were found on imported camels (100%), and Argas species on chickens (70.6%), herons (18.8%) and pigeons (10.6%). Examination of camels, cows, sheep, and chickens infested with ticks showed Theileria annulata (rod and ovoid), Babesia bigemmina (ring), B. ovis (ovoid), and Babesiosoma gallinarum (dot-like), respectively. Haemoproteus columbae were found in pigeons. These parasites were determined by microscope imaged. PMID:11478436
El Kammah, K M; Oyoun, L M; El Kady, G A; Shafy, S A
Background: Diagnostic study of vector ticks for different pathogens transmitted specifically have been done by Iranian old scientists working on the basis of biological transmission of pathogens. In this study we decided to confirm natural infection of different collected ticks from three different provinces of Iran. Methods: Ticks were collected from livestock (sheep, goats and cattle) during favorable seasons (April to September 2007 and 2008). Slide preparations were stained by Giemsa and Feulgen and were studied searching for any trace of infection. Positive DNA from infected blood or tissue samples was provided and was used as positive control. First, PCR optimization for positive DNA was done, and then tick samples were subjected to specific PCR. Results: Eleven pairs of primers were designed for detection of Theileria, Babesia and Anaplasma spp. Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus turanicus from Fars Province were infected with T. lestoquardi at two different places. Hyalomma detritum was infected with T. lestoquardi in Lorestan Province and Rh. turanicus was infected to Ba. ovis from Fars Province. Conclusion: Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Every sample is regarded with host-environment related factors. Since there are complex relations of vectors and their relevant protozoa, different procedures are presented for future studies.
The genus Hyalomma Koch, 1844. i. reinstatement of Hyalomma (euhyalomma) glabrum Delpy, 1949 (Acari, Ixodidae) as a valid species with a redescription of the adults, the first description of its immature stages and notes on its biology.
For nearly 50 years the ixodid tick Hyalomma marginatum turanicum, reputedly introduced into South Africa on imported Persian sheep, has been considered identical to the Asian Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) marginatum turanicum Pomerantzev, 1946. Comparisons of this tick with the Asian H. (E.) m. turanicum and other subspecies of Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) marginatum, however, reveal that it is an old taxon, namely Hyalomma rufipes glabrum Delpy, 1949. It is hereby reinstated as Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) glabrum, and its adults are redescribed and its immature stages described for the first time. The preferred hosts of its adults are large herbivores such as zebras, gemsbok and eland, on which it occurs during summer. The preferred hosts of its immature stages are scrub hares and ground-frequenting birds, on which it is present during autumn and winter. Data on its distribution and possible disease relationships are also provided. PMID:16715874
Apanaskevich, D A; Horak, I G
Equine piroplasmosis is a hemoprotozoan tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution that is caused by Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. However, the geographical distribution of equine piroplasmosis in Iran is unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine the causative agents and vector ticks of equine piroplasmosis in horses in the North Khorasan Province. In the year 2011, 100 horses were randomly selected from 14 villages. Blood samples and ixodid ticks were collected and examined using microscopical, molecular, and serological methods. Theileria equi infection was microscopically detected in 5 (5%) of the blood smears with low parasitemia, while serum samples were tested by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Antibodies against T. equi, B. caballi, and a mixed infection were detected in 48 (48%), 2 (2%), and 3 (3%) of the serum samples, respectively. A multiplex PCR was used to detect T. equi and B. caballi DNA in blood samples. No B. caballi infections could be found, but Theileria equi DNA was detected in 45 (45%) of the blood samples, and a BLAST analysis of the sequenced samples indicated a 99% similarity with T. equi 18S rRNA gene sequences in GenBank. Both molecular and serological results did not identify any significant association between T. equi infection and risk factors. A comparision of the results of 3 diagnostic methods demonstrated a poor agreement between microscopical examination with IFAT and PCR and a moderate agreement between IFAT and PCR. Thirty-seven adult ticks (20 females and 17 males) were collected from 15 horses. The most common tick was Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (n=19), followed by Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (n=10), Rhipicephalus bursa (n=4), Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n=3), and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n=1). The salivary glands and ovaries were also examined using PCR. The genomic DNA samples of the salivary glands of 3 ticks, H. a. excavatum (n=2) and R. bursa (n=1), had a positive reaction for T. equi, but no tick contained B. caballi DNA. Thus, our results indicate that T. equi occurs more frequently than B. caballi in the investigated geographical region. PMID:24556274
Abedi, Vali; Razmi, Golamreza; Seifi, Hesam; Naghibi, Abolghasem
The tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium has a typical three-host life-cycle. Whereas its larvae and nymphs are less host-specific feeding on a variety of tetrapods, tortoises of the genus Testudo are principal hosts of adults. Ticks retained this trait also in our study under laboratory conditions, while adults were reluctant to feed on mammalian hosts. Combination of feeding larvae and nymphs on guinea pigs and feeding of adults on Testudo marginata tortoises provided the best results. Feeding period of females was on average 25 days (range 17-44), whereas males remain after female engorgement on tortoise host. Female pre-oviposition period was 14 days (3-31), followed by 24 days of oviposition (18-29). Pre-eclosion and eclosion, both together, takes 31 days (21-43). Larvae fed 5 days (3-9), then molted to nymphs after 17 days (12-23). Feeding period of nymphs lasted 7 days (5-10), engorged nymphs molted to adults after 24 days (19-26). Sex ratio of laboratory hatched H. aegyptium was nearly equal (1:1.09). The average weight of engorged female was 0.95 (0.72-1.12) g. The average number of laid eggs was 6,900 (6,524-7,532) per female, it was significantly correlated with weight of engorged female. Only 2.8% of engorged larvae and 1.8% of engorged nymphs remained un-molted and died. Despite the use of natural host species, feeding success of females reached only 45%. The whole life-cycle was completed within 147 days (98-215). PMID:21431927
Siroký, Pavel; Erhart, Jan; Petrželková, Klára J; Kamler, Martin
Seventy-four cattle, from three farms endemic for tropical theileriosis in the north of Tunisia, were studied for tick populations from June 1991 to June 1992. Ticks were removed from cattle twice a month in the summer and every month the rest of the year. They were identified and assessed for Theileria infection. A total of 5083 Hyalomma adult ticks were
A. Bouattour; M. A. Darghouth; L. Ben Miled
Background In January 2011, human cases with hemorrhagic manifestations in the hospital staff were reported from a tertiary care hospital in Ahmadabad, India. This paper reports a detailed epidemiological investigation of nosocomial outbreak from the affected area of Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India. Principal Findings Samples from 3 suspected cases, 83 contacts, Hyalomma ticks and livestock were screened for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus by qRT-PCR of which samples of two medical professionals (case C and E) and the husband of the index case (case D) were positive for CCHFV. The sensitivity and specificity of indigenous developed IgM ELISA to screen CCHFV specific antibodies in human serum was 75.0% and 97.5% respectively as compared to commercial kit. About 17.0% domestic animals from Kolat, Ahmadabad were positive for IgG antibodies while only two cattle and a goat showed positivity by qRT-PCR. Surprisingly, 43.0% domestic animals (Buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat) showed IgG antibodies in the adjoining village Jivanpara but only one of the buffalo was positive for CCHFV. The Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks were positive in PCR and virus isolation. CCHFV was isolated from the blood sample of case C, E in Vero E-6 cells and Swiss albino mice. In partial nucleocapsid gene phylogeny from CCHFV positive human samples of the years 2010 and 2011, livestock and ticks showed this virus was similar to Tajikistan (strain TAJ/H08966), which belongs in the Asian/middle east genetic lineage IV. Conclusions The likely source of CCHFV was identified as virus infected Hyalomma ticks and livestock at the rural village residence of the primary case (case A). In addition, retrospective sample analysis revealed the existence of CCHFV in Gujarat and Rajasthan states before this outbreak. An indigenous developed IgM ELISA kit will be of great use for screening this virus in India.
Mourya, Devendra T.; Yadav, Pragya D.; Shete, Anita M.; Gurav, Yogesh K.; Raut, Chandrashekhar G.; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Pawar, Shailesh D.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mishra, Akhilesh C.
Twenty micrograms of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) were applied topically to nymphal Hyalomma dromedarii koch on the day of detachment. In emerging adult females, some neurosecretory cells (NSC) in certain synganglion centers exhibited changes in size and/or...
G. M. Khalil A. S. Marzouk Z. E. Darwish
According to literature, ticks Hyalomma plumbeum plumbeum and Haemaphysalis punctata naturally infected with tularemia occur in nature. The authors established that under experimental conditions tick of both species infected in the larval stage could reta...
D. T. Shiryaev S. F. Shevchenko S. A. Tokarev I. M. Orekhova
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus was transmitted from infected adult Hyalomma ticks to uninfected larval and nymphal Hyalomma ticks while cofeeding on a guinea pig host that did not have a detectable viremia. When tested after feeding with inf...
S. W. Gordon K. J. Linthicum J. R. Moulton
Objective To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. Methods In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS. Results A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area. Conclusions Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks.
Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi
A study was carried out on ticks of domestic animals in the Macedonia region of Greece. During 1983-1986, 11,620 tick specimens, belonging to 18 species and subspecies, were collected from cattle, sheep, goats and dogs, in 64 localities throughout Macedonia. Rhipicephalus bursa, the most common tick, and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum occurred in all bioclimatic zones, as well as the two one-host ticks, Boophilus annulatus and H. detritum scupense, which were present in fewer localities. R. turanicus, R. sanguineus, Ixodes gibbosus and H. anatolicum excavatum occurred essentially in the mesomediterranean bioclimatic zone. I. ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis ticks (Hm. inermis, Hm. punctata, Hm. sulcata, Hm. parva) were found frequently in the biotopes of the attenuated mesomediterranean and submediterranean bioclimates. Rhipicephalus adults and the two-host Hyalomma ticks were active in the spring-summer period. Ixodes spp., Haemaphysalis spp., D. marginatus, as well as H. detritum scupense and the immature stages of R. bursa appeared during autumn and winter. Hyalomma and Boophilus ticks fed mainly on cattle. R. sanguineus almost exclusively parasitized dogs, which were also the only hosts from which I. hexagonus has been collected. The infestations were generally weak or moderate. Few heavy infestations were observed on cattle, especially in autumn. Most of the tick species showed a strong preference for some particular sites on the vertebrate body. This predilection could vary according to the host species. PMID:8792578
Papadopoulos, B; Morel, P C; Aeschlimann, A
In connection with the problems of natural focality of hemorrhagic fever, a study was made of the ecology of ticks, Hyalomma plumbeum, the vector of this disease. 187 birds belonging to 44 species were examined for tick-infestation. Of the total number of...
V. V. Berezin
Susceptibility of ticks to Rickettsia prowazekii was tested experimentally. For infection of ticks they were either placed on infected guinea pigs or injected with rickettsia. Ticks H. anatolicum, D. pictus, A canestrinii picked up rickettsia during feedi...
I. M. Grokhovskaya V. F. Ignatovich V. E. Sidorov
Determined were specifially a total of 12,580 Ixodes ticks taken from various farm animals. The seasonal dynamics of the parasites were followed up studying the infection in the farm animals in four communities of the Pazardjik district. It was established that from 50.7 to 60.02 per cent of the ticks belong to the Hyalomma plumbeum species. These parasites were found in 45 communities on the territory of the district excluding its southern high mountainous parts. The H. plumbeum infection in farm animals was found from April to November. Most active and numerous were the parasites in June. In the regions of highest altitudes they were prevailing in July. PMID:1258355
Georgiev, B; Arnaudov, D; Vulchovski, Ia; Petrov, D
Ticks are mites specialized in acquiring blood from vertebrates as their sole source of food and are important disease vectors to humans and animals. Among the specializations required for this peculiar diet, ticks evolved a sophisticated salivary potion that can disarm their host’s hemostasis, inflammation, and immune reactions. Previous transcriptome analysis of tick salivary proteins has revealed many new protein families indicative of fast evolution, possibly due to host immune pressure. The hard ticks (family Ixodidae) are further divided into two basal groups, of which the Metastriata have 11 genera. While salivary transcriptomes and proteomes have been described for some of these genera, no tick of the genus Hyalomma has been studied so far. The analysis of 2,084 expressed sequence tags (EST) from a salivary gland cDNA library allowed an exploration of the proteome of this tick species by matching peptide ions derived from MS/MS experiments to this data set. We additionally compared these MS/MS derived peptide sequences against the proteins from the bovine host, finding many host proteins in the salivary glands of this tick. This annotated data set can assist the discovery of new targets for anti-tick vaccines as well as help to identify pharmacologically active proteins.
Francischetti, Ivo MB; Anderson, Jennifer M; Manoukis, Nicholas; Pham, Van M; Ribeiro, Jose MC
In order to identify antigens that can help prevent camel tick infestations, three major glycoproteins (GLPs) about 97, 66 and 40 kDa in size were purified from adult and larval Egyptian ticks, Hyalomma (H.) dromedarii, using a single-step purification method with Con-A sepharose. The purified GLPs were evaluated as vaccines against camel tick infestation in rabbits. The rabbits received three intramuscular inoculations of GLPs (20 µg/animal) on days 0, 14, and 28. In the immunoblot analysis, Sera from the immunized rabbits recognized the native GLPs and other proteins from larval and adult H. dromedarii ticks along with those from other tick species such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus but not Ornithodoros moubata. The effects of immunity induced by these GLPs were determined by exposing rabbits to adult H. dromedarii ticks. These results demonstrated that GLP immunization led to a slightly decreased reproductive index and significantly reduced rates of egg hatchability. These results demonstrated that immunization with the purified GLPs can provide protection against infestation by H. dromedarii and some other tick species. Further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of immunization with GLPs against other tick species.
El Hakim, Amr E.; Abdel-Shafy, Sobhy; Abouelella, Amira M. K.; Hamed, Ragaa R.
Hyalomma ticks are well-known vectors transmitting infectious agents, which can result in severe and potentially fatal diseases in humans. Migratory birds may carry infected ticks over long distances. Here, we report on records of ticks of the H. marginatum complex in birds from Central Europe during the spring migration in 2008-2012. A total of 1172 birds belonging to 32 species, 16 families, and 3 orders was examined for ticks. Sixteen individuals of 6 passerine species were found to transport 30 ticks, identified as individuals belonging to the H. marginatum species complex (consisting of H. isaaci, H. marginatum sensu stricto, H. rufipes, H. turanicum, and H. glabrum) during 5 spring seasons. Infested bird species included the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus, the Eurasian reed warbler A. scirpaceus, the marsh warbler A. palustris, the sedge warbler A. schoenobaenus, Savi's warbler Locustella luscinioides, and the common nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos. All of these Central European breeders are migratory species wintering in Africa. To our knowledge, this is the first study to record ticks of the H. marginatum complex on the great reed warbler and Savi's warbler. PMID:24877976
Capek, Miroslav; Literak, Ivan; Kocianova, Elena; Sychra, Oldrich; Najer, Tomas; Trnka, Alfred; Kverek, Pavel
This study was undertaken in two different climatic areas of Turkey to determine the presence of tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. The ticks were removed from humans, pooled according to species and developmental stages, and analyzed by PCR, reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing. Of the 2333 removed ticks from 10 species, 1238 (53.06%) were obtained from the arid cold zone, and the remaining 1095 (46.93%) were obtained from the humid zone. The removed ticks were identified as Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma detritum, Hyalomma excavatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis sulcata, Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis and Ixodes spp. nymphs. The dominant species was I. ricinus (61.27%) in the humid zone, whereas the Haemaphysalis spp. nymph dominated (30.29%) in the arid zone. Infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 169 pools tested, 49 (28.99%) were found to be infected with the pathogens, and the overall MLE of the infection rate was calculated as 2.44% (CI 1.88-3.17). The MLE of the infection varied among tick species, ranging from 0.85% (CI 0.23-2.34) in Haemaphysalis spp. nymph to 17.93% (CI 6.94-37.91) in D. marginatus. Pathogens identified in ticks included Theileria annulata, Babesia ovis, Babesia crassa, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma ovis, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon felis. Most tick pools were infected with a single pathogen. However, four pools infected with H. canis displayed infections with B. crassa, A. phagocytophilum and E. canis. The sequencing indicated that Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. was 100% identical to the sequence of Ehrlichia sp. Firat 2 and 3 previously identified from Hyalomma anatolicum. PMID:24424312
In two surveys conducted from March 1999 to March 2001 and from January 2004 to December 2006, a total of 3,950 ticks (belonging to ten different species) were collected from seven domestic and wild animals (goat, sheep, cattle, dog, fox, hare, and mouflon) from different localities throughout Cyprus. In order to establish their infection rate with Spotted Fever Rickettsiae (SFG), ticks were pooled and tested by polymerase chain reaction targeting gltA and ompA genes, followed by sequencing analysis. When tick pools tested positive, individual ticks were then tested one by one, and of the 3,950 ticks screened, rickettsial DNA was identified in 315 ticks (infection rate, 8%). Five SFG Rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, Rickettsia massiliae in Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rickettsia sibirica mongolotimonae in Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, and a Rickettsia endosymbiont of Haemaphysalis sulcata (later described as Rickettsia hoogstraalii) in Haemaphysalis punctata. Two additional genes, 17 kDa and ompB, were targeted to characterize a new genotype of "Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae" genotype in R. turanicus, designated here as "Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae" Cretocypriensis. These results confirm the presence of a spectrum of SFG Rickettsiae on the island. Further studies are necessary to gain better knowledge on the epidemiology of SFG Rickettsiae in Cyprus. PMID:21833539
Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Ioannou, Ioannis; Sandalakis, Vassilios; Dimitriou, Theodoros; Kassinis, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Byron; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna
The prevalence of Theileria spp. infection was studied in sheep in the South Khorasan province in Iran from 2003 to 2004. A total of 840 sheep from 34 flocks were clinically examined and investigated for the presence of Theileria spp. in the appropriate blood smears and any tick species on the body of the animals. In this study, 11.9% of sheep were infected with Theileria spp., with a parasitemia of 0.02-0.1%. Differences in the infection rates were statistically significant among different areas of the South Khorasan province. The highest prevalence was found in the Ferdows area (31.4%) and the lowest rate in the Nehbandan area (0.7%). The prevalence of Theileria spp. infection in males and females and between different age groups of sheep were not statistically significant. Seasonally, the prevalence of Theileria spp. infection in sheep reached its highest level in June (26.3%), whereas it decreased in July and August. It was found that 50.5% of the animals harbored Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 48.5% harboured Hyalomma anatolicum and 0.89% harboured Hyalomma dromedari. PMID:16730905
Razmi, G R; Eshrati, H; Rashtibaf, M
The Cypriot mouflon (Ovis orientalis ophion), a once almost extirpated species of wild sheep, is under strict surveillance because it can be threatened by likely transmission of pathogenic bacteria, such as Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and Coxiella burnetii, primarily from domestic ungulates. We collected 77 blood samples from Cypriot mouflons and 663 of their ectoparasites (Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, Hyalomma marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis sulcata, and Ixodes gibossus) and tested them by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Twenty-three mouflon blood samples (30%) were positive for C. burnetii, 23 (30%) for Rickettsia spp., and 8 (10%) for Anaplasma ovis. Of 109 pools of ectoparasites, 32.1% were positive for C. burnetii, 28.4% for Rickettsia spp., and 10.9% for A. ovis; 11.9% were positive for both C. burnetii and Rickettsia spp., 6.4% for both Rickettsia spp. and A. ovis, and 2.8% for all three pathogens. This is the first survey that records the presence of tick-borne pathogens, both in the Cypriot mouflon and in ticks parasitizing it. PMID:21441182
Ioannou, Ioannis; Sandalakis, Vassilios; Kassinis, Nikos; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Papadopoulos, Byron; Loukaides, Fedias; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna
Eleven virus strains were isolated from ticks Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum Schulce et Schlottke, 1929, and Hyalomma plumbeum plumbeum Panzer, 1796,collected in 1971-1974 in desert regions of the Uzbee S.S.R. and the Turkmen S.S.R. According to CF test the strains were closely related to each other and not antigenically connected with viruses from antigenic groups A, B, California, CHF-Congo, Bakau, Bunyamwera, Gajam, Kaisodi, Qalyub, Kemerovo, Quaranfil, Simbu, Turlock, Hughes, Uukuniemi, Tete and 21 ungrouped viruses isolated from ticks. The virus was named "Tamdy" after the place of isolation of a prototype strain LEIV-1308 Uz. The virus does not agglutinate goose erythrocytes, it is pathogenic for suckling mice and 3 weeks old mice by intracerebral infection. Replication of a virus with CPE in cell cultures--L, Rh, A1--and without CPE--in pig embryo kidney cell cultures--was demonstrated. According to ultrafiltration and electron microscope data the size of the virus is about 90 nm. It is rather sensitive to lipid solvents and is an RNA-virus. Morphologically the virus resembles the Bunyaviridae. PMID:134682
Lvov, D K; Sidorova, G A; Gromashevsky, V L; Kurbanov, M; Skvoztsova, L M; Gofman, Y P; Berezina, L K; Klimenko, S M; Zakharyan, V A; Aristova, V A; Neronov, V M
Hyalomma scupense is a two-host tick infesting mainly cattle representing in North Africa the vector of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection), a major tick-borne disease affecting cattle. Any effective control programme of ticks requires a good knowledge of the biology of the target species. In the present study, three cattle farms in northeast Tunisia were surveyed during the activity seasons for adult and nymphs of Hyalomma scupense. Several indicators were studied, including chronological indicators, infestation prevalence, infestation intensity and feeding predilection sites of the ticks. The adult ticks were present from mid-June to late November. Nymphs were observed on animals from early September to late November. A large proportion of the ticks were attached in the posterior udder quarters: 41% and 64% of adult ticks and nymphs, respectively. The animals that were heavily infested by adult ticks were also heavily infested by nymphs. Moreover, 17% of adult ticks and 53% of nymphs were present on only 5% of cattle population. These data are important for the success of targeted acaricide application leading to a dramatic decrease of acaricide quantity needed for the treatment. When the preferential sites of attachment are known, the effectiveness of manual removal of ticks can be improved. The presence of highly infested animals is to be considered when any control programme is implemented, since these animals harbour a high proportion of the ticks.
