These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

Crossbred Cattle Protected against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum by Larval Antigens Purified by Immunoaffinity Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigens from larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum were extracted and purified by immunoaffinity chromatography using immunoglobulin ligands from cross-bred animals immunized with soluble larval antigen. Affinity-purified antigen (Aff-TLE) and a total larval extract (TLE) were used to immunize cross-bred (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) cattle. The group immunized with Aff-TLE rejected 71.6% of larvae and 77.3% of nymphs. However, the rejection percentages

S. Ghosh; M. H. Khan; N. Ahmed



Virulence of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces lilacinus to the engorged female Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum tick (Acari: Ixodidae).  


The tick is a common ectoparasite of livestock and humans, and is responsible for the transmission of pathogens among hosts. Direct and indirect impacts of ticks include limiting the sustainable development of the animal husbandry industry and detrimental effects on human health. Despite these negative effects, the main method of controlling ticks remains the application of chemical acaricides, which can lead to ambient pollution and the development of tick resistance to them. The biocontrol of ticks is one of the alternative control methods that has received recent research attention. The present study used Tenebrio moliter bait methods to collect 13 species of entomopathogenic fungi from different areas in China that were then tested to observe their effects on engorged female Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks. The results showed that more than half of the isolates had some pathogenic effects on the ticks; in particular, two Beauveria bassiana strains (B.bAT01, B.bAT17) and one Metarhizium anisopliae strain (M.aAT26) were highly virulent, causing up to 90% mortality. In addition, H. anatolicum anatolicum females were treated with B. bassiana B.bAT17 using different concentrations of the fungus. Results revealed that B. bassiana B.bAT17 is highly pathogenic against engorged H. anatolicum anatolicum females. This is the first report of the pathogenic effect of entomopathogenic fungi on engorged H. anatolicum anatolicum females. However, studies of the efficiency of this fungus against ticks in the field are required before it can be used for tick management in practice. PMID:21511397

Sun, Ming; Ren, Qiaoyun; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Ma, Miling; Gou, Huitian; Chen, Ze; Li, Youquan; Liu, Aihong; Niu, Qingli; Yang, Jifei; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun



Morphometric Study on Male Specimens of Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae) in West of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Hyalomma anatolicum is the well-known hard tick, which is one of the most important livestock and human pathogens vector, wide range in host and distributed in all over the Hyalomma geographic fauna as well as in Iran. Taxonomy of the Hyalomma ssp. is debatable whereas their identification is a problematic work. The reasons for this claim is time consuming Delpy’s researches in Iran also Schulze School, Feldman-Muhsam and the Russian tick workers. We would like to understand morphometric variation in the field collected H. anatolicum in Iran also validating some morphologic quantitative and qualitative characters. Methods: A total 247 field-collected tick specimens from different geographical regions in west of Iran includes Khuzestan and Lorestan Provinces were studied. The morphologic characters of the ticks were measured by the calibrated stereomicroscope armed scaled lens. The measurements were analyzed using SPSS for windows, version 16 on an IBM PC, so varied shapes of species in different geographic regions were drawn by the aid of a drawing tube connected to a light stereomicroscope. Results: One way ANOVA test revealed significant differences among the quantitative parameters in five zones (P < 0.001) also each zone to other zone by Post Hoc Tests e.g. LSD. No significant differences in the lateral grooves length/conscutum length ratio parameter were found. Conclusion: Morphometric variation in Hyalomma spp is poorly studied. The variation in range and quantity of the morphometric parameters of H.anatolicum underlies that the correct recognition and key construction for Hyalomma species dependes on a complement morphometric study on the other species. PMID:22808415

Hosseini, A; Dalimi, A; Abdigoudarzi, M



Molecular characterization of HAO3, the homologue of the Bm86 tick vaccine antigen, from the Iranian isolate of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum.  


Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum tick is widely distributed in many parts of Iran and while the commercial vaccines based on the application of midgut-derived recombinant Bm86 antigen are used for its control, limited information about the efficiency of this vaccination in Iran is available. Herein, with the final aim of evaluation of Bm86-based heterologous vaccination, as the primary step the Bm86 homologue of the H. a. anatolicum (Hao3) from an Iranian isolate was characterized and compared with the commercialized Bm86 and other Bm86 homologoue sequences available in GenBank. Our in silico predictions resulted in the identification of seven epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains, one hydrophobic transmembrane region, one leader sequence and several glycosylation sites within the structure of both Hao3 and Bm86 proteins, which suggested the pattern of extracellular membrane-bound glycoproteins with the role of regulation in cell growth for both proteins. Moreover, while the nucleotide and amino acid sequences corresponding to Bm86 homologue showed a high level of conservation among the Iranian isolates (Hao3, Hao3-1 and Hao3-2, more than 99%), the Hao3 amino acid sequence had a homology of around 89%, 64% and 65% with that of Indian, Australian and Argentinean isolates, respectively. This indicated a considerable variation between commercial Bm86 antigen and H. a. anatolicum Bm86-like protein of Iranian and Indian isolates. Taking together, these results imply that the efficiency of commercial Bm86-based vaccine against the Iranian H. a. anatolicum may be under the question and indicates the value of the development of Hao3-based recombinant vaccines and further planning for their in vivo evaluation. PMID:20599993

Ebrahimi, Seyyed Mahmoud; Paykari, Habib; Memarnejadian, Arash



A comparative study on cypermethrin resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum from Punjab (India).  


A study to evaluate cypermethrin resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum collected from Muktsar and Mansa districts of Punjab state, India, was conducted by using adult immersion test (AIT). The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentrations of cypermethrin was utilized for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), and the resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on variables (mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index, and percentage inhibition of oviposition), the resistance levels were categorized. Resistance to cypermethrin was categorized as level II and I in R. (B.) microplus collected from Muktsar and Mansa districts, respectively, whereas, H. anatolicum from both locations showed a susceptible status. The RF values of Muktsar and Mansa field samples of engorged R. (B.) microplus (5.48 and 2.18, respectively) were much higher as those of engorged H. anatolicum (1.12 and 0.82, respectively) indicating a lower level and slower rate of development of cypermethrin resistance in multi-host ticks. The data generated in the current study might be of immense help in formulating suitable control measures against ticks and tick-borne diseases of animals. PMID:24252261

Singh, Nirbhay K; Jyoti; Haque, Manjurul; Singh, Harkirat; Rath, Shitanshu S; Ghosh, Srikant



Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium against Hyalomma anatolicum ticks.  


The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of different concentrations of ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium in comparison to amitraz on adults, eggs and larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum using the adult immersion test (AIT), egg hatchability test and larval packet test (LPT), respectively. Four concentrations of the extract (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 %) with three replications for each concentration were used in all the bioassays. In AIT, the mortality rates at 2.5, 5 and 10 % were significantly different (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control group; however, at 20 %, it was similar to the positive control group. Maximum mortality of 86.7 % was recorded at 20 %. The LC50 and LC95 values were calculated as 6.51 and 55.43 %, respectively. The oviposition was reduced significantly by 36.8 and 59.1 % at concentrations of 10 and 20 %, respectively. Egg hatchability was reduced significantly at all concentrations (2.5-20 %) in comparison to the control. In LPT, the extract caused 100 % mortality of larvae at all the concentrations after 24 h. The results show that ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of A. absinthium has acaricidal properties and could be useful in controlling H. anatolicum. PMID:25039005

Godara, R; Parveen, S; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Katoch, M; Khajuria, J K; Kaur, D; Ganai, A; Verma, P K; Khajuria, Varun; Singh, N K



[Differentiation of closely related species Hyalomma anatolicum and H. excavatum (Acari: Ixodidae) based on a study of all life cycle stages, throughout entire geographical range].  


Species status is stated for Hyalomma anatolicum and H. excavatum, based on numerous material from the territory of their distribution. The differentiation of species is recovered for all stages of the life cycle. Diagnosis of Hyalomma anatolicum. Female: small tick--length of scutum commonly less than 2 mm; width of scutum commonly less than 1.9 mm; color of scutum, gnathosoma and coxae light, yellowish- or reddish-brown; whitish enameled pigment on scutum absent; posterolateral ledges of scutum weakly expressed or absent; cervical and lateral grooves more shallow (than in H. excavatum) (fig. 1); setae of scutum, alloscutum, sternal setae and ventromedian setae of second article of palpae more tapering to the apex, narrow rounded or acute (fig. 2, 1, 2, 5, 8). Male: small tick--length of conscutum, as a rule, less than 4 mm; width of scutum, as a rule, less than 2.3 mm; shape of conscutum marrow oval (fig. 3), widest in the midlevel; color of conscutum, anal shields, gnathosoma and coxae light, yellowish- or reddish-brown; whitish enameled pigment on conscutum absent; caudal depression with less dense and more large punctuations (than in H. excavatum); ridges lateral to caudal field less high and sharp (than in H. excavatum); posteromedian groove separated from parma by contiguous punctuations or smooth non high area; setae of conscutum conus-like, more sharpening (fig. 4, 1-3); posterior dorsal margin of gnathosoma straight or slightly concave (fig. 4, 8); segments of leg IV not swallowed. Nymph: large tick (see description). Scutum more narrow. Dorsal tale of spiracular plates clear expressed, marginal perforations distant from margin of spiracular plates at the base of tale (fig. 5, 3); anterolateral side of basis capituli approximately equal to half of gnathosoma width; ventrally lateral projections of gnathosoma situated in posterior half of capitulum base (fig. 5, 4, 5). Hypostome more longer and narrow (fig. 5, 5). Larva: large tick (see description). Diagnosis of Hyalomma excavatum. Female: large tick--length of scutum commonly more than 2 mm; width of scutum commonly more than 1.9 mm; color of scutum, gnathosoma and coxae dark, reddish- or black-brown; whitish enameled pigment commonly present; posterolateral ledges of scutum clearly expressed; cervical and lateral grooves more dipper (than in H. anatolicum) (fig. 7). Setae of scutum, alloscutum, sternal setae and ventromedian setae of second article of palpae more stick-like, more widely obtuse (fig. 8, 1-5). Male: large tick--length of conscutum more than 4 mm; width of scutum more than 2.3 mm; shape of conscutum wide oval (fig. 9), widest in posterior half of length; color of conscutum, anal shields, gnathosoma and coxae dark, reddish- or black-brown; whitish enameled pigment often present; caudal depression with more dense and more small punctuations (than in H. anatolicum); ridges lateral to caudal field more high and sharp (than in H. anatolicum); posteromedian groove separated from parma by strong elevations fused with paraparmal festoons; setae of conscutum more obtuse, often stick-like (fig. 10, 1, 2); posterior dorsal margin of gnathosoma straight or lightly concave. (fig. 10, 3); segments of leg IV swallowed. Nymph: small tick (see description). Scutum more wide. Dorsal tale of spiracular plates weakly expressed, marginal perforations not distant from margin of spiracular plates at the base of tale (fig. 11, 3); anterolateral side of basis capituli clearly shorter than half of gnathosoma width; ventrally lateral projections situated in the middle of or anterior half of capitulum base (fig. 11, 4, 5). Hypostome more shorter and wider (fig. 5, 5). Larva: small tick (see description). Established taxonomical independence of H. anatolicum and H. excavatum is confirmed by several criteria: external morphology (see diagnoses); morphometrical data (see diagnoses and fig. 12, 13); size inversion: larva and nymph of H. anatolicum are large, but females and males are small; while H. excavatum vise versa--larva and nymph are small, but adults--large; host speci

Apanaskevich, D A



Contact toxicity of permethrin-impregnated fabric to Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (Acari: Ixodidae): effects of laundering and exposure and recovery times.  


A previous study that documented enhanced host attachment by the camel ticks Hyalomma dromedarii Koch after permethrin exposure prompted a similar investigation of permethrin effects in H. anatolicum excavatum Koch, an Old World hardbacked tick suspected of vectoring human pathogens. Contact toxicity tests were conducted with laboratory-colonized male and female H. a. excavatum of the same age exposed for periods of 5, 10, 30, and 60 min to each of 5 fabric treatments: unwashed/untreated; unwashed and treated; and treated fabric given 1, 2, or 3 laundry cycles of warm-water detergent machine washing, followed by hot-air drying. Fabric was tropical weight 100% cotton military uniform. Treated fabric was impregnated with permethrin at 0.125 mg (AI)/cm2. Contact toxicity was measured immediately after and 24 h after fabric contact as proportion of ticks that attached mouthparts to the skin of a host (rabbit) within a 60-min quest period and time lapse (minutes) between contact with the host and attachment. Attachment response immediately after permethrin contact was exposure time- and wash-dependent in both sexes. Proportion of attaching ticks and times to attachment were comparable in controls and in groups exposed to all permethrin-treated fabrics for 5 or 10 min. Contact periods of 30 and 60 min with 0-wash/treated or 1-wash and treated fabric significantly reduced the frequency of attachment and significantly prolonged mean times to attachment. Compared with low levels of attachment response observed immediately after fabric contact, recovery of attachment response was observed 24 h after exposure in these wash/treatment groups, but inhibition was still evident. Permethrin-induced intoxication was more pronounced in males than females. Mortality 24 h after exposure was only significant among females exposed to 0-wash/treated fabric for 60 min. There was no evidence of permethrin-mediated stimulation of the attachment response in H. a. excavatum. PMID:9615556

Fryauff, D J; Shoukry, M A; Wassef, H Y; Gray, G; Schreck, C E



Acaricidal efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum canum against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Hyalomma marginatum isaaci (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of acaricides had limited efficacy in reducing tick infestations and is often accompanied by serious drawbacks, including\\u000a the selection of acaricide resistant ticks, contamination of environment, and milk and meat products with drug residues. The\\u000a present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles\\u000a (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous leaf extract

Chidambaram Jayaseelan; Abdul Abdul Rahuman


Susceptibility of three tick Hyalomma spp. from North Sinai Governorate to certain pesticide groups.  


Three species of Hyalomma tick, (H. anatolicum, H. dromedarii and H. impeltatum) were collected from camels in North Sinai. The susceptibility of adult females and males of each species to four different groups of insecticides (BHC, Fenitrothion, Permethrin and Baygon) were determined. The results of Lc50 values showed that BHC was the most effective compound against adult males and females of H. impeltatum, whereas the superior efficiency against H. anatolicum and H. dromedarii occurred by Baygon and Permethrin respectively on both males and females. Also the results indicated that the adult males of all tested species of ticks were more susceptible to all the tested insecticides than the adult females. PMID:8308355

el-Kady, G A



The distribution of Hyalomma spp. ticks from domestic ruminants in Iran.  


The distribution of Hyalomma species on domestic animals was studied in four zoogeoghraphical zones. Nine hundred and ninety-two Hyalomma ticks were collected from sheep, goats, cattle and camels. A total of seven tick species consisting of: Hyalomma anatolicum Koch, 1844 (28.93%), H. excavatum Koch, 1844 (12.5%), H. asiaticum Schulze & Schlottke, 1930 (13.5%), H. marginatum Koch, 1844 (27.01%), H. detritum Schulze, 1919 (9.67%), H. schulzei Olenev, 1931 (4.03%) and H. dromedary Koch, 1844 (4.33%) were recorded. The results indicated that H. anatolicum, H. asiaticum, H. marginatum and H. detritum were present in all zones whereas H. excavatum was absent in Zone I. The result also showed that H. dromedari was presented in Zones III and IV whereas H. schulzei was present in Zones II and III. During this study, the tick species collected are candidates for investigation as vectors of pathogenic organisms in Iran. PMID:19712158

Nabian, S; Rahbari, S; Changizi, A; Shayan, P



Molecular characterization of Bm86 gene orthologs from Hyalomma excavatum, Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum and comparison with a vaccine candidate from Hyalomma scupense.  


The ixodid ticks from the Hyalomma genus are important pests of livestock, having major medical and veterinary significance in Northern Africa. Beside their direct pathogenic effects, these species are vectors of important diseases of livestock and in some instances of zoonoses. Anti-tick vaccines developed in Australia and Cuba based on the concealed antigen Bm86 have variable efficacy against H. anatolicum and H. dromedarii. This variation in vaccine efficacy could be explained by the variability in protein sequence between the recombinant Bm86 vaccine and Bm86 orthologs expressed in different Hyalomma species. Bm86 orthologs from three Hyalomma tick species were amplified in two overlapping fragments and sequenced. The rate of identity of the amino acid sequence of Hm86, He86 and Hdr86, the orthologs of Bm86, respectively, in H. marginatum marginatum, H. excavatum and H. dromedarii, with the Bm86 proteins from Rhipicephalus microplus (Australia, Argentina and Mozambique) ranged between 60 and 66%. The obtained amino-acid sequences of Hmm86, He86 and Hdr86 were compared with the Hd86-A1 sequence from H. scupense used as an experimental vaccine. The results showed an identity of 91, 88 and 87% for Hmm86, He86 and Hdr86, respectively. A specific program has been used to predict B cells epitopes sites. The comparison of antigenic sites between Hd86-A1 and Hm86/Hdr86/He86 revealed a diversity affecting 4, 8 and 12 antigenic peptides out of a total of 28 antigenic peptides, respectively. When the Bm86 orthologs amplification protocol adopted in this study was applied to H. excavatum, two alleles named He86p2a1 and He86p2a2 were detected in this species. This is the first time that two different alleles of Bm86 gene are recorded in the same tick specimen. He86p2a1 and He86p2a2 showed an amino acid identity of 92%. When He86p2a1 and He86p2a2 were compared to the corresponding sequence of Hd86-A1 protein, an identity of 86.4 and 91.0% was recorded, respectively. When compared to He86, Hdr86 and Hm86, Bm86 used in commercial and experimental vaccines, showed a greater extent of diversity than noted when the same Hyalomma orthologs were compared to Hd86-A1. Although significant, these variations were less extensive within the Hyalomma genus. Accordingly, thus suggesting that Hd86-A1 vaccine candidate might be more appropriate to target Hyalomma tick species than corresponding Bm86 commercial vaccines. However, vaccination trials with both antigens are required to validate this hypothesis. PMID:22683299

Ben Said, Mourad; Galai, Yousr; Mhadhbi, Moez; Jedidi, Mohamed; de la Fuente, José; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz



Rickettsial agents in Egyptian ticks collected from domestic animals.  


To assess the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks from Egypt, we collected ticks from domestic and peridomestic animals between June 2002 and July 2003. DNA extracts from 1019 ticks were tested, using PCR and sequencing, for Anaplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp., and Rickettsia spp. Ticks included: 29 Argas persicus, 10 Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, 55 Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, 174 Hyalomma dromedarii, 2 Hyalomma impeltatum, 3 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, 55 unidentified nymphal Hyalomma, 625 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, 49 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 17 Rhipicephalus turanicus. Ticks were collected predominantly (>80%) from buffalo, cattle, and camels, with smaller numbers from chicken and rabbit sheds, sheep, foxes, a domestic dog, a hedgehog, and a black rat. We detected Anaplasma marginale, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia aeschlimannii, and four novel genotypes similar to: "Anaplasma platys," Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia spp. reported from Asian ticks, and a Rickettsiales endosymbiont of Ixodes ricinus. PMID:17004028

Loftis, Amanda D; Reeves, Will K; Szumlas, Daniel E; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Moriarity, John R; Dasch, Gregory A



Hard ticks on one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) and their seasonal population dynamics in southeast, Iran.  


The primary objective of this study was to determine the diversity and intensity of ticks found on camels (Camelus dromedarius) and their seasonal population dynamics in Kerman, southeast of Iran. For this purpose, a total of 426 tick specimens were collected from 217 infested camels in southeast of Iran during activating seasons of ticks (April 2009 to March 2010). The species collected from camel were Hyalomma dromedarii (84.7%), Hyalomma marginatum (8.7%), Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (5.4%), and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (1.2%). The highest seasonal activities occurred in summer. The ratio of male ticks was more than female ticks. H. dromedarii was the predominant tick species and accounted for 84.7% of the ticks. PMID:21720786

Fard, Saeid Reza Nourollahi; Fathi, Saeid; Asl, Ehsan Norouzi; Nazhad, Hojat Asgary; Kazeroni, Seimin Salehzadeh



Studies on theileria and babesia infecting live and slaughtered animals in Al Arish and El Hasanah, North Sinai Governorate, Egypt.  


During the year 2001, a total of 475 sheep, 200 goats, 135 cattle and 190 camels in El Arich city and El Hassanah center were examined for Babesia ovis and Theileria ovis. Blood films were taken from the vein of the ear. Meanwhile, the animals were examined for tick infestations. B. ovis and Th. ovis were detected in 13 (2.7%), and 14 (2.9%) sheep, 14 (7.0%), and 15 (7.5%) goats, 13 (9.6%), and 11 (8.1%) cattle and 18 (9.5%), and 24 (12.6%) camels respectively. On the other hand, double infection was found in 114 (24%) sheep, 51 (25%) goats, 27 (20%) cattle and 66 (34.7%) camels. Adult ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. bursa, R. turanicus and Haemaphysalis parva on sheep, Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and Haemaphysalis sulcata on goats, Hyalomma lusitanicum on cattle and Hyalomma dromedarii, H. impeltatum, H. marginitum and H. a. anatolicum on camels. Babesia ovis and/or Theileria ovis were recorded in ticks gut and/or salivary glands in R. appendiculatus (20.%), R. bursa (16.7%), R. turanicus (10%), Haemaphysalis parva (10%), H. a. excavaium (30.%), H. dromedarii (18%), and H. a. anatolicum (6.7%). PMID:12214937

Mazyad, Said A M; Khalaf, Samy A A



Theileria ovis discovered in China.  


A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 989/990 primers was conducted to identify a newly isolated Theileria sp. in Xinjiang Province of China. The target DNA fragments of the complete 18S rRNA gene were cloned and sequenced. The phylogenetic relationship of newly isolated Theileria spp. was inferred based on the 18S rRNA gene. The results showed that the new Theileria sp. belonged to the cluster of Theileria ovis. Moreover, the findings were confirmed by T. ovis species-specific PCR. An expected 520 bp fragment of T. ovis DNA was obtained from 25 out of 320 (8%) field blood samples, and blood of an experimental sheep infested by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum collected in Xinjiang. The infection rate of T. ovis was 78% (25/32) in Xinjiang province. The investigation did not find T. ovis positive samples from the field samples collected from the other twelve provinces. This study indicates that T. ovis is prevalent in Xinjiang province of China and its transmission vector is H. anatolicum anatolicum. PMID:20619262

Li, Youquan; Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Liu, Junlong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong



Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Northern Sudan.  


Monthly total body tick collections from 13-20 camels were conducted for 2 consecutive years (2000-2001) in Northern Sudan. Tick populations were correlated with locality, season, predeliction site, sex and coat colour. Hyalomma dromedarii was found to be the predominant (89%) tick species infesting the camels. Other tick species found in very low numbers were Hyalomma impeltatum (7.7%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (3.3%), Hyalomma truncatum (0.29%), Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (0.25%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (0.30%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus group (0.09%). Nymphs of the genus Hyalomma were collected in significant numbers. Adult ticks significantly preferred to attach to the lower parts of the camel's body for feeding while the nymphs preferred the back of the animal. Female camels harboured more ticks than males while higher infestations were recorded on camels with a grey coat colour compared to those with a brown coat colour. Ticks were found on camels throughout the year and increased in numbers during March to October with a peak in September. PMID:20698438

Elghali, A; Hassan, S M



First survey of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle, sheep and goats in Boeen Zahra and Takistan counties, Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective To carry out the distribution survey of hard ticks of livestock in Boeen Zahra and Takistan counties of Qazvin province from April 2010 to September 2010. Methods Nearly about 2?638 sheep, 461 goats and 318 cattle of 38 herds in different geographical areas were searched for tick infestation. Results The species compositions collected from the livestock of Boeen Zahra and Takistan were Haemaphysalis concinna (0.63%), Haemaphysalis sulcata (12.66%), Hyalomma anatolicum (3.80%), Hyalomma asiaticum (3.16%), Hyalomma detritum (5.70%), Hyalomma dromedarii (28.48%), Hyalomma marginatum (13.29%), Hyalomma schulzei (1.89%), Rhipicephalus bursa (3.16%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.16%), and for Takistan's livestock were Hyalomma dromedarii (9.86%), Hyalomma marginatum (13.29%), Hyalomma schulzei (1.89%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.16%), respectively. Hard ticks compositions in different topographic areas were different. Hyalomma species had the most prevalence in the areas. Conclusions The veterinary and public health investigation of the above species should be taken. PMID:23569956

Shemshad, Masoomeh; Shemshad, Khadijeh; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Shokri, Majid; Barmaki, Alireza; Baniardalani, Mojgan; Rafinejad, Javad



Effect of unfed female weight on the biology of Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii Koch (Acari: Ixodidae).  


Unfed female Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii Koch in 3 different weight groups of 2.4-5.0, 5.3-10.0 and 10.3-14.5 mg, respectively, were investigated for the effect of unfed female weight (UFW) on certain biological parameters. The results showed that the correlation between UFW and the duration of the feeding, preoviposition and oviposition periods varies greatly among the different weight groups and the pooled data. Engorged female and egg mass weights were strongly correlated with UFW of the smallest female group, and the degree of correlations decreased with increase of UFW in the other weight groups. The residual female weight (after oviposition cessation) was strongly correlated with UFW for all weight groups. The egg mass weight was strongly correlated with engorged female weight and the conversion efficiency index was similar for all weight groups. The oviposition pattern for the different weight groups and pooled data appeared similar but peak oviposition values were lacking for the largest female group. The results obviate the necessity of accurate random sampling of the entire tick population or specifying the UFW when studying ixodid biology. PMID:2332666

Khalil, G M; Hagras, A E



Fine structure of the Gene's organ in the camel tick Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae).  


