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1

Experimental transmission of Theileria ovis by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental transmission of a newly isolated Theileria ovis is described. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum nymphs developed from larvae engorged on sheep infected with T. ovis were able to transmit the T. ovis to splenectomized sheep. Meanwhile, H. anatolicum anatolicum adults developed from nymphs engorged on sheep infected with T. ovis were also able to transmit T. ovis to splenectomized sheep.

Youquan Li; Guiquan Guan; Aihong Liu; Yulv Peng; Jianxun Luo; Hong Yin

2010-01-01

2

A new ovine Babesia species transmitted by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum.  

PubMed

The pathogenicity and morphology of a large Babesia species, Babesia sp. Xinjiang, are described here. The parasite has very low virulence for sheep, and caused no detectable clinical symptoms. Splenectomized sheep infected with the parasite showed mild fever and low parasitemia and would recover gradually. If splenectomized sheep were immuno-suppressed with dexamethasone, the parasitemia could reach 8.5%, and death occurred. A splenectomized calf could not be infected with the Babesia species. Paired parasites were the typical form of the Babesia species in erythrocytes and the average size of a pair of parasites was 2.42 (+/-0.35) microm x 1.06 (+/-0.22) microm. Merozoites were found in the gut, salivary gland, haemolymph, ovary and eggs of female Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum engorged on sheep infected with the parasites. The results of experimental transmission showed that the larval, nymph and adult stages of H. a. anatolicum could transmit the Babesia species to sheep. PMID:19460377

Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Liu, Junlong; Lu, Bingyi; Bai, Qi; Luo, Jianxun; Jorgensen, Wayne; Chauvin, Alain; Yin, Hong

2009-08-01

3

Beauveria bassiana: Synergistic effect with acaricides against the tick Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Owing to the need to combat the spread of chemical acaricide resistance in ticks, we evaluated the efficacy of a mixture of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana AT17 and acaricides for the control of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in China. A mixture of B. bassiana AT17 at the concentration of 10(8)conidia/mL and the synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin at concentrations of 2500, 250, 25, 5, 2.5, 0.5 and 0.25ppm was tested in vitro. The germination capability, vegetative growth, conidia production, and viability of B. bassiana AT17 were assessed and the efficacy of the mixture in killing engorged H. anatolicum anatolicum females was measured. High mortality rates were achieved when the entomopathogen was combined with different concentrations of deltamethrin. Neither B. bassiana AT17 nor deltamethrin alone at the same concentrations could cause the higher mortality rates seen with the combination. In addition the combination killed the ticks more rapidly than did either agent alone (3-5days more rapidly). Our results indicate that the mixture of B. bassiana AT17 and deltamethrin has potential as a new type of reagent for integrated control of H. anatolicum anatolicum. PMID:21440547

Sun, Ming; Ren, Qiaoyun; Liu, Zhijie; Guan, Guiquan; Gou, Huitian; Ma, Miling; Li, Youquan; Liu, Aihong; Yang, Jifei; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

2011-07-01

4

Progress in development of vaccine against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum-Indian scenario.  

PubMed

Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, a three host tick vector transmitting the causative agent of bovine tropical theileriosis, is widely distributed throughout India. As a component of integrated control measures against the tick vector, attempts have been made to identify candidate protein molecules for development of an anti-tick vaccine in the different stages of this tick species. By strategic methods of isolation of the targeted molecules using affinity purification of proteins showing reactivity with immunoglobulins of animals previously immunized with different sources of tick antigen, six proteins were isolated in a significantly pure form. The recovery percentage of the candidate proteins was very low in the range of 1.8-8.0%. The protective potentiality of the antigens was tested in immunization and challenge trials and maximum potential was observed in the proteins isolated from total larval extracts, nymphal extracts and in larval glycoprotein. One of the antigens with a molecular weight of 37kDa isolated from larvae of H. a. anatolicum was found to have some adverse effect on development of Theileria annulata in the vector tick. The progress in the development of immunoprophylactic measures against H. a. anatolicum is discussed. PMID:19178893

Ghosh, S; Ray, D D; Vanlahmuaka; Das, G; Singh, N K; Sharma, J K; Azhahianambi, P

2008-12-19

5

Prevalence of Theileria annulata infection in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum collected from crossbred cattle of Ludhiana, Punjab.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Theileria infection in tick vector Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum collected from healthy animals of Ludhiana district, Punjab was recorded to assess the natural infection level of theilerial parasite in the field condition. A total of 60 semi-engorged H. a. anatolicum were collected from cattle and their salivary glands were dissected out. One half of the salivary gland was stained with methyl green pyronin (MGP) and the other half was utilized for DNA isolation for molecular detection of Theileria infection. A PCR and nested PCR assays were standardized for the detection of T. annulata infection in salivary gland of H. a. anatolicum. The prevalence of T. annulata infection was recorded as 8.3, 20.0 and 60.0 % by MGP staining, primary PCR and nested PCR, respectively. Further, the prevalence was higher in female ticks (8.8 %) than male ticks (6.6 %). The results demonstrated that both primary and nested PCR assays are a valuable technique for detection of T. annulata infection in vector tick under field conditions. PMID:25698861

Tiwari, Anisha; Singh, N K; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Bhat, S A; Rath, S S

2015-03-01

6

Vaccine potential of recombinant antigens of Theileria annulata and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum against vector and parasite.  

PubMed

In an attempt to develop vaccine against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Theileria annulata, three antigens were expressed in prokaryotic expression system and protective potentiality of the antigens was evaluated in cross bred calves. Two groups (grs. 1 and 4) of male cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) calves were immunized with rHaa86, a Bm86 ortholog of H. a. anatolicum, while one group of calves (gr. 2) were immunized with cocktails of two antigens viz., surface antigens of T. annulata (rSPAG1, rTaSP). One group each was kept as negative controls (grs. 3 and 5). The animals of groups 1, 2 and 3 were challenged with T. annulata infected H. a. anatolicum adults while the animals of groups 1, 3, 4 and 5 were challenged with uninfected adult ticks. A significantly high (p<0.05) antibody responses to all the three antigens were detected in immunized calves, but the immune response was comparatively higher with rHaa86 followed by rTaSP and rSPAG1. Upon challenge with T. annulata infected ticks, animals of all groups showed symptoms of the disease but there was 50% survival of calves of group 1 while all non immunized control calves (group 3) and rSPAG1+rTaSP immunized calves died. The rHaa86 antigen was found efficacious to protect calves against more than 71.4-75.5% of the challenge infestation. The experiment has given a significant clue towards the development of rHaa86 based vaccine against both H. a. anatolicum and T. annulata. PMID:22546546

Jeyabal, L; Kumar, Binod; Ray, Debdatta; Azahahianambi, Palavesam; Ghosh, Srikanta

2012-09-10

7

Prevalence of Theileria annulata infection in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in Punjab state, India.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Theileria infection in tick vectors collected from healthy animals to record the natural infection level of theilerial parasite in the field condition. A total of 156 male and 110 semi-engorged female of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum were collected from cattle and buffaloes of two different agro climatic zones of Punjab, dissected and their salivary glands were stained with Methyl Green Pyronin (MGP) stain. The prevalence, intensity and abundance of Theileria annulata infection were higher in female ticks (15.45%, 5.08 and 32.88, respectively) than male ticks (8.97%, 1.69 and 18.86, respectively). The ticks collected from cattle had a higher prevalence, abundance and intensity (15.15%, 5.38 and 35.53, respectively) of T. annulata infection than the ticks collected from buffaloes (9.58%, 1.74 and 18.13, respectively). Hot and dry climate favored the development of T. annulata sporozoites in H. a. anatolicum ticks as the prevalence, abundance and intensity of T. annulata infection were higher in ticks collected from Western semi arid zone of Punjab as compared to those collected from the central plain zone with hot and humid climate. PMID:21526034

Haque, M; Jyoti; Singh, N K; Rath, S S

2010-04-01

8

Comparative efficacy of rHaa86 and rBm86 against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.  

PubMed

Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus are the most economically important tick species in India and other tropical and subtropical regions of the world and transmit pathogens causing animal and human diseases. We demonstrated that vaccination of animal by rHaa86 could be used for the control of both H. a. anatolicum and R. (B.) microplus infestations. By comparing the efficacy of rHaa86 and rBm86, it was observed that vaccine based on rHaa86 will be more effective in controlling homologous challenge infestations (68·7% against larvae and 45·8% against adults). The results of this trial demonstrated that species-specific antigens are the better choice for vaccine development and could serve as an effective tool for the integrated control of H. a. anatolicum. PMID:22313386

Kumar, B; Azhahianambi, P; Ray, D D; Chaudhuri, P; De La Fuente, J; Kumar, R; Ghosh, S

2012-06-01

9

Acaricide resistance status in Indian isolates of Hyalomma anatolicum.  

PubMed

The multi host tick, Hyalomma anatolicum, is the commonest Hyalomma species in India and cattle serves as the main host of this species. A study to evaluate the acaricide resistance of H. anatolicum to deltamethrin, cypermethrin and diazinon was conducted in 20 areas located in three agro climatic regions known to have abundance of the species. Results obtained by the "larval packet test" (LPT) showed a low grade resistance (level-I, RF <5) in the tick species to both deltamethrin and cypermethrin in 10 areas and higher grade resistance (level-II, RF <25) to deltamethrin in one area, where intensive use of synthetic pyrethroids are practiced for tick control. Low grade resistance to diazinon (level I) was recorded in six areas where organophosphates compounds are extensively used for agricultural practices allowing increased exposure of the moulting instars of the ticks to these chemicals. Biochemical analysis of the samples suggested involvement of esterase and alterations of acetylcholinesterase in the resistance mechanisms. PMID:22760859

Shyma, K P; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Ray, D D; Ghosh, S

2012-12-01

10

In vitro and in vivo efficacies of ivermectin and cypermethrin against the cattle tick Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

This study investigated the comparative efficacy of ivermectin and cypermethrin pour-on, for the treatment of Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum infestations in bovines. For examining acaricidal efficacy, 480 ticks were exposed in vitro to graded doses of both the acaricides and in vivo efficacy was examined in 360 tick-infested bovines treated at the recommended doses of ivermectin (IVM) and cypermethrin (CYM) pour-on. The comparative quantitative assessment of tick burden was done on days 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 after treatment using "finger counting." The results of the tick survival assay indicated both compounds were effective in vitro against H. a. anatolicum. The arc transformed mean surviving ticks, 24 h post immersion, was 2.66 and zero in groups treated with the highest dilutions of IVM and CYM, respectively. At 15 days post-treatment, the CYM pour-on showed a higher in vivo efficacy (no surviving ticks) compared to IVM (mean of 20 surviving ticks). A single dose of CYM and IVM was found effective for 20 and 15 days post-treatment, respectively. Additionally, a questionnaire was used to gather information from 30 small holder dairy farms on the farmer's approach toward the control of ticks. The majority (90%) of respondents were using acaricides incorrectly along with poor husbandry practices on their farms. Overuse of IVM in the tested area of Pakistan may be the reason the IVM is not as effective as expected. These results provide useful tools for the decision making in tick control, as well as providing the basis for testing the findings on provincial and national levels in future studies. PMID:19562374

Sajid, Muhammad S; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad N; Muhammad, Ghulam

2009-10-01

11

Efficacy of rHaa86, an orthologue of Bm86, against challenge infestations of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum.  

PubMed

In an attempt to develop vaccine against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, the protective efficacy of rHaa86 was evaluated against experimental challenge infestations of homologous tick species and lethal dose of Theileria annulata. Following challenge, a significant difference of 20.9% (P < 0.01) in the dropping per cent of ticks fed on immunized and control animals was recorded. A statistically significant reduction of 49.6 mg (P < 0.01) in the weight of ticks fed on immunized animals in comparison with control was noted. The ticks dropped from immunized animals laid fewer eggs and a reduction of 68.1 mg (P < 0.05) in comparison with the ticks fed on control animals was noted. The DT%, DO%, DR% and E% were calculated as 73.8, 31.3, 15.8 and 82.3% respectively. In all the calves fever (rectal temperature anatolicum and T. annulata. PMID:20537118

Jeyabal, L; Azhahianambi, P; Susitha, K; Ray, D D; Chaudhuri, P; Vanlahmuaka; Ghosh, S

2010-04-01

12

Efficacy of rBm86 against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (IVRI-I line) and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (IVRI-II line) infestations on bovine calves.  

PubMed

With an aim to evaluate the protective potentiality of rBm86 against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI)-I line and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum IVRI-II line infestations on crossbred (Bos indicus?×?Bos taurus) calves, 20 animals of 3 months of age were randomly divided in to four equal groups and maintained in tick-proof conditions. Animals of groups 1 and 2 were immunized with 2 ml of rBm86 (100 ?g)-based vaccine (procured from Revetmex S.A. de C.V, Mexico City, Mexico) thrice at 30 days interval. Animals of groups 3 and 4 were kept as negative control and inoculated with PBS only. Each animal of group 1 and 3 was challenged with 7-day-old 50 unfed adults of H. anatolicum anatolicum (1:1, male and female), and each animal of groups 2 and 4 was challenged with 6-8-day-old R. (B.) microplus larvae obtained from 50 mg of eggs, on 17th day of the last immunization. The efficacy of rBm86 against tick infestations was determined as percentage reduction in number of adults dropped (DT%), engorged body weight (DR%), egg masses (DO%), and immunogen efficacy (E%). The calculated data were 11.8, 10.8, 15.0, and 25.1 %, respectively, for DT, DR, DO, and E% against H. anatolicum anatolicum infestation, while in the case of R. (B.) microplus infestation, the corresponding data were 6.4, 11.24, 40.7, and 44.5 %, respectively. The results indicated partial effectiveness of rBm86 antigen(s) in imparting protection against homologous and heterologous challenge infestations of Indian ticks. The results indicated identification of more effective antigen(s) for the development of vaccine against economically important tick species in India. PMID:22422293

Kumar, Binod; Murugan, K; Ray, D D; Ghosh, Srikanta

2012-08-01

13

A comparative study on cypermethrin resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum from Punjab (India).  