Gharbi, Mohamed; Hayouni, Mohamed Ettaieb; Sassi, Limam; Dridi, Walid; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz
Some studies done to date suggest that B-cell inhibitory factor occurred in tick saliva. In this study, a novel protein having B-cell inhibitory activity was purified and characterized from the salivary glands of the hard tick, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. This protein was named B-cell inhibitory factor (BIF). The cDNA encoding BIF was cloned by cDNA library screening. The predicted protein from the cDNA sequence is composed of 138 amino acids including the mature BIF. No similarity was found by Blast search. The lipopolysaccharide-induced B-cell proliferation was inhibited by BIF. This is First report of the identification and characterization of B-cell inhibitory protein from tick. The current study facilitates the study of identifying the interaction among tick, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and host.
Yu Da [Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Life Sciences College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 (China); Department of Life Science and Technology, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Liang Jiangguo [Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Life Sciences College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 (China); Yu Haining [College of Life Sciences, School of Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050016 (China); Wu Haifeng [Simcere Pharmaceutical Group, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210092 (China); Xu Chunhua [Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Life Sciences College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 (China); Liu Jingze [College of Life Sciences, School of Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050016 (China)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Lai Ren [Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Life Sciences College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 (China)]. E-mail: email@example.com
The prevalence of Babesia spp. infection was studied in sheep of the Mashhad area in Iran from 1998 to 2000. A total of 677 sheep originating from 115 flocks were clinically examined and investigated for the presence of Babesia spp. in appropriate blood smears and any tick species on the body of the animals. The study revealed that the infection rate for Babesia ovis and Babesia motasi were 167 (24.6%) and 4 (0.5%), respectively. Double (mixed) infections occurred in 21 (3%) sheep. Differences in infection rates were statistically non-significant between male and female sheep and between different age groups. Seasonally, the prevalence of Babesia spp. infection started to increase in April and reached highest values in August (56%), while a decrease was observed in September, reaching the lowest levels In February and March. The study demonstrated that 1.7% of sheep infected with B. ovis and 50% of sheep infected with B. motasi exhibited clinical signs. Sheep infected with B. motasi showed the highest levels of parasitemia. We found that 550 (73%) of the animals harbored Rhipicephalus sanguineus; 166 (21%) Hyalomma marginatum; 19 (2.5%) Dermacentor daghestanicus; 14 (1.8%) Hyalomma anatolicum; 6 (0.66%) Hyalomma asiaticum; and one (0.13%) Haemaphysalis punctata. The examination of 727 tick haemolymph samples and 52 tick egg smears showed that one sample (0.2%) of haemolymph of R. sanguineus, two (1.2%) haemolymphs of H. marginatum and two (2%) eggs of R. sanguineus harbored kinetes morphologically matching the criteria described for B. ovis. PMID:12208039
Razmi, G R; Naghibi, A; Aslani, M R; Fathivand, M; Dastjerdi, K
Tropical theileriosis has long been recognized as a hindrance to the development of sound dairy industry in the Sudan and is a cause of major economic losses. Serological surveys indicated that Theileria annulata infection is widespread in the country but the disease mostly affects exotic dairy breeds and their crosses with indigenous breeds. The disease has recently been identified in Darfur and southern parts of Blue Nile State in dairy farms around large urban areas where it has never been detected before. These new introductions were accompanied by the establishment of Hyalomma anatolicum tick which is the main vector of the parasite in the Sudan. The disease is routinely diagnosed using microscopic examination of stained blood and lymph node biopsy smears. More advanced techniques are mainly used for research purposes. Tropical theileriosis in the Sudan is mainly controlled by using anti-theilerial drugs and acaricide application. It is recommended that live attenuated schizont vaccines developed from locally isolated T. annulata strains be used to control the disease. In addition, every care should be taken to prevent introduction of the disease into new areas. PMID:22565402
El Hussein, Abdelrahim M; Hassan, Shawgi M; Salih, Diaeldin A
Background: Ticks are hematophagous arthropod belonging to the Class of Arachnids. Ticks are also one of the major vectors of pathogens to animal and human. This study was conducted to determine tick infestation rate of sheep in Abdanan during 2007–2008. Methods: Sampling was performed seasonally in 19 villages during spring 2007 until winter 2008. A total of 1095 sheep were selected and tested for tick infestation. After collection, all ticks were transported to laboratory of Medical Entomology and were identified with appropriate identification keys. Results: Totally, 864 hard ticks were collected. The ticks were classified into two genera and 5 species including: Hyalomma marginatum (44.67%), Hy. anatolicum (43.17%), Hy.asiaticum (6.37%), Hy. dromedarii (5.55%), Heamaphysalis sulcata (0.24%). The highest seasonal activity was observed in spring (36.46 %) and the lowest seasonal was in winter (11.57%). The rate of tick frequency in mountainous region was 48.15% and it was 51.85% in plateau regions. In this study, tick infestation of sheep was 11.41%. Conclusion: Hy.marginatum has the more frequent density in the study area.
Nasiri, A; Telmadarraiy, Z; Vatandoost, H; Chinikar, S; Moradi, M; Oshaghi, MA; Salim abadi, Y; Sheikh, Z
Background South Hungary is being monitored for the northward spreading of thermophilic ixodid species, therefore ticks were collected from cattle and wild ruminants (red, fallow and roe deer) in the autumn of 2011. Findings Besides indigenous species (1185 Dermacentor reticulatus and 976 Ixodes ricinus), two Hyalomma marginatum rufipes males were found on two cows, in September eight days apart. Conclusions This is the northernmost autochthonous infestation of the type host (cattle) with H. m. rufipes, vector of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus. The present findings are suggestive of the moulting success of this Afro-Mediterranean tick species in a continental climate in Central Europe.
It is the first time that Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), causing potentially lethal disease of humans, has been reported from the Middle East region and from the tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium from a tortoise host, whose epidemiological significance may have remained almost completely overlooked so far. We used RT-PCR to screen for 245 ticks collected from 38 Testudo graeca tortoise individuals. Results of our genetic screening provide unambiguous evidence of occurrence of CCHFV in this region and host, suggesting a potentially important role of H. aegyptium in CCHF epidemiology. PMID:24618184
Široký, Pavel; B?lohlávek, Tomáš; Papoušek, Ivo; Jandzik, David; Mikulí?ek, Peter; Kubelová, Michaela; Zdražilová-Dubská, Lenka
Background: Ticks are the main vectors for transmission of different pathogens to human and animals. This survey was performed to find out distribution of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in Yazd Province, central Iran during year 2008–2009. Methods: A total number of 30 villages from both mountainous (20%) and plateau (80%) regions of the province were selected randomly. Ticks were colleted from the body of infested animals and transported to the laboratory of Medical Entomology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and then were identified to space level using valid identification key. Results: A total of 583 hard ticks were collected. The ticks were classified into three genera and 7 species including: Hyalomma dromedarii (55.92%), Hy. marginatum (13.20%), Hy. anatolicum (9.78%), Hy. detritum (4.98%), Hy. asiaticum (3.94%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (11.84%), and Dermacentor marginatus (0.34%). The highest seasonal activities occurred in summer. The prevalence of the Ixodidae ticks was more evident in plateaus area in Yazd Province. Among the hosts including: cow, goat, sheep and camel, the ticks that collected from camel was more prevalent. The ratio of male was more than female ticks. Hyalomma. dromedarii was the predominant tick species and accounted for 55.92% of the ticks. Conclusion: Some of the collected ticks may play an important role for transmission of vector borne disease to human; therefore, the results of this study will provide a clue for vectors of tick-borne diseases in the region for local authorities for implementation of disease control.
Salim abadi, Y; Telmadarraiy, Z; Vatandoost, H; Chinikar, S; Oshaghi, MA; Moradi, M; Mirabzadeh Ardakan, E; Hekmat, S; Nasiri, A
Background Hyalomma aegyptium is a hard-tick with a typical three-host life cycle. The main hosts are Palearctic tortoises of genus Testudo. However, other hosts can be used by immature ticks for feeding in natural conditions. Given this complex ecology and multiple host use, the circulation of pathogens by H. aegyptium between various hosts can be important from epidemiological point of view. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of H. aegyptium as natural carrier of four important zoonotic pathogens. Methods From 2008 to 2011, 448 H. aegyptium ticks were collected from 45 Spur-thighed tortoises, Testudo graeca in Romania. DNA was extracted individually from each tick using a commercial kit. DNA was examined for the presence of specific sequences of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis and Coxiella burnetii by PCR, according to previously described protocols. Results PCR analysis of H. aegyptium revealed the presence of A. phagocytophilum (18.8%), E. canis (14.1%) and C. burnetii (10%). 32.4% of the ticks were infected with at least one pathogen and 9.8% had co-infections. The stages most frequently infected were nymphs (50%) followed by males (33.9%) and females (27%). The number of tortoises which harboured infected ticks was 27/45 examined (60%). From all tested T. graeca, 40% harboured ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum, 46.7% had ticks infected with E. canis and 33.3% had ticks with C. burnetii. This study reports for the first time the presence of A. phagocytophilum and E. canis in H. aegyptium. Conclusions The presence and relatively high prevalence of three important zoonotic pathogens in H. aegyptium raises the question of their epidemiologic importance in disease ecology. As tortoises are unlikely to be reservoir hosts for A. phagocytophilum and E. canis and both these pathogens are common in H. aegyptium, this is an important indication for (1) a possible increased host-switching behaviour of these ticks to competent reservoir hosts (i.e. hedgehogs) and (2) transstadial transmission. Furthermore, if we consider also the presence of C. burnetii, we conclude that T. graeca and its ticks should be evaluated more seriously when assessing the eco-epidemiology of zoonotic diseases.
The ticks Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) impeltatum Schulze & Schlottke, 1930 and H. (E.) somalicum Tonelli Rondelli, 1935 [a species resurrected for "Hyalomma ? species" of Hoogstraal (1956) and H. erythraeum of Kaiser & Hoogstraal (1968)] are tentatively considered to belong to the H. (E.) asiaticum group of closely related species. Amongst other features that are fairly similar, males of H. impeltatum can be distinguished from those of H. somalicum by the oval posterior margin of the conscutum, a narrow, subtriangular parma, the lack of ventral sclerotised plaques on median, paramedian and 4th festoons, and an incomplete to complete ivory-coloured stripe on the dorsal aspect of the leg segments; whereas males of H. somalicum have a broad but only slightly convex posterior conscutal margin, in most cases no parma, well-developed sclerotised ventral plaques on all festoons, and only a small ivory-coloured spot on the dorsal aspect of the leg segments. Females of H. impeltatum can be distinguished from those of H. somalicum by the bulging rather than flat preatrial fold of the genital aperture. All parasitic stages of both ticks are illustrated and redescribed, and the characteristics that distinguish the adults from those of other closely related species are detailed. Larger domestic and wild ungulates are the principal hosts of the adults of both ticks. Nymphs and larvae of H. impeltatum parasitise rodents, leporids, birds and lizards, whereas the hosts of the immature stages of H. somalicum are unknown. H. impeltatum is widely distributed in Africa north of the equator, Arabia, the Near East and south-western part of Central Asia; in contrast, H. somalicum has a more limited distribution in East Africa and possibly the Arabian Peninsular. Data on their possible disease relationships are also provided. PMID:19472079
Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Horak, Ivan G
Identification of cross-protective tick vaccine antigens is a challenging area of veterinary research. To address this challenge, a recently identified candidate tick protective antigen, Subolesin (SUB), was targeted in this research. The conservation of subolesin ortholog of Hyalomma anatolicum and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus across different Indian strains was 98.1-99.4% (within species), while at the amino acid level SUB sequence homology was ?53.2% (between tick species). Recombinant R. (B.) microplus SUB (rBmSu) was produced in Escherichia coli and characterized. Cross-bred cattle male calves (N=10) were immunized with three doses of 100?g each of the rBmSu emulsified in 10% Montanide 888 at monthly intervals on days 0, 30 and 60. The control group was injected with PBS in 10% Montanide 888. For the first tick challenge, calves were infested with larvae of R. (B.) microplus generated from 100mg eggs 2 weeks after last immunization (day 75). The immunization resulted in 16.3%, 8.0%, 9.4%, and 26.1% reduction in female tick numbers (DT), weight (DW), oviposition (DO) and egg fertility (DF), respectively, when compared to controls. In the subsequent challenge on day 105, DT, DW, DO and DF were reduced by 9.0%, 4.1%, 8.6%, and 24.2%, respectively, when compared to controls. The vaccine efficacy (E) was equal to 44.0% and 37.2% after the first and second challenges, respectively. The results showed a positive correlation between antibody titers for both total IgG and IgG1 and E in the second but not in the first tick challenge. These results suggested the possibility of developing a SUB-based vaccine for control of cattle tick infestations under Indian conditions. PMID:24795229
Shakya, Mukesh; Kumar, Binod; Nagar, Gaurav; de la Fuente, José; Ghosh, Srikanta
On the reaction of adult Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus and Hyalomma truncatum to horizontally incidenting optical radiation of various wavelengths ranges and different irradiances and to optical radiation of a sun-simulating wavelength spectrum.