Gene's organ of the camel tick Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii is located in the anterodorsal region of the body cavity ventrad to the scutum. It consists of a short stalk, dividing posteriorly into 2 pairs of horns and then into tubular glands. In unfed ticks, the epithelial layer of both the stalk and horns is lined internally by 2 cuticular layers; an inner, thin, greatly folded, dense layer surrounds the organ main lumen, and an outer, thick, slightly folded, less dense layer abuts the cell apices. Only the inner cuticular layer extends into the horn posterior region and appears perforated with numerous pore canals and covered with fine, cuticular projections. The horn and tubular glands epithelium is structurally consistent with a secretory function that apparently increases as feeding progresses. During oviposition, the inner cuticular layer unfolds and inflates into a pair of balloonlike structures that evert through the organ external aperture to receive and manipulate each egg as it is laid, coating it with a waxy layer that prevents desiccation. The fine cuticular projections may have a function in gripping the eggs as they leave the vagina. This organ appears to be everted by hydrostatic pressure from the hemolymph and is retracted by muscles. PMID:3612816

el Shoura, S M



Ticks (Ixodidae) on migrating birds in Egypt, spring and fall 1962*  

PubMed Central

Over a number of years studies have been carried out in Egypt on the transport by migrating birds of ticks that may transmit pathogens of man and animals. In continuation of these investigations 11 036 birds migrating southwards through Egypt were examined for ticks during the fall of 1962. The 881 infested birds (comprising 24 species and sub-species represented by 10 612 individuals) yielded 1442 ticks. Tick-host relationships were similar to those of previous years except that in 1962 the prevalence of infestation was almost invariably much higher than the averages for 1959-61. Five species of birds were added to the previous list of 40 infested forms. Previously unrecorded tick species taken during 1962 were Ixodes redikorzevi (a species from Asia very occasionally found in rodent burrows in Egypt), the rare Haemaphysalis inermis, and Hyalomma a. anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum and H. dromedarii, which may have been carried from Asia or have attached themselves to the birds at the time of netting. During the spring of 1962, altogether 1774 birds migrating northwards through Egypt were also examined. The 56 tick-infested birds (comprising 13 species represented by 867 individuals) yielded 186 ticks. As in previous years, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes was the chief species (89.25%) parasitizing spring migrants. A single specimen of Amblyomma variegatum was taken on Anthus cervinus and 19 specimens of Ixodes?sp. nov. were collected from Sylvia c. communis and Motacilla a. alba. PMID:14163959

Hoogstraal, Harry; Traylor, Melvin A.; Gaber, Sobhy; Malakatis, George; Guindy, Ezzat; Helmy, Ibrahim



Detection of Naturally Infected Vector Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) by Different Species of Babesia and Theileria Agents from Three Different Enzootic Parts of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Diagnostic study of vector ticks for different pathogens transmitted specifically have been done by Iranian old scientists working on the basis of biological transmission of pathogens. In this study we decided to confirm natural infection of different collected ticks from three different provinces of Iran. Methods: Ticks were collected from livestock (sheep, goats and cattle) during favorable seasons (April to September 2007 and 2008). Slide preparations were stained by Giemsa and Feulgen and were studied searching for any trace of infection. Positive DNA from infected blood or tissue samples was provided and was used as positive control. First, PCR optimization for positive DNA was done, and then tick samples were subjected to specific PCR. Results: Eleven pairs of primers were designed for detection of Theileria, Babesia and Anaplasma spp. Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus turanicus from Fars Province were infected with T. lestoquardi at two different places. Hyalomma detritum was infected with T. lestoquardi in Lorestan Province and Rh. turanicus was infected to Ba. ovis from Fars Province. Conclusion: Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Every sample is regarded with host-environment related factors. Since there are complex relations of vectors and their relevant protozoa, different procedures are presented for future studies. PMID:24409442

Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad



Investigation of blood parasites in livestock infested with argasid and ixodid ticks in Egypt.  


Nineteen species and subspecies of ixodid and argasid ticks, Hyalomma dromedarii, H. impeltatum, H. anatolicum excavatum, H. a. anatolicum, H. truncatum, H. m. marginatum, H. m. rufipes, H. m. turanicum, Boophilus annulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. turanicus, R. guilhoni, R. camicasi, Amblyomma lipidum, A. marmoreum, A. vareigatum, Argas persicus, A. hermanii and A. arboreus were collected from different localities in five governorates, Giza, Sharkia, Ismailia, El Beheira and Sinai. Hyalomma species were found on camels (98.6%) and cows (1.4%). B. annulatus was found only on cows (100%), Rhipicephalus species on dogs (89.8%), camels (8.2%) and sheep (2.0%), Amblyomma species were found on imported camels (100%), and Argas species on chickens (70.6%), herons (18.8%) and pigeons (10.6%). Examination of camels, cows, sheep, and chickens infested with ticks showed Theileria annulata (rod and ovoid), Babesia bigemmina (ring), B. ovis (ovoid), and Babesiosoma gallinarum (dot-like), respectively. Haemoproteus columbae were found in pigeons. These parasites were determined by microscope imaged. PMID:11478436

El Kammah, K M; Oyoun, L M; El Kady, G A; Shafy, S A



Bionomics of ticks collected from Sinai Peninsula: 2- abundance, attachment sites, and density estimators of ticks infesting Arabian camels.  


Ten camels were examined monthly from January to December 1999, in Beer Lehfen North Sinai Gavernorate. A total of 5468 adult ticks of 6 species and subspecies of genus Hyalomma; H. dromedrii, H. ipmeltatum, H. a. excavatum, H. a. anatolicum, H. schulzei, and H. marginatum rufipes, in addition to 115 Hyalomma nymphs' species were collected. Of these, the first 4 types represented about 96.2% of the total collection. The infestation rate was higher during the period from March to November. The average monthly infestation rate was 22.78+/-3. The large number of the adult ticks were concentrated on tail, brisket, anus, and udder which totaled 68.2%. Attachment sites of males and females were not significantly correlated in most species. Nymphs were localized in few sites, whereas 91.6% of the total nymphs were attached to hump, neck, head (ear), and side. H. dromedarii, H. impeltatum, and H. a. excavatum were found on most of the body sites, tail, brisket, udder, and anus, totaling 79.9%. Males exceeded females in all sites, and were alone on neck and legs. Females were the only stage collected from udder. Both sex of H. a. anatolicum were collected from tail. H. schulzei and H. m. rufipes were concentrated in brisket, udder, anus, and tail. PMID:11478447

Diab, F M; El-Kady, G A; Shoukry, A



Ticks status in Central Asia with a special emphasis on Uzbekistan.  


Uzbekistan is located between the greatest rivers of Central Asia and shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south. The climate is severely continental and arid, with hot summers and cold winters. These climatic particularities of Uzbekistan determine the distribution of tick fauna. The Ixodidae family of ticks is represented by 23 species in Uzbekistan. These ticks, as ectoparasites, cause significant damage to the livestock breeding and also serve as carriers of many human and animal diseases. During the last 10 years, more than 30,000 ticks in different regions of Uzbekistan were collected and identified. Analysis showed that cattle are parasitized by 11 species of Ixodidae ticks. The dominating species were Hyalomma anatolicum (34.9%), Hyalomma detritum detritum (31.8%), Boophilus kohlsi (30.7%). PMID:17823825

Rasulov, Ilham



Tick paralysis: first zoonosis record in Egypt.  


Tick paralysis caused by the secretion of toxin with saliva while taking a blood meal is an important veterinary disease, but is rare in humans. Although it has certain geographical proclivities, it exists worldwide. Tick paralysis was demonstrated for the first time in Egypt among four children living in rural area at Giza Governorate. The clinical pictures were confused with rabies; myasthensia gravis; botulism; diphtheritic polyneuropathy encountered in rural areas. The recovery of tick infesting the four little children and negative clinical and laboratory data of all diseases denoted tick paralysis. The encountered ticks infesting their animals were Rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs, Hyalomma dromedarii on camels and Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and Haemaphysalis sp. on goats. The case was recognized as first record of tick paralysis in Egypt. PMID:22662597

Mosabah, Amira A Abd El-rahman; Morsy, Tosson A



Draft Genome Sequence of Rickettsia aeschlimannii, Associated with Hyalomma marginatum Ticks  

PubMed Central

Rickettsia aeschlimannii is a tick-associated human pathogen. We report here the draft genome of R. aeschlimannii strain MC16, isolated from Hyalomma marginatum marginatum ticks collected in Morocco. PMID:25059861

Sentausa, Erwin; El Karkouri, Khalid; Michelle, Caroline; Raoult, Didier



Novel and simple approach using synthesized nickel nanoparticles to control blood-sucking parasites.  


The present study was on assessment of the anti-parasitic activities of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) against the larvae of cattle ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The metallic Ni NPs were synthesized by polyol process from Ni-hydrazine as precursor and Tween 80 as both the medium and the stabilizing reagent. The synthesized Ni NPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis which indicated the presence of Ni NPs. Synthesized Ni NPs showed the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks at 42.76°, 53.40°, and 76.44°, identified as 111, 220, and 200 reflections, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the synthesized Ni NPs clearly showed that the Ni NPs were spherical in shape with an average size of 150 nm. The Ni NPs showed maximum activity against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus, H. a. anatolicum, A. subpictus, C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus with LC(50) values of 10.17, 10.81, 4.93, 5.56 and 4.94 mg/L; r(2) values of 0.990, 0.993, 0.992, 0.950 and 0.988 and the efficacy of Ni-hydrazine complexes showed the LC(50) values of 20.35, 22.72, 8.29, 9.69 and 7.83 mg/L; r(2) values of 0.988, 0.986, 0.989, 0.944 and 0.978, respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized Ni NPs possess excellent larvicidal parasitic activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on larvicidal activity of blood feeding parasites using synthesized Ni NPs. PMID:23040768

Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Velayutham, Kanayairam; Ramyadevi, Jeyaraman; Jeyasubramanian, Kadarkaraithangam; Marikani, Arumugam; Elango, Gandhi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Bagavan, Asokan; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Iyappan, Moorthy; Siva, Chinnadurai



Detection, Isolation and Confirmation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Human, Ticks and Animals in Ahmadabad, India, 2010-2011  

PubMed Central

Background In January 2011, human cases with hemorrhagic manifestations in the hospital staff were reported from a tertiary care hospital in Ahmadabad, India. This paper reports a detailed epidemiological investigation of nosocomial outbreak from the affected area of Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India. Principal Findings Samples from 3 suspected cases, 83 contacts, Hyalomma ticks and livestock were screened for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus by qRT-PCR of which samples of two medical professionals (case C and E) and the husband of the index case (case D) were positive for CCHFV. The sensitivity and specificity of indigenous developed IgM ELISA to screen CCHFV specific antibodies in human serum was 75.0% and 97.5% respectively as compared to commercial kit. About 17.0% domestic animals from Kolat, Ahmadabad were positive for IgG antibodies while only two cattle and a goat showed positivity by qRT-PCR. Surprisingly, 43.0% domestic animals (Buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat) showed IgG antibodies in the adjoining village Jivanpara but only one of the buffalo was positive for CCHFV. The Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks were positive in PCR and virus isolation. CCHFV was isolated from the blood sample of case C, E in Vero E-6 cells and Swiss albino mice. In partial nucleocapsid gene phylogeny from CCHFV positive human samples of the years 2010 and 2011, livestock and ticks showed this virus was similar to Tajikistan (strain TAJ/H08966), which belongs in the Asian/middle east genetic lineage IV. Conclusions The likely source of CCHFV was identified as virus infected Hyalomma ticks and livestock at the rural village residence of the primary case (case A). In addition, retrospective sample analysis revealed the existence of CCHFV in Gujarat and Rajasthan states before this outbreak. An indigenous developed IgM ELISA kit will be of great use for screening this virus in India. PMID:22616022

Mourya, Devendra T.; Yadav, Pragya D.; Shete, Anita M.; Gurav, Yogesh K.; Raut, Chandrashekhar G.; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Pawar, Shailesh D.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mishra, Akhilesh C.



Scototaxis and target perception in the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii.  


The camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii, exhibited positive scototaxis in an arena, e.g. it oriented towards a black or grey target in front of a white background. The degree of the scototactic response varied with the size and the elevation of the target, with its luminance contrast, with its shape and with the speed by which the target was moved: (1) the response to stationary and moving targets increased with increasing target size; (2) presentation of the targets at an elevation of 11 degrees--15 degrees induced the highest response; (3) the response decreased with decreasing luminance contrast of the target; (4) targets with the shape of a disk, a triangle standing on a vertex, a vertical bar or a silhouette of a dromedary caused high responses; a low response was observed when the target was a horizontal bar and there was no response to a striped pattern; (5) the smaller the size of a disk, the faster it had to be moved to elicit an optimum response. The smallest disk which elicited a significant response appeared under a visual angle of 4.8 degrees for a thick at the starting point. The smallest dromedary-shaped silhouette which elicited a significant response corresponded to the silhouette of a real dromedary at a distance of 18 m. PMID:2261819

Kaltenrieder, M



Adenosine deaminase from camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii: purification and characterization.  


Adenosine deaminase is involved in purine metabolism and is a key enzyme for the control of the cellular levels of adenosine. Adenosine deaminase activity showed significant changes during embryogenesis of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii. From the elution profile of chromatography on DEAE-sepharose, three forms of enzyme (ADAI, ADAII and ADAIII) were separated. ADAII was purified to homogeneity after chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. The molecular mass of adenosine deaminase ADAII was 42 kDa for the native enzyme and represented a monomer of 42 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme had a pH optimum at 7.5 and temperature optimum at 40 degrees C with heat stability up to 40 degrees C. ADAII had a K (m) of 0.5 mM adenosine with higher affinity toward deoxyadenosine and adenosine than other purines. Ni(2+), Ba(2+), Zn(2+), Li(2+), Hg(2+) and Mg(2+) partially inhibited the ADAII. Mg(2+) was the strongest inhibitor by 91% of the enzyme's activity. PMID:17089216

Mohamed, Tarek M



Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus infection in the western province of Saudi Arabia.  


In 1990, an outbreak of suspected viral haemorrhagic fever involving 7 individuals occurred in Mecca in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), not previously known to be present in Saudi Arabia, was incriminated. A study of the epidemiology of this virus was therefore carried out in Mecca, and in nearby Jeddah and Taif in 1991-1993; 13 species of ixodid ticks (5 Hyalomma spp., 5 Rhipicephalus spp., 2 Amblyomma spp., 1 Boophilus sp.) were collected from livestock (camels, cattle, sheep, goats), and of these 10 were capable of transmitting CCHF. Camels had the highest rate of tick infestation (97%), and H. dromedarii was the commonest tick (70%). Attempts to isolate virus from pools of H. dromedarii and H. anatolicum anatolicum were unsuccessful. The source of infection in 3 confirmed cases of CCHF was contact with fresh mutton and, in a suspected case, slaughtering sheep. An investigation in Mecca, which included a serological survey of abattoir workers, identified 40 human cases of confirmed or suspected CCHF between 1989 and 1990, with 12 fatalities. Significant risk factors included exposure to animal blood or tissue in abattoirs, but not tick bites. It is suspected that the CCHF virus may have been introduced to Saudi Arabia by infected ticks on imported sheep arriving at Jeddah seaport, and that it is now endemic in the Western Province. PMID:9231193

el-Azazy, O M; Scrimgeour, E M



Life cycle of tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium under laboratory conditions.  


The tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium has a typical three-host life-cycle. Whereas its larvae and nymphs are less host-specific feeding on a variety of tetrapods, tortoises of the genus Testudo are principal hosts of adults. Ticks retained this trait also in our study under laboratory conditions, while adults were reluctant to feed on mammalian hosts. Combination of feeding larvae and nymphs on guinea pigs and feeding of adults on Testudo marginata tortoises provided the best results. Feeding period of females was on average 25 days (range 17-44), whereas males remain after female engorgement on tortoise host. Female pre-oviposition period was 14 days (3-31), followed by 24 days of oviposition (18-29). Pre-eclosion and eclosion, both together, takes 31 days (21-43). Larvae fed 5 days (3-9), then molted to nymphs after 17 days (12-23). Feeding period of nymphs lasted 7 days (5-10), engorged nymphs molted to adults after 24 days (19-26). Sex ratio of laboratory hatched H. aegyptium was nearly equal (1:1.09). The average weight of engorged female was 0.95 (0.72-1.12) g. The average number of laid eggs was 6,900 (6,524-7,532) per female, it was significantly correlated with weight of engorged female. Only 2.8% of engorged larvae and 1.8% of engorged nymphs remained un-molted and died. Despite the use of natural host species, feeding success of females reached only 45%. The whole life-cycle was completed within 147 days (98-215). PMID:21431927

Siroký, Pavel; Erhart, Jan; Petrželková, Klára J; Kamler, Martin



Superoxide dismutases from larvae of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii.  


Three superoxide dismutases (EC (TLSOD1, TLSOD2 and TLSOD3) were purified from larvae of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration columns. SDS-PAGE revealed that the subunit molecular masses of the SODs are 40±2 kDa, 67±1.5 kDa and 45±2.6 kDa for TLSOD1, TLSOD2 and TLSOD3, respectively. TLSOD1 and TLSOD2 are monomeric proteins, while TLSOD3 isoenzyme exhibits dimeric structure with native molecular mass of 90 kDa. The pI values are estimated at pH 8.0, pH 7.2 and pH 6.6 for the three SODs which displayed pH optima at 7.6, 8.0 and 7.8, respectively. CuCl(2) and ZnCl(2) increase the activity of TLSOD2 and TLSOD3, while MnCl(2) increases the activity of TLSOD1. KCN inhibits the activity of TLSOD2 and TLSOD3, while a remarkable resistance of TLSOD1 isoenzyme was detected. TLSOD1 is suggested to be a manganese containing isoenzyme while TLSOD2 and TLSOD3 are suggested to be copper/zinc-containing isoenzymes. These results indicate the presence of three different forms of SODs in the larval stage of camel tick. This finding will contribute to our understanding of the physiology of these ectoparasites and the development of non-traditional methods to control them. PMID:23333534

Ibrahim, Mahmoud A; Mohamed, Mona M; Ghazy, Abdel-Hady M; Masoud, Hassan M M



Juvenile Hormone I Effects on the Camel Tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Feeding and engorged nymphs and unfed and feeding adults of Hyalomma (H.) dromedarii were treated topically with 10, 20, and 50 micrograms juvenile hormone I (JH 1). Large doses of JH 1 were lethal to adults; nymphs tolerated JH 1, but emerging adults exh...

G. M. Khalil, D. E. Sonenshine, H. A. Hanafy, A. E. Abdelmonem



Molecules and morphology: evidence for cryptic hybridization in African Hyalomma (Acari: Ixodidae).  


The role of natural hybridization and introgression as part of the evolutionary process is of increasing interest to zoologists, particularly as more examples of gene exchange among species are identified. We present mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data for Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma truncatum, and Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from one-humped camels in Ethiopia. These species are well differentiated morphologically and genetically; sequence data from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I gene indicates 10-14% divergence between the species. However, incongruence between morphology and the mtDNA phylogeny was observed, with multiple individuals of H. dromedarii and H. truncatum present on the same mtDNA lineage as H. marginatum rufipes. Thus, individuals with morphology of H. dromedarii and H. truncatum are indistinguishable from H. marginatum rufipes on the basis of mtDNA. Multiple copies of ITS-2 were subsequently cloned and sequenced for a subset of individuals from the mtDNA phylogeny, representing both 'normal' and 'putative hybrid' individuals. Very low sequence divergence (0.3%) was observed within 'normal' individuals of both H. dromedarii and H. truncatum relative to the 'putative hybrid' individuals (6 and 2.7%, respectively). The pattern of intra-individual variation in ITS-2 within 'putative hybrid' individuals, particularly in H. dromedarii, strongly suggests that gene flow has occurred among these Hyalomma species, but no indication of this is given by the morphology of the individuals. PMID:12679078

Rees, David J; Dioli, Maurizio; Kirkendall, Lawrence R



Protozoal parasites in tick species infesting camels in Sinai Peninsula.  


A faunistic survey of ticks infesting camels was carried out in 7 localities of Sinai; El-Arish, Beer El Abd, Nakhel, Ain Mousa, St. Catherine, Wadi Hadra, and Dahab. The protozoal organisms present in the gut and haemolymph of the collected tick species were investigated. Results revealed the presence of six species of tick infesting camels, Hyalomma dromedarii, H. impeltatum, H. an. excavatum, H. an. anatolicum, H. marginatum and H. schulzei. The first 3 species were most common, whereas the latter 3 species were found in certain limited localities. Babesia sp. and Theilera sp. were recorded in both tick guts and haemolymph in most species allover the studied areas. Trypanosoma sp. was recorded in the guts of ticks collected from Beer El Abd, Nakhel and Dahab. Anaplasma sp. was found in tick guts from Beer El Abd and Dahab, however the same organism was detected in the haemolymph of ticks collected in Nakhel and Dahab. PMID:9914699

el Kady, G A



Spotted fever rickettsiae in ticks from the northern Sinai Governate, Egypt.  


A field study was initiated in 1988 to investigate whether spotted fever group rickettsiae occur in geographic areas in Egypt that are adjacent to an area in the southern Israeli Negev that has a defined focus of spotted fever disease. Ticks were collected from dogs, sheep, and camels at four study sites in the northern Sinai. Tick hemolymph was processed for rickettsial detection by staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody to Rickettsia rickettsii. Of the 442 hemolymphs examined, 15 contained immunofluorescent rickettsiae. Eight hemolymph test-positive (HT+) ticks were Rhipicephalus sanguineus removed from dogs; the other HT+ ticks comprised three Hyalomma species, H. anatolicum, H. impeltatum, and H. dromedarii. Both HT+ and HT- ticks were tested for rickettsial DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eight of 10 HT+ field-collected ticks were PCR positive (PCR+). All laboratory colony R. rickettsii-infected ticks were PCR+. No HT- ticks from field or laboratory isolates were PCR+. PMID:1599048

Lange, J V; el Dessouky, A G; Manor, E; Merdan, A I; Azad, A F



Antibodies against rickettsia in humans and potential vector ticks from Dhofar, Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the extent of rickettsial infections prevalence of potential vector ticks in the rural population of Dhofar, Oman. Method Human sera (n = 347) were obtained from six rural localities (school children, farmers, outpatients) in Dhofar, Sultanate of Oman. Sera were tested by immunofluorescence for the presence of antibodies reacting with Rickettsia conorii antigen. Results More than half the samples (59%) gave positive reactions (titres of at least 1:64). Ticks (n=707) were collected from cattle, camels and goats (n=102) and included Amblyomma variegatum, Hyalomma a. anatolicum, H. dromedarii, H. rufipes and Rhipicephalus spp., all of which can potentially transmit rickettsiae to humans. Conclusion The results suggest that rickettsial infections are common among the rural population of Dhofar. PMID:24019699

Idris, M A; Ruppel, A; Petney, T



[Genetic variants of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus circulating in endemic areas of the southern Tajikistan in 2009].  


506 Hyalomma anatolicum ticks were collected and assayed in two Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) endemic regions of Tajikistan. Antigen and RNA of CCHF virus were detected in 3.4% of tick pools from Rudaki district using ELISA and RT-PCR tests. As of Tursunzade district, viral antigen was identified in 9.0% of samples and viral RNA was identified in 8.1% of samples. The multiple alignment of the obtained nucleotide sequences of CCHF virus genome S-segment 287-nt region (996-1282) and multiple alignment of deduced amino acid sequences of the samples, carried out to compare with CCHF virus strains from the GenBank database, as well as phylogenetic analysis, enabled us to conclude that Asia 1 and Asia 2 genotypes of CCHF virus are circulating in Tajikistan. It is important to note that the genotype Asia 1 virus was detected for the first time in Tajikistan. PMID:24364143

Petrova, I D; Kononova, Iu V; Chausov, E V; Shestopalov, A M; Tishkova, F Kh



Spectral sensitivity, absolute threshold, and visual field of two tick species, Hyalomma dromedarii and Amblyomma variegatum.  


1. The spectral sensitivity in the wavelength range of 340-750 nm was determined by both a behavioral approach based on spontaneous positive phototaxis and the electroretinogram (ERG). 2. Concerning phototaxis the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii, showed two sensitivity maxima, one in the UV range (ca. 380 nm) and another in the blue-green range (ca. 500 nm). At higher intensities the relative sensitivity was more pronounced in the UV and at lower intensities more pronounced in the blue-green (reverse Purkinje shift). In the tropical bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum, there was a single sensitivity maximum in the blue range (ca. 480 nm). 3. In the ERG there was a maximum in the blue range (ca. 470 nm) in both species and a weak secondary maximum in the UV in Hyalomma. 4. The absolute sensitivity was very high. The threshold irradiance of phototaxis was as low as 5.2 x 10(6) in Hyalomma and 5.2 x 10(8) in Amblyomma. 5. When the eyes of Hyalomma were covered, the threshold irradiance was still very low, namely 5.2 x 10(8), indicating high absolute sensitivity of the extraretinal photoreceptors. 6. The visual field of the eyes was determined by ERG measurements. In both species the optical axis of each eye, i.e., the center of the visual field, was directed somewhat to the side and above the horizon. In Hyalomma this direction was 35 degrees to the long axis of the animal and 30 degrees above the horizon for natural body posture during walking. In Amblyomma the corresponding angles were 39 degrees and 33 degrees, respectively. The size of the field (at 50% sensitivity) in Hyalomma was relatively small, namely 14 degrees in the horizontal and 25 degrees in the vertical direction, compared with that of Amblyomma with 43 degrees and 49 degrees, respectively. 7. This is the first demonstration in ticks of spectral and absolute sensitivity by the behavioral approach and of the visual field by ERG. The results suggest that tick eyes possess features of both spider eyes and insect ocelli. PMID:2746548

Kaltenrieder, M; Labhart, T; Hess, E



[Efficacy and residual effect of amitraz (Taktic) on adult Hyalomma dromedarii in camels: preliminary trial].  


Amitraz (12.5% emulsifiable concentrate) was tested against Hyalomma dromedarii of the one-humped camel in a dairy camel herd in Nouakchott (Mauritania), at a concentration of 0.025% of the active component. The efficacy on adult ticks and the rapid rate of tick detachment are clearly shown: 95% reduction within eight hours; however, the nymphs seem to be more resistant: only 50% reduction after eight hours. The residual activity of amitraz against Hyalomma dromedarii in camels is very short, less than 24 hours; furthermore, the amitraz treatment has no effect on survival, oviposition and the rate of egg hatching of females which attach in the first days following treatment. A discussion of likely causes of this phenomenon is presented. PMID:7863074

Jacquiet, P; Mulato, C; Thiam, A; Gueye, S; Cheikh, D



Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) in the Sinai, Egypt with a note on the acaricidal efficacy of ivermectin.  