PubMed

A study to evaluate cypermethrin resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum collected from Muktsar and Mansa districts of Punjab state, India, was conducted by using adult immersion test (AIT). The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentrations of cypermethrin was utilized for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), and the resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on variables (mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index, and percentage inhibition of oviposition), the resistance levels were categorized. Resistance to cypermethrin was categorized as level II and I in R. (B.) microplus collected from Muktsar and Mansa districts, respectively, whereas, H. anatolicum from both locations showed a susceptible status. The RF values of Muktsar and Mansa field samples of engorged R. (B.) microplus (5.48 and 2.18, respectively) were much higher as those of engorged H. anatolicum (1.12 and 0.82, respectively) indicating a lower level and slower rate of development of cypermethrin resistance in multi-host ticks. The data generated in the current study might be of immense help in formulating suitable control measures against ticks and tick-borne diseases of animals. PMID:24252261

Singh, Nirbhay K; Jyoti; Haque, Manjurul; Singh, Harkirat; Rath, Shitanshu S; Ghosh, Srikant

2014-03-01

14

Cloning, expression and immunoprotective efficacy of rHaa86, the homologue of the Bm86 tick vaccine antigen, from Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum.  

PubMed

The Bm86 homologue of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum Izatnagar isolate was cloned and expressed in methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris as intracellular, glycosylated and particulated form. It was named as rHaa86, the first recombinant protein of H. a. anatolicum. Seven epidermal growth factor-like domains predicted in Haa86 were structurally similar with that of its Bm86 counterpart. The identity between the corresponding EGF like domains of Bm86 and Haa86 were ranging from 51.3% to 78.3%. The molecular weight of the rHaa86 was 120-140 kDa, with possible 50-70 kDa glycosylation. The purified rHaa86 was characterized immunologically and evaluated for its immunoprotective potential against homologous challenge infestation in three groups of cross-bred calves. The immediate rejection percentage of females of H. a. anatolicum was 36 5%, 12.4% and 10.1% fed on immunized (group 1), adjuvant control (group 2) and untreated control (group 3) calves, respectively. The percent rejection of female ticks fed on immunized calves was 24.1% and 26.4% higher than for the ticks fed on control groups 2 and 3, respectively (P < 0.05). The reduction of number of females, mean weight of eggs, adult females and efficacy of immunogen were 58.0%, 9.0%, 5.0% and 61.6%, respectively. The mean reproductive index of females fed on group 1 calves was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the females fed on the control groups and 44% reduction in the number of engorged larvae was recorded from the group 1 calves. The data demonstrated that rHaa86 antigen based vaccine could serve as one of the effective components in the integrated control of H. a. anatolicum. PMID:19222782

Azhahianambi, P; De La Fuente, J; Suryanarayana, V V S; Ghosh, S

2009-03-01

15

Molecular characterization of HAO3, the homologue of the Bm86 tick vaccine antigen, from the Iranian isolate of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum.  

PubMed

Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum tick is widely distributed in many parts of Iran and while the commercial vaccines based on the application of midgut-derived recombinant Bm86 antigen are used for its control, limited information about the efficiency of this vaccination in Iran is available. Herein, with the final aim of evaluation of Bm86-based heterologous vaccination, as the primary step the Bm86 homologue of the H. a. anatolicum (Hao3) from an Iranian isolate was characterized and compared with the commercialized Bm86 and other Bm86 homologoue sequences available in GenBank. Our in silico predictions resulted in the identification of seven epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains, one hydrophobic transmembrane region, one leader sequence and several glycosylation sites within the structure of both Hao3 and Bm86 proteins, which suggested the pattern of extracellular membrane-bound glycoproteins with the role of regulation in cell growth for both proteins. Moreover, while the nucleotide and amino acid sequences corresponding to Bm86 homologue showed a high level of conservation among the Iranian isolates (Hao3, Hao3-1 and Hao3-2, more than 99%), the Hao3 amino acid sequence had a homology of around 89%, 64% and 65% with that of Indian, Australian and Argentinean isolates, respectively. This indicated a considerable variation between commercial Bm86 antigen and H. a. anatolicum Bm86-like protein of Iranian and Indian isolates. Taking together, these results imply that the efficiency of commercial Bm86-based vaccine against the Iranian H. a. anatolicum may be under the question and indicates the value of the development of Hao3-based recombinant vaccines and further planning for their in vivo evaluation. PMID:20599993

Ebrahimi, Seyyed Mahmoud; Paykari, Habib; Memarnejadian, Arash

2013-12-01

16

Identification of a synthetic peptide inducing cross-reactive antibodies binding to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus BM86 homologues.  

PubMed

The BM86 antigen, originally identified in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is the basis of the only commercialized anti-tick vaccine. The long-term goal of our study is to improve BM86 based vaccines by induction of high levels of tick gut binding antibodies that are also cross-reactive with a range of BM86 homologues expressed in other important tick species. Here we have used a BD86 derived synthetic peptide, BD86-3, to raise a series of mouse monoclonal antibodies. One of these mAbs, named 12.1, recognized BM86 homologues in immuno-histochemical analyses in four out of five tick species including R. (B.) microplus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Our results indicate that broadly cross-reactive tick gut binding antibodies can be induced after immunization with a synthetic peptide derived from the protein BD86. PMID:19808026

Kopp, Nadja; Diaz, Diana; Amacker, Mario; Odongo, David O; Beier, Konstantin; Nitsch, Cordula; Bishop, Richard P; Daubenberger, Claudia A

2009-12-10

17

Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium against Hyalomma anatolicum ticks.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of different concentrations of ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium in comparison to amitraz on adults, eggs and larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum using the adult immersion test (AIT), egg hatchability test and larval packet test (LPT), respectively. Four concentrations of the extract (2.5, 5, 10 and 20%) with three replications for each concentration were used in all the bioassays. In AIT, the mortality rates at 2.5, 5 and 10% were significantly different (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control group; however, at 20%, it was similar to the positive control group. Maximum mortality of 86.7% was recorded at 20%. The LC50 and LC95 values were calculated as 6.51 and 55.43%, respectively. The oviposition was reduced significantly by 36.8 and 59.1% at concentrations of 10 and 20%, respectively. Egg hatchability was reduced significantly at all concentrations (2.5-20%) in comparison to the control. In LPT, the extract caused 100% mortality of larvae at all the concentrations after 24 h. The results show that ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of A. absinthium has acaricidal properties and could be useful in controlling H. anatolicum. PMID:25039005

Godara, R; Parveen, S; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Katoch, M; Khajuria, J K; Kaur, D; Ganai, A; Verma, P K; Khajuria, Varun; Singh, N K

2015-01-01

18

Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae) imbibe bovine blood in vitro by utilizing an artificial feeding system.  

PubMed

Hard ticks have great importance because of blood feeding and transmitting dangerous human and animal diseases. Each year, they cause a lot of economical damage to the livestock industry. Control of ticks and tick-borne diseases is a major priority in most parts of the world and many studies have been done in this field. We know that studying haemoparasites and assessing the effect of different compounds on ticks requires a lot of money, support and sometimes it is time consuming. Considering all of these problems, today, in some research laboratories throughout the world, artificial in vitro feeding of ticks has become common. Development and application of such methods provide a cheap and accessible background for investigating haemoparasitic diseases under controlled conditions. For the first time we report successful in vitro feeding of two important ixodid ticks of the genus Hyalomma. PMID:21474247

Tajeri, S; Razmi, G R

2011-08-25

19

Metarhizium anisopliae as a biological control agent against Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

In the Sudan, ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (TBDs) with subsequent costs of control and treatment are causing substantial economic loss. Control of ticks is mainly by chemical insecticides. The rising environmental hazards and problem of resistance has motivated research on biological agents as alternative methods of control. The present study aims at controlling livestock ticks using fungi for their unique mode of action besides their ability to adhere to the cuticle, to germinate and penetrate enzymatically. The study was conducted to evaluate the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for tick control as an alternative mean to chemical acaricides. Pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on different developmental stages of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum. The fungus induced high mortality to flat immature stages. It, also, affected reproductive potential of the females. Egg laid, hatching percent, fertility and moulting percent of immature stages were significantly (p < or = 0.05) reduced. It was, also, shown that the fungus had ability to adhere to the cuticle and penetrate the integument of the tick. Conidia of the fungus were isolated from their internal tissues. This phenomenon is important in considering fungi as bioinsecticides. Infection of eggs laid by treated engorged female ticks, with the fungus might demonstrate suggesting transovarian transmission. The use of M. anisopliae to control ticks is discussed. PMID:24517010

Suleiman, Elham A; Shigidi, M T; Hassan, S M

2013-12-15

20

Laboratory assessment of acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera extracts against deltamethrin resistant Hyalomma anatolicum.  

PubMed

Larval packet test was used for detection of resistance levels against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids, in the multi-host tick Hyalomma anatolicum collected from district Moga, Punjab (India). Results indicated the presence of level I resistance against deltamethrin (RF = 2.81), whereas the tick isolate was susceptible to cypermethrin (RF = 0.2). The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus, Vitex negundo and Withania somnifera along with roots of Vitex negundo were assessed for their acaricidal activity against the larvae of deltamethrin resistant H. anatolicum. The efficacy was assessed by measuring per cent larval mortality and determination of LC50 values. The various ethanolic extracts produced a concentration dependent increase in larval tick mortality, whereas the aqueous extracts exhibited a much lower mortality. The highest mortality (93.7 ± 0.66 %) was observed at the 5.0 % concentration of ethanolic extract of leaves of C. winterianus and the lowest LC50 value (0.011 %) was recorded for ethanolic extracts of leaves of V. negundo. The results indicated that these plant extracts have potential to be developed as herbal acaricides. PMID:24647800

Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Kumar, Rajender; Dumka, V K

2014-07-01

21

In vitro acaricidal effect of plant extract of neem seed oil ( Azadirachta indica) on egg, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of the plant extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica) on eggs, immature, and adult stages of Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum was studied at concentrations of 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, and 12.8%. The extract was found to have a significant effect on the hatching rate of eggs. It significantly increased the hatching rate during the first 7 days post-treatment (DPT) giving incompletely

S. Abdel-Shafy; A. A. Zayed

2002-01-01

22

Acaricidal properties of two extracts from Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel. (Combrataceae) against Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Laboratory test were carried out on eggs, larvae, nymphs and adults of Hyalomma anatolicum to determine the acaricidal activities of petroleum ether (PE) and crude ethanolic extracts (EE) from the leaves of Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel. (Combrataceae) using immersion method. Stock solutions, of 300 mg/ml (30%) of the each two extract, were prepared. Six two-fold serial dilutions each with three replicates were used. Both extracts, at the highest concentration 150 mg/ml (15%), induced 100% failure of hatching of the treated eggs. The concentrations of PE and EE that induced 50% inhibition of the hatchability (IC50) were 1.71 and 0.508%, respectively. In the larval immersion test (LIT), EE at 15% concentration caused complete mortality while the same concentration of PE resulted in 96% mortality. The mortalities increased with concentrations. There was a correlation between the mortalities and increased concentrations, the values of the linear correlation coefficient (r) for PE and EE were 0.93 and 0.79, and The LC50 and LC99 were 2.08 and 14.09, and 0.787 and 11.054, respectively. At the concentrations of 3.75%, 7.5% and 15%, PE inhibited the molting of the nymphs by 40, 55 and 65%, respectively, while EE induced 46.49, 64.3 and 71.4% inhibition, respectively. The effectiveness of the treatment against unfed adult females was assessed by measuring the feeding performance and egg production using adult immersion test (AIT). Although, there was no mortality in unfed adults, PE and EE inhibited feeding and egg-laying of the survived females by 35-100% and 6.16-100%, respectively. Our results indicated that G. senegalensis is a promising biocontrol candidate as an acaricidal agent against H. anatolicum. PMID:24315188

Osman, Ilham M; Mohammed, A S; Abdalla, A B

2014-01-31

23

Acaricidal efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum canum against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Hyalomma marginatum isaaci (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of acaricides had limited efficacy in reducing tick infestations and is often accompanied by serious drawbacks, including\\u000a the selection of acaricide resistant ticks, contamination of environment, and milk and meat products with drug residues. The\\u000a present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles\\u000a (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous leaf extract

Chidambaram Jayaseelan; Abdul Abdul Rahuman

24

The distribution of Hyalomma spp. ticks from domestic ruminants in Iran.  

PubMed

The distribution of Hyalomma species on domestic animals was studied in four zoogeoghraphical zones. Nine hundred and ninety-two Hyalomma ticks were collected from sheep, goats, cattle and camels. A total of seven tick species consisting of: Hyalomma anatolicum Koch, 1844 (28.93%), H. excavatum Koch, 1844 (12.5%), H. asiaticum Schulze & Schlottke, 1930 (13.5%), H. marginatum Koch, 1844 (27.01%), H. detritum Schulze, 1919 (9.67%), H. schulzei Olenev, 1931 (4.03%) and H. dromedary Koch, 1844 (4.33%) were recorded. The results indicated that H. anatolicum, H. asiaticum, H. marginatum and H. detritum were present in all zones whereas H. excavatum was absent in Zone I. The result also showed that H. dromedari was presented in Zones III and IV whereas H. schulzei was present in Zones II and III. During this study, the tick species collected are candidates for investigation as vectors of pathogenic organisms in Iran. PMID:19712158

Nabian, S; Rahbari, S; Changizi, A; Shayan, P

2009-09-01

25

Efficacy of Hyalomma scupense (Hd86) antigen against Hyalomma excavatum and H. scupense tick infestations in cattle.  