The valence of horizontally incidenting light/optical radiation for host-seeking-inclined ixodid ticks was investigated by exposing male and female adults of Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus and Hyalomma truncatum to narrow-band monochromatic radiation in the wavelength range of 300-801 nm at irradiances corresponding to an overcast to clear sunny day, a cloudy day and a full-moon night as well as to optical radiation of a sun-simulating wavelength spectrum of 190-2600 nm within a test chamber from which other stimuli were excluded. It was demonstrated that independent of sex, adult ticks of R. e. mimeticus and H. truncatum responded to a wide wavelength spectrum in the visible and UV range, even at irradiances corresponding to a full-moon night. Interspecific differences existed in the degree and extent of the response as well as in the spectral sensitivity. Ticks of H. truncatum consistently showed a faster and stronger response and reacted phototactically positively in higher percentages than adults of R. e. mimeticus. Independent of wavelength range and irradiance, predominantly only few R. e. mimeticus ticks were stimulated to positive phototaxis, whereas at least 33.3% (in most cases, 50%) and maximally greater than 80% of H. truncatum adults reacted phototactically positively. Spectral sensitivity maxima were demonstrated at the yellow and red light and at the UV-A waveband width for R. e. mimeticus and at the violet, blue, green and yellow light wavelength for H. truncatum. With decreasing irradiance, the spectral sensitivity shifted to the blue wavelength range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1866424
Leuterer, G; Gothe, R
We compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western Palearctic (11°W, 45°E; 29°N, 71°N), published during 1970-2010. The literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. Records from some curated collections were included. We focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. bursa, and the R. sanguineus group. A few records of other species (I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, Hy. impeltatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. excavatum, Hy. scupense) were also included. A total of 10,280 records was included in the data set. Almost 42 % of published references are not adequately referenced (and not included in the data set), host is reported for only 61 % of records and a reference to time of collection is missed for 84 % of published records. Ixodes ricinus accounted for 44.3 % of total records, with H. marginatum and D. marginatus accounting for 7.1 and 8.1 % of records, respectively. The lack of homogeneity of the references and potential pitfalls in the compilation were addressed to create a digital data set of the records of the ticks. We attached to every record a coherent set of quantitative descriptors for the site of reporting, namely gridded interpolated monthly climate and remotely sensed data on vegetation (NDVI). We also attached categorical descriptors of the habitat: a standard classification of land biomes and an ad hoc classification of the target territory from remotely sensed temperature and NDVI data. A descriptive analysis of the data revealed that a principal components reduction of the environmental (temperature and NDVI) variables described the distribution of the species in the target territory. However, categorical descriptors of the habitat were less effective. We stressed the importance of building reliable collections of ticks with specific references as to collection point, host and date of capture. The data set is freely downloadable. PMID:22843316
Estrada-Peńa, A; Farkas, Robert; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Koenen, Frank; Madder, Maxime; Pascucci, Ilaria; Salman, Mo; Tarrés-Call, Jordi; Jongejan, Frans
Electrophoretic seed protein patterns of a number of accessions of Salicornia europaea L. sl., S. prostrata Palas, S. fragilis P.W. Ball and Tutin, Sarcocornia fruticosa (L.) A. J. Scott, Sarcocornia perennis (Miller.) A. J. Scott, Arthrocnemum glaucum (Del.) Ung.-Sternb., Microcnemum coralloides (Loscos and Pardo) subsp. anatolicum Wagenitz and Halocnemum strobilaceum (Pall.) Bieb. were electrophoretically analysed on SDS-PAGE. In total 48 different bands were identified. The obtained data have been treated numerically using the cluster analysis method of unweighted pair group (UPGMA). Finally it was determined that all species separated according to seed protein profiles. And the cladogram obtained studied taxa have been given. PMID:19086564
Yaprak, A E; Yurdakulol, E
Babesia sp. Xinjiang was isolated from a splenectomised sheep infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Hylomma anatolicum anatolicum, collected from sheep and cattle in Xinjiang province. It was considered to be a novel ovine Babesia species on the basis of its morphology, pathogenicity, vector tick species and alignments of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) gene sequences. Continuous in vitro cultures of the ovine parasite were established using infected sheep blood. In RPMI 1640 medium with 7.5% sheep red blood cells (RBCs) maintained in an incubator at 37 °C and 5% CO(2), the percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE) peaked at 10% in 24- and 6-well plates. It increased to 20-50% with the same culture medium but with 2.5% RBC in 75 cm(2) flasks. Two clonal lines of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were screened using the limiting dilution method. Growth characteristics of these lines in vitro were measured by a microtiter-based spectrophotometric method and from the PPE. The generation time in sheep erythrocytes was between 15.20 h and 16.27 h. Furthermore, the host range of parasite was identified with in vitro culture and in vivo infection. Erythrocytes of sheep, cattle, sika deer and humans could be invaded into by lines in vitro, but the parasites could not propagate in human erythrocytes. The parasites could not enter erythrocytes from goats in vitro. However, in vivo, only sheep could be infected by lines. Finally, a Babesia sp. Xinjiang-like parasite (which shared 99.5% identity with the original strain of Babesia sp. Xinjiang) was isolated using this in vitro culture system from 1 of 19 sheep blood samples collected from western Gansu province, China. PMID:22386948
Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Liu, Aihong; Du, Pengfei; Ren, Qiaoyun; Li, Youquan; Wang, Jinming; Liu, Zhijie; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun
This investigation was carried out to compare the effects of repeated infestations versus immunization of rabbits with tick larvae protein fraction 2 (LPF2), eggs protein fraction 2 (EPF2) or salivary gland protein fraction 2 (SGPF2) on the feeding and performances of female ticks. In each immunized group, three tick-naive rabbits were immunized three times with either LPF2, EPF2 or SGPF2
Salwa M. Habeeb; Omnia M. Kandil; Amira H. El-Namaky
A comparative study of immunochemical properties of a preparation of the virion antigen of a variant of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus adapted to H. plumbeum ticks (clone 718/574) and the parental TBE strain revealed the following features: (1) immunoelectrodiffusion test revealed no immunoprecipitation rockets directed towards cathode in the clone 718/574 preparation; anodic precipitates differed in shape from those of the parental strain; (2) diffuse precipitation in agar showed a reaction of incomplete identity between the virion antigen of clone 718/574 and the parental strain antigen, the clone 718/574 antigen forming only one precipitation band in contrast to two precipitation bands of the parental strain; (3) immune electron microscopy demonstrated a peculiar nature of the halo-overlay by immunoglobulins of clone 718/574 virions differing from that of the parental strain. PMID:3962290
Dzhivanian, T I; Chunikhin, S P; Lisak, V M; Kashtanova, G M; Korolev, M B
We report on the identification of two new Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) found in three different tick species from Bulgaria. The FLEs were characterized by 16S rRNA and tul4 gene sequencing and seem to lack the molecular marker RD1. These two new taxa seem to be facultative secondary endosymbionts of ticks.
Ivanov, Ivan N.; Mitkova, Nadia; Reye, Anna L.; Hubschen, Judith M.; Vatcheva-Dobrevska, Rossitza S.; Dobreva, Elina G.; Kantardjiev, Todor V.; Muller, Claude P.
The work was directed toward exploring the role of birds as hosts of immature H. plumbeum. Material was gathered in Astrakhan Oblast, in the lower and middle Volga delta regions, where in the summer period of 1963-1964 and antiepidemic team investigating ...
V. V. Berezin T. P. Povalishina R. M. Ermakova D. N. Stolbov
Contents: Isolation of West Nile virus strains from Hyalomma plumbeum plumbeum Panz ticks; Serologic identification of the Astrakhan tik strains of West Nile virus; Isolation of still another West Nile virus strain from Hyalomma plumbeum plumbeum Panz tic...
M. P. Chumakov
[The isolation of Dhori viruses (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) from the hare (Lepus europaeus) and its ticks Hyalomma marginatum in the middle zone of the Volga delta, Astrakhan region, 2001].
In August, 2001, in the middle zone of the delta of the Volga River, the Astrakhan region, during investigation of the natural foci of West Nile fever and Crimean--Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), the material from the hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas, 1778 (Lagomorpha, Leporidae) and collected from it the ticks Hyalomna marginatum Koch 1844, was obtained. 4 strains of Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) and 2 strains of CCHF virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) were isolated. This is the first isolation of Thogotovirus genus virus from the wild vertebrates. Considering the overlap of the Dhori virus and CCHF virus areas, similar ecology and the isolation both viruses from the same pool of the ticks, the necessity for the use of the test-system for indication of the viruses, differential diagnosis and accumulation of the data concerning the role of Dhori virus in the human and farm animals pathology is discussed. PMID:12271723
L'vov, D N; Dzharkenov, A F; Aristova, V A; Kovtunov, A I; Gromashevski?, V L; Vyshemirski?, O I; Galkina, I V; Larichev, V F; Butenko, A M; L'vov, D K
Hemorrhagic fever is a highly contagious and acute disease caused by filterable viruses. The carrier (vector) of the virus and its transmitter is a small, brown coloured ixodid Hyalomma plumbeum plumbeum tick. The disease is communicated to man through th...
V. D. Perelatov V. N. Lazarev
Peculiarities of nutrition and its influence on spermatogenesis in Ixodes ricinus L., Hyalomma plumbeum Panz., Rhipicephalus turanicus B. Pom., Dermacentor pictus Herm., and Haemaphysalis punctata Can. and Fanz., are described. Hungry ticks were placed on...
Y. S. Balashov
Among ixodid ticks of plantation forests the following species were widespread: I. ricinus, R. rossicus, and D. marginatus, which have a broad ecological and geographical distribution. The presence of Hyalomma plumbeum and Haemaphysalis punctata was recor...
S. M. Brovko
Evidence of the existence of (an) ecdysteroid(s) in the ticks Dermacentor variabilis (Sav) and Hyalomma dromedarii Koch is presented. Radioimmunoassay demonstrated ecdysteroids in unfed adults and different physiological states of the immatures. X-ray mic...
D. E. Sonenshine P. J. Homsher J. H. Oliver
The ticks removed from the patients who applied to the hospitals in Istanbul and neighboring cities, Turkey, with the complaint of tick bite were examined in this study, on account of their species, biological stages, attachment sites on the body, and the age of the affected patients. A total of 16,969 ticks were identified. Encountered species were as follows: 33.6 % Ixodes spp. immature, 25.3 % Hyalomma spp. immature, 24.3 % I. ricinus, 9.5 % Rhipicephalus sanguineus gr., 3.2 % R. bursa, 2.2 % Hyalomma marginatum, 1.96 % Haemaphysalis adults, 1.66 % Hyalomma aegyptium, 0.52 % Dermacentor marginatus, 0.39 % Rhipicephalus spp. nymphs, 0.12 % Dermacentor spp. nymphs, 0.11 % Haemaphysalis spp. nymphs, 0.09 % Hyalomma scupense, and 0.03 % Hyalomma excavatum. The distribution of attachment sites of the species and instars showed significant differences. Furthermore, age data of the patients also revealed that certain tick species were more common within certain age groups. PMID:23620419
Kar, S; Dervis, E; Ak?n, A; Ergonul, O; Gargili, A
One hundred twenty-six ticks belonging to 12 tick species were collected from humans, domestic and wild animals, and from the ground as unfed (questing ticks) from distinct localities in Turkey in 2011. Ticks were individually tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Rickettsia spp., amplifying citrate synthase (gltA), and outer membrane protein (ompA) genes. Twenty-five ticks (19.8%) were found to be infected with Rickettsia species. Five SFG rickettsiae were identified, including 4 pathogens: Ri. aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. aegyptium, Hyalomma sp. (nymph), and Rhipicephalus turanicus; Ri. africae in Hy. excavatum, Hy. aegyptium, and Hyalomma sp. (nymph); Ri. slovaca and Ri. raoultii in Dermacentor marginatus; and one species with unknown pathogenicity, Ri. hoogstraalii, in Haemaphysalis parva. Rickettsia slovaca and Ri. hoogstraalii were reported for the first time from Turkey. In addition, Ri. hoogstraalii and Ri. africae were detected for the first time in Ha. parva and Hy. excavatum ticks, respectively. PMID:24355764
Orkun, Ömer; Karaer, Zafer; Çakmak, Ay?e; Nalbanto?lu, Serpil
A study on tick fauna and tick-borne pathogens was undertaken in Pianosa, an island in the Tuscany Archipelago that constitutes an important stopping and nesting point for migratory birds. Ticks were removed from feral cats and a few terrestrial birds, and host-seeking ticks were collected by dragging. A total of 89 ticks were found on animals: 57 Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado, 1936 and 32 Ixodes acuminatus Neumann, 1901. Host-seeking ticks were 354 Hyalomma spp. larvae and 18 Hyalomma spp. adults, identified as Hyalomma marginatum C.L. Koch, 1844 (n=11) and 7 Hyalomma detritum Schulze, 1919 (n=7). A sample of adult ticks was subjected to molecular analyses to look for Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Sequence analysis of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region and OspA gene of B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive samples showed the presence of Borrelia spielmanii (n=3; 3.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-10.4) and Borrelia valaisiana (n=13; 13.6%, 95% CI 7.0-23.0) in Ixodes ticks from cats and terrestrial birds. Ixodes spp. were also infected by Rickettsia helvetica (n=19; 23.4%, 95% CI 14.7-34.2). Finally, we detected Rickettsia aeschlimannii in 3 out of 12 host-seeking Hyalomma spp. adults tested (25%, 95% CI 5.5-57.2). Our study shows the presence of several tick-borne pathogens in Pianosa. Hyalomma spp. and Ixodes ticks other than I. ricinus seem to be involved in their epidemiological cycle, and birds could contribute to the pathogen dispersal along their migration routes. This is the first finding of B. spielmanii in Italy. We hypothesize the involvement of peridomestic rodents or hedgehogs in its maintenance in Pianosa. PMID:23289398
Tomassone, L; Grego, E; Auricchio, D; Iori, A; Giannini, F; Rambozzi, L
The vector of CHF in Astrakhan Oblast, as in Crimea, proved to be Hyalomma pl. plumbeum Panz. ticks. The most important role in feeding immature stages of this tick belongs to rooks. Rooks are very numerous in regions with CHF incidence in Astrakhan Oblas...
Y. V. Zimina N. V. Birulya L. I. Zlutskaya T. P. Povalishina D. N. Stolbov
The paper describes 13 teratological cases of anomalies in the morphology of exotic ticks from three species: Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum and Hyalomma aegyptium. The ticks parasitized reptiles (Python regius, Varanus exanthematicus, Testudo marginata), that were imported into Poland from Africa and suthern Europe for the purpose of breeding in terraria. General anomalies were found that were related to the
A tick population was monitored on 30 camels (Camelus dromedarius) over one year in Kairouan region, Central Tunisia. A total of 1630 ticks was collected and identified resulting in an estimate of different parasitological indicators. The ticks belonged to 2 genera and 5 species: Hyalomma impeltatum (53%) and Hyalomma dromedarii (45%) were the dominant species followed by Hyalomma excavatum (1%), Hyalomma marginatum (0.5%), and Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.5%) (p<0.001). Mean infestation prevalence was 90.6%; all the animals were infested by at least one tick from May to September. The highest mean prevalence was observed in H. impeltatum (60%), the lowest was reported in R. turanicus (0.03%) (p<0.05). Mean overall intensity of infestation was 4.4 ticks/animal. The highest mean intensity was observed in H. impeltatum (2.7 ticks/animal). Overall mean abundance of ticks was 4.4 ticks/animal. Different abiotic factors, namely monthly mean minimum and monthly mean maximum temperatures and the number of sunny days were positively correlated with overall monthly tick burdens which were in turn negatively correlated with the monthly mean relative humidity. This is the first study on camel tick dynamics in Tunisia. PMID:23999226
Gharbi, Mohamed; Moussi, Nawfel; Jedidi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Sassi, Limam; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz
The world's argasid tick fauna comprises 183 species in four genera, namely Argas, Carios, Ornithodoros and Otobius in the family Argasidae. The ixodid tick fauna consists of 241 species in the genus Ixodes and 442 species in the genera Amblyomma, Anomalohimalaya, Bothriocroton, Cosmiomma, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Margaropus, Nosomma, Rhipicentor and Rhipicephalus in the family Ixodidae, with the genus Boophilus becoming
Ivan G. Horak; Jean-Louis Camicas; James E. Keirans
Between May and July 1963, cases of CHF were recorded for the first time in Rostov Oblast. Most of the cases of illness were associated with tickbite or squashing of adult ticks of the species Hyalomma plumbeum plumbeum. Of the 12 patients: 9 were milkmai...