In this study, tick burdens on camels (Camelus dromedarius) were determined in the vicinity of the St. Catherine monastery, Sinai, Egypt. In total 2,545 ticks (1,491 adults and 1,054 nymphs) were collected and identified. Mean tick burdens were relatively heavy and the range in number of ticks per camel was very broad (6-173). Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick species and accounted for 95.6% of the adult ticks. Other ticks found were H. marginatum subspp. and H. anatolicum excavatum. All nymphs collected were Hyalomma spp. In addition, the effect of ivermectin (Ivomec MSD AGVET) on tick burdens, when given subcutaneously at 0.2 mg/kg-1, was evaluated in nine camels in the date-palm plantation of Kibbutz Yahel in the Arava valley, Israel. Initial tick burdens on these camels (half-body tick counts) ranged from 20-105 ticks per camel. Seven camels from the same herd with half-body tick counts ranging from 40-107 ticks per camel were not treated and served as a control group. Ivermectin was not effective against Hyalomma tick infestation in camels under these conditions. PMID:7628237

van Straten, M; Jongejan, F



Survey of ticks (Acarina: Ixodidae) for Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus activity in Jammu & Kashmir state, India.  


A survey of ixodid ticks was carried on in 1977 to determine the crimean haemorrhagic fever (CHF) virus activity in Jammu & Kashmir state, India. In all, 412 immatures and 3258 adults belonging to 7 genera and 16 species of ticks were collected as ectoparasites of small and large mammals. These included one species each of the genera Boophilus, Dermacentor and Nosomma, 2 species of Rhipicephalus, 3 species of Ixodes and 4 species each of Haemaphysalis and Hyalomma. Haem. bispinosa was the predominant species followed by B. microplus, Haem. montgomeryi, R. haemaphysaloides and Hyal. m. isaaci. The four Hyalomma species viz., Hyal. a. anatolicum (incriminated as the vector of CHF virus), Hyal. detritum, Hyal. dromedarii and Hyal. m. isaaci were found parasitizing goat, sheep, camel and cattle and were collected in the districts of Jammu, Rajouri, Poonch and Udhampur. Four species viz., Haem. intermedia, Hyal. detritum, Hyal. dromedarii and Hyal. m. isaaci are new records for the state. A total of 138 pools comprising eight species under six genera of ticks were processed for isolating the virus. CHF virus was not isolated. The role of ixodid ticks, particularly those of the genus Hyalomma in the dissemination of CHF virus is highlighted. PMID:2111801

Kaul, H N; Shetty, P S; Ghalsasi, G R; Dhanda, V



A review of Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae) in the Maghreb region: from biology to control  

PubMed Central

Hyalomma scupense (syn. Hyalomma detritum) is a two-host domestic endophilic tick of cattle and secondarily other ungulates in the Maghreb region (Africa). This species transmits several pathogens, among which two are major livestock diseases: Theileria annulata and Theileria equi. Various other pathogens are also transmitted by this tick species, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia bovis. Hyalomma scupense is common in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of several regions in the world, mainly in the Maghreb region. In this region, adults attach to animals during the summer season; larvae and nymphs attach to their hosts during autumn, but there is a regional difference in H. scupense phenology. There is an overlap between immature and adult ticks, leading in some contexts to a dramatic modification of the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. This tick species attaches preferentially to the posterior udder quarters and thighs. Tick burdens can reach 130 ticks per animal, with a mean of 60 ticks. Calves are 70 times less infested than adult cattle. The control can be implemented through six options: (i) rehabilitation of the farm buildings by roughcasting and smoothing the outer and inner surfaces of the enclosures and walls. This control option should be recommended to be combined with a thorough cleaning of the farm and its surrounding area. With regard to Theileria annulata infection, this control option is the most beneficial. (ii) Acaricide application to animals during the summer season, targeting adults. (iii) Acaricide application during the autumn period for the control of the immature stages. (iv) Acaricide application to the walls: many field veterinarians have suggested this option but it is only partially efficient since nymphs enter deep into the cracks and crevices. It should be used if there is a very high tick burden or if there is a high risk of tick-borne diseases. (v) Manual tick removal: this method is not efficient since the ticks can feed on several other animal species in the farm. This control option can lead to a reduction of the tick population, but not a decrease in tick-borne disease incidence. (vi) Vaccination: this control option consists of injecting the protein Hd86; trials have shown a partial effect on nymphs, with no effect on adult ticks. Combination of two of these control options is recommended in regions where there are high burdens of important tick vectors. Further studies are needed to improve our knowledge on this tick species in the Maghreb region, since the number of published studies on Hyalomma scupense in this region is very limited. PMID:24507485

Gharbi, Mohamed; Aziz Darghouth, Mohamed



Hyalomma (Hyalommina) arabica: nymphal and larval identity and spiny mouse hosts in Saudi Arabia (Acarina: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae).  


Nymphal and larval Hyalomma (Hyalommina) arabica Pegram, Hoogstraal, and Wassef, 1982, described herein, closely resemble those of Hyalomma (Hyalommina) rhipicephaloides Neumann, differing chiefly in body size (both stages), nymphal basis capituli and scutal proportional dimensions, and distinctness of larval coxal spurs. Females of these species are also structurally similar but males differ in major critical characters. Nymphs and larvae of both species parasitize the spiny mouse (Acomys spp.), but immatures of the third African- Arabian species of this subgenus, Hyalomma (Hyalommina) punt Hoogstraal, Kaiser, and Pedersen, are unknown. Hyalomma (Hyalommina) arabica occurs in valleys and hills of western Saudi Arabia and western Yemen; H. (H.) rhipicephaloides in the Red Sea and Dead Sea areas; and H. (H.) punt in northeastern Somalia and eastern Ethiopia. The ibex (Capra ibex nubiana Cuvier) is probably the original host of adult H. (H.) arabica and H. (H.) rhipicephaloides; the related domestic goat is an important host of adults of the 3 species, which also parasitize domestic sheep. Gazelles are recorded hosts of adults of H. (H.) rhipicephaloides and H. (H.) punt and the latter is also recorded from goats, sheep, camels and cattle. PMID:4057007

Diab, F M; Hoogstraal, H; Wassef, H Y; Al Khalifa, M S; Al Asgah, N A



Effect of blood meal and mating on the genital tract ultrastructure in the female camel tick Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae).  


The genital tract ultrastructure in the female Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii is described during feeding and mating and up to oviposition. The vagina, consisting of vestibular (VV) and cervical (CV) regions, is formed of an epithelium lined internally with a folded cuticular layer and surrounded externally by muscle layers. These facilitate the passage of endospermatophores containing sperm into the receptaculum seminis (RS), and ova to the exterior. A pair of tubular accessory glands (AG) opening at the junction of VV and CV consist of an epithelial layer of undifferentiated cells. As feeding progresses, these cells synthesise their granular secretion which lubricates the egg surface during its passage through VV. The RS, opening anteriorly into the CV, consists of cuboidal cells lined with a thin cuticular layer. These cells become rich in glycogen and lipid vacuoles, possibly acting as a source of energy for various cell activities including granule synthesis and exocytosis. The granules discharge their contents into intercellular spaces distributed throughout the RS wall and communicate with the main lumen via narrow channels. The cell secretion may dissolve the endospermatophore wall to release sperm, while their lysosome-like structures may function in the breakdown of endospermatophoric material taken up by pinocytosis. The connecting tube (CT) opens into the CV anterodorsally and leads into the common oviduct (COV) posteriorly. It consists of an epithelium lined by a closely-adhering cuticular layer, giving the tube lumen the appearance of an undulate labyrinth with a complicated configuration. No secretory activity in the CT has been observed before, during, or after feeding. The paired, non-cuticular oviducts, extending from the ovary and fusing anteriorly to form COV, consist of an epithelium poor in cell organelles. At the final stages of feeding the cell cytoplasm contains large, phagosomal vacuoles penetrated by sperms, in addition to micropinocytotic vesicles which serve to break down the seminal fluid and other materials. The basal membrane is infolded giving characteristic features, which increase dramatically during oviposition, of epithelia involved in ion and water transport. The oviducal secretion may function as a tanning agent to harden the egg-shell and may also act as a lubricant for egg passage. PMID:2707112

el Shoura, S M



Rickettsia africae in Hyalomma dromedarii ticks from sub-Saharan Algeria.  


Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are caused by obligate, intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. In recent years, several species and subspecies of rickettsias have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including sub-Saharan Africa. We report here the detection of Rickettsia africae, the agent responsible for African tick-bite fever, by amplification of fragments of gltA and ompA genes and multi-spacer typing from Hyalomma dromedarii ticks collected from the camel Camelus dromedarius in the Adrar and Béchar region (sub-Saharan Algeria). To date, R. africae has been associated mainly with Amblyomma spp. The role of H. dromedarii in the epidemiology of R. africae requires further investigation. PMID:23164496

Kernif, Tahar; Djerbouh, Amel; Mediannikov, Oleg; Ayach, Bouhous; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir



Purification and characterization of aspartate aminotransferase from developing embryos of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii.  


Aspartate transaminase (AST) activity in the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii was followed throughout embryogenesis. During purification of AST to homogeneity, ion exchange chromatography lead to four separate forms (termed I, II, III and IV). AST II with the highest specific activity was pure after chromatography on Sephacryl S-300. The molecular mass of AST II was 52 KDa for the native enzyme, composed of one subunit of 50 KDa. AST II had a Km value of 0.67mM for a-ketoglutarate and 15.1 mM for aspartate. AST II had a pH optimum of 7.5 with heat stability up to 50 degrees C for 15 min. The enzyme was activated by MnCl2, and inhibited by CaCl2, MgCl2. NiCl2, and ZnCl2. PMID:11523919

Mohamed, T M



Efficacy of flumethrin and coumaphos against the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii L. (Acari: Ixodidae).  


The efficacy of Flumethrin pour on and Coumaphos 50% WP was tested against different stages of Hyalomma dromedarii. With contact method, LC50 values for larvae and adults were 0.04, 0.03 ug/cm2 and 0.05, 1.06 ug/cm2 respectively. The LC50 for coumaphos against the larvae, adults and eggs using dipping method were 44, 63, and 62 ppm respectively. Flumethrin caused significant reduction in oviposition and hatchability in female ticks that survived sublethal concentrations, while sublethal doses of coumaphos had no effect on the reproductive potential of the tick. The results showed that flumethrin was 8 times more toxic than coumaphos. PMID:11775105

Alahmed, A M; Hussein, H I; Kheir, S M; Al-Rajhy, D



Factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor from the nymphs of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii.  


An inhibitor of factor Xa (FXa) was isolated from the nymphs of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii by a combination of chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-300 columns. The isolated nymphal FXa inhibitor turned out to be a homogenous preparation of a single polypeptide chain (15 kDa) as judged by both the native and denatured SDS-PAGE. Its pI value ranged from 7.7 to 7.9. The inhibitor is a potent anticoagulant since it prolonged both the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and the prothrombin time (PT) of the camel plasma in a concentration-dependent manner. Its activity was threefold lower toward thrombin than FXa, but it did not inhibit any of the proteases; trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, papain, pepsin and subtilisin. The inhibitor binds at two sites on FXa uncompetitively with an inhibition constant (K(i)) value of 134 nM. PMID:11691627

Ibrahim, M A; Ghazy, A H; Maharem, T M; Khalil, M I



First detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma dromedarii ticks from Tunisia.  


Tick-borne rickettsioses have long been described in North Africa. These human diseases and their causative agents occur in several countries in this region, including Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. In Tunisia, the first described and most well-known rickettsiosis is Mediterranean spotted fever, which is caused by Rickettsia conorii conorii. Cases of R. aeschlimannii infections have been documented by serology, but the agent has never actually been detected in patients or arthropods in the country. In October 2008, ticks were collected from a dromedary (Camelius dromedarii) in Douz, Central Tunisia. All of the ticks were identified as Hyalomma dromedarii and were tested using polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence of rickettsiae. Our results indicate the first molecular detection of R. aeschlimannii in ticks from Tunisia. PMID:23182544

Demoncheaux, Jean-Paul; Socolovschi, Cristina; Davoust, Bernard; Haddad, Slim; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe



Molecular detection of Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia aeschlimannii, and Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in camels and Hyalomma spp. ticks from Israel.  


In this study, we aimed to identify and genetically characterize spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in ticks, domestic one-humped camels, and horses from farms and Bedouin communities in southern Israel. A total of 618 ixodid ticks (Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma turanicum, Hyalomma excavatum, and Hyalomma impeltatum) collected from camels and horses, as well as 152 blood samples from 148 camels and four horses were included in the study. Initial screening for rickettsiae was carried out by targeting the gltA gene. Positive samples were further analyzed for rickettsial ompA, 17kDa, ompB, and 16S rRNA genes. Rickettsia aeschlimannii DNA was detected in the blood of three camels and 14 ticks (H. dromedarii, H. turanicum, and H. excavatum). Rickettsia africae was found in six ticks (H. turanicum, H. impeltatum, H. dromedarii, and H. excavatum). In addition, Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in one H. turanicum tick. These findings represent the first autochthonous detection of R. africae in Israel. Previous detections of R. africae in Asia were reported from the Sinai Peninsula (Egypt) and Istanbul, only. Furthermore, we report for the first time the finding of R. aeschlimannii in H. turanicum and H. excavatum ticks, as well as the first identification of R. sibirica mongolitimonae in H. turanicum ticks. The tick species identified to harbor R. africae and other SFG rickettsiae have been reported to occasionally feed on people, and, therefore, physicians should be aware of the possible exposure of local communities and travelers, especially those in contact with camels, to these tick-borne rickettsial pathogens. PMID:24107206

Kleinerman, Gabriela; Baneth, Gad; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; van Straten, Michael; Berlin, Dalia; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Abdeen, Ziad; Nasereddin, Abed; Harrus, Shimon



An insight into the sialotranscriptome and proteome of the coarse bontlegged tick, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes  

PubMed Central

Ticks are mites specialized in acquiring blood from vertebrates as their sole source of food and are important disease vectors to humans and animals. Among the specializations required for this peculiar diet, ticks evolved a sophisticated salivary potion that can disarm their host’s hemostasis, inflammation, and immune reactions. Previous transcriptome analysis of tick salivary proteins has revealed many new protein families indicative of fast evolution, possibly due to host immune pressure. The hard ticks (family Ixodidae) are further divided into two basal groups, of which the Metastriata have 11 genera. While salivary transcriptomes and proteomes have been described for some of these genera, no tick of the genus Hyalomma has been studied so far. The analysis of 2,084 expressed sequence tags (EST) from a salivary gland cDNA library allowed an exploration of the proteome of this tick species by matching peptide ions derived from MS/MS experiments to this data set. We additionally compared these MS/MS derived peptide sequences against the proteins from the bovine host, finding many host proteins in the salivary glands of this tick. This annotated data set can assist the discovery of new targets for anti-tick vaccines as well as help to identify pharmacologically active proteins. PMID:21851864

Francischetti, Ivo MB; Anderson, Jennifer M; Manoukis, Nicholas; Pham, Van M; Ribeiro, Jose MC



Hyaluronidase isoforms from developing embryos of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii.  


Changes in hyaluronidase activity in the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii were followed throughout embryogenesis. Peak activity of the enzyme on days 21 and 24 during development was accompanied with a complete organization of larvae before hatching on day 27. During purification of hyaluronidase to homogeneity, ion exchange chromatography lead to four forms (HAase1, 2, 3 and 4). HAase2 and HAase4 with highest purity and specific activities after chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. The apparent molecular masses of HAase2 and HAase4 were 25 and 40 kDa, respectively. HAase2 and HAase4 had the same pH optimum of 3.6 and Km values of 0.3 and 0.34 mg/mL hyaluronic acid, respectively. Cleaving activities of HAase2 and HAase4 were demonstrated in the order: hyaluronic acid>chondroitin sulphate A>chondroitin sulphate C>chondroitin sulphate mixed>chondroitin sulphate B>heparin, low M.Wt>heparin. HAase2 and HAase4 had the same temperature optimum (40 degrees C) with heat stability up to 40 degrees C. H. dromedarii HAase2 and HAase4 had broad plateau of NaCl requirement with optimum activity recorded at 0.15 and 0.3 M NaCl, respectively. HAase2 and HAase4 were inhibited by Ca2+, Fe3+, Co2+ and Hg2+ and enhanced by Mg2+ and Mn2+. PMID:16051510

Mohamed, Saleh A



alpha-Amylase from developing embryos of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii.  


alpha-Amylase activity in the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii was followed throughout embryogenesis. During purification of alpha-amylase III to homogeneity, ion exchange chromatography lead to four separate forms (termed I, II, III and IV). alpha-Amylase III with the highest specific activity was pure after chromatography on Sephacryl S-300. The molecular mass of alpha-amylase III was 106 kDa for the native enzyme, composed of two subunits of 43 and 66 kDa, respectively. alpha-Amylase had a value of 10 mg starch/ml. Varying alpha-amylase activity was detected when supplied with various substrates. alpha-Amylase III had a temperature optimum at 40 degrees C with heat stability up to 50 degrees C, and a pH optimum of 7.0. The enzyme activity was activated by CaCl2, MgCl2 and NaNO3, but not activated by NaCl, p-CMB, N-ethylmaleimide and iodoacetamide. EDTA and beta-mercaptoethanol strongly inhibited activity. PMID:10825669

Mohamed, S A



Evaluation of glycoproteins purified from adult and larval camel ticks (Hyalomma dromedarii) as a candidate vaccine.  


In order to identify antigens that can help prevent camel tick infestations, three major glycoproteins (GLPs) about 97, 66 and 40 kDa in size were purified from adult and larval Egyptian ticks, Hyalomma (H.) dromedarii, using a single-step purification method with Con-A sepharose. The purified GLPs were evaluated as vaccines against camel tick infestation in rabbits. The rabbits received three intramuscular inoculations of GLPs (20 µg/animal) on days 0, 14, and 28. In the immunoblot analysis, Sera from the immunized rabbits recognized the native GLPs and other proteins from larval and adult H. dromedarii ticks along with those from other tick species such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus but not Ornithodoros moubata. The effects of immunity induced by these GLPs were determined by exposing rabbits to adult H. dromedarii ticks. These results demonstrated that GLP immunization led to a slightly decreased reproductive index and significantly reduced rates of egg hatchability. These results demonstrated that immunization with the purified GLPs can provide protection against infestation by H. dromedarii and some other tick species. Further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of immunization with GLPs against other tick species. PMID:21897098

El Hakim, Amr E; Shahein, Yasser E; Abdel-Shafy, Sobhy; Abouelella, Amira Mk; Hamed, Ragaa R



Esterase and lipase in camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae) during embryogenesis.  


Esterase and lipase activity showed significant changes during embryogenesis of camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii. From the elution profile of chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, six forms of H. dromedarii esterase (El to EVI) can be distinguished. Esterase EIII was purified to homogeneity after chromatography on Sepharose 6B. The molecular mass of esterase EIII was 45 kDa for the native enzyme and represented a monomer of 45 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Esterase EIII had an acidic pI at 5.3. Lipase activity was detected in the same DEAE-cellulose peaks (LI to LVI) of H. dromedarii esterases. The highest lipase activity was exhibited by lipase LIII. Esterase EIII and lipase LIII were compared with respect to Michaelis constant, substrate specificity, temperature optimum, heat stability, pH optimum, effect of metal ions and inhibitors. This study suggests that H. dromedarii lipolytic enzymes may play a central role in the interconversion of lipovitellins during embryogenesis. PMID:14990212

Fahmy, Afaf S; Abdel-Gany, Somia S; Mohamed, Tarek M; Mohamed, Saleh A



Purification and characterization of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from developing embryos of Hyalomma dromedarii.  


Purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Hyalomma dromedarii, the camel tick, was purified to apparent homogeneity. A molecular weight of 56,000 - 58,000 was estimated for both the native and denatured enzyme, suggesting that the enzyme is monomeric. Unlike purine nucleoside phosphorylase preparations from other tissues, the H. dromedarii enzyme was unstable in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol. The enzyme had a sharp pH optimum at pH 6.5. It catalyzed the phosphorolysis and arsenolysis of ribo- and deoxyribo-nucleosides of hypoxanthine and guanine, but not of adenine or pyrimidine nucleosides. The Km values of the enzyme at the optimal pH for inosine, deoxyinosine, guanosine, and deoxyguanosine were 0.31, 0.67, 0.55, and 0.33 mM, respectively. Inactivation and kinetic studies suggested that histidine and cysteine residues were essential for activity. The pKa values determined for catalytic ionizable groups were 6-7 and 8-9. The enzyme was completely inactivated by thiol reagents and reactivated by excess beta-mercaptoethanol. The enzyme was also susceptible to pH-dependent photooxidation in the presence of methylene blue, implicating histidine. Initial velocity studies showed an intersecting pattern of double-reciprocal plots of the data, consistent with a sequential mechanism. PMID:1905141

Kamel, M Y; Fahmy, A S; Ghazy, A H; Mohamed, M A



The sterilizing effect of pour-on flumethrin on the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae).  


The relationship between the efficacy of 1% flumethrin in pour-on formulation on the fertility of engorged female Hyalomma dromedarii and exposure time was investigated. Using a contact method, ticks were exposed in vitro to 87 micrograms active ingredient for 1, 5, 10, 30 or 720 min. Fertility inhibition was related to the exposure time. No significant effect was obtained after 1 min exposure, but 5 or 10 min exposure reduced the percentage of females ovipositing, egg mass weight, number of eggs, percentage of females laying eggs that hatch and the conversion efficiency of female weight to egg mass weight. The action of flumethrin was highly pronounced after 30 min; out of ten females, only one oviposited on the 19th day after exposure and the eggs did not hatch. Females exposed for 12 h were paralysed and showed complete sterilization. The pre-oviposition and egg incubation periods of females exposed for 1, 5 or 10 min were prolonged due to the action of the drug. PMID:8720571

El-Azazy, O M; Lucas, S F



Evaluation of glycoproteins purified from adult and larval camel ticks (Hyalomma dromedarii) as a candidate vaccine  

PubMed Central

In order to identify antigens that can help prevent camel tick infestations, three major glycoproteins (GLPs) about 97, 66 and 40 kDa in size were purified from adult and larval Egyptian ticks, Hyalomma (H.) dromedarii, using a single-step purification method with Con-A sepharose. The purified GLPs were evaluated as vaccines against camel tick infestation in rabbits. The rabbits received three intramuscular inoculations of GLPs (20 µg/animal) on days 0, 14, and 28. In the immunoblot analysis, Sera from the immunized rabbits recognized the native GLPs and other proteins from larval and adult H. dromedarii ticks along with those from other tick species such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus but not Ornithodoros moubata. The effects of immunity induced by these GLPs were determined by exposing rabbits to adult H. dromedarii ticks. These results demonstrated that GLP immunization led to a slightly decreased reproductive index and significantly reduced rates of egg hatchability. These results demonstrated that immunization with the purified GLPs can provide protection against infestation by H. dromedarii and some other tick species. Further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of immunization with GLPs against other tick species. PMID:21897098

El Hakim, Amr E.; Abdel-Shafy, Sobhy; Abouelella, Amira M. K.; Hamed, Ragaa R.



Gram-negative bacteria from the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Ixodidae) and the chicken tick Argas persicus (Argasidae) and their antibiotic sensitivities.  


A total of nine species of gram-negative bacteria were isolated from organs and haemolymph of the hard tick Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii and the soft tick Argas (Persicargas) persicus. Four species namely Serratia liquefaciens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Klebsiella ornithinolytica and Aeromonas hydrophila were isolated from H. dromedarii and five species namely Rahnella aquatilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter cloacae, Chryseomonas luteola and Chryseobacterium meningosepticum were isolated from A. persicus. Isolated bacteria were identified using the analytical profile index 20E. Disk diffusion test was carried out on all isolated bacteria to determine antibiotic sensitivity of chloramphenicol, amoxillin/clavulanic acid, neomycin, streptomycin, triplesulphur tetracycline and nitrofurantion. The results were discussed. PMID:15880998

Montasser, Ashraf A



Efficacy of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 against Hyalomma dromedarii and Amblyomma cajennense tick infestations in camels and cattle.  


The recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus infestations. However, cattle ticks often co-exist with multi-host ticks such as Hyalomma and Amblyomma species, thus requiring the control of multiple tick infestations for cattle and other hosts. Vaccination trials using a R. microplus recombinant Bm86-based vaccine were conducted in cattle and camels against Hyalomma dromedarii and in cattle against Amblyomma cajennense immature and adult ticks. The results showed an 89% reduction in the number of H. dromedarii nymphs engorging on vaccinated cattle, and a further 32% reduction in the weight of the surviving adult ticks. In vaccinated camels, a reduction of 27% and 31% of tick engorgement and egg mass weight, respectively was shown, while egg hatching was reduced by 39%. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 did not have an effect on A. cajennense tick infestations. These results showed that Bm86 vaccines are effective against R. microplus and other tick species but improved vaccines containing new antigens are required to control multiple tick infestations. PMID:22446633

Rodríguez-Valle, Manuel; Taoufik, Amar; Valdés, Mario; Montero, Carlos; Ibrahin, Hassan; Hassan, Shawgi Mohammed; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, Jose



Life cycle of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae) under field conditions in Northern Sudan.  