PubMed

The Rhipicephalus microplus recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of several Hyalomma cattle ticks genera, namely H. dromedarii and H. anatolicum. However, H. scupense species, the most important tick in North Africa has never been studied. Vaccination trials using either a recombinant Bm86-based vaccine or a recombinant Hd86-based vaccine (the Bm86 ortholog in H. scupense) were conducted in cattle against immature and adult H. scupense ticks and adult H. excavatum ticks. The results showed a 59.19% reduction in the number of scupense nymphs engorging on Hd86 vaccinated cattle. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 or Hd86 did not have an effect on H. scupense or H. excavatum adult ticks infestations. These results showed that Hd86 vaccines are selectively effective against H. scupense immature instars and emphasize on an integrated anti-tick vaccine control in North Africa. PMID:23036501

Galaï, Yousr; Canales, Mario; Ben Saïd, Mourad; Gharbi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Jedidi, Mohamed; de La Fuente, José; Darghouth, Mohamed-Aziz

2012-11-19

26

Molecular characterization of Bm86 gene orthologs from Hyalomma excavatum, Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum and comparison with a vaccine candidate from Hyalomma scupense.  

PubMed

The ixodid ticks from the Hyalomma genus are important pests of livestock, having major medical and veterinary significance in Northern Africa. Beside their direct pathogenic effects, these species are vectors of important diseases of livestock and in some instances of zoonoses. Anti-tick vaccines developed in Australia and Cuba based on the concealed antigen Bm86 have variable efficacy against H. anatolicum and H. dromedarii. This variation in vaccine efficacy could be explained by the variability in protein sequence between the recombinant Bm86 vaccine and Bm86 orthologs expressed in different Hyalomma species. Bm86 orthologs from three Hyalomma tick species were amplified in two overlapping fragments and sequenced. The rate of identity of the amino acid sequence of Hm86, He86 and Hdr86, the orthologs of Bm86, respectively, in H. marginatum marginatum, H. excavatum and H. dromedarii, with the Bm86 proteins from Rhipicephalus microplus (Australia, Argentina and Mozambique) ranged between 60 and 66%. The obtained amino-acid sequences of Hmm86, He86 and Hdr86 were compared with the Hd86-A1 sequence from H. scupense used as an experimental vaccine. The results showed an identity of 91, 88 and 87% for Hmm86, He86 and Hdr86, respectively. A specific program has been used to predict B cells epitopes sites. The comparison of antigenic sites between Hd86-A1 and Hm86/Hdr86/He86 revealed a diversity affecting 4, 8 and 12 antigenic peptides out of a total of 28 antigenic peptides, respectively. When the Bm86 orthologs amplification protocol adopted in this study was applied to H. excavatum, two alleles named He86p2a1 and He86p2a2 were detected in this species. This is the first time that two different alleles of Bm86 gene are recorded in the same tick specimen. He86p2a1 and He86p2a2 showed an amino acid identity of 92%. When He86p2a1 and He86p2a2 were compared to the corresponding sequence of Hd86-A1 protein, an identity of 86.4 and 91.0% was recorded, respectively. When compared to He86, Hdr86 and Hm86, Bm86 used in commercial and experimental vaccines, showed a greater extent of diversity than noted when the same Hyalomma orthologs were compared to Hd86-A1. Although significant, these variations were less extensive within the Hyalomma genus. Accordingly, thus suggesting that Hd86-A1 vaccine candidate might be more appropriate to target Hyalomma tick species than corresponding Bm86 commercial vaccines. However, vaccination trials with both antigens are required to validate this hypothesis. PMID:22683299

Ben Said, Mourad; Galai, Yousr; Mhadhbi, Moez; Jedidi, Mohamed; de la Fuente, José; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

2012-11-23

27

Prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle and sheep southeast of Iran.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle and sheep southeast of Iran. A total of 972 ticks were collected from 280 infested cattle and 1,207 ticks were collected from 632 infested sheep during activating seasons of ticks in 2008-2009. The species collected from cattle were Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (50.92%), Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (25.61%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (8.12%), Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum (1.85%), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (13.47%) while the species collected from sheep were R. sanguineus (36.37%), H. marginatum marginatum (30.65%), H. anatolicum excavatum (19.05%), H. asiaticum asiaticum (10.52%), Hyalomma detritum (3.14%), and Dermacentor marginatus (0.24%). The results show that, H. marginatum marginatum, H. anatolicum excavatum, and R. sanguineus are dominant tick species in the surveyed area. PMID:21113660

Dehaghi, Mohammad Mirzaei; Fathi, Saeid; Asl, Ehsan Norouzi; Nezhad, Hojat Asgary

2011-02-01

28

Hard ticks on one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) and their seasonal population dynamics in southeast, Iran.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to determine the diversity and intensity of ticks found on camels (Camelus dromedarius) and their seasonal population dynamics in Kerman, southeast of Iran. For this purpose, a total of 426 tick specimens were collected from 217 infested camels in southeast of Iran during activating seasons of ticks (April 2009 to March 2010). The species collected from camel were Hyalomma dromedarii (84.7%), Hyalomma marginatum (8.7%), Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (5.4%), and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (1.2%). The highest seasonal activities occurred in summer. The ratio of male ticks was more than female ticks. H. dromedarii was the predominant tick species and accounted for 84.7% of the ticks. PMID:21720786

Fard, Saeid Reza Nourollahi; Fathi, Saeid; Asl, Ehsan Norouzi; Nazhad, Hojat Asgary; Kazeroni, Seimin Salehzadeh

2012-01-01

29

Prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle in Mazandaran province, Iran.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle in Mazandaran province, Iran. A total of 953 ticks were collected from 86 infested cattle during activating seasons of ticks during 2004-2005. Nine species were identified: Boophilus annulatus (51.3%), Rhipicephalus bursa (16.8%), Haemaphysalis punctata (6.3%), Ixodes ricinus (6.8%), Hyalomma marginatum (12.5%), Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (5.2%), Hyalomma asiaticum (0.6%), Hyalomma detritum (0.2 %), and Dermacentor spp. (0.1%). The results show that Boophilus annulatus, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Hyalomma species are dominant tick species in the surveyed area. PMID:18165714

Razmi, Gholam Reza; Glinsharifodini, Meisam; Sarvi, Shaboddin

2007-12-01

30

Investigations into Ixodidae ticks in cattle in Lahore, Pakistan.  

PubMed

A total of 2,160 cattle, comprising adults and calves of exotic, crossbred and indigenous breeds, were examined for tick infestation between 1996 and 2000. Of these, 1 417 (65.6%) were infested with ticks, with a total of 220 (61%) from exotic breeds, 262 (72%) were crossbred and 172 (48%) were indigenous adult cattle. Calves of exotic, crossbred and indigenous breeds were infested with ticks at the following rates: 246 (68%), 294 (82%) and 223 (62%), respectively. Higher infestation levels were noted with Rhipicephalus microplus which affected 912 (64.3%) animals, in comparison to Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum which affected 302 (21.3%). Rhipicephalus infestation was more extensive than that with genus Hyalomma. PMID:22718335

Ahmed, Shabbir; Numan, Muhammad; Manzoor, Abdul Whab; Ali, Firdausia Azam

2012-01-01

31

Prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle, sheep and goats in Ilam County, Ilam Province, Iran.  

PubMed

This survey was performed to find out the infestation rate of Ixodidae ticks in domestic ruminants in Ilam County during 21 March 2009 to 23 August 2009. Sampling was performed in 25 villages and 15 animal farm from different areas of this County. A total of 1,316 ticks were collected from 416 cattle, 208 sheep and 147 goats. The overall prevalence of ticks was recorded: 43, 23.5, and 49/6 % in cattle, sheep, and goats respectively. The number of ticks that collected from cattle, sheep, and goat were 328, 573, and 415 respectively. According to the host, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (71.4 %), Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum (17.6 %) and Rhipicephalus bursa (11 %) were collected from cattle. Hy. anatolicum (32.1 %), Rh. bursa (42.2 %), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (17.3 %) and Haemaphysalis inermis (8.4 %) were collected in sheep. Rh. bursa (41.5 %), Rh. sanguineus (43.2 %) and Ha. inermis (15.3 %) were observed in goats. In this study, ticks infestation rate of cattle, sheep and goat were (43 %), (23.5 %) and (49.6 %) respectively. In this survey the ticks distribution on the body surface of infested ruminants the highest infestation was found in the udder and tail (21 %) in cattle, ear (42.5 %) and tail (30 %) in sheep and ear (63 %) and tail (17 %) in goats. The lowest number of ticks in body surface of ruminants was observed in the ear and shoulder (2 %) in cattle, head and neck (2 %) in sheep and udder (7 %) in goats. Hy. anatolicum anatolicum, Rh. Sanguineus and Rh.bursa were dominant tick in domestic ruminants of Ilam County. PMID:25698857

Loui Monfared, Ali; Mahmoodi, Mohammad; Fattahi, Roohollah

2015-03-01

32

Ixodidae ticks in cattle and sheep in Sistan and Baluchestan Province (Iran).  

PubMed

This survey was conducted to investigate the presence and abundance of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle and sheep in Sistan and Baluchestan Province (Iran). Between 2010 and 2011, a total of 1,403 ticks was collected from 332 infested cattle and 1,480 ticks were collected from 602 infested sheep during the seasons of tick activity. The species collected from cattle were Hyalomma marginatum (46.04%), Hyalomma excavatum (25.51%), Hyalomma anatolicum (10.33%), Hyalomma asiaticum (6.34%), and ticks of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus group (11.76%); while the species collected from sheep were of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus group (34.66%), H. marginatum (25.60%), H. excavatum (27.97%), H. asiaticum (9.45%) and Hyalomma scupense (2.29%). The results show that H. marginatum, H. excavatum, as well as ticks of the R. sanguineus group are dominant in the surveyed area. PMID:24715595

Mirzaei, Mohammad; Khedri, Javad

2014-01-01

33

Differentiation of two ovine Babesia based on the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.  

PubMed

The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, ITS2) as well as the intervening 5.8S coding region of the rRNA gene for six Babesia spp. isolated from different geographic origins were characterized. Varying degrees of ITS1 and ITS2 intra- and inter-species sequence polymorphism were found among these isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1-5.8S gene-ITS2 region clearly separated the isolates into two clusters. One held an unidentified Babesia sp. transmitted by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. The second held five other isolates, which were considered to be Babesia motasi. Each Babesia species cluster possessed ITS1 and ITS2 of unique size(s) and species specific nucleotide sequences. The results showed that ITS1, ITS2 and the complete ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region could be used to discriminate these ovine Babesia spp. effectively. PMID:18977349

Niu, Qingli; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Ma, Miling; Liu, Aihong; Gao, Jinliang; Ren, Qiaoyun; Li, Youquan; Qiu, Jiaxiang; Yin, H

2009-01-01

34

Life cycle of tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium has a typical three-host life-cycle. Whereas its larvae and nymphs are less host-specific feeding on a variety of tetrapods,\\u000a tortoises of the genus Testudo are principal hosts of adults. Ticks retained this trait also in our study under laboratory conditions, while adults were\\u000a reluctant to feed on mammalian hosts. Combination of feeding larvae and nymphs

Pavel Široký; Jan Erhart; Klára J. Petrželková; Martin Kamler

2011-01-01

35

Detection of Naturally Infected Vector Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) by Different Species of Babesia and Theileria Agents from Three Different Enzootic Parts of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Diagnostic study of vector ticks for different pathogens transmitted specifically have been done by Iranian old scientists working on the basis of biological transmission of pathogens. In this study we decided to confirm natural infection of different collected ticks from three different provinces of Iran. Methods: Ticks were collected from livestock (sheep, goats and cattle) during favorable seasons (April to September 2007 and 2008). Slide preparations were stained by Giemsa and Feulgen and were studied searching for any trace of infection. Positive DNA from infected blood or tissue samples was provided and was used as positive control. First, PCR optimization for positive DNA was done, and then tick samples were subjected to specific PCR. Results: Eleven pairs of primers were designed for detection of Theileria, Babesia and Anaplasma spp. Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus turanicus from Fars Province were infected with T. lestoquardi at two different places. Hyalomma detritum was infected with T. lestoquardi in Lorestan Province and Rh. turanicus was infected to Ba. ovis from Fars Province. Conclusion: Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Every sample is regarded with host-environment related factors. Since there are complex relations of vectors and their relevant protozoa, different procedures are presented for future studies. PMID:24409442

Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad

2013-01-01

36

Genetic analysis of the M RNA segment of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains in Turkey.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is member of the genus Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. All members of the family Bunyaviridae are enveloped viruses containing tripartite, negative polarity, single-stranded RNA. CCHF is characterized by high case mortality, occurring in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Europe. During recent years, outbreaks have been reported in Turkey. However, little information is available on the genetic diversity of CCHF virus in Turkey. In this study, a total of 1227 adult ticks were collected from domestic ruminants (796 specimens from cattle, 399 specimens from goats and 32 specimens from sheep). The presence of the M segment of CCHF virus was determined in 4 of 40 (10%) Hyalomma marginatum marginatum pools, in 2 of 38 (7.89%) Rhipicephalus bursa pools, and in 1 of 7 (7%) Boophylus annulatus pools. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum pools gave negative RT-PCR result against CCHF virus. Serum samples from seven patients infected with CCHF were selected and subjected to RT-PCR to amplify partial M segment of CCHF virus. This report introduces the first data on partial nucleotide sequences of M RNA segments of CCHF virus strains circulating in Turkey, isolated from ticks. PMID:17955162

Ozdarendeli, A; Aydin, K; Tonbak, S; Aktas, M; Altay, K; Koksal, I; Bolat, Y; Dumanli, N; Kalkan, A

