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Sample records for hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum

  1. Ultrastructural study of muscles fibers in tick Hyalomma (Hyalomma) anatolicum anatolicum (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Bughdadi, Faisal A

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, ticks were obtained from a colony maintained at 28 degrees C and 75% relative humidity in at the Department of Biology, University College Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia and the Transmission Electron Microscope technique (TEM) was used to describes the ultrastructure and description of muscle of the of ixodid tick Hyalomma (Hyalomma) anatolicum anatolicum. The results showed that muscles of the unfed ticks Hyalomma (Hyalomma) anatolicum anatolicum in longitudinal sections are spindle-shaped to cylindrical muscle fibers. In the unfed nymph Hyalomma (Hyalomma) anatolicum anatolicum skeletal and visceral muscles are distinguished according to structure, function and position. These muscles include the capitulum, dorsoventral and leg oblique muscles. All muscle fibers are ensheathed (covered by sheath) in a sarcolemma. Their muscle fibers have striated pattern of successive sarcomeres whose thick myosin filaments are surrounded by orbitals of up to 12 thin actin filaments. The cytoplasm of the epidermal cell appears largely devoted with complicated microtubules present in parallel with long axis of adjacent muscle fibers. The cell membrane invaginates into tubular system extending deeply into the sarcoplasm and closely associated to cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum. The tubular system and sarcoplasmic reticulum forming two-membered (dyads) are considered to be the main route of calcium ions whose movement are synchronized with the motor impulse to control muscles contraction. In the sarcoplasm two types of muscle fibers are recognized according to thickness and density and mitochondrial size, distribution and population. Both skeletal and visceral muscles are invaginated by tracheoles and innervated by nerve axons containing synaptic vesicles. The actin and myosin filaments are slightly interrupted and the tubular system sarcoplasmic reticulum is well demonstrated. PMID:21313907

  2. Beauveria bassiana: Synergistic effect with acaricides against the tick Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming; Ren, Qiaoyun; Liu, Zhijie; Guan, Guiquan; Gou, Huitian; Ma, Miling; Li, Youquan; Liu, Aihong; Yang, Jifei; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2011-07-01

    Owing to the need to combat the spread of chemical acaricide resistance in ticks, we evaluated the efficacy of a mixture of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana AT17 and acaricides for the control of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in China. A mixture of B. bassiana AT17 at the concentration of 10(8)conidia/mL and the synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin at concentrations of 2500, 250, 25, 5, 2.5, 0.5 and 0.25ppm was tested in vitro. The germination capability, vegetative growth, conidia production, and viability of B. bassiana AT17 were assessed and the efficacy of the mixture in killing engorged H. anatolicum anatolicum females was measured. High mortality rates were achieved when the entomopathogen was combined with different concentrations of deltamethrin. Neither B. bassiana AT17 nor deltamethrin alone at the same concentrations could cause the higher mortality rates seen with the combination. In addition the combination killed the ticks more rapidly than did either agent alone (3-5days more rapidly). Our results indicate that the mixture of B. bassiana AT17 and deltamethrin has potential as a new type of reagent for integrated control of H. anatolicum anatolicum. PMID:21440547

  3. Virulence of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces lilacinus to the engorged female Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming; Ren, Qiaoyun; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Ma, Miling; Gou, Huitian; Chen, Ze; Li, Youquan; Liu, Aihong; Niu, Qingli; Yang, Jifei; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2011-08-25

    The tick is a common ectoparasite of livestock and humans, and is responsible for the transmission of pathogens among hosts. Direct and indirect impacts of ticks include limiting the sustainable development of the animal husbandry industry and detrimental effects on human health. Despite these negative effects, the main method of controlling ticks remains the application of chemical acaricides, which can lead to ambient pollution and the development of tick resistance to them. The biocontrol of ticks is one of the alternative control methods that has received recent research attention. The present study used Tenebrio moliter bait methods to collect 13 species of entomopathogenic fungi from different areas in China that were then tested to observe their effects on engorged female Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks. The results showed that more than half of the isolates had some pathogenic effects on the ticks; in particular, two Beauveria bassiana strains (B.bAT01, B.bAT17) and one Metarhizium anisopliae strain (M.aAT26) were highly virulent, causing up to 90% mortality. In addition, H. anatolicum anatolicum females were treated with B. bassiana B.bAT17 using different concentrations of the fungus. Results revealed that B. bassiana B.bAT17 is highly pathogenic against engorged H. anatolicum anatolicum females. This is the first report of the pathogenic effect of entomopathogenic fungi on engorged H. anatolicum anatolicum females. However, studies of the efficiency of this fungus against ticks in the field are required before it can be used for tick management in practice. PMID:21511397

  4. Detection of Malathion Resistance in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum from Bathinda District, Punjab

    PubMed Central

    Jyoti; Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Prerna, Mranalini; Singh, Harkirat; Rath, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The resistance status against malathion in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks collected from Bathinda district, Punjab, was evaluated by adult immersion test (AIT). Materials and Methods: Technical grade malathion was used for conduction of AIT with 2 min immersion time protocol. The regression graph of probit mortality of ticks was plotted against log values of increasing concentrations of malathion and was utilized for the determination of slope of mortality, LC50, LC95 (95% confidence interval [CI]) and resistance factor (RF). The reproductive parameters of treated ticks viz. egg mass weight, reproductive index (RI), and percentage inhibition of oviposition (% IO) were also studied. Results: The increasing concentration of malathion showed an upward trend in per cent tick mortality. The slope of mortality (95% CI) was 2.489 ± 0.719 (2.489 ± 0.719) and value of goodness of fit (R2) was 0.799. The LC50 (95% CI) and LC95 (95% CI) values were recorded as 9099.2 (8378.6–9881.7) and 41,511.3 (35,060.2–49,149.4) ppm, respectively, with RF as 16.60 indicating level II resistance status. A negative dose-dependent slope of egg mass weight (−91.79 ± 25.15 [−171.8 to −11.76]) was recorded as the survived ticks laid significantly (P = 0.0355) fewer eggs. The mean RI of treated ticks decreased with increasing concentrations of drug and the slope (95% CI) was −0.293 ± 0.059 (−0.482 to −0.105). Further, a dose-dependent significant increase (P = 0.0157) in the mean % IO was recorded in treated ticks. Conclusions: The results of the current study would be useful in the formulation and implementation of effective tick strategies in the region. PMID:26862273

  5. Identification and characterization of microRNAs by deep-sequencing in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin; Liu, Guang-Yuan; Chen, Ze; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun; Wang, Hui

    2015-06-15

    Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (H.a. anatolicum) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks are globally distributed ectoparasites with veterinary and medical importance. These ticks not only weaken animals by sucking their blood but also transmit different species of parasitic protozoans. Multiple factors influence these parasitic infections including miRNAs, which are non-coding, small regulatory RNA molecules essential for the complex life cycle of parasites. To identify and characterize miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing, bioinformatics and real-time PCR analysis. Here we report the use of this approach to identify miRNA expression, family distribution, and nucleotide characteristics, and discovered novel miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum. The result showed that miR-1-3p, miR-275-3p, and miR-92a were expressed abundantly. There was a strong bias on miRNA, family members, and nucleotide compositions at certain positions in H.a. anatolicum miRNA. Uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at positions 1, 6, 16, and 18, which were located approximately at the beginning, middle, and end of conserved miRNAs. Analysis of the conserved miRNAs indicated that miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum were concentrated along three diverse phylogenetic branches of bilaterians, insects and coelomates. Two possible roles for the use of miRNA in H.a. anatolicum could be presumed based on its parasitic life cycle: to maintain a large category of miRNA families of different animals, and/or to preserve stringent conserved seed regions with active changes in other places of miRNAs mainly in the middle and the end regions. These might help the parasite to undergo its complex life style in different hosts and adapt more readily to the host changes. The present study represents the first large scale characterization of H.a. anatolicum miRNAs, which could further the understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, as well as initiate miRNA studies in other related species such as Haemaphysalis longicornis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus of human and animal health significance. PMID:25592818

  6. Partial characterization of a novel anti-inflammatory protein from salivary gland extract of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum 77Acari: Ixodidae) ticks

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mayukh; Sangwan, Nirmal; Sangwan, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks transmit Theileria annulata, causative agent of tropical theileriosis to cattle and buffaloes causing a major economic loss in terms of production and mortality in tropical countries. Ticks have evolved several immune evading strategies to circumvent hosts’ rejection and achieve engorgement. Successful feeding of ticks relies on a pharmacy of chemicals located in their complex salivary glands and secreted saliva. These chemicals in saliva could inhibit host inflammatory responses through modulating cytokine secretion and detoxifying reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the present study was aimed to characterize anti-inflammatory peptides from salivary gland extract (SGE) of H. a. anatolicum ticks with a view that this information could be utilized in raising vaccines, designing synthetic peptides or peptidomimetics which can further be developed as novel therapeutics. Materials and Methods: Salivary glands were dissected out from partially fed adult female H. a. anatolicum ticks and homogenized under the ice to prepare SGE. Gel filtration chromatography was performed using Sephadex G-50 column to fractionate the crude extract. Protein was estimated in each fraction and analyzed for identification of anti-inflammatory activity. Sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was run for further characterization of protein in desired fractions. Results: A novel 28 kDa protein was identified in H. a. anatolicum SGE with pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: Purification and partial characterization of H. a. anatolicum SGE by size-exclusion chromatography and SDS-PAGE depicted a 28 kDa protein with prominent anti-inflammatory activity.

  7. Acaricidal efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum canum against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Hyalomma marginatum isaaci (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

    2012-09-01

    The use of acaricides had limited efficacy in reducing tick infestations and is often accompanied by serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide resistant ticks, contamination of environment, and milk and meat products with drug residues. The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum canum Sims (Labiatae) against the larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum Koch, 1844 and Hyalomma marginatum (m.) isaaci Sharif, 1928 (Acari: Ixodidae). The synthesized AgNPs results were recorded from UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The production of the AgNPs synthesized from the leaf extract of O. canum was evaluated through UV-visible spectrophotometer in a range of wavelength from 300 to 600 nm. This revealed a peak at 426 nm in leaf extracts of O. canum, indicating the production of AgNPs. The XRD spectrum compared with the standard confirmed spectrum of silver particles formed in the present experiments were in the form of nanocrystals, as evidenced by the peaks at 2θ values of 27.71°, 32.16°, 38.08°, 46.15°, 54.70° and 57.35°. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 818, 1,045, 1,381 and 1,616 in the region 500-3,000 cm(-1). The peaks correspond to the presence of a C-H vibration of the aromatic ring, stretch vibration of C-O, carbonyl groups and flavanones. SEM analyses of the synthesized AgNPs were clearly distinguishable, which measured 25-110 nm in size. It is clear that the rod and cylindrical structures have an average size of 95 nm. The EDX spectra showed the purity of the material and the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of O. canum and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The acaricidal activities of aqueous crude leaf extracts of O. canum against the larvae of H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci have LC(50) and LC(90) values of 15.31 and 13.85 mg/L, and 62.41 and 48.86 mg/L, respectively. The efficacies of 1 mM AgNO(3) solution against H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci were LC(50) = 12.25 and 12.17 mg/L, LC(90) = 49.17 and 46.52 mg/L, respectively, and the maximum efficacy was observed in the synthesized AgNPs against H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 0.78 and 1.00 mg/L, and 1.51 and 1.68 mg/L, respectively. This method is considered as an innovative alternative approach to control parasites. PMID:21789583

  8. Solanum trilobatum extract-mediated synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to control Pediculus humanus capitis, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Anopheles subpictus.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Elango, Gandhi; Arora, Pooja; Karthikeyan, Rajan; Manikandan, Sivan; Jose, Sujin

    2014-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in paints, printing ink, rubber, paper, cosmetics, sunscreens, car materials, cleaning air products, industrial photocatalytic processes, and decomposing organic matters in wastewater due to their unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was conducted to assess the antiparasitic efficacies of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Solanum trilobatum against the adult head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae); larvae of cattle tick Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae), and fourth instar larvae of malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed that the particles were in the form of nanocrystals as evidenced by the major peaks at 2? values of 27.52, 36.21, and 54.43 identified as 110, 101, and 211 reflections, respectively. FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,466cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. SEM images displayed NPs that were spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates with an average size of 70nm. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered a three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The pediculocidal and acaricidal activities of synthesized TiO2 NPs showed the percent mortality of 31, 42, 63, 82, 100; 36, 44, 67, 89, and 100 at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10mg/L, respectively, against P. h. capitis and H. a. anatolicum. The average larval percent mortality of synthesized TiO2 NPs was 38, 47, 66, 79, and 100 at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5mg/L, respectively, against A. subpictus. The maximum activity was observed in the aqueous leaf extract of S. trilobatum, TiO(OH)2 solutions (bulk), and synthesized TiO2 NPs with LC50 values of 35.14, 25.85, and 4.34mg/L; 47.15, 29.78, and 4.11mg/L; and 28.80, 24.01, and 1.94mg/L, and r (2) values of 0.982, 0.991, and 0.992; 0.947, 0.987, and 0.997; and 0.965, 0.998 and 0.985, respectively, against P. h. capitis, H. a. anatolicum, and A. subpictus. This study provides the first report on the pediculocidal, acaricidal, and larvicidal activity of synthesized TiO2 NPs. This is an ideal eco-friendly, novel, low-cost, and simple approach to satisfy the requirement of large-scale industrial production bearing the advantage for the control of P. h. capitis, H. a. anatolicum, and A. subpictus. PMID:24265057

  9. In vitro acaricidal effect of plant extract of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica) on egg, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Shafy, S; Zayed, A A

    2002-05-30

    Effects of the plant extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica) on eggs, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum was studied at concentrations of 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, and 12.8%. The extract was found to have a significant effect on the hatching rate of eggs. It significantly increased the hatching rate during the first 7 days post-treatment (DPT) giving incompletely developed and dead larvae; however, it cause hatching failure at DPT 15. Neem Azal F induced a significant increased in mortality rates of newly hatched larvae, unfed larvae, and unfed adults reaching 100% on 15th, 3rd, and 15th DPT, respectively. The mortality rates increased with the extract concentrations. Although, it had no significant effect on the moulting rates of fed nymphs, it caused malformation or deformities in 4% of adults moulted. It was concluded that the concentration of Neem Azal F which may be used for commercial control of this tick species were 1.6 and 3.2%. PMID:11992715

  10. [Genetic characterization of the Wad Medani virus (WMV) (Reoviridae, Orbivirus), isolated from the ticks Hyalomma asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1930 (Ixodidae: Hyalomminae) in Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, and Armenia and from the ticks H. anatolicum Koch, 1844 in Tajikistan].

    PubMed

    Al'khovskiĭ, S V; L'vov, D K; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Near full-genome sequence of the Wad Medani Virus (WMV) (strain LEIV-8066Tur) (Orbivirus, Reoviridae) isolated from the ticks Hyalomma asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1929, collected from sheep in Baharly district in Turkmenistan, was determined using next generation sequencing approach. The similarity of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (Pol, VP1) amino acid sequence between WMV and the Kemerovo group orbiviruses (KEMV), as well as of the Baku virus (BAKV), was 64%. The similarity of the conserved structural protein VP3 (T2) of WMV with mosquito-borne and tick-borne orbiviruses reaches 46% and 67%, respectively. For the surface proteins VP2, VP5, and VP7 (T13), which have major antigenic determinants of orbiviruses, the similarity of WMV with tickborne orbiviruses (KEMV and BAKV) is 26-30%, 45% and, 57%, respectively (ID GenBank: KJ425426-35). PMID:25549464

  11. [The manifestation of sexual dimorphism in the preimago phases of 2 species of the genus Hyalomma (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae)].

    PubMed

    Voltsit, O V

    1988-01-01

    Experiments on laboratory cultures of Hyalomma asiaticum and H. anatolicum have shown that at the nymphal phase sexual dimorphism manifests itself in statistically reliable differences between general sizes and mass of the body of male and female individuals. Larger nymphs moult mostly into females, small ones mostly into males. Reliable differences have been noted in the sizes of scutum, gnathosoma and its appendages in male and female nymphs of both species. At the larval phase sexual dimorphism does not manifest itself in the sizes of individuals. PMID:3357700

  12. Preliminary survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle in northern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Salih, D A; Hassan, S M; El Hussein, A M; Jongejan, F

    2004-12-01

    In a cross sectional survey conducted during the period June 2001 to July 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the Sudan was determined. Seventeen locations were surveyed from Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, Blue Nile and White Nile Provinces. Total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. Four tick genera and 11 species were identified. The tick species collected included Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group and Rhipicephalus simus simus. Major ecological changes have occurred due to extensive animal movement, deforestation, desertification and establishment of large mechanized agricultural schemes. These factors have certainly affected the distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Sudan. The absence of A. variegatum and A. lepidum in northern Sudan was not surprising, since these tick species are known to survive in humid areas and not in the desert and semi-desert areas of northern Sudan. The absence of B. annulatus in northern and central Sudan is in accordance with the finding that this tick species is restricted to the southern parts of the central Sudan. The presence of H. anatolicum anatolicum in Um Benin in relatively high abundance is an interesting finding. The present finding may indicate that the southern limit of this species has changed and moved southwards to latitude 13 degrees N. It is concluded that major changes in tick distribution have taken place in the Sudan. PMID:15732459

  13. Laboratory Study on Biological Control of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) by Entomopathogenic Indigenous Fungi (Beauveria bassiana)

    PubMed Central

    Abdigoudarzi, M; Esmaeilnia, K; Shariat, N

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chemical control method using different acaricides as spray, dipping solution or pour-on is routinely used for controlling ticks. Biological control agents are favorable due to their safety for animals and environment. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are well known for controlling ticks. In this study, two Iranian indigenous strains of B. bassiana (B. bassiana 5197 and B. bassiana Evin) were selected and grown on specific media. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of two Iranian Ixodidae members (H. anatolicum anatolicum Koch 1844, and H. marginatum Koch 1844) by dipping method. Methods: Two Iranian strains of Beauveria bassiana (Beauveria bassiana 5197 and Beauveria bassiana Evin) were selected and were grown successfully on specific media. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of Iranian Ixodidae members such as, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and H. marginatum by dipping method (these ticks were grown up at laboratory conditions during 2002 up to 2003 and still it is continued) . Results: There was no effect of strain 5197 on mortality or fecundity rates for ticks. There was acute phase sign of paralysis in test group after dipping ticks in suspension made from Evin strain of B. bassiana. In addition, the test groups were totally died after four months, but the control groups survived for six months. Conclusion: High concentration of fungal spores is needed for inducing fungal infection. Additional study using different strains and fungi on Iranian ticks is proposed. PMID:22808380

  14. Fine structure of the Gene's organ in the camel tick Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    el Shoura, S M

    1987-07-01

    Gene's organ of the camel tick Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii is located in the anterodorsal region of the body cavity ventrad to the scutum. It consists of a short stalk, dividing posteriorly into 2 pairs of horns and then into tubular glands. In unfed ticks, the epithelial layer of both the stalk and horns is lined internally by 2 cuticular layers; an inner, thin, greatly folded, dense layer surrounds the organ main lumen, and an outer, thick, slightly folded, less dense layer abuts the cell apices. Only the inner cuticular layer extends into the horn posterior region and appears perforated with numerous pore canals and covered with fine, cuticular projections. The horn and tubular glands epithelium is structurally consistent with a secretory function that apparently increases as feeding progresses. During oviposition, the inner cuticular layer unfolds and inflates into a pair of balloonlike structures that evert through the organ external aperture to receive and manipulate each egg as it is laid, coating it with a waxy layer that prevents desiccation. The fine cuticular projections may have a function in gripping the eggs as they leave the vagina. This organ appears to be everted by hydrostatic pressure from the hemolymph and is retracted by muscles. PMID:3612816

  15. Fine structure of muscles in the tick Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    el Shoura, S M

    1989-09-01

    Skeletal and visceral muscles are distinguished in the unfed nymph Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii according to position, structure and function. The skeletal muscles include the capitulum, dorsoventral and leg oblique muscles. Their muscle fibres have the striated pattern of successive sarcomeres whose thick myosin filaments are surrounded by orbitals of up to 12 thin actin filaments. The cell membrane invaginates into tubular system (T) extending deeply into the sarcoplasm and closely associated to cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). The T and SR forming two-membered 'dyads' are considered to be the main route of calcium ions whose movements are synchronized with the motor impulse to control contraction and relaxation in most muscles. Two types of skeletal muscle fibres are recognized, and are suggested as representing different physiological phases. In the visceral-muscle fibres investing tick internal organs, the actin and myosin filaments are slightly interrupted, and the T and SR are well demonstrated. Both skeletal and visceral muscles are invaginated by tracheoles and innervated by nerve axons containing synaptic vesicles. PMID:2806017

  16. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Clade IV (Asia 1) in Ticks of Western Iran.

    PubMed

    Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Chinikar, Sadegh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Jalali, Tahmineh; Hosseini-Chegeni, Asadolah; Naghizadeh, Ali; Niedrig, Matthias; Fooks, Anthony R; Shahhosseini, Nariman

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus (CCHFV) is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, or by direct contact with CCHFV-infected patients' blood or the products of infected livestock. In 2012, ticks were collected in eight regions of Lorestan Province, Iran. In total, 434 ticks were collected. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of CCHFV RNA. Of 434 ticks, 419 (96.6%) ticks were from the family Ixodidae (hard ticks) and 15 (3.5%) ticks were from the family Argasidae (soft ticks). The presence of CCHFV RNA was detected in 29 (6.7%) of 434 ticks. The infected tick species include Hyalomma asiaticum (n = 7, 7.4%), Hyalomma anatolicum (n = 12, 13.2%), Hyalomma marginatum (n = 1, 16.7%), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n = 9, 4.3%). These empirical data demonstrated that the majority of CCHFV-positive ticks belonged to the Ixodidae. None of the Argasidae and Haemaphysalis sulcata species was infected with CCHFV. The phylogenetic analyses of the tick-derived CCHFV strains revealed that all 29 viral strains fell in clade IV (Asia 1). The most abundant species of tick collected in this study was R. sanguineus followed by different species of Hyalomma. Given the infection rate among collected ticks, H. marginatum was the most abundant infected tick species (16.7%) followed by H. anatolicum (13.2%), H. asiaticum (7.4%), and R. sanguineus (4.3%). PMID:26336221

  17. Molecular Investigation of Francisella-Like Endosymbiont in Ticks and Francisella tularensis in Ixodid Ticks and Mosquitoes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duzlu, Onder; Yildirim, Alparslan; Inci, Abdullah; Gumussoy, Kadir Semih; Ciloglu, Arif; Onder, Zuhal

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the molecular prevalence of Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) and Francisella tularensis in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and mosquitoes in Turkey. Genomic DNA pools were constructed from a total of 1477 adult hard ticks of Rhipicephalus (Rh.) annulatus, Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Rh. bursa, Haemaphysalis (Hae.) parva, Hae. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, H. anatolicum anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum, H. detritum detritum, H. dromedarii, Dermacentor marginatus, and Ixodes ricinus species, which were collected from several barns, cattle, and people. Genomic DNA was also extracted from pools consisting of 6203 adult female mosquito species belonging to Aedes vexans, Culex (Cx.) pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. theileri, Culiseta annulata, and Anopheles maculipennis species. Conventional PCR and TaqMan probe-based real- time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene for FLEs and the lpnA gene for F. tularensis, respectively, were performed on the DNA isolates obtained. FLEs and F. tularensis were not found in any genomic DNA pools constructed from ixodid ticks and mosquitos. This study represents the first investigation of F. tularensis and FLEs in potential vector ticks and mosquitoes by molecular methods in Turkey. The present study provides useful insights into the molecular epidemiology of F. tularensis and FLEs. One of the major conclusions of the study is that tularemia outbreaks may be essentially due to direct transmission from the environment (especially from water) in Turkey and not to vector-borne transmission. PMID:26741324

  18. Distribution and host-relationship of ticks (Ixodoidea) infesting domestic animals and rodents in Sinai Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Shoukry, A; el-Kady, G A; Merdan, A I; el Said, S

    1993-08-01

    Geographical distribution of ticks infesting farm animals in Sinai Peninsula revealed the presence of 12 tick species namely Hyalomma dromedarii, H. impeltatum, H. an anatolicum, H. an. excavatum, H. marginatum rufipes, H. m. turanicum, H. schulzei, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. turanicus, Boophilus annulatus, Ornithodors erraticus and Argas persicus. The distribution map of those species is given. The areas of Sinai could be arranged as regards the number of tick species in the following descending order, Beer Lehfin & St. Cathrine (9 spp.), Kosaimah & Nuweibah (8 spp.), Arish & Godirate (7 spp.), Firan (6 spp.) Beer El-Abd, Zowaid, Rafah, Quntara, Wadi Hadra & El Tur (5 spp.), Abu Redis, and Hammam Pharon (4 spp.). PMID:8376863

  19. [Visual potentialities of the tick Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum (Ixodidae)].