Engorged Hyalomma dromedarii females were placed for development in shade and sun (open non-shaded site) in April, August and December for two successive years. Engorged nymphs were also placed at the same sites in January, March, May, June, July and August. Preoviposition periods ranged between 9.8 and 11.7 days in the shade but longer in the sun in December (14.7 days). Egg production index was higher in August (0.72) than in April and December (0.46 and 0.39, respectively) in shade and in August compared to December in the sun (0.65 and 0.29, respectively). In shade and in sun, the prehatching periods were longer in December (50.7 and 48.2 days) than in April and August (25.6 and 29.0 days). Percentage hatchability ranged between 82 to 94.1% and 56.2 and 58.9% in the shade and sun, respectively. Number of eggs laid and eggs hatched were positively correlated with females' engorgement weights. There were high mortality rates of females in the sun and most of the eggs desiccated. Slight increased ambient and soil temperatures increased egg production, shortened preoviposition periods and decreased hatchability while increased humidity shortened preoviposition and prehatching periods and increased hatchability. Nymphal-adult moulting periods were long in January (20.7 days in the shade and 14.4 days in the sun) and short in August in the shade (7.8 days) while they were only 6 days in May and June in the sun. High numbers moulted in all months in the shade (ranges 23.3-29.5 nymphs). The mean mortality of engorged nymphs in the shade was very low. However, in the sun mortality was high (12.9-30 nymphs). Premoulting periods were negatively correlated with ambient temperature but positively correlated with humidity. In the shade, mean number of nymphs moulting increased with increased mean ambient temperature, humidity and rainfall. PMID:20850935

ElGhali, A; Hassan, S M



A tick B-cell inhibitory protein from salivary glands of the hard tick, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum  

SciTech Connect

Some studies done to date suggest that B-cell inhibitory factor occurred in tick saliva. In this study, a novel protein having B-cell inhibitory activity was purified and characterized from the salivary glands of the hard tick, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. This protein was named B-cell inhibitory factor (BIF). The cDNA encoding BIF was cloned by cDNA library screening. The predicted protein from the cDNA sequence is composed of 138 amino acids including the mature BIF. No similarity was found by Blast search. The lipopolysaccharide-induced B-cell proliferation was inhibited by BIF. This is First report of the identification and characterization of B-cell inhibitory protein from tick. The current study facilitates the study of identifying the interaction among tick, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and host.

Yu Da [Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Life Sciences College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 (China); Department of Life Science and Technology, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Liang Jiangguo [Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Life Sciences College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 (China); Yu Haining [College of Life Sciences, School of Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050016 (China); Wu Haifeng [Simcere Pharmaceutical Group, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210092 (China); Xu Chunhua [Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Life Sciences College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 (China); Liu Jingze [College of Life Sciences, School of Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050016 (China)]. E-mail:; Lai Ren [Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Life Sciences College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 (China)]. E-mail:



The genus Hyalomma: VII. Redescription of all parasitic stages of H. (Euhyalomma) dromedarii and H. (E.) schulzei (Acari: Ixodidae).  


The ticks, Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) dromedarii Koch, 1844 and Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) schulzei Olenev, 1931, are considered to be the species most closely associated with camels. H. dromedarii can behave as a three-, two-, or one-host species, with the two-host life cycle seemingly most common. Camels are the main hosts of the adults, which also parasitize other domestic animals. Nymphs and larvae can use the same hosts, especially camels, as the adults, but can also parasitize rodents, leporids, hedgehogs, and birds. H. dromedarii is widely distributed in North Africa, the northern regions of West, Central, and East Africa, Arabia, Asia Minor, the Middle East, and Central and South Asia. H. schulzei is a two-host species. Camels are the principal hosts of the adults, with some records from cattle and goats, whereas the immature stages infest hares, burrowing rodents, and hedgehogs. H. schulzei has a more limited geographic distribution in Asia and Egypt than H. dromedarii, and with the exception of southeastern Iran, it is a fairly uncommon tick. Among other features that are fairly similar, males of H. dromedarii can be distinguished from those of H. schulzei by a narrow, subtriangular parma, usually very large subanal shields, and a long dorsal prolongation of the spiracular plates. Males of H. schulzei have a broad and rectangular parma, paramedian festoons that protrude posteriorly, smaller subanal shields, and a very short dorsal prolongation of the spiracular plates. The females of H. dromedarii can be distinguished from those of H. schulzei by a narrow V-shaped genital aperture compared with a very wide, deep, U-shaped genital aperture. Here all the parasitic stages of both species are illustrated and redescribed, and characteristics that distinguish the adults from those of other closely related species are supplied. Data on their hosts, geographic distribution and disease relationships are also provided. PMID:18826023

Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Schuster, Anthony L; Horak, Ivan G



An outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the United Arab Emirates, 1994-1995.  


A multi-faceted investigation was conducted in the United Arab Emirates to characterize the epidemiologic and ecologic factors underlying an outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) noted in November 1994 among abattoir workers. A chart review was conducted among hospitalized suspected cases of viral hemorrhagic fever with onset between January 1994 and March 1995 coupled with serologic testing of available specimens for the presence of virus antigen and IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA. Livestock handlers and animal skin processors were interviewed and tested for the presence of IgG antibody. Sera from imported and domestic ruminants were examined for antibody for CCHF virus, and ticks collected from these animals were tested with an antigen-capture ELISA. Thirty-five suspected cases of CCHF were identified (case fatality = 62%). Livestock market employees, abattoir workers, and animal skin processors accounted for 16 (57%) of 28 cases with known occupational status. Serologic evidence of past asymptomatic infection was noted in 12 (4%) of 291 livestock and abattoir workers but in none of the controls. Nineteen (7%) of 268 animals were positive for CCHF virus antibodies by ELISA including 12 ruminants from Somalia and Iran and five indigenous camels. One Hyalomma impeltatum and two H. excavatum from Somali cattle and one H. anatolicum from a Somali goat were positive for CCHF virus antigen. PMID:9392589

Khan, A S; Maupin, G O; Rollin, P E; Noor, A M; Shurie, H H; Shalabi, A G; Wasef, S; Haddad, Y M; Sadek, R; Ijaz, K; Peters, C J; Ksiazek, T G



Tick Infestation Rate of Sheep and Their Distribution in Abdanan County, Ilam Province, Iran, 2007-2008  

PubMed Central

Background: Ticks are hematophagous arthropod belonging to the Class of Arachnids. Ticks are also one of the major vectors of pathogens to animal and human. This study was conducted to determine tick infestation rate of sheep in Abdanan during 2007–2008. Methods: Sampling was performed seasonally in 19 villages during spring 2007 until winter 2008. A total of 1095 sheep were selected and tested for tick infestation. After collection, all ticks were transported to laboratory of Medical Entomology and were identified with appropriate identification keys. Results: Totally, 864 hard ticks were collected. The ticks were classified into two genera and 5 species including: Hyalomma marginatum (44.67%), Hy. anatolicum (43.17%), Hy.asiaticum (6.37%), Hy. dromedarii (5.55%), Heamaphysalis sulcata (0.24%). The highest seasonal activity was observed in spring (36.46 %) and the lowest seasonal was in winter (11.57%). The rate of tick frequency in mountainous region was 48.15% and it was 51.85% in plateau regions. In this study, tick infestation of sheep was 11.41%. Conclusion: Hy.marginatum has the more frequent density in the study area. PMID:22808401

Nasiri, A; Telmadarraiy, Z; Vatandoost, H; Chinikar, S; Moradi, M; Oshaghi, MA; Salim abadi, Y; Sheikh, Z



Current situation of tropical theileriosis in the Sudan.  


Tropical theileriosis has long been recognized as a hindrance to the development of sound dairy industry in the Sudan and is a cause of major economic losses. Serological surveys indicated that Theileria annulata infection is widespread in the country but the disease mostly affects exotic dairy breeds and their crosses with indigenous breeds. The disease has recently been identified in Darfur and southern parts of Blue Nile State in dairy farms around large urban areas where it has never been detected before. These new introductions were accompanied by the establishment of Hyalomma anatolicum tick which is the main vector of the parasite in the Sudan. The disease is routinely diagnosed using microscopic examination of stained blood and lymph node biopsy smears. More advanced techniques are mainly used for research purposes. Tropical theileriosis in the Sudan is mainly controlled by using anti-theilerial drugs and acaricide application. It is recommended that live attenuated schizont vaccines developed from locally isolated T. annulata strains be used to control the disease. In addition, every care should be taken to prevent introduction of the disease into new areas. PMID:22565402

El Hussein, Abdelrahim M; Hassan, Shawgi M; Salih, Diaeldin A



Hard Ticks on Domestic Ruminants and their Seasonal Population Dynamics in Yazd Province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Ticks are the main vectors for transmission of different pathogens to human and animals. This survey was performed to find out distribution of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in Yazd Province, central Iran during year 2008–2009. Methods: A total number of 30 villages from both mountainous (20%) and plateau (80%) regions of the province were selected randomly. Ticks were colleted from the body of infested animals and transported to the laboratory of Medical Entomology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and then were identified to space level using valid identification key. Results: A total of 583 hard ticks were collected. The ticks were classified into three genera and 7 species including: Hyalomma dromedarii (55.92%), Hy. marginatum (13.20%), Hy. anatolicum (9.78%), Hy. detritum (4.98%), Hy. asiaticum (3.94%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (11.84%), and Dermacentor marginatus (0.34%). The highest seasonal activities occurred in summer. The prevalence of the Ixodidae ticks was more evident in plateaus area in Yazd Province. Among the hosts including: cow, goat, sheep and camel, the ticks that collected from camel was more prevalent. The ratio of male was more than female ticks. Hyalomma. dromedarii was the predominant tick species and accounted for 55.92% of the ticks. Conclusion: Some of the collected ticks may play an important role for transmission of vector borne disease to human; therefore, the results of this study will provide a clue for vectors of tick-borne diseases in the region for local authorities for implementation of disease control. PMID:22808391

Salim abadi, Y; Telmadarraiy, Z; Vatandoost, H; Chinikar, S; Oshaghi, MA; Moradi, M; Mirabzadeh Ardakan, E; Hekmat, S; Nasiri, A



Acaricidal effects of cardiac glycosides, azadirachtin and neem oil against the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae).  


The cardiac glycoside, digitoxin, from Digitalis purpurea L (Scrophulariaceae), a cardiac glycosidal (cardenolide) extract from Calotropis procera (Ait) R Br (Asclepiadaceae), azadirachtin and neem oil from Azadirachta indica A Juss (Meliaceae) were tested for their effects against larvae and adult stages of the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii Koch (Acari: Ixodidae). The contact LC50 values of the first three materials against adults were 4.08, 9.63 and >40.7 microg cm(-2), respectively, whereas the dipping LC50 values of the four materials were 409.9, 1096, >5000 and >5000 mg litre(-1), respectively. Contact and dipping LC50 values of the extract and azadirachtin against larvae were 6.16, >20.3 microg cm(-2) and 587.7 and >2500 mg litre(-1), respectively. Azadirachtin had no effects on egg production or feeding of adults up to 5000 mg litre(-1); however at 2500 mg litre(-1), it caused significant reduction in feeding activity of larve, prolonged the period for moulting to nymphal stage, and caused 60% reduction in moultability. Results of the two cardiac glycoside materials are comparable with those of several commercial acaricides. The risks and benefits associated with the use of cardiac glycosides are considered. PMID:14620053

Al-Rajhy, DiefAlla H; Alahmed, Azzam M; Hussein, Hamdy I; Kheir, Salah M



Traffic of the tick embryo basic protein during embryogenesis of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae).  


The tick embryo basic protein (TEBP) is present in the nucleus as a counterpart of histones at early embryonic stages of the tick Hyalomma dromedarii. The sharp drop in the TEBP nuclear level and elimination of the N-terminal dipeptide (leucine-serine) between days 12 and 15 after oviposition suggested the transport of TEBP to the cytoplasm for protein turnover. The traffic of TEBP during tick embryogenesis was examined. The level of TEBP was detected in the cytoplasm from the different embryonic stages by the established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by immunoblotting. At day 12, a 2-fold increase in the cytoplasmic TEBP level coincided with its decrease in the nucleus. This result indicates that TEBP starts to leave the nucleus for the cytoplasm at day 12. The changes in the cytoplasmic leucine aminopeptidase (LAP)-specific activity were followed during tick embryogenesis. The LAP activity started to increase at day 12 and reached its maximum level at day 21. The enzyme displayed an optimum pH between 7.5 and 8.8 and a K(m) value of 0.5 microM for leucine-p-nitroanilide. The involvement of the exopeptidase activity in the TEBP turnover after its translocation to the cytoplasm is discussed. PMID:10095826

Ibrahim, M A



Drop-off rhythms and survival periods of Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae) fed on camels (Camelus dromedarius) in the Sudan.  


Flat larvae and adult Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae) were fed on camels' ears. Feeding periods and drop-off rhythms of engorged females and nymphs together with engorgement weights of females were recorded. Newly hatched larvae and newly moulted adults were released in nylon mesh bags at the base of a tree. Their survival periods were seasonally monitored. H. dromedarii behaved exclusively as two-host ticks under field conditions. Larval-nymphal feeding periods ranged between 16 and 27 days according to the season, whereas females fed for 6-9 days. The peak drop-off rhythms of nymphs and females occurred between 18:00 and 20:00 h. Engorgement weights of females at dropping ranged between 0.84 g on day 6 and 0.60 g on day 9 of attachment. Survival duration of the flat adults showed that 18.4%, 5.3% and 4.8% of ticks released in January, April and July, respectively, survived for 1 month. A very few number of ticks survived for extra periods of 3 months, 2 months and 1 month in January, April and July, respectively. Increased air temperature and lower humidity decreased survival duration. Larvae released in February, May, June and August died within 1 week, although they survived under laboratory conditions (35 degrees C and 49-90% Relative Humidity (RH) for 49-60 days. PMID:20347226

Elghali, A; Hassan, S M



Introduction Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) live in annual  

E-print Network

examined by using diversity and richness indices. It was observed that Anchusa leptophylla, Onopordum anatolicum, Echium italicum, Trifolium pratense, Galega officinalis and Astragalus sp. were the most tercihleri de çeflitlilik ve tür zenginli¤i indeksleri kullan>larak ortaya konmaya çal>fl>lm>flt>r. Anchusa

Rasmont, Pierre


Hidden threat of tortoise ticks: high prevalence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in ticks Hyalomma aegyptium in the Middle East  

PubMed Central

It is the first time that Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), causing potentially lethal disease of humans, has been reported from the Middle East region and from the tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium from a tortoise host, whose epidemiological significance may have remained almost completely overlooked so far. We used RT-PCR to screen for 245 ticks collected from 38 Testudo graeca tortoise individuals. Results of our genetic screening provide unambiguous evidence of occurrence of CCHFV in this region and host, suggesting a potentially important role of H. aegyptium in CCHF epidemiology. PMID:24618184



Hidden threat of tortoise ticks: high prevalence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in ticks Hyalomma aegyptium in the Middle East.  


It is the first time that Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), causing potentially lethal disease of humans, has been reported from the Middle East region and from the tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium from a tortoise host, whose epidemiological significance may have remained almost completely overlooked so far. We used RT-PCR to screen for 245 ticks collected from 38 Testudo graeca tortoise individuals. Results of our genetic screening provide unambiguous evidence of occurrence of CCHFV in this region and host, suggesting a potentially important role of H. aegyptium in CCHF epidemiology. PMID:24618184

Široký, Pavel; B?lohlávek, Tomáš; Papoušek, Ivo; Jandzik, David; Mikulí?ek, Peter; Kubelová, Michaela; Zdražilová-Dubská, Lenka



Spotted fever Rickettsia species in Hyalomma and Ixodes ticks infesting migratory birds in the European Mediterranean area  

PubMed Central

Background A few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering grounds in Africa. Many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in Europe as disseminators of Rickettsia-infected ticks. Methods Ticks were collected from a total of 14,789 birds during their seasonal migration northwards in spring 2009 and 2010 at bird observatories on two Mediterranean islands: Capri and Antikythira. All ticks were subjected to RNA extraction followed by cDNA synthesis and individually assayed with a real-time PCR targeting the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. For species identification of Rickettsia, multiple genes were sequenced. Results Three hundred and ninety-eight (2.7%) of all captured birds were tick-infested; some birds carried more than one tick. A total number of 734 ticks were analysed of which 353?±?1 (48%) were Rickettsia-positive; 96% were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii and 4% with Rickettsia africae or unidentified Rickettsia species. The predominant tick taxon, Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato constituted 90% (n?=?658) of the ticks collected. The remaining ticks were Ixodes frontalis, Amblyomma sp., Haemaphysalis sp., Rhipicephalus sp. and unidentified ixodids. Most ticks were nymphs (66%) followed by larvae (27%) and adult female ticks (0.5%). The majority (65%) of ticks was engorged and nearly all ticks contained visible blood. Conclusions Migratory birds appear to have a great impact on the dissemination of Rickettsia-infected ticks, some of which may originate from distant locations. The potential ecological, medical and veterinary implications of such Rickettsia infections need further examination. PMID:25011617



An assessment of the distribution and spread of the tick Hyalomma marginatum in the western Palearctic under different climate scenarios.  


We applied a process-driven model to evaluate the impact of climate scenarios for the years 2020, 2050, and 2080 on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum ticks in the western Palearctic. The net growth rate of the tick populations increased in every scenario tested compared to the current climate baseline. These results support the expectations of increased tick survival and increased population turnover in future climate scenarios. We included a basic evaluation of host movement based on rules connected to altitude, slope, size of the near patches, and inter-patch distances in the real landscape over the target area. Data on landscape were obtained from medium-resolution MODIS satellite imagery, which allowed us to test the potential spread of the populations. Such a model of host dispersal linked to the process-driven life cycle model demonstrated that eastern (Turkey, Russia, and Balkans) populations of H. marginatum currently are well separated and have little mixing with western (Italy, Spain, and northern Africa) populations. The northern limit is marked by the cold areas in the Balkans, Alps, and Pyrenees. Under the warmer conditions predicted by the climate scenarios, the exchange of ticks throughout new areas, previously free of the vector, is expected to increase, mainly in the Balkans and southern Russia, over the limit of the mountain ranges. Therefore, the northern limit of the tick range would increase. Additional studies are necessary to understand the implications of host changes in range and abundance for H. marginatum and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. PMID:22448680

Estrada-Peńa, Agustín; Sánchez, Nely; Estrada-Sánchez, Adrián



Zoonotic pathogens associated with Hyalomma aegyptium in endangered tortoises: evidence for host-switching behaviour in ticks?  

PubMed Central

Background Hyalomma aegyptium is a hard-tick with a typical three-host life cycle. The main hosts are Palearctic tortoises of genus Testudo. However, other hosts can be used by immature ticks for feeding in natural conditions. Given this complex ecology and multiple host use, the circulation of pathogens by H. aegyptium between various hosts can be important from epidemiological point of view. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of H. aegyptium as natural carrier of four important zoonotic pathogens. Methods From 2008 to 2011, 448 H. aegyptium ticks were collected from 45 Spur-thighed tortoises, Testudo graeca in Romania. DNA was extracted individually from each tick using a commercial kit. DNA was examined for the presence of specific sequences of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis and Coxiella burnetii by PCR, according to previously described protocols. Results PCR analysis of H. aegyptium revealed the presence of A. phagocytophilum (18.8%), E. canis (14.1%) and C. burnetii (10%). 32.4% of the ticks were infected with at least one pathogen and 9.8% had co-infections. The stages most frequently infected were nymphs (50%) followed by males (33.9%) and females (27%). The number of tortoises which harboured infected ticks was 27/45 examined (60%). From all tested T. graeca, 40% harboured ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum, 46.7% had ticks infected with E. canis and 33.3% had ticks with C. burnetii. This study reports for the first time the presence of A. phagocytophilum and E. canis in H. aegyptium. Conclusions The presence and relatively high prevalence of three important zoonotic pathogens in H. aegyptium raises the question of their epidemiologic importance in disease ecology. As tortoises are unlikely to be reservoir hosts for A. phagocytophilum and E. canis and both these pathogens are common in H. aegyptium, this is an important indication for (1) a possible increased host-switching behaviour of these ticks to competent reservoir hosts (i.e. hedgehogs) and (2) transstadial transmission. Furthermore, if we consider also the presence of C. burnetii, we conclude that T. graeca and its ticks should be evaluated more seriously when assessing the eco-epidemiology of zoonotic diseases. PMID:23273169



Influence of laboratory animal hosts on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum and implications for an in vivo transmission model for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus  

PubMed Central

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most geographically widespread arboviruses and causes a severe hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. The virus circulates in nature in a vertebrate-tick cycle and ticks of the genus Hyalomma are the main vectors and reservoirs. Although the tick vector plays a central role in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV in nature, comparatively little is known of CCHFV-tick interactions. This is mostly due to the fact that establishing tick colonies is laborious, and working with CCHFV requires a biosafety level 4 laboratory (BSL4) in many countries. Nonetheless, an in vivo transmission model is essential to understand the epidemiology of the transmission cycle of CCHFV. In addition, important parameters such as vectorial capacity of tick species, levels of infection in the host necessary to infect the tick, and aspects of virus transmission by tick bite including the influence of tick saliva, cannot be investigated any other way. Here, we evaluate the influence of different laboratory animal species as hosts supporting the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum, a two-host tick. Rabbits were considered the host of choice for the maintenance of the uninfected colonies due to high larval attachment rates, shorter larval-nymphal feeding times, higher nymphal molting rates, high egg hatching rates, and higher conversion efficiency index (CEI). Furthermore, we describe the successful establishment of an in vivo transmission model for CCHFV in a BSL4 biocontainment setting using interferon knockout mice. This will give us a new tool to study the transmission and interaction of CCHFV with its tick vector. PMID:23971007

Gargili, Aysen; Thangamani, Saravanan; Bente, Dennis



Effect of various levels of dietary Jatropha curcas seed meal on rabbits infested by the adult ticks of Hyalomma marginatum marginatum I. Animal performance, anti-tick feeding and haemogram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to investigate the use of Jatropha curcas seed meal (JCSM) in different levels as acaricide in diet of rabbits experimentally infested by Hyalomma marginatum marginatum then determining animal performance, anti-tick feeding and its effects on haemogram of rabbits. Thirty healthy mixed-breed\\u000a rabbits were randomly divided into five equal groups. The first group was kept

Sobhy Abdel-Shafy; Soad M. Nasr; Hashem H. Abdel-Rahman; Salwa M. Habeeb



Hd86, the Bm86 tick protein ortholog in Hyalomma scupense (syn. H. detritum): expression in Pichia pastoris and analysis of nucleotides and amino acids sequences variations prior to vaccination trials.  


The genus Hyalomma includes the most frequent tick species infesting livestock in North Africa, one of these species, Hyalomma scupense (syn. H. detritum) is particularly important due to its role in the transmission of tropical theileriosis to cattle (Theileria annulata infection). We have cloned and characterized the orthologs of the Bm86 gene from H. scupense strains collected over Tunisia in 2006 and 2009. The recombinant protein rHd86 was expressed in Pichia pastoris for vaccination purpose using a transcript from the 2006 strain. The rHd86 was then purified from the yeast culture supernatant by a filtration and a size exclusion process. It was recognized by specific anti-Bm86 antisera. An important extent of inter-specific diversity ranging from 35 to 40% was recorded between Hd86 and Bm86/Bm95 proteins whilst a very limited level of intra-specific diversity (1.7%) occurred between the Hd86 vaccine candidate protein and its homologues from H. scupense strains collected in 2009. These results emphasise the need for assessing the efficacy against H. scupense and others important cattle Hyalomma species in Tunisia of our Hd86 vaccine candidate alongside with a Bm86 vaccine. PMID:21871736

Ben Said, Mourad; Galai, Yousr; Canales, Mario; Nijhof, Ard Menzo; Mhadhbi, Moez; Jedidi, Mohamed; de la Fuente, José; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz



Subolesin: a candidate vaccine antigen for the control of cattle tick infestations in Indian situation.  


Identification of cross-protective tick vaccine antigens is a challenging area of veterinary research. To address this challenge, a recently identified candidate tick protective antigen, Subolesin (SUB), was targeted in this research. The conservation of subolesin ortholog of Hyalomma anatolicum and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus across different Indian strains was 98.1-99.4% (within species), while at the amino acid level SUB sequence homology was ?53.2% (between tick species). Recombinant R. (B.) microplus SUB (rBmSu) was produced in Escherichia coli and characterized. Cross-bred cattle male calves (N=10) were immunized with three doses of 100 ?g each of the rBmSu emulsified in 10% Montanide 888 at monthly intervals on days 0, 30 and 60. The control group was injected with PBS in 10% Montanide 888. For the first tick challenge, calves were infested with larvae of R. (B.) microplus generated from 100mg eggs 2 weeks after last immunization (day 75). The immunization resulted in 16.3%, 8.0%, 9.4%, and 26.1% reduction in female tick numbers (DT), weight (DW), oviposition (DO) and egg fertility (DF), respectively, when compared to controls. In the subsequent challenge on day 105, DT, DW, DO and DF were reduced by 9.0%, 4.1%, 8.6%, and 24.2%, respectively, when compared to controls. The vaccine efficacy (E) was equal to 44.0% and 37.2% after the first and second challenges, respectively. The results showed a positive correlation between antibody titers for both total IgG and IgG1 and E in the second but not in the first tick challenge. These results suggested the possibility of developing a SUB-based vaccine for control of cattle tick infestations under Indian conditions. PMID:24795229

Shakya, Mukesh; Kumar, Binod; Nagar, Gaurav; de la Fuente, José; Ghosh, Srikanta



Stimulation of attachment in a camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae): the unintended result of sublethal exposure to permethrin-impregnated fabric.  


The susceptibility of a camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Koch), to permethrin-impregnated military uniform fabric was studied to determine the effects of laundering and contact time. Separate contact toxicity tests were conducted with laboratory-colonized male and female ticks of uniform age. Unfed, unmated ticks were exposed for periods of 5, 10, 30, and 60 min to each of five fabrics: unwashed-untreated, unwashed-treated, and 1, 2, or 3 times washed after treatment (1-, 2-, 3-wash-treated). Treated fabric was impregnated with permethrin at 0.125 mg (AI)/cm2. Laundering was by machine washing with detergent followed by hot air machine drying. Intoxication immediately after exposure was assessed by activity response: the proportion of ticks attaching to a host (rabbit) within 60 min and the average time elapsed between contact and insertion of mouthparts. Unexpectedly, permethrin exposure activated an attachment response in both sexes. At all contact times, and in each wash-treated group, a greater proportion of ticks attached, and did so more rapidly, than in controls. Mortality assessment 24 h after exposure showed that females were more tolerant than males and experienced light mortality even after 60 min of contact. Both natural and acquired factors may account for permethrin tolerance in this species. Consistent with pyrethroid mode of action and pheromone function in ticks, it is hypothesized that sublethal levels of permethrin may act on H. dromedarii to induce premature or excess release of a neurosecretory substance that elicits attachment. PMID:8158625

Fryauff, D J; Shoukry, M A; Schreck, C E



Enzymes of delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate metabolism in the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii during embryogenesis. Purification and characterization of delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenases.  