2008-01-01

37

Ticks (Ixodidae) on migrating birds in Egypt, spring and fall 1962*  

PubMed Central

Over a number of years studies have been carried out in Egypt on the transport by migrating birds of ticks that may transmit pathogens of man and animals. In continuation of these investigations 11 036 birds migrating southwards through Egypt were examined for ticks during the fall of 1962. The 881 infested birds (comprising 24 species and sub-species represented by 10 612 individuals) yielded 1442 ticks. Tick-host relationships were similar to those of previous years except that in 1962 the prevalence of infestation was almost invariably much higher than the averages for 1959-61. Five species of birds were added to the previous list of 40 infested forms. Previously unrecorded tick species taken during 1962 were Ixodes redikorzevi (a species from Asia very occasionally found in rodent burrows in Egypt), the rare Haemaphysalis inermis, and Hyalomma a. anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum and H. dromedarii, which may have been carried from Asia or have attached themselves to the birds at the time of netting. During the spring of 1962, altogether 1774 birds migrating northwards through Egypt were also examined. The 56 tick-infested birds (comprising 13 species represented by 867 individuals) yielded 186 ticks. As in previous years, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes was the chief species (89.25%) parasitizing spring migrants. A single specimen of Amblyomma variegatum was taken on Anthus cervinus and 19 specimens of Ixodes?sp. nov. were collected from Sylvia c. communis and Motacilla a. alba. PMID:14163959

Hoogstraal, Harry; Traylor, Melvin A.; Gaber, Sobhy; Malakatis, George; Guindy, Ezzat; Helmy, Ibrahim

1964-01-01

38

Distribution and population dynamics of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting sheep in Sennar State, Sudan.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey of ticks infesting sheep was conducted in Sennar State, Sudan. A total body collection of ticks was carried out at five localities Sennar town, Singa, Dinder, Abu Naama and Um Banein on two types of Desert sheep (Watish and Ashgar) on two farms at each locality at two monthly intervals for one year starting July 2002 to May 2003. Four tick genera and eight species were identified. They were Amblyomma lepidum, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus camicasi, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus guilhoni and Rhipicephalus muhsamae. A significant (P < or = 0.05) seasonal pattern of activity was observed for A. lepidum and R. guilhoni with peak activity occurring during rainy seasons. The highest mean number of ticks (7.26 +/- 0.58) was recorded at Abu Naama, while the lowest mean (3.61 +/- 0.31) was recorded in Sennar. Watish type sheep carried significantly (P < or = 0.05) more ticks than Ashgar type. PMID:18453239

Mohammed, M S; Hassan, S M

2007-12-01

39

Species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants, in Qazvin Province, Iran.  

PubMed

This report presents the results of the first faunistic study of hard ticks in Qazvin province of Iran. The primary objective was to determine the species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks that parasitize domestic ruminants. Information about the abiotic preferences of these species has been provided. A total of 286 cattle, 1,053 goats, and 2,050 sheep were examined in 13 villages in 28 flocks distributed throughout the studied areas. Total direct body collections of ticks were made from each domestic ruminant. A total of 228 Ixodid specimens belonging to nine species in three different genera were recorded in the areas, including Boophilus annulatus (Say, 1821), Hyalomma anatolicum Koch, 1844, Hyalomma asiaticum (Schulze and Schlettke, 1929), Hyalomma detritum Schulze, 1919, Hyalomma dromedarii Koch, 1844, Hyalomma marginatum Koch 1844, Hyalomma schulzei Olenev, 1931, Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanz, 1878 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806). The most abundant species on sheep was R. sanguineus (46.92%), while B. annulatus (6.6%) found only on cattle. A finding of great significance was that R. sanguineus, the main vector of babesiosis, is firmly established throughout the counties. A further objective of the study was to compare the abundance of the major tick species on domestic ruminants. This was carried out at 19 sampling sites. The highest number of ticks was collected in July-August during the hot season. PMID:21805220

Shemshad, Khadijeh; Rafinejad, Javad; Kamali, Karim; Piazak, Norayer; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mahdi; Shemshad, Masoomeh; Biglarian, Akbar; Nourolahi, Fathollah; Valad Beigi, Enshallah; Enayati, Ahmad Ali

2012-01-01

40

First detection of Babesia occultans in Hyalomma ticks from Tunisia.  

PubMed

Descriptions of Babesia occultans have previously been restricted to sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we report the finding, for the first time, of this low or non-pathogenic bovine Babesia species in Tunisia, northern Africa. B. occultans DNA was detected by molecular methods in Hyalomma marginatum unfed ticks collected in 3 bioclimatic regions of Tunisia. The near-full-length 18S rRNA gene was sequenced and compared with related sequences retrieved from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that other sequences deposited as Babesia sp. could also correspond to B. occultans, suggesting that this species may have a wide distribution in Mediterranean and Asiatic regions, and not only in sub-Saharan Africa as previously described. A B. occultans-specific Reverse Line Blot (RLB) oligonucleotide probe was designed for future epidemiological studies that would help to clarify this possibility. PMID:21284911

Ros-García, A; M'Ghirbi, Y; Bouattour, A; Hurtado, A

2011-04-01

41

Efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are considered to be among the best photocatalytic materials due to their long-term thermodynamic stability, strong oxidizing power, and relative non-toxicity. Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. The present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) against hematophagous parasites. The anti-parasitic activity of TiO2 NPs against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were assessed. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by UV-Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, SEM, and TEM. The XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed the dominant peak at 2? value of 27.81 which matched the 110 crystallographic plane of the rutile structure indicating the crystal structure. The FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,448 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. The SEM images of TiO2 NPs displayed spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The TEM micrograph showed agglomerates, round and slight elongation with an average size of 30?±?5 nm. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized TiO2 NPs against the larvae of R. microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, A. subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 value of 28.56, 33.17, 23.81, 5.84, and 4.34 mg/L, respectively. In the present study, a novel, simple, and eco-friendly approach has been suggested to control blood-feeding parasites. PMID:25403378

Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Chung, Ill-Min; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Karthikeyan, Viswanathan

2015-02-01

42

Transstadial Transmission of Borrelia turcica in Hyalomma aegyptium Ticks  

PubMed Central

Borrelia turcica comprises the third major group of arthropod-transmitted borreliae and is phylogenetically divergent from other Borrelia groups. The novel group of Borrelia was initially isolated from Hyalomma aegyptium ticks in Turkey and it was recently found in blood and multiple organs of tortoises exported from Jordan to Japan. However, the ecology of these spirochetes and their development in ticks or the vertebrate hosts were not investigated in detail; our aims were to isolate the pathogen and to evaluate the possibility of transstadial transmission of Borrelia turcica by H. aegyptium ticks. Ticks were collected from Testudo graeca tortoises during the summer of 2013 from southeastern Romania. Engorged nymphs were successfully molted to the adult stage. Alive B. turcica was isolated from molted ticks by using Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK) II medium. Four pure cultures of spirochetes were obtained and analyzed by PCR and sequencing. Sequence analysis of glpQ, gyrB and flaB revealed 98%–100% similarities with B. turcica. H. aegyptium ticks collected from T. graeca tortoises were able to pass the infection with B. turcica via transstadial route, suggesting its vectorial capacity. PMID:25695663

Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Cozma, Vasile; Sprong, Hein; Jahfari, Setareh; D’Amico, Gianluca; M?rcu?an, Daniel I.; Ionic?, Angela M.; Magda?, Cristian; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D.

2015-01-01

43

Molecular and serological detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infection in horses and ixodid ticks in Iran.  

PubMed

Equine piroplasmosis is a hemoprotozoan tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution that is caused by Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. However, the geographical distribution of equine piroplasmosis in Iran is unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine the causative agents and vector ticks of equine piroplasmosis in horses in the North Khorasan Province. In the year 2011, 100 horses were randomly selected from 14 villages. Blood samples and ixodid ticks were collected and examined using microscopical, molecular, and serological methods. Theileria equi infection was microscopically detected in 5 (5%) of the blood smears with low parasitemia, while serum samples were tested by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Antibodies against T. equi, B. caballi, and a mixed infection were detected in 48 (48%), 2 (2%), and 3 (3%) of the serum samples, respectively. A multiplex PCR was used to detect T. equi and B. caballi DNA in blood samples. No B. caballi infections could be found, but Theileria equi DNA was detected in 45 (45%) of the blood samples, and a BLAST analysis of the sequenced samples indicated a 99% similarity with T. equi 18S rRNA gene sequences in GenBank. Both molecular and serological results did not identify any significant association between T. equi infection and risk factors. A comparision of the results of 3 diagnostic methods demonstrated a poor agreement between microscopical examination with IFAT and PCR and a moderate agreement between IFAT and PCR. Thirty-seven adult ticks (20 females and 17 males) were collected from 15 horses. The most common tick was Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (n=19), followed by Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (n=10), Rhipicephalus bursa (n=4), Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n=3), and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n=1). The salivary glands and ovaries were also examined using PCR. The genomic DNA samples of the salivary glands of 3 ticks, H. a. excavatum (n=2) and R. bursa (n=1), had a positive reaction for T. equi, but no tick contained B. caballi DNA. Thus, our results indicate that T. equi occurs more frequently than B. caballi in the investigated geographical region. PMID:24556274

Abedi, Vali; Razmi, Golamreza; Seifi, Hesam; Naghibi, Abolghasem

2014-04-01

44

Novel and simple approach using synthesized nickel nanoparticles to control blood-sucking parasites.  

PubMed

The present study was on assessment of the anti-parasitic activities of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) against the larvae of cattle ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The metallic Ni NPs were synthesized by polyol process from Ni-hydrazine as precursor and Tween 80 as both the medium and the stabilizing reagent. The synthesized Ni NPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis which indicated the presence of Ni NPs. Synthesized Ni NPs showed the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks at 42.76°, 53.40°, and 76.44°, identified as 111, 220, and 200 reflections, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the synthesized Ni NPs clearly showed that the Ni NPs were spherical in shape with an average size of 150 nm. The Ni NPs showed maximum activity against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus, H. a. anatolicum, A. subpictus, C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus with LC(50) values of 10.17, 10.81, 4.93, 5.56 and 4.94 mg/L; r(2) values of 0.990, 0.993, 0.992, 0.950 and 0.988 and the efficacy of Ni-hydrazine complexes showed the LC(50) values of 20.35, 22.72, 8.29, 9.69 and 7.83 mg/L; r(2) values of 0.988, 0.986, 0.989, 0.944 and 0.978, respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized Ni NPs possess excellent larvicidal parasitic activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on larvicidal activity of blood feeding parasites using synthesized Ni NPs. PMID:23040768

Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Velayutham, Kanayairam; Ramyadevi, Jeyaraman; Jeyasubramanian, Kadarkaraithangam; Marikani, Arumugam; Elango, Gandhi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Bagavan, Asokan; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Iyappan, Moorthy; Siva, Chinnadurai

2013-01-31

45

Prevalence and seasonal variation in ixodid ticks on cattle of Mathura district, Uttar Pradesh.  

PubMed

Considering the economic impact of various ticks species on livestock, the present study was conducted for epidemiological characterize of common ticks infesting Indian zebu cattle between July 2010 and June 2011 period at various locations of Mathura region of India. A total of 2,515 zebu cattle were examined on random basis throughout the year. The overall prevalence of ticks infestation in cattle was 60.07 %. The highest prevalence was reported in September (75 %) while the lowest was in January (46.07 %). On seasonal investigation highest tick infestation was found in rainy season (69.46 %), followed by summer (62.55 %) while lowest in the winter (47.96 %). Overall highest percentage of tick infestations was noticed in the group I animals of less than 1 year age (80.21 %) followed by group II animals of age between 1 and 3 years (68.48 %) and lowest in group III animals of age greater than 3 years (44.85 %). On the basis of morphological studies, two species of ticks were identified namely Boophilus microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. The most common feeding sites for adult ticks were neck, axilla, belly, groin, udder, perineal regions and tail. PMID:24431564

Patel, Geeta; Shanker, Daya; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Verma, Santosh Kumar

2013-10-01

46

PCR-based detection of Theileria annulata in Hyalomma asiaticum ticks in northwestern China.  

PubMed

This study aimed to detect Theileria annulata infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification in Hyalomma asiaticum ticks. Sequence analysis showed that the 28 analyzed sequences obtained from 81 H. asiaticum ticks had an identical length and sequence which were closely related to that of T. annulata. This study is the first to report on the presence of T. annulata in H. asiaticum ticks in China. PMID:24252264

Meng, K; Li, Z; Wang, Y; Jing, Z; Zhao, X; Liu, J; Cai, D; Zhang, L; Yang, D; Wang, S

2014-03-01

47

[Genetic variants of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus circulating in endemic areas of the southern Tajikistan in 2009].  

PubMed

506 Hyalomma anatolicum ticks were collected and assayed in two Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) endemic regions of Tajikistan. Antigen and RNA of CCHF virus were detected in 3.4% of tick pools from Rudaki district using ELISA and RT-PCR tests. As of Tursunzade district, viral antigen was identified in 9.0% of samples and viral RNA was identified in 8.1% of samples. The multiple alignment of the obtained nucleotide sequences of CCHF virus genome S-segment 287-nt region (996-1282) and multiple alignment of deduced amino acid sequences of the samples, carried out to compare with CCHF virus strains from the GenBank database, as well as phylogenetic analysis, enabled us to conclude that Asia 1 and Asia 2 genotypes of CCHF virus are circulating in Tajikistan. It is important to note that the genotype Asia 1 virus was detected for the first time in Tajikistan. PMID:24364143

Petrova, I D; Kononova, Iu V; Chausov, E V; Shestopalov, A M; Tishkova, F Kh

2013-01-01

48

Tick Cell Lines for Study of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Other Arboviruses  

PubMed Central

Abstract Continuous cell lines derived from many of the vectors of tick-borne arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance are now available. Their role as tools in arbovirus research to date is reviewed and their potential application in studies of tick cell responses to virus infection is explored, by comparison with recent progress in understanding mosquito immunity to arbovirus infection. A preliminary study of propagation of the human pathogen Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in tick cell lines is reported; CCHFV replicated in seven cell lines derived from the ticks Hyalomma anatolicum (a known vector), Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and Ixodes ricinus, but not in three cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Ornithodoros moubata. This indicates that tick cell lines can be used to study growth of CCHFV in arthropod cells and that there may be species-specific restriction in permissive CCHFV infection at the cellular level. PMID:21955214

Kohl, Alain; Bente, Dennis A.; Fazakerley, John K.