    PubMed

    Romanenko, V N

    2005-01-01

    Ethological experiments with the desert tick Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum are conducted. It is shown that tick inhabiting open landscapes discovers his host using his eyes. Since the eyes of this species have a poor resolving possibility, black objects with white strips drawn on it are less attractive for the tick. When the tick scans an area looking for host, the principal optical axis of his eyes is directed not higher than 20 degrees. In allows the tick to discover objects having angular sizes of 5 degrees and greater. PMID:16033221

  20. Species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants, in Qazvin Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Shemshad, Khadijeh; Rafinejad, Javad; Kamali, Karim; Piazak, Norayer; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mahdi; Shemshad, Masoomeh; Biglarian, Akbar; Nourolahi, Fathollah; Valad Beigi, Enshallah; Enayati, Ahmad Ali

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first faunistic study of hard ticks in Qazvin province of Iran. The primary objective was to determine the species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks that parasitize domestic ruminants. Information about the abiotic preferences of these species has been provided. A total of 286 cattle, 1,053 goats, and 2,050 sheep were examined in 13 villages in 28 flocks distributed throughout the studied areas. Total direct body collections of ticks were made from each domestic ruminant. A total of 228 Ixodid specimens belonging to nine species in three different genera were recorded in the areas, including Boophilus annulatus (Say, 1821), Hyalomma anatolicum Koch, 1844, Hyalomma asiaticum (Schulze and Schlettke, 1929), Hyalomma detritum Schulze, 1919, Hyalomma dromedarii Koch, 1844, Hyalomma marginatum Koch 1844, Hyalomma schulzei Olenev, 1931, Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanz, 1878 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806). The most abundant species on sheep was R. sanguineus (46.92%), while B. annulatus (6.6%) found only on cattle. A finding of great significance was that R. sanguineus, the main vector of babesiosis, is firmly established throughout the counties. A further objective of the study was to compare the abundance of the major tick species on domestic ruminants. This was carried out at 19 sampling sites. The highest number of ticks was collected in July-August during the hot season. PMID:21805220

  1. Ticks (Ixodidae) on migrating birds in Egypt, spring and fall 1962*

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstraal, Harry; Traylor, Melvin A.; Gaber, Sobhy; Malakatis, George; Guindy, Ezzat; Helmy, Ibrahim

    1964-01-01

    Over a number of years studies have been carried out in Egypt on the transport by migrating birds of ticks that may transmit pathogens of man and animals. In continuation of these investigations 11 036 birds migrating southwards through Egypt were examined for ticks during the fall of 1962. The 881 infested birds (comprising 24 species and sub-species represented by 10 612 individuals) yielded 1442 ticks. Tick-host relationships were similar to those of previous years except that in 1962 the prevalence of infestation was almost invariably much higher than the averages for 1959-61. Five species of birds were added to the previous list of 40 infested forms. Previously unrecorded tick species taken during 1962 were Ixodes redikorzevi (a species from Asia very occasionally found in rodent burrows in Egypt), the rare Haemaphysalis inermis, and Hyalomma a. anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum and H. dromedarii, which may have been carried from Asia or have attached themselves to the birds at the time of netting. During the spring of 1962, altogether 1774 birds migrating northwards through Egypt were also examined. The 56 tick-infested birds (comprising 13 species represented by 867 individuals) yielded 186 ticks. As in previous years, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes was the chief species (89.25%) parasitizing spring migrants. A single specimen of Amblyomma variegatum was taken on Anthus cervinus and 19 specimens of Ixodes?sp. nov. were collected from Sylvia c. communis and Motacilla a. alba. PMID:14163959

  2. Efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Chung, Ill-Min; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Karthikeyan, Viswanathan

    2015-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are considered to be among the best photocatalytic materials due to their long-term thermodynamic stability, strong oxidizing power, and relative non-toxicity. Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. The present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) against hematophagous parasites. The anti-parasitic activity of TiO2 NPs against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were assessed. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by UV-Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, SEM, and TEM. The XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed the dominant peak at 2θ value of 27.81 which matched the 110 crystallographic plane of the rutile structure indicating the crystal structure. The FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,448 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. The SEM images of TiO2 NPs displayed spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The TEM micrograph showed agglomerates, round and slight elongation with an average size of 30 ± 5 nm. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized TiO2 NPs against the larvae of R. microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, A. subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 value of 28.56, 33.17, 23.81, 5.84, and 4.34 mg/L, respectively. In the present study, a novel, simple, and eco-friendly approach has been suggested to control blood-feeding parasites. PMID:25403378

  3. Transstadial Transmission of Borrelia turcica in Hyalomma aegyptium Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Cozma, Vasile; Sprong, Hein; Jahfari, Setareh; D’Amico, Gianluca; Mărcuțan, Daniel I.; Ionică, Angela M.; Magdaş, Cristian; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia turcica comprises the third major group of arthropod-transmitted borreliae and is phylogenetically divergent from other Borrelia groups. The novel group of Borrelia was initially isolated from Hyalomma aegyptium ticks in Turkey and it was recently found in blood and multiple organs of tortoises exported from Jordan to Japan. However, the ecology of these spirochetes and their development in ticks or the vertebrate hosts were not investigated in detail; our aims were to isolate the pathogen and to evaluate the possibility of transstadial transmission of Borrelia turcica by H. aegyptium ticks. Ticks were collected from Testudo graeca tortoises during the summer of 2013 from southeastern Romania. Engorged nymphs were successfully molted to the adult stage. Alive B. turcica was isolated from molted ticks by using Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK) II medium. Four pure cultures of spirochetes were obtained and analyzed by PCR and sequencing. Sequence analysis of glpQ, gyrB and flaB revealed 98%–100% similarities with B. turcica. H. aegyptium ticks collected from T. graeca tortoises were able to pass the infection with B. turcica via transstadial route, suggesting its vectorial capacity. PMID:25695663

  4. Effects of permethrin on the salivary glands and neuroendocrine organs of unfed female Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Mohamed, F S; Abbassy, M M; Darwish, Z E; Tetreault, G E; Marzouk, A S; Shoukry, M A; Fryauff, D J; Beavers, G M

    2000-05-01

    Permethrin-impregnated fabric has been shown to be an effective repellent against various tick species. However, some tick species are not repelled by this chemical. In Hyalomma dromedarii (Koch), permethrin exposure is reported to actually enhance the tick's attachment behavior. This study evaluated the histological effects of permethrin exposure on the salivary glands and neuroendocrine organs of unfed, virgin H. dromedarii ticks of uniform age. Three fabric treatments consisting of unwashed-untreated (control), washed after treatment (0.125 mg [AI] / cm2) and unwashed-treated were used after 5- and 10-min exposure times for unfed, unmated females. For all of the organs examined, the cellular structure of treated ticks differed from controls as evidenced by increases in cellular activity, as well as significant increases in the size of the cells of the organs under study (P < 0.05). These data conclusively demonstrate that an unexpected enhanced attachment response observed in this tick species after permethrin exposure is the direct result of increased neurosecretory and salivary gland activity induced by that exposure. PMID:15535583

  5. Detection, Isolation and Confirmation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Human, Ticks and Animals in Ahmadabad, India, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Yadav, Pragya D.; Shete, Anita M.; Gurav, Yogesh K.; Raut, Chandrashekhar G.; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Pawar, Shailesh D.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mishra, Akhilesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Background In January 2011, human cases with hemorrhagic manifestations in the hospital staff were reported from a tertiary care hospital in Ahmadabad, India. This paper reports a detailed epidemiological investigation of nosocomial outbreak from the affected area of Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India. Principal Findings Samples from 3 suspected cases, 83 contacts, Hyalomma ticks and livestock were screened for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus by qRT-PCR of which samples of two medical professionals (case C and E) and the husband of the index case (case D) were positive for CCHFV. The sensitivity and specificity of indigenous developed IgM ELISA to screen CCHFV specific antibodies in human serum was 75.0% and 97.5% respectively as compared to commercial kit. About 17.0% domestic animals from Kolat, Ahmadabad were positive for IgG antibodies while only two cattle and a goat showed positivity by qRT-PCR. Surprisingly, 43.0% domestic animals (Buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat) showed IgG antibodies in the adjoining village Jivanpara but only one of the buffalo was positive for CCHFV. The Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks were positive in PCR and virus isolation. CCHFV was isolated from the blood sample of case C, E in Vero E-6 cells and Swiss albino mice. In partial nucleocapsid gene phylogeny from CCHFV positive human samples of the years 2010 and 2011, livestock and ticks showed this virus was similar to Tajikistan (strain TAJ/H08966), which belongs in the Asian/middle east genetic lineage IV. Conclusions The likely source of CCHFV was identified as virus infected Hyalomma ticks and livestock at the rural village residence of the primary case (case A). In addition, retrospective sample analysis revealed the existence of CCHFV in Gujarat and Rajasthan states before this outbreak. An indigenous developed IgM ELISA kit will be of great use for screening this virus in India. PMID:22616022

  6. Introduction of the exotic tick Hyalomma truncatum on a human with travel to Ethiopia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gerth, William J.; Pritt, Bobbi S.; Baugh, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    An Oregon resident returned from a photography trip to Ethiopia with a male Hyalomma truncatum tick attached to the skin on his lower back. The tick was identified morphologically and deposited in the U.S. National Tick Collection housed at Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia. The public health importance of Hyalomma species of ticks and diagnostic dilemmas with identifying exotic ticks imported into the U.S. are discussed. PMID:25435012

  7. [Efficacy and residual effect of amitraz (Taktic) on adult Hyalomma dromedarii in camels: preliminary trial].

    PubMed

    Jacquiet, P; Mulato, C; Thiam, A; Gueye, S; Cheikh, D

    1994-01-01

    Amitraz (12.5% emulsifiable concentrate) was tested against Hyalomma dromedarii of the one-humped camel in a dairy camel herd in Nouakchott (Mauritania), at a concentration of 0.025% of the active component. The efficacy on adult ticks and the rapid rate of tick detachment are clearly shown: 95% reduction within eight hours; however, the nymphs seem to be more resistant: only 50% reduction after eight hours. The residual activity of amitraz against Hyalomma dromedarii in camels is very short, less than 24 hours; furthermore, the amitraz treatment has no effect on survival, oviposition and the rate of egg hatching of females which attach in the first days following treatment. A discussion of likely causes of this phenomenon is presented. PMID:7863074

  8. Tick Cell Lines for Study of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Other Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Alain; Bente, Dennis A.; Fazakerley, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Continuous cell lines derived from many of the vectors of tick-borne arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance are now available. Their role as tools in arbovirus research to date is reviewed and their potential application in studies of tick cell responses to virus infection is explored, by comparison with recent progress in understanding mosquito immunity to arbovirus infection. A preliminary study of propagation of the human pathogen Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in tick cell lines is reported; CCHFV replicated in seven cell lines derived from the ticks Hyalomma anatolicum (a known vector), Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and Ixodes ricinus, but not in three cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Ornithodoros moubata. This indicates that tick cell lines can be used to study growth of CCHFV in arthropod cells and that there may be species-specific restriction in permissive CCHFV infection at the cellular level. PMID:21955214

  9. Hyalomma ticks on northward migrating birds in southern Spain: Implications for the risk of entry of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus to Great Britain.

    PubMed

    England, Marion E; Phipps, Paul; Medlock, Jolyon M; Atkinson, Peter M; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger; Gale, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a zoonotic virus transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, the immature stages of which may be carried by migratory birds. In this study, a total of 12 Hyalomma ticks were recovered from five of 228 migratory birds trapped in Spring, 2012 in southern Spain along the East Atlantic flyway. All collected ticks tested negative for CCHFV. While most birds had zero Hyalomma ticks, two individuals had four and five ticks each and the statistical distribution of Hyalomma tick counts per bird is over-dispersed compared to the Poisson distribution, demonstrating the need for intensive sampling studies to avoid underestimating the total number of ticks. Rates of tick exchange on migratory birds during their northwards migration will affect the probability that a Hyalomma tick entering Great Britain is positive for CCHFV. Drawing on published data, evidence is presented that the latitude of a European country affects the probability of entry of Hyalomma ticks on wild birds. Further data on Hyalomma infestation rates and tick exchange rates are required along the East Atlantic flyway to further our understanding of the origin of Hyalomma ticks (i.e., Africa or southern Europe) and hence the probability of entry of CCHFV into GB. PMID:27232135

  10. Some hydrolase activities from the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum koch, 1844 (Ixodoidea: Ixodida).

    PubMed

    Giménez-Pardo, C; Martínez-Grueiro, M M

    2008-12-01

    In this work has been made a detection and preliminary characterization of some hydrolases in whole extracts from unfed adult males and females of Hyalomma lusitanicum, one of the vectors for Theileria annulata that causes Mediterranean theileriosis in cattle. We have elected as targets, proteases as enzymes implicated in the nutritional processes of ticks, esterases that are usually implicated in resistance to organophosphates and phosphatises often implicated in protein phosphorilation and control of ticks salivary gland. The biological role and physiological significance are discussed in terms of the possibility of use these enzymes as possible in future anti-tick vaccination or acaricide resistance. PMID:19202766

  11. Morphological Characteristics of Normal and Gynandromorphic Hyalomma asiaticum Schulze and Schlottke, 1930

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ze; Li, You-quan; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Luo, Jin; Hu, Yonghong; Li, Kai; Liu, Guang-Yuan; Luo, Jian-xun; Liu, Jingze; Yin, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Gynandromorphic ticks are extremely rare, and often attract parasitologists’ attention. During our examination of tick specimens, an engorged gynandromorph of Hyalomma asiaticum was noticed. This is the first record of gynandromorphic ticks from China. In this study, several important morphological structures of normal and gynandromorphic H. asiaticum were analyzed. Comparing to the normal H. asiaticum, the gynandromorphic specimen was a typical bipartite protogynander. Its right side showed normal female characteristics, whereas the left side had normal male traits. Different from other gynandromorphic ticks containing 1 anus, this tick reported here had 2 complete anuses, and the anus of the male part had a single adanal plate. PMID:26174833

  12. A review of Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae) in the Maghreb region: from biology to control

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Aziz Darghouth, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Hyalomma scupense (syn. Hyalomma detritum) is a two-host domestic endophilic tick of cattle and secondarily other ungulates in the Maghreb region (Africa). This species transmits several pathogens, among which two are major livestock diseases: Theileria annulata and Theileria equi. Various other pathogens are also transmitted by this tick species, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia bovis. Hyalomma scupense is common in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of several regions in the world, mainly in the Maghreb region. In this region, adults attach to animals during the summer season; larvae and nymphs attach to their hosts during autumn, but there is a regional difference in H. scupense phenology. There is an overlap between immature and adult ticks, leading in some contexts to a dramatic modification of the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. This tick species attaches preferentially to the posterior udder quarters and thighs. Tick burdens can reach 130 ticks per animal, with a mean of 60 ticks. Calves are 70 times less infested than adult cattle. The control can be implemented through six options: (i) rehabilitation of the farm buildings by roughcasting and smoothing the outer and inner surfaces of the enclosures and walls. This control option should be recommended to be combined with a thorough cleaning of the farm and its surrounding area. With regard to Theileria annulata infection, this control option is the most beneficial. (ii) Acaricide application to animals during the summer season, targeting adults. (iii) Acaricide application during the autumn period for the control of the immature stages. (iv) Acaricide application to the walls: many field veterinarians have suggested this option but it is only partially efficient since nymphs enter deep into the cracks and crevices. It should be used if there is a very high tick burden or if there is a high risk of tick-borne diseases. (v) Manual tick removal: this method is not efficient since the ticks can feed on several other animal species in the farm. This control option can lead to a reduction of the tick population, but not a decrease in tick-borne disease incidence. (vi) Vaccination: this control option consists of injecting the protein Hd86; trials have shown a partial effect on nymphs, with no effect on adult ticks. Combination of two of these control options is recommended in regions where there are high burdens of important tick vectors. Further studies are needed to improve our knowledge on this tick species in the Maghreb region, since the number of published studies on Hyalomma scupense in this region is very limited. PMID:24507485

  13. A review of Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae) in the Maghreb region: from biology to control.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Hyalomma scupense (syn. Hyalomma detritum) is a two-host domestic endophilic tick of cattle and secondarily other ungulates in the Maghreb region (Africa). This species transmits several pathogens, among which two are major livestock diseases: Theileria annulata and Theileria equi. Various other pathogens are also transmitted by this tick species, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia bovis. Hyalomma scupense is common in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of several regions in the world, mainly in the Maghreb region. In this region, adults attach to animals during the summer season; larvae and nymphs attach to their hosts during autumn, but there is a regional difference in H. scupense phenology. There is an overlap between immature and adult ticks, leading in some contexts to a dramatic modification of the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. This tick species attaches preferentially to the posterior udder quarters and thighs. Tick burdens can reach 130 ticks per animal, with a mean of 60 ticks. Calves are 70 times less infested than adult cattle. The control can be implemented through six options: (i) rehabilitation of the farm buildings by roughcasting and smoothing the outer and inner surfaces of the enclosures and walls. This control option should be recommended to be combined with a thorough cleaning of the farm and its surrounding area. With regard to Theileria annulata infection, this control option is the most beneficial. (ii) Acaricide application to animals during the summer season, targeting adults. (iii) Acaricide application during the autumn period for the control of the immature stages. (iv) Acaricide application to the walls: many field veterinarians have suggested this option but it is only partially efficient since nymphs enter deep into the cracks and crevices. It should be used if there is a very high tick burden or if there is a high risk of tick-borne diseases. (v) Manual tick removal: this method is not efficient since the ticks can feed on several other animal species in the farm. This control option can lead to a reduction of the tick population, but not a decrease in tick-borne disease incidence. (vi) Vaccination: this control option consists of injecting the protein Hd86; trials have shown a partial effect on nymphs, with no effect on adult ticks. Combination of two of these control options is recommended in regions where there are high burdens of important tick vectors. Further studies are needed to improve our knowledge on this tick species in the Maghreb region, since the number of published studies on Hyalomma scupense in this region is very limited. PMID:24507485

  14. Morphological Characteristics of Normal and Gynandromorphic Hyalomma asiaticum Schulze and Schlottke, 1930.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ze; Li, You-Quan; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Luo, Jin; Hu, Yonghong; Li, Kai; Liu, Guang-Yuan; Luo, Jian-Xun; Liu, Jingze; Yin, Hong

    2015-06-01

    Gynandromorphic ticks are extremely rare, and often attract parasitologists' attention. During our examination of tick specimens, an engorged gynandromorph of Hyalomma asiaticum was noticed. This is the first record of gynandromorphic ticks from China. In this study, several important morphological structures of normal and gynandromorphic H. asiaticum were analyzed. Comparing to the normal H. asiaticum, the gynandromorphic specimen was a typical bipartite protogynander. Its right side showed normal female characteristics, whereas the left side had normal male traits. Different from other gynandromorphic ticks containing 1 anus, this tick reported here had 2 complete anuses, and the anus of the male part had a single adanal plate. PMID:26174833

  15. Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. Methods In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS. Results A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area. Conclusions Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks. PMID:25183090

  16. Hard ticks (Ixodidae) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in south west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifinia, Narges; Rafinejad, Javad; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Chinikar, Sadegh; Piazak, Norayer; Baniardalan, Mojgan; Biglarian, Akbar; Sharifinia, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Ticks are vectors of some important arthropod-borne diseases in both fields of veterinary and medicine, such as Lyme, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and some types of encephalitis as well as Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). Iran is known as one of the main foci of CCHF in west of Asia. This study was conducted in DarrehShahr County because of the development of animal husbandry in this area to detect the fauna and viral infection of the hard ticks of livestock. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2011-2012 with random sampling in four villages. A sample of ticks was subjected to RT-PCR method for detection of viral infection. During the study period, 592 Ixodidae ticks were collected and identified as seven species of Hyalomma asiaticum, Hy. marginatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. detritum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rh. sanguineus. More than 20% of these ticks were examined to detect the genome of CCHF virus while 6.6% were positive. All species of Hyalomma were found to be positive. A high rate of livestock was found to be infected with hard ticks, which can act as the vectors of the CCHF disease. Regarding infection of all five Hyalomma species captured in this area, this genus should be considered as the main vector of CCHF. Planning control program can be performed based on the obtained data on seasonal activity of Ixodidae to prevent animal infestation as well as to reduce the risk of CCHF transmission. PMID:25796025

  17. Effect of blood meal and mating on the genital tract ultrastructure in the female camel tick Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    el Shoura, S M

    1989-03-01

    The genital tract ultrastructure in the female Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii is described during feeding and mating and up to oviposition. The vagina, consisting of vestibular (VV) and cervical (CV) regions, is formed of an epithelium lined internally with a folded cuticular layer and surrounded externally by muscle layers. These facilitate the passage of endospermatophores containing sperm into the receptaculum seminis (RS), and ova to the exterior. A pair of tubular accessory glands (AG) opening at the junction of VV and CV consist of an epithelial layer of undifferentiated cells. As feeding progresses, these cells synthesise their granular secretion which lubricates the egg surface during its passage through VV. The RS, opening anteriorly into the CV, consists of cuboidal cells lined with a thin cuticular layer. These cells become rich in glycogen and lipid vacuoles, possibly acting as a source of energy for various cell activities including granule synthesis and exocytosis. The granules discharge their contents into intercellular spaces distributed throughout the RS wall and communicate with the main lumen via narrow channels. The cell secretion may dissolve the endospermatophore wall to release sperm, while their lysosome-like structures may function in the breakdown of endospermatophoric material taken up by pinocytosis. The connecting tube (CT) opens into the CV anterodorsally and leads into the common oviduct (COV) posteriorly. It consists of an epithelium lined by a closely-adhering cuticular layer, giving the tube lumen the appearance of an undulate labyrinth with a complicated configuration. No secretory activity in the CT has been observed before, during, or after feeding. The paired, non-cuticular oviducts, extending from the ovary and fusing anteriorly to form COV, consist of an epithelium poor in cell organelles. At the final stages of feeding the cell cytoplasm contains large, phagosomal vacuoles penetrated by sperms, in addition to micropinocytotic vesicles which serve to break down the seminal fluid and other materials. The basal membrane is infolded giving characteristic features, which increase dramatically during oviposition, of epithelia involved in ion and water transport. The oviducal secretion may function as a tanning agent to harden the egg-shell and may also act as a lubricant for egg passage. PMID:2707112

  18. Molecular detection of Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia aeschlimannii, and Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in camels and Hyalomma spp. ticks from Israel.

    PubMed

    Kleinerman, Gabriela; Baneth, Gad; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; van Straten, Michael; Berlin, Dalia; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Abdeen, Ziad; Nasereddin, Abed; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to identify and genetically characterize spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in ticks, domestic one-humped camels, and horses from farms and Bedouin communities in southern Israel. A total of 618 ixodid ticks (Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma turanicum, Hyalomma excavatum, and Hyalomma impeltatum) collected from camels and horses, as well as 152 blood samples from 148 camels and four horses were included in the study. Initial screening for rickettsiae was carried out by targeting the gltA gene. Positive samples were further analyzed for rickettsial ompA, 17kDa, ompB, and 16S rRNA genes. Rickettsia aeschlimannii DNA was detected in the blood of three camels and 14 ticks (H. dromedarii, H. turanicum, and H. excavatum). Rickettsia africae was found in six ticks (H. turanicum, H. impeltatum, H. dromedarii, and H. excavatum). In addition, Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in one H. turanicum tick. These findings represent the first autochthonous detection of R. africae in Israel. Previous detections of R. africae in Asia were reported from the Sinai Peninsula (Egypt) and Istanbul, only. Furthermore, we report for the first time the finding of R. aeschlimannii in H. turanicum and H. excavatum ticks, as well as the first identification of R. sibirica mongolitimonae in H. turanicum ticks. The tick species identified to harbor R. africae and other SFG rickettsiae have been reported to occasionally feed on people, and, therefore, physicians should be aware of the possible exposure of local communities and travelers, especially those in contact with camels, to these tick-borne rickettsial pathogens. PMID:24107206

  19. Co-distribution pattern of a haemogregarine Hemolivia mauritanica (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) and its vector Hyalomma aegyptium (Metastigmata: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Siroký, Pavel; Mikulícek, Peter; Jandzík, David; Kami, Hajigholi; Mihalca, Andrei D; Rouag, Rachid; Kamler, Martin; Schneider, Christoph; Záruba, Martin; Modrý, David

    2009-06-01

    Hyalomma aegyptium ticks were collected from tortoises, Testudo graeca, at localities in northern Africa, the Balkans, and the Near and Middle East. The intensity of infestation ranged from 1-37 ticks per tortoise. The sex ratio of feeding ticks was male-biased in all tested populations. Larger tortoises carried more ticks than did the smaller tortoises. The juveniles were either not infested, or carried only a poor tick load. Hyalomma aegyptium was absent in the western Souss Valley and Ourika Valley in Morocco, the Cyrenaica Peninsula in Libya, Jordan, and the Antilebanon Mountains in Syria. Hemolivia mauritanica, a heteroxenous apicomplexan cycling between T. graeca and H. aegyptium, was confirmed in Algeria, Romania, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, and Iran. Its prevalence ranged from 84% in Romania (n = 45), 82% in eastern Turkey (n = 28), and 82% in the area of northwestern Syria with adjacent Turkish borderland (n = 90), to 38% in Lebanon (n = 8) and in only 1 of 16 sampled tortoises in Algeria. The intensity of parasitemia in the studied areas ranged from 0.01% up to 28.17%. The percentage of Hemolivia-infected erythrocytes was significantly higher in adults. All tortoises from Hyalomma-free areas were Hemolivia-negative. Remarkably, all 29 T. graeca from Jabal Duruz (southwestern Syria) and 36 T. graeca from the area north of Middle Atlas (Morocco) were Hemolivia-negative, despite the fact that ticks parasitized all adult tortoises in these localities. Identical host preferences of H. aegyptium and H. mauritanica suggest the occurrence of co-evolution within the Testudo-Hyalomma-Hemolivia host-parasite complex. PMID:18954156

  20. Scanning electron microscopy and morphometrics of nymph and larva of the tick Hyalomma rufipes Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Shafy, Sobhy; El Namaky, Amira H; Allam, Nesreen A T; Hendawy, Seham

    2016-03-01

    The genus Hyalomma comprises the most ixodid tick species that parasitize camels in Egypt. Although the immature stages of tick species play an important role in distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases, the identification depends mainly on the adult stage. Therefore, this study tries to identify the specific characteristics of both nymph and larva of Hyalomma rufipes Koch, 1844 using scanning electron microscopy and morphometric analysis in order to differentiate them easily from those of other Hyalomma spp. described before in Egypt. Results showed that the nymph and larva of H. rufipes can be easily identified from those of H. excavatum Koch, 1844, H. dromedarii Koch, 1844 and H. impressum Koch, 1844 but they are strongly close to H. marginatum Koch, 1844. The nymph of H. rufipes can be distinguished from H. marginatum by the number and distribution of dorsal and ventral idiosomal setae and the distribution of sternal setae. All morphological characteristics of H. rufipes larva resemble those of H. marginatum larva. The measurements of nymph and larva structures of H. rufipes are significantly lower than those of H. marginatum. PMID:27065590

  1. An insight into the sialotranscriptome and proteome of the coarse bontlegged tick, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes.

    PubMed

    Francischetti, Ivo M B; Anderson, Jennifer M; Manoukis, Nicholas; Pham, Van M; Ribeiro, José M C

    2011-11-18

    Ticks are mites specialized in acquiring blood from vertebrates as their sole source of food and are important disease vectors to humans and animals. Among the specializations required for this peculiar diet, ticks evolved a sophisticated salivary potion that can disarm their host's hemostasis, inflammation, and immune reactions. Previous transcriptome analysis of tick salivary proteins has revealed many new protein families indicative of fast evolution, possibly due to host immune pressure. The hard ticks (family Ixodidae) are further divided into two basal groups, of which the Metastriata have 11 genera. While salivary transcriptomes and proteomes have been described for some of these genera, no tick of the genus Hyalomma has been studied so far. The analysis of 2084 expressed sequence tags (EST) from a salivary gland cDNA library allowed an exploration of the proteome of this tick species by matching peptide ions derived from MS/MS experiments to this data set. We additionally compared these MS/MS derived peptide sequences against the proteins from the bovine host, finding many host proteins in the salivary glands of this tick. This annotated data set can assist the discovery of new targets for anti-tick vaccines as well as help to identify pharmacologically active proteins. PMID:21851864

  2. The genus Hyalomma. XI. Redescription of all parasitic stages of H. (Euhyalomma) asiaticum (Acari: Ixodidae) and notes on its biology.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Horak, Ivan G

    2010-10-01

    The tick Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) asiaticum Schulze & Schlottke is provisionally considered to belong to the H. (E.) asiaticum group of closely related species. Males of H. asiaticum can be distinguished from those of other species of the group by their long and very deep cervical grooves, long, narrow, straight adanal plates, long dorsal prolongation of the spiracular plates, dorsal posterior margin of the basis capituli deeply concave and angular, and unbroken ivory-coloured strip on the dorsal aspect of the leg segments. Females of H. asiaticum can be distinguished from those of other species of the H. asiaticum group by their very deep cervical grooves, narrowly U-shaped genital aperture, with bulging preatrial fold. Larger domestic and wild ungulates are the principal hosts of the adults, while nymphs and larvae parasitize mainly rodents, leporids and hedgehogs. Hyalomma asiaticum is widely distributed in Asia, from Syria in the West to eastern China in the East. Here all the parasitic stages of H. asiaticum are illustrated and redescribed. Data on its disease relationships are also provided. PMID:20383566

  3. Vectors of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Chinikar, Sadegh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Faghihi, Faezeh; Hosseini-Chegeni, Asadollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ticks are important vectors and reservoirs of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) virus. Human beings may be infected whenever the normal life cycle of the infected ticks on non-human vertebrate hosts is interrupted by the undesirable presence of humans in the cycle. A total of 26 species of Argasid and Ixodid ticks have been recorded in Iran; including nine Hyalomma, two Rhipicephalus, two Dermacentor, five Haemaphysalis, two Boophilus, one Ixodes and two Argas as well as three Ornithodoros species as blood sucking ectoparasites of livestock and poultries. The present paper reviews tick vectors of CCHF virus in Iran, focusing on the role of ticks in different provinces of Iran using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Methods: During ten years study, 1054 tick specimens; including two species of Argasidae and 17 species of Ixodidae were examined for their infection to CCHF virus genome. The output of all studies as well as related publications were discussed in the current paper. Results: The results show that Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, H. anatolicum, H. asiaticum and H. dromedarii were known as the most frequent species which were positive for CCHF virus. Conclusion: The status of ticks which were positive for CCHF virus revealed that unlike the most common idea that Hyalomma species are the most important vectors of CCHF virus, other ticks including Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis and Dermacentor can be reservoir of this virus; thus, considering geographical distribution, type of host and environmental conditions, different tick control measurements should be carried out in areas with high incidence of CCHF disease. PMID:26623426

  4. A tick B-cell inhibitory protein from salivary glands of the hard tick, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Da; Liang Jiangguo; Yu Haining; Wu Haifeng; Xu Chunhua; Liu Jingze . E-mail: jzliu21@heinfo.net; Lai Ren . E-mail: rlai72@njau.edu.cn

    2006-05-05

    Some studies done to date suggest that B-cell inhibitory factor occurred in tick saliva. In this study, a novel protein having B-cell inhibitory activity was purified and characterized from the salivary glands of the hard tick, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. This protein was named B-cell inhibitory factor (BIF). The cDNA encoding BIF was cloned by cDNA library screening. The predicted protein from the cDNA sequence is composed of 138 amino acids including the mature BIF. No similarity was found by Blast search. The lipopolysaccharide-induced B-cell proliferation was inhibited by BIF. This is First report of the identification and characterization of B-cell inhibitory protein from tick. The current study facilitates the study of identifying the interaction among tick, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and host.