The activity of P5C metabolizing enzymes: OAT, P5CR, PO, and P5CD, in the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii has been followed throughout embryogenesis. The profiles of enzymatic activity showed clear differences in the four enzymes as the embryos grew older. During purification of P5CD to homogeneity the ion exchange chromatography steps lead to two separate forms (termed A and B) with different molecular weights (60,000-59,000 and 50,000-52,000 for the native and denatured enzymes, respectively), amino acid composition, Km for P5C and coenzymes, varying dehydrogenase activities with different substrate specificity when supplied with various aldehyde substrates. Both P5CD A and B exhibited sharp optima at pH 7.5. The effect of different divalent cations and competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors was examined. The changes in P5C metabolizing enzymes during embryogenesis suggest that H. dromedarii has the metabolic potential to convert ornithine into proline and glutamate. PMID:9418013

Fahmy, A S; Mohamed, S A; Girgis, R B; Abdel-Ghaffar, F A



Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae associated with ixodid ticks in Egypt.  


Tick-borne diseases comprise a complex epidemiological and ecological network that connects the vectors, pathogens, and a group of host species. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria from the genus Rickettsia associated with ixodid ticks infesting camels and cows in Egypt. Ticks were collected from 6 different localities: Qina, Giza, Qalet El Nakhl, New Valley, El Arish, and Minufia, from July to October 2008. Species were identified using PCR, followed by sequencing. The gltA and rOmpA genes were used for the initial detection of Rickettsia spp. Further characterization of positive samples utilized primers targeting rOmpB, sca4, and intergenic spacers (mppA-purC, dksA-xerC, and rpmE-tRNA(fMet)). Cows were infested with Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and Boophilus annulatus. Camels were infested with Hyalomma dromedarii, H. impeltatum, and H. marginatum marginatum. Approximately 57.1% of H. dromedarii ticks collected from Qalet El Nakhl were infected with Rickettsia africae, exhibiting 99.1-100% identity to reference strains. Within H. impeltatum, 26.7% and 73.3% of ticks from El Arish were infected with R. africae and R. aeschlimannii, with 98.3-100% and 97.9-100% identity, respectively. Furthermore, 33.3% of H. marginatum marginatum ticks in Qalet El Nakhl were infected with the same two species as H. impeltatum, demonstrating 99.1-100% and 99.3-100% identity, respectively. By comparing percent identities and phylogenetic relationships, R. africae is identified for the first time in Egypt, in addition to R. aeschlimannii, which exhibits 100% identity with the Stavropol strain in GenBank. In conclusion, the obtained data underscore the medical and veterinary importance of tick-borne rickettsioses, which necessitate further investigation by authorities in Egypt. Moreover, additional characterization of these rickettsial isolates should be performed to designate their strains, using a polyphasic strategy combining genotypic and phenotypic tests, to facilitate their deposition in the rickettsial collection of the WHO and/or ATCC. PMID:22217182

Abdel-Shafy, Sobhy; Allam, Nesreen A T; Mediannikov, Oleg; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier



[Genetic characterization of the Batken virus (BKNV) (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) isolated from the Ixodidae ticks Hyalomma marginatum Koch, 1844 and the mosquitoes Aedes caspius Pallas, 1771, as well as the Culex hortensis Ficalbi, 1889 in the Central Asia].  


The prototype strain LEIV-K306 of the Batken virus (BKNV) was isolated from the Ixodidae ticks Hyalomma marginatum Koch, 1844 collected from sheep near town Batken (Kirgizstan) in the April 1970. Later, the BKNV was isolated in Kirgizstan from the mixed pool of the Aedes caspius Pallas, 1771 and Culex hortensis Ficalbi, 1889 mosquitoes. From the very beginning, the BKNV was discussed to be very close to the Dhori virus (DHOV) (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) isolated from the Ixodidae ticks Hyalomma dromedarii Koch, 1844 in India. In this work, virtually complete genome sequence (MiSeq, Illumina) of the BKNV was determined (ID GenBank KJ396672-4). Structural and non-structural proteins of the BKNV have a high level of homology with DHOV - 98% (PB1) and 96% (PB2, PA, NP, M). Homology of HA protein between the BKNV and DHOV is 90%, which accounts for antigenic difference between these close relative viruses. Since the differences in the other structural and non-structural proteins are about 96-98%, the BKNV could be suggested as the topotypic DHOV strain for Central Asia, Transcaucasia, and Northern Caspian region. The evolution divergence of the BKNV and DHOV for HA could be explained by local ecologic peculiarities of the BKNV areal. PMID:25069283

Al'khovski?, S V; L'vov, D K; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; L'vov, D N; L'vov, S S; Samokhvalov, E I; Gitel'man, A K; Botikov, A G



The Complete Sequence of a West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain Detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum Tick Collected from a Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos) in Eastern Romania in 2013 Revealed Closest Genetic Relationship to Strain Volgograd 2007.  


In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. The virus was detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the Romanian Danube Delta close to the city of Tulcea, end of August 2013. Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. Sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the Romanian WNV strain to strain Reb_Volgograd_07_H, which was isolated from human brain tissue during an outbreak of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Russia in 2007. In 2010 the Eastern European lineage 2 WNV caused an outbreak of human WNND in Romania. Partial sequences from subsequent years demonstrated that this WNV strain became endemic in Eastern Europe and has been causing outbreaks of varying sizes in southern Russia since 2007 and in Romania since 2010. PMID:25279973

Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Marinov, Mihai; Kiss, Botond J; Alexe, Vasile; Nowotny, Norbert



The Complete Sequence of a West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain Detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum Tick Collected from a Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos) in Eastern Romania in 2013 Revealed Closest Genetic Relationship to Strain Volgograd 2007  

PubMed Central

In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. The virus was detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the Romanian Danube Delta close to the city of Tulcea, end of August 2013. Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. Sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the Romanian WNV strain to strain Reb_Volgograd_07_H, which was isolated from human brain tissue during an outbreak of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Russia in 2007. In 2010 the Eastern European lineage 2 WNV caused an outbreak of human WNND in Romania. Partial sequences from subsequent years demonstrated that this WNV strain became endemic in Eastern Europe and has been causing outbreaks of varying sizes in southern Russia since 2007 and in Romania since 2010. PMID:25279973

Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Marinov, Mihai; Kiss, Botond J.; Alexe, Vasile; Nowotny, Norbert



Genetic characterization and molecular clock analyses of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus from human and ticks in India, 2010-2011.  


A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was reported among humans in Ahmadabad district, Gujarat, India during January, 2011. In the present study we provide the complete genomic sequences of four CCHFV isolates derived from two human patients and two pools of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks during the period of this outbreak and the complete S segment sequence of two retrospective human serum samples, positive for CCHFV in 2010. Sequence-based molecular characterization of the Indian CCHFV showed that they possessed the functional motifs known to occur in the S, M and L gene segment products as in other CCHF viruses. The S segment of the six Indian CCHF viruses showed 99.8% nucleotide identity. Notably both tick isolates shared 100% nucleotide identity with one of the Indian human isolates of 2011. Phylogenetic analysis based on the S segment demonstrated that the Indian CCHFV isolates formed a distinct cluster in the Asian-Middle East group IV of CCHF viruses. The S segment was closest to a Tajikistan strain TADJ/HU8966 of 1990 (98.5% nucleotide identity) and was of South-Asia 2 type while the M segment was of type M2. Both M and L segments were closest to an Afghanistan strain Afg09-2990 of 2009 (93% and 98% nucleotide identity, respectively). The Indian isolates were thus identified as a South-Asia 2/M2 far-east virus combination and the differing parental origin in the S and L/M segments is suggestive that it may be an intra-genotypic reassortant. Molecular clock studies further revealed that the ancestry of the viruses was not very recent and dated back to about 33years on the basis of the S segment while it was about 15years based on the M segment. Thus though the 2011 outbreak may not have resulted from a very recent introduction, considering that so far there is no evidence of multiple circulating strains in the country, the possibility of a recent re-introduction of the virus from any of the neighboring countries cannot be ruled out. The study thus warrants the need for continued surveillance and increased sampling of CCHFV in different parts of the country. PMID:23195573

Yadav, Pragya D; Cherian, Sarah S; Zawar, Divya; Kokate, Prasad; Gunjikar, Rashmi; Jadhav, Santosh; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Mourya, Devendra T



Light, scanning electron microscopy and SDS-PAGE studies on the effect of the essential oil, Citrus sinensis var. balady on the embryonic development of camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Koch, 1818) (Acari: Ixodidae).  


GC-MSE analysis of the essential oil of fresh fruit peel of Citrus sinensis var. balady recognized two main natural toxic compounds, limonene (83.28%) as hydrocarbon compound and linalool (3.97%) as oxygenated compound. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate its effect on different egg-ages of Hyalomma dromedarii at four concentrations of 1:40, 1:30, 1:20 and 1:15 (oil : ethanol 95%) (v/v). The LC50 values were 1:56, 1:34, 1:41, 1:32, 1: 23, 1:23, 1:18, 1:14 and 1:11 for egg-ages of 2, 4, 6, 9, 11, 13, 16, 18 and 20 day, respectively. Histological Examination (HE), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were done on the 9th day old-eggs treated with the essential oil 1:32 (the LC50 value of 9 day old-egg). HE was done on the 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15th day old eggs; SEM was done on the 11, 15 and 17th day old eggs and SDS-PAGE was done on the 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 17th day old eggs and compared each with those of control. In control, HE showed that nuclei migrated to the periphery and became part of the cytoplasmic membrane, blastula appears as a complete ring cells. Germ layer form and the later differentiate to different organelles such as opithosoma, ambulatory segment and chelicera...etc. while incase of treated eggs, HE showed that irregular manner of ectoplasmic membrane formed, blastula gathered on one or two sides, the cells of germ layer gather on one side as small or large mass or ring shape. Cells gathered as small masses or finger shape without forming any organelles. SEM revealed that heavy small bulging wrinkles were observed on egg shells of control. These wrinkles changed into large size in treated eggs on the 11th day and disappeared at the following days to become smooth surfaced. SDS-PAGE exhibited 15, 14, 14, 12, 17, 14 and 15 bands for treated eggs on the 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 17th day old-eggs, respectively and 14, 15, 16, 19, 17, 19 and 18 bands for control eggs at the same egg-ages. The molecular weights of these bands were different in both control and treated eggs. It was concluded that the essential oil of C. sinensis var. balady has strong toxic effect on eggs of H. dromedarii especially in earlier embryonic development. PMID:19069909

Salwa, M Habeeb; Abdel-Shafy, Sobhy; Youssef, Abd El-Ghany A



Special Publication No. 3, Ticks and Tickborne Diseases, IV. Geographical Distribution of Ticks  

E-print Network

numidiana (Anastos, G. , (1954C), 169- 174 (Herat-Obeh) Hyalomma a. asiaticum (Kaiser, M. N. & Hoogstraal, H., (1963A), 130-139) Hyalomma detritum (Kaiser, M. N. ? Hoogstraal, ?., (1963A), 130-139) Hyalomma detritum (Santos Dias, J. ?. T., (1961A), 1...-18) Hyalomma detritum (Santos Dias, J. A. T., (1962B), 5-11) Hyalomma dromedarii (Anastos, G. , (1956A), 18-19) Hyalomma dromedarii (Kaiser, M. N. & Hoogstraal, H., (1963A), 130-139) Hyalomma dromedarii (Santos Dias, J. A. T., (1961A), 1-18) Hyalomma...

Doss, Mildred A.; Farr, Marion M.; Roach, Katharine F.; Anastos, George



Isolation and properties of two forms of thrombin inhibitor from the nymphs of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae).  


Two forms of the nymphal thrombin inhibitors (NTI) 3.2 kDa and 14.9 kDa were purified by chromatography on CM-cellulose. Sephacryl S-300 and Sephadex G-50 columns and designated NTI- 1 and NTI-2 respectively. The NTI-2 turned out to be homogenous monomeric protein in both native-PAGE and denatured SDS-PAGE with M(r) value of 14.9 kDa approximately and its pI value ranged from 7.2 to 7.5. The NTI-1 and NTI-2 displayed anticoagulant activity since they prolonged both the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and the prothrombin time (PT) of the camel plasma in a concentration-dependent manner. The potency of NTI-I toward thrombin was 5-fold higher than that toward FXa, while NTI-2 was 3-fold active toward FXa than thrombin. However, both of them did not inhibit any of the other examined proteases. The types of inhibition of thrombin by NTI-1 and NTI-2 were non-competitive and competitive with inhibition constants (Ki) values of 11.7 microM and 211 nM respectively. One binding site was deduced on thrombin for each inhibitor. PMID:12171275

Ibrahim, M A; Ghazy, A H; Maharem, T; Khalil, M



Purification and characterization of a novel acid-soluble nuclear protein from developing embryos of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Acarina: Ixodidae).  


A novel acid-soluble protein has been extracted from nuclei of developing embryos of H. dromedarii ticks and purified to homogeneity. This tick embryo basic protein (TEBP) was predominant during the cleavage stage of tick embryogenesis, whereas the complete set of histones was detectable at the late cleavage stage. The amount of TEBP reaches a maximum value at day 9 after oviposition. Thereafter, the original N-terminal dipeptide (leucine-serine) is eliminated. This coincides with the start of organogenesis. In spite of its low molecular mass, TEBP seems to be related to histone H1 in some properties such as solubility in perchloric acid and binding affinity to DNA. A task for the future will be to define the role of this protein as a counterpart of the histones for the genome organization during embryogenesis. PMID:7766687

Ibrahim, M A; Hamed, R R; Rasched, I



[The isolation of Dhori viruses (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) from the hare (Lepus europaeus) and its ticks Hyalomma marginatum in the middle zone of the Volga delta, Astrakhan region, 2001].  


In August, 2001, in the middle zone of the delta of the Volga River, the Astrakhan region, during investigation of the natural foci of West Nile fever and Crimean--Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), the material from the hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas, 1778 (Lagomorpha, Leporidae) and collected from it the ticks Hyalomna marginatum Koch 1844, was obtained. 4 strains of Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) and 2 strains of CCHF virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) were isolated. This is the first isolation of Thogotovirus genus virus from the wild vertebrates. Considering the overlap of the Dhori virus and CCHF virus areas, similar ecology and the isolation both viruses from the same pool of the ticks, the necessity for the use of the test-system for indication of the viruses, differential diagnosis and accumulation of the data concerning the role of Dhori virus in the human and farm animals pathology is discussed. PMID:12271723

L'vov, D N; Dzharkenov, A F; Aristova, V A; Kovtunov, A I; Gromashevski?, V L; Vyshemirski?, O I; Galkina, I V; Larichev, V F; Butenko, A M; L'vov, D K



Camel production in Kenya and its constraints. II. Tick infestation.  


The tick loads and tick species infesting an experimental herd, a Rendille pastoralists' herd and two ranch herds of camels, in four different areas of Kenya are described. The tick species most commonly observed were Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma dromedarii and Rhipicephalus pulchellus. PMID:6623649

Dolan, R; Wilson, A J; Schwartz, H J; Newson, R M; Field, C R



On the potential roles of ticks and migrating birds in the ecology of West Nile virus  

PubMed Central

Background Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). Ticks have, however, been suggested to be potential reservoirs of WNV. In order to investigate their role in the spread of the virus, ticks, which had been collected from birds migrating northwards from Africa to Europe, were analyzed for the potential presence of WNV-RNA. Methods On the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythira a total of 14,824 birds were captured and investigated from which 747 ticks were collected. Results and conclusion Most of the identified ticks (93%) were nymphs and larvae of Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato, most of which were or appear to be Hyalomma rufipes. Of these ticks 729 were individually screened for WNV-RNA. None of the ticks was found to be WNV positive. Thus, there was no evidence that Hyalomma marginatum s.l. ticks play a role in the spread of WNV from Africa to Europe. PMID:24455105

Hagman, Karl; Barboutis, Christos; Ehrenborg, Christian; Fransson, Thord; Jaenson, Thomas G. T.; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Lundkvist, Ake; Nystrom, Fredrik; Waldenstrom, Jonas; Salaneck, Erik



Cattle ticks from the Waterberg district of the Transvaal.  


Macroscopically visible ticks were collected from the hides of 28 cattle slaughtered in pairs during a period of 14 months in the Waterberg District. In order of prevalence Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Amblyomma hebraeum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Ixodes cavipalpus, Hyalomma truncatum and Boophilus decoloratus were recovered. Immature stages of the three commonest species constituted a major portion of the population for varying periods during the months April to September. These results are in general agreement with those of surveys done in the northern Transvaal, Natal and Rhodesia. PMID:7452655

Schröder, J




Microsoft Academic Search

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is caused by Nairovirus, genus Bunyavirus in family of bunyaviridae, and is spread by the tick Hyalomma spp or via blood transfusion and contaminated blood of human and animal. CCHF virus infection was rarely reported in Iran before 1999. From January 1st 1999 to October 1st 2002 nearly 144 confirmed sporadic CCHF cases reported from many

Ali Mehrabi-Tavana; Sadegh Chinikar DVM; Vahideh Mazaheri


Guineafowl, ticks and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Turkey: the perfect storm?  


To control ticks carrying the emerging Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Turkey the government is introducing thousands of exotic helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris). However, not only do these birds eat negligible numbers of ticks, but they are also excellent nurseries for the young of Hyalomma marginatum ticks, the best vectors of CCHF. PMID:23206535

Sekercio?lu, Ca?an Hakk?



Population dynamics of ticks infesting the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in central Tunisia.  


A tick population was monitored on 30 camels (Camelus dromedarius) over one year in Kairouan region, Central Tunisia. A total of 1630 ticks was collected and identified resulting in an estimate of different parasitological indicators. The ticks belonged to 2 genera and 5 species: Hyalomma impeltatum (53%) and Hyalomma dromedarii (45%) were the dominant species followed by Hyalomma excavatum (1%), Hyalomma marginatum (0.5%), and Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.5%) (p<0.001). Mean infestation prevalence was 90.6%; all the animals were infested by at least one tick from May to September. The highest mean prevalence was observed in H. impeltatum (60%), the lowest was reported in R. turanicus (0.03%) (p<0.05). Mean overall intensity of infestation was 4.4 ticks/animal. The highest mean intensity was observed in H. impeltatum (2.7 ticks/animal). Overall mean abundance of ticks was 4.4 ticks/animal. Different abiotic factors, namely monthly mean minimum and monthly mean maximum temperatures and the number of sunny days were positively correlated with overall monthly tick burdens which were in turn negatively correlated with the monthly mean relative humidity. This is the first study on camel tick dynamics in Tunisia. PMID:23999226

Gharbi, Mohamed; Moussi, Nawfel; Jedidi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Sassi, Limam; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz



First International External Quality Assessment of Molecular Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonosis caused by a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. Infection is transmitted to humans mostly by Hyalomma ticks and also by direct contact with the blood or tissues of infected humans or viremic livestock. Clinical features usually include a rapid progression characterized by hemorrhage, myalgia and fever, with a lethality rate up to 30%.

Camille Escadafal; Stephan Ölschläger; Tatjana Avši?-Županc; Anna Papa; Jessica Vanhomwegen; Roman Wölfel; Ali Mirazimi; Anette Teichmann; Oliver Donoso-Mantke; Matthias Niedrig



Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected from Wild Animals in Israel  

PubMed Central

We report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in Israel. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma detritum while Rickettsia massiliae was present in Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. Furthermore, a novel uncultured SFGR was detected in Haemaphysalis adleri and Haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. The pathogenicity of the novel SFGR for humans is unknown; however, the presence of multiple SFGR agents should be considered when serological surveillance data from Israel are interpreted because of significant antigenic cross-reactivity among Rickettsia. The epidemiology and ecology of SFGR in Israel appear to be more complicated than was previously believed. PMID:22049050

Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Leitner, Moshe; Din, Adi Beth; Wikswo, Mary E.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D.; Shanas, Uri; King, Roni; Waner, Trevor



Tick infestations on livestock in the Yemen Arab Republic and their potential as vectors of livestock diseases.  


A survey of ticks on cattle, camels, sheep, goats and donkeys in four different geographical locations of the Yemen Arab Republic (YAR) was carried out to provide more information on the possible risk of tick-borne diseases to imported exotic cattle included in the YAR's plans for livestock development. The most abundant ticks were Hyalomma spp. particularly on camels. Ticks found on cattle included Hyalomma spp., Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus annulatus and Rhipicephalus spp. In general with the exception of camels tick burdens on all species of domestic livestock were very low. Two hundred and ninety eight serum samples from miscellaneous adult cattle throughout the country were negative to a test for Anaplasma marginale antibodies. It is speculated that tick burdens in the YAR are too low for significant disease transmission and the implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:3603710

McCartan, B M; Hunter, A G; Pegram, R G; Bourne, A S



A comparison of the tick burdens of wild animals in a nature reserve and on an adjacent farm where tick control is practised.  


Acaricidal treatment of cattle, sheep and goats on a farm in Valley Bushveld in the Grahamstown district resulted in a reduction in the numbers of certain tick species on kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), scrub hares (Lepus saxatilis) and crowned guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) on the same farm. The tick species most severely affected was Amblyomma hebraeum, while Haemaphysalis silacea, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus were affected to a lesser extent. Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum and Rhipicephalus oculatus appeared to be unaffected. PMID:3572954

Horak, I G; Knight, M M



Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Hyalommid Ticks, Northeastern Kenya  

PubMed Central

As part of ongoing arbovirus surveillance, we screened ticks obtained from livestock in northeastern Kenya in 2008 to assess the risk for human exposure to tick-borne viruses. Of 1,144 pools of 8,600 Hyalomma spp. ticks screened for Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus by reverse transcription PCR, 23 pools were infected, demonstrating a potential for human exposure. PMID:21801635

Lutomiah, Joel; Koka, Hellen; Makio, Albina; Chepkorir, Edith; Ochieng, Caroline; Yalwala, Santos; Mutisya, James; Musila, Lilian; Richardson, Jason H.; Miller, Barry R.; Schnabel, David



Complete L segment coding-region sequences of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains from the Russian Federation and Tajikistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The large (L) RNA segment of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus strain AST\\/TI30908, isolated from pooled Hyalomma marginatum ticks collected in 2002 from the Astrakhan region of European Russia, was amplified piecemeal using reverse-transcription\\/polymerase\\u000a chain reaction, followed by direct sequencing of gel-purified amplicons. After removal of 5? and 3? primer-generated termini,\\u000a the assembled AST\\/TI30908 L segment sequence is 12112

J. D. Meissner; S. S. Seregin; S. V. Seregin; N. V. Yakimenko; O. I. Vyshemirskii; S. V. Netesov; V. S. Petrov



[Determination of tick species and treatment of cows, sheep and goats in the Sivas-Zara region].  


The purpose of this study was to examine tick infestation in cattle, sheep and goats in the Zara-Sivas region for one year and to determine the epizootiology of the tick species as well as to investigate treatment of the infested animals. Tick infestation was detected in 71 (29.6%) out of 240 cattle, 66 (24.0%) out of 275 sheep and 50 (19.9%) out of 252 goats in the Zara region. It has been shown that the tick infestation on cattle included Haemaphysalis parva (33.8%), Dermacentor marginatus (2.8%), Boophilus annulatus (21.1%), Haemaphysalis concinna (15.5%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.7%) and Rhipicephalus bursa (7%). Those on sheep included Dermacentor niveus (18.2%), Dermacentor marginatus (31.8%), Haemaphysalis parva (13.6%), Haemaphysalis concinna (4.5%), Hyalomma marginatum (4.5%) and Rhipicephalus bursa (27.3%). Those on goats included Dermacentor niveus (4%), Dermacentor marginatus (12%), Haemaphysalis parva (40%), Haemaphysalis concinna (2%), Boophilus annulatum (4%), Hyalomma marginatum (6%) and Rhipicephalus bursa (32%). Ivermectin was administered to the infested animals in a dose of 200 microg/kg subcutaneously. The administration of the ivermectin was effective. As a result, it has been shown that the tick infestation is present in cattle, sheep and goats in Zara region, the tick species differ according to the season and administration of ivermectin was an effective treatment. PMID:17160854

Mamak, Nuri; Gençer, Lütfiye; Ozkanlar, Yunus Emre; Ozçelik, Semra



Efficacy of 1% geraniol (Fulltec) as a tick repellent.  


A field trial on the efficacy of 1% geraniol (Fulltec) spray against ticks has been carried out in two farms near Rabat (Morocco). Results clearly revealed that 1% geraniol has a preventive effect against Hyalomma ticks. Comparison of geraniol sprayed cows with control herd showed a reduction of mean number of ticks per animal of 98.4%, 97.3% and 91.3% at respectively day 7, 14 and 21 post-spraying. These data give evidence that the geraniol, natural product extracted from plants, could be an alternative to limit use of chemical acaricides, which efficacy is compromised by development of resistance. PMID:19839268

Khallaayoune, K; Biron, J M; Chaoui, A; Duvallet, G



A survey of ticks on farm animals in Libya.  


Thirteen species of ixodid ticks and two species of argasid ticks were collected during a three-year survey of 58 farms in Libya. These included Boophilus annulatus, B. microplus, B. decoloratus, seven species of Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rh. evertsi, Rh. bursa, Argas persicus and Ornithodoros foleyi. This is the first recording of B. microplus, B. decoloratus and Rh. bursa in Libya. Of 20,391 animals examined by random sampling, 2020 (9.6%) had ticks; particularly common were Hy. dromedarii on camels, Hy. impeltatum on sheep and Hy. excavatum on cattle. The tick found most frequently overall was Hy. dromedarii. PMID:1288437

Gabaj, M M; Awan, M A; Beesley, W N



Detection of Coxiella burnetii in ticks collected from Central Spain.  