2012-01-01

49

Tick cell lines for study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and other arboviruses.  

PubMed

Continuous cell lines derived from many of the vectors of tick-borne arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance are now available. Their role as tools in arbovirus research to date is reviewed and their potential application in studies of tick cell responses to virus infection is explored, by comparison with recent progress in understanding mosquito immunity to arbovirus infection. A preliminary study of propagation of the human pathogen Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in tick cell lines is reported; CCHFV replicated in seven cell lines derived from the ticks Hyalomma anatolicum (a known vector), Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and Ixodes ricinus, but not in three cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Ornithodoros moubata. This indicates that tick cell lines can be used to study growth of CCHFV in arthropod cells and that there may be species-specific restriction in permissive CCHFV infection at the cellular level. PMID:21955214

Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Kohl, Alain; Bente, Dennis A; Fazakerley, John K

2012-09-01

50

Some hydrolase activities from the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum koch, 1844 (Ixodoidea: Ixodida).  

PubMed

In this work has been made a detection and preliminary characterization of some hydrolases in whole extracts from unfed adult males and females of Hyalomma lusitanicum, one of the vectors for Theileria annulata that causes Mediterranean theileriosis in cattle. We have elected as targets, proteases as enzymes implicated in the nutritional processes of ticks, esterases that are usually implicated in resistance to organophosphates and phosphatises often implicated in protein phosphorilation and control of ticks salivary gland. The biological role and physiological significance are discussed in terms of the possibility of use these enzymes as possible in future anti-tick vaccination or acaricide resistance. PMID:19202766

Giménez-Pardo, C; Martínez-Grueiro, M M

2008-12-01

51

A review of Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae) in the Maghreb region: from biology to control  

PubMed Central

Hyalomma scupense (syn. Hyalomma detritum) is a two-host domestic endophilic tick of cattle and secondarily other ungulates in the Maghreb region (Africa). This species transmits several pathogens, among which two are major livestock diseases: Theileria annulata and Theileria equi. Various other pathogens are also transmitted by this tick species, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia bovis. Hyalomma scupense is common in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of several regions in the world, mainly in the Maghreb region. In this region, adults attach to animals during the summer season; larvae and nymphs attach to their hosts during autumn, but there is a regional difference in H. scupense phenology. There is an overlap between immature and adult ticks, leading in some contexts to a dramatic modification of the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. This tick species attaches preferentially to the posterior udder quarters and thighs. Tick burdens can reach 130 ticks per animal, with a mean of 60 ticks. Calves are 70 times less infested than adult cattle. The control can be implemented through six options: (i) rehabilitation of the farm buildings by roughcasting and smoothing the outer and inner surfaces of the enclosures and walls. This control option should be recommended to be combined with a thorough cleaning of the farm and its surrounding area. With regard to Theileria annulata infection, this control option is the most beneficial. (ii) Acaricide application to animals during the summer season, targeting adults. (iii) Acaricide application during the autumn period for the control of the immature stages. (iv) Acaricide application to the walls: many field veterinarians have suggested this option but it is only partially efficient since nymphs enter deep into the cracks and crevices. It should be used if there is a very high tick burden or if there is a high risk of tick-borne diseases. (v) Manual tick removal: this method is not efficient since the ticks can feed on several other animal species in the farm. This control option can lead to a reduction of the tick population, but not a decrease in tick-borne disease incidence. (vi) Vaccination: this control option consists of injecting the protein Hd86; trials have shown a partial effect on nymphs, with no effect on adult ticks. Combination of two of these control options is recommended in regions where there are high burdens of important tick vectors. Further studies are needed to improve our knowledge on this tick species in the Maghreb region, since the number of published studies on Hyalomma scupense in this region is very limited. PMID:24507485

Gharbi, Mohamed; Aziz Darghouth, Mohamed

2014-01-01

52

Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. Methods In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS. Results A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area. Conclusions Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks. PMID:25183090

Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi

2014-01-01

53

Repellent effects of the essential oil of Lavendula angustifolia against adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes.  

PubMed

The repellent effects of the essential oil of Lavendula angustifolia on adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes was studied at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20% v/v. A suitable tick climbing bioassay based on the questing behaviour of ticks was used to test for repellency. High percentage repellency (range 70-100) was shown at all concentrations of the essential oil of L. angustifolia, although at 5% v/v it only persisted for the first 40 minutes compared with 120 minutes at other concentrations (10 and 20% v/v). The repellent strength of L. angustifolia compared well (P > 0.05) with that of DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), a commercial reference repellent, for the 2-hour period of the study. PMID:18237038

Mkolo, M N; Magano, S R

2007-09-01

54

First detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma dromedarii ticks from Tunisia.  

PubMed

Tick-borne rickettsioses have long been described in North Africa. These human diseases and their causative agents occur in several countries in this region, including Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. In Tunisia, the first described and most well-known rickettsiosis is Mediterranean spotted fever, which is caused by Rickettsia conorii conorii. Cases of R. aeschlimannii infections have been documented by serology, but the agent has never actually been detected in patients or arthropods in the country. In October 2008, ticks were collected from a dromedary (Camelius dromedarii) in Douz, Central Tunisia. All of the ticks were identified as Hyalomma dromedarii and were tested using polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence of rickettsiae. Our results indicate the first molecular detection of R. aeschlimannii in ticks from Tunisia. PMID:23182544

Demoncheaux, Jean-Paul; Socolovschi, Cristina; Davoust, Bernard; Haddad, Slim; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

2012-12-01

55

Molecular detection of Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia aeschlimannii, and Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in camels and Hyalomma spp. ticks from Israel.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to identify and genetically characterize spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in ticks, domestic one-humped camels, and horses from farms and Bedouin communities in southern Israel. A total of 618 ixodid ticks (Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma turanicum, Hyalomma excavatum, and Hyalomma impeltatum) collected from camels and horses, as well as 152 blood samples from 148 camels and four horses were included in the study. Initial screening for rickettsiae was carried out by targeting the gltA gene. Positive samples were further analyzed for rickettsial ompA, 17kDa, ompB, and 16S rRNA genes. Rickettsia aeschlimannii DNA was detected in the blood of three camels and 14 ticks (H. dromedarii, H. turanicum, and H. excavatum). Rickettsia africae was found in six ticks (H. turanicum, H. impeltatum, H. dromedarii, and H. excavatum). In addition, Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was detected in one H. turanicum tick. These findings represent the first autochthonous detection of R. africae in Israel. Previous detections of R. africae in Asia were reported from the Sinai Peninsula (Egypt) and Istanbul, only. Furthermore, we report for the first time the finding of R. aeschlimannii in H. turanicum and H. excavatum ticks, as well as the first identification of R. sibirica mongolitimonae in H. turanicum ticks. The tick species identified to harbor R. africae and other SFG rickettsiae have been reported to occasionally feed on people, and, therefore, physicians should be aware of the possible exposure of local communities and travelers, especially those in contact with camels, to these tick-borne rickettsial pathogens. PMID:24107206

Kleinerman, Gabriela; Baneth, Gad; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; van Straten, Michael; Berlin, Dalia; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Abdeen, Ziad; Nasereddin, Abed; Harrus, Shimon

2013-12-01

56

Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in two districts of lower Punjab, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Bovine tick infestation is still a serious nuisance to livestock and the dairy industry of Pakistan. The current paper reports the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in the districts Layyah and Muzaffargarh of lower Punjab, Pakistan. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify and to quantify variation in the prevalence of bovine tick infestation with respect to host (age, species, sex, and breed) and environmental (geographical area and climate) determinants. Multiple stage cluster random sampling was used and 3500 cattle and buffaloes from the two districts were selected. Prevalence of bovine tick infestation was significantly higher (OR=1.95; p<0.05) in cattle (1076/1475; 72.9%) than in buffaloes (957/2025; 47.3%). Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the major tick species (33.5%; 1173/3500), followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (13%; 456/3500). The highest monthly prevalence in both the districts was found in July. Ticks were not found in Layyah from November to March and in Muzaffargarh from December to March. The average number of ticks was proportional to the prevalence of infestation. Also, tick infestation in a 7cmx7cm dewlap of the animal was proportional to that of the rest of body. Prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with district, host species and breed. In cattle, prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with age and sex of host. The results of this study provide better understanding of disease epidemiology in the study districts, which will help for planning of control strategies. PMID:19782414

Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

2009-12-01

57

An insight into the sialotranscriptome and proteome of the coarse bontlegged tick, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes  

PubMed Central

Ticks are mites specialized in acquiring blood from vertebrates as their sole source of food and are important disease vectors to humans and animals. Among the specializations required for this peculiar diet, ticks evolved a sophisticated salivary potion that can disarm their host’s hemostasis, inflammation, and immune reactions. Previous transcriptome analysis of tick salivary proteins has revealed many new protein families indicative of fast evolution, possibly due to host immune pressure. The hard ticks (family Ixodidae) are further divided into two basal groups, of which the Metastriata have 11 genera. While salivary transcriptomes and proteomes have been described for some of these genera, no tick of the genus Hyalomma has been studied so far. The analysis of 2,084 expressed sequence tags (EST) from a salivary gland cDNA library allowed an exploration of the proteome of this tick species by matching peptide ions derived from MS/MS experiments to this data set. We additionally compared these MS/MS derived peptide sequences against the proteins from the bovine host, finding many host proteins in the salivary glands of this tick. This annotated data set can assist the discovery of new targets for anti-tick vaccines as well as help to identify pharmacologically active proteins. PMID:21851864

Francischetti, Ivo MB; Anderson, Jennifer M; Manoukis, Nicholas; Pham, Van M; Ribeiro, José MC

2011-01-01

58

Evaluation of glycoproteins purified from adult and larval camel ticks (Hyalomma dromedarii) as a candidate vaccine.  

PubMed

In order to identify antigens that can help prevent camel tick infestations, three major glycoproteins (GLPs) about 97, 66 and 40 kDa in size were purified from adult and larval Egyptian ticks, Hyalomma (H.) dromedarii, using a single-step purification method with Con-A sepharose. The purified GLPs were evaluated as vaccines against camel tick infestation in rabbits. The rabbits received three intramuscular inoculations of GLPs (20 µg/animal) on days 0, 14, and 28. In the immunoblot analysis, Sera from the immunized rabbits recognized the native GLPs and other proteins from larval and adult H. dromedarii ticks along with those from other tick species such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus but not Ornithodoros moubata. The effects of immunity induced by these GLPs were determined by exposing rabbits to adult H. dromedarii ticks. These results demonstrated that GLP immunization led to a slightly decreased reproductive index and significantly reduced rates of egg hatchability. These results demonstrated that immunization with the purified GLPs can provide protection against infestation by H. dromedarii and some other tick species. Further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of immunization with GLPs against other tick species. PMID:21897098

El Hakim, Amr E; Shahein, Yasser E; Abdel-Shafy, Sobhy; Abouelella, Amira Mk; Hamed, Ragaa R

2011-09-01

59

An insight into the sialotranscriptome and proteome of the coarse bontlegged tick, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes.  

PubMed

Ticks are mites specialized in acquiring blood from vertebrates as their sole source of food and are important disease vectors to humans and animals. Among the specializations required for this peculiar diet, ticks evolved a sophisticated salivary potion that can disarm their host's hemostasis, inflammation, and immune reactions. Previous transcriptome analysis of tick salivary proteins has revealed many new protein families indicative of fast evolution, possibly due to host immune pressure. The hard ticks (family Ixodidae) are further divided into two basal groups, of which the Metastriata have 11 genera. While salivary transcriptomes and proteomes have been described for some of these genera, no tick of the genus Hyalomma has been studied so far. The analysis of 2084 expressed sequence tags (EST) from a salivary gland cDNA library allowed an exploration of the proteome of this tick species by matching peptide ions derived from MS/MS experiments to this data set. We additionally compared these MS/MS derived peptide sequences against the proteins from the bovine host, finding many host proteins in the salivary glands of this tick. This annotated data set can assist the discovery of new targets for anti-tick vaccines as well as help to identify pharmacologically active proteins. PMID:21851864

Francischetti, Ivo M B; Anderson, Jennifer M; Manoukis, Nicholas; Pham, Van M; Ribeiro, José M C

2011-11-18

60

Detection of Anaplasma marginale in Hyalomma asiaticum ticks by PCR assay.  