  5. First report of the tick Hyalomma scupense (natural vector of bovine tropical theileriosis) on the French Mediterranean island of Corsica.

    PubMed

    Grech-Angelini, Sébastien; Stachurski, Frédéric; Lancelot, Renaud; Boissier, Jérôme; Allienne, Jean-François; Gharbi, Mohamed; Uilenberg, Gerrit

    2016-01-30

    Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae) is a common tick species found in several areas in North Africa, Asia and South Europe and an efficient natural vector of bovine tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata), a livestock disease with an important economic impact. For one year, 1938 ticks were collected on cattle in several Corsican slaughterhouses; 168 of them were morphologically identified as H. scupense. This result was confirmed by genetic identification using sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) genes. The presence of 2 different stages (adults and nymphs), collected in various areas of the island, indicates that a population of H. scupense is established in Corsica. However, bovine tropical theileriosis has not been diagnosed on the island so far. PMID:26801592

  6. The genus Hyalomma: VII. Redescription of all parasitic stages of H. (Euhyalomma) dromedarii and H. (E.) schulzei (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Schuster, Anthony L; Horak, Ivan G

    2008-09-01

    The ticks, Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) dromedarii Koch, 1844 and Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) schulzei Olenev, 1931, are considered to be the species most closely associated with camels. H. dromedarii can behave as a three-, two-, or one-host species, with the two-host life cycle seemingly most common. Camels are the main hosts of the adults, which also parasitize other domestic animals. Nymphs and larvae can use the same hosts, especially camels, as the adults, but can also parasitize rodents, leporids, hedgehogs, and birds. H. dromedarii is widely distributed in North Africa, the northern regions of West, Central, and East Africa, Arabia, Asia Minor, the Middle East, and Central and South Asia. H. schulzei is a two-host species. Camels are the principal hosts of the adults, with some records from cattle and goats, whereas the immature stages infest hares, burrowing rodents, and hedgehogs. H. schulzei has a more limited geographic distribution in Asia and Egypt than H. dromedarii, and with the exception of southeastern Iran, it is a fairly uncommon tick. Among other features that are fairly similar, males of H. dromedarii can be distinguished from those of H. schulzei by a narrow, subtriangular parma, usually very large subanal shields, and a long dorsal prolongation of the spiracular plates. Males of H. schulzei have a broad and rectangular parma, paramedian festoons that protrude posteriorly, smaller subanal shields, and a very short dorsal prolongation of the spiracular plates. The females of H. dromedarii can be distinguished from those of H. schulzei by a narrow V-shaped genital aperture compared with a very wide, deep, U-shaped genital aperture. Here all the parasitic stages of both species are illustrated and redescribed, and characteristics that distinguish the adults from those of other closely related species are supplied. Data on their hosts, geographic distribution and disease relationships are also provided. PMID:18826023

  7. Detection of microorganisms in the saliva and midgut smears of different tick species (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Kammah, Kawther M; Oyoun, Laila M I; Abdel-Shafy, Sobhy

    2007-08-01

    Investigation of 1789 field-collected adult ticks in Egypt for the presence of microorganisms revealed the following: the protozoan, Babesia bigemina, B. canis; Theileria annulata, and the rickettesia Aegyptianella pullorum (Carpano) were found in the saliva and the mid-guts smears of eight ixodid and two argasid tick species. The infected percent was higher in cattle and dog ticks than it was in fowl ticks; it was also higher in salivary glands (S) than in the midguts (M). Identification of protozoa using microscopic image analysis, showed that: Hyalomma spp. (Koch) were infected with T. annulata; the genera Boophilus (Curtice) and Rhipicephalus Koch were infected with B. bigemina, and B. canis respectively; Argas spp. (Latreille) were infected with A. pullorum. The bacterial disease agents: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Yersinia were detected in (S) and (M) of eight ixodids and one argasid tick species; Bacillus was only found in H. anatolicum excavatum, (Koch). Escherichia coli was isolated only from A. persicus (Oken) midguts. PMID:17985586

  8. Susceptibility of tick cell lines to infection with Alkhumra haemorrhagic fever virus

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Tariq A.; Abuelzein, El-Tayeb M.E.; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Azhar, Esam I.; Al-Bar, Hussein M.S.; Abu-Araki, Huda; Hassan, Ahmed M.; Masri, Badr E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although Alkhumra haemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) has been isolated from ticks, epidemiological data suggest that it is transmitted from livestock to humans by direct contact with animals or by mosquito bites, but not by ticks. This study was carried out to assess the ability of the virus to replicate in tick cells in vitro. Methods AHFV was inoculated into cell lines derived from the hard ticks Hyalomma anatolicum (HAE/CTVM9) and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (RAE/CTVM1) and the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata (OME/CTVM24). Inoculated cells were directly examined every week for 4 weeks by real-time reverse transcription PCR and by IFAT using polyclonal antibodies. Results AHFV RNA was detected in all three inoculated tick cell lines throughout the 4-week observation period at levels up to almost twice that of the inoculum, but none of them exhibited a cytopathic effect. AHFV antigen could be detected in all three cell lines by IFAT. Titration of tick cell culture suspension in LLC-MK2 cells yielded AHFV titres of 106.6 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50)/ml for OME/CTVM24 and 105.5 TCID50/ml for RAE/CTVM1 cells after 4 weeks of culturing; no viable virus was detected in HAE/CTVM9 cells. Conclusion This is the first description of propagation of AHFV in tick cells. PMID:24097806

  9. Hidden threat of tortoise ticks: high prevalence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in ticks Hyalomma aegyptium in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Široký, Pavel; Bělohlávek, Tomáš; Papoušek, Ivo; Jandzik, David; Mikulíček, Peter; Kubelová, Michaela; Zdražilová-Dubská, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    It is the first time that Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), causing potentially lethal disease of humans, has been reported from the Middle East region and from the tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium from a tortoise host, whose epidemiological significance may have remained almost completely overlooked so far. We used RT-PCR to screen for 245 ticks collected from 38 Testudo graeca tortoise individuals. Results of our genetic screening provide unambiguous evidence of occurrence of CCHFV in this region and host, suggesting a potentially important role of H. aegyptium in CCHF epidemiology. PMID:24618184

  10. Long-Term Ecological Study of Host-Seeking Adults of Hyalomma lusitanicum (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Meso-Mediterranean Climate.

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, F; González, J; Pé rez Sánchez, J L; Tercero Jaime; Olmeda, A S

    2016-01-01

    From January 2007 to December 2014, three representative meso-Mediterranean bioclimatic environment types were sampled monthly using blanket-dragging techniques to determine the tick abundance rate. Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch, 1844 was the most prevalent species (96.58%) followed by Dermacentor marginatus Sulzer, 1776; Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, 1936; and Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, 1878. H. lusitanicum adults begin questing activity around March, numbers rising quickly reaching their peak in May–June and then diminishing until the end of the year, with a small increase in September–October. This pattern was clear and constant throughout the years, irrespective of the microclimate or biotope tested. PMID:26477051

  11. Hidden threat of tortoise ticks: high prevalence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in ticks Hyalomma aegyptium in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It is the first time that Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), causing potentially lethal disease of humans, has been reported from the Middle East region and from the tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium from a tortoise host, whose epidemiological significance may have remained almost completely overlooked so far. We used RT-PCR to screen for 245 ticks collected from 38 Testudo graeca tortoise individuals. Results of our genetic screening provide unambiguous evidence of occurrence of CCHFV in this region and host, suggesting a potentially important role of H. aegyptium in CCHF epidemiology. PMID:24618184

  12. Spotted fever Rickettsia species in Hyalomma and Ixodes ticks infesting migratory birds in the European Mediterranean area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering grounds in Africa. Many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in Europe as disseminators of Rickettsia-infected ticks. Methods Ticks were collected from a total of 14,789 birds during their seasonal migration northwards in spring 2009 and 2010 at bird observatories on two Mediterranean islands: Capri and Antikythira. All ticks were subjected to RNA extraction followed by cDNA synthesis and individually assayed with a real-time PCR targeting the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. For species identification of Rickettsia, multiple genes were sequenced. Results Three hundred and ninety-eight (2.7%) of all captured birds were tick-infested; some birds carried more than one tick. A total number of 734 ticks were analysed of which 353 ± 1 (48%) were Rickettsia-positive; 96% were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii and 4% with Rickettsia africae or unidentified Rickettsia species. The predominant tick taxon, Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato constituted 90% (n = 658) of the ticks collected. The remaining ticks were Ixodes frontalis, Amblyomma sp., Haemaphysalis sp., Rhipicephalus sp. and unidentified ixodids. Most ticks were nymphs (66%) followed by larvae (27%) and adult female ticks (0.5%). The majority (65%) of ticks was engorged and nearly all ticks contained visible blood. Conclusions Migratory birds appear to have a great impact on the dissemination of Rickettsia-infected ticks, some of which may originate from distant locations. The potential ecological, medical and veterinary implications of such Rickettsia infections need further examination. PMID:25011617

  13. The Impact of Climate Trends on a Tick Affecting Public Health: A Retrospective Modeling Approach for Hyalomma marginatum (Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; de la Fuente, José; Latapia, Tamara; Ortega, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate trends during the period 1901–2009 on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum in Europe was modeled to assess changes in the physiological processes of this threat to public health. Monthly records of temperature and water vapour at a resolution of 0.5° and equations describing the life cycle processes of the tick were used. The climate in the target region affected the rates of the life cycle processes of H. marginatum: development rates increased, mortality rates in molting stages decreased, and the survival rates of questing ticks decreased in wide territories of the Mediterranean basin. The modeling framework indicated the existence of critical areas in the Balkans, central Europe, and the western coast of France, where the physiological processes of the tick improved to extents that are consistent with the persistence of populations if introduced. A spatially explicit risk assessment was performed to detect candidate areas where active surveys should be performed to monitor changes in tick density or persistence after a hypothetical introduction. We detected areas where the critical abiotic (climate) and biotic (host density) factors overlap, including most of the Iberian peninsula, the Mediterranean coast of France, eastern Turkey, and portions of the western Black Sea region. Wild ungulate densities are unavailable for large regions of the territory, a factor that might affect the outcome of the study. The risk of successfully establishing H. marginatum populations at northern latitudes of its current colonization range seems to be still low, even if the climate has improved the performance of the tick in these areas. PMID:25955315

  14. The Impact of Climate Trends on a Tick Affecting Public Health: A Retrospective Modeling Approach for Hyalomma marginatum (Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; de la Fuente, José; Latapia, Tamara; Ortega, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate trends during the period 1901-2009 on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum in Europe was modeled to assess changes in the physiological processes of this threat to public health. Monthly records of temperature and water vapour at a resolution of 0.5° and equations describing the life cycle processes of the tick were used. The climate in the target region affected the rates of the life cycle processes of H. marginatum: development rates increased, mortality rates in molting stages decreased, and the survival rates of questing ticks decreased in wide territories of the Mediterranean basin. The modeling framework indicated the existence of critical areas in the Balkans, central Europe, and the western coast of France, where the physiological processes of the tick improved to extents that are consistent with the persistence of populations if introduced. A spatially explicit risk assessment was performed to detect candidate areas where active surveys should be performed to monitor changes in tick density or persistence after a hypothetical introduction. We detected areas where the critical abiotic (climate) and biotic (host density) factors overlap, including most of the Iberian peninsula, the Mediterranean coast of France, eastern Turkey, and portions of the western Black Sea region. Wild ungulate densities are unavailable for large regions of the territory, a factor that might affect the outcome of the study. The risk of successfully establishing H. marginatum populations at northern latitudes of its current colonization range seems to be still low, even if the climate has improved the performance of the tick in these areas. PMID:25955315

  15. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus detected from ticks of one humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) population in northeastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Champour, Mohsen; Chinikar, Sadegh; Mohammadi, Gholamreza; Razmi, Gholamreza; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Jalali, Tahmineh

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted on camel ticks to assess the epidemiological aspects of the infection in camels. From May 2012 to January 2013, 11 cities and towns from the Khorasan provinces, northeastern Iran, were randomly selected as a "cluster" and at least 14 camels were sampled from each cluster. A total of 200 camels were examined in this study, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) genome. Tick infestation was observed in 171 of the 200 camels, 480 ixodid ticks were collected, and one genus was identified as Hyalomma. Four species were reported to be the major tick species infesting camels. Among these, Hyalomma dromedarii was the most predominant tick species (90.7 %), followed by H. anatolicum (6 %), H. marginatum (2.9 %), and H. asiaticum (0.4 %). The genome of the CCHFV was detected in 49 (10.2 %) of the 480 ticks. The CCHFV RNA was detected in two of the four tick species, and the viral genome was detected from tick samples in three South Khorasan cities. The positivity rate of ticks was as follows: Boshroyeh, 25 out of 480 (5.2 %); Birjand, 17 out of 480 (3.5 %); and Nehbandan, 7 out of 480 (1.5 %). We recommend the use of acaricides to prevent disease transmission to humans and to reduce the tick population in camels. Care should be taken by abattoir workers and by those who work closely with camels. PMID:27065608

  16. Experimental transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus by west African wild ground-feeding birds to Hyalomma marginatum rufipes ticks.

    PubMed

    Zeller, H G; Cornet, J P; Camicas, J L

    1994-06-01

    Hyalomma (H.) marginatum rufipes ticks commonly infest birds and are potential vectors of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus in west Africa. An experimental model for investigating the role of birds in the CCHF virus transmission cycle was developed. Following CCHF virus inoculation, antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in one red-beaked hornbill and one glossy starling, but not in two laughing doves and six domestic chickens. None of the birds showed a detectable viremia. Hyalomma marginatum rufipes larvae were placed on three red-beaked hornbills and one glossy starling. These birds were then inoculated with CCHF virus (10(1.5) 50% mouse intracerebral lethal doses). Virus transmission to larvae or nymphs was obtained and seroconversions in birds were recorded. Virus was also detected in 90% of the individually tested nymphs, as well as in adults. The virus was then successfully transmitted by adult ticks to rabbits and the engorged females were allowed to oviposit. Progeny larvae were placed on another group of birds and one of three birds showed seroconversion. The cycle of transmission of virus between ticks and aviremic ground-feeding birds represent a potential reservoir and amplification mechanism of CCHF virus in west Africa. PMID:8024058

  17. Influence of laboratory animal hosts on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum and implications for an in vivo transmission model for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

    PubMed Central

    Gargili, Aysen; Thangamani, Saravanan; Bente, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most geographically widespread arboviruses and causes a severe hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. The virus circulates in nature in a vertebrate-tick cycle and ticks of the genus Hyalomma are the main vectors and reservoirs. Although the tick vector plays a central role in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV in nature, comparatively little is known of CCHFV-tick interactions. This is mostly due to the fact that establishing tick colonies is laborious, and working with CCHFV requires a biosafety level 4 laboratory (BSL4) in many countries. Nonetheless, an in vivo transmission model is essential to understand the epidemiology of the transmission cycle of CCHFV. In addition, important parameters such as vectorial capacity of tick species, levels of infection in the host necessary to infect the tick, and aspects of virus transmission by tick bite including the influence of tick saliva, cannot be investigated any other way. Here, we evaluate the influence of different laboratory animal species as hosts supporting the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum, a two-host tick. Rabbits were considered the host of choice for the maintenance of the uninfected colonies due to high larval attachment rates, shorter larval-nymphal feeding times, higher nymphal molting rates, high egg hatching rates, and higher conversion efficiency index (CEI). Furthermore, we describe the successful establishment of an in vivo transmission model for CCHFV in a BSL4 biocontainment setting using interferon knockout mice. This will give us a new tool to study the transmission and interaction of CCHFV with its tick vector. PMID:23971007

  18. Subolesin: a candidate vaccine antigen for the control of cattle tick infestations in Indian situation.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Mukesh; Kumar, Binod; Nagar, Gaurav; de la Fuente, José; Ghosh, Srikanta

    2014-06-12

    Identification of cross-protective tick vaccine antigens is a challenging area of veterinary research. To address this challenge, a recently identified candidate tick protective antigen, Subolesin (SUB), was targeted in this research. The conservation of subolesin ortholog of Hyalomma anatolicum and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus across different Indian strains was 98.1-99.4% (within species), while at the amino acid level SUB sequence homology was ≥53.2% (between tick species). Recombinant R. (B.) microplus SUB (rBmSu) was produced in Escherichia coli and characterized. Cross-bred cattle male calves (N=10) were immunized with three doses of 100 μg each of the rBmSu emulsified in 10% Montanide 888 at monthly intervals on days 0, 30 and 60. The control group was injected with PBS in 10% Montanide 888. For the first tick challenge, calves were infested with larvae of R. (B.) microplus generated from 100mg eggs 2 weeks after last immunization (day 75). The immunization resulted in 16.3%, 8.0%, 9.4%, and 26.1% reduction in female tick numbers (DT), weight (DW), oviposition (DO) and egg fertility (DF), respectively, when compared to controls. In the subsequent challenge on day 105, DT, DW, DO and DF were reduced by 9.0%, 4.1%, 8.6%, and 24.2%, respectively, when compared to controls. The vaccine efficacy (E) was equal to 44.0% and 37.2% after the first and second challenges, respectively. The results showed a positive correlation between antibody titers for both total IgG and IgG1 and E in the second but not in the first tick challenge. These results suggested the possibility of developing a SUB-based vaccine for control of cattle tick infestations under Indian conditions. PMID:24795229

  19. Female tick Hyalomma marginatum marginatum salivary glands: preliminary study on protein changes during feeding process and antigens recognized by repeatedly infested cattle.

    PubMed

    Tikki, N; Rhalem, A; Sadak, A; Sahibi, H

    1999-12-01

    Proteins extracted from salivary glands of unfed, three days and five days fed adult Hyalomma marginatum marginatum were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). We have noticed changes during the three feeding steps. Some proteins disappeared during feeding process (23, 38, 39, 40 to 50, 95 and 112 kDa), they might be proteins which were converted in other substances and are secreted. Other antigens (13 to 14, 20, 25, 29, 165 and 210 kDa) were synthesized as a result of tick attachment and feeding. They may be related to growth and development or are the ciment which fixed the adult. Also, three Holstein calves were infested five times with 100 pairs of adult ticks of the same species. The five infestations were performed two weeks from the previous infestation. The sera before infestations and after each infestation were used in western-blot analyses to identify antigens from five days salivary gland extracts of the primary infestation of ticks. Three antigens (18.7, 50 and 80 kDa) were revealed weakly after the first and the second infestations by sera samples but not at infestation onward. Others (13.5, 17 to 18.5, 25, 30, 70, 133, 176 and 193 kDa) were revealed only by sera taken after manifestation of resistance (third infestation). A 13.5 kDa antigen was particularly revealed when resistance had appeared and became more evident after the fourth and fifth infestations. The late antigens recognized might be associated with establishment of calves resistance against ticks. PMID:10633500

  20. Cholesteryl esters on the body surfaces of the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Koch, 1844) and the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806).

    PubMed

    Sobbhy, H; Aggour, M G; Sonenshine, D E; Burridge, M J

    1994-05-01

    Cholesteryl esters were found to constitute a major component of the lipids coating the body cuticle of females of the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii and the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. One or more cholesteryl esters, alone or in combination, have been shown to serve as the mounting sex pheromone of several species of ixodid ticks. Consequently, knowledge of these compounds is important for an understanding of the mating behavior of these ticks. Based on thin layer chromatography, cholesterol and cholesteryl esters were the most abundant neutral lipids found on the body surfaces of fed females of these two species. Analysis using HPLC demonstrated significant quantities of the following compounds, tentatively identified as cholesteryl esters (expressed in micrograms per female equivalent), in H. dromedarii: Cholesteryl acetate 18.2; cholesteryl laurate, 6.8; cholesteryl linoleate, 24.8; cholesteryl oleate, 12.9; cholesteryl palmitate, 0.3; and cholesteryl stearate 1.7. In contrast, the same method revealed only 3 cholesteryl esters in extracts of females of R. sanguineus: Cholesteryl acetate, 2.0; cholesteryl linoleate, 8.5; and cholesteryl oleate, 3.0. In both species, two unidentified peaks, with the spectral characteristics of cholesteryl esters, were also observed. Identification of the cholesteryl esters was confirmed: by (1) positive bioassay results with conspecific (H. dromedarii) males and heterospecific (Dermacentor variabilis) males; (2) similarity of ultraviolet spectra between identified sample peaks and authentic standards; and (3) demonstration of cholesterol and the corresponding free fatty acid following enzymatic digestion of each of the HPLC-separated fractions containing the different cholesteryl esters. Comparisons with the cholesteryl ester composition of the mounting sex pheromone of other metastriate Ixodidae are discussed. These findings, along with studies reported previously, suggest that differences in the mounting sex pheromones of ixodid ticks are an important factor in minimizing heterospecific matings in nature. PMID:7628247

  1. Phylogeny, Diversity, Distribution, and Host Specificity of Haemoproteus spp. (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) of Palaearctic Tortoises.

    PubMed

    Javanbakht, Hossein; Kvičerová, Jana; Dvořáková, Nela; Mikulíček, Peter; Sharifi, Mozafar; Kautman, Matej; Maršíková, Aneta; Široký, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A complex wide-range study on the haemoproteid parasites of chelonians was carried out for the first time. Altogether, 811 samples from four tortoise species from an extensive area between western Morocco and eastern Afghanistan and between Romania and southern Syria were studied by a combination of microscopic and molecular-genetic methods. Altogether 160 Haemoproteus-positive samples were gathered in the area between central Anatolia and eastern Afghanistan. According to variability in the cytochrome b gene, two monophyletic evolutionary lineages were distinguished; by means of microscopic analysis it was revealed that they corresponded to two previously described species-Haemoproteus anatolicum and Haemoproteus caucasica. Their distribution areas overlap only in a narrow strip along the Zagros Mts. range in Iran. This fact suggests the involvement of two different vector species with separated distribution. Nevertheless, no vectors were confirmed. According to phylogenetic analyses, H. caucasica represented a sister group to H. anatolicum, and both of them were most closely related to H. pacayae and H. peltocephali, described from South American river turtles. Four unique haplotypes were revealed in the population of H. caucasica, compared with seven haplotypes in H. anatolicum. Furthermore, H. caucasica was detected in two tortoise species, Testudo graeca and Testudo horsfieldii, providing evidence that Haemoproteus is not strictly host-specific to the tortoise host species. PMID:25939459

  2. The Complete Sequence of a West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain Detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum Tick Collected from a Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos) in Eastern Romania in 2013 Revealed Closest Genetic Relationship to Strain Volgograd 2007

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Marinov, Mihai; Kiss, Botond J.; Alexe, Vasile; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. The virus was detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the Romanian Danube Delta close to the city of Tulcea, end of August 2013. Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. Sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the Romanian WNV strain to strain Reb_Volgograd_07_H, which was isolated from human brain tissue during an outbreak of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Russia in 2007. In 2010 the Eastern European lineage 2 WNV caused an outbreak of human WNND in Romania. Partial sequences from subsequent years demonstrated that this WNV strain became endemic in Eastern Europe and has been causing outbreaks of varying sizes in southern Russia since 2007 and in Romania since 2010. PMID:25279973

  3. The complete sequence of a West Nile virus lineage 2 strain detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in eastern Romania in 2013 revealed closest genetic relationship to strain Volgograd 2007.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Marinov, Mihai; Kiss, Botond J; Alexe, Vasile; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. The virus was detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the Romanian Danube Delta close to the city of Tulcea, end of August 2013. Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. Sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the Romanian WNV strain to strain Reb_Volgograd_07_H, which was isolated from human brain tissue during an outbreak of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Russia in 2007. In 2010 the Eastern European lineage 2 WNV caused an outbreak of human WNND in Romania. Partial sequences from subsequent years demonstrated that this WNV strain became endemic in Eastern Europe and has been causing outbreaks of varying sizes in southern Russia since 2007 and in Romania since 2010. PMID:25279973

  4. [Genetic characterization of the Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) (Picornaviridae, Cardiovirus) isolated from the blood of the patients and ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum (Hyalomminae), Dermacentor daghestanicus (Rhipicephalinae) (Ixodidae) and Ornithodoros coniceps (Argasidae) in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    The Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) was originally isolated from the blood of the patient with fever in the Kyzylorda province, Kazakhstan, in July 1973 and was classified to the Cardiovirus genus (fam. Picornaviridae). Later, SDVFV was isolated from the ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1929 (Hyalomminae) (1 strain) and Dermacentor daghestanicus Olenev, 1929 (Rhipicephalinae) (7 strains), collected in the floodplains of the Syr-Darya river and the Ili river. In this paper, complet genome of the SDVFV (strain LEIV-Tur2833) was sequenced using the next-generation sequencing approach (GenBank ID: KJ191558). It was demonstrated that, phylogenetically, the SDVFV is closely related closest to the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) and Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VMEV). The similarity of the SDVFV with VHEV and TMEV based on P1 region of the polyprotein-precursor (structural proteins VP1-VP4), reaches 75% and 91% for nucleotide sequences and 80% and 93% for putative amino acid sequences, respectively. For nonstructural proteins regions P2 (2A-2C) and P3 (3A-3D) similarity of SDVFV with TMEV and VHEV is 96%-98%. PMID:25549463

  5. Association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western Palearctic. A digital data set.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, A; Farkas, Robert; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Koenen, Frank; Madder, Maxime; Pascucci, Ilaria; Salman, Mo; Tarrés-Call, Jordi; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-03-01

    We compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western Palearctic (11°W, 45°E; 29°N, 71°N), published during 1970-2010. The literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. Records from some curated collections were included. We focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. bursa, and the R. sanguineus group. A few records of other species (I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, Hy. impeltatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. excavatum, Hy. scupense) were also included. A total of 10,280 records was included in the data set. Almost 42 % of published references are not adequately referenced (and not included in the data set), host is reported for only 61 % of records and a reference to time of collection is missed for 84 % of published records. Ixodes ricinus accounted for 44.3 % of total records, with H. marginatum and D. marginatus accounting for 7.1 and 8.1 % of records, respectively. The lack of homogeneity of the references and potential pitfalls in the compilation were addressed to create a digital data set of the records of the ticks. We attached to every record a coherent set of quantitative descriptors for the site of reporting, namely gridded interpolated monthly climate and remotely sensed data on vegetation (NDVI). We also attached categorical descriptors of the habitat: a standard classification of land biomes and an ad hoc classification of the target territory from remotely sensed temperature and NDVI data. A descriptive analysis of the data revealed that a principal components reduction of the environmental (temperature and NDVI) variables described the distribution of the species in the target territory. However, categorical descriptors of the habitat were less effective. We stressed the importance of building reliable collections of ticks with specific references as to collection point, host and date of capture. The data set is freely downloadable. PMID:22843316

  6. [Taxonomy of previously unclassified Tamdy virus (TAMV) (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) isolated from the Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum Schülce et Schlottke, 1929 (Ixodidae, Hyalomminae) in the Middle East and transcaucasia].