A total of 1482 adult ticks collected from vegetation and animals in central Spain in 2003-2005 were tested for the presence of Coxiella burnetii by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent reverse line blot hybridization (PCR-RLB). C. burnetii was identified in 7.7% of questing ticks (80/1039) and 3.4% of ticks collected from animals (15/443) belonging to four species: Hyalomma lusitanicum, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhiphicephalus sanguineus, and R. pusillus. These findings show an active role of ticks in maintaining C. burnetii in wild and peridomestic cycles in central Spain. PMID:18945192

Toledo, A; Jado, I; Olmeda, A S; Casado-Nistal, M A; Gil, H; Escudero, R; Anda, P



Detection and Identification of Ehrlichia spp. in Ticks Collected in Tunisia and Morocco  

PubMed Central

A broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR assay followed by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used for the detection of members of the family Anaplasmataceae in ticks in North Africa. A total of 418 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Tunisia and Morocco, as well as 188 Rhipicephalus ticks from dogs and 52 Hyalomma ticks from bovines in Tunisia, were included in this study. Of 324 adult I. ricinus ticks, 16.3% were positive for Ehrlichia spp., whereas only 3.4 and 2.8% of nymphs and larvae, respectively, were positive. A large heterogeneity was observed in the nucleotide sequences. Partial sequences identical to that of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) were detected in I. ricinus and Hyalomma detritum, whereas partial sequences identical to that of Anaplasma platys were detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. However, variants of Anaplasma, provisionally designated Anaplasma-like, were predominant in the I. ricinus tick population in Maghreb. Otherwise, two variants of the genus Ehrlichia were detected in I. ricinus and H. detritum. Surprisingly, a variant of Wolbachia pipientis was evidenced from I. ricinus in Morocco. These results emphasized the potential risk of tick bites for human and animal populations in North Africa. PMID:15750072

Sarih, M'Hammed; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Bouattour, Ali; Gern, Lise; Baranton, Guy; Postic, Daničle



Antibody to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in wild mammals from southern Africa.  


Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is becoming increasingly recognized as an important human pathogen in southern Africa. In order to determine the role of wild mammals in the natural ecology of the virus, sera from 3,772 wild mammals of 87 species and from 1,978 domestic dogs collected in South Africa and Zimbabwe between 1964 and 1985 were tested for antibody to CCHF virus by reversed passive hemagglutination inhibition (RPHI) and by indirect immunofluorescence (IF). Antibody was found to be highly prevalent in large mammals in the Orders Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla such as giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis (3/3 positive), rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simium and Diceros bicornis (7/13), eland, Taurotragus oryx (59/127), buffalo, Syncerus caffer (56/287), kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros (17/78), and zebra, Equus burchelli (16/93). In small mammals antibody was found in the sera of 40/293 hares, 22/1,305 rodents, and 1/74 wild carnivores, but not in 522 primates, 176 insectivores, or 19 hyrax. Antibody was also found in the sera of 118/1,978 domestic dogs. The species of wild mammal in which antibody was distributed (with highest antibody prevalence in hares and large herbivores) reflects the feeding preference of immature and adult ticks of the genus Hyalomma, suggesting that Hyalomma sp. are the principal CCHF vectors in the wild. PMID:3101526

Shepherd, A J; Swanepoel, R; Shepherd, S P; McGillivray, G M; Searle, L A



Ticks (Ixodidae) on birds migrating from Europe and Asia to Africa, 1959-61*  

PubMed Central

The need for imaginative thinking and research in the epidemiology of diseases transmitted by arthropods is made manifest by new views of the longevity and host ranges of arthropod-borne viruses, as well as by other biological and medical phenomena. Among these is the intercontinental transport of ticks by migrating birds. During the fall migration periods of 1959, 1960 and 1961, 32 086 birds (comprising 72 forms) were examined for ticks in Egypt while en route from Asia and eastern Europe to tropical Africa. Of these, 40 forms, represented by 31 434 birds, were tick-infested. The bird hosts, numbering 1040 (3.31% of the tick-infested bird forms examined), bore 1761 ticks, or 1.69 ticks per host. Common ticks taken were Hyalomma m. marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, and Ixodes ricinus. Ixodes frontalis and Hyalomma aegyptium were less common and Haemaphysalis sulcata, H. otophila, and H. pavlovskyi were rare. The common tick species are known to be reservoirs and vectors of pathogens causing a number of human and animal diseases in Europe and Asia. Several of the bird hosts have also been incriminated as reservoirs in their summer ranges. Over 20 strains of pathogenic viruses were isolated from these birds and their ticks in Egypt in the 1961 fall migration period. The most difficult problems in investigations such as this in many parts of the world are taxonomic ones: the correct identification of bird hosts, of immature stages of ticks and of viruses. PMID:13961632

Hoogstraal, Harry; Kaiser, Makram N.; Traylor, Melvin A.; Guindy, Ezzat; Gaber, Sobhy



Prevalence and pathology of dermatophilosis in camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Iran.  


Gross and histopathologic lesions of the integumentary system were studied in 103 camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered in Yazd Province of Iran. Dermatophilosis was diagnosed in 14 (13.6%) of the studied camels. Grossly, patchy thickening of the skin with dark brown scabs or crusts were observed on the rump, flanks, abdomen, shoulders, and neck. A heavy infestation with brown hard ticks was present on the lesions in almost all of the affected camels. On parasitology examination, all the ticks were identified as Hyalomma spp. Histopathologic examination of the affected skins revealed prominent superficial thickening of the epidermis as orthokeratotic and parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, degenerating neutrophils, serous fluid, and bacterial filaments. A lot of keratinaceous debris associated with an exudate rich in neutrophils were seen as remarkable features of the lesions on the superficial epidermis. Dermal inflammation was mild with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, particularly lymphocytes, around superficial vessels. A Gram-positive filamentous organism which was divided into parallel rows of cocci was observed in the crusts by Brown and Brenn Gram stain. This is the first report of the occurrence of dermatophilosis in the camels of Iran. With regard to infestation of the lesions by Hyalomma spp., it seems that this tick may have an important role in the pathogenesis of dermatophilosis in the camels of this region. PMID:21667076

Khodakaram-Tafti, Azizollah; Khordadmehr, Monireh; Ardiyan, Mahmoud



Prevalence and genetic diversity of piroplasm species in horses and ticks from Tunisia.  


The genetic diversity and prevalence of Babesia and Theileria species in the equine population of Tunisia were studied using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization on blood samples and unfed adult ticks collected from apparently healthy horses from three bioclimatic zones in Tunisia. Piroplasms were identified in 13 of 104 of the horse blood samples analyzed (12.5%) and five genotype groups were identified: Theileria equi group A (nine animals, 8.7%), group C (one animal, 1.0%) and group D (three animals, 2.9%), and Babesia caballi groups A and B (one animal each). All horses from the semi-arid zone were negative and prevalence in the humid and sub-humid zones were 12.9% and 20.0%, respectively. Three Ixodid tick species (Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma excavatum and Rhipicephalus bursa) were collected from examined horses and equine piroplasms were detected in 10.8% of them. T. equi groups A and D (9.2%), and B. caballi group B (1.6%) were identified in ticks. This work represents the first epidemiological report of equine piroplasmosis in Tunisia. Results showed a high level of diversity within the 18S rRNA gene of equine piroplasm species, and confirmed the presence in Tunisia of two T. equi genetic groups, C and D, only reported before in South Africa and Sudan. PMID:23542456

Ros-García, Amaia; M'ghirbi, Youmna; Hurtado, Ana; Bouattour, Ali



Biogeography of Tick-Borne Bhanja Virus (Bunyaviridae) in Europe  

PubMed Central

Bhanja virus (BHAV) is pathogenic for young domestic ruminants and also for humans, causing fever and affections of the central nervous system. This generally neglected arbovirus of the family Bunyaviridae is transmitted by metastriate ticks of the genera Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Boophilus, and Amblyomma. Geographic distribution of BHAV covers southern and Central Asia, Africa, and southern (partially also central) Europe. Comparative biogeographic study of eight known natural foci of BHAV infections in Europe (in Italy, Croatia, Bulgaria, Slovakia) has revealed their common features. (1) submediterranean climatic pattern with dry growing season and wet mild winter (or microlimatically similar conditions, e.g., limestone karst areas in central Europe), (2) xerothermic woodland-grassland ecosystem, with plant alliances Quercetalia pubescentis, Festucetalia valesiacae, and Brometalia erecti, involving pastoral areas, (3) presence of at least one of the tick species Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus bursa, and/or Hyalomma marginatum, and (4) presence of ?60% of the 180 BHAV bioindicator (157 plant, 4 ixodid tick, and 19 vertebrate spp.). On that basis, Greece, France (southern, including Corsica), Albania, Spain, Hungary, European Turkey, Ukraine (southern), Switzerland (southern), Austria (southeastern), Germany (southern), Moldova, and European Russia (southern) have been predicted as additional European regions where BHAV might occur. PMID:20182535

Hubalek, Zdenek



Ixodid ticks of traditionally managed cattle in central Nigeria: where Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus does not dare (yet?)  

PubMed Central

Background Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. The aim of this study was to document the composition of tick species, assessing the burden of infestation, in traditionally managed cattle in an area of central Nigeria where acaricides have not been used historically. Methods The study was carried out in September 2010 in 9 villages belonging to three neighbouring local government areas in Plateau State, Nigeria. In each village all visible adult ticks were collected from at least 15 cattle (mean number?=?25). Collected ticks were preserved in 70% ethanol to be counted and morphologically identified to the species level. Results A total of 5011 ixodid ticks (1935 males and 3076 females) were collected from 228 cattle, comprising 14 calves, 33 juveniles, and 181 adults. Three tick genera (i.e., Amblyomma, Hyalomma, and Rhipicephalus, including the Boophilus sub-genus) and 11 species were identified. The most prevalent species was Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (41.4%), followed by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (15.4%), Rhipicephalus guilhoni (12.0%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) geigyi (7.6%), Hyalomma truncatum (7.4%), Amblyomma variegatum (6.3%), Rhipicephalus simus Group (4.0%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (1.2%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.3%), Hyalomma rufipes (0.2%), and Rhipicephalus lunulatus (n?=?1). Mean tick loads recorded were relatively high (22?±?1.4), in spite of the practice of hand removal of ticks traditionally undertaken by the Fulani pastoralists in the area. Calves bore a significantly lower tick burden than adults (p?=?0.004). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was not found in the area, suggesting that the eastbound expansion of this tick species in West Africa, has not yet reached central Nigeria. Conclusions This study ascertained the presence of a broad variety of cattle tick species, most of which are of veterinary importance. The presence of each tick species is correlated with the potential occurrence of tick-borne pathogens and suggestions for tick control in the area are considered. Results should assist the diagnosis of related TBDs in cattle as well as the strategic planning of cost-effective tick control. PMID:23758913



Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks, Morocco  

PubMed Central

A total of 370 ticks, encompassing 7 species from 4 genera, were collected during 2002–2006 from domestic animals and vegetation in the Taza region of northeastern Morocco. Rickettsial DNA was identified in 101 ticks (27%) by sequencing PCR products of fragments of the citrate synthase and outer membrane protein genes of Rickettsia spp. Seven rickettsiae of the spotted fever group were identified, including 4 pathogens: R. aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, R. massiliae in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus, and R. monacensis in Ixodes ricinus. Two suspected pathogens were also detected (R. raoultii in D. marginatus and R. helvetica in I. ricinus). An incompletely described Rickettsia sp. was detected in Haemaphysalis spp. ticks. PMID:18598627

Sarih, Mhammed; Socolovschi, Cristina; Boudebouch, Najma; Hassar, Mohammed; Raoult, Didier



An outbreak of suspected tick paralysis in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) in the Sudan.  


An outbreak of suspected tick paralysis occurred in one-humped camels in Southern Darfur, the Sudan, between latitudes 11-12 degrees N and longitudes 24-25 degrees E, when the camels were herded in tick infested areas. It involved 251 camels of different ages, in ten herds causing 34.3% mortality. The symptoms were incoordination of movements, unsteady gait and recumbency followed by death or recovery. Hyalomma adults and/or Rhipicephalus nymphs and adults were incriminated to be the cause of the disease. Transient paralysis in a guinea pig was produced after experimental feeding of ticks. Removal of the camels from the tick infested areas and treatment against the ectoparasites with Lindane at the concentration of 0.23% contributed to controlling the disease. PMID:2132792

Musa, M T; Osman, O M



Species of ticks on camels and their seasonal population dynamics in Eastern Ethiopia.  


A study was conducted to identify the species of ticks found on camels (Camelus dromedarius) and their seasonal population dynamics in Eastern Ethiopia. Collection and identification of the ticks were undertaken at 2-month intervals from December 1997 to August 1999. On each occasion, all the visible adult ticks were collected from one side of the body of each of the same 17 camels. The most abundant species of ticks on the camels were Rhipiephalus pulchellus (85.2%), Hyalomma dromedarii (5.9%), Amblyomma gemma (4.0%) and Amblyomma variegatum (1.8%). The average tick load per camel was higher during rainy months than during dry months. The smallest number of ticks per camel was observed during the driest month (December), whereas the highest was recorded in the wettest month (August). Any strategy intended to mitigate problems of tick infestation of camels in this area should take into account the identified tick species and their season of abundance. PMID:15080539

Zeleke, M; Bekele, T



Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Ethiopia and Chad.  


DNA extracted from 363 ticks collected in Ethiopia and 9 ticks collected in Chad, Africa were screened by PCR to detect DNA from spotted fever group rickettsiae. Fifteen ticks (4.1%) collected in Ethiopia and one tick (11%) collected in Chad tested positive when PCR targeting the gltA and ompA rickettsial genes was performed. PCR-positive products of the gltA and ompA genes were used for DNA sequencing. Rickettsia africae was detected in 12/118 Amblyomma lepidum and in 1/2 A. variegatum. Also, 2/12 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes collected in Ethiopia and one H. marginatum rufipes collected in Chad were positive for R. aeschlimannii. Our results confirm the previously reported presence of R. africae in Ethiopia and also show the first evidence of R. aeschlimannii in ticks collected in Ethiopia and Chad. PMID:18440576

Mura, Alessandra; Socolovschi, Cristina; Ginesta, Jacques; Lafrance, Bertrand; Magnan, Stéphan; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Davoust, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe



The first molecular detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in the ticks of camels from southern Algeria.  


We collected ticks from camels in 4 regions of southern Algeria (El Oued, Bechar, Ghardia, and Adrar) from February to October in 2008 and in April of 2011. A total of 307 ticks representing multiple species (including Hyalomma dromedarii, H. marginatum rufipes, H. impeltatum, and H. impressum), was tested for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsia DNA using gltA real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The presence of Rickettsia aeschlimannii was confirmed with a new qPCR using species-specific primers and Taqman probes based on the sca2 genes. The R. aeschlimannii sequence was further confirmed by detecting the gltA and outer membrane protein (ompA) genes in H. m. rufipes, H. impeltatum, and H. dromedarii ticks. These findings represent the first report of the detection of R. aeschlimannii in ticks collected from camels from southern Algeria. PMID:23168055

Djerbouh, Amel; Kernif, Tahar; Beneldjouzi, Assia; Socolovschi, Cristina; Kechemir, Nadia; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Bitam, Idir



Ticks parasitizing humans in Greece.  


In summer 2008, two fatal cases were observed in Northeastern Greece: a Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) case (first report in Greece) and a Mediterranean spotted fever case. In total, 537 ticks removed from humans who referred for this reason to the two hospitals of the region during June-September 2008 were identified. The vast majority of them (81.5%) were Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which is the main vector of Rickettsia conorii, while Hyalomma marginatum, the main vector of CCHF virus, accounted for 5.2%. The increased aggressiveness of R. sanguineus might be related to the weather conditions occurred during 2007-2008, while a variety of factors, including climate, might play a role in CCHF emergence. PMID:20925519

Papa, Anna; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Xanthopoulou, Kyriaki; Papaioakim, Miltiadis; Papanastasiou, Sofia; Sotiraki, Smaragda



Ixodid Tick Infestation in Cattle and Wild Animals in Maswa and Iringa, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Ticks and tick-borne diseases are important in human and livestock health worldwide. In November 2012, ixodid ticks were collected and identified morphologically from cattle and wild animals in the Maswa district and Iringa urban, Tanzania. Amblyomma gemma, A. lepidum, and A. variegatum were identified from Maswa cattle, and A. variegatum was the predominant species. A. marmoreum, Hyalomma impeltatum, and Rhipicephalus pulchellus were identified from Iringa cattle in addition to the above 3 Amblyomma species, and A. gemma was the most abundant species. Total 4 Amblyomma and 6 Rhipicephalus species were identified from wild animals of the 2 areas. A. lepidum was predominant in Maswa buffaloes, whereas A. gemma was predominant in Iringa buffaloes. Overall, A. variegatum in cattle was predominant in the Maswa district and A. gemma was predominant in Iringa, Tanzania. PMID:25352709

Kwak, You Shine; Kim, Tae Yun; Nam, Sung-Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Pyo; Mduma, Simon; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert



Ixodid tick infestation in cattle and wild animals in maswa and iringa, Tanzania.  


Ticks and tick-borne diseases are important in human and livestock health worldwide. In November 2012, ixodid ticks were collected and identified morphologically from cattle and wild animals in the Maswa district and Iringa urban, Tanzania. Amblyomma gemma, A. lepidum, and A. variegatum were identified from Maswa cattle, and A. variegatum was the predominant species. A. marmoreum, Hyalomma impeltatum, and Rhipicephalus pulchellus were identified from Iringa cattle in addition to the above 3 Amblyomma species, and A. gemma was the most abundant species. Total 4 Amblyomma and 6 Rhipicephalus species were identified from wild animals of the 2 areas. A. lepidum was predominant in Maswa buffaloes, whereas A. gemma was predominant in Iringa buffaloes. Overall, A. variegatum in cattle was predominant in the Maswa district and A. gemma was predominant in Iringa, Tanzania. PMID:25352709

Kwak, You Shine; Kim, Tae Yun; Nam, Sung-Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Pyo; Mduma, Simon; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert; Yong, Tai-Soon



Isolation of Tick and Mosquito-Borne Arboviruses from Ticks Sampled from Livestock and Wild Animal Hosts in Ijara District, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Abstract Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service–protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne. PMID:23805790

Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary



Tick burden and prevalence of Theileria parva infection in Tarime zebu cattle in the lake zone of Tanzania.  


This study was carried out to assess the distribution, abundance of different tick genera and prevalence of Theileria parva infection in Tarime zebu cattle kept in selected wards of Serengeti and Tarime districts in Mara region. Adult ticks were identified and counted from half body parts of 360 animals which were extensively managed in communal land with natural pastures. Concurrently, blood samples were collected and thereafter DNA extracted and a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was done using primers specific for p104 gene to detect the presence of T. parva DNA. Ticks were identified into four groups: Amblyomma genus, Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus genus, other species of Rhipicephalus, and Hyalomma genus. Rhipicephalus genus accounted for 71.8 % of the total ticks, whereas Amblyomma, Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus genus and Hyalomma constituted 14.1, 14.0 and 0.1 %, respectively. There were more animals (p?

Laisser, Emmanuel Levillal Katamboi; Kipanyula, Maulilio John; Msalya, George; Mdegela, Robinson Hammerthon; Karimuribo, Esron Daniel; Mwilawa, Anjello Joseph; Mwega, Elisa Daniel; Kusiluka, Lughano; Chenyambuga, Sebastian Wilson



Identification of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks Feeding on Humans in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. The tick-borne disease outbreaks reported in recent years and the abundance of tick species and the existence of suitable habitats increase the importance of studies related to the epidemiology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of and to determine the infection rates of some tick-borne pathogens, including Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in the ticks removed from humans in different parts of Ankara. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 169 ticks belonging to the genus Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus were collected by removing from humans in different parts of Ankara. Ticks were molecularly screened for Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae by PCR and sequencing analysis. We detected 4 Babesia spp.; B. crassa, B. major, B. occultans and B. rossi, one Borrelia spp.; B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae; R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca and R. hoogstraalii in the tick specimens analyzed. This is the report showing the presence of B. rossi in a region that is out of Africa and in the host species Ha. parva. In addition, B. crassa, for which limited information is available on its distribution and vector species, and B. occultans, for which no conclusive information is available on its presence in Turkey, were identified in Ha. parva and H. marginatum, respectively. Two human pathogenic rickettsia species (R. aeschlimannii and R. slovaca) were detected with a high prevalence in ticks. Additionally, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in unusual tick species (H. marginatum, H. excavatum, Hyalomma spp. (nymph) and Ha. parva). Conclusions/Significance This study investigates both the distribution of several tick-borne pathogens affecting humans and animals, and the presence of new tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. More epidemiological studies are warranted for B. rossi, which is very pathogenic for dogs, because the presented results suggest that B. rossi might have a wide distribution in Turkey. Furthermore, we recommend that tick-borne pathogens, especially R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, should be taken into consideration in patients who had a tick bite in Turkey. PMID:25101999

Orkun, Omer; Karaer, Zafer; Cakmak, Ayse; Nalbantoglu, Serpil



Tick reservoirs for piroplasms in central and northern Italy.  


Ticks, collected in central and northern Italy from pets, livestock, wild animals and the environment (n=2107), were identified by microscopy and processed by molecular diagnostics to determine the species that act as a reservoir for piroplasms. A total of 11 ixodid tick species were identified, with five of them proving to be piroplasm positive. Molecular diagnostics identified Theileria equi and eight Babesia species in 52 adult specimens, mostly (n=50) removed from piroplasm-free vertebrate hosts. Ixodes ricinus hosted the highest number of species, although the highest infection rate was recorded in Hyalomma marginatum (9.1%), followed by I. ricinus (5.1%), Dermacentor marginatus (5%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (3.1%) and R. sanguineus (1.2%). Novel tick/pathogen associations were detected, suggesting that certain tick species (such as Hy. marginatum, R. sanguineus and I. ricinus) are vector of more piroplasm species than previously thought. Trans-stadial maintenance of the piroplasms was observed in each positive tick species; vertical transmission of B. canis canis was demonstrated in R. sanguineus. Finally, the detection of Babesia sp., B. microti-like species and B. rodhaini, phylogenetically related to zoonotic species, suggests that the human population could be at risk of infection in the studied area. PMID:20304560

Iori, Albertina; Gabrielli, Simona; Calderini, Pietro; Moretti, Annabella; Pietrobelli, Mario; Tampieri, Maria Paola; Galuppi, Roberta; Cancrini, Gabriella



New insights into the epidemiology of bovine piroplasmoses in Italy.  


Few studies have been published on bovine piroplasmoses in Italy, and therefore a clear picture of the epidemiology of these infections is difficult to obtain. Vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in Central and Northern Regions of Italy were investigated in 2005 and 2006, when microscopy, molecular tools and serological tests were applied to 468 blood samples drawn from cattle in order to evaluate the presence of these protozoa and identify possible risk factors. Ticks were also collected, identified and analyzed by molecular techniques. Microscopy identified 6.5% of the animals as positive, whereas PCR detected piroplasm DNA in 21.6%. BLAST analysis showed 67 amplicons (17.0%) referable to the Theileria sergenti/buffeli/orientalis group, 17 (4.3%) to Theileria annae, and 1 to Babesia divergens. Serology evidenced a prevalence of 45.4% for Babesia bovis, 17.4% for Babesia bigemina, and 34.9% for B. divergens. The 127 collected ticks were identified as belonging to 5 species, mostly represented by Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma marginatum and Ixodes ricinus. Molecular analyses evidenced the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina, in 3 and 5 ticks, respectively. Our findings suggest that different species of piroplasms are circulating in bovine populations in Central and Northern Italy, and provide new insights into the complex epidemiology of bovine piroplasmoses in Italy. PMID:21864982

Cassini, R; Marcer, F; di Regalbono, A Frangipane; Cancrini, G; Gabrielli, S; Moretti, A; Galuppi, R; Tampieri, M P; Pietrobelli, M



Invasion: exotic ticks (Acari: Argasidae, Ixodidae) imported into the United States. A review and new records.  


A review of the literature and unpublished records from the U.S. National Tick Collection on the importation of ticks from foreign lands reveals that at least 99 exotic tick species assignable to 11 genera have been either detected and destroyed at ports of entry or inadvertently imported into the United States in the past half century. This number includes four argasid and 95 ixodid species, some of which are important vectors of agents that cause disease to both man and animals. If one includes Aponomma sp. and Hyalomma sp. and the subspecies of Rhipicephalus, the total exceeds 100 taxa. It is notable that the number of imported tick species recorded herein exceeds the total number of tick species native to the United States. It appears that the soft tick genera Argas, Antricola and Nothoaspis have not been imported, although at some point in time Argas persicus (Oken) was introduced because it is resident although not often collected. The hard tick genera Anomalohimalaya, Cosmiomma, Margaropus, Nosomma and Rhipicentor, and the nuttalliellid genus Nuttalliella have also not been imported. PMID:11761384

Keirans, J E; Durden, L A



Clinical aspects of African viral hemorrhagic fevers.  


Three hemorrhagic fevers occur in southern Africa: Rift Valley fever, Marburg virus disease, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. The patient's history of travel in Africa, visits to rural areas, contact with sick animals or their carcasses, or contact with a tick-infested environment or tick bites is important. Rift Valley fever is characterized by an incubation period of approximately 3 or 4 days, sudden onset of fever with a biphasic course, and signs and symptoms of liver and kidney disorder. The commonest complication is retinitis with a central scotoma. Severe cases may develop a hemorrhagic state, which may be fatal. Marburg virus disease was studied in two Australian students after a tour of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and in a nurse who cared for them. The incubation period of approximately 7 days is followed by sudden onset of fever (typically lasting 7 days) and the appearance of a maculopapular petechial rash on the 5th day. A hemorrhagic state develops about the same time and may be fatal. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is widespread in South Africa; it may be transmitted by tick bite of the species Hyalomma, by contact with the tissues of animals, or by contact with infected patients. PMID:2665013

Gear, J H



Ixodid ticks of road-killed wildlife species in southern Italy: new tick-host associations and locality records.  