PubMed

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was performed in this study to amplify the major surface protein 5 (msp5) gene from the genomic DNA of Anaplasma marginale in Hyalomma asiaticum ticks by species-specific primers. Sequence analysis showed that the msp5 gene was 643 bases long and that the PCR products from the samples had an identical sequence (JX507127). Moreover, the BLAST showed that the sequence was identical to the msp5 sequences of A. marginale and most closely related to the A. marginale msp5 gene (AB704328) and the Liangdang strain of the A. marginale msp5 gene (EF546443) with similarity of 99 % (differing only by two bases). An epidemiological survey was performed in several dairy farms: a total of 68 ticks were collected from 49 cattle. As a result, 14 of the 49 (28.57 %) blood smears stained with Wright-Giemsa and 22 of the 68 (32.35 %) ticks examined by PCR assay exhibited A. marginale infection. The results of the PCR assay were mostly consistent with the results of the microscopic examination. A number of results were negative in blood smear but positive in PCR, which is important for the early diagnosis of anaplasmosis. PMID:23636309

Zhang, Limei; Wang, Yong; Cai, Dongjie; He, Gaoming; Cheng, Ziqiang; Liu, Jianzhu; Meng, Kai; Yang, Dubao; Wang, Shujing

2013-07-01

61

A survey of ixodid tick species and molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken in two different climatic areas of Turkey to determine the presence of tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. The ticks were removed from humans, pooled according to species and developmental stages, and analyzed by PCR, reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing. Of the 2333 removed ticks from 10 species, 1238 (53.06%) were obtained from the arid cold zone, and the remaining 1095 (46.93%) were obtained from the humid zone. The removed ticks were identified as Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma detritum, Hyalomma excavatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis sulcata, Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis and Ixodes spp. nymphs. The dominant species was I. ricinus (61.27%) in the humid zone, whereas the Haemaphysalis spp. nymph dominated (30.29%) in the arid zone. Infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 169 pools tested, 49 (28.99%) were found to be infected with the pathogens, and the overall MLE of the infection rate was calculated as 2.44% (CI 1.88-3.17). The MLE of the infection varied among tick species, ranging from 0.85% (CI 0.23-2.34) in Haemaphysalis spp. nymph to 17.93% (CI 6.94-37.91) in D. marginatus. Pathogens identified in ticks included Theileria annulata, Babesia ovis, Babesia crassa, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma ovis, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon felis. Most tick pools were infected with a single pathogen. However, four pools infected with H. canis displayed infections with B. crassa, A. phagocytophilum and E. canis. The sequencing indicated that Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. was 100% identical to the sequence of Ehrlichia sp. Firat 2 and 3 previously identified from Hyalomma anatolicum. PMID:24424312

Aktas, Munir

2014-03-01

62

Spotted fever group Rickettsiae in ticks in Cyprus.  

PubMed

In two surveys conducted from March 1999 to March 2001 and from January 2004 to December 2006, a total of 3,950 ticks (belonging to ten different species) were collected from seven domestic and wild animals (goat, sheep, cattle, dog, fox, hare, and mouflon) from different localities throughout Cyprus. In order to establish their infection rate with Spotted Fever Rickettsiae (SFG), ticks were pooled and tested by polymerase chain reaction targeting gltA and ompA genes, followed by sequencing analysis. When tick pools tested positive, individual ticks were then tested one by one, and of the 3,950 ticks screened, rickettsial DNA was identified in 315 ticks (infection rate, 8%). Five SFG Rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, Rickettsia massiliae in Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rickettsia sibirica mongolotimonae in Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, and a Rickettsia endosymbiont of Haemaphysalis sulcata (later described as Rickettsia hoogstraalii) in Haemaphysalis punctata. Two additional genes, 17 kDa and ompB, were targeted to characterize a new genotype of "Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae" genotype in R. turanicus, designated here as "Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae" Cretocypriensis. These results confirm the presence of a spectrum of SFG Rickettsiae on the island. Further studies are necessary to gain better knowledge on the epidemiology of SFG Rickettsiae in Cyprus. PMID:21833539

Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Ioannou, Ioannis; Sandalakis, Vassilios; Dimitriou, Theodoros; Kassinis, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Byron; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2012-02-01

63

Molecular detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Nigeria, West Africa.  

PubMed

Several species of the spotted fever group rickettsiae have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including in Africa. In this study, 197 Hyalomma ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) collected from 51 camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kano, northern Nigeria, were screened by amplification and sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA), outer membrane protein A (ompA) and 17-kDa antigen gene fragments. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments were detected in 43.3% (42/97) of the tick pools tested. Rickettsial ompA gene fragments (189?bp and 630?bp) were detected in 64.3% (n?=?27) and 23.8% (n?=?10) of the gltA-positive tick pools by real-time and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. The amplicons were 99-100% identical to Rickettsia aeschlimannii TR/Orkun-H and R.?aeschlimannii strain EgyRickHimp-El-Arish in GenBank. Furthermore, 17-kDa antigen gene fragments of 214?bp and 265?bp were detected in 59.5% (n?=?25) and 38.1% (n?=?16), respectively, of tick pools, and sequences were identical to one another and 99-100% identical to those of the R.?aeschlimannii strain Ibadan A1 in GenBank. None of the Hyalomma impressum ticks collected were positive for Rickettsia sp. DNA. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments (133?bp) were detected in 18.8% of camel blood samples, but all samples were negative for the other genes targeted. This is the first report to describe the molecular detection of R.?aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels in Nigeria. PMID:25565180

Kamani, J; Baneth, G; Apanaskevich, D A; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Harrus, S

2015-06-01

64

Efficacy of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 against Hyalomma dromedarii and Amblyomma cajennense tick infestations in camels and cattle.  

PubMed

The recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus infestations. However, cattle ticks often co-exist with multi-host ticks such as Hyalomma and Amblyomma species, thus requiring the control of multiple tick infestations for cattle and other hosts. Vaccination trials using a R. microplus recombinant Bm86-based vaccine were conducted in cattle and camels against Hyalomma dromedarii and in cattle against Amblyomma cajennense immature and adult ticks. The results showed an 89% reduction in the number of H. dromedarii nymphs engorging on vaccinated cattle, and a further 32% reduction in the weight of the surviving adult ticks. In vaccinated camels, a reduction of 27% and 31% of tick engorgement and egg mass weight, respectively was shown, while egg hatching was reduced by 39%. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 did not have an effect on A. cajennense tick infestations. These results showed that Bm86 vaccines are effective against R. microplus and other tick species but improved vaccines containing new antigens are required to control multiple tick infestations. PMID:22446633

Rodríguez-Valle, Manuel; Taoufik, Amar; Valdés, Mario; Montero, Carlos; Ibrahin, Hassan; Hassan, Shawgi Mohammed; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, Jose

2012-05-14

65

Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae) in northeast Tunisia: seasonal population dynamics of nymphs and adults on field cattle.  

PubMed

Hyalomma scupense is a two-host tick infesting mainly cattle representing in North Africa the vector of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection), a major tick-borne disease affecting cattle. Any effective control programme of ticks requires a good knowledge of the biology of the target species. In the present study, three cattle farms in northeast Tunisia were surveyed during the activity seasons for adult and nymphs of Hyalomma scupense. Several indicators were studied, including chronological indicators, infestation prevalence, infestation intensity and feeding predilection sites of the ticks. The adult ticks were present from mid-June to late November. Nymphs were observed on animals from early September to late November. A large proportion of the ticks were attached in the posterior udder quarters: 41% and 64% of adult ticks and nymphs, respectively. The animals that were heavily infested by adult ticks were also heavily infested by nymphs. Moreover, 17% of adult ticks and 53% of nymphs were present on only 5% of cattle population. These data are important for the success of targeted acaricide application leading to a dramatic decrease of acaricide quantity needed for the treatment. When the preferential sites of attachment are known, the effectiveness of manual removal of ticks can be improved. The presence of highly infested animals is to be considered when any control programme is implemented, since these animals harbour a high proportion of the ticks. PMID:23547915

Gharbi, Mohamed; Hayouni, Mohamed Ettaïeb; Sassi, Limam; Dridi, Walid; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

2013-01-01

66

A tick B-cell inhibitory protein from salivary glands of the hard tick, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum  

SciTech Connect

Some studies done to date suggest that B-cell inhibitory factor occurred in tick saliva. In this study, a novel protein having B-cell inhibitory activity was purified and characterized from the salivary glands of the hard tick, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. This protein was named B-cell inhibitory factor (BIF). The cDNA encoding BIF was cloned by cDNA library screening. The predicted protein from the cDNA sequence is composed of 138 amino acids including the mature BIF. No similarity was found by Blast search. The lipopolysaccharide-induced B-cell proliferation was inhibited by BIF. This is First report of the identification and characterization of B-cell inhibitory protein from tick. The current study facilitates the study of identifying the interaction among tick, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and host.

Yu Da [Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Life Sciences College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 (China); Department of Life Science and Technology, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Liang Jiangguo [Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Life Sciences College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 (China); Yu Haining [College of Life Sciences, School of Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050016 (China); Wu Haifeng [Simcere Pharmaceutical Group, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210092 (China); Xu Chunhua [Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Life Sciences College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 (China); Liu Jingze [College of Life Sciences, School of Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050016 (China)]. E-mail: jzliu21@heinfo.net; Lai Ren [Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Life Sciences College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 (China)]. E-mail: rlai72@njau.edu.cn

2006-05-05

67

Hard Tick Species of Livestock and their Bioecology in Golestan Province, North of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background A survey on tick species composition was carried out in Golestan Province Iran during year 2010–2011.The aim was to determine tick species parasitizing domestic ruminants and their seasonal population dynamics. Methods: A total of 124 sheep, 92 goats, 84 cattle, 74 camels and 12 horses in several villages were inspected for tick infestation. The collected ticks preserved in 70% alcohol and then were identified. Results: The overall 1059 ticks (453 female, 606 male) were collected. The ticks occur on sheep, goats, cattle, camels and horses as 72.1%, 77.3%, 75.8%, 69.3%, and 50% respectively. The frequency of ticks in spring was more than other seasons and the least was observed in winter. In the spring and summer, infestation rate in domestic ruminants were calculated as 100%. Six genus and fourteen hard and soft tick species were identified including Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. sulcata, H. erinacei, H. inermis, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. asiaticum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. excavatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. detritum, Boophilus annulatus and Argas persicus. Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most abundant species in the study area. The largest number of ticks was collected from animal ears and tails. Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus and Boophilus occurred in mountainous, forest and plateau areas of Golestan Province but Ixodes occurred only in mountainous and forest areas, whereas Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma were present in coastal areas of Golestan Province. Conclusion: The result of this study is a survey on tick species from domestic animals in Iran and implication of possible prevention measures for diseases transmitted by ticks. PMID:25629071

Sofizadeh, Aioub; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Rahnama, Abbas; Gorganli-Davaji, Ahmad; Hosseini-Chegeni, Asadollah

2014-01-01

68

The genus Hyalomma: VII. Redescription of all parasitic stages of H. (Euhyalomma) dromedarii and H. (E.) schulzei (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The ticks, Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) dromedarii Koch, 1844 and Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) schulzei Olenev, 1931, are considered to be the species most closely associated with camels. H. dromedarii can behave as a three-, two-, or one-host species, with the two-host life cycle seemingly most common. Camels are the main hosts of the adults, which also parasitize other domestic animals. Nymphs and larvae can use the same hosts, especially camels, as the adults, but can also parasitize rodents, leporids, hedgehogs, and birds. H. dromedarii is widely distributed in North Africa, the northern regions of West, Central, and East Africa, Arabia, Asia Minor, the Middle East, and Central and South Asia. H. schulzei is a two-host species. Camels are the principal hosts of the adults, with some records from cattle and goats, whereas the immature stages infest hares, burrowing rodents, and hedgehogs. H. schulzei has a more limited geographic distribution in Asia and Egypt than H. dromedarii, and with the exception of southeastern Iran, it is a fairly uncommon tick. Among other features that are fairly similar, males of H. dromedarii can be distinguished from those of H. schulzei by a narrow, subtriangular parma, usually very large subanal shields, and a long dorsal prolongation of the spiracular plates. Males of H. schulzei have a broad and rectangular parma, paramedian festoons that protrude posteriorly, smaller subanal shields, and a very short dorsal prolongation of the spiracular plates. The females of H. dromedarii can be distinguished from those of H. schulzei by a narrow V-shaped genital aperture compared with a very wide, deep, U-shaped genital aperture. Here all the parasitic stages of both species are illustrated and redescribed, and characteristics that distinguish the adults from those of other closely related species are supplied. Data on their hosts, geographic distribution and disease relationships are also provided. PMID:18826023

Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Schuster, Anthony L; Horak, Ivan G

2008-09-01

69

Tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium as long term carrier of Q fever agent Coxiella burnetii--evidence from experimental infection.  

PubMed

The experimental study investigated the ability of tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium to play a role in forming and maintaining natural foci of Q fever. We tested the competence of H. aegyptium larvae to acquire Coxiella burnetii infection from mammals, serve as a C. burnetii vector between mammalian hosts, and be a long-term carrier of C. burnetii, including interstadial transmission. H. aegyptium larvae were allowed to feed on guinea pigs experimentally infected with C. burnetii. Engorged larvae molted to nymphs, some of which were preserved in 96% ethanol and later examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using C. burnetii-specific primers (CBCOS, CBCOE). Prevalence of C. burnetii among these nymphs was 5.6% (n=235). Remaining nymphs then fed on other, C. burnetii-negative guinea pigs; and according to results of both, micro-agglutination reaction, and ELISA, they successfully transmitted C. burnetii to those new hosts. Detached engorged nymphs molted to adults, which were kept alive long term and then placed in 96% ethanol 383 days post-infection. Thereafter, they were examined by PCR in the same manner as were the nymphs. Prevalence of C. burnetii among adult H. aegyptium was 28.9% (n=90). According to our results, tortoise-specific ticks have indisputable potential in the epidemiology of Q fever natural foci. PMID:20827490

Siroký, Pavel; Kubelová, Michaela; Modrý, David; Erhart, Jan; Literák, Ivan; Spitalská, Eva; Kocianová, Elena

2010-11-01

70

Acaricidal effects of cardiac glycosides, azadirachtin and neem oil against the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The cardiac glycoside, digitoxin, from Digitalis purpurea L (Scrophulariaceae), a cardiac glycosidal (cardenolide) extract from Calotropis procera (Ait) R Br (Asclepiadaceae), azadirachtin and neem oil from Azadirachta indica A Juss (Meliaceae) were tested for their effects against larvae and adult stages of the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii Koch (Acari: Ixodidae). The contact LC50 values of the first three materials against adults were 4.08, 9.63 and >40.7 microg cm(-2), respectively, whereas the dipping LC50 values of the four materials were 409.9, 1096, >5000 and >5000 mg litre(-1), respectively. Contact and dipping LC50 values of the extract and azadirachtin against larvae were 6.16, >20.3 microg cm(-2) and 587.7 and >2500 mg litre(-1), respectively. Azadirachtin had no effects on egg production or feeding of adults up to 5000 mg litre(-1); however at 2500 mg litre(-1), it caused significant reduction in feeding activity of larve, prolonged the period for moulting to nymphal stage, and caused 60% reduction in moultability. Results of the two cardiac glycoside materials are comparable with those of several commercial acaricides. The risks and benefits associated with the use of cardiac glycosides are considered. PMID:14620053

Al-Rajhy, DiefAlla H; Alahmed, Azzam M; Hussein, Hamdy I; Kheir, Salah M

2003-11-01

71

Current situation of tropical theileriosis in the Sudan.  