S. N. Pokrovskii V. D. Perelatov G. M. Popov N. B. Birulya L. I. Zalutskaya
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is caused by Nairovirus, genus Bunyavirus in family of bunyaviridae, and is spread by the tick Hyalomma spp or via blood transfusion and contaminated blood of human and animal. CCHF virus infection was rarely reported in Iran before 1999. From January 1st 1999 to October 1st 2002 nearly 144 confirmed sporadic CCHF cases reported from many
Ali Mehrabi-Tavana; Sadegh Chinikar DVM; Vahideh Mazaheri
A study was carried out on ticks of domestic animals in the Macedonia region of Greece. During 1983–1986, 11 620 tick specimens, belonging to 18 species and subspieces, were collected from cattle, sheep, goats and dogs, in 64 localities throughout Macedonia.Rhipicephalus bursa, the most common tick, and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum occurred in all bioclimatic zones, as well as the two
Byron Papadopoulos; Pierre Claude Morel; André Aeschlimann
The role of migratory birds in circulation tick-borne viruses needs to be better defined. In order to assess the potential role of migratory birds in exotic virus spread, we conducted a study to identify ticks collected from migratory birds in the Central Region of Italy, and performed molecular investigation for Crimea-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHFV), West Nile fever (WNFV) and Usutu (USUV) in the vectors. A total of 137 competent ticks were collected with predominance of Hyalomma species. Although, negative results were obtained for all viruses considered, the high proportion of Hyalomma ticks highlights the potential risk for the dissemination of tick-borne viruses through infested migratory birds. PMID:24177308
Mancini, Fabiola; Toma, Luciano; Ciervo, Alessandra; Di Luca, Marco; Faggioni, Giovanni; Lista, Forigio; Resta, Giovanni
The tick species infesting grazing animals in the countryside of 11 prefectures in Northern Greece were investigated during April-July and September-December of consecutive years 2003-2006. A total of 3,249 (1,952 males, 1,297 females) adult ticks were collected from goats, sheep, cattle and dogs. Ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus (44.57%), Ixodes gibbosus (4.09%), Rhipicephalus bursa (19.14%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus (5.79%), Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (12.40%), Dermacentor marginatus (0.31%) and Boophilus annulatus (4.43%). Rhipicephalus spp. and Hyalomma spp. were abundant in all prefectures, Ixodes spp. were present in 9/11 prefectures, Boophilus spp. in 4/11, while Dermacentor spp. were found only in one. Results of this study give an insight into the ecology of ticks and their potential of tick-borne diseases in the country. PMID:18563592
Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Gerou, Spyros; Kahrimanidou, Melania; Papa, Anna
This work is an updated revision of the available information on Portuguese ixodid tick species. It includes data on tick\\u000a biology, ecology, taxonomy and host\\/pathogen-associations. The current list of Portuguese ixodid ticks comprises twenty species:\\u000a Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer, 1776), Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794), Haemaphysalis hispanica Gil Collado, 1938, Haemaphysalis inermis Birula, 1895, Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini & Fanzago, 1878, Hyalomma lusitanicum
M. M. Santos-Silva; L. Beati; A. S. Santos; R. De Sousa; M. S. Núncio; P. Melo; M. Santos-Reis; C. Fonseca; P. Formosinho; C. Vilela; F. Bacellar
The mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequences of the following eight European Metastriata tick species were obtained by direct\\u000a polymerase-chain-reaction cycle sequencing and silver-staining methods: Rhipicephalus bursa, R. pusillus, R. sanguineus, R. turanicus, Boophilus annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, and Hyalomma lusitanicum. This mitochondrial gene seems to be a good marker for the establishment of genetic relationships among closely related tick
A. J. Mangold; M. D. Bargues; S. Mas-Coma
The complete 18S rRNA gene sequences of the following six European hard-tick species were obtained by direct PCR cycle sequencing\\u000a and silver-staining methods: Rhipicephalus pusillus, Boophilus annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma lusitanicum, Haemaphysalis punctata, and Ixodes ricinus. Differences observed in the sequence alignment of these six species together with the 18S rRNA gene sequences of 13 other\\u000a hard-tick species demonstrate that
A. J. Mangold; M. D. Bargues; S. Mas-Coma
Dermacentor raskemensis and Haemaphysalis pospelovashtromae were first recorded from the West Pamirs in the flood-land of the Gunt river at the height of 2700 m above the sea level. The ticks were collected from sheep, on which in addition to the above species D. marginatus was found. In the Rushansk region of the Mountain-Badakhshan district at the height of 2100 to 2300 m Rhipicephalus pumilio, R. turanicus and Hyalomma plumbeum were collected from domestic sheep and goats. PMID:2950368
Voltsit, O V; L'vov, D K
Summary. The large (L) RNA segment of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus strain AST\\/TI30908, isolated from pooled Hyalomma marginatum ticks collected in 2002 from the Astrakhan region of European Russia, was amplified piecemeal using reverse-transcription\\/polymerase\\u000a chain reaction, followed by direct sequencing of gel-purified amplicons. After removal of 5? and 3? primer-generated termini,\\u000a the assembled AST\\/TI30908 L segment sequence is 12112
J. D. Meissner; S. S. Seregin; S. V. Seregin; N. V. Yakimenko; O. I. Vyshemirskii; S. V. Netesov; V. S. Petrov
BackgroundIn January 2011, human cases with hemorrhagic manifestations in the hospital staff were reported from a tertiary care hospital in Ahmadabad, India. This paper reports a detailed epidemiological investigation of nosocomial outbreak from the affected area of Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India.Principal FindingsSamples from 3 suspected cases, 83 contacts, Hyalomma ticks and livestock were screened for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus by
Devendra T. Mourya; Pragya D. Yadav; Anita M. Shete; Yogesh K. Gurav; Chandrashekhar G. Raut; Ramesh S. Jadi; Shailesh D. Pawar; Stuart T. Nichol; Akhilesh C. Mishra
The objective of this study was to assess the host status of the three largest southern African wild ruminants, namely giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis, African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, and eland, Taurotragus oryx for ixodid ticks. To this end recently acquired unpublished data are added here to already published findings on the tick burdens of these animals, and the total numbers and species of ticks recorded on 12 giraffes, 18 buffaloes and 36 eland are summarized and discussed. Twenty-eight ixodid tick species were recovered. All stages of development of ten species, namely Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Haemaphysalis silacea, Ixodes pilosus group, Margaropus winthemi, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum, Rhipicephalus maculatus and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected. The adults of 13 species, of which the immature stages use small mammals as hosts, namely Haemaphysalis aciculifer, Hyalomma glabrum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Ixodes rubicundus, Rhipicephalus capensis, Rhipicephalus exophthalmos, Rhipicephalus follis, Rhipicephalus gertrudae, Rhipicephalus lounsburyi, Rhipicephalus lunulatus, Rhipicephalus pravus group and Rhipicephalus simus, were also collected. PMID:17933365
Horak, I G; Golezardy, H; Uys, A C
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a tick-borne member of the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. CCHF virus has been isolated from at least 31 different species of ticks. The virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick or by direct contact with CCHF virus-infected patients or the products of infected livestock. This study was conducted to determine the rate of CCHF virus infection in ticks in the district of Zahedan, in the province of Sistan and Baluchistan, southeastern Iran. A total of 140 ticks were collected from Sistan and Baluchistan. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the detection of the CCHF virus genome in the tick population. This genome was detected in 4.3% of ticks collected from livestock of different regions of Zahedan. The infected tick genera belonged to Hyalomma and Haemaphysalis. Although in the epidemiology of CCHF virus Hyalomma ticks are considered to be the most important vectors and reservoirs, the virus has also been reported to occur in other genera of ticks, which conforms to the current data in our study from Sistan and Baluchistan. Given that animals are common hosts for Hyalomma and Haemaphysalis, regular monitoring programmes for livestock should be applied for CCHF virus control. PMID:23238248
Mehravaran, Ahmad; Moradi, Maryam; Telmadarraiy, Zakyeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Moradi, Ali Reza; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman; Varaie, Fereshteh Sadat Rasi; Jalali, Tahmineh; Hekmat, Soheila; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Chinikar, Sadegh
There are numerous discrepancies in recent published lists of the ticks of the world. Here we review the controversial names, presenting evidence for or against their validity and excluding some altogether. We also address spelling errors and present a list of 17 species described or resurrected during the years 2003-2008. We consider the following 35 tick species names to be invalid: Argas fischeri Audouin, 1826, Ornithodoros boliviensis Kohls and Clifford, 1964, Ornithodoros steini (Schulze, 1935), Amblyomma acutangulatum Neumann, 1899, Amblyomma arianae Keirans and Garris, 1986, Amblyomma bibroni (Gervais, 1842), Amblyomma colasbelcouri (Santos Dias, 1958), Amblyomma concolor Neumann, 1899, Amblyomma cooperi Nuttall and Warburton, 1908, Amblyomma curruca Schulze, 1936, Amblyomma cyprium Neumann, 1899, Amblyomma decorosum (Koch, 1867), Amblyomma nocens Robinson, 1912, Amblyomma perpunctatum (Packard, 1869), Amblyomma striatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma superbum Santos Dias, 1953, Amblyomma testudinis (Conil, 1877), Amblyomma trinitatis Turk, 1948, Dermacentor confractus (Schulze 1933), Dermacentor daghestanicus Olenev, 1928, Haemaphysalis himalaya Hoogstraal, 1966, Haemaphysalis vietnamensis Hoogstraal and Wilson, 1966, Hyalomma detritum Schulze, 1919, Ixodes apteridis Maskell, 1897, Ixodes donarthuri Santos Dias, 1980, Ixodes kempi Nuttall, 1913, Ixodes neotomae Cooley, 1944, Ixodes rangtangensis Teng, 1973, Ixodes robertsi Camicas, Hervy, Adam and Morel, 1998, Ixodes serrafreirei Amorim, Gazetta, Bossi and Linhares, 2003, Ixodes tertiarius Scudder, 1885, Ixodes uruguayensis Kohls and Clifford, 1967, Ixodes zealandicus Dumbleton, 1961, Ixodes zumpti Arthur, 1960 and Rhipicephalus camelopardalis Walker and Wiley, 1959. We consider the following 40 names valid: Argas delicatus Neumann, 1910, Argas vulgaris Filippova, 1961, Ornithodoros aragaoi Fonseca, 1960, Ornithodoros dugesi Mazzoti, 1943, Ornithodoros knoxjonesi Jones and Clifford, 1972, Ornithodoros marocanus Velu, 1919, Ornithodoros nattereri Warburton, 1927, Amblyomma beaurepairei Vogelsang and Santos Dias, 1953, Amblyomma crassipes (Neumann, 1901), Amblyomma echidnae Roberts, 1953, Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907, Amblyomma orlovi (Kolonin, 1995), Amblyomma parkeri Fonseca and Aragăo, 1952, Amblyomma pseudoconcolor Aragăo, 1908, Bothriocroton oudemansi (Neumann, 1910), Bothriocroton tachyglossi (Roberts, 1953), Dermacentor abaensis Teng, 1963, Dermacentor confragus (Schulze 1933), Dermacentor ushakovae Filippova and Panova, 1987, Haemaphysalis anomaloceraea Teng, 1984, Haemaphysalis filippovae Bolotin, 1979, Haemaphysalis pavlovskyi Pospelova-Shtrom, 1935, Hyalomma excavatum Koch, 1844, Hyalomma isaaci Sharif, 1928, Hyalomma rufipes Koch, 1844, Hyalomma turanicum Pomerantzev, 1946, Ixodes arabukiensis Arthur, 1959, Ixodes boliviensis Neumann, 1904, Ixodes columnae Takada and Fujita, 1992, Ixodes maslovi Emel'yanova and Kozlovskaya, 1967, Ixodes sachalinensis Filippova, 1971, Ixodes siamensis Kitaoka and Suzuki, 1983, Ixodes sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin, 1976, Ixodes succineus Weidner, 1964, Rhipicephalus aurantiacus Neumann, 1907, Rhipicephalus cliffordi Morel, 1965, Rhipicephalus pilans Schulze, 1935, Rhipicephalus pseudolongus Santos Dias, 1953, Rhipicephalus serranoi Santos Dias, 1950 and Rhipicephalus tetracornus Kitaoka and Suzuki, 1983. PMID:19169832
Guglielmone, Alberto A; Robbins, Richard G; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Petney, Trevor N; Estrada-Peńa, Agustín; Horak, Ivan G
Ticks collected in Northern Algeria between May 2001 and November 2003 were tested by PCR for the presence of Rickettsia spp. DNA using primer amplifying gltA and OmpA genes. Three different spotted fever group rickettsias were amplified from these ticks: R. Conorii subsp. P. conorii strain Malish in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum, and R. massiliae in Rhipicephalus turanicus. Our results confirm the presence of R. conorii in ticks in Algeria and provide the first detection of R. aeschlimannii and R. massiliae in Algeria. PMID:17114743
Bitam, I; Parola, P; Matsumoto, K; Rolain, J M; Baziz, B; Boubidi, S C; Harrat, Z; Belkaid, M; Raoult, Didier
Experimental infection of Hyalomma plumbeum Panz., Rhipicephalus rossicus Jak. et K. Jak. and Dermacentor marginatus Sulz. with the virus of the Crimean hemorrhagic fever has shown that preimaginal phases of the above ticks easily receive an infection agent from the infected donor, preserve it for a long time, transmit it through a bite during feeding to susceptible animals; during metamorphosis they transmit this agent to the subsequent developmental phases as well as to the progeny of the infected individuals from one generation to another. PMID:134339
Kondratenko, V F
An epizootological study of the ticks gathered from the cattle and ground surface in the Dedoplistskaroisky and Dushetsky districts of Eastern Georgia has identified 5 Salmonella a typhimurium strains. The strains were isolated from the ticks Haemaphysalis punctata, Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma plumbeum. They were found to be resistant to 10 of 16 antibiotics. The strains showed a high sensitivity only to 3 antibiotics, such as gentamicin, cirpofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin and 3 strains were highly sensitive to chloramphenicol. The above ticks seem to have been spontaneously infected with the pathogen Salmonella on the animals at the moment of bacteremia. PMID:14564841
Nersesov, V A; Beridze, L P; Giorgadze, T S; Manvelian, D Kh
Investigations have been carried out in the course of three years into the occurrence, species composition, and seasonal dynamics of the Ixodes ticks in the district of Smolyan. A total of six species were established: Hyalomma plumbeum (Panzer), Dermatocentor marginatus (Sulz.), Haem. sulcata (Can et. Fanz.), Haem. punctata (Can. et Fanz.), Rh. bursa (Can. et Fanz.), and Ix. ricinus (L.). It was concluded that the spread and seasonal dynamics of the Ixodes ticks in Smolyan district were directly dependent on the climate, geographic conditions, and altitude. PMID:595375
Arnaudov, D; Antov, I
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) etiology was detected in a family cluster (nine cases, including two deaths) in the village of Karyana, Amreli District, and also a fatal case in the village of Undra, Patan District, in Gujarat State, India. Anti-CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in domestic animals from Karyana and adjoining villages. Hyalomma ticks from households were found to be positive for CCHF viral RNA. This confirms the emergence of CCHFV in new areas and the wide spread of this disease in Gujarat State. PMID:24211848
Yadav, Pragya D; Gurav, Yogesh K; Mistry, Madhulika; Shete, Anita M; Sarkale, Prasad; Deoshatwar, Avinash R; Unadkat, Vishwa B; Kokate, Prasad; Patil, Deepak Y; Raval, Dinkar K; Mourya, Devendra T
The problem of the unnatural transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland is presented. In the period from 2003 to 2007, 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to Poland from Ghana in Africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius. As a result of the investigations, the transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland was confirmed. There were 2104 specimens of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Donitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum (Schulze, 1941), Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma sp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Amblyomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed in the ticks A. flavomaculatum, A. latum and H. aegyptium. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological considerations, and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland. PMID:20153933
: Ticks are vectors of important pathogens of human and animals. Therefore, their microbial carriage capacity is constantly being investigated. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of domestic animal pathogens in ticks collected from vegetation and the ground, from different parts of Israel. Non-engorged questing adult ticks were collected from 13 localities. A total of 1196 ticks in 131 pools-83 pools of Rhipicephalus turanicus and 48 of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (with two to ten ticks per pool)-were included in this study. In addition, 13 single free-roaming Hyalomma spp. ticks were collected. Screening by molecular techniques revealed the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma bovis and Babesia canis vogeli DNA in R. turanicus ticks. E. canis, A. bovis, B. canis vogeli and Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii DNA sequences were detected in R. sanguineus ticks. Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii DNA was also detected in Hyalomma spp. ticks. Neither Hepatozoon spp. nor Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in any of the ticks examined. This study describes the first detection of E. canis in the tick R. turanicus, which may serve as a vector of this canine pathogen; E. canis was the most common pathogen detected in the collected questing ticks. It also describes the first detection of A. bovis and Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii in Israel. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report describing the detection of DNA of the latter two pathogens in R. sanguineus, and of A. bovis in R. turanicus. PMID:20636417
Harrus, S; Perlman-Avrahami, A; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Morick, D; Eyal, O; Baneth, G
The mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequences of the following eight European Metastriata tick species were obtained by direct polymerase-chain-reaction cycle sequencing and silver-staining methods: Rhipicephalus bursa, R. pusillus, R. sanguineus, R. turanicus, Boophilus annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, and Hyalomma lusitanicum. This mitochondrial gene seems to be a good marker for the establishment of genetic relationships among closely related tick species, but it does not seem to be useful for comparisons of distantly related taxa. The molecular data provide very strong support for the monophyly of the Rhipicephalinae, including Hyalomma spp. However, the genus Rhipicephalus may not be considered a monophyletic group; in all analyses carried out in this study, R. bursa clustered with Boophilus spp. The high percentage of similarity (98.7%) observed between R. sanguineus and R. turanicus sequences would suggest that these species recently diverged within the Rhipicephalus genus. Phylogenetic analyses showed a monophyletic relationship among Amblyomminae taxa. The relationships between Haemaphysalis species and the true placement of this genus within Metastriata could not be resolved. PMID:9660138
Mangold, A J; Bargues, M D; Mas-Coma, S
A broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR assay followed by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used for the detection of members of the family Anaplasmataceae in ticks in North Africa. A total of 418 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Tunisia and Morocco, as well as 188 Rhipicephalus ticks from dogs and 52 Hyalomma ticks from bovines in Tunisia, were included in this study. Of 324 adult I. ricinus ticks, 16.3% were positive for Ehrlichia spp., whereas only 3.4 and 2.8% of nymphs and larvae, respectively, were positive. A large heterogeneity was observed in the nucleotide sequences. Partial sequences identical to that of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) were detected in I. ricinus and Hyalomma detritum, whereas partial sequences identical to that of Anaplasma platys were detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. However, variants of Anaplasma, provisionally designated Anaplasma-like, were predominant in the I. ricinus tick population in Maghreb. Otherwise, two variants of the genus Ehrlichia were detected in I. ricinus and H. detritum. Surprisingly, a variant of Wolbachia pipientis was evidenced from I. ricinus in Morocco. These results emphasized the potential risk of tick bites for human and animal populations in North Africa. PMID:15750072
Sarih, M'Hammed; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Bouattour, Ali; Gern, Lise; Baranton, Guy; Postic, Daničle
The paper presents current knowledge of ticks occurring in Poland, their medical importance, and a review of recent studies implemented in the Polish research centres on ticks and their significance in the epidemiology of transmissible diseases. In the Polish fauna there are 19 species of ticks (Ixodida) recognized as existing permanently in our country: Argas reflexus, Argas polonicus, Carios vespertilionis, Ixodes trianguliceps, Ixodes arboricola, Ixodes crenulatus, Ixodes hexagonus, Ixodes lividus, Ixodes rugicollis, Ixodes caledonicus, Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes simplex, Ixodes vespertilionis, Ixodes apronophorus, Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis concinna, Dermacentor reticulatus. Occasionally, alien species of ticks transferred to the territory of Poland are recorded: Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma transversale, Amblyomma varanensis, Amblyomma spp., Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma aegyptium, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes eldaricus, Ixodes festai, Rhipicephalus rossicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The most common species of the highest medical and veterinary importance in Poland is invariably Ixodes ricinus. The review also sets out information on the risks of tickborne diseases in recreational areas of large cities in Poland, ticks as the cause of occupational diseases and dangerous species of ticks attacking people outside the Polish borders. Selected problems of the biology of ticks, the spread of alien species transferred on hosts and prevention of tick attacks have also been presented. The Polish studies on ticks are a valuable contribution to global research on the Ixodida. PMID:23444797
Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Siuda, Krzysztof
The efficacy of various formulations of ivermectin administered at the recommended dose rate of 200 micrograms/kg was evaluated in cattle infested with mange mites (Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis.), lice (Linognathus vituli and Damalinia bovis) and ticks (Boophilus decoloratus, Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Hyalomma spp.) in 8 trials conducted in South Africa. Mange mites (S. scabiei) were eliminated from animals treated subcutaneously, resulting in marked clinical recovery. Oral administration reduced the numbers of, but did not eliminate these mites. Sucking lice (L. vituli) were eliminated from animals treated orally or subcutaneously. Numbers of biting lice (D. bovis) were reduced but not eliminated, subcutaneous injection being more effective than oral drenching. Subcutaneous injection with ivermectin every 14 d over a period of 84 d significantly reduced numbers of engorged female R. appendiculatus and A. hebraeum. Numbers of Boophilus spp. and Hyalomma spp. were also reduced. A single subcutaneous injection resulted in significantly fewer engorged female B. decoloratus on treated animals for up to 28 d after treatment. In one trial significantly fewer A. hebraeum males occurred on treated animals for up to 28 d after treatment. Too few R. evertsi were present in these trials to evaluate the effect of ivermectin against this parasite. PMID:3839021
Schröder, J; Swan, G E; Soll, M D; Hotson, I K
The need for imaginative thinking and research in the epidemiology of diseases transmitted by arthropods is made manifest by new views of the longevity and host ranges of arthropod-borne viruses, as well as by other biological and medical phenomena. Among these is the intercontinental transport of ticks by migrating birds. During the fall migration periods of 1959, 1960 and 1961, 32 086 birds (comprising 72 forms) were examined for ticks in Egypt while en route from Asia and eastern Europe to tropical Africa. Of these, 40 forms, represented by 31 434 birds, were tick-infested. The bird hosts, numbering 1040 (3.31% of the tick-infested bird forms examined), bore 1761 ticks, or 1.69 ticks per host. Common ticks taken were Hyalomma m. marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, and Ixodes ricinus. Ixodes frontalis and Hyalomma aegyptium were less common and Haemaphysalis sulcata, H. otophila, and H. pavlovskyi were rare. The common tick species are known to be reservoirs and vectors of pathogens causing a number of human and animal diseases in Europe and Asia. Several of the bird hosts have also been incriminated as reservoirs in their summer ranges. Over 20 strains of pathogenic viruses were isolated from these birds and their ticks in Egypt in the 1961 fall migration period. The most difficult problems in investigations such as this in many parts of the world are taxonomic ones: the correct identification of bird hosts, of immature stages of ticks and of viruses.
