The pathogenicity and morphology of a large Babesia species, Babesia sp. Xinjiang, are described here. The parasite has very low virulence for sheep, and caused no detectable clinical symptoms. Splenectomized sheep infected with the parasite showed mild fever and low parasitemia and would recover gradually. If splenectomized sheep were immuno-suppressed with dexamethasone, the parasitemia could reach 8.5%, and death occurred. A splenectomized calf could not be infected with the Babesia species. Paired parasites were the typical form of the Babesia species in erythrocytes and the average size of a pair of parasites was 2.42 (+/-0.35) microm x 1.06 (+/-0.22) microm. Merozoites were found in the gut, salivary gland, haemolymph, ovary and eggs of female Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum engorged on sheep infected with the parasites. The results of experimental transmission showed that the larval, nymph and adult stages of H. a. anatolicum could transmit the Babesia species to sheep. PMID:19460377
Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Liu, Junlong; Lu, Bingyi; Bai, Qi; Luo, Jianxun; Jorgensen, Wayne; Chauvin, Alain; Yin, Hong
Crossbred calves (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) were immunized with a fractionated midgut supernate antigen (GS-F Ag from Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum). The first inoculation on day 0 was given intramuscularly after emulsification with Freund's complete adjuvant; the second was given subcutaneously on day 14 in incomplete Freund's adjuvant; and the third on day 35 was given subcutaneously without adjuvant. Each injection comprised
D. P. Banerjee; R. Kumar; S. Kumar; P. P. Sengupta
Extracts prepared from unfed larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum were purified by immunoaffinity chromatography using anti-gut IgG as ligand. Affinity purified antigen (Aff-GHLAg) was used to immunize cross-bred (Bos taurus?×?B. indicus) calves of 6–7 months of age. Immunized calves rejected 70.6% larvae, 54.5% nymphs and 61.9% adults. No significant changes in the engorged weight of females was observed; however, significant
G. Das; S. Ghosh; M. H. Khan; J. K. Sharma
Immunological cross-reactivity was established between salivary gland extract antigens of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (H.a.a) and Boophilus microplus (B.m.), using native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE), immunoblotting, DOT-enzyme immunoassay (DOT-EIA) and in vivo intra-dermal skin test revealing immediate type hypersensitivity swelling reaction. Native-PAGE revealed six proteins in common of molecular weights of 60, 66, 148, 264, 300 and > 300 kDa in the
A. Parmar; A. S. Grewal; P. Dhillon
In India, control of tick infestations is a major problem facing the owners of highly productive crossbred cattle. To develop\\u000a suitable immunoprotective measures against the multitick infestations, specific problem encountered by the Indian farmers,\\u000a an attempt has been made to identify candidate protein molecules in the larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum\\u000a anatolicum and Boophilus microplus. Employing two steps affinity chromatography method,
N. K. Singh; S. Ghosh
The tick is a common ectoparasite of livestock and humans, and is responsible for the transmission of pathogens among hosts. Direct and indirect impacts of ticks include limiting the sustainable development of the animal husbandry industry and detrimental effects on human health. Despite these negative effects, the main method of controlling ticks remains the application of chemical acaricides, which can lead to ambient pollution and the development of tick resistance to them. The biocontrol of ticks is one of the alternative control methods that has received recent research attention. The present study used Tenebrio moliter bait methods to collect 13 species of entomopathogenic fungi from different areas in China that were then tested to observe their effects on engorged female Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks. The results showed that more than half of the isolates had some pathogenic effects on the ticks; in particular, two Beauveria bassiana strains (B.bAT01, B.bAT17) and one Metarhizium anisopliae strain (M.aAT26) were highly virulent, causing up to 90% mortality. In addition, H. anatolicum anatolicum females were treated with B. bassiana B.bAT17 using different concentrations of the fungus. Results revealed that B. bassiana B.bAT17 is highly pathogenic against engorged H. anatolicum anatolicum females. This is the first report of the pathogenic effect of entomopathogenic fungi on engorged H. anatolicum anatolicum females. However, studies of the efficiency of this fungus against ticks in the field are required before it can be used for tick management in practice. PMID:21511397
Sun, Ming; Ren, Qiaoyun; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Ma, Miling; Gou, Huitian; Chen, Ze; Li, Youquan; Liu, Aihong; Niu, Qingli; Yang, Jifei; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun
The multi host tick, Hyalomma anatolicum, is the commonest Hyalomma species in India and cattle serves as the main host of this species. A study to evaluate the acaricide resistance of H. anatolicum to deltamethrin, cypermethrin and diazinon was conducted in 20 areas located in three agro climatic regions known to have abundance of the species. Results obtained by the "larval packet test" (LPT) showed a low grade resistance (level-I, RF <5) in the tick species to both deltamethrin and cypermethrin in 10 areas and higher grade resistance (level-II, RF <25) to deltamethrin in one area, where intensive use of synthetic pyrethroids are practiced for tick control. Low grade resistance to diazinon (level I) was recorded in six areas where organophosphates compounds are extensively used for agricultural practices allowing increased exposure of the moulting instars of the ticks to these chemicals. Biochemical analysis of the samples suggested involvement of esterase and alterations of acetylcholinesterase in the resistance mechanisms. PMID:22760859
Shyma, K P; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Ray, D D; Ghosh, S
Crossbred calves (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) were immunized with a fractionated midgut supernate antigen (GS-F Ag from Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum). The first inoculation on day 0 was given intramuscularly after emulsification with Freund's complete adjuvant; the second was given subcutaneously on day 14 in incomplete Freund's adjuvant; and the third on day 35 was given subcutaneously without adjuvant. Each injection comprised 1 mg of antigen protein. Ten days after the last inoculation, the immunized calves were challenged simultaneously with 1000 larvae and 20 pairs (20 males and 20 females) of adult H. a. anatolicum on one ear and a similar number of Hyalomma dromedarii ticks on the other ear. There was a significant decrease in the percentage larval engorgement and larval rejection of up to 34% on the immunized calves. A significant increase in the engorgement and preoviposition periods and a significant decrease in the engorged weight, egg mass weight and reproductive index were observed for adult female ticks when fed on the immunized calves. The GS-F Ag also induced a considerable degree of cross-protection in calves against H. dromedarii larval ticks. PMID:14690089
Banerjee, D P; Kumar, R; Kumar, S; Sengupta, P P
The Bm86 homologue of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum Izatnagar isolate was cloned and expressed in methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris as intracellular, glycosylated and particulated form. It was named as rHaa86, the first recombinant protein of H. a. anatolicum. Seven epidermal growth factor-like domains predicted in Haa86 were structurally similar with that of its Bm86 counterpart. The identity between the corresponding EGF like domains of Bm86 and Haa86 were ranging from 51.3% to 78.3%. The molecular weight of the rHaa86 was 120-140 kDa, with possible 50-70 kDa glycosylation. The purified rHaa86 was characterized immunologically and evaluated for its immunoprotective potential against homologous challenge infestation in three groups of cross-bred calves. The immediate rejection percentage of females of H. a. anatolicum was 36 5%, 12.4% and 10.1% fed on immunized (group 1), adjuvant control (group 2) and untreated control (group 3) calves, respectively. The percent rejection of female ticks fed on immunized calves was 24.1% and 26.4% higher than for the ticks fed on control groups 2 and 3, respectively (P < 0.05). The reduction of number of females, mean weight of eggs, adult females and efficacy of immunogen were 58.0%, 9.0%, 5.0% and 61.6%, respectively. The mean reproductive index of females fed on group 1 calves was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the females fed on the control groups and 44% reduction in the number of engorged larvae was recorded from the group 1 calves. The data demonstrated that rHaa86 antigen based vaccine could serve as one of the effective components in the integrated control of H. a. anatolicum. PMID:19222782
Azhahianambi, P; De La Fuente, J; Suryanarayana, V V S; Ghosh, S
Hard ticks have great importance because of blood feeding and transmitting dangerous human and animal diseases. Each year, they cause a lot of economical damage to the livestock industry. Control of ticks and tick-borne diseases is a major priority in most parts of the world and many studies have been done in this field. We know that studying haemoparasites and assessing the effect of different compounds on ticks requires a lot of money, support and sometimes it is time consuming. Considering all of these problems, today, in some research laboratories throughout the world, artificial in vitro feeding of ticks has become common. Development and application of such methods provide a cheap and accessible background for investigating haemoparasitic diseases under controlled conditions. For the first time we report successful in vitro feeding of two important ixodid ticks of the genus Hyalomma. PMID:21474247
Tajeri, S; Razmi, G R
Effects of the plant extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica) on eggs, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum was studied at concentrations of 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, and 12.8%. The extract was found to have a significant effect on the hatching rate of eggs. It significantly increased the hatching rate during the first 7 days post-treatment (DPT) giving incompletely
S. Abdel-Shafy; A. A. Zayed
The pathogenicity and morphology of a large Babesia species, Babesia sp. Xinjiang, are described here. The parasite has very low virulence for sheep, and caused no detectable clinical symptoms. Splenectomized sheep infected with the parasite showed mild fever and low parasitemia and would recover gradually. If splenectomized sheep were immuno-suppressed with dexamethasone, the parasitemia could reach 8.5%, and death occurred.
Guiquan Guan; Miling Ma; Emmanuelle Moreau; Junlong Liu; Bingyi Lu; Qi Bai; Jianxun Luo; Wayne Jorgensen; Alain Chauvin; Hong Yin
Soluble nymphal antigens (HNAg) were purified by immunoaffinity chromatography using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B coupled with immunoglobulin ligands from animals immunized with HNAg and 69–71% protected against challenge infestations, and 8% recovery of the purified protein (Aff-HNAg) was obtained. Following immunization of crossbred calves (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) with 1600 µg of Aff-HNAg in three divided doses, significant rejections of larvae (p<0.001,
J. K. Sharma; S. Ghosh; M. H. Khan; G. Das
The formation of the developmental cycle in Ixodidae ticks has apparently been influenced by adaptation to parasitism on different animals. The progressive cycle may have developed in relation to the changing fauna of hosts. On this basis, the development...
G. V. Serdyukova
A Babesia species has been identified and shown to be transmitted by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in China. When larvae, nymphs and adults developed from engorged females H. a. anatolicum collected from cattle in Xinjiang province were infested onto the Babesia-free calves, piroplasms of Babesia sp. were seen in blood smears from cattle infested with nymphs (2 calves), but not from
Jianxun Luo; Hong Yin; Guiquan Guan; Qicai Zhang; Wenshun Lu
Qualitative and quantitative studies were made of the hemocytes of 4 tick species from 2 genera representing the 2 principal tick families: Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum Koch and Hyalomma dromedarii Koch (Family Ixodidae), and Argas (Persicargas) persicus...
R. M. Dolp
A Babesia species has been identified and shown to be transmitted by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in China. When larvae, nymphs and adults developed from engorged females H. a. anatolicum collected from cattle in Xinjiang province were infested onto the Babesia-free calves, piroplasms of Babesia sp. were seen in blood smears from cattle infested with nymphs (2 calves), but not from the calves infested with larvae (1 calf or adult ticks (2 calves). This Babesia sp. proved to be of low virulence, causing 3% parasites which lasted 3-4 days. PMID:12051599
Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong; Guan, Guiquan; Zhang, Qicai; Lu, Wenshun
A description is given of the course and treatment of black fever. The pathogene of the disease is a filtrable virus. The main source and carrier of the virus is the tick Hyalomma anatolicum. The disease occurs sporadically during the spring and summer mo...
I. K. Musabaev
The diagnostic characters of larval, nymphal and adult Hyalomma aegyptium (L., 1758) based on specimens from the territory of most part of the area are given. In the diagnoses of immature stages, was used the characters, which were formerly tested by the author for diagnostics of other Hyalomma species occurring in the former USSR. Commonly used characters and those which were revealed by the author as useful for the majority of Euhyalomma Filippova, 1984 and Hyalommina Schulze, 1919 species, have been used in the diagnoses of male and female. Differential diagnosis of Hyalomma aegyptium. Female: genital orifice as wide arch with straight posterior margin (fig. 2, 5); vestibular part of vagina funnel-like, greatly swollen (fig. 2, 5); setae of alloscutum stick-like, tapering in apical one (figs 2, 3, 4); second segment of palps with proximal narrowing (figs 3, 1, 2); spurs of coxae I widely separated, triangular, wide, subequal in size (fig. 3, 5). Male: any grooves of conscutum absent, except short and pit-like cervical ones (fig. 4); punctation sparce and impressive (fig. 4); adenal shields short and wide, without inner branch, posterior part widened, anteromedian margin straight (fig. 5, 4); spurs of coxae I widely separated, triangular, wide, subequal in size (fig. 6, 5). Nymph: posteromedian setae of alloscutum stick-like and, as a rule, with indented apices (fig. 7, 2); spurs of coxae I large, median spur as equilateral triangle and shorter than lateral one (fig. 7, 8); spurs of coxae II-IV well developed, with acute apices (fig. 7, 8). Larva: posterior part of scutum (behind the eyes) heavy elongated, its apex straight, postero-lateral incisions weakly developed (fig. 8, 1); spurs of coxae I as equilateral triangle in shape and with rounded apices, spurs of coxae II-III very large (fig. 8, 5). PMID:12677670
Apanaskevich, D A
In the neighbourhood of Askabad the following species of Ixodidae were found in a free state: Hyalomma detritum P. Sch. - a hungry female; H. dromedarii Koch. (= jakimovi Ol.) - a hungry female and a male; H. plumbeum Panz. (marginatum Koch) - 3 males and...
Y. P. Vlasov
A total of 2388 cattle and 442 shelters, from two provinces (Elazig and Malatya) endemic for tropical theileriosis in the east of Turkey, were studied for Hyalomma tick populations from July 1993 to July 1995 in Elazig and from May 1998 to January 1999 in Malatya. Four thousand five hundred and eighty one of 7455 Hyalomma ticks were collected from
M Aktas; N Dumanli; M Angin
Objective To carry out the distribution survey of hard ticks of livestock in Boeen Zahra and Takistan counties of Qazvin province from April 2010 to September 2010. Methods Nearly about 2?638 sheep, 461 goats and 318 cattle of 38 herds in different geographical areas were searched for tick infestation. Results The species compositions collected from the livestock of Boeen Zahra and Takistan were Haemaphysalis concinna (0.63%), Haemaphysalis sulcata (12.66%), Hyalomma anatolicum (3.80%), Hyalomma asiaticum (3.16%), Hyalomma detritum (5.70%), Hyalomma dromedarii (28.48%), Hyalomma marginatum (13.29%), Hyalomma schulzei (1.89%), Rhipicephalus bursa (3.16%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.16%), and for Takistan's livestock were Hyalomma dromedarii (9.86%), Hyalomma marginatum (13.29%), Hyalomma schulzei (1.89%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.16%), respectively. Hard ticks compositions in different topographic areas were different. Hyalomma species had the most prevalence in the areas. Conclusions The veterinary and public health investigation of the above species should be taken.
Shemshad, Masoomeh; Shemshad, Khadijeh; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Shokri, Majid; Barmaki, Alireza; Baniardalani, Mojgan; Rafinejad, Javad
In a previous study conducted in Cyprus, various spotted fever group Rickettsia species were detected and identified in ticks by molecular analysis. Among them, a partially characterized Rickettsia species was detected in Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. We report characterization of this rickettsial strain by using polymerase chain reaction sequencing analysis of partial citrate synthase A, outer membrane protein A, outer membrane protein B, and 17-kD protein genes. We propose a provisional name Rickettsia sp. strain Tselenti for this strain until it is isolated and further characterized. PMID:23438767
Sandalakis, Vassilios; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Ioannou, Ioannis; Psaroulaki, Anna
The Bm86 antigen, as originally identified in Boophilus microplus, is the basis of commercial tick vaccines against this tick species. The potential for using this antigen or homologues of the antigen in vaccination against other tick species has been assessed. We have conducted vaccine trials in cattle using the B. microplus-derived recombinant Bm86 vaccine (TickGARD) using pairs of vaccinated calves and control calves. These were infested with B. microplus and Boophilus decoloratus larvae simultaneously. For both species, the numbers of engorged female adult ticks, their weight and egg-laying capacity were all reduced, leading to a reduction in reproductive capacity of 74% for B. microplus and 70% for B. decoloratus. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks were fed both as immatures as well as adults on vaccinated calves and non-vaccinated controls. There was an overall 50% reduction in the total weight of nymphs engorging on vaccinated calves, and a suggestion of a subsequent effect on feeding adults. For Hyalomma dromedarii there was a 95% reduction in the number of nymphs engorging and a further 55% reduction in weight of those ticks surviving. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyomma variegatum ticks were fed simultaneously both as immatures and subsequently as adults. There was no evidence for a significant vaccination effect. Finally, the amino acid sequence of a Bm86 homologue found in H. a. anatolicum unequivocally demonstrated the conservation of this molecule in this species. Our strategy for the development of multivalent anti-tick vaccines is discussed in relation to these findings. PMID:11523920
de Vos, S; Zeinstra, L; Taoufik, O; Willadsen, P; Jongejan, F
Tick paralysis caused by the secretion of toxin with saliva while taking a blood meal is an important veterinary disease, but is rare in humans. Although it has certain geographical proclivities, it exists worldwide. Tick paralysis was demonstrated for the first time in Egypt among four children living in rural area at Giza Governorate. The clinical pictures were confused with rabies; myasthensia gravis; botulism; diphtheritic polyneuropathy encountered in rural areas. The recovery of tick infesting the four little children and negative clinical and laboratory data of all diseases denoted tick paralysis. The encountered ticks infesting their animals were Rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs, Hyalomma dromedarii on camels and Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and Haemaphysalis sp. on goats. The case was recognized as first record of tick paralysis in Egypt. PMID:22662597
Mosabah, Amira A Abd El-rahman; Morsy, Tosson A
Uzbekistan is located between the greatest rivers of Central Asia and shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south. The climate is severely continental and arid, with hot summers and cold winters. These climatic particularities of Uzbekistan determine the distribution of tick fauna. The Ixodidae family of ticks is represented by 23 species in Uzbekistan. These ticks, as ectoparasites, cause significant damage to the livestock breeding and also serve as carriers of many human and animal diseases. During the last 10 years, more than 30,000 ticks in different regions of Uzbekistan were collected and identified. Analysis showed that cattle are parasitized by 11 species of Ixodidae ticks. The dominating species were Hyalomma anatolicum (34.9%), Hyalomma detritum detritum (31.8%), Boophilus kohlsi (30.7%). PMID:17823825
The genus Hyalomma Koch, 1844. i. reinstatement of Hyalomma (euhyalomma) glabrum Delpy, 1949 (Acari, Ixodidae) as a valid species with a redescription of the adults, the first description of its immature stages and notes on its biology.