The present study aimed to identify ticks collected from road-killed wildlife species retrieved in several localities of southern Italy and to assess the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. DNA in ticks. Collections were carried out from January 2000 to December 2009 on wild animals found dead within the territories of 11 municipalities from three regions (i.e., Apulia, Basilicata, and Calabria). In total, 189 carcasses of wild animals belonging to 10 species were checked for tick infestation, and 40 animals belonging to seven species were found parasitized. One hundred and twenty-five ixodid ticks (11 larvae, 14 nymphs, 77 males, and 23 females) were collected and identified as belonging to nine species, namely Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis erinacei, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes acuminatus, Ixodes canisuga, Ixodes hexagonus, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus turanicus. None of the 36 tick specimens tested by PCR was positive for tick-borne pathogens. The results add new information on the tick fauna associated with wild animals in Italy, reporting new tick-host associations. Further field studies are still needed to ascertain the suitability of certain wildlife species as hosts for some tick species, particularly for those implicated in the transmission of pathogens to domestic animals and humans. Finally, from a conservation perspective, it would be interesting to assess whether these wild animals (e.g., Lepus corsicanus) are exposed to tick-borne pathogens, investigating the possible implications for their health and behavior. PMID:21728058

Lorusso, Vincenzo; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mallia, Egidio; Ravagnan, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia; Otranto, Domenico



Experimental studies on the replication and transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in some African tick species.  


Seven African tick species were studied as potential vectors of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus. Engorged nymphae of 4 ixodid species, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, H. truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus, and Amblyomma hebraeum, were inoculated intracoelomically with CCHF virus and assayed for virus content at varying times post-inoculation. The virus replicated in all 4 species, reaching maximum titers of 4.6-5.5(10) fluorescence focus units per ml on days 5-9 post-inoculation. Virus titers declined up to the molt, but increased slightly on emergence of adult ticks. Thereafter, virus titers declined progressively, but infectivity could still be detected in adult ticks for up to 205 days post-inoculation. Groups of H. m. rufipes, H. truncatum, and R.e. mimeticus infected adults were fed on susceptible sheep and successfully transmitted CCHF infection. CCHF virus was not isolated from pools of the larval and nymphal progeny of the female ticks nor did the larvae transmit infection to guinea pigs by bite. CCHF virus failed to replicate in adults and nymphae of 3 argasid tick species, Argas walkerae, Ornithodorus porcinus porcinus, and O. savignyi, after intracoelomic inoculation and could be reisolated from the ticks no later than 1 day post-inoculation. The results suggest that all ixodid ticks are capable of transmitting CCHF virus but argasid ticks do not appear to be capable of serving as vectors. PMID:2494900

Shepherd, A J; Swanepoel, R; Cornel, A J; Mathee, O



Epidemiology and Phylogenetic Analysis of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses in Xinjiang, China?  

PubMed Central

In 2004 and 2005, an epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was conducted in Xinjiang, China. A total of 5,629 serum samples of human and livestock were collected and tested for the CCHFV antibody, and 17,319 ticks were collected for viral identification. Reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition assays showed that the average prevalence of CCHFV antibody was 1.7% for the humans and 12.7% for the livestock. A relatively high antibody prevalence, ranging from 19.1% to 23.4%, was found in the livestock of the northwest, southwest, and northeast parts of the Tarim Basin. When the ticks were pooled to inoculate suckling mice, followed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to detect CCHFV RNA, the average RT-PCR-positive rates for Hyalomma asiaticum kozlovi and H. asiaticum asiaticum were 12.9% and 2.6%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the antibody prevalence in the livestock and the CCHFV prevalence in H. asiaticum of the same geographic region. No CCHFV RNA was detected in Dermacentor nivenus, Rhipicephalus turanius, or Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A total of 27 partial S segments of CCHFVs were sequenced and used for phylogeny analysis. All but one Chinese isolate grouped into the Asia 1 clade, which contains the strains from Xinjiang and Uzbekistan, while the other strain, Fub90009, grouped with strains from the Middle East. PMID:19553586

Sun, Surong; Dai, Xiang; Aishan, Muhetaer; Wang, Xinhui; Meng, Weiwei; Feng, Conghui; Zhang, Fuchun; Hang, Changshou; Hu, Zhihong; Zhang, Yujiang



[Khurdun virus, a presumably new RNA-containing virus associated with coots (Fulica atra), isolated in the Volga river delta].  


The prototype strain LEIV-Ast 01-5 of the unclassified enveloped RNA-containing Khurdun virus, less than 220 nm in size, which is widely distributed among coots (Fulica atra) in the Volga River delta, was deposited on November 4, 2004, at the State Virus Collection (SVC # 992). The virus was isolated annually (2001-2004) with a frequency of 2.3-8.5% (mean 6.3%) when examining 348 coots caught in the lower and middle zones of the Volga River delta. Virological examinations used mixed pools of the brain and spleen to inoculate neonatal albino mice and the cellular line Vero-E6. One strain was isolated from a pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus). The virus could not be isolated from other species of 1080 birds, 20 hares, 140,000 mosquitoes of 5 predominant species, and 6,700 Hyalomma marginatum ticks. Any antigenic relationship of the virus with all the viruses early isolated in the Northern Caspian Sea region has not been found. ELISA has been developed to detect and identify Khurdun virus antigen. PMID:16104519

Galkina, I V; L'vov, L N; Gromashevski?, V L; Moskvina, T M



The Influence of Interspecific Competition and Host Preference on the Phylogeography of Two African Ixodid Tick Species  

PubMed Central

A comparative phylogeographic study on two economically important African tick species, Amblyomma hebraeum and Hyalomma rufipes was performed to test the influence of host specificity and host movement on dispersion. Pairwise AMOVA analyses of 277 mtDNA COI sequences supported significant population differentiation among the majority of sampling sites. The geographic mitochondrial structure was not supported by nuclear ITS-2 sequencing, probably attributed to a recent divergence. The three-host generalist, A. hebraeum, showed less mtDNA geographic structure, and a lower level of genetic diversity, while the more host-specific H. rufipes displayed higher levels of population differentiation and two distinct mtDNA assemblages (one predominantly confined to South Africa/Namibia and the other to Mozambique and East Africa). A zone of overlap is present in southern Mozambique. A mechanistic climate model suggests that climate alone cannot be responsible for the disruption in female gene flow. Our findings furthermore suggest that female gene dispersal of ticks is more dependent on the presence of juvenile hosts in the environment than on the ability of adult hosts to disperse across the landscape. Documented interspecific competition between the juvenile stages of H. rufipes and H. truncatum is implicated as a contributing factor towards disrupting gene flow between the two southern African H. rufipes genetic assemblages. PMID:24130813

Cangi, Nidia; Horak, Ivan G.; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A.; Matthee, Sonja; das Neves, Luis C. B. G.; Estrada-Pena, Agustin; Matthee, Conrad A.



The impact of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus on public health.  


Climatic, environmental and economic changes, as well as the steadily increasing global trade and personal mobility provide ample opportunities for emerging pathogens with zoonotic potential to spread to previously unaffected countries. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is considered to be one of the major emerging disease threats spreading to and within the European Union following an expanding distribution of its main vector, ticks of the genus Hyalomma. Every year more than 1000 human CCHF cases are reported from countries of southeastern Europe and Turkey. CCHFV can cause high case fatality rates and can be transmitted from human to human. There are no vaccine prophylaxis and therapeutic interventions available at present. Several EU-funded research projects focus currently on CCHFV which highlights the awareness for this problem at the European level. As public health deals with questions of prevention on a population level rather than healing and health on an individual level, the analysis of existing data plays a fundamental role to minimize its epidemic potential, by reducing infection risks, and to manage disease outbreaks. This review gives a summary of the current knowledge and data with focus at the interface between public health and CCHFV. Based on this knowledge, guidelines for the risk classification of a region and for outbreak prevention are given. This review will assist decision makers and public health authorities in understanding risk scenarios and in deciding on effective countermeasures, as well as human and veterinary scientists by highlighting existing gaps in knowledge. PMID:23458713

Mertens, Marc; Schmidt, Katja; Ozkul, Aykut; Groschup, Martin H



Environmental correlates of crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever incidence in Bulgaria  

PubMed Central

Background Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral disease transmitted by ixodid tick bites, mainly of Hyalomma spp., or through contact with blood/tissues from infected people or animals. CCHF is endemic in the Balkan area, including Bulgaria, where it causes both sporadic cases and community outbreaks. Methods We described trends of CCHF in Bulgaria between 1997 and 2009 and investigated the associations between CCHF incidence and a selection of environmental factors using a zero-inflated modelling approach. Results A total of 159 CCHF cases (38 women and 121 men) were identified between 1997 and 2009. The incidence was 0.13 cases per 100,000 population/year with a fatality rate of 26%. An epidemic peak was detected close to the Turkish border in the summer of 2002. Most cases were reported between April and September. Increasing mean temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), savannah-type land coverage or habitat fragmentation increased significantly the incidence of CCHF in the CCHF-affected areas. Similar to that observed in Turkey, we found that areas with warmer temperatures in the autumn prior to the case-reporting year had an increased probability of reporting zero CCHF cases. Conclusions We identified environmental correlates of CCHF incidence in Bulgaria that may support the prospective implementation of public health interventions. PMID:23270399



Primary report on distribution of tick fauna in Iran.  


A tick survey was carried out in four different geographical areas of Iran, where the majority of the domestic ruminants in Iran exist. About 1,500 sheep, 1,200 goats and 500 cattle of 12 herds in different provinces lying in the corresponding zones were inspected for tick infestation. The occurrence of ticks on cattle, sheep and goats were 62, 55 and 57%, respectively, with no differences between the zones. The mean number of ticks on each animal was low (10-20 ticks per animal). Ixodid ticks were found throughout the year, whereas the soft tick Ornithodoros sp., which occurred in mountainous area with a significant difference in abundance, showed a clear pattern of seasonality, being generally present from November to March. The largest numbers of adult ixodid ticks were generally present from April to August. Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis and Dermacentor ticks occurred in the mountainous area, whereas Boophilus and Ixodes ticks were only present in the Caspian region. Hyalomma were very abundant in each zone but especially in the mountainous area, whereas Ixodes ticks were the minor genus. PMID:17823823

Rahbari, Sadegh; Nabian, Sedighe; Shayan, Parviz



Tick-borne rickettsiae in Guinea and Liberia.  


While the high seroprevalence for the rickettsiae that cause spotted fevers and the multiple pathogenic rickettsiae is known, the data on the distribution of rickettsial diseases in Africa are often incomplete. We collected ticks from domestic or wild animals (generally a source of bushmeat) that were in contact with humans in 2 neighboring countries of tropical West Africa, Guinea and Liberia. In total, 382 ticks representing 6 species were collected in Liberia and 655 ticks representing 7 species were collected in Guinea. We found rickettsiae in 9 different species of ticks from both countries. Rickettsia africae was found in 93-100% of Amblyomma variegatum, in 14-93% of Rhipicephalus (B.) geigyi, Rh. (B.) annulatus, and Rh. (B.) decoloratus, and in several Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Haemaphysalis paraleachi. A genetic variant of R. africae was found in Amblyomma compressum. R. massiliae was found in 10/61 (16%) of Rh. senegalensis ticks and in 2% of Haemaphysalis paraleachi ticks collected from dogs. We identified a new rickettsia in one of 44 (2%) Ixodes muniensis collected from a dog in Liberia. As this rickettsia is not yet isolated, we propose the provisional name "Candidatus Rickettsia liberiensis" (for the West African country where the host tick was collected). PMID:22309858

Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Zolia, Yah; Balde, Mamadou Cellou; Kohar, Henry; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier



Retrospective Study of Hemoparasites in Cattle in Southern Italy by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. In order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern Italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. The study had been carried out in three regions of southern Italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. RLB showed that 43.7% of the cattle were positive for nine different species of hemoparasites with either a single infection or a mixed infection. Theileria buffeli was the most common species found, being present in 27.3% of the animals, followed by Anaplasma marginale in 18.1%, Anaplasma centrale in 13.8%, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma bovis in 4.2%, Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.7%, Babesia bovis in 1.6%, Babesia major in 0.2% and Babesia divergens in 0.1%. Complete blood counts showed different degrees of anemia in 363 animals (24.2%) and of these, 169 were RLB-positive for at least one pathogen. Among the ticks that were collected from the cattle, the following species were identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma marginatum, Boophilus annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis (sulcata, parva, inermis and punctata). The results obtained confirmed the spread of endemic tick-borne pathogens in the regions studied. PMID:24614604

CECI, Luigi; IARUSSI, Fabrizio; GRECO, Beatrice; LACINIO, Rosanna; FORNELLI, Stefania; CARELLI, Grazia



Seroprevalence of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ijara District, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Abstract Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral disease mainly affecting pastoralists who come in contact with animals infested with Hyalomma ticks, which are the key vectors of CCHF virus (CCHFV). CCHFV has been detected among these ticks in parts of North Eastern Kenya. This study aimed to identify acute cases of CCHF, and to determine the extent of previous exposure to CCHFV in an outpatient population attending Sangailu and Ijara health centers, Ijara District, North Eastern Kenya, presenting with acute febrile illnesses. A total of 517 human serum samples were collected from these patients. The samples were screened for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to CCHF using CCCHF-IgG and IgM ELISA test kits. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to investigate the risk factors associated with evidence of exposure to CCHFV. A single patient tested positive for anti-CCHF IgM, while 96 were positive for anti-CCHF IgG. The seroprevalence of CCHFV was 23% in Sangailu and 14% in Ijara. Most exposed persons were aged 40–49 years. The likelihood of exposure was highest among farmers (29%). Age, location, and contact with donkeys were significantly associated with exposure to CCHFV. Acute CCHFV infections could be occurring without being detected in this population. This study confirms human exposure to CCHF virus in Ijara District, Kenya, and identifies several significant risk factors associated with exposure to CCHFV. PMID:22925021

Irura, Zephania; Tigoi, Caroline; Chepkorir, Edith; Orindi, Benedict; Musila, Lillian; Venter, Marietjie; Fischer, Anne; Sang, Rosemary



Two Immunoregulatory Peptides with Antioxidant Activity from Tick Salivary Glands*  

PubMed Central

Ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that may secrete immunosuppressant molecules, which inhibit host inflammatory and immune responses and provide survival advantages to pathogens at tick bleeding sites in hosts. In the current work, two families of immunoregulatory peptides, hyalomin-A and -B, were first identified from salivary glands of hard tick Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. Three copies of hyalomin-A are encoded by an identical gene and released from the same protein precursor. Both hyalomin-A and -B can exert significant anti-inflammatory functions, either by directly inhibiting host secretion of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-?, monocyte chemotectic protein-1, and interferon-? or by indirectly increasing the secretion of immunosuppressant cytokine of interleukin-10. Hyalomin-A and -B were both found to potently scavenge free radical in vitro in a rapid manner and inhibited adjuvant-induced inflammation in mouse models in vivo. The JNK/SAPK subgroup of the MAPK signaling pathway was involved in such immunoregulatory functions of hyalomin-A and -B. These results showed that immunoregulatory peptides of tick salivary glands suppress host inflammatory response by modulating cytokine secretion and detoxifying reactive oxygen species. PMID:20178988

Wu, Jing; Wang, Yipeng; Liu, Han; Yang, Hailong; Ma, Dongying; Li, Jianxu; Li, Dongsheng; Lai, Ren; Yu, Haining



Camel tick (Acari:Ixodidae) control with pour-on application of flumethrin.  


The pyrethroid flumethrin (Bayticol) was tested in camels (Camelus dromedarius) as a pour-on for the control of the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii. Two, small, naturally infested camel herds, one heavily infested and the other lightly infested, each composed of eight head of animals, were used for this field trial. In each herd, four camels were randomly selected for treatment and the other four untreated camels were kept as controls. The heavily infested herd was treated with 2 ml 10kg-1 body weight per animal whereas the lightly infested herd was treated with 1 ml 10kg-1 body weight per animal. Comparison of the number of adult ticks on treated animals with those on untreated ones revealed that there were high figures of percentage control within 2 weeks after the application of both dose rates. No side-effects of treatment were observed. This trial has demonstrated that flumethrin is safe and effective when used to control ticks on dromedaries, and the pour-on method for insecticide application is fast and easy and is suitable for use by camel owners in the desert. PMID:9017876

el-Azazy, O M



Ticks infesting humans in Italy and associated pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background Ticks may transmit a large variety of pathogens, which cause illnesses in animals and humans, commonly referred to as to tick-borne diseases (TBDs). The incidence of human TBDs in Italy is underestimated because of poor surveillance and the scant amount of studies available. Methods Samples (n =?561) were collected from humans in four main geographical areas of Italy (i.e., northwestern, northeastern, southern Italy, and Sicily), which represent a variety of environments. After being morphologically identified, ticks were molecularly tested with selected protocols for the presence of pathogens of the genera Rickettsia, Babesia, Theileria, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Borrelia and Anaplasma. Results Ticks belonged to 16 species of the genera Argas, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, with Ixodes ricinus (59.5%) being the species most frequently retrieved, followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (21.4%). Nymphs were the life stage most frequently retrieved (41%), followed by adult females (34.6%). The overall positivity to any pathogen detected was 18%. Detected microorganisms were Rickettsia spp. (17.0%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (0.8%), Borrelia afzelii (0.5%), Borrelia valaisiana (0.3%), C. N. mikurensis (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.6%). Conclusions Results indicate that people living in the Italian peninsula are at risk of being bitten by different tick species, which may transmit a plethora of TBD causing pathogens and that co-infections may also occur. PMID:25023709



Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of antibody to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in the sera of livestock and wild vertebrates.  

PubMed Central

IgM antibody response to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus was monitored in experimentally infected sheep and cattle by an IgM capture enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Specific binding of antigen was detected by a rabbit anti-CCHF horseradish peroxidase conjugate or a sandwich technique with hyperimmune mouse anti-CCHF ascitic fluid and commercially available anti-mouse immunoglobulin peroxidase conjugate. The persistence of IgM antibody activity was found to be of shorter duration than in humans, and this may be a function of the relative lack of susceptibility of these animals to infection with CCHF virus. IgG antibody responses in the sheep could be monitored by sandwich ELISA using commercially available anti-sheep immunoglobulin peroxidase conjugates. Total antibody activity in the sera of experimentally infected sheep, cattle and small mammals could be monitored in a competitive ELISA (CELISA) using rabbit anti-CCHF peroxidase conjugate. The CELISA was applied to the sera of 960 wild vertebrates from a nature reserve in South Africa, and the prevalence of antibody was found to be greatest in large mammals such as rhinoceros, giraffe and buffalo, which are known to be the preferred hosts of the adult tick (Hyalomma) vectors of the virus. PMID:8270014

Burt, F. J.; Swanepoel, R.; Braack, L. E.



Immunological control of ticks through vaccination with Boophilus microplus gut antigens.  


The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remain a challenge for the scientific community. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful. Recently, vaccination with recombinant Boophilus microplus gut antigens has been shown to control tick infestations. Our Bm86-containing vaccine formulation (Gavac) has been effective for the control of artificial infestations of B. annulatus, B. decoloratus, and chemically sensitive and resistant B. microplus strains from Australia, Africa, America, and Iran. Preliminary results with Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. suggest partial cross protection. In field trials, vaccination with Gavac controlled B. microplus and B. annulatus infestations and reduced the transmission of babesiosis, resulting in important savings for the cattle industry. Different degrees of susceptibility to the vaccination with Bm86 and sequence variations in the Bm86 locus have been reported. The Bm95 antigen was isolated from the Argentinean Bm86-resistant B. microplus strain A. A Bm95-based vaccine was used to protect cattle against tick infestations under production conditions with similar results to that obtained with Gavac. The Bm95 antigen from strain A was able to protect against infestations with Bm86-sensitive and Bm86-resistant tick strains, thus suggesting that Bm95 could be a more universal antigen in protecting cattle against infestations by B. microplus strains from different geographical areas. These results clearly demonstrate the advantage and possibilities for the immunological control of ticks. PMID:11193686

De La Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; García-García, J C



Prevalence of vectors of the spotted fever group Rickettsiae and murine typhus in a Bedouin town in Israel.  


A survey of the vectors of spotted fever group Rickettsiae and of murine typhus was carried out in Rahat, a Bedouin town in the Negev Desert, where the diseases are endemic. Houses with known cases of spotted fever group Rickettsiae or murine typhus were compared with those without reported clinical cases. A neighboring Jewish community, Lehavim, where no cases of spotted fever group Rickettsiae and murine typhus were reported in recent years, was used as a control. In the houses of patients with spotted fever group Rickettsiae in Rahat, an average of 7.4 times more ticks were found than in control houses. Out of 190 ticks isolated from sheep and goats or caught by flagging in Rahat, 90% were Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), 7.9% Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev, and 2.1% were Hyalomma sp. In the houses of patients with murine typhus, three times more rats were caught and, on the average, each rat was infested with 2.2 times more fleas than rats in the control houses. Out of 323 fleas collected from 35 Norwegian rats (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout), 191 were Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild and 132 Echidnophaga murina Tiraboschi. Thus, there was a six to seven times higher probability of encountering a tick or flea vector where infections had occurred than in control houses in Rahat. The percentage of rats seropositive to Rickettsia typhi was similar in study and control households (78.3 and 76.2, respectively). In the control settlement, Lehavim, only three Mus musculus L. were caught, which were not infested with ectoparasites and their sera were negative for murine typhus. Out of 10 dogs examined in this settlement, 15 R. sanguineus and eight specimens of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis felis Bouché) were isolated. No rats were caught in this settlement. These data indicate that there is a correlation among the density of domestic animals, their ectoparasites, and the incidence of spotted fever group Rickettsiae and murine typhus in Rahat. PMID:11372975

Mumcuoglu, K Y; Ioffe-Uspensky, I; Alkrinawi, S; Sarov, B; Manor, E; Galun, R



Relationships between tick counts and coat characteristics in Nguni and Bonsmara cattle reared on semiarid rangelands in South Africa.  


Indigenous Nguni cattle are adapted to the semiarid rangeland and appear to be resistant to ticks; however, the mechanism for tick resistance is yet to be established. To understand tick resistance in cattle, relationships among skin thickness, hair length, coat score, and tick counts were estimated in Nguni (n=12) and Bonsmara (n=12) heifers on semiarid rangelands of South Africa. The tick species observed to infest the heifers were Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (frequency: 76%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (9%), Amblyomma hebraeum (5%), Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (5%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (3%), and Hyalomma marginatum (2%). Nguni heifers had lower (P<0.05) log(10) (x+1)-transformed coat scores (0.6±0.01), hair length (1.4±0.01), and tick counts (1.4±0.03) than Bonsmara heifers whose log(10) (x+1)-transformed coat score, hair length, and tick count values were 0.7±0.01, 1.5±0.01, and 1.8±0.02, respectively. The skin thickness between the two breeds were similar (P>0.05). There was a positive linear (P<0.05) relationship between log(10) (x+1) tick counts and log(10) (x+1) coat score in the Nguni (y=1.90x-0.40) and a quadratic relationship in the Bonsmara (y=-7.98x(2)+12.74x-3.12) breed. It was concluded that the smooth coats may be one of the important mechanisms of tick resistance in the indigenous Nguni breed. Determination of genetic resistance to ticks in the Nguni breed is recommended as this will give more specific indication to the mechanism of host resistance in this breed. PMID:21890073

Marufu, Munyaradzi C; Qokweni, Luxolo; Chimonyo, Michael; Dzama, Kennedy



Extensive diversity of Rickettsiales bacteria in two species of ticks from China and the evolution of the Rickettsiales  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteria of the order Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria) are obligate intracellular parasites that infect species from virtually every major eukaryotic lineage. Several rickettsial genera harbor species that are significant emerging and re-emerging pathogens of humans. As species of Rickettsiales are associated with an extremely diverse host range, a better understanding of the historical associations between these bacteria and their hosts will provide important information on their evolutionary trajectories and, particularly, their potential emergence as pathogens. Results Nine species of Rickettsiales (two in the genus Rickettsia, three in the genus Anaplasma, and four in the genus Ehrlichia) were identified in two species of hard ticks (Dermacentor nuttalli and Hyalomma asiaticum) from two geographic regions in Xinjiang through genetic analyses of 16S rRNA, gltA, and groEL gene sequences. Notably, two lineages of Ehrlichia and one lineage of Anaplasma were distinct from any known Rickettsiales, suggesting the presence of potentially novel species in ticks in Xinjiang. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed some topological differences between the phylogenies of the bacteria and their vectors, which led us to marginally reject a model of exclusive bacteria-vector co-divergence. Conclusions Ticks are an important natural reservoir of many diverse species of Rickettsiales. In this work, we identified a single tick species that harbors multiple species of Rickettsiales, and uncovered extensive genetic diversity of these bacteria in two tick species from Xinjiang. Both bacteria-vector co-divergence and cross-species transmission appear to have played important roles in Rickettsiales evolution. PMID:25073875



[Taxonomic status of the Chim virus (CHIMV) (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus, Qalyub group) isolated from the Ixodidae and Argasidae ticks collected in the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus Lichtenstein, 1823) (Muridae, Gerbillinae) burrows in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan].  