Hoogstraal, Harry; Kaiser, Makram N.; Traylor, Melvin A.; Guindy, Ezzat; Gaber, Sobhy
The most important result of recent project research was the demonstration of the juvenoid JH III by radioimmunoassay. This assay revealed an estimated 78 pg/tick in the hemolymph of partially fed Hyalomma dromedarii females, and an estimated 3 pg/tick in the hemolymph of partially fed D. variabilis. Other studies, especially digestion of tritium labelled JH III, provided additional evidence suggesting the presence of this hormone in adult ticks. The implications of these findings for our understanding of sex pheromone regulation in ticks is discussed. Other studies described in this report deal with the source of ecdysteroid in teh camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, and the soft tick, Ornithodoros parkeri. Studies done at ODU, using radioimmunoassay high performance liquid chromatography, and autoradiography, provide new evidence implicating the tick synganglion - lateral nerve plexus as an important site of ecdysteroid activity in the ixodid ticks. Other studies with ecdysteriods suggest that metabolism of ecdysone or 20-hydroxyecdysone (or both) to inactive metabolites, possibly including polar conjugates. If confirmed, these findings indicate the presence of only a single active ecdysteriod hormone in ticks, 20-hydroxyecdysone.
Sonenshine, D.E.; Oliver, J.H. Jr.; Homsher, P.J.
Background Rickettsioses are one of the most important causes of systemic febrile illness among travelers from developed countries, but little is known about their incidence in indigenous populations, especially in West Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings Overall seroprevalence evaluated by immunofluorescence using six rickettsial antigens (spotted fever and typhus group) in rural populations of two villages of the Sine-Saloum region of Senegal was found to be 21.4% and 51% for spotted fever group rickettsiae for Dielmo and Ndiop villages, respectively. We investigated the role of tick-borne rickettsiae as the cause of acute non-malarial febrile diseases in the same villages. The incidence of rickettsial DNA in 204 blood samples from 134 (62M and 72F) febrile patients negative for malaria was studied. DNA extracted from whole blood was tested by two qPCR systems. Rickettsial DNA was found in nine patients, eight with Rickettsia felis (separately reported). For the first time in West Africa, Rickettsia conorii was diagnosed in one patient. We also tested 2,767 Ixodid ticks collected in two regions of Senegal (Niakhar and Sine-Saloum) from domestic animals (cows, sheep, goats, donkeys and horses) by qPCR and identified five different pathogenic rickettsiae. We found the following: Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (51.3% and 44.8% in Niakhar and Sine-Saloum region, respectively), in Hyalomma truncatum (6% and 6.8%) and in Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (0.5%, only in Niakhar); R. c. conorii in Rh. e. evertsi (0.4%, only in Sine-Saloum); Rickettsia massiliae in Rhipicephalus guilhoni (22.4%, only in Niakhar); Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in Hyalomma truncatum (13.5%, only in Sine-Saloum); and Rickettsia africae in Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (0.7% and 0.4% in Niakhar and Sine-Saloum region, respectively) as well as in Rhipicephalus annulatus (20%, only in Sine-Saloum). We isolated two rickettsial strains from H. truncatum: R. s. mongolitimonae and R. aeschlimannii. Conclusions/Significance We believe that together with our previous data on the high prevalence of R. africae in Amblyomma ticks and R. felis infection in patients, the presented results on the distribution of pathogenic rickettsiae in ticks and the first R. conorii case in West Africa show that the rural population of Senegal is at risk for other tick-borne rickettsioses, which are significant causes of febrile disease in this area.
Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Fenollar, Florence; Sokhna, Cheikh; Trape, Jean-Francois; Raoult, Didier
A total of 370 ticks, encompassing 7 species from 4 genera, were collected during 2002–2006 from domestic animals and vegetation in the Taza region of northeastern Morocco. Rickettsial DNA was identified in 101 ticks (27%) by sequencing PCR products of fragments of the citrate synthase and outer membrane protein genes of Rickettsia spp. Seven rickettsiae of the spotted fever group were identified, including 4 pathogens: R. aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, R. massiliae in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus, and R. monacensis in Ixodes ricinus. Two suspected pathogens were also detected (R. raoultii in D. marginatus and R. helvetica in I. ricinus). An incompletely described Rickettsia sp. was detected in Haemaphysalis spp. ticks.
Sarih, Mhammed; Socolovschi, Cristina; Boudebouch, Najma; Hassar, Mohammed; Raoult, Didier
A total of 370 ticks, encompassing 7 species from 4 genera, were collected during 2002-2006 from domestic animals and vegetation in the Taza region of northeastern Morocco. Rickettsial DNA was identified in 101 ticks (27%) by sequencing PCR products of fragments of the citrate synthase and outer membrane protein genes of Rickettsia spp. Seven rickettsiae of the spotted fever group were identified, including 4 pathogens: R. aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, R. massiliae in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus, and R. monacensis in Ixodes ricinus. Two suspected pathogens were also detected (R. raoultii in D. marginatus and R. helvetica in I. ricinus). An incompletely described Rickettsia sp. was detected in Haemaphysalis spp. ticks. PMID:18598627
Sarih, Mhammed; Socolovschi, Cristina; Boudebouch, Najma; Hassar, Mohammed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe
A reverse line blot hybridisation (RLB) of 21 oligonucleotides with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified regions of 16S rRNA (Ehrlichia/Anaplasma group) or 18S rRNA (Babesia/Theileria group) genes of haemoparasites detected Theileria annulata, T. buffeli/orientalis, Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, Ehrlichia bovis, Anaplasma marginale, A. centrale and unknown species within the Rickettsia tribe.A very high prevalence of mixed infections was detected, which indicated that animals infected with Babesia spp. were also infected with Theileria spp. and/or Anaplasma spp. The tick distribution appeared to be seasonal with Hyalomma marginatum as the most frequently observed tick and Boophilus annulatus and Ixodes ricinus as the least frequently observed ticks. Other species identified in the 818 ticks collected during the five sampling periods between April 1998 and November 1999 included H. lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group, R. bursa, Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, B. annulatus and I. ricinus. PMID:11511414
Georges, K; Loria, G R; Riili, S; Greco, A; Caracappa, S; Jongejan, F; Sparagano, O
The presence of tick-borne Rickettsia spp. was examined by PCR using DNA samples extracted from 254 ticks collected from mammals originating from northern and eastern Sardinia, Italy. The spotted fever group rickettsial agent Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in 3 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from a dog for the first time in this geographical area. In addition, Ri. massiliae, Ri. slovaca, and Ri. aeschlimannii were detected in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus, and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum ticks from dogs, goats, wild boar, and horse. Moreover, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae was detected in 2 Rh. turanicus ticks from goats. The detection of Ri. conorii israelensis, an emergent agent which causes Israeli spotted fever, increases our knowledge on tick-borne rickettsioses in Sardinia. PMID:24852264
Chisu, Valentina; Masala, Giovanna; Foxi, Cipriano; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe
Cosmiomma hippopotamensis (Denny, 1843) is one of the most unusual, beautiful, and rare tick species known to the world. All stages of this species possess a unique morphology, on the one hand making them easy to identify, while on the other they exhibit similarities to certain species of Amblyomma Koch, 1844, Dermacentor Koch, 1844, and Hyalomma Koch, 1844. Adults of C. hippopotamensis have been collected on only two occasions from their hosts, namely Hippopotamus amphibius L. and Diceros bicornis (L.), and have been recorded from only a few widely separated localities in East and southern Africa. Here, the larva and nymph are described and illustrated for the first time, while the male and female are illustrated and redescribed. Data on hosts, geographic distribution, and life cycle of C. hippopotamensis are also provided. PMID:23926768
Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Walker, Jane B; Heyne, Heloise; Bezuidenhout, J Dürr; Horak, Ivan G
Abstract. DNA of several spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in ticks in Israel. The findings include evidence for the existence of Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in ticks in Israel. The DNA of R. africae was detected in a Hyalomma detritum tick from a wild boar and DNA of C. Rickettsia barbariae was detected in Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from vegetation. The DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was found in Rh. sanguineus and Haemaphysalis erinacei, whereas DNA of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Clinicians should be aware that diseases caused by a variety of rickettsiae previously thought to be present only in other countries outside of the Middle East may infect residents of Israel who have not necessarily traveled overseas. Furthermore, this study reveals again that the epidemiology of the spotted fever group rickettsiae may not only involve Rickettsia conorii but may include other rickettsiae. PMID:24615133
Waner, Trevor; Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E; Din, Adi Beth; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; King, Roni; Atiya-Nasagi, Yafit
During recent years, new foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) have emerged in several Balkan countries, southwest Russia, and Turkey. Starting in 2002, Turkey experiences the largest ever recorded outbreak with more than 2500 cases. Potential reasons for the emergence or re-emergence of CCHF include climate changes which may have a significant impact on the reproduction rate of the vector Hyalomma ticks, as well as anthropogenic factors (e.g. changes in agricultural and hunting activities). Given the abundance of its vector, the numerous animals that can serve as hosts, and the favorable climate and ecologic parameters in other southern Europe Mediterranean countries, CCHF is an example of a vector-borne disease which may be knocking the door in this area. There are models which show probability of CCHF extending to other countries around the Mediterranean basin suggesting that the vector, veterinarian, and human surveillance should be enhanced. PMID:20541133
Maltezou, Helena C; Papa, Anna
Four isolates of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated from ticks in China were compared with all known species and strains of spotted fever group rickettsiae by immunofluorescence assay, DNA polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction endonuclease fragment length polymorphism analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and Western immunoblot. The Chinese isolates belonged to three types, including a novel serotype which has not been described before. One isolate obtained from tick ova of Dermacentor nuttallii in Inner Mongolia was antigenically and genotypically identical to Rickettsia sibirica. Two isolates obtained from Dermacentor sinicus collected from Beijing were identical, different from other members of spotted fever group rickettsiae but apparently closely related to R. sibirica. HA-91, a strain isolated from Hyalomma asiaticum bv. kozlovi olenew, was antigenically and genotypically unique among spotted fever group rickettsiae, and we feel that data presented here should prompt consideration of it as a new species on the basis of current rickettsial taxonomy. Images
Yu, X; Jin, Y; Fan, M; Xu, G; Liu, Q; Raoult, D
Abstract A total of 167 ticks collected from humans in Istanbul (Turkey) in 2006 were screened for Rickettsia species, and nested PCRs targeting gltA and ompA rickettsial fragment genes were carried out. Rickettsia monacensis (51), R. aeschlimannii (8), R. conorii subsp. conorii (3), R. helvetica (2), R. raoultii (1), R. africae (1), R. felis (1), and other Rickettsia spp. (2), were detected. To our knowledge, these Rickettsia species (except R. conorii) had never been reported in ticks removed from humans in Turkey. The presence of R. africae also had not been previously described, either in Hyalomma ticks or in any European tick species. In addition, R. aeschlimannii and R. felis had not been found associated with Rhipicephalus bursa specimens. The presence of human pathogenic Rickettsia in ticks removed from humans provides information about the risk of tick-borne rickettsioses in Turkey.
Gargili, Aysen; Palomar, Ana M.; Midilli, Kenan; Portillo, Aranzazu; Kar, S?rr?
The virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) to tick species under laboratory conditions is reported. The susceptibility of larval, nymphal, and adult stages of the ticks Hyalomma excavatum (Koch), Rhipicephalus bursa (Canestrini & Fanz), and R. sanguineus (Latereille) to 2 strains of Steinernema carpocapsae and 3 strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were compared in laboratory assays. Preimaginal stages of ticks were found to be more resistant to the nematodes than were adult ticks which exhibited 80-100% mortality in a dish containing 5,000 infective juveniles of H. bacteriophora IS-3 or IS-5 strains isolated in Israel. These 2 strains were found to be much more virulent to unfed adult ticks than were the other isolates. No marked difference was found between engorged ticks and unfed adults of R. sanguineus or H. excavatum in terms of mortality, whereas engorged males and unfed females of R. bursa were significantly more susceptible than unfed males or engorged females. PMID:10593074
Samish, M; Alekseev, E; Glazer, I
External parasites in the triangle region (Halaib & Shalatin) affecting the animal health were studied. Ectoparasites were collected in several sites by using bait traps and directly from animal bodies. Results indicated the presence of twelve species of insects belonging to seven genera included in three families (Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae). Concerning ectoparasites on animal bodies, there were two species of biting lice infested goats and sheep (Bovicola caprae and B. ovis, respectively) and two species of sucking lice on goats (Linognathus africanus and L. stenopsis). Melophagus ovinus (family Hippoboscidae) collected from goats. Moreover, all camels suffered infestation with hard ticks four Hyalomma species. On the other hand, sheep and goats were infested with two Rhipicephalus species and one Haemaphysalis species. PMID:12557945
el-Baky, S M
The objectives of this study were to determine the diversity, seasonal dynamics and abundance of ticks infesting cattle in urban, small-scale farming communities in and around Botshabelo and Thaba Nchu in the eastern Free State Province, South Africa. A total of ten cattle, ear-tagged for individual identification, were investigated monthly at each of five localities. Adult ticks were removed from the right hand side of each animal and placed in containers filled with 70% ethanol. They were subsequently identified and their numbers quantified. Immature Otobius megnini were counted but not removed. A total of 244,538 adult ticks of ten different species were collected over the 12-month study period. The tick species, in decreasing order of relative abundance, were: Boophilus decoloratus (87.26%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (6.86%), Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (2.42%), Otobius megnini (1.85%) Rhipicephalus follis (0.76%), Rhipicephalus gertrudae (0.54%), Rhipicephalus sp. (0.21%), Ixodes rubicundus (0.08%), Hyalomma truncatum (0.01%) and Margaropus winthemi (0.004%). The three most abundant species, namely B. decoloratus, R. evertsi evertsi and H. marginatum rufipes, occurred at all localities but with significant differences in abundance. M. winthemi ticks occurred only in the Thaba Nchu area and were not found at any of the there localities in Botshabelo. Significant differences in tick burdens between the six warm months (September to February) and the six cooler months (March to August) were found for most of the species recorded. Boophilus decoloratus occurred in significantly higher numbers in autumn (March to May) and winter (June to August) compared to spring (September to November) and summer (December to February), with 76.8% of the total B. decoloratus burden occurring during the cooler months. PMID:10192844
Dreyer, K; Fourie, L J; Kok, D J
This review covers the geographic distribution and host relationships of the tick species in Sweden. Ixodes uriae White, I. caledonicus Nuttall, I. unicavatus Neumann, I. arboricola Schulze & Schlottke, and I. lividus Koch are ornithophagous species. I. trianguliceps Birula, I. canisuga Johnston, I. hexagonus Leach, and Argas vespertilionis (Latreille) are mammalophagous. I. ricinus (L.) and Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini & Fanzago feed on both birds and mammals. All these tick species may be considered to be permanently present in Sweden. I. persulcatus Schulze, Hyalomma marginatum Koch, and the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), may be regarded as not indigenous to Sweden although they may be regularly introduced by spring-migrating birds or imported dogs, respectively. The first European record of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), is reported. There are several records of Hyalomma aegyptium (L.) from imported tortoises in Sweden. Excluding other ticks imported on exotic pets and zoo animals, another 13 tick species are listed that may occur, at least occasionally, in Sweden. Because of its wide geographic distribution, great abundance, and wide host range, I. ricinus is medically the most important arthropod in northern Europe. I. ricinus is common in southern and south-central Sweden and along the coast of northern Sweden and has been recorded from 29 mammal species, 56 bird species, and two species of lizards in Sweden alone. The potential introduction to Sweden of exotic pathogens with infected ticks (e.g., I. persulcatus and H. marginatum on birds or Dermacentor spp. and R. sanguineus on mammals) is evident. PMID:8189415
Jaenson, T G; Tälleklint, L; Lundqvist, L; Olsen, B; Chirico, J; Mejlon, H
A survey of ticks from domestic ruminants, together with a serosurvey in humans was conducted in Thrace (northwestern Turkey) to evaluate the prevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in ticks and humans. More prevalent ticks were Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma aegyptium, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, with low numbers of Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group, and Ixodes ricinus. No differences in the tick faunal composition were found among surveyed provinces. CCHFV was detected using specific primers for strains belonging to both Europe 1 and Europe 2 clades in a total of 15 pools of ticks collected in nine localities. The maximum likelihood estimate of infection rate was calculated as 0.72/100 ticks (95% CI?=?0.42-1.16). Viral RNA was observed only in H. marginatum, R.(B.) annulatus, and R. bursa with overall maximum likelihood estimate infection rates being 0.93 (95% CI?=?0.35-2.05), 0.74 (95% CI?=?0.24-1.78), and 1.67 (95% CI?=?0.69-3.46), respectively. The surveyed region is the only place where both viral strains are circulating together in nature in Turkey. Results from serosurvey on 193 samples from three localities in the region showed that immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G rates are compatible with an epidemiological situation in which the virus has been present for a long time and is not the result of a recent invasive event from the main epidemic center in Anatolia (north-central Turkey). Seropositivity rates cannot be compared against the tick faunal composition, because of the homogeneity in the results about tick surveys. The high rate of seropositivity, and the prevalence of CCHFV in both Europe 1 and 2 clades among the ticks, but few clinical cases suggest that the circulation of both viral strains may confer protection against the CCHFV infection. PMID:21028961
Gargili, Aysen; Midilli, Kenan; Ergonul, Onder; Ergin, Sevgi; Alp, Hatice G; Vatansever, Zati; Iyisan, Selma; Cerit, Cigdem; Yilmaz, Gulden; Altas, Kemal; Estrada-Peńa, Agustin
Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service-protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne. PMID:23805790
Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary
Abstract Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service–protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne.
Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary
The prevalence of ectoparasites on a total of 36 impala (Aepyceros melampus) slaughtered monthly from February 1975 to February 1976 and a total of 24 cattle slaughtered monthly from March 1976 to March 1977 in the Nylsvley Provincial Nature Reserve was determined. Six species of ixodid ticks were collected from the impala and these, in order of abundance, were: Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus appe. diculatus, Amblyomma hebraeum, Boophilus decoloratus, Ixodes cavipalpus and Hyalomma marginatum rufipes. Only 340 (2,7%) of the 12 757 ticks collected from the impala were adult. The 4 species of lice present on the impala were, in order of abundance: Damalinia aepycerus, Linognathus aepycerus, Damalinia elongata and Linognathus nevilli. The cattle harboured 8 species of ixodid ticks. In order of abundance, these were: R. appendiculatus, R. evertsi evertsi, A. hebraeum, Hyalomma truncatum, H. marginatum rufipes, B. decoloratus, Rhipicephalus simus and I. cavipalpus. A total of 14 186 ticks was collected from the cattle and of these 4 660 (32,9%) were adults. Clear seasonal prevalences could be determined for certain ticks only. Adult A. hebraeum reached peak numbers on cattle from November to March, adult H. marginatum rufipes from December to February and adult H. truncatum during January and February. Larvae of R. appendiculatus reached peak numbers on cattle and impala from March or April to July, nymphae from June to October and adults from December to March. Peak numbers of larvae of R. evertsi evertsi were recovered from impala from May to July and nymphae during July, while adults were present on cattle throughout the survey period, with peaks being recorded during December and February. PMID:7177586
Horak, I G
A comparative phylogeographic study on two economically important African tick species, Amblyomma hebraeum and Hyalomma rufipes was performed to test the influence of host specificity and host movement on dispersion. Pairwise AMOVA analyses of 277 mtDNA COI sequences supported significant population differentiation among the majority of sampling sites. The geographic mitochondrial structure was not supported by nuclear ITS-2 sequencing, probably attributed to a recent divergence. The three-host generalist, A. hebraeum, showed less mtDNA geographic structure, and a lower level of genetic diversity, while the more host-specific H. rufipes displayed higher levels of population differentiation and two distinct mtDNA assemblages (one predominantly confined to South Africa/Namibia and the other to Mozambique and East Africa). A zone of overlap is present in southern Mozambique. A mechanistic climate model suggests that climate alone cannot be responsible for the disruption in female gene flow. Our findings furthermore suggest that female gene dispersal of ticks is more dependent on the presence of juvenile hosts in the environment than on the ability of adult hosts to disperse across the landscape. Documented interspecific competition between the juvenile stages of H. rufipes and H. truncatum is implicated as a contributing factor towards disrupting gene flow between the two southern African H. rufipes genetic assemblages.