For nearly 50 years the ixodid tick Hyalomma marginatum turanicum, reputedly introduced into South Africa on imported Persian sheep, has been considered identical to the Asian Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) marginatum turanicum Pomerantzev, 1946. Comparisons of this tick with the Asian H. (E.) m. turanicum and other subspecies of Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) marginatum, however, reveal that it is an old taxon, namely Hyalomma rufipes glabrum Delpy, 1949. It is hereby reinstated as Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) glabrum, and its adults are redescribed and its immature stages described for the first time. The preferred hosts of its adults are large herbivores such as zebras, gemsbok and eland, on which it occurs during summer. The preferred hosts of its immature stages are scrub hares and ground-frequenting birds, on which it is present during autumn and winter. Data on its distribution and possible disease relationships are also provided. PMID:16715874
Apanaskevich, D A; Horak, I G
Three superoxide dismutases (EC 184.108.40.206) (TLSOD1, TLSOD2 and TLSOD3) were purified from larvae of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration columns. SDS-PAGE revealed that the subunit molecular masses of the SODs are 40±2 kDa, 67±1.5 kDa and 45±2.6 kDa for TLSOD1, TLSOD2 and TLSOD3, respectively. TLSOD1 and TLSOD2 are monomeric proteins, while TLSOD3 isoenzyme exhibits dimeric structure with native molecular mass of 90 kDa. The pI values are estimated at pH 8.0, pH 7.2 and pH 6.6 for the three SODs which displayed pH optima at 7.6, 8.0 and 7.8, respectively. CuCl(2) and ZnCl(2) increase the activity of TLSOD2 and TLSOD3, while MnCl(2) increases the activity of TLSOD1. KCN inhibits the activity of TLSOD2 and TLSOD3, while a remarkable resistance of TLSOD1 isoenzyme was detected. TLSOD1 is suggested to be a manganese containing isoenzyme while TLSOD2 and TLSOD3 are suggested to be copper/zinc-containing isoenzymes. These results indicate the presence of three different forms of SODs in the larval stage of camel tick. This finding will contribute to our understanding of the physiology of these ectoparasites and the development of non-traditional methods to control them. PMID:23333534
Ibrahim, Mahmoud A; Mohamed, Mona M; Ghazy, Abdel-Hady M; Masoud, Hassan M M
The tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium has a typical three-host life-cycle. Whereas its larvae and nymphs are less host-specific feeding on a variety of tetrapods, tortoises of the genus Testudo are principal hosts of adults. Ticks retained this trait also in our study under laboratory conditions, while adults were reluctant to feed on mammalian hosts. Combination of feeding larvae and nymphs on guinea pigs and feeding of adults on Testudo marginata tortoises provided the best results. Feeding period of females was on average 25 days (range 17-44), whereas males remain after female engorgement on tortoise host. Female pre-oviposition period was 14 days (3-31), followed by 24 days of oviposition (18-29). Pre-eclosion and eclosion, both together, takes 31 days (21-43). Larvae fed 5 days (3-9), then molted to nymphs after 17 days (12-23). Feeding period of nymphs lasted 7 days (5-10), engorged nymphs molted to adults after 24 days (19-26). Sex ratio of laboratory hatched H. aegyptium was nearly equal (1:1.09). The average weight of engorged female was 0.95 (0.72-1.12) g. The average number of laid eggs was 6,900 (6,524-7,532) per female, it was significantly correlated with weight of engorged female. Only 2.8% of engorged larvae and 1.8% of engorged nymphs remained un-molted and died. Despite the use of natural host species, feeding success of females reached only 45%. The whole life-cycle was completed within 147 days (98-215). PMID:21431927
Siroký, Pavel; Erhart, Jan; Petrželková, Klára J; Kamler, Martin
The citric acid cycle in engorged nymphs of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii was studied by the simultaneous isolation and determination of the cycle acids. Acetate-1-C and certain co-factors were incubated with homogenates made from the whole tick tiss...
R. M. Dajani G. J. Frayha G. K. Sweatman
Feeding and engorged nymphs and unfed and feeding adults of Hyalomma (H.) dromedarii were treated topically with 10, 20, and 50 micrograms juvenile hormone I (JH 1). Large doses of JH 1 were lethal to adults; nymphs tolerated JH 1, but emerging adults exh...
G. M. Khalil D. E. Sonenshine H. A. Hanafy A. E. Abdelmonem
Gynandromorphism is a rare, abnormal phenomenon in which both female and male characteristics are simultaneously displayed in an organism. It has been described in many arthropods, including ticks. This unique occurrence is known within several species of Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes, and Rhipicephalus. Bipartite protogynander is the most common form of gynandromorphism, whereas gynander intriqué is the rarest type among the ticks. Here, we report the first case of a gynandromorph of Hyalomma marginatum Koch, 1844 collected from a naturally infested human during a tick survey in the Tokat Province of Turkey in 2006. It is an interesting gynander intriqué, with features of a protogynander. The tick described here displays abnormal characters such as an alloscutum with a male consucutum in dorsal view, male and female spiracular plates, female genital aperture under the male genital flap, and adanal plates located on the both side of the anus, whereas accessory plates are on the left side only in ventral view. PMID:22551445
Keskin, Adem; Bursali, Ahmet; Tekin, Saban
Twenty cross-bred (Bos taurus X Bos indicus) calves, 7-21 days old, were infected by a ground-up tick supernate of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum infected with the Hisar isolate of Theileria annulata. Six calves acted as untreated controls and they all died of theileriosis within 17 days of infection. The remaining 14 calves were divided into Group A and B, each consisting of seven calves. All the calves of Groups A and B were treated intramuscularly with buparvaquone (BW 720C) on Day 11 post-infection, when clinical signs of theileriosis were apparent. Each calf received 2.5 mg BW 720 C kg-1 body weight as a single injection. In addition, each calf of Group B was given proprietary haematinics by intramuscular injection, daily for 12 days. In Group A, two calves died of cerebral theileriosis and five were clinically cured. However, four of these five calves later died of anaemia. In Group B, all the calves were clinically cured and none died during the observation period of 1 month. The parasitaemia declined to less than 1% within a fortnight of treatment. The initial declines in haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume were halted and preinfection values were soon restored. No toxic signs attributable to treatment with buparvaquone were observed. PMID:3369076
Dhar, S; Malhotra, D V; Bhushan, C; Gautam, O P
Eighteen seven to 21-day-old crossbred (Bos taurus cross Bos indicus) calves were allocated to four groups (A to D). Groups A and B each consisted of six calves and groups C and D three calves each. Each calf in groups A, B and C was inoculated with ground-up tick supernate (GUTS) equivalent to two infected acini prepared from Theileria annulata-infected Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. Each calf in group A was also given a single intramuscular injection of buparvaquone, 2.5 mg kg-1 bodyweight simultaneously with GUTS, whereas each calf in group B was given a single intramuscular injection of long-acting oxytetracycline, 20 mg kg-1 bodyweight following inoculation of GUTS. In calves of group A clinicopathological reactions were negligible, whereas in calves of group B mild to severe reactions were observed resulting in the death of three of the six calves. All the calves of group C (infected, untreated controls) died of acute theileriosis. All the surviving calves of groups A and B withstood a lethal homologous challenge given on day 30 after immunisation, indicating no difference in the immune status of the surviving calves of the two groups. Group D, challenge control, all calves died of theileriosis within 18 days of challenge. PMID:2382047
Dhar, S; Malhotra, D V; Bhushan, C; Gautam, O P
We present the case of a 33 year-old man from a village of the north-eastern part of central Anatolia admitted to the otolaryngology department of Yeditepe University Hospital with right facial asymmetry and pain on the right ear. A tick of the genus Hyalomma was observed in the external auditory canal of the right ear and it was removed with fine cup forceps under otomicroscopy. We are of the opinion that in patients presenting with sudden acute ear pain and facial palsy, the ear canal should be examined to exclude an infestation by ticks. PMID:23339950
Do?an, Müzeyyen; Devge, Cem; Tanr?över, Ozlem; Pata, Yavuz Selim; Sönmezo?lu, Meral
Theilerioses and babesioses are important diseases in Iranian sheep. The present study was undertaken to identify and classify/specify Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in sheep and vector ticks. Investigation was carried out from 2009 to 2011 in the Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. In total, 302 sheep originating from 60 different flocks were clinically examined and their blood collected. In addition, from the same flocks, ixodid ticks were sampled. Stained blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of Theileria and Babesia organisms, and a semi-nested PCR was used for subsequent molecular specification. From the ticks, salivary glands and uterus were isolated and subsequently analyzed by semi-nested PCR. Piroplasm organisms were observed in 29% of the blood smears with low parasitemia, whereas 65% of the blood samples yielded positive PCR findings. The presence of Theileria ovis (55.6%), Theileria lestoquardi, and mixed infection with Theileria spp. and Babesia ovis were detected by semi-nested PCR in 0.3%, 5.6%, and 0.99%, respectively. In total, 429 ixodid ticks were collected from different areas of the province. The most prevalent ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 376; 87.6% of the total), followed by Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n = 30; 7.0%), Dermacentor raskemensis (n = 12; 2.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n = 7; 1.6%), Dermacentor marginatus (n = 2; 0.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 1; 0.2%), and Haemaphysalis sp. (n = 1; 0.2%). Of the positive R. turanicus samples, 5 (5.7%) were infected with T. ovis and 2 (2.9%) with T. lestoquardi. Neither Babesia ovis nor Babesia motasi infection was detected in salivary glands or uterine samples of the ticks. The results also suggest that R. turanicus could be the vector responsible for transmission of the 2 Theileria species. PMID:22924924
Razmi, Gholamreza; Pourhosseini, Moslem; Yaghfouri, Saeed; Rashidi, Ahmad; Seidabadi, Mohsen
The experimental study investigated the ability of tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium to play a role in forming and maintaining natural foci of Q fever. We tested the competence of H. aegyptium larvae to acquire Coxiella burnetii infection from mammals, serve as a C. burnetii vector between mammalian hosts, and be a long-term carrier of C. burnetii, including interstadial transmission. H.
Pavel Široký; Michaela Kubelová; David Modrý; Jan Erhart; Ivan Literák; Eva Špitalská; Elena Kocianová
The overall prevalence of Theileria species, mainly, if not exclusively, T.annulata, in 901 Hyalomma detritum detritum collected from cattle in the Doukkala region of Morocco over a period of 2 years was 21.5%. The quantity of infection (number of sporoblasts per infected tick) followed the negative binomial distribution with between one and 250 sporoblasts per infected tick. Infected ticks were found in eight of fourteen areas examined whilst T.annulata was present in all fourteen. There were significant differences in both the prevalence and the quantity of infection between ticks collected from different farms, and between nymphs collected in the autumn from these farms, and moulted in the laboratory, and adults collected in the following summer. The prevalence, but not the quantity, of infection was higher in female than in male ticks. No correlations were established between infection of engorged nymphs and the breed, sex and Theileria piroplasm parasitaemia of the host animal. However, calves infected a greater proportion of nymphs than adult cattle and the heavier the infestation of nymphs on an animal, up to a plateau, the higher the prevalence of infection in those nymphs. There were no differences in infection between ticks moulted at 24 degrees C and 37 degrees C, after the engorged nymphs had been stored at 18 degrees C to simulate over-wintering. PMID:8268489
Flach, E J; Ouhelli, H; Waddington, D; el Hasnaoui, M
A Babesia sp. was recently observed in Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and found to be transmissible to bovines. Further observations were carried out on this parasite and a study made of the morphology of stages in both erythrocytes and tick haemolymph. Apart from Babesia divergens, intra-erythrocytic parasites were not readily distinguishable from bovine Babesia spp. Merozoites in tick haemolymph morphologically resembled those of Babesia bigemina, but they were significantly larger. This Babesia sp. proved to be highly infective for adult H. m. rufipes, with transmission taking place transovarially and next generation nymphae and adults transmitting the infection. Features of the infection were its very low pathogenicity, even in splenectomized animals, and the tendency of parasitized erythrocytes to accumulate in capillaries. Serologically, this species could be differentiated from babesia bigemina, B. divergens, B. bovis and B. major. A serological survey of 25 farms showed a wide distribution of this species in south Africa and its high rate of transmission on most properties. It was concluded that this is a true but hitherto undescribed bovine Babesia sp. and the name Babesia occultans n. sp. is proposed. PMID:7345388
Gray, J S; De Vos, A J
In order to identify antigens that can help prevent camel tick infestations, three major glycoproteins (GLPs) about 97, 66 and 40 kDa in size were purified from adult and larval Egyptian ticks, Hyalomma (H.) dromedarii, using a single-step purification method with Con-A sepharose. The purified GLPs were evaluated as vaccines against camel tick infestation in rabbits. The rabbits received three intramuscular inoculations of GLPs (20 µg/animal) on days 0, 14, and 28. In the immunoblot analysis, Sera from the immunized rabbits recognized the native GLPs and other proteins from larval and adult H. dromedarii ticks along with those from other tick species such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus but not Ornithodoros moubata. The effects of immunity induced by these GLPs were determined by exposing rabbits to adult H. dromedarii ticks. These results demonstrated that GLP immunization led to a slightly decreased reproductive index and significantly reduced rates of egg hatchability. These results demonstrated that immunization with the purified GLPs can provide protection against infestation by H. dromedarii and some other tick species. Further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of immunization with GLPs against other tick species.
El Hakim, Amr E.; Abdel-Shafy, Sobhy; Abouelella, Amira M. K.; Hamed, Ragaa R.