PubMed

Tropical theileriosis has long been recognized as a hindrance to the development of sound dairy industry in the Sudan and is a cause of major economic losses. Serological surveys indicated that Theileria annulata infection is widespread in the country but the disease mostly affects exotic dairy breeds and their crosses with indigenous breeds. The disease has recently been identified in Darfur and southern parts of Blue Nile State in dairy farms around large urban areas where it has never been detected before. These new introductions were accompanied by the establishment of Hyalomma anatolicum tick which is the main vector of the parasite in the Sudan. The disease is routinely diagnosed using microscopic examination of stained blood and lymph node biopsy smears. More advanced techniques are mainly used for research purposes. Tropical theileriosis in the Sudan is mainly controlled by using anti-theilerial drugs and acaricide application. It is recommended that live attenuated schizont vaccines developed from locally isolated T. annulata strains be used to control the disease. In addition, every care should be taken to prevent introduction of the disease into new areas. PMID:22565402

El Hussein, Abdelrahim M; Hassan, Shawgi M; Salih, Diaeldin A

2012-08-01

72

Hidden threat of tortoise ticks: high prevalence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in ticks Hyalomma aegyptium in the Middle East  

PubMed Central

It is the first time that Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), causing potentially lethal disease of humans, has been reported from the Middle East region and from the tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium from a tortoise host, whose epidemiological significance may have remained almost completely overlooked so far. We used RT-PCR to screen for 245 ticks collected from 38 Testudo graeca tortoise individuals. Results of our genetic screening provide unambiguous evidence of occurrence of CCHFV in this region and host, suggesting a potentially important role of H. aegyptium in CCHF epidemiology. PMID:24618184

2014-01-01

73

Spotted fever Rickettsia species in Hyalomma and Ixodes ticks infesting migratory birds in the European Mediterranean area  

PubMed Central

Background A few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering grounds in Africa. Many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in Europe as disseminators of Rickettsia-infected ticks. Methods Ticks were collected from a total of 14,789 birds during their seasonal migration northwards in spring 2009 and 2010 at bird observatories on two Mediterranean islands: Capri and Antikythira. All ticks were subjected to RNA extraction followed by cDNA synthesis and individually assayed with a real-time PCR targeting the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. For species identification of Rickettsia, multiple genes were sequenced. Results Three hundred and ninety-eight (2.7%) of all captured birds were tick-infested; some birds carried more than one tick. A total number of 734 ticks were analysed of which 353?±?1 (48%) were Rickettsia-positive; 96% were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii and 4% with Rickettsia africae or unidentified Rickettsia species. The predominant tick taxon, Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato constituted 90% (n?=?658) of the ticks collected. The remaining ticks were Ixodes frontalis, Amblyomma sp., Haemaphysalis sp., Rhipicephalus sp. and unidentified ixodids. Most ticks were nymphs (66%) followed by larvae (27%) and adult female ticks (0.5%). The majority (65%) of ticks was engorged and nearly all ticks contained visible blood. Conclusions Migratory birds appear to have a great impact on the dissemination of Rickettsia-infected ticks, some of which may originate from distant locations. The potential ecological, medical and veterinary implications of such Rickettsia infections need further examination. PMID:25011617

2014-01-01

74

An assessment of the distribution and spread of the tick Hyalomma marginatum in the western Palearctic under different climate scenarios.  

PubMed

We applied a process-driven model to evaluate the impact of climate scenarios for the years 2020, 2050, and 2080 on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum ticks in the western Palearctic. The net growth rate of the tick populations increased in every scenario tested compared to the current climate baseline. These results support the expectations of increased tick survival and increased population turnover in future climate scenarios. We included a basic evaluation of host movement based on rules connected to altitude, slope, size of the near patches, and inter-patch distances in the real landscape over the target area. Data on landscape were obtained from medium-resolution MODIS satellite imagery, which allowed us to test the potential spread of the populations. Such a model of host dispersal linked to the process-driven life cycle model demonstrated that eastern (Turkey, Russia, and Balkans) populations of H. marginatum currently are well separated and have little mixing with western (Italy, Spain, and northern Africa) populations. The northern limit is marked by the cold areas in the Balkans, Alps, and Pyrenees. Under the warmer conditions predicted by the climate scenarios, the exchange of ticks throughout new areas, previously free of the vector, is expected to increase, mainly in the Balkans and southern Russia, over the limit of the mountain ranges. Therefore, the northern limit of the tick range would increase. Additional studies are necessary to understand the implications of host changes in range and abundance for H. marginatum and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. PMID:22448680

Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Sánchez, Nely; Estrada-Sánchez, Adrián

2012-09-01

75

Influence of laboratory animal hosts on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum and implications for an in vivo transmission model for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus  

PubMed Central

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most geographically widespread arboviruses and causes a severe hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. The virus circulates in nature in a vertebrate-tick cycle and ticks of the genus Hyalomma are the main vectors and reservoirs. Although the tick vector plays a central role in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV in nature, comparatively little is known of CCHFV-tick interactions. This is mostly due to the fact that establishing tick colonies is laborious, and working with CCHFV requires a biosafety level 4 laboratory (BSL4) in many countries. Nonetheless, an in vivo transmission model is essential to understand the epidemiology of the transmission cycle of CCHFV. In addition, important parameters such as vectorial capacity of tick species, levels of infection in the host necessary to infect the tick, and aspects of virus transmission by tick bite including the influence of tick saliva, cannot be investigated any other way. Here, we evaluate the influence of different laboratory animal species as hosts supporting the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum, a two-host tick. Rabbits were considered the host of choice for the maintenance of the uninfected colonies due to high larval attachment rates, shorter larval-nymphal feeding times, higher nymphal molting rates, high egg hatching rates, and higher conversion efficiency index (CEI). Furthermore, we describe the successful establishment of an in vivo transmission model for CCHFV in a BSL4 biocontainment setting using interferon knockout mice. This will give us a new tool to study the transmission and interaction of CCHFV with its tick vector. PMID:23971007

Gargili, Aysen; Thangamani, Saravanan; Bente, Dennis

2013-01-01

76

Influence of laboratory animal hosts on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum and implications for an in vivo transmission model for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most geographically widespread arboviruses and causes a severe hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. The virus circulates in nature in a vertebrate-tick cycle and ticks of the genus Hyalomma are the main vectors and reservoirs. Although the tick vector plays a central role in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV in nature, comparatively little is known of CCHFV-tick interactions. This is mostly due to the fact that establishing tick colonies is laborious, and working with CCHFV requires a biosafety level 4 laboratory (BSL4) in many countries. Nonetheless, an in vivo transmission model is essential to understand the epidemiology of the transmission cycle of CCHFV. In addition, important parameters such as vectorial capacity of tick species, levels of infection in the host necessary to infect the tick, and aspects of virus transmission by tick bite including the influence of tick saliva, cannot be investigated any other way. Here, we evaluate the influence of different laboratory animal species as hosts supporting the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum, a two-host tick. Rabbits were considered the host of choice for the maintenance of the uninfected colonies due to high larval attachment rates, shorter larval-nymphal feeding times, higher nymphal molting rates, high egg hatching rates, and higher conversion efficiency index (CEI). Furthermore, we describe the successful establishment of an in vivo transmission model for CCHFV in a BSL4 biocontainment setting using interferon knockout mice. This will give us a new tool to study the transmission and interaction of CCHFV with its tick vector. PMID:23971007

Gargili, Aysen; Thangamani, Saravanan; Bente, Dennis

2013-01-01

77

Hd86, the Bm86 tick protein ortholog in Hyalomma scupense (syn. H. detritum): expression in Pichia pastoris and analysis of nucleotides and amino acids sequences variations prior to vaccination trials.  

PubMed

The genus Hyalomma includes the most frequent tick species infesting livestock in North Africa, one of these species, Hyalomma scupense (syn. H. detritum) is particularly important due to its role in the transmission of tropical theileriosis to cattle (Theileria annulata infection). We have cloned and characterized the orthologs of the Bm86 gene from H. scupense strains collected over Tunisia in 2006 and 2009. The recombinant protein rHd86 was expressed in Pichia pastoris for vaccination purpose using a transcript from the 2006 strain. The rHd86 was then purified from the yeast culture supernatant by a filtration and a size exclusion process. It was recognized by specific anti-Bm86 antisera. An important extent of inter-specific diversity ranging from 35 to 40% was recorded between Hd86 and Bm86/Bm95 proteins whilst a very limited level of intra-specific diversity (1.7%) occurred between the Hd86 vaccine candidate protein and its homologues from H. scupense strains collected in 2009. These results emphasise the need for assessing the efficacy against H. scupense and others important cattle Hyalomma species in Tunisia of our Hd86 vaccine candidate alongside with a Bm86 vaccine. PMID:21871736

Ben Said, Mourad; Galai, Yousr; Canales, Mario; Nijhof, Ard Menzo; Mhadhbi, Moez; Jedidi, Mohamed; de la Fuente, José; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

2012-02-10

78

Experimental transmission of field Anaplasma marginale and the A. centrale vaccine strain by Hyalomma excavatum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus ticks.  

PubMed

The cattle rickettsia Anaplasma marginale is distributed worldwide and is transmitted by about 20 tick species, but only Rhipicephalus simus, a strictly African tick species, has been shown to transmit the vaccine strain of A. centrale. The aim of the present study was to examine transmission of field strains of A. marginale and of the vaccine strain of A. centrale by three tick species -Hyalomma excavatum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus - to susceptible calves. Two genetically distinct Israeli field strains of A. marginale, tailed and non-tailed (AmIsT and AmIsNT, respectively), were efficiently transmitted by R. sanguineus, whereas H. excavatum transmitted only the tailed isolate, and R. (Boophilus) annulatus did not transmit A. marginale. None of the three tick species transmitted A. centrale. By means of msp1a primers in PCR assays, amplicons of similar sizes were obtained from either A. marginale-infected calves that were used for acquisition feeding, from R. sanguineus fed on the infected calves, or from calves to which anaplasmosis had been successfully transmitted by these ticks. Although an A. centrale-specific fragment was amplified from salivary glands of R. sanguineus, no transmission to susceptible cattle occurred during 3 months of observation, and anaplasmosis was not induced in splenectomized calves that were subinoculated with blood from calves on which R. sanguineus had fed. PMID:18823724

Shkap, Varda; Kocan, K; Molad, T; Mazuz, M; Leibovich, B; Krigel, Y; Michoytchenko, A; Blouin, E; de la Fuente, J; Samish, M; Mtshali, M; Zweygarth, E; Fleiderovich, E L; Fish, L

2009-03-01

79

Subolesin: a candidate vaccine antigen for the control of cattle tick infestations in Indian situation.  

PubMed

Identification of cross-protective tick vaccine antigens is a challenging area of veterinary research. To address this challenge, a recently identified candidate tick protective antigen, Subolesin (SUB), was targeted in this research. The conservation of subolesin ortholog of Hyalomma anatolicum and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus across different Indian strains was 98.1-99.4% (within species), while at the amino acid level SUB sequence homology was ?53.2% (between tick species). Recombinant R. (B.) microplus SUB (rBmSu) was produced in Escherichia coli and characterized. Cross-bred cattle male calves (N=10) were immunized with three doses of 100 ?g each of the rBmSu emulsified in 10% Montanide 888 at monthly intervals on days 0, 30 and 60. The control group was injected with PBS in 10% Montanide 888. For the first tick challenge, calves were infested with larvae of R. (B.) microplus generated from 100mg eggs 2 weeks after last immunization (day 75). The immunization resulted in 16.3%, 8.0%, 9.4%, and 26.1% reduction in female tick numbers (DT), weight (DW), oviposition (DO) and egg fertility (DF), respectively, when compared to controls. In the subsequent challenge on day 105, DT, DW, DO and DF were reduced by 9.0%, 4.1%, 8.6%, and 24.2%, respectively, when compared to controls. The vaccine efficacy (E) was equal to 44.0% and 37.2% after the first and second challenges, respectively. The results showed a positive correlation between antibody titers for both total IgG and IgG1 and E in the second but not in the first tick challenge. These results suggested the possibility of developing a SUB-based vaccine for control of cattle tick infestations under Indian conditions. PMID:24795229

Shakya, Mukesh; Kumar, Binod; Nagar, Gaurav; de la Fuente, José; Ghosh, Srikanta

2014-06-12

80

[Taxonomy of previously unclassified Tamdy virus (TAMV) (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) isolated from the Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum Schülce et Schlottke, 1929 (Ixodidae, Hyalomminae) in the Middle East and transcaucasia].  