Cangi, Nidia; Horak, Ivan G.; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A.; Matthee, Sonja; das Neves, Luis C. B. G.; Estrada-Pena, Agustin; Matthee, Conrad A.
In 2004 and 2005, an epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was conducted in Xinjiang, China. A total of 5,629 serum samples of human and livestock were collected and tested for the CCHFV antibody, and 17,319 ticks were collected for viral identification. Reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition assays showed that the average prevalence of CCHFV antibody was 1.7% for the humans and 12.7% for the livestock. A relatively high antibody prevalence, ranging from 19.1% to 23.4%, was found in the livestock of the northwest, southwest, and northeast parts of the Tarim Basin. When the ticks were pooled to inoculate suckling mice, followed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to detect CCHFV RNA, the average RT-PCR-positive rates for Hyalomma asiaticum kozlovi and H. asiaticum asiaticum were 12.9% and 2.6%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the antibody prevalence in the livestock and the CCHFV prevalence in H. asiaticum of the same geographic region. No CCHFV RNA was detected in Dermacentor nivenus, Rhipicephalus turanius, or Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A total of 27 partial S segments of CCHFVs were sequenced and used for phylogeny analysis. All but one Chinese isolate grouped into the Asia 1 clade, which contains the strains from Xinjiang and Uzbekistan, while the other strain, Fub90009, grouped with strains from the Middle East.
Sun, Surong; Dai, Xiang; Aishan, Muhetaer; Wang, Xinhui; Meng, Weiwei; Feng, Conghui; Zhang, Fuchun; Hang, Changshou; Hu, Zhihong; Zhang, Yujiang
Reptiles may contribute to maintaining tick populations by feeding larvae, nymphs, and adults. The life cycles and tick-host associations of many Turkish ticks are still poorly known, and only 3 ixodid tick species have been reported on 7 reptile species in Turkey. In this study, we performed a tick survey on reptiles in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. In 2005, 57 reptiles (52 lizards and 5 snakes) comprising 10 species from 5 families were captured and examined for tick infestation. A total of 427 ticks was collected. The majority of ticks found on lizards was the immature stages of Haemaphysalis sulcata, 420 larvae and 4 nymphs. The only adult ticks recorded on the agamid lizard, Laudakia stellio, were Hyalomma aegyptium (1 ?, 2 ?). The highest tick infestation rate was recorded on specimens of Timon princeps. This study is the first detailed investigation on ticks infesting reptiles in Turkey. To the best of our knowledge, these tick-host associations have never been documented in the literature. PMID:23560648
Keskin, Adem; Bursali, Ahmet; Kumlutas, Yusuf; Ilgaz, Cetin; Tekin, Saban
In November 1984 a case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) occurred in a worker who became ill after slaughtering ostriches (Struthio camelus) on a farm near Oudtshoorn in the Cape province of South Africa. The diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of CCHF virus from the patient's serum and by demonstration of a specific antibody response. It was suspected that infection was acquired either by contact with ostrich blood or by inadvertently crushing infected Hyalomma ticks while skinning ostriches. Reversed passive haemagglutination-inhibition antibody to CCHF virus was detected in the sera of 22/92 ostriches from farms in Oudtshoorn district, including 6/9 from the farm where the patient worked, but not in the sera of 460 birds of 37 other species. In pathogenicity studies domestic chickens proved refractory to CCHF infection, but viraemia of low intensity (maximum titre 2.5 log10 mouse ic LD50/ml) followed by a transient antibody response occurred in blue-helmeted guinea fowl (Numidia meleagris). These results offer the first direct evidence that some bird species are susceptible to CCHF virus infection. PMID:3140434
Shepherd, A J; Swanepoel, R; Leman, P A; Shepherd, S P
The objective of this study was to determine the species composition of ixodid ticks infesting domestic dogs in the northwestern region of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and in Namibia. Ticks were collected from February 2008 to January 2009 from dogs presented for a variety of reasons at a veterinary clinic in the Northern Cape Province and at 3 clinics in Namibia. The ticks collected at each place were pooled separately for each month at each locality. Eleven ixodid tick species were collected from dogs in the Northern Cape Province and new locality records for Haemaphysalis colesbergensis and Ixodes rubicundus, new locality and host records for Hyalomma glabrum, and a new host record for Rhipicephalus neumanni are reported. Six tick species were collected from dogs at the 3 clinics in Namibia. The most numerous species on dogs in both countries was R. sanguineus. The present results increase the total number of ixodid tick species collected from dogs in South Africa from 25 to 28. PMID:21247023
Matthee, S; Lovely, C; Gaugler, A; Beeker, R; Venter, H R; Horak, I G
ABSTRACT Tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. In order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern Italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. The study had been carried out in three regions of southern Italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. RLB showed that 43.7% of the cattle were positive for nine different species of hemoparasites with either a single infection or a mixed infection. Theileria buffeli was the most common species found, being present in 27.3% of the animals, followed by Anaplasma marginale in 18.1%, Anaplasma centrale in 13.8%, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma bovis in 4.2%, Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.7%, Babesia bovis in 1.6%, Babesia major in 0.2% and Babesia divergens in 0.1%. Complete blood counts showed different degrees of anemia in 363 animals (24.2%) and of these, 169 were RLB-positive for at least one pathogen. Among the ticks that were collected from the cattle, the following species were identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma marginatum, Boophilus annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis (sulcata, parva, inermis and punctata). The results obtained confirmed the spread of endemic tick-borne pathogens in the regions studied.
CECI, Luigi; IARUSSI, Fabrizio; GRECO, Beatrice; LACINIO, Rosanna; FORNELLI, Stefania; CARELLI, Grazia
Climatic, environmental and economic changes, as well as the steadily increasing global trade and personal mobility provide ample opportunities for emerging pathogens with zoonotic potential to spread to previously unaffected countries. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is considered to be one of the major emerging disease threats spreading to and within the European Union following an expanding distribution of its main vector, ticks of the genus Hyalomma. Every year more than 1000 human CCHF cases are reported from countries of southeastern Europe and Turkey. CCHFV can cause high case fatality rates and can be transmitted from human to human. There are no vaccine prophylaxis and therapeutic interventions available at present. Several EU-funded research projects focus currently on CCHFV which highlights the awareness for this problem at the European level. As public health deals with questions of prevention on a population level rather than healing and health on an individual level, the analysis of existing data plays a fundamental role to minimize its epidemic potential, by reducing infection risks, and to manage disease outbreaks. This review gives a summary of the current knowledge and data with focus at the interface between public health and CCHFV. Based on this knowledge, guidelines for the risk classification of a region and for outbreak prevention are given. This review will assist decision makers and public health authorities in understanding risk scenarios and in deciding on effective countermeasures, as well as human and veterinary scientists by highlighting existing gaps in knowledge. PMID:23458713
Mertens, Marc; Schmidt, Katja; Ozkul, Aykut; Groschup, Martin H
The tick-borne diseases of livestock constitute a complex of several diseases with different etiological agents, such as protozoa, rickettsia, bacteria, and viruses. One problem discussed in protozoan infection is the determination and characterization of the transmitter agent. Because many analyses were performed with the salivary gland smears using the methyl-green-pyronin staining method or the Feulgen staining method, the transfer vector remains unanswered in some cases. The aim of this study is to recognize Babesia ovis in the salivary gland of Rhipicephalus spp. using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was isolated from 269 salivary gland of Rhipicephalus spp. (108 R. bursa, 87 R. turanicus, 74 R. sanguineus) collected from sheep with suspected to babesiosis. The isolated DNA was then analyzed with the primers derived from the hypervariable region V4 of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) of the Babesia species. For the specificity of the PCR product and discriminating from Babesia motasi and Babesia crassa, nested PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed. As positive control for the DNA extraction procedure, the DNA was analyzed with the common primers designed from the 18S rRNA of the Ticks (Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Haemophysalis, Dermacentor, Ixodes, Boophilus). B. ovis was detected in salivary gland of 18.5% R. bursa, 9.1% R .turanicus, and 8.1% R. sanguineus, respectively. PMID:17554562
Shayan, Parviz; Hooshmand, Elham; Rahbari, Sadegh; Nabian, Sedighe
The prevalence of tick-borne and related bacteria infecting adult ticks in central Spain was assessed by molecular methods. Six areas were sampled monthly during a 2-year longitudinal study. A total of 1,038 questing and 442 feeding ticks, belonging to eight different species, were tested. The most abundant species were Hyalomma lusitanicum (54% of captures), followed by Dermacentor marginatus (23%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (10%). Four human pathogens, including seven Rickettsia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Francisella tularensis, were detected at percentages of 19.0, 2.2, 1.7, and 0.5, respectively, whereas Bartonella spp. was never detected. In terms of infection and tick abundance, H. lusitanicum seems to be the most significant tick species in the area, carrying three of the five agents tested, and the anthropophilic tick, D. marginatum, infected with Rickettsia spp. and F. tularensis, is the most relevant in terms of public health. The significance of these data is discussed. PMID:19556569
Toledo, Alvaro; Olmeda, A Sonia; Escudero, Raquel; Jado, Isabel; Valcárcel, Félix; Casado-Nistal, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Vargas, Manuela; Gil, Horacio; Anda, Pedro
The prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia and Babesia/Theileria species was analysed in questing and feeding adult ticks in Sicily. A total of 678 ticks were collected and analysed in this study. Of these, 29 were questing ticks and 649 were collected from infested cattle, sheep, goats or dogs. Tick species analysed included Rhipicephalus bursa, R. turanicus, R. sanguineus, Hyalomma lusitanicum, H. marginatum, Dermacentor marginatus, Ixodes ricinus, R. (Boophilus) annulatus and Haemaphysalis punctata. With the exception of R. annulatus and H. punctata for which only eight and 15 ticks were analysed, respectively, all tick species were found to be infected. Most ticks were found to be infected with a single pathogen genus. Data obtained from questing ticks was analysed to test for differences between tick species in the prevalence of infection for different pathogens. These preliminary results suggested that the most important vectors of pathogens that may affect human and/or animal health in Sicily are R. turanicus for Anaplasma spp. and D. marginatus for Rickettsia spp. For Ehrlichia spp. and Babesia/Theileria spp., R. turanicus/D. marginatus and H. lusitanicum may be the most important vectors but additional studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:20537102
Torina, A; Alongi, A; Scimeca, S; Vicente, J; Caracappa, S; de la Fuente, J
This study was carried out to investigate fifteen cases of acute lethal infection of calves (? 4 months of age) by the protozoan parasite Theileria (T.) annulata in the south of Portugal. Calves developed multifocal to coalescent nodular skin lesions, similar to multicentric malignant lymphoma. Infestation with ticks (genus Hyalomma) was intense. Theileria was seen in blood and lymph node smears, and T. annulata infection was confirmed by isolation of schizont-transformed cells and sequencing of hypervariable region 4 of the 18S rRNA gene. At necropsy, hemorrhagic nodules or nodules with a hemorrhagic halo were seen, particularly in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal and cardiac muscles, pharynx, trachea and intestinal serosa. Histologically, nodules were formed by large, round, lymphoblastoid neoplastic-like cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) identified these cells as mostly CD3 positive T lymphocytes and MAC387 positive macrophages. A marker for B lymphocytes (CD79?cy) labeled very few cells. T. annulata infected cells in these nodules were also identified by IHC through the use of two monoclonal antibodies (1C7 and 1C12) which are diagnostic for the parasite. It was concluded that the pathological changes observed in the different organs and tissues were caused by proliferation of schizont-infected macrophages, which subsequently stimulate a severe uncontrolled proliferation of uninfected T lymphocytes.
Orvalho, Joao; Leitao, Alexandre; Pereira, Isadora; Malta, Manuel; Mariano, Isabel; Carvalho, Tania; Baptista, Rui; Shiels, Brian R.; Peleteiro, Maria C.
While the high seroprevalence for the rickettsiae that cause spotted fevers and the multiple pathogenic rickettsiae is known, the data on the distribution of rickettsial diseases in Africa are often incomplete. We collected ticks from domestic or wild animals (generally a source of bushmeat) that were in contact with humans in 2 neighboring countries of tropical West Africa, Guinea and Liberia. In total, 382 ticks representing 6 species were collected in Liberia and 655 ticks representing 7 species were collected in Guinea. We found rickettsiae in 9 different species of ticks from both countries. Rickettsia africae was found in 93-100% of Amblyomma variegatum, in 14-93% of Rhipicephalus (B.) geigyi, Rh. (B.) annulatus, and Rh. (B.) decoloratus, and in several Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Haemaphysalis paraleachi. A genetic variant of R. africae was found in Amblyomma compressum. R. massiliae was found in 10/61 (16%) of Rh. senegalensis ticks and in 2% of Haemaphysalis paraleachi ticks collected from dogs. We identified a new rickettsia in one of 44 (2%) Ixodes muniensis collected from a dog in Liberia. As this rickettsia is not yet isolated, we propose the provisional name "Candidatus Rickettsia liberiensis" (for the West African country where the host tick was collected). PMID:22309858
Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Zolia, Yah; Balde, Mamadou Cellou; Kohar, Henry; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier
Tick resistance in three breeds of cattle, two indigenous breeds (Arssi and Boran) and one Boran x Friesian cross-bread, were compared following natural tick infestations at Abernossa ranch in Ethiopia. The local Arssi breed was found to have the highest tick resistance, followed by the Boran breed, whereas the Boran x Friesian was the least resistant. Over a period of 12 months, from October 1991 to September 1992, a total of 32,897 ticks composed of four genera were collected from the animals. The four most abundant tick species were Amblyomma variegatum (61.7%), Boophilus decoloratus (16%); Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (16.3%) and Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (3.7%). Furthermore, 63.5% of all ticks were collected from cross-breed cattle, and 26.2% from the Boran, whereas the local Arssi breed carried only 10.3%. The results indicated that cattle resistant to one species of tick were also resistant to other tick species. PMID:8665816
Solomon, G; Kaaya, G P
Ticks are important vectors of disease and parasites of livestock. Species identification of ticks has been traditionally based on morphological characters, which is usually limited by the condition of samples and little variation among specimens, so a rapid and reliable identification method is needed. DNA barcoding uses a standard fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) to identify species and has been successfully used in many taxa. In this study, we applied DNA barcoding to tick species. K2P distances showed that most interspecific divergences exceed 8%, while intraspecific distances were usually lower than 2%. However, intraspecific distances of 12 species were unexpectedly high. ABGD grouping results demonstrated that sequences of these species should be divided into 2 or more groups. And some exceptional clustering occurred among sequences of Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. truncatum, and Hy. dromedarii, Amblyomma testudinarium and A. pattoni, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and R. pumilio, Haemaphysalis parva and Ha. concinna, Ixodes asanumai and I. nipponensis. Additionally, 226 unnamed sequences were assigned to known species or constituted different groups, and K2P distances of all these groups were less than 2%. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that DNA barcoding is a useful tool for the identification of tick species, and further work is needed to reveal ambiguous species delimitation in some problematic genera. PMID:24656809
Zhang, Rui L; Zhang, Bin
Many studies on the population dynamics of questing ticks on pastures and of parasitic ticks on cattle have been conducted. Few, however, have attempted to link the two in a single study. This study aimed to assess the population dynamics of questing ixodid ticks on pastures and of adult ticks on two breeds of cattle with different levels of susceptibility to tick infestation on the same pastures. Between January 2005 and December 2009 questing ixodid ticks were collected monthly from natural pastures at the Döhne Agricultural Development Institute and at the adjacent Campagna Production System in the Amahlathi District, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Between February 2007 and January 2010 adult ticks were collected monthly from Bonsmara and Nguni cattle grazing these pastures. Ten tick species were collected from the pastures and 12 from the cattle. Significantly more questing larvae of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi and Rhipicephalus microplus were recovered from the pastures grazed by Bonsmara cattle than from those grazed by Nguni cattle (p ? 0.05). Significantly more adult Hyalomma rufipes, Rhipicephalus follis, R. appendiculatus, R. decoloratus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. microplus were collected from the Bonsmara cattle than from the Nguni cattle (p ? 0.05). The study showed that Nguni cattle are less susceptible to tick infestation than are Bonsmara cattle and fewer questing ticks are collected from pastures grazed by Nguni cattle than by Bonsmara cattle. PMID:23327215
Nyangiwe, Nkululeko; Goni, Sindisile; Hervé-Claude, Louis P; Ruddat, Inga; Horak, Ivan G
The efficacy of an amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on preparation (1% w/v each) was tested against natural tick infestations of buffaloes, eland and blesbok in three separate trials. The eland were also treated with a 0.02% abamectin (w/v) acaricidal pour-on preparation. The amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on was effective against Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Hyalomma marginatum rufipes on the buffaloes. Both acaricides were effective against R. appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus in the eland. The amitraz/cypermethrin acaricide was effective against R. (Boophilus) decoloratus in the blesbok. Ticks can cause damage to the skins, secondary infections, abscesses, anaemia, loss of condition, tick toxicosis and act as vectors of infectious diseases. Introduction of hosts and/or ticks from endemic to non-endemic areas because of translocation of game, may lead to severe losses. The pouron acaricides tested were effective against natural tick infestations and should always be used according to the manufacturer's instructions and efficacy claims. PMID:16562734
Van Der Merwe, J S; Smit, F J; Durand, A M; Krüger, L P; Michael, L M
Tick species characterization and molecular studies were performed within ornithological surveys conducted during 2010 and 2011 in the Lazio Region of central Italy. A total of 137 ticks were collected from 41 migratory birds belonging to 17 species (four partial migrants and 13 long-distance migrants). Most ticks were nymphs, with a predominance of Hyalomma marginatum marginatum and H. m. rufipes, and a small portion of Ixodes and Amblyomma species. All tick species analyzed were infected, and the molecular pathogen recognition revealed the presence of Rickettsia aeschlimannii, Rickettsia africae, Erlichia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, and Babesia microti, whereas no genomic DNA of Bartonella spp. or Francisella tularensis was detected. The results of the survey show that H. marginatum ticks appear to be a vector of microbial agents that may affect human and animal health and that migratory birds may be an important carrier of these ticks. Additional studies are needed to better investigate the role of migratory birds in the epidemiology of these pathogens. PMID:24576218
Toma, Luciano; Mancini, Fabiola; Di Luca, Marco; Cecere, Jacopo G; Bianchi, Riccardo; Khoury, Cristina; Quarchioni, Elisa; Manzia, Francesca; Rezza, Giovanni; Ciervo, Alessandra
Tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. In order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern Italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. The study had been carried out in three regions of southern Italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. RLB showed that 43.7% of the cattle were positive for nine different species of hemoparasites with either a single infection or a mixed infection. Theileria buffeli was the most common species found, being present in 27.3% of the animals, followed by Anaplasma marginale in 18.1%, Anaplasma centrale in 13.8%, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma bovis in 4.2%, Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.7%, Babesia bovis in 1.6%, Babesia major in 0.2% and Babesia divergens in 0.1%. Complete blood counts showed different degrees of anemia in 363 animals (24.2%) and of these, 169 were RLB-positive for at least one pathogen. Among the ticks that were collected from the cattle, the following species were identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma marginatum, Boophilus annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis (sulcata, parva, inermis and punctata). The results obtained confirmed the spread of endemic tick-borne pathogens in the regions studied. PMID:24614604
Ceci, Luigi; Iarussi, Fabrizio; Greco, Beatrice; Lacinio, Rosanna; Fornelli, Stefania; Carelli, Grazia
Ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that may secrete immunosuppressant molecules, which inhibit host inflammatory and immune responses and provide survival advantages to pathogens at tick bleeding sites in hosts. In the current work, two families of immunoregulatory peptides, hyalomin-A and -B, were first identified from salivary glands of hard tick Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. Three copies of hyalomin-A are encoded by an identical gene and released from the same protein precursor. Both hyalomin-A and -B can exert significant anti-inflammatory functions, either by directly inhibiting host secretion of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-?, monocyte chemotectic protein-1, and interferon-? or by indirectly increasing the secretion of immunosuppressant cytokine of interleukin-10. Hyalomin-A and -B were both found to potently scavenge free radical in vitro in a rapid manner and inhibited adjuvant-induced inflammation in mouse models in vivo. The JNK/SAPK subgroup of the MAPK signaling pathway was involved in such immunoregulatory functions of hyalomin-A and -B. These results showed that immunoregulatory peptides of tick salivary glands suppress host inflammatory response by modulating cytokine secretion and detoxifying reactive oxygen species.