In order to identify antigens that can help prevent camel tick infestations, three major glycoproteins (GLPs) about 97, 66 and 40 kDa in size were purified from adult and larval Egyptian ticks, Hyalomma (H.) dromedarii, using a single-step purification method with Con-A sepharose. The purified GLPs were evaluated as vaccines against camel tick infestation in rabbits. The rabbits received three intramuscular inoculations of GLPs (20 µg/animal) on days 0, 14, and 28. In the immunoblot analysis, Sera from the immunized rabbits recognized the native GLPs and other proteins from larval and adult H. dromedarii ticks along with those from other tick species such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus but not Ornithodoros moubata. The effects of immunity induced by these GLPs were determined by exposing rabbits to adult H. dromedarii ticks. These results demonstrated that GLP immunization led to a slightly decreased reproductive index and significantly reduced rates of egg hatchability. These results demonstrated that immunization with the purified GLPs can provide protection against infestation by H. dromedarii and some other tick species. Further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of immunization with GLPs against other tick species. PMID:21897098
El Hakim, Amr E; Shahein, Yasser E; Abdel-Shafy, Sobhy; Abouelella, Amira Mk; Hamed, Ragaa R
Morphological characteristics allowing discriminating adult stages of four subspecies of Hyalomma marginatum (H. m. marginatum, H. m. turanicum, H. m. rufipes and H. m. isaaci) are displayed. The subspecies status of all named forms is confirmed. The main discriminating characters for adults of these subspecies are peculiarities of scutal or conscutal punctations and a shape of the dorsal tale of spiracular plates (Fig. 1, 1-4; 2, 4-7; 4, 1, 2; 5, 1, 2, 6, 5-8). Nevertheless, there are a number of facts, which support only the subspecific rank of these taxa. In Turkmenistan, there is a zone inhabited by forms, adult stages of which are morphologically intermedial between H. m. marginatum and H. m. turanicum. A zone of intermedial forms between H. m. turanicum and H. m. rufipes exists in Arabian Peninsula (Hoogstraal e. a., 1981). An absence of clear discriminative characters between immatures of H. m. marginatum, H. m. turanicum and H. m. rufipes also confirms the subspecies level of these taxa. H. m. isaaci is the most differentiated subspecies. It is difficult to estimate relationships between the latter subspecies and H. m. turanicum because of a deficit of materials. However, clear morphological differences of H. m. isaaci immature stages from other subspecies were noticed (Apanaskevich, 2003). Therefore, it is quite probable that H. m. isaaci might deserve the species rank. Further analysis of relationships between subspecies of H. marginatum needs additional materials represented by all stages from zones containing intermedial forms between recently recognized subspecies. PMID:15069876
Apanaskevich, D A
In two surveys conducted from March 1999 to March 2001 and from January 2004 to December 2006, a total of 3,950 ticks (belonging to ten different species) were collected from seven domestic and wild animals (goat, sheep, cattle, dog, fox, hare, and mouflon) from different localities throughout Cyprus. In order to establish their infection rate with Spotted Fever Rickettsiae (SFG), ticks were pooled and tested by polymerase chain reaction targeting gltA and ompA genes, followed by sequencing analysis. When tick pools tested positive, individual ticks were then tested one by one, and of the 3,950 ticks screened, rickettsial DNA was identified in 315 ticks (infection rate, 8%). Five SFG Rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, Rickettsia massiliae in Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rickettsia sibirica mongolotimonae in Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, and a Rickettsia endosymbiont of Haemaphysalis sulcata (later described as Rickettsia hoogstraalii) in Haemaphysalis punctata. Two additional genes, 17 kDa and ompB, were targeted to characterize a new genotype of "Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae" genotype in R. turanicus, designated here as "Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae" Cretocypriensis. These results confirm the presence of a spectrum of SFG Rickettsiae on the island. Further studies are necessary to gain better knowledge on the epidemiology of SFG Rickettsiae in Cyprus. PMID:21833539
Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Ioannou, Ioannis; Sandalakis, Vassilios; Dimitriou, Theodoros; Kassinis, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Byron; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna
The Cypriot mouflon (Ovis orientalis ophion), a once almost extirpated species of wild sheep, is under strict surveillance because it can be threatened by likely transmission of pathogenic bacteria, such as Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and Coxiella burnetii, primarily from domestic ungulates. We collected 77 blood samples from Cypriot mouflons and 663 of their ectoparasites (Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, Hyalomma marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis sulcata, and Ixodes gibossus) and tested them by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Twenty-three mouflon blood samples (30%) were positive for C. burnetii, 23 (30%) for Rickettsia spp., and 8 (10%) for Anaplasma ovis. Of 109 pools of ectoparasites, 32.1% were positive for C. burnetii, 28.4% for Rickettsia spp., and 10.9% for A. ovis; 11.9% were positive for both C. burnetii and Rickettsia spp., 6.4% for both Rickettsia spp. and A. ovis, and 2.8% for all three pathogens. This is the first survey that records the presence of tick-borne pathogens, both in the Cypriot mouflon and in ticks parasitizing it. PMID:21441182
Ioannou, Ioannis; Sandalakis, Vassilios; Kassinis, Nikos; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Papadopoulos, Byron; Loukaides, Fedias; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna
In this study we examined the anti-tick properties of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae: Asterales) against Hyalomma rufipes ticks. We obtained the essential oil of T. minuta by hydro-distillation of a combination of fresh flowers, leaves and soft stems, and analysed these by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil had a high percentage of monoterpenes and the major compounds identified were cis-ocimene (28.5%), beta-ocimene (16.83%) and 3-methyl-2-(2-methyl-2-butenyl)-furan (11.94%). Hyalomma rufipes adults displayed a significant (P 0.05) dose repellent response to the essential oil of T. minuta. Probit analysis indicated a repellent EC50 of T. minuta essential oil for male ticks to be 0.072 mL/mL (CI 0.053 mL/mL to 0.086 mL/mL) and 0.070 mL/mL (CI 0.052 mL/mL to 0.084 mL/mL) for female ticks. There were no significant differences in repellent responses between male and female ticks. The oil also significantly (P 0.05) delayed moulting of 60% of H. rufipes engorged nymphs. These results suggest that T. minuta may be a potential source of anti-tick agents. PMID:23327307
Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N
The activity of P5C metabolizing enzymes: OAT, P5CR, PO, and P5CD, in the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii has been followed throughout embryogenesis. The profiles of enzymatic activity showed clear differences in the four enzymes as the embryos grew older. During purification of P5CD to homogeneity the ion exchange chromatography steps lead to two separate forms (termed A and B) with
Afaf S Fahmy; Saleh A Mohamed; Rasmy B Girgis; Fathy A Abdel-Ghaffar
The experimental study investigated the ability of tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium to play a role in forming and maintaining natural foci of Q fever. We tested the competence of H. aegyptium larvae to acquire Coxiella burnetii infection from mammals, serve as a C. burnetii vector between mammalian hosts, and be a long-term carrier of C. burnetii, including interstadial transmission. H. aegyptium larvae were allowed to feed on guinea pigs experimentally infected with C. burnetii. Engorged larvae molted to nymphs, some of which were preserved in 96% ethanol and later examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using C. burnetii-specific primers (CBCOS, CBCOE). Prevalence of C. burnetii among these nymphs was 5.6% (n=235). Remaining nymphs then fed on other, C. burnetii-negative guinea pigs; and according to results of both, micro-agglutination reaction, and ELISA, they successfully transmitted C. burnetii to those new hosts. Detached engorged nymphs molted to adults, which were kept alive long term and then placed in 96% ethanol 383 days post-infection. Thereafter, they were examined by PCR in the same manner as were the nymphs. Prevalence of C. burnetii among adult H. aegyptium was 28.9% (n=90). According to our results, tortoise-specific ticks have indisputable potential in the epidemiology of Q fever natural foci. PMID:20827490
Siroký, Pavel; Kubelová, Michaela; Modrý, David; Erhart, Jan; Literák, Ivan; Spitalská, Eva; Kocianová, Elena
Background South Hungary is being monitored for the northward spreading of thermophilic ixodid species, therefore ticks were collected from cattle and wild ruminants (red, fallow and roe deer) in the autumn of 2011. Findings Besides indigenous species (1185 Dermacentor reticulatus and 976 Ixodes ricinus), two Hyalomma marginatum rufipes males were found on two cows, in September eight days apart. Conclusions This is the northernmost autochthonous infestation of the type host (cattle) with H. m. rufipes, vector of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus. The present findings are suggestive of the moulting success of this Afro-Mediterranean tick species in a continental climate in Central Europe.
A multi-faceted investigation was conducted in the United Arab Emirates to characterize the epidemiologic and ecologic factors underlying an outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) noted in November 1994 among abattoir workers. A chart review was conducted among hospitalized suspected cases of viral hemorrhagic fever with onset between January 1994 and March 1995 coupled with serologic testing of available specimens for the presence of virus antigen and IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA. Livestock handlers and animal skin processors were interviewed and tested for the presence of IgG antibody. Sera from imported and domestic ruminants were examined for antibody for CCHF virus, and ticks collected from these animals were tested with an antigen-capture ELISA. Thirty-five suspected cases of CCHF were identified (case fatality = 62%). Livestock market employees, abattoir workers, and animal skin processors accounted for 16 (57%) of 28 cases with known occupational status. Serologic evidence of past asymptomatic infection was noted in 12 (4%) of 291 livestock and abattoir workers but in none of the controls. Nineteen (7%) of 268 animals were positive for CCHF virus antibodies by ELISA including 12 ruminants from Somalia and Iran and five indigenous camels. One Hyalomma impeltatum and two H. excavatum from Somali cattle and one H. anatolicum from a Somali goat were positive for CCHF virus antigen. PMID:9392589
Khan, A S; Maupin, G O; Rollin, P E; Noor, A M; Shurie, H H; Shalabi, A G; Wasef, S; Haddad, Y M; Sadek, R; Ijaz, K; Peters, C J; Ksiazek, T G
Tropical theileriosis has long been recognized as a hindrance to the development of sound dairy industry in the Sudan and is a cause of major economic losses. Serological surveys indicated that Theileria annulata infection is widespread in the country but the disease mostly affects exotic dairy breeds and their crosses with indigenous breeds. The disease has recently been identified in Darfur and southern parts of Blue Nile State in dairy farms around large urban areas where it has never been detected before. These new introductions were accompanied by the establishment of Hyalomma anatolicum tick which is the main vector of the parasite in the Sudan. The disease is routinely diagnosed using microscopic examination of stained blood and lymph node biopsy smears. More advanced techniques are mainly used for research purposes. Tropical theileriosis in the Sudan is mainly controlled by using anti-theilerial drugs and acaricide application. It is recommended that live attenuated schizont vaccines developed from locally isolated T. annulata strains be used to control the disease. In addition, every care should be taken to prevent introduction of the disease into new areas. PMID:22565402
El Hussein, Abdelrahim M; Hassan, Shawgi M; Salih, Diaeldin A
Background: Ticks are the main vectors for transmission of different pathogens to human and animals. This survey was performed to find out distribution of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in Yazd Province, central Iran during year 2008–2009. Methods: A total number of 30 villages from both mountainous (20%) and plateau (80%) regions of the province were selected randomly. Ticks were colleted from the body of infested animals and transported to the laboratory of Medical Entomology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and then were identified to space level using valid identification key. Results: A total of 583 hard ticks were collected. The ticks were classified into three genera and 7 species including: Hyalomma dromedarii (55.92%), Hy. marginatum (13.20%), Hy. anatolicum (9.78%), Hy. detritum (4.98%), Hy. asiaticum (3.94%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (11.84%), and Dermacentor marginatus (0.34%). The highest seasonal activities occurred in summer. The prevalence of the Ixodidae ticks was more evident in plateaus area in Yazd Province. Among the hosts including: cow, goat, sheep and camel, the ticks that collected from camel was more prevalent. The ratio of male was more than female ticks. Hyalomma. dromedarii was the predominant tick species and accounted for 55.92% of the ticks. Conclusion: Some of the collected ticks may play an important role for transmission of vector borne disease to human; therefore, the results of this study will provide a clue for vectors of tick-borne diseases in the region for local authorities for implementation of disease control.
Salim abadi, Y; Telmadarraiy, Z; Vatandoost, H; Chinikar, S; Oshaghi, MA; Moradi, M; Mirabzadeh Ardakan, E; Hekmat, S; Nasiri, A
Morphological characters of immature stages of three closely related tick species, Hyalomma asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1929, H. dromedarii Koch, 1844 and H. schulzei Olenev, 1931, collected mainly in areas of their sympatry (Fig. 1) were investigated. The larvae and nymphs of these three species were collected in Egypt, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan and Tadjikistan: 159 larvae and 137 nymphs of H. asiaticum from 12 localities; 78 larvae and 167 nymphs of H. dromedarii from 5 localities; 30 larvae and 6 nymphs of H. schulzei from one locality. Both qualitative morphological features and measured character (in mkm) were used to discriminate these species. Main discriminant characters for larvae. H. asiaticum (Fig. 3). Scutum: length < 246, width < 389; base of capitulum: width < 158, dorsally hexagonal, apices of lateral projections directed forward; palpae (II and III segments): length < 106, width < 42; hypostome: length < 87, width < 25; the spur of coxa I small, equilateral triangular; patella: length < 154. H. dromedarii (Fig. 4). Scutum: length > 236, width > 379; base of capitulum: width > 158, dorsally almost triangular, apices of lateral projections directed laterally or backward; palpae: length > 110, width < 46; hypostome: length > 87, width < 26; the spur of coxa I large, isosceles triangular; patella: length > 115. H. schulzei (Fig. 5). Scutum: length > 249, width > 407; base of capitulum: width > 162, dorsally hexagonal, apices of lateral projections directed forward; palpae: length > 114, width > 44; hypostome: length > 89, width > 28; the spur of coxa I large, isosceles triangular; patella: length > 164. Main discriminant characters for nymphs: H. asiaticum (Fig. 3). Scutum: small, width < 650, length and width subequal, posterior margin widely rounded, lateral incisions weakly developed; spiracular plates with distinct, pointed dorsal projection, marginal row of perforations distant from the base of dorsal projection, submarginal row with a gap; base of capitulum: lateral projections situated in posterior half of capitulum; palpae (II segment) short and narrow; hypostome short and narrow, width < 69; pore of coxae I-III present. H. dromedarii (Fig. 4). Scutum: large, width > 650, length shorter than width, posterior margin widely rounded, lateral incisions moderately developed; spiracular plates: with distinct and wide dorsal projection, marginal row of perforations distant from the base of dorsal projection, submarginal row present, without gap; base of capitulum: lateral projections situated in the middle part of capitulum; palpae long and narrow; hypostome long and wide, width > 69; coxal pore lacking. H. schulzei (Fig. 5). Scutum: small, width < 630, length larger than width, posterior margin narrow rounded, lateral incisions weakly developed; spiracular plates: with weakly developed dorsal projections, marginal row of perforation situated just behind the base of dorsal projection, submarginal row with a gap; base capitulum: lateral projections situated in posterior half of capitulum; palpae short and wide; hypostome long and narrow, width < 73; coxal pore lacking. PMID:12325274
Apanaskevich, D A
Bm86 midgut protein has been used in order to control ticks of the Hyalomma genus. Previous studies demonstrated the inefficacity of this antigen in the control of Hyalomma scupense, whereas recombinant Hd86 antigen, the Bm86 ortholog in H. scupense produced in Pichia pastoris, was protective against larval H. scupense tick stage infestations but ineffective in the control of the adult stage. One possible explanation for this result is the variation in Hd86 expression levels between these two developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, Hd86 mRNA levels were characterized in H. scupense developmental stages. The expression profile of Hd86 demonstrated a significant variation between tick life stages and showed a significant reduction in the number of transcripts during feeding and, particularly after molting to adults. The most interesting result was noted after molting of engorged nymphs in unfed adults where the expression levels decreased significantly by 12.78 (10.77-17.39) (p<0.001) and 9.25 (5.77-15.72)-fold (p<0.001) in unfed males and unfed females, respectively. Comparing unfed nymphs to unfed adult ticks, the Hd86 expression levels decreased by 13.82 (5.39-24.45) (p=0.035) and 9.93 (2.87-22.08)-fold (p=0.038) in males and females respectively. Lower Hd86 mRNA levels in adult ticks should result in lower protein levels and thus less antibody-antigen interactions necessary for vaccine efficacy in ticks fed on vaccinated animals. Thus, the observed differences in Hd86 expression profile between immature and adult stages might explain, in part, the discrepancy of the Hd86 vaccine efficacy against these two life stages of H. scupense. PMID:24029714
Ben Said, Mourad; Galaď, Yousr; Ben Ahmed, Melika; Gharbi, Mohamed; de la Fuente, José; Jedidi, Mohamed; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz
The goal of this study was to investigate the use of Jatropha curcas seed meal (JCSM) in different levels as acaricide in diet of rabbits experimentally infested by Hyalomma marginatum marginatum then determining animal performance, anti-tick feeding and its effects on haemogram of rabbits. Thirty healthy mixed-breed\\u000a rabbits were randomly divided into five equal groups. The first group was kept
Sobhy Abdel-Shafy; Soad M. Nasr; Hashem H. Abdel-Rahman; Salwa M. Habeeb
[Isolation of the West Nile fever virus from the great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, the crow Corvus corone, and Hyalomma marginatum ticks associated with them in natural and synanthroic biocenosis in the Volga delta (Astrakhan region, 2001)].