    PubMed

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Aristova, V A; Gitel'man, A K; Deriabin, P G; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    Complete genome sequencing of three Tamdy (TAMV) virus strains was carried out. The prototype strain TAMV/LEIV-1308Uz was isolated for the very first time from the Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum Schülce et Schlottke, 1929 (Ixodidae, Hyalomminae) collected in the August 1971 from sheep in the arid area near Namdybulak town (41 degrees 36' N, 64 degrees 39' E) in the Tamdinsky district of the Bukhara region (Uzbekistan). TAMV was revealed to be a prototype member of the new phylogenetic group within the limits of the Nairovirus. The TAMV homology for RdRp (L-segment) amino acid sequence is not less than 40% with Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Hazara virus (HAZV), and Dugbe virus (DUGV), which are also linked with Ixodidae ticks. The TAMV homologies with the Issyk-Kul virus (ISKV) and Caspiy virus (CASV) for RdRp are 37.6% and 37.7%, respectively. These data conformed to the low values of GnGc (M-segment) and nucleocapsid protein N (S-segment) homology. The TAMV homologies with the nairoviruses for GnGc is in average 25%; with the nairoviruses linked with Ixodidae ticks (CCHFV, DUGV, HAZV) - 33%; with Argasidae ticks (ISKV, CASV) - 28%. The TAMV/LEIV-1308Uz, LEIV-6158Ar, and LEIV-10226Az have high level of identity. The TAMV/LEIV-10226Az from Azerbaijan has 99% homology for both nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the prototype TAMV/LEIV-1308Uz RdRp. The TAMV/LEIV-6158Ar from Armenia is more divergent and has 94.2% and 96.3% homologies with the TAMV/LEIV-1308Uz, respectively. The homology between the TAMV/LEIV-1308Uz and TAMV/LEIV-10226Az for GnGc is 93%. The TAMV/LEIV-6158Ar has 90% homology for this protein with the TAMV/LEIV-1308Uz and 93% with the TAMV/LEIV-10226Az, respectively. Differences in nucleocapsid protein between three TAMV strains are 5-7%. PMID:25069280

  7. An insight into the sialotranscriptome and proteome of the coarse bontlegged tick, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The analysis of 2,084 expressed sequemce tags (EST) from a salivary gland cDNA library lead to the assembly of 1,167 clusters of sequences, allowing identification of 255 contigs and singletons associated with putative salivary secreted componenets, from which 56 coding sequences (CDS) were extracte...

  8. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... vector. The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in animals and ticks The hosts of the CCHF virus ... be effective. Prevention and control Controlling CCHF in animals and ticks Ticks of the genus Hyalomma are ...

  9. [Seasonal dynamics of tick infestations in cattle (Ixodoidea) in cattle sold in the area of Yaoundé, Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Bayemi, P H

    1991-01-01

    Among the tick species identified in Cameroon, eight were found in cattle in Yaoundé: Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus annulatus, B. decoloratus, Haemaphysalis aciculifer, Hyalomma nitidum, Rhipicephalus longus, Rh. lunulatus, Rh. sulcatus. Three species, Hm. aciculifer, H. nitidum and Rh. lunulatus, were identified for the first time in Yaoundé. Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma were abundant during the rainy season. Boophilus was abundant throughout the year, with a maximum concentration at the end of the long dry season. Amblyomma, which was encountered in large quantities all year round, had a minimum infestation rate during the long rainy season. Only one female tick of Hm. aciculifer was collected. PMID:1824137

  10. Molecular Evidence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Massung, Robert F.; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D.; Shanas, Uri; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Waner, Trevor

    2007-01-01

    Sequences from the Anaplasma phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene were detected in 5 ticks representing 3 species (Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus turanicus, and Boophilus kohlsi) collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Mount Carmel, Israel. The sequences were all identical to those of Ap-variant 1 strain. PMID:18252125

  11. Multiple Pathogens Including Potential New Species in Tick Vectors in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Ehounoud, Cyrille Bilé; Yao, Kouassi Patrick; Dahmani, Mustapha; Achi, Yaba Louise; Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Kacou N’Douba, Adèle; N’Guessan, Jean David; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to assess the presence of different pathogens in ticks collected in two regions in Côte d’Ivoire. Methodology/Principal Findings Real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled to sequencing were used. Three hundred and seventy eight (378) ticks (170 Amblyomma variegatum, 161 Rhipicepalus microplus, 3 Rhipicephalus senegalensis, 27 Hyalomma truncatum, 16 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, and 1 Hyalomma impressum) were identified and analyzed. We identified as pathogenic bacteria, Rickettsia africae in Am. variegatum (90%), Rh. microplus (10%) and Hyalomma spp. (9%), Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. (23%), Rickettsia massiliae in Rh. senegalensis (33%) as well as Coxiella burnetii in 0.2%, Borrelia sp. in 0.2%, Anaplasma centrale in 0.2%, Anaplasma marginale in 0.5%, and Ehrlichia ruminantium in 0.5% of all ticks. Potential new species of Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Wolbachia were detected. Candidatus Borrelia africana and Candidatus Borrelia ivorensis (detected in three ticks) are phylogenetically distant from both the relapsing fever group and Lyme disease group borreliae; both were detected in Am. variegatum. Four new genotypes of bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family were identified, namely Candidatus Anaplasma ivorensis (detected in three ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia urmitei (in nine ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia rustica (in four ticks), and Candidatus Wolbachia ivorensis (in one tick). Conclusions/Significance For the first time, we demonstrate the presence of different pathogens such as R. aeschlimannii, C. burnetii, Borrelia sp., A. centrale, A. marginale, and E. ruminantium in ticks in Côte d’Ivoire as well as potential new species of unknown pathogenicity. PMID:26771308

  12. Virus investigation in ticks from migratory birds in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Fabiola; Toma, Luciano; Ciervo, Alessandra; Di Luca, Marco; Faggioni, Giovanni; Lista, Forigio; Rezza, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    The role of migratory birds in circulation tick-borne viruses needs to be better defined. In order to assess the potential role of migratory birds in exotic virus spread, we conducted a study to identify ticks collected from migratory birds in the Central Region of Italy, and performed molecular investigation for Crimea-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHFV), West Nile fever (WNFV) and Usutu (USUV) in the vectors. A total of 137 competent ticks were collected with predominance of Hyalomma species. Although, negative results were obtained for all viruses considered, the high proportion of Hyalomma ticks highlights the potential risk for the dissemination of tick-borne viruses through infested migratory birds. PMID:24177308

  13. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from wild animals in Israel.

    PubMed

    Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E; Leitner, Moshe; Din, Adi Beth; Wikswo, Mary E; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D; Shanas, Uri; King, Roni; Waner, Trevor

    2011-11-01

    We report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in Israel. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma detritum while Rickettsia massiliae was present in Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. Furthermore, a novel uncultured SFGR was detected in Haemaphysalis adleri and Haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. The pathogenicity of the novel SFGR for humans is unknown; however, the presence of multiple SFGR agents should be considered when serological surveillance data from Israel are interpreted because of significant antigenic cross-reactivity among Rickettsia. The epidemiology and ecology of SFGR in Israel appear to be more complicated than was previously believed. PMID:22049050

  14. Seasonal variation of infestation rate with lice, tick and mite among rodents in certain Egyptian regions.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Halim, Azza S; Allam, Kamilia A M; Metwally, A M; El Boraey, A M

    2009-08-01

    Four species of mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti, Haemolaelaps glusgowi, Echinolaelaps echinolelaps & Dermanyssus gallinae), two species of ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus & Hyalomma dromedarrii) and one species of lice (Polyplax spinulose) were identified on rodents during 4 successive seasons (2005) trapped in five governorates (Suez, Menoufia, Giza, Damietta and Beni-Sewaf). The rodents were Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus alexandrinus, Rattus rattus frugivourus, Acomys cahirinus and Mus musculus Rodents in Suez were the highly ecto-parasites infested ones. PMID:19795768

  15. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in wild birds in Greece.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Norte, Ana Cláudia; Lopes de Carvalho, Isabel; Núncio, Sofia; Nováková, Markéta; Kautman, Matej; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Kazantzidis, Savas; Sychra, Oldřich; Literák, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    Wild birds are common hosts of ticks and can transport them for long distances, contributing to the spreading of tick-borne pathogens. The information about ticks on birds and tick-borne pathogens in Greece is limited. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and species of ticks infesting wild resident birds (mostly small passerines) in Greece, and to assess Borrelia and Rickettsia infection in the collected ticks. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. was performed by nested PCR targeting the flaB gene. Rickettsia spp. were detected by PCR targeting the gltA and ompA genes. Seven (2 %) out of 403 birds examined in northern Greece in 2013 were infested with 15 ticks, identified as Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes acuminatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma sp. All ticks were negative for Borrelia spp. while four of them were positive for rickettsiae (Rickettsia aeschlimannii in H. aegyptium and Rickettsia sp. in I. frontalis, H. aegyptium and H. marginatum). Ixodes acuminatus is reported for the first time in Greece and Sylvia borin is reported as a new host record for I. acuminatus. PMID:26847630

  16. Molecular Detection and Identification of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected from the West Bank, Palestinian Territories

    PubMed Central

    Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Azmi, Kifaya; Harrus, Shimon; Mumcuoglu, Kosta; Apanaskevich, Dimtry; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Background Tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. Although Spotted Fever is prevalent in the Middle East, no reports for the presence of tick-borne pathogens are available or any studies on the epidemiology of this disease in the West Bank. We aimed to identify the circulating hard tick vectors and genetically characterize SFG Rickettsia species in ixodid ticks from the West Bank-Palestinian territories. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 1,123 ixodid ticks belonging to eight species (Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis adleri, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma impeltatum) were collected from goats, sheep, camels, dogs, a wolf, a horse and a tortoise in different localities throughout the West Bank during the period of January-April, 2014. A total of 867 ticks were screened for the presence of rickettsiae by PCR targeting a partial sequence of the ompA gene followed by sequence analysis. Two additional genes, 17 kDa and 16SrRNA were also targeted for further characterization of the detected Rickettsia species. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 148 out of the 867 (17%) tested ticks. The infection rates in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, H. adleri, H. parva, H. dromedarii, and H. impeltatum ticks were 41.7, 11.6, 16.7, 16.2, 11.8 and 20%, respectively. None of the ticks, belonging to the species Rh. bursa and H. aegyptium, were infected. Four SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia africae, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae and Candidatus Rickettsia goldwasserii. Significance The results of this study demonstrate the geographic distribution of SFG rickettsiae and clearly indicate the presence of at least four of them in collected ticks. Palestinian clinicians should be aware of emerging tick-borne diseases in the West Bank, particularly infections due to R. massiliae and R. africae. PMID:26771654

  17. Two Gynandromorphs of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) from New York State

    PubMed Central

    Prusinski, M. A.; Mertins, J. W.; Meehan, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Gynandromorphism, the simultaneous occurrence of both male and female genotypic and morphological characteristics in a single individual of a normally sexually dimorphic species, is rare in ticks. The phenomenon is documented previously for free-living specimens representing several tick genera, particularly Amblyomma and Hyalomma, but only rarely in Ixodes. Here we describe the first two known gynandromorphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, collected while flagging vegetation during routine tick surveillance in the Hudson Valley region of New York State. Uniquely, both specimens display some morphological features typical of nymphs, in addition to those of both males and females. PMID:26336313

  18. Emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Amreli District of Gujarat State, India, June to July 2013.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pragya D; Gurav, Yogesh K; Mistry, Madhulika; Shete, Anita M; Sarkale, Prasad; Deoshatwar, Avinash R; Unadkat, Vishwa B; Kokate, Prasad; Patil, Deepak Y; Raval, Dinkar K; Mourya, Devendra T

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) etiology was detected in a family cluster (nine cases, including two deaths) in the village of Karyana, Amreli District, and also a fatal case in the village of Undra, Patan District, in Gujarat State, India. Anti-CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in domestic animals from Karyana and adjoining villages. Hyalomma ticks from households were found to be positive for CCHF viral RNA. This confirms the emergence of CCHFV in new areas and the wide spread of this disease in Gujarat State. PMID:24211848

  19. External morphological anomalies in ixodid ticks from Thrace, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kar, Sirri; Akyildiz, Gurkan; Yilmazer, Nadim; Shaibi, Taher; Gargili, Aysen; Vatansever, Zati

    2015-11-01

    Of 18,667 ticks examined, 33 specimens from species identified as Haemaphysalis parva, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. scupense, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rh. turanicus were found to have external morphological anomalies. Anomalous Ha. parva, Hy. scupence and Rh. turanicus were reported in this study for the first time. General anomalies manifested as asymmetry and deformations of the idiosoma, whereas local anomalies occurred in legs, exoskeleton, spiracular, adanal, subanal and accessory plates, mouthparts and capitulum. With this study describing a gynandromorphic Hy. marginatum, the number of gynandromorphic tick cases has been raised to two in Turkey. PMID:26264155

  20. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus infection in birds: field investigations in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Zeller, H G; Cornet, J P; Camicas, J L

    1994-01-01

    In Senegal, wild ground-feeding birds are frequently infested with immature ticks. In two areas where numerous Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus isolations were obtained from Hyalomma marginatum rufipes adult ticks collected on ungulates, 175 birds were captured and sera collected. CCHF antibodies were detected by ELISA in 6/22 red-beaked hornbills (Tockus erythrorhynchus), 2/11 glossy starlings (Lamprotornis sp.) and 1/3 guinea fowls. The virus was isolated from H. m. rufipes nymphs collected on a hornbill. The role of wild ground-feeding birds in CCHF virus ecology in West Africa is discussed. PMID:8059064

  1. Observations on cattle ticks in Huila Province (Angola).

    PubMed

    Gomes, A F; Pombal, A M; Venturi, L

    1994-02-01

    In Huila Province of Angola, 3864 ticks were collected during a parasitological survey carried out in the rainy season from October 1990 to April 1991. The samples were collected from cattle gathered for the annual vaccination campaign against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, anthrax and blackleg in 18 veterinary stations of six municipalities. After tick classification, the following proportions of ticks were obtained: Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus (27.1%), Amblyomma pomposum (26.4%), Boophilus decoloratus (19.0%), Rhipicephalus zambesiensis (9.4%), Rhipicephalus duttoni (8.3%), Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (3.8%), Hyalomma truncatum (3.0%), Rhipicephalus punctatus (2.5%) and Ixodes cavipalpus, Rhipicephalus lunulatus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus simus, each less than 1%. These ticks are well known in southern Africa as vectors of diseases caused by protozoa and rickettsiae (babesiosis, theileriosis, anaplasmosis and cowdriosis). Control programmes against ticks and tick-borne diseases should be based on critical studies regarding costs/risks/benefits in relation to socio-economic and ecological frameworks. PMID:8171837

  2. Ticks (acari: ixodoidea: argasidae, ixodidae) of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ze; Yang, Xiaojun; Bu, Fengju; Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingze

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents results of an investigation and listing of tick species found in China during a survey in all 28 provinces. This will be a step towards a definitive list of tick species and their distribution. To date, the tick fauna of this area consists of 117 species in the following families: Argasidae-Argas (7 species), Carios (4 species) and Ornithodoros (2 species); Ixodidae-Amblyomma (8 species), Anomalohimalaya (2 species), Dermacentor (12 species), Haemaphysalis (44 species), Hyalomma (6 species), Ixodes (24 species) and Rhipicephalus (8 species). Some well known ticks carrying and transmitting many infectious agents to man and domestic animals are also found in China. These include Ixodes persulcatus, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma asiaticum. It is worth mentioning that Ixodes rangtangensis Teng and Haemaphysalis xinjiangensis Teng should be relegated to a synonym of I. moschiferi and Hae. danieli, respectively. The distribution of ticks over the provinces of China is also discussed. The information on ticks in some areas such as Henan is not exhaustive. PMID:20101443

  3. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) parasitizing humans in Corum and Yozgat provinces, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Adem; Keskin, Aysun; Bursali, Ahmet; Tekin, Saban

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify ticks infesting humans in Corum and Yozgat provinces in Turkey, a total of 2110 ticks representing 14 species were collected on humans, between June and September 2009. Of those, 1551 (687♂, 450♀, 407 nymphs, 7 larvae) were collected from Corum and 559 (330♂, 180♀, 49 nymphs) were collected from Yozgat. The majority of ticks (n = 1121, 53.1 %) was Hyalomma marginatum. Other common ticks infesting humans were Dermacentor marginatus (n = 209, 9.9 %) and Rhipicephalus turanicus sensu lato (n = 145, 6.9 %) in the study area. In addition, a total of 386 immature Hyalomma were found on humans in Corum (335 nymphs, 7 larvae) and Yozgat (44 nymphs). Ixodes laguri and Haemaphysalis erinacei taurica were recorded for the first time in Corum. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first detailed investigation on ticks infesting humans in Corum and Yozgat, except individual or incidental records. The present study provides useful information for those concerned with ticks and tick-borne diseases in Turkey. PMID:26385209

  4. Ticks (Ixodidae) on birds migrating from Europe and Asia to Africa, 1959-61*

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstraal, Harry; Kaiser, Makram N.; Traylor, Melvin A.; Guindy, Ezzat; Gaber, Sobhy

    1963-01-01

    The need for imaginative thinking and research in the epidemiology of diseases transmitted by arthropods is made manifest by new views of the longevity and host ranges of arthropod-borne viruses, as well as by other biological and medical phenomena. Among these is the intercontinental transport of ticks by migrating birds. During the fall migration periods of 1959, 1960 and 1961, 32 086 birds (comprising 72 forms) were examined for ticks in Egypt while en route from Asia and eastern Europe to tropical Africa. Of these, 40 forms, represented by 31 434 birds, were tick-infested. The bird hosts, numbering 1040 (3.31% of the tick-infested bird forms examined), bore 1761 ticks, or 1.69 ticks per host. Common ticks taken were Hyalomma m. marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, and Ixodes ricinus. Ixodes frontalis and Hyalomma aegyptium were less common and Haemaphysalis sulcata, H. otophila, and H. pavlovskyi were rare. The common tick species are known to be reservoirs and vectors of pathogens causing a number of human and animal diseases in Europe and Asia. Several of the bird hosts have also been incriminated as reservoirs in their summer ranges. Over 20 strains of pathogenic viruses were isolated from these birds and their ticks in Egypt in the 1961 fall migration period. The most difficult problems in investigations such as this in many parts of the world are taxonomic ones: the correct identification of bird hosts, of immature stages of ticks and of viruses. PMID:13961632

  5. Biogeography of Tick-Borne Bhanja Virus (Bunyaviridae) in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hubálek, Zdenek

    2009-01-01

    Bhanja virus (BHAV) is pathogenic for young domestic ruminants and also for humans, causing fever and affections of the central nervous system. This generally neglected arbovirus of the family Bunyaviridae is transmitted by metastriate ticks of the genera Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Boophilus, and Amblyomma. Geographic distribution of BHAV covers southern and Central Asia, Africa, and southern (partially also central) Europe. Comparative biogeographic study of eight known natural foci of BHAV infections in Europe (in Italy, Croatia, Bulgaria, Slovakia) has revealed their common features. (1) submediterranean climatic pattern with dry growing season and wet mild winter (or microlimatically similar conditions, e.g., limestone karst areas in central Europe), (2) xerothermic woodland-grassland ecosystem, with plant alliances Quercetalia pubescentis, Festucetalia valesiacae, and Brometalia erecti, involving pastoral areas, (3) presence of at least one of the tick species Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus bursa, and/or Hyalomma marginatum, and (4) presence of ≥60% of the 180 BHAV bioindicator (157 plant, 4 ixodid tick, and 19 vertebrate spp.). On that basis, Greece, France (southern, including Corsica), Albania, Spain, Hungary, European Turkey, Ukraine (southern), Switzerland (southern), Austria (southeastern), Germany (southern), Moldova, and European Russia (southern) have been predicted as additional European regions where BHAV might occur. PMID:20182535

  6. Long term study of ixodid ticks feeding on red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a meso-Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, F; González, J; Tercero Jaime, J M; Olmeda, A S

    2016-05-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) are very valuable in trophy-hunting but also contribute to the preservation of natural areas. They are affected by many parasites and pathogens, including hard ticks that are not only important parasites themselves but can also act as vectors and/or reservoirs of pathogens. Tick phenology is complex insofar as population dynamics depend on environmental conditions, vegetation, host availability and their own intrinsic characteristic. Ticks were collected monthly from January 2007 to December 2014 from red deer on a natural reserve located in a meso-Mediterranean environment in Central Spain. A total of 8978 specimens of ixodid ticks were recovered with a mean Parasitization Index of 65.06 ticks/deer. Red deer were infected the whole year round with a summer-spring pattern and two secondary peaks in February and October. The main species was Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch followed by Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, Dermacentor marginatus Sulzer and Ixodes ricinus L. Hyalomma lusitanicum has a complex life cycle in which several generations initiate their cycle at different times throughout the year, most probably lasting more than 1 year. We also describe the ability of nymphs to feed on large ungulates even though their habitual host is wild rabbit. PMID:26715543

  7. [Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Senegal. Latest data on the ecology of the CCHF virus].

    PubMed

    Camicas, J L; Cornet, J P; Gonzalez, J P; Wilson, M L; Adam, F; Zeller, H G

    1994-01-01

    The authors finalize the knowledge on the ecology of the CCHF virus in Senegal, West Africa. They specify two new major data for the understanding of the viral ecology in West Africa. The recognition of a bird species, common and widely distributed in Senegal (Tockus erythrorhynchus, Coraciiformes, Bucerotidae), that replicates the virus and infects the immature stages of its current parasite Hyalomma marginatum rufipes in more than 90% of the cases, explains why the minimum infection rate of the adults of this species of tick is always very high. The implication of Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi in the viral ecology and/or a high efficiency of the transovarial transmission of the virus in Hy. m. rufipes would help to explain the maintenance of the endemy in the sahelian area. In the sahelian zone, Hy. marginatum rufipes must play the leading part, together with Rh. e. evertsi if vector, for the maintenance of the endemy. Hy. truncatum, the adults of which can readily bite man, ensures the vectorial transmission to him. In the sudanian zone, Amblyomma variegatum must play the same part as the Hyalomma and Rh. e. evertsi (if vector), and is surely the main vector to man, giving perhaps rise to less virulent strains (non hemorrhagic ones). PMID:8003897

  8. Patterns of tick infestation and their Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in wild birds in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Norte, A C; da Silva, L P; Tenreiro, P J Q; Felgueiras, M S; Araújo, P M; Lopes, P B; Matos, C; Rosa, A; Ferreira, P J S G; Encarnação, P; Rocha, A; Escudero, R; Anda, P; Núncio, M S; Lopes de Carvalho, I

    2015-09-01

    Wild birds may act as reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens and may be mechanical carriers of pathogen infected vector ticks through long distances during migration. The aim of this study was to assess tick infestation patterns in birds in Portugal and the prevalence of tick infection by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. using PCR techniques. Seven tick species were collected from birds including Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma spp., Ixodes acuminatus, Ixodes arboricola, Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes ventalloi. We found that I. frontalis and Hyalomma spp. were the most common ticks infesting birds of several species and that they were widespread in Portugal. Turdus merula was the bird species that presented the highest diversity of infesting ticks and had one of the highest infestation intensities. B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 7.3% (37/505) of Ixodidae ticks derived from birds. The most common genospecies was Borrelia turdi (6.9%), detected in ticks collected from Parus major, T. merula and Turdus philomelos, but Borrelia valaisiana (0.2%) and one Borrelia sp. (0.2%) similar to Borrelia bissettii (96% of similarity of the flaB gene in Blastn) were also detected. This study contributed to a better knowledge of the Ixodidae tick fauna parasitizing birds in Western Europe and to the assessment of the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. associated with birds and their ticks. PMID:26159798

  9. Hormonal interference with pheromone systems in parasitic acarines, especially ixodid ticks. Annual technical report No. 4, 1 May 1983-30 April 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Sonenshine, D.E.; Oliver, J.H. Jr.; Homsher, P.J.

    1984-05-01

    The most important result of recent project research was the demonstration of the juvenoid JH III by radioimmunoassay. This assay revealed an estimated 78 pg/tick in the hemolymph of partially fed Hyalomma dromedarii females, and an estimated 3 pg/tick in the hemolymph of partially fed D. variabilis. Other studies, especially digestion of tritium labelled JH III, provided additional evidence suggesting the presence of this hormone in adult ticks. The implications of these findings for our understanding of sex pheromone regulation in ticks is discussed. Other studies described in this report deal with the source of ecdysteroid in teh camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, and the soft tick, Ornithodoros parkeri. Studies done at ODU, using radioimmunoassay high performance liquid chromatography, and autoradiography, provide new evidence implicating the tick synganglion - lateral nerve plexus as an important site of ecdysteroid activity in the ixodid ticks. Other studies with ecdysteriods suggest that metabolism of ecdysone or 20-hydroxyecdysone (or both) to inactive metabolites, possibly including polar conjugates. If confirmed, these findings indicate the presence of only a single active ecdysteriod hormone in ticks, 20-hydroxyecdysone.