Wu, Jing; Wang, Yipeng; Liu, Han; Yang, Hailong; Ma, Dongying; Li, Jianxu; Li, Dongsheng; Lai, Ren; Yu, Haining
In 2004 and 2005, an epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was conducted in Xinjiang, China. A total of 5,629 serum samples of human and livestock were collected and tested for the CCHFV antibody, and 17,319 ticks were collected for viral identification. Reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition assays showed that the average prevalence of CCHFV antibody was 1.7% for the humans and 12.7% for the livestock. A relatively high antibody prevalence, ranging from 19.1% to 23.4%, was found in the livestock of the northwest, southwest, and northeast parts of the Tarim Basin. When the ticks were pooled to inoculate suckling mice, followed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to detect CCHFV RNA, the average RT-PCR-positive rates for Hyalomma asiaticum kozlovi and H. asiaticum asiaticum were 12.9% and 2.6%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the antibody prevalence in the livestock and the CCHFV prevalence in H. asiaticum of the same geographic region. No CCHFV RNA was detected in Dermacentor nivenus, Rhipicephalus turanius, or Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A total of 27 partial S segments of CCHFVs were sequenced and used for phylogeny analysis. All but one Chinese isolate grouped into the Asia 1 clade, which contains the strains from Xinjiang and Uzbekistan, while the other strain, Fub90009, grouped with strains from the Middle East. PMID:19553586
Sun, Surong; Dai, Xiang; Aishan, Muhetaer; Wang, Xinhui; Meng, Weiwei; Feng, Conghui; Zhang, Fuchun; Hang, Changshou; Hu, Zhihong; Zhang, Yujiang
Abstract Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral disease mainly affecting pastoralists who come in contact with animals infested with Hyalomma ticks, which are the key vectors of CCHF virus (CCHFV). CCHFV has been detected among these ticks in parts of North Eastern Kenya. This study aimed to identify acute cases of CCHF, and to determine the extent of previous exposure to CCHFV in an outpatient population attending Sangailu and Ijara health centers, Ijara District, North Eastern Kenya, presenting with acute febrile illnesses. A total of 517 human serum samples were collected from these patients. The samples were screened for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to CCHF using CCCHF-IgG and IgM ELISA test kits. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to investigate the risk factors associated with evidence of exposure to CCHFV. A single patient tested positive for anti-CCHF IgM, while 96 were positive for anti-CCHF IgG. The seroprevalence of CCHFV was 23% in Sangailu and 14% in Ijara. Most exposed persons were aged 40–49 years. The likelihood of exposure was highest among farmers (29%). Age, location, and contact with donkeys were significantly associated with exposure to CCHFV. Acute CCHFV infections could be occurring without being detected in this population. This study confirms human exposure to CCHF virus in Ijara District, Kenya, and identifies several significant risk factors associated with exposure to CCHFV.
Irura, Zephania; Tigoi, Caroline; Chepkorir, Edith; Orindi, Benedict; Musila, Lillian; Venter, Marietjie; Fischer, Anne; Sang, Rosemary
Models predicting current habitat availability for four prominent tick species in Africa (Boophilus decoloratus, Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Hyalomma truncatum) were constructed using remotely sensed information about abiotic variables and a point-to-point similarity metric. Year-to-year variations in the forecasted habitat suitability over the period 1983-2000 show a clear decrease in habitat availability, which is attributed primarily to increasing temperature in the region over this period. Climate variables were projected to the year 2015 using Fourier series analysis of the decadal abiotic data. The simulations show a trend toward the destruction of the habitats of the four tick species. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was developed to probe the changes in the habitat suitability in response to variations in temperature, vegetation availability and water vapour deficit. Four basic scenarios were studied: increasing or decreasing the temperature 1 or 2 degrees C together with correlated variations in the other abiotic variables. A decrease in temperature was predicted to promote habitat gain for every species except H. truncatum, while an increase of 1 degrees C was forecast to sustain a small but positive response in A. hebraeum and B. decoloratus. Increasing the temperature by 2 degrees C was forecast to have damaging effects on the habitat structure of all four species. The effect of climate warming on the habitat range of these ticks is considered in the light of economically sound control measures over an ecological background. PMID:12967169
The prototype strain LEIV-Ast 01-5 of the unclassified enveloped RNA-containing Khurdun virus, less than 220 nm in size, which is widely distributed among coots (Fulica atra) in the Volga River delta, was deposited on November 4, 2004, at the State Virus Collection (SVC # 992). The virus was isolated annually (2001-2004) with a frequency of 2.3-8.5% (mean 6.3%) when examining 348 coots caught in the lower and middle zones of the Volga River delta. Virological examinations used mixed pools of the brain and spleen to inoculate neonatal albino mice and the cellular line Vero-E6. One strain was isolated from a pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus). The virus could not be isolated from other species of 1080 birds, 20 hares, 140,000 mosquitoes of 5 predominant species, and 6,700 Hyalomma marginatum ticks. Any antigenic relationship of the virus with all the viruses early isolated in the Northern Caspian Sea region has not been found. ELISA has been developed to detect and identify Khurdun virus antigen. PMID:16104519
Galkina, I V; L'vov, L N; Gromashevski?, V L; Moskvina, T M
This artcile describes the results obtained from a tick survey conducted in Haller park along the Kenyan coastline. The survey aimed at evaluating tick-host associations, assessing tick population density, and providing baseline information for planning future tick control and management in the park. Ticks (2,968) were collected by handpicking from eight species of wildlife and by dragging in 14 selected sites within the park. A considerable proportion of ticks were also collected from leaves, stems, and bark of most dominant trees, namely, Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Forst. and Forst.), Cocos nucifera L., Adansonia digitata L., Musa paradisiaca L., and Azadiracta indica Adr. Juss. Dragging was conducted in sites predominantly occupied by Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., Stenotaphrum dimidiatum L. (Kuntze.) Brongn., and Brachiaria xantholeuca Hack. Ex Schinz Stapf. and Loudetia kagerensis K. Schum. Hutch. Eight tick species were identified, and the collection included Rhipicephalus pravus Dönitz 1910, Rhipicephalus pulchellus Gerstäcker 1873, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes Koch 1844, Amblyomma gemma Dönitz 1910, Amblyomma hebraeum Koch 1844, Amblyomma sparsum Neumann 1899, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz 1909, and Boophilus decoloratus Koch 1844. Given that the identified tick species are known to parasitize humans as well as livestock, there exist risks of emergence of zoonotic infections mediated by tick vectors. In the recreational environment of Haller park, where tick vectors share habitats with hosts, there is a need to develop sustainable and effective tick control and management strategies to minimize economic losses that tick infestation may cause. PMID:17017210
Wanzala, W; Okanga, S
It is acknowledged that data from field studies on tick ecology might be biased by collection methods, but actually comparative studies are still limited. Herein we assessed whether the efficiency of flagging and dragging varies according to tick developmental stage, species, season and habitat. Ticks were collected in three sites bordered by an oak forest. The abundance of ticks collected by each collection method varied according to tick species, developmental stage, season, and habitat. Flagging was in general more efficient in collecting adult ticks, especially in spring and winter. Females were more frequently collected by flagging in the meadow and grassland habitats and males in the man-made trail. Flagging collected significantly more adults of Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Haemaphysalis inermis and Ixodes ricinus. Flagging was more efficient in collecting D. marginatus and I. ricinus in spring, and H. inermis and I. ricinus females in both spring and winter. In summer and autumn tick abundances were generally similar, with the exception of D. marginatus female in autumn. Flagging was more efficient in collecting D. marginatus adults in the meadow habitat and in the man-made trail, and I. ricinus adults in the meadow and grassland habitats. Dragging was more efficient in grassland for R. turanicus. Our results suggest that variations in terms of collection method performance are associated to factors linked to tick behaviour, habitat characteristics, and climate. Field studies employing these collection methods should take this into account to avoid misleading conclusions about tick population dynamics and tick-borne pathogen transmission risk. PMID:23417703
Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Capelli, Gioia; Otranto, Domenico
The ability for public/veterinary health agencies to assess the risks posed by tick-borne pathogens is reliant on an understanding of the main tick vector species. Crucially, the status, distribution, and changing trends in tick distribution and abundance are implicit requirements of any risk assessment; however, this is contingent on the quality of tick distribution data. Since 2005 the Health Protection Agency has promoted an enhanced tick surveillance program. Through engagement with a variety of public and veterinary health agencies and practitioners (e.g., clinicians and veterinarians), wildlife groups (deer society, zoos, animal refuge centers, and academics), and amateur entomologists, >4000 ticks from 900 separate records across Great Britain have been submitted, representing 14 tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, Ixodes acuminatus, Ixodes arboricola, Ixodes canisuga, Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes lividus, Ixodes trianguliceps, Ixodes ventalloi, Carios vespertilionis, Dermacentor reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma marginatum, and Amblyomma species). The majority of ticks submitted were I. ricinus (81%), followed by I. hexagonus (10%) and I. frontalis (2.5%). Predominant host groups include companion animals (411 records), humans (198 records), wild birds (111 records), and large wild mammals (88 records), with records also from small/medium wild mammals, livestock, the environment and domestic/aviary birds. The scheme has elucidated the detection of two nonnative tick species, the expansion of previously geographically restricted D. reticulatus and produced ground data on the spread of I. ricinus in southwest England. It has also provided a forum for submission of ticks from the concerned public and particularly those infected with Lyme borreliosis, thus raising awareness among public health agencies of the increased peri-urban tick problem in Britain. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to run a cost-effective nationwide surveillance program to successfully monitor endemic tick species, identify subtle changes in their distribution, and detect the arrival and presence of exotic species. PMID:20849277
Jameson, Lisa J; Medlock, Jolyon M
Rodents and their ectoparasites were studied inside and outside houses in the newly settled areas, east of lakes, Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. Forty traps per month in each of the two sides were used for collecting rodent during 2009. From 221 rodent were collected from inside houses; Mus musculus N=115 (52.04%), Rattus rattus. frugivorous N=54 (24.43%), R. r. alexandrinus N=40 (18.10%) and R. norvegicus N=12 (5.43%). From 177 rodent were collected from outside houses; M musculus N=4 (2.3%), R. r. frugivorous N=29 (16.43%), R. r. alexandrinus N=37 (20.9%), R. norvegicus N=36 (20.3%), Gerbillus pyramidum N= 67 (37.9%) and Jaculus jaculus N=4 (2.3%). Total ectoparasites per rat inside houses were 765 (3.46 E/Rat) which were classified as fleas, N=464 (2.11 F/R); lice N=150 (0.68 L/R) and mites N=151 (0 68 M/R). From outside house, total ectoparasites per rat were 984 (5.5 E/R) which were classified as fleas, N=410(2.31 F/R); lice N=100 (0.56 L/R), mites N=400 (2.23 M/R) and ticks, N=74 (0.42 T/R). From indoors two fleas species were recorded (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenopsyllus segnis); one species of lice (Polyplax spinulosa) and four species of mites (Laelaps nuttall, Ornithonyssus bacoti, Dermanyssus gallinae and Eulaelaps stabularis). The outdoors ectoparasites were; six fleas species (X. cheopis, X. ramesis, Pulex irritans, C. segnis, Stenoponia tripectinata and Nosopsylla sinaiensis); one lice species (P. spinulosa); Six mites species (L. nuttalli, O. bacoti, D. gallinae, E. stabularis, Haemogamnasus pontiger and Hirstionyssus isabellinus) and immature stages of two ticks species (Rhipicephalus sp. and Hyalomma sp.). Most of these ectoparasites were recorded infesting G. pyramidum. PMID:24260816
Bahgat, Iman M
Immunoscreening of a cDNA expression library of the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus tick with purified rabbit anti-R annulatus salivary glands antigens polyclonal antibodies led to the identification of a 661bp sequence. The sequence includes an open reading frame of 543bp encoding a protein of 180 amino acids with calculated molecular weight of 20.51kDa, isoelectric point of 9.071 and with no signal sequence. Comparison of the deduced amino acids with protein data bank showed that the identified polypeptide belongs to the alpha crystallin small heat shock proteins superfamily and shows sequence similarity of 62% and 55% to Ixodes scapularis fed tick salivary gland protein and Ornithodoros parkeri alpha-crystallin protein, respectively. Accordingly, this protein was called Ra-sHSPII. The Ra-sHSPII protein was expressed in E. coli under T7 promotor of the pET-30b vector, purified under denaturation conditions and the immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of the recombinant Ra-sHSPII were evaluated. Direct ELISA showed that the Ra-sHSPII is a strong immunogen. In immunoblotting assay the anti-rRa-sHSPII antisera reacted specifically with purified rRa-sHSPII, with several proteins in R. annulatus whole tick, larval and gut protein extracts in addition to Hyalomma dromedarii and Ornithodoros moubata whole tick protein extracts, as examples of hard and soft tick species, respectively. The rRa-sHSPII protein confers thermal protection to other proteins in vitro as found in other sHSPs. E. coli cell extracts containing the protein were protected from heat-denatured precipitation when heated up to 100°C, whereas extracts from cells not expressing the protein were heat-sensitive at 60°C. PMID:20723560
Shahein, Yasser E; El-Rahim, Mohamed T Abd; Hussein, Nahla A; Hamed, Ragaa R; El-Hakim, Amr E; Barakat, Maged M
Background Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve is one of the most interesting regions in Europe from an epidemiological point of view due to its great biodiversity, local climatic conditions and various types of habitats. Moreover, there is no data regarding the ectoparasite communities of dogs from this area. In this frame, the aims of our study were to establish the tick communities parasitizing dogs and to provide new data regarding seasonal dynamics of a neglected tick species, Rhipicephalus rossicus. Methods A survey was carried out in order to gather information regarding tick species attaching to domestic dogs from a steppic region of southeastern Romania and to establish their seasonal dynamics. The research was conducted from 1 December 2012 to 30 November 2013, on 8 dogs from Iazurile, a locality from the west-central part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. In total, 384 examinations were made, each dog being checked for tick infestation 4 times per month, for one year. Results The 893 ticks found belonged to six species: R. rossicus (95.6%), Dermacentor reticulatus (3.2%), Ixodes ricinus (0.5%), Hyalomma marginatum (0.3%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) (0.2%) and Ixodes crenulatus (0.1%). From the 91 positive examinations, R. rossicus was found in 80 (87.9%). Single species infestation occurred in 84 examinations. In 7 out of 91 positive examinations mixed infestation were found. No ticks were found in December, January and September. Conclusions For R. rossicus, high frequency and intensity were observed in May, June and July. The activity peaks for D. reticulatus were in spring and autumn. Our results highlight that within the range of R. sanguineus s.l., the most common dog tick worldwide, selected dog populations may be predominantly infested by closely related species, like in our case, R. rossicus.