Four strains identified as West Nile fever virus by inhibited hemagglutination and neutralization tests, enzyme immunoassay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were isolated during a virological examination of birds and their collected ticks in the natural and synanthropic biocenoses of the Volga delta. The strains were isolated from the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), the crow (Corvus corone) and its collected Hyalomma marginatum nymphs. The types of interpopulational relations in the ecological system wild-birds-virus-mosquitoes-synanthroic birds-ticks are discussed. PMID:12522961
L'vov, D K; Dzharkenov, A F; L'vov, D N; Aristova, V A; Kovtunov, A I; Gromashevski?, V L; Vyshemirski?, O I; Galkina, I V; Al'khovski?, S V; Samokhvalov, E I; Prilipov, A G; Deriabin, P G; Odolevski?, E I; Ibragimov, R M
Ticks may act as vectors for a number of infectious diseases including Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF). The causative agent is Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV), a member of Bunyaviridae, causing extensive ecchymosis, visceral bleeding and hepatic dysfunction with a high fatality rate in the affected individuals. CCHF was initially recognized in Turkey in 2002 and the current number of reported cases exceeds 4,400. This study was conducted to confirm the presence of tick species established as potential CCHFV vectors and investigate CCHFV activity in ticks at Ankara province, Turkey's second most-densely populated province, where CCHF cases were demonstrated. A total of 1,196 adult ticks, collected from various animals and vegetation in 12 sites located in 5 counties of Ankara during April-July 2010 were identified to species level. Twenty-two tick pools from county K2 were also evaluated for the presence of CCHFV RNA via a one-step real-time RT-PCR assay and reactive results were further confirmed by an in house nested RT-PCR assay. Nine tick species were identified: Rhipicephalus bursa (44.9%), R. sanguineus (18.9%), R. turanicus (18.1%), Haemaphysalis parva (8.3%), Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (5.4%), H. aegyptium (1.4%), H. anatolicum excavatum (1.3%), Hae. punctata (0.3%) and Dermacentor marginatus (0.2%). A total of five tick pools (22.7%) were reactive in real-time and nested RT-PCR assays. The pools included R. bursa, H. m. marginatum and Hae. parva ticks, collected from mammal hosts from two villages in one county. This is the first documentation of CCHFV activity in ticks from Ankara province, which indicates requirement for detailed surveillance to predict high risk zones in the region. PMID:21910017
Hekimoglu, Olcay; Ozer, Nurdan; Ergunay, Koray; Ozkul, Aykut
A total of 800 goats of various breeds, age, and sex were randomly selected from Muzaffargarh (M. garh) and Layyah districts of lower Punjab, Pakistan. The selected goats were visited twice a month to collect information about determinants influencing goat tick infestation prevalence. For acaricidal efficacy, 360 tick-infested adult goats were subjected to an acaricidal treatment and post-treatment quantitative assessment of tick burden. Quantification of adult tick detachment 24 h post-treatment and the duration of treatment efficacy were calculated. Overall prevalence of goat tick infestation in both study districts was 60.1% (481/800). The prevalence was higher in district M. garh than in district Layyah. Tehsil-wise prevalence in district Layyah was highest in tehsil Layyah followed in order by Chaubara and Karor. In district M. garh, highest prevalence was found in tehsil M. garh followed by Kot Addu, Alipur, and Jatoi. Hyalomma a. anatolicum (75.9%; 365/481) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (24.1%; 116/481) were the predominant species in both the districts. The highest month-wise prevalence was 56.9% and 62.7% in Layyah and M. garh districts, respectively, during July 2008, and the minimum (0%) prevalence was reported in November and December, respectively. Regarding host determinants, female goats were more heavily infested (72.8%) than males (47.5%), and younger animals were (63.5%) more burdened than older ones (56.7%). Teddy goats were the most susceptible breeds followed in order by Beetal, cross-bred, Nachi, and Dera Din Pannah. The preferred sites of attachment were inside and outside of the ear. Both the ivermectin (IVM)- and cypermethrin (CYM)-treated groups resulted in significantly lower (P < 0.05) tick counts relative to controls on all post-treatment counting days. The lowest tick burden in the IVM-treated group was significantly higher (P < 0.05) as compared to the CYM-treated group, the latter being close to zero. Hence, the in vivo efficacy trials of injectable IVM vs CYM pour-on revealed better results for the latter. These observations provided the first insights into what determinants impact goat tick infestation, and laid a foundation for planning of future control programs in the lower Punjab, Pakistan. PMID:20924608
Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Needham, Glen; Khan, Muhammad Kasib
A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was reported among humans in Ahmadabad district, Gujarat, India during January, 2011. In the present study we provide the complete genomic sequences of four CCHFV isolates derived from two human patients and two pools of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks during the period of this outbreak and the complete S segment sequence of two retrospective human serum samples, positive for CCHFV in 2010. Sequence-based molecular characterization of the Indian CCHFV showed that they possessed the functional motifs known to occur in the S, M and L gene segment products as in other CCHF viruses. The S segment of the six Indian CCHF viruses showed 99.8% nucleotide identity. Notably both tick isolates shared 100% nucleotide identity with one of the Indian human isolates of 2011. Phylogenetic analysis based on the S segment demonstrated that the Indian CCHFV isolates formed a distinct cluster in the Asian-Middle East group IV of CCHF viruses. The S segment was closest to a Tajikistan strain TADJ/HU8966 of 1990 (98.5% nucleotide identity) and was of South-Asia 2 type while the M segment was of type M2. Both M and L segments were closest to an Afghanistan strain Afg09-2990 of 2009 (93% and 98% nucleotide identity, respectively). The Indian isolates were thus identified as a South-Asia 2/M2 far-east virus combination and the differing parental origin in the S and L/M segments is suggestive that it may be an intra-genotypic reassortant. Molecular clock studies further revealed that the ancestry of the viruses was not very recent and dated back to about 33years on the basis of the S segment while it was about 15years based on the M segment. Thus though the 2011 outbreak may not have resulted from a very recent introduction, considering that so far there is no evidence of multiple circulating strains in the country, the possibility of a recent re-introduction of the virus from any of the neighboring countries cannot be ruled out. The study thus warrants the need for continued surveillance and increased sampling of CCHFV in different parts of the country. PMID:23195573
Yadav, Pragya D; Cherian, Sarah S; Zawar, Divya; Kokate, Prasad; Gunjikar, Rashmi; Jadhav, Santosh; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Mourya, Devendra T
Haemoproteus anatolicum n. sp. was identified in the tortoise Testudo graeca. The new species is described based on the morphology of its blood stages and a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, which can be used for molecular identification and diagnosis. Chelonian haemoproteids recorded in the past were defined solely on the basis of their morphological characteristics. The chelonian haemoproteid we describe as a new species has a close genetic relationship to lizard haemoproteids, i.e., Haemoproteus ptyodactylii and Haemoproteus kopki. The new species description provides significant new information for little-known chelonian haemoproteids. PMID:22924909
Orkun, Ömer; Güven, Esin
Electrophoretic seed protein patterns of a number of accessions of Salicornia europaea L. sl., S. prostrata Palas, S. fragilis P.W. Ball and Tutin, Sarcocornia fruticosa (L.) A. J. Scott, Sarcocornia perennis (Miller.) A. J. Scott, Arthrocnemum glaucum (Del.) Ung.-Sternb., Microcnemum coralloides (Loscos and Pardo) subsp. anatolicum Wagenitz and Halocnemum strobilaceum (Pall.) Bieb. were electrophoretically analysed on SDS-PAGE. In total 48 different bands were identified. The obtained data have been treated numerically using the cluster analysis method of unweighted pair group (UPGMA). Finally it was determined that all species separated according to seed protein profiles. And the cladogram obtained studied taxa have been given. PMID:19086564
Yaprak, A E; Yurdakulol, E
Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito & S. Imai) Singer and its allied species are referred to as matsutake worldwide and are the most economically important edible mushrooms in Japan. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere and established an ectomycorrhizal relationship with conifer and broadleaf trees. To clarify relationships among T. matsutake and its allies, and to delimit phylogenetic species, we analyzed multilocus datasets (ITS, megB1, tef, gpd) with samples that were correctly identified based on morphological characteristics. Phylogenetic analyses clearly identified four major groups: matsutake, T. bakamatsutake, T. fulvocastaneum and T. caligatum; the latter three species were outside the matsutake group. The haplotype analyses and median-joining haplotype network analyses showed that the matsutake group included four closely related but clearly distinct taxa (T. matsutake, T. anatolicum, Tricholoma sp. from Mexico and T. magnivelare) from different geographical regions; these were considered to be distinct phylogenetic species. PMID:22684294
Ota, Yuko; Yamanaka, Takashi; Murata, Hitoshi; Neda, Hitoshi; Ohta, Akira; Kawai, Masataka; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Konno, Miki; Tanaka, Chihiro
Babesia sp. Xinjiang was isolated from a splenectomised sheep infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Hylomma anatolicum anatolicum, collected from sheep and cattle in Xinjiang province. It was considered to be a novel ovine Babesia species on the basis of its morphology, pathogenicity, vector tick species and alignments of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) gene sequences. Continuous in vitro cultures of the ovine parasite were established using infected sheep blood. In RPMI 1640 medium with 7.5% sheep red blood cells (RBCs) maintained in an incubator at 37 °C and 5% CO(2), the percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE) peaked at 10% in 24- and 6-well plates. It increased to 20-50% with the same culture medium but with 2.5% RBC in 75 cm(2) flasks. Two clonal lines of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were screened using the limiting dilution method. Growth characteristics of these lines in vitro were measured by a microtiter-based spectrophotometric method and from the PPE. The generation time in sheep erythrocytes was between 15.20 h and 16.27 h. Furthermore, the host range of parasite was identified with in vitro culture and in vivo infection. Erythrocytes of sheep, cattle, sika deer and humans could be invaded into by lines in vitro, but the parasites could not propagate in human erythrocytes. The parasites could not enter erythrocytes from goats in vitro. However, in vivo, only sheep could be infected by lines. Finally, a Babesia sp. Xinjiang-like parasite (which shared 99.5% identity with the original strain of Babesia sp. Xinjiang) was isolated using this in vitro culture system from 1 of 19 sheep blood samples collected from western Gansu province, China. PMID:22386948
Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Liu, Aihong; Du, Pengfei; Ren, Qiaoyun; Li, Youquan; Wang, Jinming; Liu, Zhijie; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun
"Matsutake" mushrooms are formed by several species of Tricholoma sect. Caligata distributed across the northern hemisphere. A phylogenetic analysis of matsutake based on virtually neutral mutations in DNA sequences resolved robust relationships among Tricholoma anatolicum, Tricholoma bakamatsutake, Tricholoma magnivelare, Tricholoma matsutake, and Tricholoma sp. from Mexico (=Tricholoma sp. Mex). However, relationships among these matsutake and other species, such as Tricholoma caligatum and Tricholoma fulvocastaneum, were ambiguous. We, therefore, analyzed genomic copy numbers of ? marY1 , marY1, and marY2N retrotransposons by comparing them with the single-copy mobile DNA megB1 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to clarify matsutake phylogeny. We also examined types of megB1-associated domains, composed of a number of poly (A) and poly (T) reminiscent of RNA-derived DNA elements among these species. Both datasets resolved two distinct groups, one composed of T. bakamatsutake, T. fulvocastaneum, and T. caligatum that could have diverged earlier and the other comprising T. magnivelare, Tricholoma sp. Mex, T. anatolicum, and T. matsutake that could have evolved later. In the first group, T. caligatum was the closest to the second group, followed by T. fulvocastaneum and T. bakamatsutake. Within the second group, T. magnivelare was clearly differentiated from the other species. The data suggest that matsutake underwent substantial evolution between the first group, mostly composed of Fagaceae symbionts, and the second group, comprised only of Pinaceae symbionts, but diverged little within each groups. Mobile DNA markers could be useful in resolving difficult phylogenies due to, for example, closely spaced speciation events. PMID:23440576
Murata, Hitoshi; Ota, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Muneyoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Katahata, Shinichiro; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Babasaki, Katsuhiko; Neda, Hitoshi
TheHyalommadromedarii central nervous system, the synganglion, is an integrated nerve mass concentrated around the esophagus and formed by fusion of a small anterodorsal supraesophageal part an a large posteroventral subesophageal part. The supraesophageal part consists of the protocerebrum including a pair of optic ganglia, a pair of cheliceral ganglia, a pair of pedipalpal ganglia, and the stomodeal pons. The subesophageal
A. S. Marzouk; G. M. Khalil; F. S. A. Mohamed; N. Farid
The synganglion histology in female H. dromedarii is described and compared with other ticks. The synganglion, lying in a periganglionic blood sinus, is formed by a fused supra-esophageal part protocerebrum, cheliceral ganglia, pedipalpal ganglia and stom...
A. S. Marzouk F. S. Mohamed G. M. Khalil S. Abdel-Kawy
A description is presented of the fasting H. asiaticum males and females behaviour in the desert area of Kara-Kum, depending upon their water balance. The ticks are active in the morning and evening hours with the temperature of the ground surface of 20-4...
Y. S. Balashov
Two forms of the nymphal thrombin inhibitors (NTI) 3.2 kDaand 14.9 kDa were purified by chromatography on CM-cellulose,Sephacryl S-300 and Sephadex G-50 columns and designated NTI-1 and NTI-2respectively. The NTI-2 turned out to be homogenous monomeric protein in bothnative-PAGE and denatured SDS-PAGE with M(r) value of 14.9 kDaapproximately and its pI value ranged from 7.2 to 7.5. The NTI-1 and
Mahmoud A. Ibrahim; Abdel-Hady Ghazy; Tahany Maharem; Mohamed Khalil
Contents: Isolation of West Nile virus strains from Hyalomma plumbeum plumbeum Panz ticks; Serologic identification of the Astrakhan tik strains of West Nile virus; Isolation of still another West Nile virus strain from Hyalomma plumbeum plumbeum Panz tic...
M. P. Chumakov
From 321 of 7381 birds (28 species), 504 immature European-Asiatic ticks were collected: Ixodes frontalis, Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis sulcata, Hyalomma spp. (probably mostly m. marginatum), Hyalomma aegyptium, and Hyalomma m. marginatum. Many additional detaching ticks were eaten by the hosts. Uninfested bird species numbered 29 (998 individuals).
Harry Hoogstraal; Makram N. Kaiser
New evidence which confirms the existence of ecdysterone (beta-ecdysone) in the ticks Dermacentor variabilis (Say) and Hyalomma dromedarii Koch is presented. Evidence implicating the occurrence of alpha-ecdysone, in much smaller amounts than that observed...
D. E. Sonenshine P. J. Homsher J. H. Oliver
A passive surveillance for tick bites in humans was undertaken in the city of Istanbul (Turkey) in the summer and autumn of\\u000a 2006. From 1,054 reported tick bites, most were females of Ixodes ricinus (27%) and nymphs of Hyalomma aegyptium (50%). A few adults of Hyalomma m. marginatum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor marginatus were also recorded. We investigated potential risk
Z. Vatansever; A. Gargili; N. S. Aysul; G. Sengoz; A. Estrada-Peńa
The ticks removed from the patients who applied to the hospitals in Istanbul and neighboring cities, Turkey, with the complaint of tick bite were examined in this study, on account of their species, biological stages, attachment sites on the body, and the age of the affected patients. A total of 16,969 ticks were identified. Encountered species were as follows: 33.6 % Ixodes spp. immature, 25.3 % Hyalomma spp. immature, 24.3 % I. ricinus, 9.5 % Rhipicephalus sanguineus gr., 3.2 % R. bursa, 2.2 % Hyalomma marginatum, 1.96 % Haemaphysalis adults, 1.66 % Hyalomma aegyptium, 0.52 % Dermacentor marginatus, 0.39 % Rhipicephalus spp. nymphs, 0.12 % Dermacentor spp. nymphs, 0.11 % Haemaphysalis spp. nymphs, 0.09 % Hyalomma scupense, and 0.03 % Hyalomma excavatum. The distribution of attachment sites of the species and instars showed significant differences. Furthermore, age data of the patients also revealed that certain tick species were more common within certain age groups. PMID:23620419
Kar, S; Dervis, E; Ak?n, A; Ergonul, O; Gargili, A
A study on tick fauna and tick-borne pathogens was undertaken in Pianosa, an island in the Tuscany Archipelago that constitutes an important stopping and nesting point for migratory birds. Ticks were removed from feral cats and a few terrestrial birds, and host-seeking ticks were collected by dragging. A total of 89 ticks were found on animals: 57 Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado, 1936 and 32 Ixodes acuminatus Neumann, 1901. Host-seeking ticks were 354 Hyalomma spp. larvae and 18 Hyalomma spp. adults, identified as Hyalomma marginatum C.L. Koch, 1844 (n=11) and 7 Hyalomma detritum Schulze, 1919 (n=7). A sample of adult ticks was subjected to molecular analyses to look for Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Sequence analysis of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region and OspA gene of B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive samples showed the presence of Borrelia spielmanii (n=3; 3.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-10.4) and Borrelia valaisiana (n=13; 13.6%, 95% CI 7.0-23.0) in Ixodes ticks from cats and terrestrial birds. Ixodes spp. were also infected by Rickettsia helvetica (n=19; 23.4%, 95% CI 14.7-34.2). Finally, we detected Rickettsia aeschlimannii in 3 out of 12 host-seeking Hyalomma spp. adults tested (25%, 95% CI 5.5-57.2). Our study shows the presence of several tick-borne pathogens in Pianosa. Hyalomma spp. and Ixodes ticks other than I. ricinus seem to be involved in their epidemiological cycle, and birds could contribute to the pathogen dispersal along their migration routes. This is the first finding of B. spielmanii in Italy. We hypothesize the involvement of peridomestic rodents or hedgehogs in its maintenance in Pianosa. PMID:23289398
Tomassone, L; Grego, E; Auricchio, D; Iori, A; Giannini, F; Rambozzi, L
As part of ongoing arbovirus surveillance, we screened ticks obtained from livestock in northeastern Kenya in 2008 to assess the risk for human exposure to tick-borne viruses. Of 1,144 pools of 8,600 Hyalomma spp. ticks screened for Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus by reverse transcription PCR, 23 pools were infected, demonstrating a potential for human exposure.
Lutomiah, Joel; Koka, Hellen; Makio, Albina; Chepkorir, Edith; Ochieng, Caroline; Yalwala, Santos; Mutisya, James; Musila, Lilian; Richardson, Jason H.; Miller, Barry R.; Schnabel, David
We report the genetic characterization of the M RNA segment of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). Two CCHFV strains isolated in Xinjiang Province, a region endemic for CCHF in northwestern China, were studied. These strains, designated BA66019 and BA8402, were isolated in 1965 and 1984 from a CCHF patient and Hyalomma ticks, respectively. Viral RNA was extracted from suckling
Anna Papa; Benjiang Ma; Sophie Kouidou; Qing Tang; Changshou Hang; Antonis Antoniadis
Sequences from the Anaplasma phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene were detected in 5 ticks representing 3 species (Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus turanicus, and Boophilus kohlsi) collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Mount Carmel, Israel. The sequences were all identical to those of Ap-variant 1 strain.