  10. First phylogenetic analysis of a Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus genome in naturally infected Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Naddaf-Sani, Ali Asghar; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Azizi, Kourosh; Ahmadnia, Sara; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2015-05-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal systemic viral disease in many parts of the world, including Iran. The nationwide incidence of human CCHF in endemic areas was 870 confirmed cases with 126 deaths (case fatality rate, CFR = 17.6 %) in the decade leading to 2012. The detection of the CCHF virus (CCHFV) genome in tick vectors is of fundamental importance for identifying these ticks as potential reservoirs of CCHFV infection. From May to October 2013, following detection of four new clinical cases resulting in two deaths in the city of Mashhad (northeast Iran), hard ticks were recovered from infested livestock in 40 villages in Khorasan-Razavi province and examined by the microscopic method for species identification. About a quarter of the ticks were then subjected to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the CCHFV genome. The PCR products were then sequenced, and their phylogenetic lineages were determined. A total of 407 hard ticks were captured, representing seven different species in two distinct genera. Members of the genus Hyalomma were widely distributed in all but two of the villages studied, and this was also the most frequent (83.3 %) tick genus. Of 105 adult ticks subjected to RT-PCR, four (3.8 %) ticks were found positive for the CCHFV genome. One brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, was found to be naturally infected for the first time anywhere in the world. Ticks of Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, and Rhipicephalus turanicus were also found to be naturally infected with CCHFV. CCHFV found in these four different tick species were clustered in the same lineage with the Matin and SR3 strains from Pakistan and some other strains from Iran, indicating that these tick species were naturally infected with genetically closely related CCHFV in the region. The presence of CCHFV infection in four different hard tick species was confirmed using RT-PCR in northeast Iran. Part of this infection was attributed to Rh. appendiculatus, which is thus a potential new natural vector of CCHFV in Iran. It is also confirmed by phylogenetic analysis that CCHFV in this region is genetically closely related, even in the different tick species. PMID:25742932

  11. Tick-Borne Rickettsioses, Neglected Emerging Diseases in Rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Fenollar, Florence; Sokhna, Cheikh; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background Rickettsioses are one of the most important causes of systemic febrile illness among travelers from developed countries, but little is known about their incidence in indigenous populations, especially in West Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings Overall seroprevalence evaluated by immunofluorescence using six rickettsial antigens (spotted fever and typhus group) in rural populations of two villages of the Sine-Saloum region of Senegal was found to be 21.4% and 51% for spotted fever group rickettsiae for Dielmo and Ndiop villages, respectively. We investigated the role of tick-borne rickettsiae as the cause of acute non-malarial febrile diseases in the same villages. The incidence of rickettsial DNA in 204 blood samples from 134 (62M and 72F) febrile patients negative for malaria was studied. DNA extracted from whole blood was tested by two qPCR systems. Rickettsial DNA was found in nine patients, eight with Rickettsia felis (separately reported). For the first time in West Africa, Rickettsia conorii was diagnosed in one patient. We also tested 2,767 Ixodid ticks collected in two regions of Senegal (Niakhar and Sine-Saloum) from domestic animals (cows, sheep, goats, donkeys and horses) by qPCR and identified five different pathogenic rickettsiae. We found the following: Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (51.3% and 44.8% in Niakhar and Sine-Saloum region, respectively), in Hyalomma truncatum (6% and 6.8%) and in Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (0.5%, only in Niakhar); R. c. conorii in Rh. e. evertsi (0.4%, only in Sine-Saloum); Rickettsia massiliae in Rhipicephalus guilhoni (22.4%, only in Niakhar); Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in Hyalomma truncatum (13.5%, only in Sine-Saloum); and Rickettsia africae in Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (0.7% and 0.4% in Niakhar and Sine-Saloum region, respectively) as well as in Rhipicephalus annulatus (20%, only in Sine-Saloum). We isolated two rickettsial strains from H. truncatum: R. s. mongolitimonae and R. aeschlimannii. Conclusions/Significance We believe that together with our previous data on the high prevalence of R. africae in Amblyomma ticks and R. felis infection in patients, the presented results on the distribution of pathogenic rickettsiae in ticks and the first R. conorii case in West Africa show that the rural population of Senegal is at risk for other tick-borne rickettsioses, which are significant causes of febrile disease in this area. PMID:20856858

  12. Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in Ticks in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Waner, Trevor; Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Din, Adi Beth; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; King, Roni; Atiya-Nasagi, Yafit

    2014-01-01

    DNA of several spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in ticks in Israel. The findings include evidence for the existence of Rickettsia africae and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in ticks in Israel. The DNA of R. africae was detected in a Hyalomma detritum tick from a wild boar and DNA of C. Rickettsia barbariae was detected in Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from vegetation. The DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was found in Rh. sanguineus and Haemaphysalis erinacei, whereas DNA of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Clinicians should be aware that diseases caused by a variety of rickettsiae previously thought to be present only in other countries outside of the Middle East may infect residents of Israel who have not necessarily traveled overseas. Furthermore, this study reveals again that the epidemiology of the spotted fever group rickettsiae may not only involve Rickettsia conorii but may include other rickettsiae. PMID:24615133

  13. Association of ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) with rodent burrows in northern Senegal.

    PubMed

    Logan, T M; Wilson, M L; Cornet, J P

    1993-07-01

    Four species of ticks were retrieved from burrows of 64 multimammate rats, Mastomys erythroleucus (Temminck), 55-gerbils, Taterillus gracilis (Thomas) or T. pygargus (Cuvier), 13 Nile rats, Arvicanthis niloticus (DeMarest), and five Geoffroy's ground squirrels, Xerus erythropus (Geoffroy) from May 1987 through August 1988 at two study sites in northern Senegal. Ornithodoros sonrai Sautet & Witkowski were recovered from 95% (74/78) of burrows near Bandia and 6% (4/66) of burrows near Yonofere. Eight Hyalomma truncatum Koch, four Rhipicephalus guilhoni Morel & Vassiliades, and one R. sulcatus Neumann were recovered from 144 rodent burrows (nine tick-positive burrows) from both locations. No seasonal trend of tick abundance or activity was noted, nor was any pattern of burrow preference by ticks detected. Rodent burrows in either location appeared to be little used by ixodid ticks. PMID:8360905

  14. [The characteristics of tick species (Acari: Ixodida) transferred on exotic reptiles to Poland].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Some natural and unusual transfers of exotic ticks on hosts have been noticed in Poland. Reptiles together with migratory birds and migrating mammals, are the groups of vertebrates that transfer unknown tick species to the territory of Poland. The majority of exotic reptiles brought to Poland for breading and commercial purpose are infested by ticks. Therefore the systematic list of ticks as well as their geographical distribution in the world, tick-host specificity, characteristic and morphological description of genera/species are presented. The described species are as follow: Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale, Amblyomma varanense, Hyalomma aegyptium. It is important to monitor occurrence of unknown tick species on hosts in Poland. Ticks parasitizing on reptiles are known as vectors of tick-borne diseases, which indicate a serious epidemic problem, created by the import of exotic reptiles to the territory of Poland. PMID:20450006

  15. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Shayan, Sara; Bokaean, Mohammad; Shahrivar, Mona Ranjvar; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2015-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a member of the Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirus genus. The viral genome consists of 3 RNA segments of 12 kb (L), 6.8 kb (M), and 3 kb (S). Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most widespread tickborne viral infection worldwide: it has been reported in many regions of Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The geographical distribution of CCHFV corresponds most closely with the distribution of members of the tick genera, and Hyalomma ticks are the principal source of human infection. In contrast to human infection, CCHFV infection is asymptomatic in all species. Treatment options for CCHF are limited; immunotherapy and ribavirin are effective in the treatment of CCHF; the efficacy of ribavirin in the treatment of CCHF has not yet been proven. This article reviews the history, epidemiology, clinical symptoms, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of CCHFV, as well as the development of a vaccine against it. PMID:26199256

  16. A comparison between tick species collected in a controlled and control free area on a game ranch in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Bradley; Reilly, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    Despite the large number of collection records, there are no recent collections of ixodid ticks of this magnitude in the Waterberg area, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Free-living ticks on a commercial game farm were obtained by a total of 432 drag-samples in eight sample sites from September 2003 to August 2008. The ticks were collected to establish the difference between tick species and densities associated with acaricide-controlled (semi-intensive) and control-free areas on a game farm in the Thabazimbi District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of eight tick species were collected, namely Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Haemaphysalis elliptica, Hyalomma rufipes, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus zambeziensis and Rhipicephalus spp. The most abundant tick species collected was Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus. The difference in species and numbers reflects the effectiveness of acaricide treatment against ticks and its relevance to tick numbers on a game farm. PMID:23718159

  17. Bacterial agents in 248 ticks removed from people from 2002 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Aubry, Camille; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the tick species removed from people and to detect tick-infecting bacteria in the specimens collected over the past 10 years at the reference center for rickettsioses, Marseille, France. A total of 248 ticks were removed from 200 people, including Dermacentor (73), Rhipicephalus (67), Ixodes (60), Amblyomma (8), Argas (3), Hyalomma (1), and Haemaphysalis (1) species. Bacterial DNA was detected in 101 ticks: Rickettsia slovaca (34%) and Rickettsia raoultii (23%) were detected in Dermacentor ticks; Rickettsia conorii (16%) and Rickettsia massiliae (18%) were found in Rhipicephalus ticks; and Anaplasma phagocytophylum (5%), Borrelia spp. (8%) and Rickettsia spp. (2%) were detected in Ixodes ticks. Among the bitten people for which clinical data and laboratory samples were available, tick borne diseases were confirmed in 11 symptomatic individuals. PMID:26874669

  18. First description of the immature stages and redescription of the adults of Cosmiomma hippopotamensis (Acari: Ixodidae) with notes on its bionomics.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Walker, Jane B; Heyne, Heloise; Bezuidenhout, J Dürr; Horak, Ivan G

    2013-07-01

    Cosmiomma hippopotamensis (Denny, 1843) is one of the most unusual, beautiful, and rare tick species known to the world. All stages of this species possess a unique morphology, on the one hand making them easy to identify, while on the other they exhibit similarities to certain species of Amblyomma Koch, 1844, Dermacentor Koch, 1844, and Hyalomma Koch, 1844. Adults of C. hippopotamensis have been collected on only two occasions from their hosts, namely Hippopotamus amphibius L. and Diceros bicornis (L.), and have been recorded from only a few widely separated localities in East and southern Africa. Here, the larva and nymph are described and illustrated for the first time, while the male and female are illustrated and redescribed. Data on hosts, geographic distribution, and life cycle of C. hippopotamensis are also provided. PMID:23926768

  19. Genetic Characterization of the M RNA Segment of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Strains, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Benjiang; Kouidou, Sophie; Tang, Qing; Hang, Changshou; Antoniadis, Antonis

    2002-01-01

    We report the genetic characterization of the M RNA segment of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). Two CCHFV strains isolated in Xinjiang Province, a region endemic for CCHF in northwestern China, were studied. These strains, designated BA66019 and BA8402, were isolated in 1965 and 1984 from a CCHF patient and Hyalomma ticks, respectively. Viral RNA was extracted from suckling mouse brains infected with these two strains, amplified, and sequenced. The full-length M RNA, consisting of 5.3 kb, was determined for both strains. The coding nucleotide sequences of the two strains differed from each other by 17.5% and from the reference CCHFV strain IbAr10200 by a mean of 22%, suggesting that the genus Nairovirus comprises a group of genetically highly diverse strains. PMID:11749748

  20. First Description of the Immature Stages and Redescription of the Adults of Cosmiomma hippopotamensis (Acari: Ixodidae) With Notes on Its Bionomics

    PubMed Central

    APANASKEVICH, DMITRY A.; WALKER, JANE B.; HEYNE, HELOISE; BEZUIDENHOUT, J. DÜRR; HORAK, IVAN G.

    2014-01-01

    Cosmiomma hippopotamensis (Denny, 1843) is one of the most unusual, beautiful, and rare tick species known to the world. All stages of this species possess a unique morphology, on the one hand making them easy to identify, while on the other they exhibit similarities to certain species of Amblyomma Koch, 1844, Dermacentor Koch, 1844, and Hyalomma Koch, 1844. Adults of C. hippopotamensis have been collected on only two occasions from their hosts, namely Hippopotamus amphibius L. and Diceros bicornis (L.), and have been recorded from only a few widely separated localities in East and southern Africa. Here, the larva and nymph are described and illustrated for the first time, while the male and female are illustrated and redescribed. Data on hosts, geographic distribution, and life cycle of C. hippopotamensis are also provided. PMID:23926768

  1. Migratory birds, ticks, and Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Molin, Ylva; Lindeborg, Mats; Nyström, Fredrik; Madder, Maxime; Hjelm, Eva; Olsen, Björn; Jaenson, Thomas G.T.; Ehrenborg, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. Migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia and tick-borne encephalitis virus and possibly also Bartonella. Thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythera were screened for Bartonella spp. RNA. One or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds. Most ticks were Hyalomma rufipes nymphs and larvae with mean infestation rates of 1.7 nymphs and 0.6 larvae per infested bird. Bartonella spp. RNA was not detected in any of the tick specimens. PMID:22957116

  2. Isolation of Tick and Mosquito-Borne Arboviruses from Ticks Sampled from Livestock and Wild Animal Hosts in Ijara District, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service–protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne. PMID:23805790

  3. Identification of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks Feeding on Humans in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Orkun, Ömer; Karaer, Zafer; Çakmak, Ayşe; Nalbantoğlu, Serpil

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. The tick-borne disease outbreaks reported in recent years and the abundance of tick species and the existence of suitable habitats increase the importance of studies related to the epidemiology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of and to determine the infection rates of some tick-borne pathogens, including Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in the ticks removed from humans in different parts of Ankara. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 169 ticks belonging to the genus Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus were collected by removing from humans in different parts of Ankara. Ticks were molecularly screened for Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae by PCR and sequencing analysis. We detected 4 Babesia spp.; B. crassa, B. major, B. occultans and B. rossi, one Borrelia spp.; B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae; R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca and R. hoogstraalii in the tick specimens analyzed. This is the report showing the presence of B. rossi in a region that is out of Africa and in the host species Ha. parva. In addition, B. crassa, for which limited information is available on its distribution and vector species, and B. occultans, for which no conclusive information is available on its presence in Turkey, were identified in Ha. parva and H. marginatum, respectively. Two human pathogenic rickettsia species (R. aeschlimannii and R. slovaca) were detected with a high prevalence in ticks. Additionally, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in unusual tick species (H. marginatum, H. excavatum, Hyalomma spp. (nymph) and Ha. parva). Conclusions/Significance This study investigates both the distribution of several tick-borne pathogens affecting humans and animals, and the presence of new tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. More epidemiological studies are warranted for B. rossi, which is very pathogenic for dogs, because the presented results suggest that B. rossi might have a wide distribution in Turkey. Furthermore, we recommend that tick-borne pathogens, especially R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, should be taken into consideration in patients who had a tick bite in Turkey. PMID:25101999

  4. Consensus report: Preventive measures for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever during Eid-al-Adha festival.

    PubMed

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Bodur, Hurrem; Ozkul, Aykut; Gucukoglu, Ali; Chinikar, Sadegh; Hasan, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Eurasian countries such as, Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. CCHF virus is spread by the Hyalomma tick, which is found mainly on cattle and sheep. Muslim countries, in which these animals are sacrificed during Eid-Al-Adha, are among the countries where CCHF is endemic, and it has been observed that CCHF is associated with practices surrounding the Eid-ad-Adha festival. The dates for Eid-Al-Adha drift 10 days earlier in each year according to Georgian calendar. In previous years Eid-al-Adha occurred in autumn-winter months however in the next 10-15 years it will be take place in the summer months when CCHF is more prevalent. This may lead to a rise in the number of cases due to increased dissemination of CCHF virus with uncontrolled animal movements in and between countries. This consensus report focuses on the variable practices regarding animal handling in different regions and possible preventative measures to reduce the incidence of CCHF. Environmental hygiene and personal protection are essential parts of prevention. There is a need for international collaborative preparedness and response plans for prevention and management of CCHF during Eid-Al-Adha in countries where the disease is prevalent. PMID:26183413

  5. Birds as potential reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens: first evidence of bacteraemia with Rickettsia helvetica

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Birds have long been known as carriers of ticks, but data from the literature are lacking on their role as a reservoir in the epidemiology of certain tick-borne disease-causing agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of three emerging, zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in blood samples and ticks of birds and to assess the impact of feeding location preference and migration distance of bird species on their tick infestation. Methods Blood samples and ticks of birds were analysed with TaqMan real-time PCRs and conventional PCR followed by sequencing. Results During the spring and autumn bird migrations, 128 blood samples and 140 ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis concinna and a Hyalomma specimen) were collected from birds belonging to 16 species. The prevalence of tick infestation and the presence of tick species were related to the feeding and migration habits of avian hosts. Birds were shown to be bacteraemic with Rickettsia helvetica and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, but not with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis. The prevalence of rickettsiae was high (51.4%) in ticks, suggesting that some of them may have acquired their infection from their avian host. Conclusion Based on the present results birds are potential reservoirs of both I. ricinus transmitted zoonotic pathogens, R. helvetica and A. phagocytophilum, but their epidemiological role appears to be less important concerning the latter, at least in Central Europe. PMID:24679245

  6. Transport of ticks by migratory passerine birds to Norway.

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar; Bjune, Gunnar; Edvardsen, Erik; Jakobsen, Christer; Linnehol, Bjørn; Røer, Jan Erik; Mehl, Reidar; Røed, Knut H; Pedersen, Jon; Leinaas, Hans Petter

    2009-12-01

    Ticks can be transported over large distances and across geographical barriers by avian hosts. During the spring migrations of 2003 to 2005, 9,768 passerine birds from 4 bird observatories along the southern coastline of Norway were examined for ticks. Altogether, 713 birds carried a total of 517 larvae and 1,440 nymphs. The highest prevalence of tick infestation was observed in thrushes and dunnock (Prunella modularis). The degree of tick infestation varied during each season, between localities, and from year to year. Blackbirds (Turdus merula) caught in localities with many ticks had greater infestation than those from localities with few or no ticks, suggesting local tick recruitment. A similar study performed during 1965–1970 involving 2 of the bird observatories in the present study found ticks on 4.2% of birds, while we found infestation of 6.9% at the same localities (P < 0.001). With the exception of 10 nymphs and 1 larva, the predominant tick was Ixodes ricinus. Seven nymphs of Hyalomma rufipes and 1 larva of Dermacentor sp. were also found. No species of Dermacentor had previously been found in Norway. PMID:19658452

  7. Ticks infesting humans in Italy and associated pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks may transmit a large variety of pathogens, which cause illnesses in animals and humans, commonly referred to as to tick-borne diseases (TBDs). The incidence of human TBDs in Italy is underestimated because of poor surveillance and the scant amount of studies available. Methods Samples (n = 561) were collected from humans in four main geographical areas of Italy (i.e., northwestern, northeastern, southern Italy, and Sicily), which represent a variety of environments. After being morphologically identified, ticks were molecularly tested with selected protocols for the presence of pathogens of the genera Rickettsia, Babesia, Theileria, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Borrelia and Anaplasma. Results Ticks belonged to 16 species of the genera Argas, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, with Ixodes ricinus (59.5%) being the species most frequently retrieved, followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (21.4%). Nymphs were the life stage most frequently retrieved (41%), followed by adult females (34.6%). The overall positivity to any pathogen detected was 18%. Detected microorganisms were Rickettsia spp. (17.0%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (0.8%), Borrelia afzelii (0.5%), Borrelia valaisiana (0.3%), C. N. mikurensis (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.6%). Conclusions Results indicate that people living in the Italian peninsula are at risk of being bitten by different tick species, which may transmit a plethora of TBD causing pathogens and that co-infections may also occur. PMID:25023709

  8. Ticks feeding on humans: a review of records on human-biting Ixodoidea with special reference to pathogen transmission.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, A; Jongejan, F

    1999-09-01

    In this article, literature records of argasid and ixodid ticks feeding on humans worldwide are provided in view of increased awareness of risks associated with tick bites. Ticks can cause paralyses, toxicoses, allergic reactions and are vectors of a broad range of viral, rickettsial, bacterial and protozoan pathogens. Approximately 12 argasid species (Argas and Ornithodos) are frequently found attached to humans who intrude into tick-infested caves and burrows. Over 20 ixodid tick species are often found on humans exposed to infested vegetation: four of these are Amblyomma species, 7 Dermacentor spp., 3 Haemaphysalis spp., 2 Hyalomma spp. and 6 Ixodes species. Personal protection methods, such as repellents and acaricide-impregnated clothing are advised to minimize contact with infected ticks. Acaricidal control of ixodid ticks is impractical because of their wide distribution in forested areas, but houses infested with soft ticks can be sprayed with acaricidal formulations. Attached ticks should be removed without delay. The best way is to grasp the tick as close to the skin as possible with fine tweezers and pull firmly and steadily without twisting. Finally, despite the fact that most people who are bitten destroy the offending tick in disgust, it is recommended that they preserve specimens in ethanol for taxonomic identification and detection of pathogens by molecular methods. PMID:10581710

  9. Occurrence and Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii in Ixodid Ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Almeras, Lionel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 to address the occurrence and genotypes of Coxiella burnetii using molecular methods in ticks collected from domestic animals in Ethiopia. Ticks were tested for C. burnetii by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting two different genes followed by multispacer sequence typing (MST). An overall prevalence of 6.4% (54/842) of C. burnetii was recorded. C. burnetii was detected in 28.6% (14/49) of Amblyomma gemma, 25% (31/124) of Rhipicephalus pulchellus, 7.1% (1/14) of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, 3.2% (2/62) of Am. variegatum, 3.1% (4/128) of Am. cohaerens, 1.6% (1/63) of Rh. praetextatus, and 0.6% (1/153) of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus. Significantly higher overall frequencies of C. burnetii DNA were observed in Am. gemma and Rh. pulchellus than in other tick species (Mantel-Haenszel [MH], P < 0.0001). The overall frequency of C. burnetii was significantly higher (MH, P < 0.0001) in ticks from southeastern districts (Arero, Moyale, and Yabelo) than that from other districts. This study demonstrated the presence of C. burnetii genotype MST 18 in ticks in southeastern districts and genotype MST 20 in ticks in central districts. This study highlights the importance of ticks in the epidemiology of C. burnetii in Ethiopia. PMID:26392155

  10. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of antibody to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in the sera of livestock and wild vertebrates.

    PubMed Central

    Burt, F. J.; Swanepoel, R.; Braack, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    IgM antibody response to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus was monitored in experimentally infected sheep and cattle by an IgM capture enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Specific binding of antigen was detected by a rabbit anti-CCHF horseradish peroxidase conjugate or a sandwich technique with hyperimmune mouse anti-CCHF ascitic fluid and commercially available anti-mouse immunoglobulin peroxidase conjugate. The persistence of IgM antibody activity was found to be of shorter duration than in humans, and this may be a function of the relative lack of susceptibility of these animals to infection with CCHF virus. IgG antibody responses in the sheep could be monitored by sandwich ELISA using commercially available anti-sheep immunoglobulin peroxidase conjugates. Total antibody activity in the sera of experimentally infected sheep, cattle and small mammals could be monitored in a competitive ELISA (CELISA) using rabbit anti-CCHF peroxidase conjugate. The CELISA was applied to the sera of 960 wild vertebrates from a nature reserve in South Africa, and the prevalence of antibody was found to be greatest in large mammals such as rhinoceros, giraffe and buffalo, which are known to be the preferred hosts of the adult tick (Hyalomma) vectors of the virus. PMID:8270014

  11. The Influence of Interspecific Competition and Host Preference on the Phylogeography of Two African Ixodid Tick Species

    PubMed Central

    Cangi, Nídia; Horak, Ivan G.; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A.; Matthee, Sonja; das Neves, Luís C. B. G.; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Matthee, Conrad A.