A method for rapid species identification of ticks may help clinicians predict the disease outcomes of patients with tick bites and may inform the decision as to whether to administer postexposure prophylactic antibiotic treatment. We aimed to establish a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) spectrum database based on the analysis of the legs of six tick vectors: Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, and Dermacentor reticulatus. A blind test was performed on a trial set of ticks to identify specimens of each species. Subsequently, we used MALDI-TOF MS to identify ticks obtained from the wild or removed from patients. The latter tick samples were also identified by 12S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing and were tested for bacterial infections. Ticks obtained from the wild or removed from patients (R. sanguineus, I. ricinus, and D. marginatus) were accurately identified using MALDI-TOF MS, with the exception of those ticks for which no spectra were available in the database. Furthermore, one damaged specimen was correctly identified as I. ricinus, a vector of Lyme disease, using MALDI-TOF MS only. Six of the 14 ticks removed from patients were found to be infected by pathogens that included Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Borrelia spp. MALDI-TOF MS appears to be an effective tool for the rapid identification of tick vectors that requires no previous expertise in tick identification. The benefits for clinicians include the more targeted surveillance of patients for symptoms of potentially transmitted diseases and the ability to make more informed decisions as to whether to administer postexposure prophylactic treatment. PMID:23224087
Yssouf, Amina; Flaudrops, Christophe; Drali, Rezak; Kernif, Tahar; Socolovschi, Cristina; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe
The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania. For this, feeding and questing ticks were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and by PCR and subsequent sequencing for Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. A total of 382 ticks, encompassing 5 species from 4 genera, were collected in April-July 2010 from different areas of Romania; of them, 40 were questing ticks and the remainder was collected from naturally infested cattle, sheep, goats, horses or dogs. Tick species analyzed included Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Four rickettsiae of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern were identified for the first time in Romania: Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in D. marginatus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia afzelii, and Babesia microti were found in I. ricinus. Pathogens of veterinary importance were also identified, including Theileria equi in H. marginatum, Babesia occultans in D. marginatus and H. marginatum, Theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli-group in I. ricinus and in H. marginatum and E. canis in R. sanguineus. These findings show a wide distribution of very diverse bacterial and protozoan pathogens at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania, with the potential of causing both animal and human diseases. PMID:23428204
Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia
Borrelia and Rickettsia bacteria are the most important tick-borne agents causing disease in Portugal. Identification and characterization of these circulating agents, mainly in recreational areas, is crucial for the development of preventive measures in response to the gradually increasing exposure of humans to tick vectors. A total of 677 questing ticks including Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma lusitanicum, H. marginatum, and Haemaphysalis punctata were collected in a Safari Park in Alentejo, Portugal, to investigate the prevalences of infection and characterize Borrelia and Rickettsia species. From a total of 371 ticks tested by PCR for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), of which 247 were tested for Rickettsia, an infection prevalence of 18.3% was found for B. lusitaniae and 55.1% for Rickettsia spp. Sequence analysis of positive amplicons identified the presence of B. lusitaniae (18.3%), R. monacensis strain IRS3 (51.7%), and R. helvetica (48.3%) in I. ricinus. R. slovaca (41.5%), R. raoultii (58.5%), and also B. lusitaniae (21%) were identified in D. marginatus ticks. One (5.9%) H. lusitanicum was infected with B. lusitaniae, and R. massiliae was found in one Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Coinfection was found in 7 (20%) I. ricinus and 34 (23.3%) D. marginatus ticks. We report, for the first time, simultaneous infection with R. helvetica and B. lusitaniae and also R. slovaca, the agent of TIBOLA/DEBONEL, with B. lusitaniae. Additionally, 6 isolates of B. lusitaniae were established, and isolates of Rickettsia were also obtained for the detected species using tick macerates cultured in mammalian and mosquito cell lines. This report describes the detection and isolation of tick-borne agents from a Portuguese Safari Park, highlighting the increased likelihood of infection with multiple agents to potential visitors or staff. PMID:21771525
Milhano, Natacha; de Carvalho, Isabel Lopes; Alves, Ana Sofia; Arroube, Sofia; Soares, Jorge; Rodriguez, Pablo; Carolino, Manuela; Núncio, Maria Sofia; Piesman, Joseph; de Sousa, Rita
Serum samples collected in a cross-sectional survey of grazing cattle on Manyara Ranch, Monduli district, Tanzania, were tested by indirect major antigenic protein 1 fragment B (MAP 1-B) ELISA to determine the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia ruminantium and to assess ranch-level risk factors for heartwater. Heartwater-exposed cattle were widespread on the ranch and overall seroprevalence was 50.3% (95% CI, 44.9-55.6), enough to indicate an endemically unstable situation. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was used to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity. Two factors appeared to increase the herd's risk for contracting heartwater. Seroprevalence increased significantly with age (beta = 0.19 per year of age, P < 0.001) and animals carrying ticks of any species were associated with an increased risk of infection with E. ruminantium (Odds ratio, OR = 3.3, P < 0.001). The force of infection based on the age seroprevalence profile was estimated at 18 per 100 cattle year-risk. The current tick control measures on the ranch were associated with a decreased risk of infection with E. ruminantium (OR = 0.25 for no dipping and OR = 0.31 for low dipping, P < 0.001). Six tick species were identified; in order of frequency these were: Ambylomma variegatum 59.9%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi 13.9%, Rhipicephalus pulchellus 12.5%, Hyalomma truncatum 7.03% and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus 6.07%. The least encountered tick was Rhipicephalus simus, which accounted for 0.38%. The cattle seemed well adapted to their environment and capable of resisting the tick burden under this extensive wildlife/livestock grazing and interaction system. PMID:18846851
Swai, E S; Mtui, P F; Chang'a, A K; Machange, G E
Recent advances in climate research together with a better understanding of tick–pathogen interactions, the distribution of ticks and the diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens raise questions about the impact of environmental factors on tick abundance and spread and the prevalence and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. While undoubtedly climate plays a role in the changes in distribution and seasonal abundance of ticks, it is always difficult to disentangle factors impacting on the abundance of tick hosts from those exerted by human habits. All together, climate, host abundance, and social factors may explain the upsurge of epidemics transmitted by ticks to humans. Herein we focused on tick-borne pathogens that affect humans with epidemic potential. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (Lyme disease), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocytic anaplasmosis), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tick-borne encephalitis) are transmitted by Ixodes spp. Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever) is transmitted by Hyalomma spp. In this review, we discussed how vector tick species occupy the habitat as a function of different climatic factors, and how these factors impact on tick survival and seasonality. How molecular events at the tick–pathogen interface impact on pathogen transmission is also discussed. Results from statistically and biologically derived models are compared to show that while statistical models are able to outline basic information about tick distributions, biologically derived models are necessary to evaluate pathogen transmission rates and understand the effect of climatic variables and host abundance patterns on pathogen transmission. The results of these studies could be used to build early alert systems able to identify the main factors driving the subtle changes in tick distribution and seasonality and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens.
Estrada-Pena, Agustin; Ayllon, Nieves; de la Fuente, Jose
Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area.
A method for rapid species identification of ticks may help clinicians predict the disease outcomes of patients with tick bites and may inform the decision as to whether to administer postexposure prophylactic antibiotic treatment. We aimed to establish a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) spectrum database based on the analysis of the legs of six tick vectors: Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, and Dermacentor reticulatus. A blind test was performed on a trial set of ticks to identify specimens of each species. Subsequently, we used MALDI-TOF MS to identify ticks obtained from the wild or removed from patients. The latter tick samples were also identified by 12S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing and were tested for bacterial infections. Ticks obtained from the wild or removed from patients (R. sanguineus, I. ricinus, and D. marginatus) were accurately identified using MALDI-TOF MS, with the exception of those ticks for which no spectra were available in the database. Furthermore, one damaged specimen was correctly identified as I. ricinus, a vector of Lyme disease, using MALDI-TOF MS only. Six of the 14 ticks removed from patients were found to be infected by pathogens that included Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Borrelia spp. MALDI-TOF MS appears to be an effective tool for the rapid identification of tick vectors that requires no previous expertise in tick identification. The benefits for clinicians include the more targeted surveillance of patients for symptoms of potentially transmitted diseases and the ability to make more informed decisions as to whether to administer postexposure prophylactic treatment.
Yssouf, Amina; Flaudrops, Christophe; Drali, Rezak; Kernif, Tahar; Socolovschi, Cristina; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier
A framework to evaluate the impact of ticks on human health under various scenarios of climate change is proposed. The purpose is not to provide a comprehensive plan (e.g. the economic impact of ticks on human society is not included), instead we wish to describe a series of indices that would be helpful by obtaining homogeneous comparisons of impact and vulnerability exerted by ticks in different regions, countries or continents, using normalized sets of population, vegetation, climate and physical attributes of the territory. Three tick species, i.e. Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Hyalomma marginatum, have been traced over the territory of Spain to further explain the computation of these indices. The discussion is based on tick habitat suitability, used as a measure of the abiotic (climate) fitness of the habitat for the species in question, and the sensitivity of each tick species to the rate of change of habitat suitability with respect to climate change. The impact is the rate of change in habitat suitability weighted with a fuzzy logic function evaluating the total number of people in an area, percent of rural population and accessibility of the geographical divisions (expressed as hexagons with a 10 km radius) used in the study. The different climate scenarios evaluated in relation to ticks show that the north-western part of Spain would suffer the greatest impact in case the mean temperature would increase, while the Mediterranean region would suffer the highest impact if temperatures decreased. Vulnerability, based on the sanitary structure of the territory and on the impact on human activities due to the change in tick distribution and abundance, is proposed as a measure of adaptation of society to these climate scenarios. The cost is evaluated as a function of land use and tick habitat suitability in a buffer zone surrounding each geographic division. All indices proposed have been obtained by search of common and/or publicly available data sets. PMID:18686241
Estrada-Peńa, Agustin; Venzal, José M
Tick control on livestock relies principally on the use of acaricides but the development of acaricide resistance and concerns for environmental pollution underscore the need for alternative control methods, for instance through the use of anti-tick vaccines. Two commercial vaccines based on the recombinant Bm86 protein from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were developed. Partial protection of the Bm86 vaccine against other Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) and Hyalomma tick species suggests that the efficacy of a Bm86-based vaccine may be enhanced when based on the orthologous recombinant Bm86 antigen. We therefore identified and analysed the Bm86 homologues from species representing the main argasid and ixodid tick genera, including two from the prostriate Ixodes ricinus tick species. A novel protein from metastriate ticks with multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains which is structurally related to Bm86 was identified by using a 3? rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3?-RACE) method with a degenerate primer based on a highly conserved region of Bm86 and its orthologues. This second protein was named ATAQ after a part of its signature peptide. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that ATAQ proteins are expressed in both midguts and Malpighian tubules, in contrast to Bm86 orthologues which are expressed exclusively in tick midguts. Furthermore, expression of this protein over the life stages of R. microplus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was more continuous compared with Bm86. Although a highly effective vaccine antigen, gene silencing of Bm86 by RNA interference (RNAi) produced only a weak phenotype. Similarly the RNAi phenotype of Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi females in which the expression of Ree86, ReeATAQ or a combination of both genes was silenced by RNAi did not differ from a mock-injected control group. The vaccine potential of ATAQ proteins against tick infestations is yet to be evaluated.
Nijhof, Ard M.; Balk, Jesper A.; Postigo, Milagros; Rhebergen, Anne Marie; Taoufik, Amar; Jongejan, Frans
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an increasing health concern in Turkey since 2002. There were also some recent human cases from the South Marmara region of Turkey; thus, a tick survey was performed, and possible vector tick species for the CCHF virus were determined in the region. A total of 740 adult ticks were collected from infested livestock from five locations: Çanakkale-Biga, Bursa-Orhaneli, Bursa-Keles, Bal?kesir and Bilecik. Total of 11 tick species from the genera Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor, Ixodes and Haemaphysalis were identified. Rhipicephalus ticks were dominant in the region; the most frequently observed tick species was R. turanicus, (53.1 %), and only 15.4 % of the identified ticks were H. marginatum. The occurrence of H. rufipes infestation in the region fort he first time. A total of 73 pools of adult ticks were tested with both an antigen-detecting ELISA and RT real-time PCR (RT rt PCR). The presence of the CCHF virus was demonstrated in 9 (12.3 %) of the tested tick pools. Although seven of the tick pools were positive for the CCHF virus with both of the methods, one pool was positive only with RT rt PCR and the other pool was only positive with the ELISA. Positive results were obtained from ticks collected from cattle, sheep and goats from two locations, Bursa-Orhaneli and Bilecik. The CCHF virus was detected in R. turanicus (n = 3), R. bursa (n = 2), H. marginatum (n = 2) and D. marginatus (n = 2) ticks. The results of this study confirm the presence of the CCHF virus and present preliminary data on the vector tick species in the southern Marmara region of Turkey. PMID:23229492
Yesilbag, Kadir; Aydin, Levent; Dincer, Ender; Alpay, Gizem; Girisgin, A Onur; Tuncer, Pelin; Ozkul, Aykut
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonosis caused by a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. Infection is transmitted to humans mostly by Hyalomma ticks and also by direct contact with the blood or tissues of infected humans or viremic livestock. Clinical features usually include a rapid progression characterized by hemorrhage, myalgia and fever, with a lethality rate up to 30%. CCHF is one of the most widely distributed viral hemorrhagic fevers and has been reported in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, as well as parts of Europe. There is no approved vaccine or specific treatment against CCHF virus (CCHFV) infections. In this context, an accurate diagnosis as well as a reliable surveillance of CCHFV infections is essential. Diagnostic techniques include virus culture, serology and molecular methods, which are now increasingly used. The European Network for the Diagnostics of “Imported” Viral Diseases organized the first international external quality assessment of CCHVF molecular diagnostics in 2011 to assess the efficiency and accurateness of CCHFV molecular methods applied by expert laboratories. A proficiency test panel of 15 samples was distributed to the participants including 10 different CCHFV preparations generated from infected cell cultures, a preparation of plasmid cloned with the nucleoprotein of CCHFV, two CCHFV RNA preparations and two negative controls. Forty-four laboratories worldwide participated in the EQA study and 53 data sets were received. Twenty data sets (38%) met all criteria with optimal performance, 10 (19%) with acceptable performance, while 23 (43%) reported results showing a need for improvement. Differences in performance depended on the method used, the type of strain tested, the concentration of the sample tested and the laboratory performing the test. These results indicate that there is still a need for improving testing conditions and standardizing protocols for the molecular detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.
Escadafal, Camille; Olschlager, Stephan; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Papa, Anna; Vanhomwegen, Jessica; Wolfel, Roman; Mirazimi, Ali; Teichmann, Anette; Donoso-Mantke, Oliver; Niedrig, Matthias
Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum , the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. We used direct and indirect methods to compare and evaluate exposure to A. phagocytophilum in horses in northern Tunisia. Methods Serum from 60 horses was tested by IFA for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum , and whole blood was tested for A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene using a nested-PCR. To examine the risk of A. phagocytophilum transmission, 154 ticks that had been collected from horses were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by nested-PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene. Results This is the first time that A. phagocytophilum has been detected in horses in Tunisia, with an overall seroprevalence of 40/60 (67%). Six of the seroreactive samples (10%) had an IFA titer of 1:80, 14 (23%) of 1:160, 8 (13%) of 1:320 and 12 (20%) a titer 1???640. The seroprevalence revealed no significant regional and sex differences. In contrast, a significant difference was observed between breeds. Eight (13%) of the horses were positive for A. phagocytophilum in the PCR, with no significant breed and age differences. Hyalomma marginatum was a predominant tick species (130/154), and 3 were infected by A. phagocytophilum (a prevalence of 2.3%). The concordance rate of A. phagocytophilum detection between IFA and PCR had a k value of ?0.07. Conclusions The results presented in this study suggest that horses infested by ticks in Tunisia are exposed to A. phagocytophilum.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most important tick-borne viral disease of humans, causing sporadic cases or outbreaks of severe illness across a huge geographic area, from western China to the Middle East and southeastern Europe and throughout most of Africa. CCHFV is maintained in vertical and horizontal transmission cycles involving ixodid ticks and a variety of wild and domestic vertebrates, which do not show signs of illness. The virus circulates in a number of tick genera, but Hyalomma ticks are the principal source of human infection, probably because both immature and adult forms actively seek hosts for the blood meals required at each stage of maturation. CCHF occurs most frequently among agricultural workers following the bite of an infected tick, and to a lesser extent among slaughterhouse workers exposed to the blood and tissues of infected livestock and medical personnel through contact with the body fluids of infected patients. CCHFV is the most genetically diverse of the arboviruses, with nucleotide sequence differences among isolates ranging from 20% for the viral S segment to 31% for the M segment. Viruses with diverse sequences can be found within the same geographic area, while closely related viruses have been isolated in far distant regions, suggesting that widespread dispersion of CCHFV has occurred at times in the past, possibly by ticks carried on migratory birds or through the international livestock trade. Reassortment among genome segments during co-infection of ticks or vertebrates appears to have played an important role in generating diversity, and represents a potential future source of novel viruses. In this article, we first review current knowledge of CCHFV, summarizing its molecular biology, maintenance and transmission, epidemiology and geographic range. We also include an extensive discussion of CCHFV genetic diversity, including maps of the range of the virus with superimposed phylogenetic trees. We then review the features of CCHF, including the clinical syndrome, diagnosis, treatment, pathogenesis, vaccine development and laboratory animal models of CCHF. The paper ends with a discussion of the possible future geographic range of the virus. For the benefit of researchers, we include a Supplementary Table listing all published reports of CCHF cases and outbreaks in the English-language literature, plus some principal articles in other languages, with total case numbers, case fatality rates and all CCHFV strains on GenBank. PMID:23906741
Bente, Dennis A; Forrester, Naomi L; Watts, Douglas M; McAuley, Alexander J; Whitehouse, Chris A; Bray, Mike
Background Modelling the environmental niche and spatial distribution of pathogen-transmitting arthropods involves various quality and methodological concerns related to using climate data to capture the environmental niche. This study tested the potential of MODIS remotely sensed and interpolated gridded covariates to estimate the climate niche of the medically important ticks Ixodes ricinus and Hyalomma marginatum. We also assessed model inflation resulting from spatial autocorrelation (SA) and collinearity (CO) of covariates used as time series of data (monthly values of variables), principal components analysis (PCA), and a discrete Fourier transformation. Performance of the models was measured using area under the curve (AUC), autocorrelation by Moran’s I, and collinearity by the variance inflation factor (VIF). Results The covariate spatial resolution slightly affected the final AUC. Consistently, models for H. marginatum performed better than models for I. ricinus, likely because of a species-derived rather than covariate effect because the former occupies a more limited niche. Monthly series of interpolated climate always better captured the climate niche of the ticks, but the SA was around 2 times higher and the maximum VIF between covariates around 30 times higher in interpolated than in MODIS-derived covariates. Interpolated or remotely sensed monthly series of covariates always had higher SA and CO than their transformations by PCA or Fourier. Regarding the effects of background point selection on AUC, we found that selection based on a set of rules for the distance to the core distribution and the heterogeneity of the landscape influenced model outcomes. The best selection relied on a random selection of points as close as possible to the target organism area of distribution, but effects are variable according to the species modelled. Conclusion Testing for effects of SA and CO is necessary before incorporating these covariates into algorithms building a climate envelope. Results support a higher SA and CO in an interpolated climate dataset than in remotely sensed covariates. Satellite-derived information has fewer drawbacks compared to interpolated climate for modelling tick relationships with environmental niche. Removal of SA and CO by a harmonic regression seems most promising because it retains both biological and statistical meaning.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus in the highland (31.7%) than in both the lowland (0%) and midland (1.9%) was observed. The risk of tick infestation in the lowland and midland was 9.883 times and 13.988 times higher than the risk in the highland, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of Ctenocephalides species was encountered in both the lowland (OR = 4.738, p = 0.011) and midland (OR = 8.078, p = 0.000) than in the highland agro-ecological zone. However, a significant difference (p = 0.191) amongst agro-ecological zones was not found for the prevalence of Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country. PMID:23327319
Kumsa, Bersissa; Beyecha, Kebede; Geloye, Mesula