Massung, Robert F.; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D.; Shanas, Uri; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Waner, Trevor
This paper introduces the first countrywide faunistic study of the tick parasites on ruminants in Portugal. The aim of this study was to map accurately the distribution of the ticks Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, R. bursa, Hyalomma m. marginatum, H. lusitanicum and Ixodes ricinus in Portugal. Additional information about the abiotic preferences of these species has been obtained through
Agustín Estrada-Peńa; Maria Margarida Santos-Silva
A study was carried out on ticks of domestic animals in the Macedonia region of Greece. During 1983–1986, 11 620 tick specimens, belonging to 18 species and subspieces, were collected from cattle, sheep, goats and dogs, in 64 localities throughout Macedonia.Rhipicephalus bursa, the most common tick, and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum occurred in all bioclimatic zones, as well as the two
Byron Papadopoulos; Pierre Claude Morel; André Aeschlimann
The objective of this study was to make an inventory of the ixodid tick species infesting wild animals in three western, semi-arid nature reserves in South Africa. To this end 22 animals in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, 10 in the West Coast National Park and 16 in the Karoo National Park were examined. Fourteen tick species were recovered, of which Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus exophthalmos and Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum were each present in two reserves and the remainder only in one. The distributions of two of the 14 tick species recovered, namely Rhipicephalus capensis and Rhipicephalus neumanni, are virtually confined to the western semi-arid regions of southern Africa. Hyalomma truncatum, R. capensis and R. glabroscutatum were the most numerous of the ticks recovered, and eland, Taurotragus oryx, were the most heavily infested with the former two species and gemsbok, Oryx gazella, and mountain reedbuck, Redunca fulvorufula, with R. glabroscutatum. PMID:17708155
Golezardy, H; Horak, I G
We report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in Israel. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma detritum while Rickettsia massiliae was present in Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. Furthermore, a novel uncultured SFGR was detected in Haemaphysalis adleri and Haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. The pathogenicity of the novel SFGR for humans is unknown; however, the presence of multiple SFGR agents should be considered when serological surveillance data from Israel are interpreted because of significant antigenic cross-reactivity among Rickettsia. The epidemiology and ecology of SFGR in Israel appear to be more complicated than was previously believed.
Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Leitner, Moshe; Din, Adi Beth; Wikswo, Mary E.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D.; Shanas, Uri; King, Roni; Waner, Trevor
We report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in Israel. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma detritum while Rickettsia massiliae was present in Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. Furthermore, a novel uncultured SFGR was detected in Haemaphysalis adleri and Haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. The pathogenicity of the novel SFGR for humans is unknown; however, the presence of multiple SFGR agents should be considered when serological surveillance data from Israel are interpreted because of significant antigenic cross-reactivity among Rickettsia. The epidemiology and ecology of SFGR in Israel appear to be more complicated than was previously believed. PMID:22049050
Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E; Leitner, Moshe; Din, Adi Beth; Wikswo, Mary E; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D; Shanas, Uri; King, Roni; Waner, Trevor
A total of 48 springbok, 48 gemsbok, 23 kudus and 6 giraffes were examined for ticks and lice, while 9 Burchell's zebras and 6 Hartmann's mountain zebras were examined only for ticks. Springbok and gemsbok were shot in both the Etosha National Park in the north and the Hardap Nature Reserve in the south of Namibia. All the other animals were shot in the Etosha National Park. A total of 7 ixodid tick species and 8 lice species were recovered. The springbok carried few ticks. The adults of a Rhipicephalus sp. (near R. oculatus) were most numerous on the gemsbok, especially during November. The kudus were the only animals harbouring Rhipicephalus zambeziensis. Adult Hyalomma truncatum, followed by adult Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, were most abundant on the giraffes and adult Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus were commonest on the zebras. PMID:1297955
Horak, I G; Anthonissen, M; Krecek, R C; Boomker, J
Two tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus variants were studied: mouse brain-adapted strain EK-328 and its derivate adapted to Hyalomma marginatum ticks. The tick-adapted virus exhibited small-plaque phenotype and slower replication in PEK cells, higher yield in ticks, decreased neuroinvasiveness in mice, increased binding to heparin-sepharose. A total of 15 nucleotide substitutions distinguished genomes of these variants, six substitutions resulted in protein
Lidiya Iu. Romanova; Anatoly P. Gmyl; Tatiana I. Dzhivanian; Denis V. Bakhmutov; Alexander N. Lukashev; Larissa V. Gmyl; Alexander A. Rumyantsev; Ludmila A. Burenkova; Vasilii A. Lashkevich; Galina G. Karganova
Aims: To predict the risk of incursion of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in livestock in Europe introduced through immature Hyalomma marginatum ticks on migratory birds under current conditions and in the decade 2075–2084 under a climate-change scenario. Methods and Results: A spatial risk map of Europe comprising 14 282 grid cells (25 × 25 km) was constructed using three
P. Gale; B. Stephenson; A. Brouwer; M. Martinez; A. de la Torre; J. Bosch; M. Foley-Fisher; P. Bonilauri; A. Lindstrom; R. G. Ulrich; Vos de C. J; M. Scremin; Z. Liu; M. J. Munoz
Summary. The large (L) RNA segment of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus strain AST\\/TI30908, isolated from pooled Hyalomma marginatum ticks collected in 2002 from the Astrakhan region of European Russia, was amplified piecemeal using reverse-transcription\\/polymerase\\u000a chain reaction, followed by direct sequencing of gel-purified amplicons. After removal of 5? and 3? primer-generated termini,\\u000a the assembled AST\\/TI30908 L segment sequence is 12112
J. D. Meissner; S. S. Seregin; S. V. Seregin; N. V. Yakimenko; O. I. Vyshemirskii; S. V. Netesov; V. S. Petrov
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal viral vector-borne zoonosis which has a mortality rate of up to 30% without treatment in humans. CCHF virus is transmitted to humans by ticks, predominantly from the Hyalomma genus. Following the report of two confirmed and one suspected death due to CCHF virus in Kurdistan province of Iran in 2007, this study was undertaken to determine the fauna of hard ticks on domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats) and their possible infection with CCHF virus using reverse transcription PCR technique. This is the first detection of CCHF virus in ticks from the Kurdistan province of Iran. Overall, 414 ixodid ticks were collected from two districts in this province. They represented four genera from which 10 separate species were identified. The Hyalomma genus was the most abundant tick genus (70%). It was the only genus shown to be infected with the CCHF virus using RT-PCR technique. The number of ticks positive for CCHF virus was 5 out of 90 (5.6%) adult ticks. The three remaining genera (Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, and Dermacentor) were all negative following molecular survey. Four of the five virally-infected ticks were from cattle mainly in the Sanandaj district. We concluded that CCHF virus is present in the Hyalomma ticks on domestic ruminants (cattle) in Kurdistan province of Iran. PMID:22651389
Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Golmohammadi, Parvaneh; Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Azizi, Kourosh; Davari, Behrooz; Alipour, Hamzeh; Ahmadnia, Sara; Chinikar, Sadegh
Between October and November 2006, a total of 278 bovine blood samples were examined, and 104 (37.4%) were positive for piroplasms by microscopy. A reverse line blot hybridisation with polymerase chain reaction detected Theileria annulata, T. buffeli, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina in cattle accounting for 48.6% of positive samples. The most frequently found species was T. buffeli, which was present in 39.2% of the samples. T. annulata was found in 48 samples (17.3%). Babesia infections were less frequently detected: B. bovis was found in 6.8% of the samples and B. bigemina in 4.3%. Mixed infections were detected in 45 samples, accounting for seven different combinations of species. Seven Ixodid tick species (Boophilus annulatus, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma excavatum, Hyalomma detritum, Haemaphysalis punctata and Haemaphysalis sulcata) were collected from examined cattle in the 23 visited farms. I. ricinus was the dominant species (36%), mainly collected in the humid zone, while it seemed to be very rare in the semi-arid zone (where only 15 specimens were collected), whereas B. annulatus was the most commonly collected species in the sub-humid area (68.5% of ticks collected in this zone). PMID:18458949
M'ghirbi, Y; Hurtado, A; Barandika, J F; Brandika, J; Khlif, K; Ketata, Z; Bouattour, A
Theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite of cattle and domestic buffaloes, is transmitted by ticks of the genus Hyalomma, and causes a disease named Mediterranean or tropical theileriosis. In this research 50 cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata were treated with the extract of the plant Peganum harmala. The treatment was continued for 5 days, the dose of the extract being 5 mg/kg per day. After the treatment, 39 cattle responded to the treatment and recovered, but 11 did not respond to the treatment and died. The recovery rate of animals treated with the extract of the plant Peganum harmala was 78%.
Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was first isolated 20 years ago in Asia but has now been identified on three continents. Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus pusillus ticks are vectors but only a small number of cases have been reported to date, mainly on the Mediterranean coast. This bacterium induces the lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis, a still unfamiliar rickettsiosis that is mainly characterized by fever with a rope-like lymphangitis and/or lymphadenopathy and skin eschar occurring after tick bites. These features are especially evocative if they occur in spring. Sequellae are very rare and treatment with doxycycline is recommended. PMID:24034636
Foissac, M; Socolovschi, C; Raoult, D
SUMMARY A mathematical model that describes the transmission dynamics of Theileria annulata is proposed that consists of 2 host components: the Hyalomma tick population and a compartmental model of T. annulata infection in the cattle population. The model was parameterized using data describing tick infestation and the infection status of cattle in Turkey from 2006 to 2008. The tick attachment rates are highly seasonal and because of the temporal separation of infectious and susceptible ticks virtually all ticks are infected by carrier cattle, so that annual peaks of disease in cattle do not impact on infection in the Hyalomma tick population. The impact of intervention measures that target the tick population both on the host and in the environment and their impact on the transmission of T. annulata were investigated. Interventions that have a limited ‘one-off’ impact and interventions that have a more permanent impact were both considered. The results from the model show the importance of targeting ticks during the period when they have left their first host as nymphs but have yet to feed on their second host.
SUTTON, A. J.; KARAGENC, T.; BAKIRCI, S.; SARALI, H.; PEKEL, G.; MEDLEY, G. F.
During an 8-years study, we collected from vegetation or domestic and wild mammals 1246 ticks (624 males, 511 females and 111 nymphs) belonging to 13 species in Jaen province (Andalusia) and we analyzed these ticks by PCR and sequencing for the presence of rickettsiae. Specific rickettsiae DNA was detected in 243 (19.5%) of the ticks tested. Sequence analysis of amplicons of gltA, ompA and ompB genes revealed that Ixodes ricinus were infected with R. monacensis, including strain IRS3, and R. helvetica (prevalences of 27.0% and 2.7%, respectively), while in I. ventalloi we found only this last species (12.5%). Moreover, Dermacentor marginatus presents R. slovaca (24.7%) and R. raoultii (59.9%). In Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks (Rh. sanguineus, Rh. turanicus and Rh. pusillus) only R. massiliae (15.2%) was found. Haemaphysalis punctata and Ha. sulcata were infected with a Rickettsia sp. near R. hoogstraalii (prevalence of 3.1% and 16.1%, respectively). In addition, Ha. punctata appeared infected with R. monacensis-like Rickettsia (1.0%) and R. raoultii (9.3%). None of I. hexagonus, Hyalomma lusitanicum, Hyalomma sp., Ha. hispanica or Rh. bursa studied ticks contained rickettsiae. PMID:18677442
Márquez, Francisco J
A total of 1485 adult ticks were collected from mammalian hosts in south-eastern Sardinia, Italy, during the years 2007-2008. Ticks were identified and tested by PCR analysis for presence of Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella species and Leishmania species. Among all tick species examined (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus pusillus, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, Haemaphysalis sulcata and Dermacentor marginatus), only Hyalomma marginatum marginatum produced negative results. A total of 22 pools belonging to the three tick species Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9?%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (4.5?%) and Rhipicephalus pusillus (100?%) were positive for Rickettsia species, while a total of five pools belonging to Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.09?%), Haemaphysalis sulcata (16.7?%) and D. marginatus (7.8?%) were positive for E. canis. Five pools of Rhipicephalus turanicus (1.8?%) were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Positivity for C. burnetii was found in seven pools belonging to three tick species: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.5?%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.3?%) and Haemaphysalis sulcata (4.4?%). Finally, four pools belonging to Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.09?%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.7?%) and Rhipicephalus bursa (1.1?%) were positive for Bartonella species. Leishmania species DNA was not detected in any of the tick pools examined. Data presented here increase our knowledge on tick-borne diseases in Sardinia, and provide a useful contribution to understanding their epidemiology. PMID:20884769
Satta, Giuseppe; Chisu, Valentina; Cabras, Pierangela; Fois, Francesco; Masala, Giovanna
: Ticks are vectors of important pathogens of human and animals. Therefore, their microbial carriage capacity is constantly being investigated. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of domestic animal pathogens in ticks collected from vegetation and the ground, from different parts of Israel. Non-engorged questing adult ticks were collected from 13 localities. A total of 1196 ticks in 131 pools-83 pools of Rhipicephalus turanicus and 48 of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (with two to ten ticks per pool)-were included in this study. In addition, 13 single free-roaming Hyalomma spp. ticks were collected. Screening by molecular techniques revealed the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma bovis and Babesia canis vogeli DNA in R. turanicus ticks. E. canis, A. bovis, B. canis vogeli and Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii DNA sequences were detected in R. sanguineus ticks. Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii DNA was also detected in Hyalomma spp. ticks. Neither Hepatozoon spp. nor Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in any of the ticks examined. This study describes the first detection of E. canis in the tick R. turanicus, which may serve as a vector of this canine pathogen; E. canis was the most common pathogen detected in the collected questing ticks. It also describes the first detection of A. bovis and Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii in Israel. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report describing the detection of DNA of the latter two pathogens in R. sanguineus, and of A. bovis in R. turanicus. PMID:20636417
Harrus, S; Perlman-Avrahami, A; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Morick, D; Eyal, O; Baneth, G
The most important result of recent project research was the demonstration of the juvenoid JH III by radioimmunoassay. This assay revealed an estimated 78 pg/tick in the hemolymph of partially fed Hyalomma dromedarii females, and an estimated 3 pg/tick in the hemolymph of partially fed D. variabilis. Other studies, especially digestion of tritium labelled JH III, provided additional evidence suggesting the presence of this hormone in adult ticks. The implications of these findings for our understanding of sex pheromone regulation in ticks is discussed. Other studies described in this report deal with the source of ecdysteroid in teh camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, and the soft tick, Ornithodoros parkeri. Studies done at ODU, using radioimmunoassay high performance liquid chromatography, and autoradiography, provide new evidence implicating the tick synganglion - lateral nerve plexus as an important site of ecdysteroid activity in the ixodid ticks. Other studies with ecdysteriods suggest that metabolism of ecdysone or 20-hydroxyecdysone (or both) to inactive metabolites, possibly including polar conjugates. If confirmed, these findings indicate the presence of only a single active ecdysteriod hormone in ticks, 20-hydroxyecdysone.
Sonenshine, D.E.; Oliver, J.H. Jr.; Homsher, P.J.