    2013-01-01

    A comparative phylogeographic study on two economically important African tick species, Amblyomma hebraeum and Hyalomma rufipes was performed to test the influence of host specificity and host movement on dispersion. Pairwise AMOVA analyses of 277 mtDNA COI sequences supported significant population differentiation among the majority of sampling sites. The geographic mitochondrial structure was not supported by nuclear ITS-2 sequencing, probably attributed to a recent divergence. The three-host generalist, A. hebraeum, showed less mtDNA geographic structure, and a lower level of genetic diversity, while the more host-specific H. rufipes displayed higher levels of population differentiation and two distinct mtDNA assemblages (one predominantly confined to South Africa/Namibia and the other to Mozambique and East Africa). A zone of overlap is present in southern Mozambique. A mechanistic climate model suggests that climate alone cannot be responsible for the disruption in female gene flow. Our findings furthermore suggest that female gene dispersal of ticks is more dependent on the presence of juvenile hosts in the environment than on the ability of adult hosts to disperse across the landscape. Documented interspecific competition between the juvenile stages of H. rufipes and H. truncatum is implicated as a contributing factor towards disrupting gene flow between the two southern African H. rufipes genetic assemblages. PMID:24130813

  12. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: Risk factors and control measures for the infection abatement

    PubMed Central

    ASLAM, SAADIA; LATIF, MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD; DAUD, MUHAMMAD; RAHMAN, ZIA UR; TABASSUM, BUSHRA; RIAZ, MUHAMMAD SOHAIL; KHAN, ANWAR; TARIQ, MUHAMMAD; HUSNAIN, TAYYAB

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a vector-borne viral disease, widely distributed in different regions of the world. The fever is caused by the CCHF virus (CCHFV), which belongs to the Nairovirus genus and Bunyaviridae family. The virus is clustered in seven genotypes, which are Africa-1, Africa-2, Africa-3, Europe-1, Europe-2, Asia-1 and Asia-2. The virus is highly pathogenic in nature, easily transmissible and has a high case fatality rate of 10–40%. The reservoir and vector of CCHFV are the ticks of the Hyalomma genus. Therefore, the circulation of this virus depends upon the distribution of the ticks. The virus can be transmitted from tick to animal, animal to human and human to human. The major symptoms include headache, high fever, abdominal pain, myalgia, hypotension and flushed face. As the disease progresses, severe symptoms start appearing, which include petechiae, ecchymosis, epistaxis, bleeding gums and emesis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, antigen detection, serum neutralization and isolation of the virus by cell culture are the diagnostic techniques used for this viral infection. There is no specific antiviral therapy available thus far. However, ribavirin has been approved by the World Health Organization for the treatment of CCHFV infection. Awareness campaigns regarding the risk factors and control measures can aid in reducing the spread of this disease to a greater extent, particularly in developing countries. PMID:26870327

  13. Development and evaluation of a real-time RT-qPCR for detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus representing different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Ozkul, Aykut; Bodur, Hurrem; Korukruoglu, Gulay; Mousavi, Mehrdad; Pranav, Patel; Vaheri, Antti; Mirazimi, Ali; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-12-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic disease caused by a nairovirus belonging to family Bunyaviridae. The CCHF virus (CCHFV) can be transmitted to humans by Hyalomma ticks as well as by direct contact with infected body fluids or tissues from viremic livestock or humans. Our aim was to set up a fast RT-qPCR for detection of the different CCHFV genotypes in clinical samples, including an inactivation step to make the sample handling possible in lower biosafety levels (BSL) than BSL-4. This method was evaluated against commercial reference assays and international External Quality Assessment (EQA) samples. The analytical limit of detection for the developed CCHFV-S RT-qPCR was 11 CCHFV genomes per reaction. After exclusion of four dubious samples, we studied 38 CCHFV-positive samples (using reference tests) of which 38 were found positive by CCHFV-S RT-qPCR, suggesting a sensitivity of 100%. CCHFV-S RT q-PCR detected all eight different CCHFV strains representing five different CCHFV genotypes. In conclusion, the CCHFV-S RT-qPCR described in this study was evaluated using various sources of CCHFV samples and shown to be an accurate tool to detect human CCHFV infection caused by different genotypes of the virus. PMID:25514124

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Real-Time RT-qPCR for Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Representing Different Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Ozkul, Aykut; Bodur, Hurrem; Korukruoglu, Gulay; Mousavi, Mehrdad; Pranav, Patel; Vaheri, Antti; Mirazimi, Ali; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic disease caused by a nairovirus belonging to family Bunyaviridae. The CCHF virus (CCHFV) can be transmitted to humans by Hyalomma ticks as well as by direct contact with infected body fluids or tissues from viremic livestock or humans. Our aim was to set up a fast RT-qPCR for detection of the different CCHFV genotypes in clinical samples, including an inactivation step to make the sample handling possible in lower biosafety levels (BSL) than BSL-4. This method was evaluated against commercial reference assays and international External Quality Assessment (EQA) samples. The analytical limit of detection for the developed CCHFV-S RT-qPCR was 11 CCHFV genomes per reaction. After exclusion of four dubious samples, we studied 38 CCHFV-positive samples (using reference tests) of which 38 were found positive by CCHFV-S RT-qPCR, suggesting a sensitivity of 100%. CCHFV-S RT q-PCR detected all eight different CCHFV strains representing five different CCHFV genotypes. In conclusion, the CCHFV-S RT-qPCR described in this study was evaluated using various sources of CCHFV samples and shown to be an accurate tool to detect human CCHFV infection caused by different genotypes of the virus. PMID:25514124

  15. Identifying main drivers and testing control strategies for CCHFV spread.

    PubMed

    Hoch, T; Breton, E; Josse, M; Deniz, A; Guven, E; Vatansever, Z

    2016-03-01

    Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is an emerging zoonotic disease. The causative agent is a virus (CCHFV), mainly transmitted by ticks of the species Hyalomma marginatum in Eastern Europe and Turkey. In order to test potential scenarios for the control of pathogen spread, the basic reproduction number (R0) for CCHF was calculated. This calculation was based on a population dynamics model and parameter values from the literature for pathogen transmission. The tick population dynamics model takes into account the major processes involved and gives estimates for tick survival from one stage to the other and number of feeding ticks. It also considers the influence of abiotic (meteorological variables) and biotic factors (host densities) on model outputs, which were compared with data collected in Central Anatolia (Turkey). R0 computation was thereafter used to test control strategies and especially the effect of acaricide treatment. Simulation results indicate that such treatments could have valuable effects provided that the acaricide is applied regularly throughout the spring and summer, and over several years. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis to abiotic and biotic factors showed that, even though temperature has a strong impact on model outputs, host (mainly hare) densities also play a role. The kind of model we have developed provides insight into the ability of different strategies to prevent and control disease spread and has proved its relevance when associated with field trials. PMID:26174420

  16. First Molecular Identification and Genetic Characterization of Theileria lestoquardi in Sheep of the Maghreb Region.

    PubMed

    Rjeibi, M R; Darghouth, M A; Rekik, M; Amor, B; Sassi, L; Gharbi, M

    2016-06-01

    Theileria lestoquardi is the most prominent Theileria species in small ruminants that causes malignant theileriosis of sheep in Africa and Asia. In the present survey, blood samples and ticks were collected in Kebili (southern Tunisia) from 166 Queue Fine de l'Ouest sheep. Giemsa-stained blood smears, immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and PCR were performed. The DNA was extracted from blood and analysed by PCR targeting 18S rRNA gene of Theileria spp. and then sequenced. A total number of 140 ticks were collected from a total number of 166 sheep during the four seasons. The ticks belonged to two genera and 4 species; the most frequent tick was Hyalomma excavatum 84.3% (118/140) and then Rhipicephalus spp. 15.7% (22/140). Only two animals had positive Giemsa-stained blood smears, and they were also positive by IFAT. The amplicons had 99.3 and 99.6% homology with the BLAST published T. lestoquardi amplicons. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. lestoquardi in small ruminants within the Maghreb region. PMID:25208526

  17. Infestation rate of tick, mite and lice among rodent species in Menoufia governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mikhail, Micheal W; Soliman, Mohamed Ismail; Abd, El-Halim Azza S

    2010-08-01

    A preliminary survey of domestic rodent species and their ectoparasites tick, mite and lice was carried out in ten centers of Menoufia (Quesna, Shebeen El-Kom, Berka El-Saabe, El-Bagour, El-Shohada, Tala, Menoff, Searth El-Lian, Ashmon and El-Sadat) Governorate. Frequency of rodent species and ectoparasites indices (tick, mite and lice) were recorded in spring (2009). The main species of rodent was Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, the grey-bellied rat, Rattus rattus alexandrinus, the white-bellied rat, Rattus rattus frugivorus and the house mouse, Mus musculus. The common tick species attacking rodents were: Rhipicephalus sp. and Hyalomma sp. The common mite species attacking rodents were: Dermanyssus sangineus, Orithonysus bacoti, Haemolaelaps glas-gowi, Laelaps nutalli, Radfordia sp. and Myobia sp. The only common lice species was Polyplax spinulosa. The fur mites Radfordia sp. and Myobia sp. were recorded at Quesna, Searth El-Lian and El-Sadat centers on R. norvegicus for the first time at Menoufia Governorate. PMID:21246950

  18. Sero-epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Wasfi, Fares; Dowall, Stuart; Ghabbari, Tayssir; Bosworth, Andrew; Chakroun, Mohamed; Varghese, Anitha; Tiouiri, Hanene; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Znazen, Abir; Hewson, Roger; Zhioua, Elyes; Letaief, Amel

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease associated with a high case fatality rate and transmitted mainly by Hyalomma marginatum. The geographical distribution of H. marginatum covers most of the Western Mediterranean basin. We aimed to investigate whether CCHF virus (CCHFv) is circulating in Tunisia. Samples from unexplained acute febrile patients (n = 181) and a high risk group of humans, mainly slaughter workers (n = 38), were collected in the summer of 2014 and analyzed for exposure to CCHFv using serological tests and real-time RT-PCR. Ticks were collected from Northern and Southern Tunisia during May–June 2014 and examined for the presence of CCHFv by real-time RT-PCR. Of the 181 febrile patients, 5 showed only high titers of IgM suggesting a recent exposure to CCHFv. Among 38 slaughter workers, 2 had IgG anti-CCHFv responses yielding a seroprevalence of 5.2%. No CCHFv was detected in ticks and sera. Our results provide evidence of human exposure to CCHFv in Tunisia. PMID:26956221

  19. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Peyrefitte, C; Marianneau, P; Tordo, N; Bouloy, M

    2015-08-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is one of the most widespread arboviroses in the world. It is present in Africa, south-east Europe, the Middle East and Asia. It is caused by a nairovirus (Bunyaviridae family) transmitted by several species of ticks. The geographical distribution of the disease coincides with the distribution of Hyalomma ticks. While infected livestock do not show signs of illness, humans are severely affected, with a high mortality rate. The most common symptoms are high fever, dizziness, headache, vomiting and haemorrhages. Pathogenesis studies in interferon-receptor-deficient mice indicated that the interferon response is crucial in controlling virus propagation and in protecting against the disease. Detection of the virus in biological material is currently performed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence are used to detect the presence of CCHF virus-specific antibodies. In the 1970s, a formalin-inactivated vaccine prepared from suckling mouse brain was used in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, but its efficacy remains to be proven. Treatment of patients with ribavirin is recommended by the World Health Organization, but it should be administered as early as possible. Although important progress has been made over the last few decades, many questions about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the disease are still to be addressed and there is a need to develop efficient vaccines and antivirals. PMID:26601443

  20. Parasitism of immature stages of Haemaphysalis sulcata (Acari: Ixodidae) on some reptiles in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Adem; Bursali, Ahmet; Kumlutas, Yusuf; Ilgaz, Cetin; Tekin, Saban

    2013-10-01

    Reptiles may contribute to maintaining tick populations by feeding larvae, nymphs, and adults. The life cycles and tick-host associations of many Turkish ticks are still poorly known, and only 3 ixodid tick species have been reported on 7 reptile species in Turkey. In this study, we performed a tick survey on reptiles in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. In 2005, 57 reptiles (52 lizards and 5 snakes) comprising 10 species from 5 families were captured and examined for tick infestation. A total of 427 ticks was collected. The majority of ticks found on lizards was the immature stages of Haemaphysalis sulcata, 420 larvae and 4 nymphs. The only adult ticks recorded on the agamid lizard, Laudakia stellio, were Hyalomma aegyptium (1 ♂, 2 ♀). The highest tick infestation rate was recorded on specimens of Timon princeps. This study is the first detailed investigation on ticks infesting reptiles in Turkey. To the best of our knowledge, these tick-host associations have never been documented in the literature. PMID:23560648

  1. Environmental correlates of crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever incidence in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral disease transmitted by ixodid tick bites, mainly of Hyalomma spp., or through contact with blood/tissues from infected people or animals. CCHF is endemic in the Balkan area, including Bulgaria, where it causes both sporadic cases and community outbreaks. Methods We described trends of CCHF in Bulgaria between 1997 and 2009 and investigated the associations between CCHF incidence and a selection of environmental factors using a zero-inflated modelling approach. Results A total of 159 CCHF cases (38 women and 121 men) were identified between 1997 and 2009. The incidence was 0.13 cases per 100,000 population/year with a fatality rate of 26%. An epidemic peak was detected close to the Turkish border in the summer of 2002. Most cases were reported between April and September. Increasing mean temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), savannah-type land coverage or habitat fragmentation increased significantly the incidence of CCHF in the CCHF-affected areas. Similar to that observed in Turkey, we found that areas with warmer temperatures in the autumn prior to the case-reporting year had an increased probability of reporting zero CCHF cases. Conclusions We identified environmental correlates of CCHF incidence in Bulgaria that may support the prospective implementation of public health interventions. PMID:23270399

  2. Retrospective Study of Hemoparasites in Cattle in Southern Italy by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    CECI, Luigi; IARUSSI, Fabrizio; GRECO, Beatrice; LACINIO, Rosanna; FORNELLI, Stefania; CARELLI, Grazia

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. In order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern Italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. The study had been carried out in three regions of southern Italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. RLB showed that 43.7% of the cattle were positive for nine different species of hemoparasites with either a single infection or a mixed infection. Theileria buffeli was the most common species found, being present in 27.3% of the animals, followed by Anaplasma marginale in 18.1%, Anaplasma centrale in 13.8%, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma bovis in 4.2%, Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.7%, Babesia bovis in 1.6%, Babesia major in 0.2% and Babesia divergens in 0.1%. Complete blood counts showed different degrees of anemia in 363 animals (24.2%) and of these, 169 were RLB-positive for at least one pathogen. Among the ticks that were collected from the cattle, the following species were identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma marginatum, Boophilus annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis (sulcata, parva, inermis and punctata). The results obtained confirmed the spread of endemic tick-borne pathogens in the regions studied. PMID:24614604

  3. A Preliminary Investigation on Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Infesting Birds in Kızılırmak Delta, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Adem; Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are mandatory blood-feeding ectoparasites of mammals, birds, reptiles, and even amphibians. Turkey has a rich bird fauna and is located on the main migration route for many birds. However, information on ticks infesting birds is very limited. In the present study, we aimed to determine ticks infesting birds in Kızılırmak Delta, Turkey. In 2014 autumn bird migration season, a total of 7,452 birds belonging to 79 species, 52 genera, 35 families, and 14 orders were examined for tick infestation. In total, 287 (234 larvae, 47 nymphs, 6♀) ticks were collected from 54 passerine birds (prevalence = 0.72%) belonging to 12 species. Ticks were identified as Amblyomma sp., Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer), Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini and Fanzago, Hyalomma sp., Ixodes frontalis (Panzer), and Ixodes ricinus (L). The most common tick species were I. frontalis (223 larvae, 23 nymphs, 6♀) followed by I. ricinus (3 larvae, 12 nymphs) and H. concinna (4 larvae, 6 nymphs). Based on our results, it can be said that Erithacus rubecula (L.) is the main host of immature I. frontalis, whereas Turdus merula L. is the most important carrier of immature stages of some ticks in Kızılırmak Delta, Turkey. To the best of our knowledge, most of the tick-host associations found in this study have never been documented in the literature. PMID:26487249

  4. Tick species (Acari: Ixodida) in Antalya City, Turkey: species diversity and seasonal activity.

    PubMed

    Koc, Samed; Aydın, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

    2015-07-01

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) are an important group of ectoparasites of vertebrates. Most species are known vectors of diseases including Lyme disease, Q fever, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. A 3-year research was conducted in Antalya, Turkey, to determine tick species composition, seasonal abundance, and spatial distribution. The study was carried out in five districts (Aksu, Dosemealtı, Kepez, Konyaaltı, and Muratpasa) of Antalya Metropolitan Municipality area in Turkey, between May 2010 and May 2013, where 1393 tick specimens were collected from domestic and wild animals (cattle, goats, sheep, hedgehogs, tortoises, dogs, cats, chickens) and from the environment. The collected ticks were preserved in 70 % alcohol and then were identified. Five genus and eight hard and soft tick species were identified, including Argas persicus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. sanguineus, R. turanicus, Hyalomma aegyptium, H. marginatum, Haemaphysalis parva, and Dermacentor niveus. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. turanicus, and H. aegyptium were the most common tick species in Antalya city. Rhipicephalus turanicus and R. sanguineus were the most abundant tick species infesting dogs in the city. The hosts of H. aegyptium are primarily tortoises in Antalya. The results of this research will contribute to establishing appropriate measures to control tick infestations on animals and humans and their environment in the city of Antalya. PMID:25869959

  5. Investigation of tick-borne viruses as pathogens of humans in South Africa and evidence of Dugbe virus infection in a patient with prolonged thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed Central

    Burt, F. J.; Spencer, D. C.; Leman, P. A.; Patterson, B.; Swanepoel, R.

    1996-01-01

    In the course of investigating suspected cases of viral haemorrhagic fever in South Africa patients were encountered who had been bitten by ticks, but who lacked evidence of infection with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus or non-viral tick-borne agents. Cattle sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunoassay to determine whether tick-borne viruses other than CCHF occur in the country. The prevalence of antibody in cattle sera was 905/2116 (42.8%) for CCHF virus, 70/1358 (5.2%) for Dugbe, 21/1358 (1.5%) for louping ill, 6/450 (1.3%) for West Nile, 7/1358 (0.5%) for Nairobi sheep disease, 3/625 (0.5%) for Kadam and 2/450 (0.4%) for Chenuda. No reactions were recorded with Hazara, Bahig, Bhanja, Thogoto and Dhori viruses. The CCHF findings confirmed previous observations that the virus is widely prevalent within the distribution range of ticks of the genus Hyalomma, while antibody activity to Dugbe antigen was detected only within the distribution range of the tick Amblyomma hebraeum. Cross-reactivity for the nairoviruses, Hazara, Nairobi sheep disease and Dugbe, was detected in serum samples from 3/72 human patients with confirmed CCHF infection, and serum from 1/162 other patients reacted monospecifically with Dugbe antigen. The latter patient suffered from febrile illness with prolonged thrombocytopenia. PMID:8666081

  6. Ticks (Ixodoidea) on birds migrating from Africa to Europe and Asia*

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstraal, Harry; Kaiser, Makram N.; Traylor, Melvin A.; Gaber, Sobhy; Guindy, Ezzat

    1961-01-01

    Hyalomma marginatum marginatum of Europe and Asia and H. marginatum rufipes of Africa, both reservoirs and vectors of organisms pathogenic to humans and animals, have not infrequently been found as incidental specimens or established populations far from their normal endemic geographical boundaries. Owing to ticks' unique ability to transmit or harbour for long periods a variety of pathogens of man and animals, their potential epidemiological role is suspected wherever they occur. Evidence that birds, in themselves hosts of several viruses causing human disease, actually transport the African H. marginatum rufipes northwards was obtained in Egypt by capture of infested migrants during spring passage from East Africa to Europe and Asia. Between 1956 and 1960, 340 birds representing 22 forms (species and subspecies) were found infested by 1025 immature ticks, all but seven of which were or appear to be H. marginatum rufipes. The period of attachment of immature stages of rufipes to their host is sufficient to suggest that many of these ticks are carried some distance into Europe and Asia. PMID:13715709

  7. Searching for generality in the patterns of parasite abundance and distribution: ectoparasites of a South African rodent, Rhabdomys pumilio.

    PubMed

    Matthee, Sonja; Krasnov, Boris R

    2009-06-01

    We studied abundance and distribution of seven ectoparasite species (fleas Chiastopsylla rossi and Dynopsyllus ellobius, a louse Polyplax arvicanthis, mites Androlaelaps fahrenholzi and Laelaps giganteus and two ticks Haemaphysalis elliptica and Hyalomma truncatum) exploiting the same populations of the rodent host Rhabdomys pumilio in South Africa. We considered three general patterns of abundance and distribution, namely (i) aggregated distribution of parasites amongst individual hosts; (ii) positive relationships between mean parasite abundance and their prevalence; and (iii) applicability of a simple epidemiological model based on mean parasite abundance and its variance to predict the observed patterns of prevalence. Our aims were to evaluate the relative role of host- versus parasite-associated factors by looking at similarity amongst different parasites in these patterns. In general, all parasites demonstrated strong similarity in each of the three patterns of abundance and distribution. However, the strength of these patterns differed amongst parasite species. We conclude that these patterns are driven mainly by hosts, but differences are caused by differences between various life-history traits of parasite species. Our results support the idea that general laws apply to parasite population ecology. PMID:19168068

  8. Ultrastructure of sporogony in Babesia equi in salivary glands of adult female Boophilus microplus ticks.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A M; Lima, J D; Ribeiro, M F; Camargos, E R; Bozzi, I A

    1998-01-01

    The development of Babesia equi was studied in the salivary glands of adult female ticks, Boophilus microplus, using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Engorged nymphs were obtained from splenectomized foals experimentally infected with B. equi and fed in the adult phase for 5 days on rabbits. Sporogony in B. equi involves the development of sporoblasts and sporozoites, which form from finger-like projections on the surface and through radial budding. Mature sporozoites (2.0 x 1.1 microns), typically pyriform, showed a polar ring, rhoptries, micronemes, nuclei, and mitochondria, and a high concentration of free ribosomes were observed from the 2nd day of the ticks, feeding on the rabbits. In general, sporogony of B. equi in the salivary glands of B. microplus showed similarities to the development of this parasite in species of Hyalomma, although with some significant differences in the sporozoite's dimensions. The results of this study indicate that B. equi is capable of multiplying in the salivary glands of adult female B. microplus, forming sporozoites with specialized organelles characteristic of the invasive form, and suggest that B. microplus can act as a natural vector of B. equi in endemic areas where there is no other probable source of infection or where it is the only tick species present on horses. PMID:9491430

  9. Seroprevalence of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ijara District, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Irura, Zephania; Tigoi, Caroline; Chepkorir, Edith; Orindi, Benedict; Musila, Lillian; Venter, Marietjie; Fischer, Anne; Sang, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral disease mainly affecting pastoralists who come in contact with animals infested with Hyalomma ticks, which are the key vectors of CCHF virus (CCHFV). CCHFV has been detected among these ticks in parts of North Eastern Kenya. This study aimed to identify acute cases of CCHF, and to determine the extent of previous exposure to CCHFV in an outpatient population attending Sangailu and Ijara health centers, Ijara District, North Eastern Kenya, presenting with acute febrile illnesses. A total of 517 human serum samples were collected from these patients. The samples were screened for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to CCHF using CCCHF-IgG and IgM ELISA test kits. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to investigate the risk factors associated with evidence of exposure to CCHFV. A single patient tested positive for anti-CCHF IgM, while 96 were positive for anti-CCHF IgG. The seroprevalence of CCHFV was 23% in Sangailu and 14% in Ijara. Most exposed persons were aged 40–49 years. The likelihood of exposure was highest among farmers (29%). Age, location, and contact with donkeys were significantly associated with exposure to CCHFV. Acute CCHFV infections could be occurring without being detected in this population. This study confirms human exposure to CCHF virus in Ijara District, Kenya, and identifies several significant risk factors associated with exposure to CCHFV. PMID:22925021

  10. Epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever viruses in xinjiang, china.

    PubMed

    Sun, Surong; Dai, Xiang; Aishan, Muhetaer; Wang, Xinhui; Meng, Weiwei; Feng, Conghui; Zhang, Fuchun; Hang, Changshou; Hu, Zhihong; Zhang, Yujiang

    2009-08-01

    In 2004 and 2005, an epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was conducted in Xinjiang, China. A total of 5,629 serum samples of human and livestock were collected and tested for the CCHFV antibody, and 17,319 ticks were collected for viral identification. Reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition assays showed that the average prevalence of CCHFV antibody was 1.7% for the humans and 12.7% for the livestock. A relatively high antibody prevalence, ranging from 19.1% to 23.4%, was found in the livestock of the northwest, southwest, and northeast parts of the Tarim Basin. When the ticks were pooled to inoculate suckling mice, followed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to detect CCHFV RNA, the average RT-PCR-positive rates for Hyalomma asiaticum kozlovi and H. asiaticum asiaticum were 12.9% and 2.6%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the antibody prevalence in the livestock and the CCHFV prevalence in H. asiaticum of the same geographic region. No CCHFV RNA was detected in Dermacentor nivenus, Rhipicephalus turanius, or Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A total of 27 partial S segments of CCHFVs were sequenced and used for phylogeny analysis. All but one Chinese isolate grouped into the Asia 1 clade, which contains the strains from Xinjiang and Uzbekistan, while the other strain, Fub90009, grouped with strains from the Middle East. PMID:19553586

  11. Ectoparasites of hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Senlik, Bayram; Aydin, Levent; Cirak, Veli Y

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal, spiny-coated animals that have been growing in popularity as exotic pets. However, these animals are host to a wide variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, some of which are of zoonotic character. Thus, because hedgehogs have a potential role to transmit zoonoses including arthropod-borne diseases, we examined them for their ectoparasites. The study was carried out on hedgehogs found dead mainly due to road casualties in the Bursa province of Turkey. The ectoparasites were collected by both insecticide spraying of the body and inspection on a white paper carefully. Totally three species of ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma aegyptium, Haemophysalis parvo) and one flea species (Archeopsylla erinacei) were detected. The prevalence of mixed infestation with both ticks and fleas was 45.5%. Haemaphysalis parva was reported for the first time from hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Turkey. The occurrence of ectoparasites and their potential role as vectors of certain zoonotic diseases are briefly discussed. PMID:26281445

  12. Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.

    PubMed

    Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations and dispersal in regions where deer are relevant hosts for these ectoparasites. PMID:22079077

  13. Complete L segment coding-region sequences of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains from the Russian Federation and Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Meissner, J D; Seregin, S S; Seregin, S V; Yakimenko, N V; Vyshemirskii, O I; Netesov, S V; Petrov, V S

    2006-03-01

    The large (L) RNA segment of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus strain AST/TI30908, isolated from pooled Hyalomma marginatum ticks collected in 2002 from the Astrakhan region of European Russia, was amplified piecemeal using reverse-transcription/polymerase chain reaction, followed by direct sequencing of gel-purified amplicons. After removal of 5' and 3' primer-generated termini, the assembled AST/TI30908 L segment sequence is 12112 nucleotides long, with 41.3% G + C content, and is greater than 87% and 96% identical at the nucleotide and translated amino acid levels, respectively, to partial or full-length CCHF virus L segment sequences deposited in GenBank. A complete L segment coding-region sequence for CCHF virus strain TAJ/HU8966, isolated from a patient in Tajikistan in 1990, was determined in a similar fashion. This L segment (12133 nucleotides long, 41.1% G + C content) shares 88% nucleotide identity with the full-length strain Matin from Pakistan, and 97% nucleotide identity with a partial L segment sequence of strain Khodzha from Uzbekistan. Strain TAJ/HU8966 shares at least 96% identity at the translated amino acid level with all other CCHF virus L segment sequences. Although, for the most part, CCHF virus L polyprotein primary sequences are uniformly well conserved, a region of marked variability was identified in the N-terminal half of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This region, approximately 50 amino acids in length, is flanked by previously-reported arenavirus and bunyavirus-conserved regions, and may prove useful in CCHF diagnosis and viral taxonomy. PMID:16195783

  14. Extensive diversity of Rickettsiales bacteria in two species of ticks from China and the evolution of the Rickettsiales

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteria of the order Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria) are obligate intracellular parasites that infect species from virtually every major eukaryotic lineage. Several rickettsial genera harbor species that are significant emerging and re-emerging pathogens of humans. As species of Rickettsiales are associated with an extremely diverse host range, a better understanding of the historical associations between these bacteria and their hosts will provide important information on their evolutionary trajectories and, particularly, their potential emergence as pathogens. Results Nine species of Rickettsiales (two in the genus Rickettsia, three in the genus Anaplasma, and four in the genus Ehrlichia) were identified in two species of hard ticks (Dermacentor nuttalli and Hyalomma asiaticum) from two geographic regions in Xinjiang through genetic analyses of 16S rRNA, gltA, and groEL gene sequences. Notably, two lineages of Ehrlichia and one lineage of Anaplasma were distinct from any known Rickettsiales, suggesting the presence of potentially novel species in ticks in Xinjiang. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed some topological differences between the phylogenies of the bacteria and their vectors, which led us to marginally reject a model of exclusive bacteria-vector co-divergence. Conclusions Ticks are an important natural reservoir of many diverse species of Rickettsiales. In this work, we identified a single tick species that harbors multiple species of Rickettsiales, and uncovered extensive genetic diversity of these bacteria in two tick species from Xinjiang. Both bacteria-vector co-divergence and cross-species transmission appear to have played important roles in Rickettsiales evolution. PMID:25073875

  15. Detection and identification of putative bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous viruses in tick cell lines☆

    PubMed Central

    Alberdi, M. Pilar; Dalby, Matthew J.; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Fazakerley, John K.; Kohl, Alain; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    As well as being vectors of many viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, ticks harbour a variety of microorganisms which are not known to be pathogenic for vertebrate hosts. Continuous cell lines established from ixodid and argasid ticks could be infected with such endosymbiotic bacteria and endogenous viruses, but to date very few cell lines have been examined for their presence. DNA and RNA extracted from over 50 tick cell lines deposited in the Roslin Wellcome Trust Tick Cell Biobank (http://tickcells.roslin.ac.uk) were screened for presence of bacteria and RNA viruses, respectively. Sequencing of PCR products amplified using pan-16S rRNA primers revealed the presence of DNA sequences from bacterial endosymbionts in several cell lines derived from Amblyomma and Dermacentor spp. ticks. Identification to species level was attempted using Rickettsia- and Francisella-specific primers. Pan-Nairovirus primers amplified PCR products of uncertain specificity in cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Ixodes, Carios, and Ornithodoros spp. ticks. Further characterisation attempted with primers specific for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus segments confirmed the absence of this arbovirus in the cells. A set of pan-Flavivirus primers did not detect endogenous viruses in any of the cell lines. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of endogenous reovirus-like viruses in many of the cell lines; only 4 of these lines gave positive results with primers specific for the tick Orbivirus St Croix River virus, indicating that there may be additional, as yet undescribed ‘tick-only’ viruses inhabiting tick cell lines. PMID:22743047