Full-length genome of the Chim virus (CHIMV) (strain LEIV-858Uz) was sequenced using the next-generation sequencing approach (ID GenBank: KF801656). The CHIMV/LEIV-858Uz was isolated from the Ornithodoros tartakovskyi Olenev, 1931 ticks collected in the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus Lichtenstein, 1823) burrow in Uzbekistan near Chim town (Kashkadarinsky region) in July of 1971. Later, four more CHIMV strains were isolated from the O. tartakovskyi, O. papillipes Birula, 1895, Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantsev, 1936 collected in the great gerbil burrows in Kashkadarinsky, Bukhara, and Syrdarya regions of Uzbekistan, and three strains--from the Hyalomma asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1930 from the great gerbil burrows in Dzheskazgan region of Kazakhstan. The virus is a potential pathogen of humans and camels. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CHIMV is a novel member of the Nairovirus genus (Bunyaviridae) and closely related to the Qalyub virus (QYBV), which is prototype for the group of the same name. The amino acid homology between the CHIMV and QYBV is 87% for the RdRp catalytic center (L-segment) that is coincident with both QYBV and CHIMV associated with the Ornithodoros ticks and burrow of rodents as well. The CHIMV homologies with other nairoviruses are 30-40% for the amino acid sequences of precursor polyprotein GnGc (M-segment), whereas 50%--for the nucleocapsid N (S-segment). The data obtained permit to classify the CHIMV as a member of the QYBV group in the genus of Nairovirus (Bunyaviridae). PMID:25335414

L'vov, D K; Al'khovski?, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Aristova, V A; Morozova, T N; Gitel'man, A K; Deriabin, P G; Botikov, A G



Seasonal dynamics of Rhipicephalus rossicus attacking domestic dogs from the steppic region of southeastern Romania  

PubMed Central

Background Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve is one of the most interesting regions in Europe from an epidemiological point of view due to its great biodiversity, local climatic conditions and various types of habitats. Moreover, there is no data regarding the ectoparasite communities of dogs from this area. In this frame, the aims of our study were to establish the tick communities parasitizing dogs and to provide new data regarding seasonal dynamics of a neglected tick species, Rhipicephalus rossicus. Methods A survey was carried out in order to gather information regarding tick species attaching to domestic dogs from a steppic region of southeastern Romania and to establish their seasonal dynamics. The research was conducted from 1 December 2012 to 30 November 2013, on 8 dogs from Iazurile, a locality from the west-central part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. In total, 384 examinations were made, each dog being checked for tick infestation 4 times per month, for one year. Results The 893 ticks found belonged to six species: R. rossicus (95.6%), Dermacentor reticulatus (3.2%), Ixodes ricinus (0.5%), Hyalomma marginatum (0.3%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) (0.2%) and Ixodes crenulatus (0.1%). From the 91 positive examinations, R. rossicus was found in 80 (87.9%). Single species infestation occurred in 84 examinations. In 7 out of 91 positive examinations mixed infestation were found. No ticks were found in December, January and September. Conclusions For R. rossicus, high frequency and intensity were observed in May, June and July. The activity peaks for D. reticulatus were in spring and autumn. Our results highlight that within the range of R. sanguineus s.l., the most common dog tick worldwide, selected dog populations may be predominantly infested by closely related species, like in our case, R. rossicus. PMID:24612483



New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261



Ectoparasites of Rodents Captured in Bandar Abbas, Southern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Rodents play important role as host of ectoparasites and reservoir of different zoonotic diseases. The aim of this study was to asses the infestation of commensal rodents with ectoparasites in Bandar Abbas, a port city located in the northern part of the Persian Gulf in Iran. Methods: Rodents were captured using live traps during the study period in year 2007. After transferring the rodents to the laboratory, they were identified and then their ectoparasites were collected and mounted for species identification using appropriate systematic keys. Results: A total of 77 rodents were identified including Rattus norvegicus (74%), R. rattus (16.9%), Mus musculus (7.8%) and one hamster. Among all rodents, 40.3% were found infested with ectoparasites. A total of 69 ectoparasites were collected comprising flea, lice, mite and tick. Two species of fleas; Xenopsylla cheopis and X. astia were identified with higher index of X. astia. Two genera of ticks including Hyalomma sp. and Rhipicephalus sp. were identified. Laelaps nuttalli was the only mite found. The Polyplax spinulosa was considered as lice ectoparasite. Conclusion: Among all arthropods collected, flea and lice had the most and the least frequency, respectively. Nearly all rodent species were infested with Xenopsylla. These fleas are important due to their role in plague and murine typhus transmission. Ticks are important due to their role in CCHF (Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever), theileriosis, babesiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis transmission .Monitoring of ectoparaiste infestation is important for preparedness and early warning preparation for possible control of arthropod-borne diseases. PMID:22808381

Kia, EB; Moghddas-Sani, H; Hassanpoor, H; Vatandoost, H; Zahabiun, F; Akhavan, AA; Hanafi-Bojd, AA; Telmadarraiy, Z



First International External Quality Assessment of Molecular Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonosis caused by a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. Infection is transmitted to humans mostly by Hyalomma ticks and also by direct contact with the blood or tissues of infected humans or viremic livestock. Clinical features usually include a rapid progression characterized by hemorrhage, myalgia and fever, with a lethality rate up to 30%. CCHF is one of the most widely distributed viral hemorrhagic fevers and has been reported in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, as well as parts of Europe. There is no approved vaccine or specific treatment against CCHF virus (CCHFV) infections. In this context, an accurate diagnosis as well as a reliable surveillance of CCHFV infections is essential. Diagnostic techniques include virus culture, serology and molecular methods, which are now increasingly used. The European Network for the Diagnostics of “Imported” Viral Diseases organized the first international external quality assessment of CCHVF molecular diagnostics in 2011 to assess the efficiency and accurateness of CCHFV molecular methods applied by expert laboratories. A proficiency test panel of 15 samples was distributed to the participants including 10 different CCHFV preparations generated from infected cell cultures, a preparation of plasmid cloned with the nucleoprotein of CCHFV, two CCHFV RNA preparations and two negative controls. Forty-four laboratories worldwide participated in the EQA study and 53 data sets were received. Twenty data sets (38%) met all criteria with optimal performance, 10 (19%) with acceptable performance, while 23 (43%) reported results showing a need for improvement. Differences in performance depended on the method used, the type of strain tested, the concentration of the sample tested and the laboratory performing the test. These results indicate that there is still a need for improving testing conditions and standardizing protocols for the molecular detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. PMID:22745842

Escadafal, Camille; Olschlager, Stephan; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Papa, Anna; Vanhomwegen, Jessica; Wolfel, Roman; Mirazimi, Ali; Teichmann, Anette; Donoso-Mantke, Oliver; Niedrig, Matthias



Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus clades V and VI (Europe 1 and 2) in ticks in Kosovo, 2012.  


Despite being a small country, Kosovo represents one of the few foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Europe. The distribution of Kosovar tick vectors and the evolution of CCHF virus in ticks are both as yet unknown. A better description of the extent and the genetic diversity of CCHFV in ticks from endemic settings is essential, in order to be controlled. We investigated the 2012 distribution of Kosovar ticks alongside the prevalence and the phylogeography of tick-derived CCHFV. Hyalomma marginatum dominated in the endemic municipalities with 90.2% versus 24.3% in the non-endemic regions. Of 1,102 tested ticks, 40 (3.6%) were CCHFV-positive, belonging to H. marginatum (29), Rhipicephalus bursa (10), and Ixodes ricinus (1). The virus strains clustered with clade V and VI related sequences. They fell into two lineages: Kosovo I and II. Kosovo I comprised strains recovered exclusively from R. bursa ticks and was closely related to AP92 prototype strain. Kosovo II clustered into Kosovo IIa, including human-derived strains, and IIb including only strains detected in H. marginatum and I. ricinus. Our phylogeographic reconstruction suggests two temporally distinct CCHFV introductions: the most probable location of the most recent common ancestor of Kosovo I lineage was in Greece (63 years ago) and that of lineages IIa-b in Turkey (35 years ago). After each CCHFV introduction into Kosovo, subsequent lineage expansions suggest periods of in situ evolution. The study provides the first insight into the genetic variability and the origin of CCHFV in ticks from Kosovo. Our findings indicate the spreading of CCHFV to non-endemic areas, which underlines the importance of further studies in order to monitor and predict future CCHF outbreaks in Kosovo. The AP92-like strains appear to be more widespread than previously thought and may provide a promising target for experimental studies due to their assumed low pathogenicity. PMID:25255381

Sherifi, Kurtesh; Cadar, Daniel; Muji, Skender; Robaj, Avni; Ahmeti, Salih; Jakupi, Xhevat; Emmerich, Petra; Krüger, Andreas



Tick survey and detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in tick species from a non-endemic area, South Marmara region, Turkey.  


Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an increasing health concern in Turkey since 2002. There were also some recent human cases from the South Marmara region of Turkey; thus, a tick survey was performed, and possible vector tick species for the CCHF virus were determined in the region. A total of 740 adult ticks were collected from infested livestock from five locations: Çanakkale-Biga, Bursa-Orhaneli, Bursa-Keles, Bal?kesir and Bilecik. Total of 11 tick species from the genera Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor, Ixodes and Haemaphysalis were identified. Rhipicephalus ticks were dominant in the region; the most frequently observed tick species was R. turanicus, (53.1 %), and only 15.4 % of the identified ticks were H. marginatum. The occurrence of H. rufipes infestation in the region fort he first time. A total of 73 pools of adult ticks were tested with both an antigen-detecting ELISA and RT real-time PCR (RT rt PCR). The presence of the CCHF virus was demonstrated in 9 (12.3 %) of the tested tick pools. Although seven of the tick pools were positive for the CCHF virus with both of the methods, one pool was positive only with RT rt PCR and the other pool was only positive with the ELISA. Positive results were obtained from ticks collected from cattle, sheep and goats from two locations, Bursa-Orhaneli and Bilecik. The CCHF virus was detected in R. turanicus (n = 3), R. bursa (n = 2), H. marginatum (n = 2) and D. marginatus (n = 2) ticks. The results of this study confirm the presence of the CCHF virus and present preliminary data on the vector tick species in the southern Marmara region of Turkey. PMID:23229492

Yesilbag, Kadir; Aydin, Levent; Dincer, Ender; Alpay, Gizem; Girisgin, A Onur; Tuncer, Pelin; Ozkul, Aykut



Bm86 homologues and novel ATAQ proteins with multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains from hard and soft ticks?  

PubMed Central

Tick control on livestock relies principally on the use of acaricides but the development of acaricide resistance and concerns for environmental pollution underscore the need for alternative control methods, for instance through the use of anti-tick vaccines. Two commercial vaccines based on the recombinant Bm86 protein from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were developed. Partial protection of the Bm86 vaccine against other Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) and Hyalomma tick species suggests that the efficacy of a Bm86-based vaccine may be enhanced when based on the orthologous recombinant Bm86 antigen. We therefore identified and analysed the Bm86 homologues from species representing the main argasid and ixodid tick genera, including two from the prostriate Ixodes ricinus tick species. A novel protein from metastriate ticks with multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains which is structurally related to Bm86 was identified by using a 3? rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3?-RACE) method with a degenerate primer based on a highly conserved region of Bm86 and its orthologues. This second protein was named ATAQ after a part of its signature peptide. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that ATAQ proteins are expressed in both midguts and Malpighian tubules, in contrast to Bm86 orthologues which are expressed exclusively in tick midguts. Furthermore, expression of this protein over the life stages of R. microplus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was more continuous compared with Bm86. Although a highly effective vaccine antigen, gene silencing of Bm86 by RNA interference (RNAi) produced only a weak phenotype. Similarly the RNAi phenotype of Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi females in which the expression of Ree86, ReeATAQ or a combination of both genes was silenced by RNAi did not differ from a mock-injected control group. The vaccine potential of ATAQ proteins against tick infestations is yet to be evaluated. PMID:20647015

Nijhof, Ard M.; Balk, Jesper A.; Postigo, Milagros; Rhebergen, Anne Marie; Taoufik, Amar; Jongejan, Frans



Ticks and tick-borne viruses from livestock hosts in arid and semiarid regions of the eastern and northeastern parts of Kenya.  


Biodiversity and relative abundance of ticks and associated arboviruses in Garissa (northeastern) and Isiolo (eastern) provinces of Kenya were evaluated. Ticks were collected from livestock, identified to species, pooled, and processed for virus isolation. In Garissa, Rhipicephalus pulchellus Gerstacker (57.8%) and Hyalomma truncatum Koch (27.8%) were the most abundant species sampled, whereas R. pulchellus (80.4%) and Amblyomma gemma Donitz (9.6%) were the most abundant in Isiolo. Forty-four virus isolates, comprising Dugbe virus (DUGV; n = 22) and Kupe virus (n = 10; Bunyaviridae: Nirovirus), Dhori virus (DHOV; n = 10; Orthomyxoviridae: Thogotovirus),and Ngari virus (NRIV; n = 2; Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus), were recovered mostly from R. pulchellus sampled in Isiolo. DUGV was mostly recovered from R. pulchellus from sheep and cattle, and DHOV from R. pulchellus from sheep. All Kupe virus isolates were from Isiolo ticks, including R. pulchellus from all the livestock, A. gemma and Amblyomma variegatum F. from cattle, and H. truncatum from goat. NRIV was obtained from R. pulchellus and A. gemma sampled from cattle in Isiolo and Garissa, respectively, while all DHOV and most DUGV (n = 12) were from R. pulchellus sampled from cattle in Garissa. DUGV was also recovered from H. truncatum and Amblyomma hebraeum Koch from cattle and from Rhipicephalus annulatus Say from camel. This surveillance study has demonstrated the circulation of select tick-borne viruses in parts of eastern and northeastern provinces of Kenya, some of which are of public health importance. The isolation of NRIV from ticks is particularly significant because it is usually known to be a mosquito-borne virus affecting humans. PMID:24605478

Lutomiah, Joel; Musila, Lillian; Makio, Albina; Ochieng, Caroline; Koka, Hellen; Chepkorir, Edith; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Khamadi, Samoel; Miller, Barry R; Bast, Joshua; Schnabel, David; Wurapa, Eyako K; Sang, Rosemary



Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in livestock from nomadic herds in the Somali Region, Ethiopia.  


Between May 2006 and January 2007, blood samples and ticks were randomly collected from 220 nomadic animals from Filtu and Dollo Odo districts, Libaan zone, in the Somali Region of Ethiopia. Overall, 81.5% cattle, 98.2% camels, 53.4% goats and 61.1% sheep were infested by ixodid ticks. Collected ticks (n = 1,036) were identified as Rhipicephalus pulchellus (40.1%), R. pravus (25.8%), Amblyomma gemma (9.4%), Hyalomma rufipes (13.3%), H. truncatum (2.8%), H. impeltatum (1.2%) and H. dromedarii (0.5%); immature stages (6.1%) belonged to the genera Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma. Tick infestation burden was evaluated by the Tick Abundance Score method on 57 animals from Dollo Odo in August 2006, and it was significantly higher in cattle and camels than in small ruminants (p < 0.001). Reverse Line Blot Hybridisation was applied to detect Theileria, Babesia, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. Five out of 50 blood samples from Filtu, four from cattle and, surprisingly, one from a camel, were positive for Theileria mutans and two from cattle for T. velifera. Adult ticks (n = 104) from both districts were tested and A. gemma from cattle were positive to T. velifera (1) and Ehrlichia ruminantium (5 samples). Positive E. ruminantium samples were also tested by PCR targeting pCS20 and 16S rRNA genes and submitted to DNA sequencing. The phylogenetic reconstruction of pCS20 fragment showed the presence of the Somali region sequences in the East-South African group. Our results are the first available on ticks and selected tick-borne diseases from the Somali region of Ethiopia and could be used as preliminary information for planning sustainable control strategies for tick and tick-borne pathogens in the study area and in neighbouring areas with similar socio-ecological features. PMID:22349943

Tomassone, Laura; Grego, E; Callŕ, G; Rodighiero, P; Pressi, G; Gebre, S; Zeleke, B; De Meneghi, D



Detection and identification of putative bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous viruses in tick cell lines?  

PubMed Central

As well as being vectors of many viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, ticks harbour a variety of microorganisms which are not known to be pathogenic for vertebrate hosts. Continuous cell lines established from ixodid and argasid ticks could be infected with such endosymbiotic bacteria and endogenous viruses, but to date very few cell lines have been examined for their presence. DNA and RNA extracted from over 50 tick cell lines deposited in the Roslin Wellcome Trust Tick Cell Biobank ( were screened for presence of bacteria and RNA viruses, respectively. Sequencing of PCR products amplified using pan-16S rRNA primers revealed the presence of DNA sequences from bacterial endosymbionts in several cell lines derived from Amblyomma and Dermacentor spp. ticks. Identification to species level was attempted using Rickettsia- and Francisella-specific primers. Pan-Nairovirus primers amplified PCR products of uncertain specificity in cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Ixodes, Carios, and Ornithodoros spp. ticks. Further characterisation attempted with primers specific for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus segments confirmed the absence of this arbovirus in the cells. A set of pan-Flavivirus primers did not detect endogenous viruses in any of the cell lines. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of endogenous reovirus-like viruses in many of the cell lines; only 4 of these lines gave positive results with primers specific for the tick Orbivirus St Croix River virus, indicating that there may be additional, as yet undescribed ‘tick-only’ viruses inhabiting tick cell lines. PMID:22743047

Alberdi, M. Pilar; Dalby, Matthew J.; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Fazakerley, John K.; Kohl, Alain; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley



Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum , the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. We used direct and indirect methods to compare and evaluate exposure to A. phagocytophilum in horses in northern Tunisia. Methods Serum from 60 horses was tested by IFA for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum , and whole blood was tested for A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene using a nested-PCR. To examine the risk of A. phagocytophilum transmission, 154 ticks that had been collected from horses were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by nested-PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene. Results This is the first time that A. phagocytophilum has been detected in horses in Tunisia, with an overall seroprevalence of 40/60 (67%). Six of the seroreactive samples (10%) had an IFA titer of 1:80, 14 (23%) of 1:160, 8 (13%) of 1:320 and 12 (20%) a titer 1???640. The seroprevalence revealed no significant regional and sex differences. In contrast, a significant difference was observed between breeds. Eight (13%) of the horses were positive for A. phagocytophilum in the PCR, with no significant breed and age differences. Hyalomma marginatum was a predominant tick species (130/154), and 3 were infected by A. phagocytophilum (a prevalence of 2.3%). The concordance rate of A. phagocytophilum detection between IFA and PCR had a k value of ?0.07. Conclusions The results presented in this study suggest that horses infested by ticks in Tunisia are exposed to A. phagocytophilum. PMID:22935132



Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Clades V and VI (Europe 1 and 2) in Ticks in Kosovo, 2012  

PubMed Central

Despite being a small country, Kosovo represents one of the few foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Europe. The distribution of Kosovar tick vectors and the evolution of CCHF virus in ticks are both as yet unknown. A better description of the extent and the genetic diversity of CCHFV in ticks from endemic settings is essential, in order to be controlled. We investigated the 2012 distribution of Kosovar ticks alongside the prevalence and the phylogeography of tick-derived CCHFV. Hyalomma marginatum dominated in the endemic municipalities with 90.2% versus 24.3% in the non-endemic regions. Of 1,102 tested ticks, 40 (3.6%) were CCHFV-positive, belonging to H. marginatum (29), Rhipicephalus bursa (10), and Ixodes ricinus (1). The virus strains clustered with clade V and VI related sequences. They fell into two lineages: Kosovo I and II. Kosovo I comprised strains recovered exclusively from R. bursa ticks and was closely related to AP92 prototype strain. Kosovo II clustered into Kosovo IIa, including human-derived strains, and IIb including only strains detected in H. marginatum and I. ricinus. Our phylogeographic reconstruction suggests two temporally distinct CCHFV introductions: the most probable location of the most recent common ancestor of Kosovo I lineage was in Greece (63 years ago) and that of lineages IIa-b in Turkey (35 years ago). After each CCHFV introduction into Kosovo, subsequent lineage expansions suggest periods of in situ evolution. The study provides the first insight into the genetic variability and the origin of CCHFV in ticks from Kosovo. Our findings indicate the spreading of CCHFV to non-endemic areas, which underlines the importance of further studies in order to monitor and predict future CCHF outbreaks in Kosovo. The AP92-like strains appear to be more widespread than previously thought and may provide a promising target for experimental studies due to their assumed low pathogenicity. PMID:25255381

Muji, Skender; Robaj, Avni; Ahmeti, Salih; Jakupi, Xhevat; Emmerich, Petra; Krüger, Andreas



Assessing the effects of variables and background selection on the capture of the tick climate niche  

PubMed Central

Background Modelling the environmental niche and spatial distribution of pathogen-transmitting arthropods involves various quality and methodological concerns related to using climate data to capture the environmental niche. This study tested the potential of MODIS remotely sensed and interpolated gridded covariates to estimate the climate niche of the medically important ticks Ixodes ricinus and Hyalomma marginatum. We also assessed model inflation resulting from spatial autocorrelation (SA) and collinearity (CO) of covariates used as time series of data (monthly values of variables), principal components analysis (PCA), and a discrete Fourier transformation. Performance of the models was measured using area under the curve (AUC), autocorrelation by Moran’s I, and collinearity by the variance inflation factor (VIF). Results The covariate spatial resolution slightly affected the final AUC. Consistently, models for H. marginatum performed better than models for I. ricinus, likely because of a species-derived rather than covariate effect because the former occupies a more limited niche. Monthly series of interpolated climate always better captured the climate niche of the ticks, but the SA was around 2 times higher and the maximum VIF between covariates around 30 times higher in interpolated than in MODIS-derived covariates. Interpolated or remotely sensed monthly series of covariates always had higher SA and CO than their transformations by PCA or Fourier. Regarding the effects of background point selection on AUC, we found that selection based on a set of rules for the distance to the core distribution and the heterogeneity of the landscape influenced model outcomes. The best selection relied on a random selection of points as close as possible to the target organism area of distribution, but effects are variable according to the species modelled. Conclusion Testing for effects of SA and CO is necessary before incorporating these covariates into algorithms building a climate envelope. Results support a higher SA and CO in an interpolated climate dataset than in remotely sensed covariates. Satellite-derived information has fewer drawbacks compared to interpolated climate for modelling tick relationships with environmental niche. Removal of SA and CO by a harmonic regression seems most promising because it retains both biological and statistical meaning. PMID:24069960



Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical syndrome and genetic diversity.  


Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most important tick-borne viral disease of humans, causing sporadic cases or outbreaks of severe illness across a huge geographic area, from western China to the Middle East and southeastern Europe and throughout most of Africa. CCHFV is maintained in vertical and horizontal transmission cycles involving ixodid ticks and a variety of wild and domestic vertebrates, which do not show signs of illness. The virus circulates in a number of tick genera, but Hyalomma ticks are the principal source of human infection, probably because both immature and adult forms actively seek hosts for the blood meals required at each stage of maturation. CCHF occurs most frequently among agricultural workers following the bite of an infected tick, and to a lesser extent among slaughterhouse workers exposed to the blood and tissues of infected livestock and medical personnel through contact with the body fluids of infected patients. CCHFV is the most genetically diverse of the arboviruses, with nucleotide sequence differences among isolates ranging from 20% for the viral S segment to 31% for the M segment. Viruses with diverse sequences can be found within the same geographic area, while closely related viruses have been isolated in far distant regions, suggesting that widespread dispersion of CCHFV has occurred at times in the past, possibly by ticks carried on migratory birds or through the international livestock trade. Reassortment among genome segments during co-infection of ticks or vertebrates appears to have played an important role in generating diversity, and represents a potential future source of novel viruses. In this article, we first review current knowledge of CCHFV, summarizing its molecular biology, maintenance and transmission, epidemiology and geographic range. We also include an extensive discussion of CCHFV genetic diversity, including maps of the range of the virus with superimposed phylogenetic trees. We then review the features of CCHF, including the clinical syndrome, diagnosis, treatment, pathogenesis, vaccine development and laboratory animal models of CCHF. The paper ends with a discussion of the possible future geographic range of the virus. For the benefit of researchers, we include a Supplementary Table listing all published reports of CCHF cases and outbreaks in the English-language literature, plus some principal articles in other languages, with total case numbers, case fatality rates and all CCHFV strains on GenBank. PMID:23906741

Bente, Dennis A; Forrester, Naomi L; Watts, Douglas M; McAuley, Alexander J; Whitehouse, Chris A; Bray, Mike



Zoonotic surveillance for rickettsiae in domestic animals in Kenya.  


Abstract Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause zoonotic and human diseases. Arthropod vectors, such as fleas, mites, ticks, and lice, transmit rickettsiae to vertebrates during blood meals. In humans, the disease can be life threatening. This study was conducted amidst rising reports of rickettsioses among travelers to Kenya. Ticks and whole blood were collected from domestic animals presented for slaughter at major slaughterhouses in Nairobi and Mombasa that receive animals from nearly all counties in the country. Blood samples and ticks were collected from 1019 cattle, 379 goats, and 299 sheep and were screened for rickettsiae by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay (Rick17b) using primers and probe that target the genus-specific 17-kD gene (htrA). The ticks were identified using standard taxonomic keys. All Rick17b-positive tick DNA samples were amplified and sequenced with primers sets that target rickettsial outer membrane protein genes (ompA and ompB) and the citrate-synthase encoding gene (gltA). Using the Rick17b qPCR, rickettsial infections in domestic animals were found in 25/32 counties sampled (78.1% prevalence). Infection rates were comparable in cattle (16.3%) and sheep (15.1%) but were lower in goats (7.1%). Of the 596 ticks collected, 139 had rickettsiae (23.3%), and the detection rates were highest in Amblyomma (62.3%; n=104), then Rhipicephalus (45.5%; n=120), Hyalomma (35.9%; n=28), and Boophilus (34.9%; n=30). Following sequencing, 104 out of the 139 Rick17b-positive tick DNA had good reverse and forward sequences for the 3 target genes. On querying GenBank with the generated consensus sequences, homologies of 92-100% for the following spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia africae (93.%, n=97), Rickettsia aeschlimannii (1.9%, n=2), Rickettsia mongolotimonae (0.96%, n=1), Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis (0.96%, n=1), Candidatus Rickettsia kulagini (0.96% n=1), and Rickettsia spp. (1.9% n=2). In conclusion, molecular methods were used in this study to detect and identify rickettsial infections in domestic animals and ticks throughout Kenya. PMID:23477290

Mutai, Beth K; Wainaina, James M; Magiri, Charles G; Nganga, Joseph K; Ithondeka, Peter M; Njagi, Obadiah N; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L; Waitumbi, John N