Tick-borne pathogens can spread easily through the movements of infested birds. An important example is viruses that pose a threat to humans and that are carried in Hyalomma ticks that move from Africa into south-western Europe. This study evaluates the probability of arrival of migrating birds from Africa into Spain and the environmental suitability of different regions of Spain for the survival of tick stages introduced by these birds. This evaluation produced a spatial risk index measuring the probability that foreign tick populations will survive in the target area. Periods of highest risk were observed for large areas of Spain, from the second fortnight of April to the second fortnight of May. Although birds may arrive as early as January and massive migrations may take place in March, the environmental suitability for Hyalomma marginatum ticks is low in these periods and high mortality of the spread stages (nymphs) is expected. This study introduces new methods of objective analysis based on spatial and process-driven models for both ticks and hosts and critically evaluates the usefulness of spatial spreading methods for assessing the risk of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:22781365
Bosch, J; Muńoz, M J; Martínez, M; de la Torre, A; Estrada-Peńa, A
Ticks are mandatory blood feeding ectoparasites leading transmission of various tick-borne pathogens to human and animals. Since 2002, thousands of human tick bites and numerous Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever cases have been reported in several provinces in the Kelkit Valley region in Turkey. Despite increased cases of tick bites and tick-borne diseases, no taxonomic information is available about the tick species infesting humans in the region. In the present study, a tick survey on humans was performed to determine the species composition of ticks infesting humans in several provinces of Kelkit Valley. In the survey, 1,460 ticks (721 males, 516 females and 223 nymphs) were collected from tick-infested humans. A total of 19 tick species have been found on humans in the region, including 7 Hyalomma, 2 Argas, 2 Haemaphysalis, 2 Ixodes, Dermacentor and 3 Rhipicephalus species. Infestation of Dermacentor reticulatus on humans was documented for the first time in Turkey. PMID:22941278
Bursali, Ahmet; Keskin, Adem; Tekin, Saban
Engorged adult female ticks submitted from farms in South Africa were routinely screened for protozoan parasites by examination of haemolymph smears. An unidentified Babesia sp. was found in Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and its transmission to susceptible cattle was achieved both biologically (tick feeding) and mechanically (injection of infected blood). Attempts to transmit this species to susceptible rabbits and a horse using similar methods did not produce evidence of infection. This Babesia sp. was of low pathogenicity, even in splenectomized cattle. Morphologically, intra-erythrocytic piroplasms and merozoites in tick haemolymph resembled other bovine Babesia spp. in many respects. Although it could be classified as a large Babesia, it was intermediate in size between the other species. PMID:7335331
Thomas, S E; Mason, T E
We report the finding of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)-virus in indigenous Ixodes ricinus (L.), 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' in exotic Ixodes frontalis (Panzer) and Rickettsia aeshlimannii in exotic Hyalomma marginatum Koch subadult ticks detached from 18.5% (107/577) infested migratory birds in the Baltic region of Russia. This is the first record of human pathogenic 'Candidatus N. mikurensis' in I. frontalis ticks. Moreover, seven other pathogens were identified in I. ricinus ticks. Spotted Fever Group rickettsiae were the predominant pathogen group and were detected only in nymphs. Future investigations are warranted to further characterize the role of birds in the epizootiology of tick-borne pathogens in this region. PMID:22924442
Movila, A; Alekseev, A N; Dubinina, H V; Toderas, I
During recent years, new foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) have emerged in several Balkan countries, southwest Russia, and Turkey. Starting in 2002, Turkey experiences the largest ever recorded outbreak with more than 2500 cases. Potential reasons for the emergence or re-emergence of CCHF include climate changes which may have a significant impact on the reproduction rate of the vector Hyalomma ticks, as well as anthropogenic factors (e.g. changes in agricultural and hunting activities). Given the abundance of its vector, the numerous animals that can serve as hosts, and the favorable climate and ecologic parameters in other southern Europe Mediterranean countries, CCHF is an example of a vector-borne disease which may be knocking the door in this area. There are models which show probability of CCHF extending to other countries around the Mediterranean basin suggesting that the vector, veterinarian, and human surveillance should be enhanced. PMID:20541133
Maltezou, Helena C; Papa, Anna
Tropical bovine theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata and transmitted by ticks of the genus Hyalomma may be controlled by one or more of the following methods: i) management, with particular emphasis on movement control; ii) vector control by application of acaricides, preventing transmission of disease; iii) treatment of clinical disease using specific chemotherapeutics; iv) immunization with live vaccines; and v) the use of cattle resistant to ticks or the disease. Of these the most important and effective control method is the use of a live cell culture vaccine attenuated by prolonged culture in vitro of mononuclear cells persistently infected with macroschizonts of T. annulata. This vaccine, used chiefly in susceptible taurine dairy cattle, can now be complemented by using novel chemotherapeutic naphthoquinones--parvaquone and buparvaquone--which are very effective in treatment of the clinical disease in these valuable cattle. PMID:2126619
Brown, C G
External parasites in the triangle region (Halaib & Shalatin) affecting the animal health were studied. Ectoparasites were collected in several sites by using bait traps and directly from animal bodies. Results indicated the presence of twelve species of insects belonging to seven genera included in three families (Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae). Concerning ectoparasites on animal bodies, there were two species of biting lice infested goats and sheep (Bovicola caprae and B. ovis, respectively) and two species of sucking lice on goats (Linognathus africanus and L. stenopsis). Melophagus ovinus (family Hippoboscidae) collected from goats. Moreover, all camels suffered infestation with hard ticks four Hyalomma species. On the other hand, sheep and goats were infested with two Rhipicephalus species and one Haemaphysalis species. PMID:12557945
el-Baky, S M
The current paper is a synoptic review of the distribution and host associations of the 25 species of hard tick fauna (family Ixodidae) in Romania. In addition to a full literature survey, original data is presented, based on eight years of occasional or targeted sample collection. The literature data on geographical distribution was transposed digitally to the decimal degree coordinate system. For each species, an updated distribution map is given together with all historical data and new host associations. Overall, our paper records 58 new tick-host associations for Romania: 20 for Ixodes ricinus, 1 for I. apronophorus, 6 for I. arboricola, 2 for I. hexagonus, 9 for I. redikorzevi, 1 for I. trianguliceps, 2 for I. vespertilionis, 2 for Haemaphysalis punctata, 1 for H. sulcata, 2 for H. concinna, 1 for D. marginatus, 4 for Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, 1 for R. bursa and 6 for Hyalomma marginatum. PMID:22544174
Mihalca, A D; Dumitrache, M O; Magda?, C; Gherman, C M; Dom?a, C; Mircean, V; Ghira, I V; Pocora, V; Ionescu, D T; Sikó Barabási, S; Cozma, V; Sándor, A D
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a typical tick-borne pathogen that causes an increasing number of severe infections in many parts of Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and the Balkans, as well as in some other parts of Europe. The virus is transmitted primarily by Hyalomma spp., and the spectrum of natural hosts for CCHFV is broad, including wild and domestic animals. Although, the presence of CCHFV was hypothesized in Hungary, no significant research activity has been carried out in the past 30 years. In the present study, we provide serological evidence of CCHFV infection in Lepus europeus using newly developed antibody detection assays. Of 198 samples, 12 (6%) were positive for immunoglobulin G antibody against CCHFV, with 2 independent detection assays. This observation indicates a need for a large-scale surveillance to estimate the potential public health risk of CCHFV in Hungary. PMID:23421895
Németh, Viktória; Oldal, Miklós; Egyed, László; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Erdélyi, Károly; Kvell, Krisztián; Kalvatchev, Nikolay; Zeller, Herve; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc
A total of 53 engorged adult ticks belonging to the species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (N = 9), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (N = 27), Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (N = 9), Amblyomma hebraeum (N = 5), and Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (N = 3), were removed from oryx in Botswana (South Africa). They were tested for the presence of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia and Anaplasma phagocytophilum using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seventy-seven percent of R. decoloratus as well as twenty percent of A. hebraeum were positive for ompA, gltA and 16S rRNA SFG Rickettsia PCR assays. All nucleotide sequences were homologous to Rickettsia africae, the agent of African tick-bite fever (ATBF). None of the tested ticks was positive for 16S rRNA A. phagocytophilum PCR assays. These results suggest for the first time that R. decoloratus ticks may be reservoirs of R. africae, and support the ATBF risk in this area. PMID:17690416
Portillo, Aránzazu; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Santibáńez, Sonia; Blanco, José R; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A
The invasive pantropical blue tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, has recently been collected from cattle in Namibia. A cross-sectional study aimed at recording the geographic distribution of Rhipicephalus decoloratus and establishing whether R. microplus is present in Namibia was conducted towards the end of summer (March-April) 2013. Ticks were collected from cattle on 18 privately owned farms across a large geographical scale. Ticks were collected from three to five cattle per farm and species belonging to the genera Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus were recovered. Rhipicephalus decoloratus was present on all farms and R. microplus was recorded on four of the farms. The small numbers of R. microplus compared to R. decoloratus collected in the mixed infestations, suggests that the introduction events were recent. PMID:23851930
Nyangiwe, Nkululeko; Matthee, Conrad; Horak, Ivan; Matthee, Sonja
Cosmiomma hippopotamensis (Denny, 1843) is one of the most unusual, beautiful, and rare tick species known to the world. All stages of this species possess a unique morphology, on the one hand making them easy to identify, while on the other they exhibit similarities to certain species of Amblyomma Koch, 1844, Dermacentor Koch, 1844, and Hyalomma Koch, 1844. Adults of C. hippopotamensis have been collected on only two occasions from their hosts, namely Hippopotamus amphibius L. and Diceros bicornis (L.), and have been recorded from only a few widely separated localities in East and southern Africa. Here, the larva and nymph are described and illustrated for the first time, while the male and female are illustrated and redescribed. Data on hosts, geographic distribution, and life cycle of C. hippopotamensis are also provided. PMID:23926768
Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Walker, Jane B; Heyne, Heloise; Bezuidenhout, J Dürr; Horak, Ivan G
Abstract Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service–protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne.
Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary
This review covers the geographic distribution and host relationships of the tick species in Sweden. Ixodes uriae White, I. caledonicus Nuttall, I. unicavatus Neumann, I. arboricola Schulze & Schlottke, and I. lividus Koch are ornithophagous species. I. trianguliceps Birula, I. canisuga Johnston, I. hexagonus Leach, and Argas vespertilionis (Latreille) are mammalophagous. I. ricinus (L.) and Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini & Fanzago feed on both birds and mammals. All these tick species may be considered to be permanently present in Sweden. I. persulcatus Schulze, Hyalomma marginatum Koch, and the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), may be regarded as not indigenous to Sweden although they may be regularly introduced by spring-migrating birds or imported dogs, respectively. The first European record of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), is reported. There are several records of Hyalomma aegyptium (L.) from imported tortoises in Sweden. Excluding other ticks imported on exotic pets and zoo animals, another 13 tick species are listed that may occur, at least occasionally, in Sweden. Because of its wide geographic distribution, great abundance, and wide host range, I. ricinus is medically the most important arthropod in northern Europe. I. ricinus is common in southern and south-central Sweden and along the coast of northern Sweden and has been recorded from 29 mammal species, 56 bird species, and two species of lizards in Sweden alone. The potential introduction to Sweden of exotic pathogens with infected ticks (e.g., I. persulcatus and H. marginatum on birds or Dermacentor spp. and R. sanguineus on mammals) is evident. PMID:8189415
Jaenson, T G; Tälleklint, L; Lundqvist, L; Olsen, B; Chirico, J; Mejlon, H
A review is presented of the ticks of the Central African Republic (C.A.R.), based on unpublished data and a literature review. We consider as established in the C.A.R. two species of Argasidae (one species of each of the genera Carios and Ornithodoros) and 49 species of Ixodidae: 5 Ixodes, 11 Amblyomma, 2 Dermacentor, 9 Haemaphysalis, 4 Hyalomma, and 18 Rhipicephalus species, 3 of which belong to the subgenus Boophilus. Two of these species, one Amblyomma and one Dermacentor, may by now have disappeared from the country together with their hosts, the black and white rhinoceroses. Moreover, four other species of Ixodidae have been recorded, but are not necessarily established in the country, and 6 species of Ixodidae have apparently been reported incorrectly; the data for the occurrence of three other species of Ixodidae are uncertain. Rhipicephalus species in the C.A.R. present the greatest difficulties in identification, on the one hand because of uncertainties in taxonomy, particularly in the capensis group, on the other hand because of individual variability, which means that individual specimens cannot always be reliably identified to species. Examining the dissected and cleared gonopore structure of females helps, but is very time-consuming where large numbers are involved. Some of the species of the genus Haemaphysalis are also difficult to identify with certainty. There are only a few species of Hyalomma in the country. We revised also some old records of ticks in C.A.R., which we consider as unreliable and should be disregarded because of subsequent changes in taxonomy and nomenclature, unless the material is still available for examination. PMID:22996417
Uilenberg, Gerrit; Estrada-Peńa, Agustín; Thal, Jean
In the of period 2003-2007, a total of 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The material for the present study was a collection of reptiles owned by the "Animals" Ltd from Swietoch?owice (Upper Silesia, Poland), specialising in import of exotic animals to Poland, as well as the reptile collections of private breeders. The reptiles that turned out to be the most heavily infected with ticks were the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius and they were imported to Poland from Ghana, Africa. Exotic reptiles are also imported from Southern Europe, Asia and Central America. The presently reported study helped to confirm the fact of transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland. A total of 2104 tick specimens, representing all stages of development (males, females, nymphs, larvae), were collected. They represented species of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum Schulze, 1941, Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma spp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Ambylomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. The overall prevalence of infection was 77.6%. The highest prevalence value (81.2%) was observed on pythons (Python regius) and (78.7%) on monitor lizards (Varanus exanthematicus). The highest number of ticks was collected from Python regius and Varanus exanthematicus. The mean infection intensity for V. exanthematicus was 7.6 ticks per host, while for P. regius the intensity reached 4.7 ticks. The most abundant tick transferred to Poland on a host was an African tick, Amblyomma latum. Fifty eight specimens of monitor lizards (V. salvator and V. exanthematicus) and 92 specimens pythons (P. regius) were examined, with detailed descriptions of where the parasite was feeding on the body of the host. Among the 434 specimens of ticks collected from the monitor lizards, the majority were attached on the host's legs (40.5%), on the trunk (29.3%), on the head (20.3%), with fewest on the tail (9.9%). Also, 430 specimens of ticks were collected from the bodies of pythons. They mostly parasitized along the whole length of the back (54.4%) and on the stomach side of the trunk (29.8%), less frequently in the area of the cloaca (5.6%), around the eyes (3.7%), in the nostril openings (0.9%) and on the remainder of the head (5.6%). On the hosts, ticks were found at different development stages, but adult development stages dominated. The most frequent were males (999 specimens), then adult females (552 specimens), nymphs (508 specimens) and larvae (45 specimens). During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed for ticks Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma latum and Hyalomma aegyptium. Asymmetries and deformations of the general body shape were observed, as were anomalies concerning structures on the surface of the body and anomalies of the legs. For the first time in Poland, epidemiological tests were carried out in the direction of the infection of exotic ticks gathered from reptiles with micro-organisms which pose a threat for the health of people and animals. For this purpose, molecular techniques - polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were used. The isolates from 345 ticks, were examined for the presence of DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which is the etiological factor in human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and Rickettsia spp. from the spotted fever group, causing human rickettsiosis. This study confirmed the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in two ticks of Amblyomma flavomaculatum (constituting 0.6% of all the ticks investigated) feeding on Varanus exanthematicus. None of the tick specimens, however, contained Rickettsia spp. DNA
A longitudinal study of tropical theileriosis was performed on 12 farms in the Doukkala region of Morocco during 1990. Adult Hyalomma detritum detritum were collected between March and early October and a peak in numbers was observed at the end of June. Nineteen percent (24/127) were infected with Theileria species and, amongst these, over 50% had five or more sporoblasts in their salivary glands (range 1-151). Hyalomma d detritum larvae and nymphs were found on cattle between September and early December with the highest numbers in late October. The prevalence of T. annulata piroplasm carriers at the beginning of the year was 48.5% (47 positive out of 97) and there were 14 new infections during the disease season (March to September) of which five developed into clinical cases. The incidence rates of new infection and clinical disease were 0.156 and 0.056 per animal-season, respectively. Differences were observed between age categories of cattle in both tick and parasite infections. A significantly lower number of adult H.d. detritum were collected from calves than from adult cattle. The prevalences of piroplasm carriers before the disease season were 0%, 36% and 76%, respectively, in (a) calves which had been born since the previous disease season, (b) calves born before then and (c) adults. However, the incidence rates of infection and disease for uninfected animals in the two categories of calves were approximately the same: 0.299 and 0.378 new infections, and 0.085 and 0.126 clinical cases per animal-season for (a) and (b), respectively. The date predicted for the appearance of adult H.d. detritum, based on published tick development times and local temperature records, was within 2 weeks of the study visit when the highest number of adults were collected from cattle. However, the date predicted for the appearance of larvae was 6 weeks earlier than the observed peak populations and may indicate that H.d. detritum delays either egg laying in the summer or larval host searching in the autumn. PMID:1441192
Flach, E J; Ouhelli, H
Babesia sp. in Xinjiang, transmitted by Hyalomma, is a large Babesia that is infective for small ruminants, but it has almost no pathogenicity in healthy sheep. On the basis of the sequences of the 18S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes, morphological characteristics, vector tick species and pathogenicity it was identified recently as a novel Babesia species. In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using soluble merozoite antigens of Babesia sp. in Xinjiang (BXJMA) derived from in vitro culture. When the positive threshold was chosen as 24.65% of the specific mean antibody rate, the specificity and sensitivity were both 97.3%. There was no cross-reaction between BXJMA and positive sera from sheep infected with other Chinese ovine piroplasms or Anaplasma ovis in the ELISA and western blotting. Specific antibodies against Babesia sp. in Xinjiang could be detected 2 weeks post infection and a high level of antibodies persisted for more than 12 weeks in experimentally infected sheep. The ELISA was tested on 3857 sera collected from small ruminants in 50 prefectures of 22 provinces to evaluate the sero-epidemiology of Babesia sp. in Xinjiang infection, and the average positive rate was 31.66%. These data provide that the developed ELISA is a powerful tool for the sero-diagnosis of Babesia sp. in Xinjiang and confirm that it is a novel species. PMID:22579523
Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Wang, Jinming; Yang, Jifei; Li, Anyan; Liu, Zhijie; Du, Pengfei; Li, Youquan; Liu, Qing; Zhu, Hai; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun
Abstract :? Reptiles may contribute to maintaining tick populations by feeding larvae, nymphs, and adults. The life cycles and tick-host associations of many Turkish ticks are still poorly known, and only 3 ixodid tick species have been reported on 7 reptile species in Turkey. In this study, we performed a tick survey on reptiles in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. In 2005, 57 reptiles (52 lizards and 5 snakes) comprising 10 species from 5 families were captured and examined for tick infestation. A total of 427 ticks was collected. The majority of ticks found on lizards was the immature stages of Haemaphysalis sulcata, 420 larvae and 4 nymphs. The only adult ticks recorded on the agamid lizard, Laudakia stellio, were Hyalomma aegyptium (1?, 2 ?). The highest tick infestation rate was recorded on specimens of Timon princeps. This study is the first detailed investigation on ticks infesting reptiles in Turkey. To the best of our knowledge, these tick-host associations have never been documented in the literature. PMID:23560648
Keskin, Adem; Bursali, Ahmet; Kumlutas, Yusuf; Ilgaz, Cetin; Tekin, Saban
The present study evaluated the molecular detection and identification of Rickettsia species in 83 ticks collected in Sardinia, Italy. Fifteen ticks were PCR-positive using gltA-specific and ompA-specific primers, leading to the identification of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, R. massiliae in Rhipicephalus turanicus and in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and a new rickettsia, previously referred to as PoTiRb169 in Portugal, in four Rhipicephalus turanicus. This new species was further characterized by amplification and sequencing of three additional genes (ompB, sca4 and rrs). Using the current criteria to name a rickettsia, this uncultivated rickettsia can be given a Candidatus status, and we propose to call it 'Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae'. The detection of three tick-borne rickettsiae in Sardinia raises the possibility that many cases of spotted fever considered by clinicians and health authorities as Mediterranean spotted fever due to R. conorii could, in fact, be due to other rickettsiae, including those found in this study. Analysing skin biopsies of inoculation eschars in patients with spotted fever would be, together with continuing entomological surveys, the best way to increase our knowledge of tick-borne rickettsioses in Sardinia and more generally in the Mediterranean basin. PMID:19040474
Mura, A; Masala, G; Tola, S; Satta, G; Fois, F; Piras, P; Rolain, J-M; Raoult, D; Parola, P
A comparative phylogeographic study on two economically important African tick species, Amblyomma hebraeum and Hyalomma rufipes was performed to test the influence of host specificity and host movement on dispersion. Pairwise AMOVA analyses of 277 mtDNA COI sequences supported significant population differentiation among the majority of sampling sites. The geographic mitochondrial structure was not supported by nuclear ITS-2 sequencing, probably attributed to a recent divergence. The three-host generalist, A. hebraeum, showed less mtDNA geographic structure, and a lower level of genetic diversity, while the more host-specific H. rufipes displayed higher levels of population differentiation and two distinct mtDNA assemblages (one predominantly confined to South Africa/Namibia and the other to Mozambique and East Africa). A zone of overlap is present in southern Mozambique. A mechanistic climate model suggests that climate alone cannot be responsible for the disruption in female gene flow. Our findings furthermore suggest that female gene dispersal of ticks is more dependent on the presence of juvenile hosts in the environment than on the ability of adult hosts to disperse across the landscape. Documented interspecific competition between the juvenile stages of H. rufipes and H. truncatum is implicated as a contributing factor towards disrupting gene flow between the two southern African H. rufipes genetic assemblages.