  16. Unraveling the ecological complexities of tick-associated Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus transmission: a gap analysis for the western Palearctic.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Jameson, Lisa; Medlock, Jolyon; Vatansever, Zati; Tishkova, Farida

    2012-09-01

    This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the eco-epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus transmission reviewing the most recent scientific advances in the last few decades of epidemic and non-epidemic ("silent") periods. We explicitly aim to highlight the dynamics of transmission that are still largely unknown. Recent knowledge gathered from research in Africa and Europe explains the very focal nature of the virus, and indicates that research on the ecology of the virus in the inter-epidemic periods of the disease has not yet been addressed. Hyalomma spp. ticks have been incriminated in the transmission of the virus under field conditions, but the role of other ticks found infected in nature remains to be tested under experimental conditions. Published evidence suggests that the increase in human cases reported in the Balkans, Turkey, and Russia is perhaps less due to the effect of changes in climate, but rather result from the impact of yet unexplored mechanisms of amplification that might be supported by wild animal hosts. Assessment of the available data suggests that epidemics in Eastern Europe are not the result of a spreading viral wave, but more likely are due to a combination of factors, such as habitat abandonment, landscape fragmentation, and proliferation of wildlife hosts that have exacerbated prevalence rates in tick vectors. There is an urgent need to empirically demonstrate these assumptions as well as the role of birds in introducing infected ticks, and also to evaluate the potential for survival of introduced ticks. Either a replacement of the pathogenic virus in the western Mediterranean or a lack of westward dissemination of infected tick populations may explain the absence of the virus in Western Europe. PMID:22448676

  17. A GIS framework for the assessment of tick impact on human health in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Pea, Agustin; Venzal, Jos M

    2007-05-01

    A framework to evaluate the impact of ticks on human health under various scenarios of climate change is proposed. The purpose is not to provide a comprehensive plan (e.g. the economic impact of ticks on human society is not included), instead we wish to describe a series of indices that would be helpful by obtaining homogeneous comparisons of impact and vulnerability exerted by ticks in different regions, countries or continents, using normalized sets of population, vegetation, climate and physical attributes of the territory. Three tick species, i.e. Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Hyalomma marginatum, have been traced over the territory of Spain to further explain the computation of these indices. The discussion is based on tick habitat suitability, used as a measure of the abiotic (climate) fitness of the habitat for the species in question, and the sensitivity of each tick species to the rate of change of habitat suitability with respect to climate change. The impact is the rate of change in habitat suitability weighted with a fuzzy logic function evaluating the total number of people in an area, percent of rural population and accessibility of the geographical divisions (expressed as hexagons with a 10 km radius) used in the study. The different climate scenarios evaluated in relation to ticks show that the north-western part of Spain would suffer the greatest impact in case the mean temperature would increase, while the Mediterranean region would suffer the highest impact if temperatures decreased. Vulnerability, based on the sanitary structure of the territory and on the impact on human activities due to the change in tick distribution and abundance, is proposed as a measure of adaptation of society to these climate scenarios. The cost is evaluated as a function of land use and tick habitat suitability in a buffer zone surrounding each geographic division. All indices proposed have been obtained by search of common and/or publicly available data sets. PMID:18686241

  18. Prevalence of vectors of the spotted fever group Rickettsiae and murine typhus in a Bedouin town in Israel.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, K Y; Ioffe-Uspensky, I; Alkrinawi, S; Sarov, B; Manor, E; Galun, R

    2001-05-01

    A survey of the vectors of spotted fever group Rickettsiae and of murine typhus was carried out in Rahat, a Bedouin town in the Negev Desert, where the diseases are endemic. Houses with known cases of spotted fever group Rickettsiae or murine typhus were compared with those without reported clinical cases. A neighboring Jewish community, Lehavim, where no cases of spotted fever group Rickettsiae and murine typhus were reported in recent years, was used as a control. In the houses of patients with spotted fever group Rickettsiae in Rahat, an average of 7.4 times more ticks were found than in control houses. Out of 190 ticks isolated from sheep and goats or caught by flagging in Rahat, 90% were Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), 7.9% Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev, and 2.1% were Hyalomma sp. In the houses of patients with murine typhus, three times more rats were caught and, on the average, each rat was infested with 2.2 times more fleas than rats in the control houses. Out of 323 fleas collected from 35 Norwegian rats (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout), 191 were Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild and 132 Echidnophaga murina Tiraboschi. Thus, there was a six to seven times higher probability of encountering a tick or flea vector where infections had occurred than in control houses in Rahat. The percentage of rats seropositive to Rickettsia typhi was similar in study and control households (78.3 and 76.2, respectively). In the control settlement, Lehavim, only three Mus musculus L. were caught, which were not infested with ectoparasites and their sera were negative for murine typhus. Out of 10 dogs examined in this settlement, 15 R. sanguineus and eight specimens of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis Bouché) were isolated. No rats were caught in this settlement. These data indicate that there is a correlation among the density of domestic animals, their ectoparasites, and the incidence of spotted fever group Rickettsiae and murine typhus in Rahat. PMID:11372975

  19. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus clades V and VI (Europe 1 and 2) in ticks in Kosovo, 2012.

    PubMed

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Cadar, Daniel; Muji, Skender; Robaj, Avni; Ahmeti, Salih; Jakupi, Xhevat; Emmerich, Petra; Krüger, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Despite being a small country, Kosovo represents one of the few foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Europe. The distribution of Kosovar tick vectors and the evolution of CCHF virus in ticks are both as yet unknown. A better description of the extent and the genetic diversity of CCHFV in ticks from endemic settings is essential, in order to be controlled. We investigated the 2012 distribution of Kosovar ticks alongside the prevalence and the phylogeography of tick-derived CCHFV. Hyalomma marginatum dominated in the endemic municipalities with 90.2% versus 24.3% in the non-endemic regions. Of 1,102 tested ticks, 40 (3.6%) were CCHFV-positive, belonging to H. marginatum (29), Rhipicephalus bursa (10), and Ixodes ricinus (1). The virus strains clustered with clade V and VI related sequences. They fell into two lineages: Kosovo I and II. Kosovo I comprised strains recovered exclusively from R. bursa ticks and was closely related to AP92 prototype strain. Kosovo II clustered into Kosovo IIa, including human-derived strains, and IIb including only strains detected in H. marginatum and I. ricinus. Our phylogeographic reconstruction suggests two temporally distinct CCHFV introductions: the most probable location of the most recent common ancestor of Kosovo I lineage was in Greece (63 years ago) and that of lineages IIa-b in Turkey (35 years ago). After each CCHFV introduction into Kosovo, subsequent lineage expansions suggest periods of in situ evolution. The study provides the first insight into the genetic variability and the origin of CCHFV in ticks from Kosovo. Our findings indicate the spreading of CCHFV to non-endemic areas, which underlines the importance of further studies in order to monitor and predict future CCHF outbreaks in Kosovo. The AP92-like strains appear to be more widespread than previously thought and may provide a promising target for experimental studies due to their assumed low pathogenicity. PMID:25255381

  20. Circulation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Revealed by Screening of Cattle Sera Using a Novel Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Marc; Vatansever, Zati; Mrenoshki, Slavcho; Krstevski, Kiril; Stefanovska, Jovana; Djadjovski, Igor; Cvetkovikj, Iskra; Farkas, Robert; Schuster, Isolde; Donnet, Fabien; Comtet, Loic; Tordo, Noël; Ben Mechlia, Mohamed; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Mitrov, Dine; Groschup, Martin H.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are only few assays available for the detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV)-specific antibodies in animals, and data about diagnostic sensitivity and specificity are incompletely documented for most of these tests. This is unfortunate since CCHFV antibodies in animals can be used as indicator for virus circulation in a geographic area and therewith potential risk of human exposure. This paper therefore reports on a novel ELISA for the detection of CCHFV-specific antibodies in cattle and on its application for testing ruminant sera from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Principal Findings A highly sensitive and specific ELISA was developed to detect CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle. The assay was validated by using 503 negative serum samples from a country where CCHFV has never been detected until now, and by using 54 positive serum samples. The positive sera were verified by using two commercially available assays (for testing human serum) which we have adapted for use in animals. The sensitivity of the novel ELISA was 98% and its specificity 99%. The presence of Hyalomma ticks was demonstrated in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and depending on the region antibody prevalence rates up to 80% were detected in the cattle population. Conclusion This article describes a fully validated, highly sensitive and specific ELISA for the detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle. Using this assay, CCHFV-specific antibodies were detected for the first time in cattle in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, giving evidence for an active circulation of this virus in the country. Supporting this conclusion, the occurrence of the main vector of CCHFV was demonstrated in the present work for the first time in Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. PMID:25742017

  1. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Clades V and VI (Europe 1 and 2) in Ticks in Kosovo, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Muji, Skender; Robaj, Avni; Ahmeti, Salih; Jakupi, Xhevat; Emmerich, Petra; Krüger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Despite being a small country, Kosovo represents one of the few foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Europe. The distribution of Kosovar tick vectors and the evolution of CCHF virus in ticks are both as yet unknown. A better description of the extent and the genetic diversity of CCHFV in ticks from endemic settings is essential, in order to be controlled. We investigated the 2012 distribution of Kosovar ticks alongside the prevalence and the phylogeography of tick-derived CCHFV. Hyalomma marginatum dominated in the endemic municipalities with 90.2% versus 24.3% in the non-endemic regions. Of 1,102 tested ticks, 40 (3.6%) were CCHFV-positive, belonging to H. marginatum (29), Rhipicephalus bursa (10), and Ixodes ricinus (1). The virus strains clustered with clade V and VI related sequences. They fell into two lineages: Kosovo I and II. Kosovo I comprised strains recovered exclusively from R. bursa ticks and was closely related to AP92 prototype strain. Kosovo II clustered into Kosovo IIa, including human-derived strains, and IIb including only strains detected in H. marginatum and I. ricinus. Our phylogeographic reconstruction suggests two temporally distinct CCHFV introductions: the most probable location of the most recent common ancestor of Kosovo I lineage was in Greece (63 years ago) and that of lineages IIa-b in Turkey (35 years ago). After each CCHFV introduction into Kosovo, subsequent lineage expansions suggest periods of in situ evolution. The study provides the first insight into the genetic variability and the origin of CCHFV in ticks from Kosovo. Our findings indicate the spreading of CCHFV to non-endemic areas, which underlines the importance of further studies in order to monitor and predict future CCHF outbreaks in Kosovo. The AP92-like strains appear to be more widespread than previously thought and may provide a promising target for experimental studies due to their assumed low pathogenicity. PMID:25255381

  2. Ectoparasites of Rodents Captured in Bandar Abbas, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kia, EB; Moghddas-Sani, H; Hassanpoor, H; Vatandoost, H; Zahabiun, F; Akhavan, AA; Hanafi-Bojd, AA; Telmadarraiy, Z

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rodents play important role as host of ectoparasites and reservoir of different zoonotic diseases. The aim of this study was to asses the infestation of commensal rodents with ectoparasites in Bandar Abbas, a port city located in the northern part of the Persian Gulf in Iran. Methods: Rodents were captured using live traps during the study period in year 2007. After transferring the rodents to the laboratory, they were identified and then their ectoparasites were collected and mounted for species identification using appropriate systematic keys. Results: A total of 77 rodents were identified including Rattus norvegicus (74%), R. rattus (16.9%), Mus musculus (7.8%) and one hamster. Among all rodents, 40.3% were found infested with ectoparasites. A total of 69 ectoparasites were collected comprising flea, lice, mite and tick. Two species of fleas; Xenopsylla cheopis and X. astia were identified with higher index of X. astia. Two genera of ticks including Hyalomma sp. and Rhipicephalus sp. were identified. Laelaps nuttalli was the only mite found. The Polyplax spinulosa was considered as lice ectoparasite. Conclusion: Among all arthropods collected, flea and lice had the most and the least frequency, respectively. Nearly all rodent species were infested with Xenopsylla. These fleas are important due to their role in plague and murine typhus transmission. Ticks are important due to their role in CCHF (Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever), theileriosis, babesiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis transmission .Monitoring of ectoparaiste infestation is important for preparedness and early warning preparation for possible control of arthropod-borne diseases. PMID:22808381

  3. Monthly abundance of rodent and their ectoparasites in newly settled areas, east of lakes, Ismailia Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bahgat, Iman M

    2013-08-01

    Rodents and their ectoparasites were studied inside and outside houses in the newly settled areas, east of lakes, Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. Forty traps per month in each of the two sides were used for collecting rodent during 2009. From 221 rodent were collected from inside houses; Mus musculus N=115 (52.04%), Rattus rattus. frugivorous N=54 (24.43%), R. r. alexandrinus N=40 (18.10%) and R. norvegicus N=12 (5.43%). From 177 rodent were collected from outside houses; M musculus N=4 (2.3%), R. r. frugivorous N=29 (16.43%), R. r. alexandrinus N=37 (20.9%), R. norvegicus N=36 (20.3%), Gerbillus pyramidum N= 67 (37.9%) and Jaculus jaculus N=4 (2.3%). Total ectoparasites per rat inside houses were 765 (3.46 E/Rat) which were classified as fleas, N=464 (2.11 F/R); lice N=150 (0.68 L/R) and mites N=151 (0 68 M/R). From outside house, total ectoparasites per rat were 984 (5.5 E/R) which were classified as fleas, N=410(2.31 F/R); lice N=100 (0.56 L/R), mites N=400 (2.23 M/R) and ticks, N=74 (0.42 T/R). From indoors two fleas species were recorded (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenopsyllus segnis); one species of lice (Polyplax spinulosa) and four species of mites (Laelaps nuttall, Ornithonyssus bacoti, Dermanyssus gallinae and Eulaelaps stabularis). The outdoors ectoparasites were; six fleas species (X. cheopis, X. ramesis, Pulex irritans, C. segnis, Stenoponia tripectinata and Nosopsylla sinaiensis); one lice species (P. spinulosa); Six mites species (L. nuttalli, O. bacoti, D. gallinae, E. stabularis, Haemogamnasus pontiger and Hirstionyssus isabellinus) and immature stages of two ticks species (Rhipicephalus sp. and Hyalomma sp.). Most of these ectoparasites were recorded infesting G. pyramidum. PMID:24260816

  4. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low. Nevertheless, veterinary control is still to be reinforced for collecting more data. PMID:25913453

  5. Identification and Mechanistic Analysis of a Novel Tick-Derived Inhibitor of Thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Jablonka, Willy; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Mizurini, Daniella M.; Monteiro, Robson Q.; Lukszo, Jan; Drake, Steven K.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Andersen, John F.

    2015-01-01

    A group of peptides from the salivary gland of the tick Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, a vector of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever show weak similarity to the madanins, a group of thrombin-inhibitory peptides from a second tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis. We have evaluated the anti-serine protease activity of one of these H. marginatum peptides that has been given the name hyalomin-1. Hyalomin-1 was found to be a selective inhibitor of thrombin, blocking coagulation of plasma and inhibiting S2238 hydrolysis in a competitive manner with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 12 nM at an ionic strength of 150 mM. It also blocks the thrombin-mediated activation of coagulation factor XI, thrombin-mediated platelet aggregation, and the activation of coagulation factor V by thrombin. Hyalomin-1 is cleaved at a canonical thrombin cleavage site but the cleaved products do not inhibit coagulation. However, the C-terminal cleavage product showed non-competitive inhibition of S2238 hydrolysis. A peptide combining the N-terminal parts of the molecule with the cleavage region did not interact strongly with thrombin, but a 24-residue fragment containing the cleavage region and the C-terminal fragment inhibited the enzyme in a competitive manner and also inhibited coagulation of plasma. These results suggest that the peptide acts by binding to the active site as well as exosite I or the autolysis loop of thrombin. Injection of 2.5 mg/kg of hyalomin-1 increased arterial occlusion time in a mouse model of thrombosis, suggesting this peptide could be a candidate for clinical use as an antithrombotic. PMID:26244557

  6. Seasonal dynamics of Rhipicephalus rossicus attacking domestic dogs from the steppic region of southeastern Romania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve is one of the most interesting regions in Europe from an epidemiological point of view due to its great biodiversity, local climatic conditions and various types of habitats. Moreover, there is no data regarding the ectoparasite communities of dogs from this area. In this frame, the aims of our study were to establish the tick communities parasitizing dogs and to provide new data regarding seasonal dynamics of a neglected tick species, Rhipicephalus rossicus. Methods A survey was carried out in order to gather information regarding tick species attaching to domestic dogs from a steppic region of southeastern Romania and to establish their seasonal dynamics. The research was conducted from 1 December 2012 to 30 November 2013, on 8 dogs from Iazurile, a locality from the west-central part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. In total, 384 examinations were made, each dog being checked for tick infestation 4 times per month, for one year. Results The 893 ticks found belonged to six species: R. rossicus (95.6%), Dermacentor reticulatus (3.2%), Ixodes ricinus (0.5%), Hyalomma marginatum (0.3%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) (0.2%) and Ixodes crenulatus (0.1%). From the 91 positive examinations, R. rossicus was found in 80 (87.9%). Single species infestation occurred in 84 examinations. In 7 out of 91 positive examinations mixed infestation were found. No ticks were found in December, January and September. Conclusions For R. rossicus, high frequency and intensity were observed in May, June and July. The activity peaks for D. reticulatus were in spring and autumn. Our results highlight that within the range of R. sanguineus s.l., the most common dog tick worldwide, selected dog populations may be predominantly infested by closely related species, like in our case, R. rossicus. PMID:24612483

  7. Cattle ticks in Cameroon: is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus absent in Cameroon and the Central African region?

    PubMed

    Awa, D N; Adakal, H; Luogbou, N D D; Wachong, K H; Leinyuy, I; Achukwi, M D

    2015-03-01

    In most parts of the world, ticks are rapidly developing resistance to commonly used acaricides thus rendering control difficult. This constraint is further compounded by the introduction of new species in areas where they did not exist before. Such is the case with the introduction into and rapid spread of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in some countries of West Africa. With the looming threat of its further spread in the region, the objective of the present study was to update knowledge on cattle ticks in Cameroon. Among 19,189 ticks collected monthly from 60 animals in 5 herds from March 2012 to February 2013, Rh. (B.) decoloratus was the most abundant species with a relative prevalence of 62.2%, followed by Amblyomma variegatum (28.4%), Rh. (B.) annulatus (0.2%), Rh. (B.) geigyi (0.03%), other Rhipicephalus spp. (8.4%) and Hyalomma spp. (0.3%). Rh. (B.) decoloratus and A. variegatum were also the most widely distributed in space. Infestation rate was generally high, with average tick count/animal of about 80 during peak periods. Tick distribution and abundance in the different sites was as varied as the underlying factors, among which the most important were management systems and climatic factors. The effects of rainfall and temperature were confounded by other factors and difficult to evaluate. However, it appears tick development depends among other factors, on a humidity threshold, above which there is not much more effect. Rh. microplus was not found during this study, but more extensive tick collections have to be done to confirm this. In conclusion, cattle tick infestation in Cameroon remains an important cause for concern. Farmers need assistance in the use and management of acaricides in order to increase their efficiency and reduce the development of resistance. Although Rh. microplus was not found, its introduction from other West African countries is imminent if adequate measures, especially in the control and limitation of animal movements, are not taken. PMID:25575435

  8. First International External Quality Assessment of Molecular Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Escadafal, Camille; Ölschläger, Stephan; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Papa, Anna; Vanhomwegen, Jessica; Wölfel, Roman; Mirazimi, Ali; Teichmann, Anette; Donoso-Mantke, Oliver; Niedrig, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonosis caused by a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. Infection is transmitted to humans mostly by Hyalomma ticks and also by direct contact with the blood or tissues of infected humans or viremic livestock. Clinical features usually include a rapid progression characterized by hemorrhage, myalgia and fever, with a lethality rate up to 30%. CCHF is one of the most widely distributed viral hemorrhagic fevers and has been reported in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, as well as parts of Europe. There is no approved vaccine or specific treatment against CCHF virus (CCHFV) infections. In this context, an accurate diagnosis as well as a reliable surveillance of CCHFV infections is essential. Diagnostic techniques include virus culture, serology and molecular methods, which are now increasingly used. The European Network for the Diagnostics of “Imported” Viral Diseases organized the first international external quality assessment of CCHVF molecular diagnostics in 2011 to assess the efficiency and accurateness of CCHFV molecular methods applied by expert laboratories. A proficiency test panel of 15 samples was distributed to the participants including 10 different CCHFV preparations generated from infected cell cultures, a preparation of plasmid cloned with the nucleoprotein of CCHFV, two CCHFV RNA preparations and two negative controls. Forty-four laboratories worldwide participated in the EQA study and 53 data sets were received. Twenty data sets (38%) met all criteria with optimal performance, 10 (19%) with acceptable performance, while 23 (43%) reported results showing a need for improvement. Differences in performance depended on the method used, the type of strain tested, the concentration of the sample tested and the laboratory performing the test. These results indicate that there is still a need for improving testing conditions and standardizing protocols for the molecular detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. PMID:22745842

  9. Genetic Diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ticks from Mainland Portugal

    PubMed Central

    De Michelis, Simona; Sewell, Henna-Sisko; Collares-Pereira, Margarida; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Schouls, Leo M.; Benes, Vladimir; Holmes, Edward C.; Kurtenbach, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    To date Borrelia lusitaniae is the only genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Portugal and Tunisia. This suggests that the genospecies diversity of B. burgdorferi sensu lato decreases toward the southwestern margin of its Old World subtropical range. In order to further explore the genetic diversity of B. burgdorferi sensu lato from this region, 55 I. ricinus and 27 Hyalomma marginatum questing adults, collected during the spring of 1998 from a sylvatic habitat south of Lisbon, Portugal, were analyzed. Infection prevalences of 75% in I. ricinus ticks and 7% in H. marginatum ticks were detected by a nested PCR that targets the rrf (5S)-rrl (23S) spacer of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the I. ricinus-derived amplicons showed that the sequences in the majority of samples were similar to those of B. lusitaniae type strains (76% for strain PotiB1, 5% for strain PotiB3). Two novel RFLP patterns were obtained from 12% of the samples. The remaining 7% of samples gave mixed RFLP patterns. Phylogenetic analysis of rrf-rrl spacer sequences revealed a diverse population of B. lusitaniae in questing adult I. ricinus ticks (the sequences did not cluster with those of any other genospecies). This population consisted of 10 distinct sequence types, suggesting that multiple strains of B. lusitaniae were present in the local I. ricinus population. We hypothesize that B. lusitaniae has a narrow ecological niche that involves host species restricted to the Mediterranean Basin. PMID:10834965

  10. Ticks and tick-borne viruses from livestock hosts in arid and semiarid regions of the eastern and northeastern parts of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Lutomiah, Joel; Musila, Lillian; Makio, Albina; Ochieng, Caroline; Koka, Hellen; Chepkorir, Edith; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Khamadi, Samoel; Miller, Barry R; Bast, Joshua; Schnabel, David; Wurapa, Eyako K; Sang, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity and relative abundance of ticks and associated arboviruses in Garissa (northeastern) and Isiolo (eastern) provinces of Kenya were evaluated. Ticks were collected from livestock, identified to species, pooled, and processed for virus isolation. In Garissa, Rhipicephalus pulchellus Gerstacker (57.8%) and Hyalomma truncatum Koch (27.8%) were the most abundant species sampled, whereas R. pulchellus (80.4%) and Amblyomma gemma Donitz (9.6%) were the most abundant in Isiolo. Forty-four virus isolates, comprising Dugbe virus (DUGV; n = 22) and Kupe virus (n = 10; Bunyaviridae: Nirovirus), Dhori virus (DHOV; n = 10; Orthomyxoviridae: Thogotovirus),and Ngari virus (NRIV; n = 2; Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus), were recovered mostly from R. pulchellus sampled in Isiolo. DUGV was mostly recovered from R. pulchellus from sheep and cattle, and DHOV from R. pulchellus from sheep. All Kupe virus isolates were from Isiolo ticks, including R. pulchellus from all the livestock, A. gemma and Amblyomma variegatum F. from cattle, and H. truncatum from goat. NRIV was obtained from R. pulchellus and A. gemma sampled from cattle in Isiolo and Garissa, respectively, while all DHOV and most DUGV (n = 12) were from R. pulchellus sampled from cattle in Garissa. DUGV was also recovered from H. truncatum and Amblyomma hebraeum Koch from cattle and from Rhipicephalus annulatus Say from camel. This surveillance study has demonstrated the circulation of select tick-borne viruses in parts of eastern and northeastern provinces of Kenya, some of which are of public health importance. The isolation of NRIV from ticks is particularly significant because it is usually known to be a mosquito-borne virus affecting humans. PMID:24605478

  11. Metarhizium anisopliae conidial responses to lipids from tick cuticle and tick mammalian host surface.

    PubMed

    Ment, Dana; Gindin, Galina; Soroker, Victoria; Glazer, Itamar; Rot, Asael; Samish, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Conidial germination and the formation of appressoria are important events in the interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and their arthropod hosts. In this study, we demonstrate the effects of lipids extracted from tick epicuticle and the surface of a mammalian host (calf) on conidial germination and the development of appressoria in two subspecies of Metarhizium anisopliae, M. anisopliae var. anisopliae (M.an.an.-7) and M. anisopliae var. acridum (M.an.ac.-5), which have different levels of virulence toward ticks. Pentane extracts of epicuticles of ticks susceptible and resistant to fungal infection always stimulated the germination of M.an.an.-7 conidia and the development of their appressoria; whereas the effects of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of tick epicuticle varied depending on the tick. The DCM extracts from most of the tick species and developmental stages stimulated conidial germination and/or the formation of appressoria in M.an.an.-7. However, a DCM extract of lipids from the most resistant tick, engorged Hyalomma excavatum female, inhibited the germination of M.an.an.-7 conidia. Conidia of the non-virulent M.an.ac.-5 did not germinate on agarose amended with any of the examined tick extracts. However, when the tick extracts were placed on bactoagar, conidial germination increased 7- to 8-fold. Extracts from the skin, hair and ear secretions of a calf stimulated conidial germination and the formation of appressoria in M.an.an.-7, but not M.an.ac.-5. This study demonstrates that lipids from tick epicuticles and mammalian skin selectively affect the germination of conidia of entomopathogenic fungi. The effects of these lipids may explain the variability in tick control these fungi provide for different hosts. PMID:20036669

  12. Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) to tick eggs and the effect of egg cuticular lipids on conidia development.

    PubMed

    Gindin, Galina; Ment, Dana; Rot, Asael; Glazer, Itamar; Samish, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The ovicidal efficacy of two entomopathogenic hyphomycetes fungi--Metarhizium anisopliae variety acridum (M. an. ac.) Driver and Milner (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae variety anisopliae (M. an. an.) (Metschn.) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae)--was evaluated against eggs of three tick species (Acari: Ixodidae)--Hyalomma excavatum (Koch), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Say), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latereille)--by placing eggs, laid by surface-sterilized females, on conidia-impregnated filter paper. Although M. an. an. strains differed in their virulence to the tested ticks, they reduced the hatching percentages of eggs of all three tick species to 0-32% compared with 80-90% in the control eggs. The M. an. ac. strains were found highly virulent to H. excavatum and R. sanguineus eggs, reducing the hatching percentages to 2-6% but had no influence on hatching of R. annulatus eggs. Older tick eggs were more susceptible to fungal infection than newly laid ones. The effects of polar and nonpolar lipid fractions, extracted from the surface of tick eggs, on the development of conidia were tested. Both germination of M. an. an. conidia and formation of appressoria were stimulated by extracts from egg cuticles of all three tested tick species. However, the stimulating effect was lower when the conidia were exposed to lipids from relatively less susceptible R. annulatus eggs than when exposed to lipids from H. excavatum or R. sanguineus eggs. Unlike those of M. an. an., conidia of M. an. ac. exposed to such lipid extracts did not germinate and did not form appressoria. PMID:19496424

  13. Tick surveillance in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Jameson, Lisa J; Medlock, Jolyon M

    2011-04-01

    The ability for public/veterinary health agencies to assess the risks posed by tick-borne pathogens is reliant on an understanding of the main tick vector species. Crucially, the status, distribution, and changing trends in tick distribution and abundance are implicit requirements of any risk assessment; however, this is contingent on the quality of tick distribution data. Since 2005 the Health Protection Agency has promoted an enhanced tick surveillance program. Through engagement with a variety of public and veterinary health agencies and practitioners (e.g., clinicians and veterinarians), wildlife groups (deer society, zoos, animal refuge centers, and academics), and amateur entomologists, >4000 ticks from 900 separate records across Great Britain have been submitted, representing 14 tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, Ixodes acuminatus, Ixodes arboricola, Ixodes canisuga, Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes lividus, Ixodes trianguliceps, Ixodes ventalloi, Carios vespertilionis, Dermacentor reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma marginatum, and Amblyomma species). The majority of ticks submitted were I. ricinus (81%), followed by I. hexagonus (10%) and I. frontalis (2.5%). Predominant host groups include companion animals (411 records), humans (198 records), wild birds (111 records), and large wild mammals (88 records), with records also from small/medium wild mammals, livestock, the environment and domestic/aviary birds. The scheme has elucidated the detection of two nonnative tick species, the expansion of previously geographically restricted D. reticulatus and produced ground data on the spread of I. ricinus in southwest England. It has also provided a forum for submission of ticks from the concerned public and particularly those infected with Lyme borreliosis, thus raising awareness among public health agencies of the increased peri-urban tick problem in Britain. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to run a cost-effective nationwide surveillance program to successfully monitor endemic tick species, identify subtle changes in their distribution, and detect the arrival and presence of exotic species. PMID:20849277

  14. Altitudinal and seasonal differences of tick communities in dogs from pastoralist tribes of Northern Kenya.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Gianluca; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Široký, Pavel; Albrechtová, Kateřina; Sloboda, Michal; Domşa, Cristian; Sándor, Attila D; Balázsi, Robert; Kanyari, Paul W N; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2015-09-15

    Studies regarding the distribution and ecology of ticks in dogs from Eastern Africa are scarce. Our research was based on a long-term screening of ticks parasitising the domestic dogs living with indigenous people around Lake Turkana, Mt. Kulal and Mt. Nyiru areas, Northern Kenya. A total of 9977 ticks were collected from 1464 dogs of all ages and both sexes. Identification was performed using morphological keys and data were analyzed using the Repeated Measures ANOVA, post-hoc Scheffe test and F test, relating independent variables as seasons and regions. Final results were translated to maps using GIS software. Five species of ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus pulchellus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.), Rhipicephalus armatus, Amblyomma gemma and Hyalomma truncatum. Our results suggest a statistical difference of the tick community structure related to seasonal and altitudinal distribution. Parasitism with R. armatus and R. pulchellus was higher in September-October than in January, whereas, R. sanguineus s.l. was not influenced by the season. Rhipicephalus armatus was present exclusively on dogs living in semi-desert areas, while R. sanguineus s.l. was the dominant species present on the shores of Lake Turkana. Although R. pulchellus was present in the all studied areas, this species had a significantly higher abundance in the afromontane region of Mt. Kulal and montane xeromorphic forest of Mt. Nyiru; these regions are characterized by elevated humidity and cooler climate. Similar geo-climatic distribution is typical also for A. gemma, which was found in dogs exclusively in Mt. Kulal afromontane area. The current work represents the most extensive study performed on the tick community structure of dogs in Eastern Africa. The results showed a relatively limited tick species diversity, with clear seasonal differences and altitudinal distribution. PMID:26343303

  15. Tularemia and plague survey in rodents in an earthquake zone in southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Earthquakes are one the most common natural disasters that lead to increased mortality and morbidity from transmissible diseases, partially because the rodents displaced by an earthquake can lead to an increased rate of disease transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of plague and tularemia in rodents in the earthquake zones in southeastern Iran. METHODS: In April 2013, a research team was dispatched to explore the possible presence of diseases in rodents displaced by a recent earthquake magnitude 7.7 around the cities of Khash and Saravan in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. Rodents were trapped near and in the earthquake zone, in a location where an outbreak of tularemia was reported in 2007. Rodent serums were tested for a serological survey using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In the 13 areas that were studied, nine rodents were caught over a total of 200 trap-days. Forty-eight fleas and 10 ticks were obtained from the rodents. The ticks were from the Hyalomma genus and the fleas were from the Xenopsylla genus. All the trapped rodents were Tatera indica. Serological results were negative for plague, but the serum agglutination test was positive for tularemia in one of the rodents. Tatera indica has never been previously documented to be involved in the transmission of tularemia. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of the plague cycle was found in the rodents of the area, but evidence was found of tularemia infection in rodents, as demonstrated by a positive serological test for tularemia in one rodent. PMID:26602769

  16. Impact of Climate Trends on Tick-Borne Pathogen Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Ayllón, Nieves; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in climate research together with a better understanding of tick–pathogen interactions, the distribution of ticks and the diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens raise questions about the impact of environmental factors on tick abundance and spread and the prevalence and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. While undoubtedly climate plays a role in the changes in distribution and seasonal abundance of ticks, it is always difficult to disentangle factors impacting on the abundance of tick hosts from those exerted by human habits. All together, climate, host abundance, and social factors may explain the upsurge of epidemics transmitted by ticks to humans. Herein we focused on tick-borne pathogens that affect humans with epidemic potential. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (Lyme disease), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocytic anaplasmosis), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tick-borne encephalitis) are transmitted by Ixodes spp. Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever) is transmitted by Hyalomma spp. In this review, we discussed how vector tick species occupy the habitat as a function of different climatic factors, and how these factors impact on tick survival and seasonality. How molecular events at the tick–pathogen interface impact on pathogen transmission is also discussed. Results from statistically and biologically derived models are compared to show that while statistical models are able to outline basic information about tick distributions, biologically derived models are necessary to evaluate pathogen transmission rates and understand the effect of climatic variables and host abundance patterns on pathogen transmission. The results of these studies could be used to build early alert systems able to identify the main factors driving the subtle changes in tick distribution and seasonality and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:22470348

  17. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption IonizationTime of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Identification of Tick Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Yssouf, Amina; Flaudrops, Christophe; Drali, Rezak; Kernif, Tahar; Socolovschi, Cristina; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    A method for rapid species identification of ticks may help clinicians predict the disease outcomes of patients with tick bites and may inform the decision as to whether to administer postexposure prophylactic antibiotic treatment. We aimed to establish a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionizationtime of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) spectrum database based on the analysis of the legs of six tick vectors: Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, and Dermacentor reticulatus. A blind test was performed on a trial set of ticks to identify specimens of each species. Subsequently, we used MALDI-TOF MS to identify ticks obtained from the wild or removed from patients. The latter tick samples were also identified by 12S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing and were tested for bacterial infections. Ticks obtained from the wild or removed from patients (R. sanguineus, I. ricinus, and D. marginatus) were accurately identified using MALDI-TOF MS, with the exception of those ticks for which no spectra were available in the database. Furthermore, one damaged specimen was correctly identified as I. ricinus, a vector of Lyme disease, using MALDI-TOF MS only. Six of the 14 ticks removed from patients were found to be infected by pathogens that included Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Borrelia spp. MALDI-TOF MS appears to be an effective tool for the rapid identification of tick vectors that requires no previous expertise in tick identification. The benefits for clinicians include the more targeted surveillance of patients for symptoms of potentially transmitted diseases and the ability to make more informed decisions as to whether to administer postexposure prophylactic treatment. PMID:23224087

  18. Control of Tick Infestations in Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) With Spinosad Under Laboratory and Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    ValcÁrcel, Félix; SÁnchez, J L Pérez; Jaime, J M Tercero; Basco-Basco, P I; Guajardo, S C Cota; Cutuli, M T; GonzÁlez, J; Olmeda, A S

    2015-03-01

    Because of great economic loss in the world's livestock industry, and the serious risks to human health, the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases is one of the most important health management issues today. Current methodology involves integrated tick control for preventing the development of resistance. Rabbits are hosts for immature stages of the three-host tick Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch; so, we focus on this host as a strategy to interrupt the tick life cycle. Spinosad is an insecticide-acaricide, produced by the fermentation of metabolites of the actinomycete bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa. We administered spinosad orally by force-feeding naturally and artificially infested rabbits, and under field conditions by administering treated food via a hopper during the period of peak infestation and reinfestation risk for rabbits. No living larvae were recovered from treated laboratory rabbits. In naturally infested rabbits, the number of live ticks collected from treated rabbits (mean = 0.62 ticks per ear) was significantly lower than those recovered from untreated rabbits (mean = 7.27; P < 0.001), whereas the number of dead ticks collected from untreated rabbits (mean = 6.53) was significantly lower than those recovered from treated rabbits (mean = 18.62; P < 0.001). In addition, free and continually reinfested rabbits freely ingested low doses of spinosad, reducing the tick burden from 48.00 (Day 0) to 26.09 ticks per ear in treated rabbits (Day 16), whereas controls maintained the infection (46.64). This strategy could be useful as an alternative or supplement to traditional acaricides in tick control programs. PMID:26336305

  19. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

  20. Protozoan and bacterial pathogens in tick salivary glands in wild and domestic animal environments in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Berggoetz, M; Schmid, M; Ston, D; Wyss, V; Chevillon, C; Pretorius, A-M; Gern, L

    2014-03-01

    A total of 7364 ticks belonging to 13 species was collected from 64 game animals (belonging to 11 species) and from 64 livestock animals (cattle and sheep) living in close vicinity at 6 localities in 3 South African Provinces (Free State, Mpumalanga, and Limpopo). The geographic distribution of all tick species was congruent with the literature except for Haemaphysalis silacea. From each infested host, a maximum of 10 males and 10 females of each tick species were dissected to isolate the salivary glands. Salivary glands were screened for tick-borne pathogens using polymerase chain reaction followed by reverse line blotting and sequencing. This approach allowed us to evaluate the exposure of wild and domestic hosts to tick-borne pathogens in their respective environments. Among the 2117 examined ticks, 329 (15.5%), belonging to 8 species, were infected and harboured 397 infections. Among those, 57.7% were identified to species level and were assigned to 23 pathogen species of the genera Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia. In 3 out of 6 localities, salivary glands from ticks infesting wild ruminants displayed significantly higher infection prevalence and pathogen mean density than salivary glands from ticks infesting livestock animals. Four piroplasm species [Theileria bicornis, Babesia sp. (sable), Theileria sp. (giraffe), and Theileria sp. (kudu)] were detected for the first time in ticks. The tick species Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Hyalomma rufipes, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, and Amblyomma hebraeum were associated with a broader pathogen range than previously known, and thus new vector-pathogen combinations are described. In addition, previously unknown coinfection patterns in tick salivary glands are reported. PMID:24378080

  1. Isolation and characterization of Babesia pecorum sp. nov. from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Jouglin, Maggy; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; de la Cotte, Nathalie; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Gortázar, Christian; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Bastian, Suzanne; de la Fuente, José; Malandrin, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of Babesia species infecting cervids in parts of central and southern Spain was analyzed by collecting blood from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Babesia sp. was isolated in vitro from two red deer herds in Cádiz and Ciudad Real. The number of Babesia sp. carriers differed between the two herds: 36/77 in Cádiz and 1/35 in Ciudad Real. Hyalomma lusitanicum was the most prevalent tick species identified on the Cádiz farm vegetation and on sampled animals, and is therefore a candidate vector. The molecular characteristics of 21 isolates were determined by complete (8 isolates) or partial (13 isolates) 18S rRNA gene sequencing. The sequences were highly similar (over 99.4% identity) and 6 sequence types were identified at the level of one herd only, demonstrating a rather high genetic diversity. They formed a monophyletic clade, and members of the three main sequence types shared a similar morphology and the same erythrocyte susceptibility pattern. This clade also included Babesia sp. Xinjiang isolated from sheep in China and Babesia sp. identified in giraffe in South Africa, with identities higher than 98.3% and statistically relevant phylogenetic support. None of the biological properties analyzed for both Babesia from red deer and Babesia sp. Xinjiang allowed their differentiation (ability to develop in vitro in erythrocytes from cattle and sheep, as well as in erythrocytes from different cervids, unsuccessful infection of calves). We propose the Babesia isolated from red deer as a new species named B. pecorum. Whether Babesia sp. Xinjiang and the Babesia characterized in South Africa belong to the same species is debated. PMID:25155988

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial genomes and nuclear rRNA genes of ticks reveals a deep phylogenetic structure within the genus Haemaphysalis and further elucidates the polyphyly of the genus Amblyomma with respect to Amblyomma sphenodonti and Amblyomma elaphense.

    PubMed

    Burger, Thomas D; Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C

    2013-06-01

    We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genomes of 3 species of metastriate ticks: Haemaphysalis formosensis, H. parva, and Amblyomma cajennense. We also sequenced two thirds (ca. 9500bp) of the mitochondrial genomes of H. humerosa and H. hystricis. We used these 5 mitochondrial genome sequences together with the 13 tick mitochondrial genomes we sequenced previously and the 2 tick mitochondrial genomes sequenced by Black and Roehrdanz (1998), as well as the nuclear rRNA genes from 84 ticks and mites, in phylogenetic analyses. Our analyses reveal deep phylogenetic structure within the genus Haemaphysalis, with at least 2 species, H. parva and H. inermis that are highly divergent from the rest of the genus Haemaphysalis. We identify a region of the 18S rRNA gene which correlates with this division of the genus Haemaphysalis as well as a novel insertion in the mitochondrial genome of H. parva. We reject the hypotheses of Hoogstraal and Aeschlimann (1982) and Barker and Murrell (2004) on the relationships among metastriate genera. Instead, our analysis provides further evidence for the division of the Metastriata into 2 major lineages: (i) Amblyomma s.s. plus Rhipicephalinae (i.e. Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Rhipicentor, and Dermacentor); and (ii) Haemaphysalis plus Bothriocroton plus Amblyomma sphenodonti. We also provide further evidence for the polyphyly of the genus Amblyomma with respect to A. sphenodonti and A. elaphense. The most likely position of A. elaphense is sister to the rest of the Metastriata; the most likely position of A. sphenodonti is sister to the genus Bothriocroton. These 2 species do not belong in the genus Amblyomma, and we propose that new genera are required for A. sphenodonti and A. elaphense. PMID:23602360

  3. Detection of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. in Ticks Associated with Exotic Reptiles and Amphibians Imported into Japan

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, Masako; Sakata, Akiko; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiromi; Une, Yumi; Goka, Koichi; Kishimoto, Toshio; Ando, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    One of the major routes of transmission of rickettsial and ehrlichial diseases is via ticks that infest numerous host species, including humans. Besides mammals, reptiles and amphibians also carry ticks that may harbor Rickettsia and Ehrlichia strains that are pathogenic to humans. Furthermore, reptiles and amphibians are exempt from quarantine in Japan, thus facilitating the entry of parasites and pathogens to the country through import. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined the presence of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. genes in ticks associated with reptiles and amphibians originating from outside Japan. Ninety-three ticks representing nine tick species (genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma) were isolated from at least 28 animals spanning 10 species and originating from 12 countries (Ghana, Jordan, Madagascar, Panama, Russia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Uzbekistan, and Zambia). None of the nine tick species are indigenous in Japan. The genes encoding the common rickettsial 17-kDa antigen, citrate synthase (gltA), and outer membrane protein A (ompA) were positively detected in 45.2% (42/93), 40.9% (38/93), and 23.7% (22/93) of the ticks, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genes encoding ehrlichial heat shock protein (groEL) and major outer membrane protein (omp-1) were PCR-positive in 7.5% (7/93) and 2.2% (2/93) of the ticks, respectively. The p44 gene, which encodes the Anaplasma outer membrane protein, was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that several of the rickettsial and ehrlichial sequences isolated in this study were highly similar to human pathogen genes, including agents not previously detected in Japan. These data demonstrate the global transportation of pathogenic Rickettsia and Ehrlichia through reptile- and amphibian-associated ticks. These imported animals have potential to transfer pathogens into human life. These results highlight the need to control the international transportation of known and potential pathogens carried by ticks in reptiles, amphibians, and other animals, in order to improve national and international public health. PMID:26207382

  4. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical syndrome and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Bente, Dennis A; Forrester, Naomi L; Watts, Douglas M; McAuley, Alexander J; Whitehouse, Chris A; Bray, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most important tick-borne viral disease of humans, causing sporadic cases or outbreaks of severe illness across a huge geographic area, from western China to the Middle East and southeastern Europe and throughout most of Africa. CCHFV is maintained in vertical and horizontal transmission cycles involving ixodid ticks and a variety of wild and domestic vertebrates, which do not show signs of illness. The virus circulates in a number of tick genera, but Hyalomma ticks are the principal source of human infection, probably because both immature and adult forms actively seek hosts for the blood meals required at each stage of maturation. CCHF occurs most frequently among agricultural workers following the bite of an infected tick, and to a lesser extent among slaughterhouse workers exposed to the blood and tissues of infected livestock and medical personnel through contact with the body fluids of infected patients. CCHFV is the most genetically diverse of the arboviruses, with nucleotide sequence differences among isolates ranging from 20% for the viral S segment to 31% for the M segment. Viruses with diverse sequences can be found within the same geographic area, while closely related viruses have been isolated in far distant regions, suggesting that widespread dispersion of CCHFV has occurred at times in the past, possibly by ticks carried on migratory birds or through the international livestock trade. Reassortment among genome segments during co-infection of ticks or vertebrates appears to have played an important role in generating diversity, and represents a potential future source of novel viruses. In this article, we first review current knowledge of CCHFV, summarizing its molecular biology, maintenance and transmission, epidemiology and geographic range. We also include an extensive discussion of CCHFV genetic diversity, including maps of the range of the virus with superimposed phylogenetic trees. We then review the features of CCHF, including the clinical syndrome, diagnosis, treatment, pathogenesis, vaccine development and laboratory animal models of CCHF. The paper ends with a discussion of the possible future geographic range of the virus. For the benefit of researchers, we include a Supplementary Table listing all published reports of CCHF cases and outbreaks in the English-language literature, plus some principal articles in other languages, with total case numbers, case fatality rates and all CCHFV strains on GenBank. PMID:23906741

  5. Ticks and associated pathogens collected from domestic animals in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Nijhof, Ard M; Bodaan, Christa; Postigo, Milagros; Nieuwenhuijs, Hans; Opsteegh, Marieke; Franssen, Linda; Jebbink, Florian; Jongejan, Frans

    2007-01-01

    Following an outbreak of autochthonous canine babesiosis in the Netherlands, a request made to veterinarians and the public to collect ticks from companion animals resulted in 4298 ticks submitted between July 2005 and October 2006 to our center. Ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus adults (2907/4298, 67.6%), Ixodes sp. nymphs (529/4298, 12.3%) and Ixodes sp. larvae (385/4298, 9.0%), I. hexagonus adults (328/4298, 7.6%), Dermacentor reticulatus (72/4298, 1.7%), and several other exotic tick species such as Amblyomma flavomaculatum (formerly Aponomma flavomaculatum), Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and R. turanicus (55/4298, 1.3%). Eight localities were surveyed for the presence of local D. reticulatus, a tick not indigenous to the Netherlands, based on multiple submissions of D. reticulatus ticks from these areas. D. reticulatus was collected from the vegetation in six of these localities, confirming the presence of populations of this tick in the Netherlands. Adult I. ricinus (n=251), I. hexagonus (n=237), and D. reticulatus (n=344) ticks were selected at random and subsequently screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization for the presence of Borrelia, Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia species. I. ricinus ticks were infected with Rickettsia helvetica (24.7%), spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group (7.2%), the Ehrlichia-like "Schotii" variant (2.4%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (1.6%), Babesia sp. (EU1) (1.2%), Babesia divergens (0.4%), and Babesia microti (0.4%). A. phagocytophilum (5.9%) and R. helvetica (0.8%) were also detected in adult I. hexagonus ticks. Spotted fever group Rickettsiae, previously reported as Rickettsia sp. DnS14/RpA4 (14.0%), and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (0.3%) were detected in the D. reticulatus ticks, which appeared to be free from B. canis infection. We concluded that a much broader spectrum of ticks and tick-borne pathogens is present in the Netherlands than previously thought, including several potential zoonotic pathogens. PMID:17979540

  6. Flow cytometry based profiling of leukocytes: A new method for diagnosis of tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Ramesh B.; Gupta, Amit; Chaphalkar, Sushama R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In India, dairy industries are important for the livelihood of small scale farmers and dairy owners. Tropical theileriosis, mostly affecting dairy cattle and buffaloes is a major threat to dairy and related industries. Tropical theileriosis is caused by Theileria annulata, a hemoprotozoan parasite transmitted by Ixodid ticks of Hyalomma spp. In the present study, we examined the clinical signs, hematological parameters and flow cytometric profile of whole blood in 30 theileriosis affected crossbred cattle. The aim of our study is to analyze, in comparison with clinical and hematological diagnosis, whether flow cytometry based profiling of leukocytes could be used as better, quick and alternative method for diagnosis and screening of bovine tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: In this study, we screened parasites in 30 peripheral blood samples from clinical cases of theileriosis by Giemsa’s staining technique in crossbred cattle. Hematological analysis was done to estimate hemoglobin (Hb) content, total red blood cell (RBC) count, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count. Further, flow cytometric analysis of whole blood was carried out to study leukocytes profile in affected cattle. Results: Microscopic examination of stained blood films revealed the presence of piroplasms in erythrocytes and schizonts in lymphocytes. Hematological examination revealed significant (p<0.05) decrease of Hb percent (Hb %), reduced total RBC and total leukocytes, lymphocytosis, eosinopenia, and neutropenia compared to that of apparently healthy cattle. Flow cytometric profiling of leukocytes revealed the severe effect on shape, size, and granularity of leukocytes, marked decrease in granulocytes and 3-5 fold increase in lymphocytes count compared to clinically healthy cattle. Thus, in both methods, namely conventional and flow cytometric analysis, marked lymphocytosis and decrease in other blood cell counts were observed compared to clinically healthy cattle. Conclusions: From results, it can be concluded that though conventional staining techniques and hematology are efficient in diagnosis of theileriosis, leukocytes profiling based on flow cytometry combined with clinical examination could be a quick, novel and alternative method for diagnosis and screening of clinical tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle. Thus, there is potential to offer a flow cytometry based diagnostic service for tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle. PMID:27047047

  7. Assessing the effects of variables and background selection on the capture of the tick climate niche

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modelling the environmental niche and spatial distribution of pathogen-transmitting arthropods involves various quality and methodological concerns related to using climate data to capture the environmental niche. This study tested the potential of MODIS remotely sensed and interpolated gridded covariates to estimate the climate niche of the medically important ticks Ixodes ricinus and Hyalomma marginatum. We also assessed model inflation resulting from spatial autocorrelation (SA) and collinearity (CO) of covariates used as time series of data (monthly values of variables), principal components analysis (PCA), and a discrete Fourier transformation. Performance of the models was measured using area under the curve (AUC), autocorrelation by Moran’s I, and collinearity by the variance inflation factor (VIF). Results The covariate spatial resolution slightly affected the final AUC. Consistently, models for H. marginatum performed better than models for I. ricinus, likely because of a species-derived rather than covariate effect because the former occupies a more limited niche. Monthly series of interpolated climate always better captured the climate niche of the ticks, but the SA was around 2 times higher and the maximum VIF between covariates around 30 times higher in interpolated than in MODIS-derived covariates. Interpolated or remotely sensed monthly series of covariates always had higher SA and CO than their transformations by PCA or Fourier. Regarding the effects of background point selection on AUC, we found that selection based on a set of rules for the distance to the core distribution and the heterogeneity of the landscape influenced model outcomes. The best selection relied on a random selection of points as close as possible to the target organism area of distribution, but effects are variable according to the species modelled. Conclusion Testing for effects of SA and CO is necessary before incorporating these covariates into algorithms building a climate envelope. Results support a higher SA and CO in an interpolated climate dataset than in remotely sensed covariates. Satellite-derived information has fewer drawbacks compared to interpolated climate for modelling tick relationships with environmental niche. Removal of SA and CO by a harmonic regression seems most promising because it retains both biological and statistical meaning. PMID:24069960

  8. Identification of ticks and detection of blood protozoa in friesian cattle by polmerase chain reacton test and estimation of blood parameters in district Kasur, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Durrani, A Z; Kamal, N

    2008-08-01

    The study was carried out to detect Theileria annulata, the causative agent of theileriosis, and Babesia bovis, the causative agent for babesiosis, in Friesian cattle by PCR and conventional blood smear examination. One hundred blood samples obtained from diseased Friesian cattle kept on private livestock farms at Pattoki, District Kasur, Pakistan were collected in addition to 20 blood samples obtained from non-diseased animals. The disease manifestations observed clinically included high fever, swelling of sub mandibular and sub scapular lymph nodes, weakness, increased respiration and pulse, anorexia, loss of condition and rough hair coat. Neurologic sign of in coordination was also seen in weak animals. Signs of lacrimation, pale conjunctiva, diarrhoea, dyspnea and frothy nasal discharge were observed in only one animal. Clinically nine animals showed signs of haemoglobinuria. Diagnosis of bovine theileria and babesia species was based on finding many intraerythrocytic piroplasms of both blood protozoa with clinical signs associated with anaemia, lymph node hyperplasia and haemoglobinuria. One hundred samples of ticks were also collected for identification of vector. Results showed that the prevalence of Hyalomma tick was highest (15%) followed by Boophilus (12%), Haemaphysalis (5%) and Rhipicephalus (3%). The blood smear examination showed 21% (21/100) samples positive for blood parasites out of which 66.6% (14/ 21) samples were positive for theileriosis while 42.8% (9/21) were positive for babesiosis. It was also recorded that 66.66% (6/9) samples were positive for B.bigemina while 33.33% (3/9) were positive for B.bovis. The results showed that 60% (60/100) samples were positive for blood parasites by PCR test. Out of these 60% (36/60) were positive for T.annulata while 33.33% (20/60) were positive for babesia. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR test was higher than blood smear examination. The blood parameters in haemoparasites infection were also analyzed and the results showed significant decrease in total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin while MCV, MCH values increased and MCHC was slightly less than normal indicating macrocytic hypochromic anaemia. PMID:18575972