Cangi, Nidia; Horak, Ivan G.; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A.; Matthee, Sonja; das Neves, Luis C. B. G.; Estrada-Pena, Agustin; Matthee, Conrad A.
Abstract Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral disease mainly affecting pastoralists who come in contact with animals infested with Hyalomma ticks, which are the key vectors of CCHF virus (CCHFV). CCHFV has been detected among these ticks in parts of North Eastern Kenya. This study aimed to identify acute cases of CCHF, and to determine the extent of previous exposure to CCHFV in an outpatient population attending Sangailu and Ijara health centers, Ijara District, North Eastern Kenya, presenting with acute febrile illnesses. A total of 517 human serum samples were collected from these patients. The samples were screened for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to CCHF using CCCHF-IgG and IgM ELISA test kits. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to investigate the risk factors associated with evidence of exposure to CCHFV. A single patient tested positive for anti-CCHF IgM, while 96 were positive for anti-CCHF IgG. The seroprevalence of CCHFV was 23% in Sangailu and 14% in Ijara. Most exposed persons were aged 40–49 years. The likelihood of exposure was highest among farmers (29%). Age, location, and contact with donkeys were significantly associated with exposure to CCHFV. Acute CCHFV infections could be occurring without being detected in this population. This study confirms human exposure to CCHF virus in Ijara District, Kenya, and identifies several significant risk factors associated with exposure to CCHFV.
Irura, Zephania; Tigoi, Caroline; Chepkorir, Edith; Orindi, Benedict; Musila, Lillian; Venter, Marietjie; Fischer, Anne; Sang, Rosemary
In 2010 and 2011, questing ticks were collected from 188 forested locations in all the 41 counties of Romania using the dragging method. The total of 13,771 ticks collected belonged to eleven species: Ixodes ricinus (86.9 %), Dermacentor marginatus (9.5 %), Haemaphysalis punctata (2.6 %), H. concinna (0.6 %), H. sulcata (0.3 %), H. parva (0.1 %), Hyalomma marginatum (0.02 %), D. reticulatus (0.02 %), I. crenulatus (0.007 %), I. hexagonus (0.007 %) and I. laguri (0.007 %). Ixodes ricinus was present in 97.7 % (n = 180) of locations, occurring exclusively in 41.7 % of the locations, whereas it was the dominant species in 38.8 % of the other locations, accounting for over 70 % of the total tick community. The following most common questing ticks were D. marginatus, H. punctata and H. concinna. Ixodes ricinus co-occurred with one, two or three sympatric species. The occurrence of D. reticulatus in forested habitats from Romania was found to be accidental. PMID:22547023
Mihalca, A D; Gherman, C M; Magda?, C; Dumitrache, M O; Györke, A; Sándor, A D; Dom?a, C; Oltean, M; Mircean, V; M?rcu?an, D I; D'Amico, G; P?duraru, A O; Cozma, V
The efficacy of an amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on preparation (1% w/v each) was tested against natural tick infestations of buffaloes, eland and blesbok in three separate trials. The eland were also treated with a 0.02% abamectin (w/v) acaricidal pour-on preparation. The amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on was effective against Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Hyalomma marginatum rufipes on the buffaloes. Both acaricides were effective against R. appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus in the eland. The amitraz/cypermethrin acaricide was effective against R. (Boophilus) decoloratus in the blesbok. Ticks can cause damage to the skins, secondary infections, abscesses, anaemia, loss of condition, tick toxicosis and act as vectors of infectious diseases. Introduction of hosts and/or ticks from endemic to non-endemic areas because of translocation of game, may lead to severe losses. The pouron acaricides tested were effective against natural tick infestations and should always be used according to the manufacturer's instructions and efficacy claims. PMID:16562734
Van Der Merwe, J S; Smit, F J; Durand, A M; Krüger, L P; Michael, L M
We studied abundance and distribution of seven ectoparasite species (fleas Chiastopsylla rossi and Dynopsyllus ellobius, a louse Polyplax arvicanthis, mites Androlaelaps fahrenholzi and Laelaps giganteus and two ticks Haemaphysalis elliptica and Hyalomma truncatum) exploiting the same populations of the rodent host Rhabdomys pumilio in South Africa. We considered three general patterns of abundance and distribution, namely (i) aggregated distribution of parasites amongst individual hosts; (ii) positive relationships between mean parasite abundance and their prevalence; and (iii) applicability of a simple epidemiological model based on mean parasite abundance and its variance to predict the observed patterns of prevalence. Our aims were to evaluate the relative role of host- versus parasite-associated factors by looking at similarity amongst different parasites in these patterns. In general, all parasites demonstrated strong similarity in each of the three patterns of abundance and distribution. However, the strength of these patterns differed amongst parasite species. We conclude that these patterns are driven mainly by hosts, but differences are caused by differences between various life-history traits of parasite species. Our results support the idea that general laws apply to parasite population ecology. PMID:19168068
Matthee, Sonja; Krasnov, Boris R
A comparative phylogeographic study on two economically important African tick species, Amblyomma hebraeum and Hyalomma rufipes was performed to test the influence of host specificity and host movement on dispersion. Pairwise AMOVA analyses of 277 mtDNA COI sequences supported significant population differentiation among the majority of sampling sites. The geographic mitochondrial structure was not supported by nuclear ITS-2 sequencing, probably attributed to a recent divergence. The three-host generalist, A. hebraeum, showed less mtDNA geographic structure, and a lower level of genetic diversity, while the more host-specific H. rufipes displayed higher levels of population differentiation and two distinct mtDNA assemblages (one predominantly confined to South Africa/Namibia and the other to Mozambique and East Africa). A zone of overlap is present in southern Mozambique. A mechanistic climate model suggests that climate alone cannot be responsible for the disruption in female gene flow. Our findings furthermore suggest that female gene dispersal of ticks is more dependent on the presence of juvenile hosts in the environment than on the ability of adult hosts to disperse across the landscape. Documented interspecific competition between the juvenile stages of H. rufipes and H. truncatum is implicated as a contributing factor towards disrupting gene flow between the two southern African H. rufipes genetic assemblages. PMID:24130813
Cangi, Nídia; Horak, Ivan G; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Matthee, Sonja; das Neves, Luís C B G; Estrada-Peńa, Agustín; Matthee, Conrad A
Few studies have been published on bovine piroplasmoses in Italy, and therefore a clear picture of the epidemiology of these infections is difficult to obtain. Vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in Central and Northern Regions of Italy were investigated in 2005 and 2006, when microscopy, molecular tools and serological tests were applied to 468 blood samples drawn from cattle in order to evaluate the presence of these protozoa and identify possible risk factors. Ticks were also collected, identified and analyzed by molecular techniques. Microscopy identified 6.5% of the animals as positive, whereas PCR detected piroplasm DNA in 21.6%. BLAST analysis showed 67 amplicons (17.0%) referable to the Theileria sergenti/buffeli/orientalis group, 17 (4.3%) to Theileria annae, and 1 to Babesia divergens. Serology evidenced a prevalence of 45.4% for Babesia bovis, 17.4% for Babesia bigemina, and 34.9% for B. divergens. The 127 collected ticks were identified as belonging to 5 species, mostly represented by Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma marginatum and Ixodes ricinus. Molecular analyses evidenced the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina, in 3 and 5 ticks, respectively. Our findings suggest that different species of piroplasms are circulating in bovine populations in Central and Northern Italy, and provide new insights into the complex epidemiology of bovine piroplasmoses in Italy. PMID:21864982
Cassini, R; Marcer, F; di Regalbono, A Frangipane; Cancrini, G; Gabrielli, S; Moretti, A; Galuppi, R; Tampieri, M P; Pietrobelli, M
The aim of this study was to analyze synanthropic birds as risk factors for introducing ticks and tick-borne pathogens into human settlements, with an emphasis on rickettsiae. Altogether 184 subadult ticks were found on 5846 birds. Tick infestation was most prevalent during the spring. In this sample group the majority of ticks were molecularly identified as Ixodes ricinus, and three individuals collected from the European robin as Hyalomma marginatum marginatum. The latter is the first molecularly confirmed occurrence of this species in Hungary. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in H. marginatum, also for the first time in Hungary, and in ticks from an urbanized bird species north of the Mediterranean countries. The overall prevalence range of rickettsiae (including R. helvetica and R. monacensis) in ticks of synanthropic birds was 29-40%, exceeding that in questing ticks of relevant species reported earlier. Additionally, in specimens of I. ricinus, the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and a new Francisella-like genotype was also verified. Thus, it can be concluded that birds with urban or periurban habitats pose a high risk as tick carriers and reservoirs of zoonotic agents, especially of rickettsiae. PMID:23289394
Hornok, Sándor; Csörg?, Tibor; de la Fuente, José; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Privigyei, Csaba; Meli, Marina L; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Gönczi, Enik?; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina
Climatic, environmental and economic changes, as well as the steadily increasing global trade and personal mobility provide ample opportunities for emerging pathogens with zoonotic potential to spread to previously unaffected countries. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is considered to be one of the major emerging disease threats spreading to and within the European Union following an expanding distribution of its main vector, ticks of the genus Hyalomma. Every year more than 1000 human CCHF cases are reported from countries of southeastern Europe and Turkey. CCHFV can cause high case fatality rates and can be transmitted from human to human. There are no vaccine prophylaxis and therapeutic interventions available at present. Several EU-funded research projects focus currently on CCHFV which highlights the awareness for this problem at the European level. As public health deals with questions of prevention on a population level rather than healing and health on an individual level, the analysis of existing data plays a fundamental role to minimize its epidemic potential, by reducing infection risks, and to manage disease outbreaks. This review gives a summary of the current knowledge and data with focus at the interface between public health and CCHFV. Based on this knowledge, guidelines for the risk classification of a region and for outbreak prevention are given. This review will assist decision makers and public health authorities in understanding risk scenarios and in deciding on effective countermeasures, as well as human and veterinary scientists by highlighting existing gaps in knowledge. PMID:23458713
Mertens, Marc; Schmidt, Katja; Ozkul, Aykut; Groschup, Martin H
A 2-year study was conducted from March 2010 to March 2012 in a forested area in southern Italy to evaluate the species diversity and abundance of free-living ticks in 3 different habitats: (i) a meadow habitat within an enclosure inhabited by roe deer (Capreolus capreolus); (ii) a man-made trail located in a high-altitude, forested area; and (iii) a grassland near a house inhabited by 3 people. In total, 10,795 ticks were collected. Ixodes ricinus was the most abundant species (69.0%), followed by Haemaphysalis inermis (19.1%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (6.7%), Dermacentor marginatus (3.2%), and Hyalomma marginatum (1.0%). The least frequently collected species were Rhipicephalus bursa, Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis sulcata, and Haemaphysalis concinna, representing together less than 1% of the collections. Immature ticks predominated over adult ticks. In particular, immature stages of Ix. ricinus (i.e., 3246 larvae and 3554 nymphs) represented 63% of the total number of ticks collected. High levels of species diversity and abundance of ticks were recorded in all habitats and the daily number of ticks collected was negatively correlated with daily mean temperature, evapotranspiration, and saturation deficit. This study indicates that the southern Italian climate is suitable for different tick species, which may find a preferred 'climate niche' during a specific season, when a combination of factors (e.g., suitable meteorological and environmental conditions) associated with the presence of suitable hosts will facilitate their development and reproduction. PMID:23403153
Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico
Helminths and arthropods were collected and quantified from two black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis bicornis) and one white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), and ticks from an additional four black and two white rhinoceroses in southern Africa. The helminths of a black rhinoceros from the Republic of South Africa and one from Namibia were quantitatively measured and recorded for each compartment of the alimentary tract. Probstmayria vivipara was the most abundant parasite in each animal. A recently described nematode, Diceronema versterae, was found in the stomach of one animal. Draschia megastoma was present in the descending colon of the same animal, but it was twice the size of similar specimens reported from equids and the typical granulomatous lesions caused by this nematode in horses were not observed. New records of other helminths from rhinoceroses include Parabronema roundi, Kiluluma sp., Kiluluma goodeyi, Kiluluma magna, Khalilia rhinocerotis, Oxyuris karamoja and Anoplocephala gigantea. The stomach bot, Gyrostigma pavesii, was collected from one black and one white rhinoceros. Ticks collected from the black rhinoceroses were Amblyomma hebraeum, Dermacentor rhinocerinus, Rhipicephalus maculatus, Rhipicephalus muehlensi and Haemaphysalis silacea. The two white rhinoceroses were infected with A. hebraeum, D. rhinocerinus, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus simus, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus zambeziensis. PMID:9249695
Knapp, S E; Krecek, R C; Horak, I G; Penzhorn, B L
This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the eco-epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus transmission reviewing the most recent scientific advances in the last few decades of epidemic and non-epidemic ("silent") periods. We explicitly aim to highlight the dynamics of transmission that are still largely unknown. Recent knowledge gathered from research in Africa and Europe explains the very focal nature of the virus, and indicates that research on the ecology of the virus in the inter-epidemic periods of the disease has not yet been addressed. Hyalomma spp. ticks have been incriminated in the transmission of the virus under field conditions, but the role of other ticks found infected in nature remains to be tested under experimental conditions. Published evidence suggests that the increase in human cases reported in the Balkans, Turkey, and Russia is perhaps less due to the effect of changes in climate, but rather result from the impact of yet unexplored mechanisms of amplification that might be supported by wild animal hosts. Assessment of the available data suggests that epidemics in Eastern Europe are not the result of a spreading viral wave, but more likely are due to a combination of factors, such as habitat abandonment, landscape fragmentation, and proliferation of wildlife hosts that have exacerbated prevalence rates in tick vectors. There is an urgent need to empirically demonstrate these assumptions as well as the role of birds in introducing infected ticks, and also to evaluate the potential for survival of introduced ticks. Either a replacement of the pathogenic virus in the western Mediterranean or a lack of westward dissemination of infected tick populations may explain the absence of the virus in Western Europe. PMID:22448676
Estrada-Peńa, Agustín; Jameson, Lisa; Medlock, Jolyon; Vatansever, Zati; Tishkova, Farida
Recent advances in climate research together with a better understanding of tick–pathogen interactions, the distribution of ticks and the diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens raise questions about the impact of environmental factors on tick abundance and spread and the prevalence and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. While undoubtedly climate plays a role in the changes in distribution and seasonal abundance of ticks, it is always difficult to disentangle factors impacting on the abundance of tick hosts from those exerted by human habits. All together, climate, host abundance, and social factors may explain the upsurge of epidemics transmitted by ticks to humans. Herein we focused on tick-borne pathogens that affect humans with epidemic potential. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (Lyme disease), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocytic anaplasmosis), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tick-borne encephalitis) are transmitted by Ixodes spp. Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever) is transmitted by Hyalomma spp. In this review, we discussed how vector tick species occupy the habitat as a function of different climatic factors, and how these factors impact on tick survival and seasonality. How molecular events at the tick–pathogen interface impact on pathogen transmission is also discussed. Results from statistically and biologically derived models are compared to show that while statistical models are able to outline basic information about tick distributions, biologically derived models are necessary to evaluate pathogen transmission rates and understand the effect of climatic variables and host abundance patterns on pathogen transmission. The results of these studies could be used to build early alert systems able to identify the main factors driving the subtle changes in tick distribution and seasonality and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens.
Estrada-Pena, Agustin; Ayllon, Nieves; de la Fuente, Jose
Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum , the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. We used direct and indirect methods to compare and evaluate exposure to A. phagocytophilum in horses in northern Tunisia. Methods Serum from 60 horses was tested by IFA for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum , and whole blood was tested for A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene using a nested-PCR. To examine the risk of A. phagocytophilum transmission, 154 ticks that had been collected from horses were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by nested-PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene. Results This is the first time that A. phagocytophilum has been detected in horses in Tunisia, with an overall seroprevalence of 40/60 (67%). Six of the seroreactive samples (10%) had an IFA titer of 1:80, 14 (23%) of 1:160, 8 (13%) of 1:320 and 12 (20%) a titer 1???640. The seroprevalence revealed no significant regional and sex differences. In contrast, a significant difference was observed between breeds. Eight (13%) of the horses were positive for A. phagocytophilum in the PCR, with no significant breed and age differences. Hyalomma marginatum was a predominant tick species (130/154), and 3 were infected by A. phagocytophilum (a prevalence of 2.3%). The concordance rate of A. phagocytophilum detection between IFA and PCR had a k value of ?0.07. Conclusions The results presented in this study suggest that horses infested by ticks in Tunisia are exposed to A. phagocytophilum.
Development of three quantitative real-time PCR assays for the detection of Rickettsia raoultii, Rickettsia slovaca, and Rickettsia aeschlimannii and their validation with ticks from the country of Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
A previous surveillance study of human pathogens within ticks collected in the country of Georgia showed a relatively high infection rate for Rickettsia raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii. These 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae are human pathogens: R. raoultii and R. slovaca cause tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA), and R. aeschlimannii causes an infection characterized by fever and maculopapular rash. Three quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, Rraoul, Rslov, and Raesch were developed and optimized to detect R. raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii, respectively, by targeting fragments of the outer membrane protein B gene (ompB) using species-specific molecular beacon or TaqMan probes. The 3 qPCR assays showed 100% specificity when tested against a rickettsiae DNA panel (n=20) and a bacteria DNA panel (n=12). The limit of detection was found to be at least 3 copies per reaction for all assays. Validation of the assays using previously investigated tick nucleic acid preparations, which included Rickettsia-free tick samples, tick samples that contain R. raoultii, R. slovaca, R. aeschlimannii, and other Rickettsia spp., gave 100% sensitivity for all 3 qPCR assays. In addition, a total of 65 tick nucleic acid preparations (representing 259 individual ticks) collected from the country of Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2009 was tested using the 3 qPCR assays. R. raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii were not detected in any ticks (n=31) from the Republic of Azerbaijan, but in the ticks from the country of Georgia (n=228) the minimal infection rate for R. raoultii and R. slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus was 10% and 4%, respectively, and for R. aeschlimannii in Haemaphysalis sulcata and Hyalomma spp. it was 1.9% and 20%, respectively. PMID:23182543
Jiang, Ju; You, Brian J; Liu, Evan; Apte, Anisha; Yarina, Tamasin R; Myers, Todd E; Lee, John S; Francesconi, Stephen C; O'Guinn, Monica L; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Vephkhvadze, Nino; Babuadze, Giorgi; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Kokhreidze, Maka; Donduashvili, Marina; Onashvili, Tinatin; Ismayilov, Afrail; Agayev, Nigar; Aliyev, Mubariz; Muttalibov, Nizam; Richards, Allen L
The reproductive mechanism of Haemaphysalis longicornis is quite different from many other animal species. In this article, several characteristics of parthenogenetic and bisexual populations of H. longicornis were analyzed, including some important micro-structures, synchronized life cycle feature and sequences of mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. The results suggested even though many observations of the two populations were similar to each other, some important differences also existed. The genital apron of parthenogenetic females was wider than that of bisexual females. Parthenogenetic individuals (except engorged females) were significantly larger in weight than bisexual individuals (p<0.01; unfed nymph p<0.05); the difference of nymphal premoulting, female feeding and preoviposition, and egg incubation periods between the two populations were significant (p<0.01); hatch percentage of parthenogenesis was lower than that of bisexual population (69% and 73%, respectively); parthenogenetic individuals had a slightly longer development cycle than bisexual individuals (134 and 129 days, respectively). Hybridization attempts failed between them. Comparing to the two strains of bisexual H. longicornis, parthenogenetic strain of H. longicornis inserted two nucleotides of thymine, though the genetic distance of 16S rDNA between the bisexual and parthenogenetic populations was 0. In order to clarify the relationships of the two reproductive populations of H. longicornis, the sequences of 16S rDNA of four strains of two other species were also analyzed. The divergence between Hebei and Xinjiang strains of Rhipicephalus sanguineus was 0, and the sequences were totally identical between them. The divergence between the two subspecies of Hyalomma asiaticum was 0.01. The results indicated that the relationship between bisexual and parthenogenetic H. longicornis was certainly closer than that between subspecies, but farther than that between the same reproductive populations of conspecies. PMID:22560314
Chen, Ze; Yang, Xiaojun; Bu, Fengju; Yang, Xiaohong; Liu, Jingze
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an increasing health concern in Turkey since 2002. There were also some recent human cases from the South Marmara region of Turkey; thus, a tick survey was performed, and possible vector tick species for the CCHF virus were determined in the region. A total of 740 adult ticks were collected from infested livestock from five locations: Çanakkale-Biga, Bursa-Orhaneli, Bursa-Keles, Bal?kesir and Bilecik. Total of 11 tick species from the genera Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor, Ixodes and Haemaphysalis were identified. Rhipicephalus ticks were dominant in the region; the most frequently observed tick species was R. turanicus, (53.1 %), and only 15.4 % of the identified ticks were H. marginatum. The occurrence of H. rufipes infestation in the region fort he first time. A total of 73 pools of adult ticks were tested with both an antigen-detecting ELISA and RT real-time PCR (RT rt PCR). The presence of the CCHF virus was demonstrated in 9 (12.3 %) of the tested tick pools. Although seven of the tick pools were positive for the CCHF virus with both of the methods, one pool was positive only with RT rt PCR and the other pool was only positive with the ELISA. Positive results were obtained from ticks collected from cattle, sheep and goats from two locations, Bursa-Orhaneli and Bilecik. The CCHF virus was detected in R. turanicus (n = 3), R. bursa (n = 2), H. marginatum (n = 2) and D. marginatus (n = 2) ticks. The results of this study confirm the presence of the CCHF virus and present preliminary data on the vector tick species in the southern Marmara region of Turkey. PMID:23229492
Yesilbag, Kadir; Aydin, Levent; Dincer, Ender; Alpay, Gizem; Girisgin, A Onur; Tuncer, Pelin; Ozkul, Aykut
Ectoparasites can cause important skin disorders in animals and can also transmit pathogens. The Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus has been stated to be the most endangered felid in the world and such vector-borne pathogens may threaten its survival. We surveyed 98 wild carnivores (26 Iberian lynxes, 34 red foxes Vulpes vulpes, 24 Egyptian mongooses Herpestes ichneumon, 11 common genets Genetta genetta, two Eurasian badgers Meles meles, one polecat Mustela putorius) and 75 domestic but free-ranging carnivores (46 cats Felis catus, 29 dogs Canis familiaris) from June 2004 to June 2006 in the two areas where the last lynx metapopulations survive: Sierra Morena and Dońana (Andalusia, southern Spain). A total of 65% of lynxes were parasitized (50% by ticks, 19% by fleas, 4% by lice, 31% by hippoboscid flies), as were 75% of foxes (58%, 60%, 0%, 19%), 71% of mongooses (50%, 4%, 46%, 0%), 54% of genets (18%, 36%, 0%, 0%), 30% of cats (22%, 14%, 0%, 2%), and 7% of dogs (surveyed only for ticks). Both badgers presented ticks, fleas and lice. Five species of ixodid ticks (Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev and Matikashvili, Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus), Ixodes hexagonus Leach and Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado; and Hyalomma sp.), four species of fleas (Ctenocephalides canis Curtis, Pulex irritans Linnaeus, Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale), Xenopsylla cunicularis Smit), three species of chewing lice (Felicola (Felicola) inequalis (Piaget), Trichodectes (Trichodectes) melis (Fabricius), and Felicola (Lorisicola) isidoroi Pérez and Palma), and one species of hippoboscid fly (Hippobosca longipennis (Fabricius)) were found. We did not detect any cases of mange. Hippobosca longipennis is a new record for Spanish wildlife, and all the flea species are new records for the Iberian lynx. Fleas were more frequent on lynxes and foxes in winter than in spring. Rhipicephalus spp. were more frequent on cats in spring than in any other season. These and other epidemiological findings are discussed with respect to the conservation of the Iberian lynx. PMID:17897365
Millán, J; Ruiz-Fons, F; Márquez, F J; Viota, M; López-Bao, J V; Paz Martín-Mateo, M
A method for rapid species identification of ticks may help clinicians predict the disease outcomes of patients with tick bites and may inform the decision as to whether to administer postexposure prophylactic antibiotic treatment. We aimed to establish a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) spectrum database based on the analysis of the legs of six tick vectors: Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, and Dermacentor reticulatus. A blind test was performed on a trial set of ticks to identify specimens of each species. Subsequently, we used MALDI-TOF MS to identify ticks obtained from the wild or removed from patients. The latter tick samples were also identified by 12S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing and were tested for bacterial infections. Ticks obtained from the wild or removed from patients (R. sanguineus, I. ricinus, and D. marginatus) were accurately identified using MALDI-TOF MS, with the exception of those ticks for which no spectra were available in the database. Furthermore, one damaged specimen was correctly identified as I. ricinus, a vector of Lyme disease, using MALDI-TOF MS only. Six of the 14 ticks removed from patients were found to be infected by pathogens that included Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Borrelia spp. MALDI-TOF MS appears to be an effective tool for the rapid identification of tick vectors that requires no previous expertise in tick identification. The benefits for clinicians include the more targeted surveillance of patients for symptoms of potentially transmitted diseases and the ability to make more informed decisions as to whether to administer postexposure prophylactic treatment. PMID:23224087
Yssouf, Amina; Flaudrops, Christophe; Drali, Rezak; Kernif, Tahar; Socolovschi, Cristina; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe
Between May 2006 and January 2007, blood samples and ticks were randomly collected from 220 nomadic animals from Filtu and Dollo Odo districts, Libaan zone, in the Somali Region of Ethiopia. Overall, 81.5% cattle, 98.2% camels, 53.4% goats and 61.1% sheep were infested by ixodid ticks. Collected ticks (n = 1,036) were identified as Rhipicephalus pulchellus (40.1%), R. pravus (25.8%), Amblyomma gemma (9.4%), Hyalomma rufipes (13.3%), H. truncatum (2.8%), H. impeltatum (1.2%) and H. dromedarii (0.5%); immature stages (6.1%) belonged to the genera Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma. Tick infestation burden was evaluated by the Tick Abundance Score method on 57 animals from Dollo Odo in August 2006, and it was significantly higher in cattle and camels than in small ruminants (p < 0.001). Reverse Line Blot Hybridisation was applied to detect Theileria, Babesia, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. Five out of 50 blood samples from Filtu, four from cattle and, surprisingly, one from a camel, were positive for Theileria mutans and two from cattle for T. velifera. Adult ticks (n = 104) from both districts were tested and A. gemma from cattle were positive to T. velifera (1) and Ehrlichia ruminantium (5 samples). Positive E. ruminantium samples were also tested by PCR targeting pCS20 and 16S rRNA genes and submitted to DNA sequencing. The phylogenetic reconstruction of pCS20 fragment showed the presence of the Somali region sequences in the East-South African group. Our results are the first available on ticks and selected tick-borne diseases from the Somali region of Ethiopia and could be used as preliminary information for planning sustainable control strategies for tick and tick-borne pathogens in the study area and in neighbouring areas with similar socio-ecological features. PMID:22349943
Tomassone, Laura; Grego, E; Callŕ, G; Rodighiero, P; Pressi, G; Gebre, S; Zeleke, B; De Meneghi, D
Bovine piroplasmosis are tick-borne protozoan diseases caused by parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia. Three Friesian cattle farms (F1-F3) with previous history of clinical piroplamosis were selected in Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). Blood samples were collected from 8 to 11 animals every two months throughout a year and, a newly developed multiplex DNA bead-based suspension array based on the Luminex(®) xMAP technology was used to monitor for the presence of piroplasms. The assay incorporated probes for Babesia divergens, Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Babesia major, Babesia occultans, Theileria annulata and Theileria buffeli, and a Catch-all Theileria and Babesia (TB) control probe. An internal amplification control that was detected with a Luminex probe was also included to monitor for inhibition. Infection was detected in 87.5% of the samples, 38.7% as single infections and 48.8% as mixed infections. T. annulata was widespread in Farm F1, with all animals positive over the whole study; albeit less frequently, T. annulata was also detected in Farms F2 and F3. T. buffeli was the overall most prevalent piroplasm, with a wide distribution in Farms F2 and F3 but only occasionally detected in F1. B. bigemina was the most frequent Babesia species, but was absent from Farm F1. B. bovis, previously reported in Minorca, was only sporadically detected in F2 and F3. A further 3 Babesia species not previously found in Minorca were also identified: B. major present in the 3 farms; B. divergens detected once in 2 animals in F2; and B. occultans found in 4 animals in F2 and in 1 Hyalomma marginatum female tick collected from a positive animal. Sequencing confirmed the identity of B. occultans thus extending the distribution of this species to Mediterranean Europe. This study confirmed the endemic situation for piroplasm infection in the region and detected the presence of a large number of chronic asymptomatic carriers. More importantly, 3 Babesia species not previously detected in the region were detected for the first time. PMID:22884914
Ros-García, A; García-Pérez, A L; Verdera, J; Juste, R A; Hurtado, A
The current research was conducted to define the epidemiological parameters related to the prevalence and associated risk factors of tick infestation in buffaloes in the Toba Tek Singh District of central Punjab, Pakistan. The prevalence of ticks on buffaloes was 31.21 % (352/1,128). Among the species of ticks, the prevalence of Hyalomma marginatum (75.56 %; 266/352) was higher (P < 0.05; odd's ratios (OR) = 3.09) than Rhipicephalus microplus (24.44 %; 86/352). Female buffaloes (69.60 %; 245/352) and younger animals (59.09 %; 208/352) were more heavily infested than males (30.40 %; 107/352) and adult animals (40.91 %; 144/352), respectively, whereas breed was not a determinant (P > 0.05). With regard to management and husbandry practices, the prevalence of ticks was higher in animals kept on uncemented flooring (54.55 %; 192/352; OR = 1.90) followed in order by partially cemented (28.69 %; 101/352; OR = 1.71) and fully cemented flooring (16.76 %; 59/352). With regard to feeding systems, grazing animals (64.20 %; 226/352) were more burdened compared to stall-fed animals (35.80 %; 126/352). The highest tick prevalence was recorded in closed housing systems (52.27 %; 184/352), followed by semi-closed (34.09 %; 120/352; OR = 1.53), and open housing systems (13.64 %; 48/352). Rope-tied animals (70.73 %; 249/352) were more parasitized (P > 0.05) than open (29.27 %; 103/352). Prevalence in the study district was highest in tehsil Kamalia followed in order by T.T. Singh and Gojra. The primary body area of infestation by ticks (head, neck, ear, dewlap, back, abdomen, foreleg, shoulder, hind leg, congenital areas, and tail) ranged from highest at inside thigh (17 %) to lowest at rump. In the present survey, the highest prevalence was recorded in July and lowest in December. Comparison of hematological changes showed remarkable differences between infested and non-infested animals, in the form of low values of infested animals, whereas an increment in biochemical parameter values was observed in tick-infested animals. The present study provides significant data to enhance planning for tick control program in the study area. PMID:23086441
Iqbal, Asif; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Khan, Muhammad Kasib