PubMed

Complete genome sequencing of three Tamdy (TAMV) virus strains was carried out. The prototype strain TAMV/LEIV-1308Uz was isolated for the very first time from the Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum Schülce et Schlottke, 1929 (Ixodidae, Hyalomminae) collected in the August 1971 from sheep in the arid area near Namdybulak town (41 degrees 36' N, 64 degrees 39' E) in the Tamdinsky district of the Bukhara region (Uzbekistan). TAMV was revealed to be a prototype member of the new phylogenetic group within the limits of the Nairovirus. The TAMV homology for RdRp (L-segment) amino acid sequence is not less than 40% with Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Hazara virus (HAZV), and Dugbe virus (DUGV), which are also linked with Ixodidae ticks. The TAMV homologies with the Issyk-Kul virus (ISKV) and Caspiy virus (CASV) for RdRp are 37.6% and 37.7%, respectively. These data conformed to the low values of GnGc (M-segment) and nucleocapsid protein N (S-segment) homology. The TAMV homologies with the nairoviruses for GnGc is in average 25%; with the nairoviruses linked with Ixodidae ticks (CCHFV, DUGV, HAZV) - 33%; with Argasidae ticks (ISKV, CASV) - 28%. The TAMV/LEIV-1308Uz, LEIV-6158Ar, and LEIV-10226Az have high level of identity. The TAMV/LEIV-10226Az from Azerbaijan has 99% homology for both nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the prototype TAMV/LEIV-1308Uz RdRp. The TAMV/LEIV-6158Ar from Armenia is more divergent and has 94.2% and 96.3% homologies with the TAMV/LEIV-1308Uz, respectively. The homology between the TAMV/LEIV-1308Uz and TAMV/LEIV-10226Az for GnGc is 93%. The TAMV/LEIV-6158Ar has 90% homology for this protein with the TAMV/LEIV-1308Uz and 93% with the TAMV/LEIV-10226Az, respectively. Differences in nucleocapsid protein between three TAMV strains are 5-7%. PMID:25069280

L'vov, D K; Al'khovski?, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Aristova, V A; Gitel'man, A K; Deriabin, P G; Botikov, A G

2014-01-01

81

The Complete Sequence of a West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain Detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum Tick Collected from a Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos) in Eastern Romania in 2013 Revealed Closest Genetic Relationship to Strain Volgograd 2007  

PubMed Central

In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. The virus was detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the Romanian Danube Delta close to the city of Tulcea, end of August 2013. Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. Sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the Romanian WNV strain to strain Reb_Volgograd_07_H, which was isolated from human brain tissue during an outbreak of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Russia in 2007. In 2010 the Eastern European lineage 2 WNV caused an outbreak of human WNND in Romania. Partial sequences from subsequent years demonstrated that this WNV strain became endemic in Eastern Europe and has been causing outbreaks of varying sizes in southern Russia since 2007 and in Romania since 2010. PMID:25279973

Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Marinov, Mihai; Kiss, Botond J.; Alexe, Vasile; Nowotny, Norbert

2014-01-01

82

The complete sequence of a West Nile virus lineage 2 strain detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in eastern Romania in 2013 revealed closest genetic relationship to strain Volgograd 2007.  

PubMed

In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. The virus was detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the Romanian Danube Delta close to the city of Tulcea, end of August 2013. Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. Sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the Romanian WNV strain to strain Reb_Volgograd_07_H, which was isolated from human brain tissue during an outbreak of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Russia in 2007. In 2010 the Eastern European lineage 2 WNV caused an outbreak of human WNND in Romania. Partial sequences from subsequent years demonstrated that this WNV strain became endemic in Eastern Europe and has been causing outbreaks of varying sizes in southern Russia since 2007 and in Romania since 2010. PMID:25279973

Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Marinov, Mihai; Kiss, Botond J; Alexe, Vasile; Nowotny, Norbert

2014-01-01

83

[Genetic characterization of the Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) (Picornaviridae, Cardiovirus) isolated from the blood of the patients and ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum (Hyalomminae), Dermacentor daghestanicus (Rhipicephalinae) (Ixodidae) and Ornithodoros coniceps (Argasidae) in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan].  

PubMed

The Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) was originally isolated from the blood of the patient with fever in the Kyzylorda province, Kazakhstan, in July 1973 and was classified to the Cardiovirus genus (fam. Picornaviridae). Later, SDVFV was isolated from the ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1929 (Hyalomminae) (1 strain) and Dermacentor daghestanicus Olenev, 1929 (Rhipicephalinae) (7 strains), collected in the floodplains of the Syr-Darya river and the Ili river. In this paper, complet genome of the SDVFV (strain LEIV-Tur2833) was sequenced using the next-generation sequencing approach (GenBank ID: KJ191558). It was demonstrated that, phylogenetically, the SDVFV is closely related closest to the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) and Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VMEV). The similarity of the SDVFV with VHEV and TMEV based on P1 region of the polyprotein-precursor (structural proteins VP1-VP4), reaches 75% and 91% for nucleotide sequences and 80% and 93% for putative amino acid sequences, respectively. For nonstructural proteins regions P2 (2A-2C) and P3 (3A-3D) similarity of SDVFV with TMEV and VHEV is 96%-98%. PMID:25549463

L'vov, D K; Al'khovski?, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G

2014-01-01

84

Genetic characterization and molecular clock analyses of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus from human and ticks in India, 2010-2011.  

PubMed

A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was reported among humans in Ahmadabad district, Gujarat, India during January, 2011. In the present study we provide the complete genomic sequences of four CCHFV isolates derived from two human patients and two pools of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks during the period of this outbreak and the complete S segment sequence of two retrospective human serum samples, positive for CCHFV in 2010. Sequence-based molecular characterization of the Indian CCHFV showed that they possessed the functional motifs known to occur in the S, M and L gene segment products as in other CCHF viruses. The S segment of the six Indian CCHF viruses showed 99.8% nucleotide identity. Notably both tick isolates shared 100% nucleotide identity with one of the Indian human isolates of 2011. Phylogenetic analysis based on the S segment demonstrated that the Indian CCHFV isolates formed a distinct cluster in the Asian-Middle East group IV of CCHF viruses. The S segment was closest to a Tajikistan strain TADJ/HU8966 of 1990 (98.5% nucleotide identity) and was of South-Asia 2 type while the M segment was of type M2. Both M and L segments were closest to an Afghanistan strain Afg09-2990 of 2009 (93% and 98% nucleotide identity, respectively). The Indian isolates were thus identified as a South-Asia 2/M2 far-east virus combination and the differing parental origin in the S and L/M segments is suggestive that it may be an intra-genotypic reassortant. Molecular clock studies further revealed that the ancestry of the viruses was not very recent and dated back to about 33years on the basis of the S segment while it was about 15years based on the M segment. Thus though the 2011 outbreak may not have resulted from a very recent introduction, considering that so far there is no evidence of multiple circulating strains in the country, the possibility of a recent re-introduction of the virus from any of the neighboring countries cannot be ruled out. The study thus warrants the need for continued surveillance and increased sampling of CCHFV in different parts of the country. PMID:23195573

Yadav, Pragya D; Cherian, Sarah S; Zawar, Divya; Kokate, Prasad; Gunjikar, Rashmi; Jadhav, Santosh; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Mourya, Devendra T

2013-03-01

85

Association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western Palearctic. A digital data set.  

PubMed

We compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western Palearctic (11°W, 45°E; 29°N, 71°N), published during 1970-2010. The literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. Records from some curated collections were included. We focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. bursa, and the R. sanguineus group. A few records of other species (I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, Hy. impeltatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. excavatum, Hy. scupense) were also included. A total of 10,280 records was included in the data set. Almost 42 % of published references are not adequately referenced (and not included in the data set), host is reported for only 61 % of records and a reference to time of collection is missed for 84 % of published records. Ixodes ricinus accounted for 44.3 % of total records, with H. marginatum and D. marginatus accounting for 7.1 and 8.1 % of records, respectively. The lack of homogeneity of the references and potential pitfalls in the compilation were addressed to create a digital data set of the records of the ticks. We attached to every record a coherent set of quantitative descriptors for the site of reporting, namely gridded interpolated monthly climate and remotely sensed data on vegetation (NDVI). We also attached categorical descriptors of the habitat: a standard classification of land biomes and an ad hoc classification of the target territory from remotely sensed temperature and NDVI data. A descriptive analysis of the data revealed that a principal components reduction of the environmental (temperature and NDVI) variables described the distribution of the species in the target territory. However, categorical descriptors of the habitat were less effective. We stressed the importance of building reliable collections of ticks with specific references as to collection point, host and date of capture. The data set is freely downloadable. PMID:22843316

Estrada-Peña, A; Farkas, Robert; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Koenen, Frank; Madder, Maxime; Pascucci, Ilaria; Salman, Mo; Tarrés-Call, Jordi; Jongejan, Frans

2013-03-01

86

A new species of Haemoproteus from a tortoise (Testudo graeca) in Turkey, with remarks on molecular phylogenetic and morphological analysis.  

PubMed

Haemoproteus anatolicum n. sp. was identified in the tortoise Testudo graeca. The new species is described based on the morphology of its blood stages and a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, which can be used for molecular identification and diagnosis. Chelonian haemoproteids recorded in the past were defined solely on the basis of their morphological characteristics. The chelonian haemoproteid we describe as a new species has a close genetic relationship to lizard haemoproteids, i.e., Haemoproteus ptyodactylii and Haemoproteus kopki. The new species description provides significant new information for little-known chelonian haemoproteids. PMID:22924909

Orkun, Ömer; Güven, Esin

2013-02-01

87

An insight into the sialotranscriptome and proteome of the coarse bontlegged tick, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The analysis of 2,084 expressed sequemce tags (EST) from a salivary gland cDNA library lead to the assembly of 1,167 clusters of sequences, allowing identification of 255 contigs and singletons associated with putative salivary secreted componenets, from which 56 coding sequences (CDS) were extracte...

88

[The isolation of Dhori viruses (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) from the hare (Lepus europaeus) and its ticks Hyalomma marginatum in the middle zone of the Volga delta, Astrakhan region, 2001].  

PubMed

In August, 2001, in the middle zone of the delta of the Volga River, the Astrakhan region, during investigation of the natural foci of West Nile fever and Crimean--Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), the material from the hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas, 1778 (Lagomorpha, Leporidae) and collected from it the ticks Hyalomna marginatum Koch 1844, was obtained. 4 strains of Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) and 2 strains of CCHF virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) were isolated. This is the first isolation of Thogotovirus genus virus from the wild vertebrates. Considering the overlap of the Dhori virus and CCHF virus areas, similar ecology and the isolation both viruses from the same pool of the ticks, the necessity for the use of the test-system for indication of the viruses, differential diagnosis and accumulation of the data concerning the role of Dhori virus in the human and farm animals pathology is discussed. PMID:12271723

L'vov, D N; Dzharkenov, A F; Aristova, V A; Kovtunov, A I; Gromashevski?, V L; Vyshemirski?, O I; Galkina, I V; Larichev, V F; Butenko, A M; L'vov, D K

2002-01-01

89

Climate Niches of Tick Species in the Mediterranean Region: Modeling of Occurrence Data, Distributional Constraints, and Impact of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we used ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA) and principal components analysis (PCA) of climate variables to deÞne the climate niches and areas of potential colonization of six species of ticks in the Mediterranean region: Dermacentor marginatus Sulzer, Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini & Fanzago, Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantsev, Matikashvili & Lototsky, Hyalomma marginatum Koch, Hyalomma excavatum Koch, and Boophilus annulatus

Agustí Estrada-peña; José M. Venzal

2007-01-01

90

On the potential roles of ticks and migrating birds in the ecology of West Nile virus  

PubMed Central

Background Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). Ticks have, however, been suggested to be potential reservoirs of WNV. In order to investigate their role in the spread of the virus, ticks, which had been collected from birds migrating northwards from Africa to Europe, were analyzed for the potential presence of WNV-RNA. Methods On the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythira a total of 14,824 birds were captured and investigated from which 747 ticks were collected. Results and conclusion Most of the identified ticks (93%) were nymphs and larvae of Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato, most of which were or appear to be Hyalomma rufipes. Of these ticks 729 were individually screened for WNV-RNA. None of the ticks was found to be WNV positive. Thus, there was no evidence that Hyalomma marginatum s.l. ticks play a role in the spread of WNV from Africa to Europe. PMID:24455105

Hagman, Karl; Barboutis, Christos; Ehrenborg, Christian; Fransson, Thord; Jaenson, Thomas G. T.; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Lundkvist, Åke; Nyström, Fredrik; Waldenström, Jonas; Salaneck, Erik

2014-01-01

91

Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks in Turkey.  

PubMed

One hundred twenty-six ticks belonging to 12 tick species were collected from humans, domestic and wild animals, and from the ground as unfed (questing ticks) from distinct localities in Turkey in 2011. Ticks were individually tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Rickettsia spp., amplifying citrate synthase (gltA), and outer membrane protein (ompA) genes. Twenty-five ticks (19.8%) were found to be infected with Rickettsia species. Five SFG rickettsiae were identified, including 4 pathogens: Ri. aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. aegyptium, Hyalomma sp. (nymph), and Rhipicephalus turanicus; Ri. africae in Hy. excavatum, Hy. aegyptium, and Hyalomma sp. (nymph); Ri. slovaca and Ri. raoultii in Dermacentor marginatus; and one species with unknown pathogenicity, Ri. hoogstraalii, in Haemaphysalis parva. Rickettsia slovaca and Ri. hoogstraalii were reported for the first time from Turkey. In addition, Ri. hoogstraalii and Ri. africae were detected for the first time in Ha. parva and Hy. excavatum ticks, respectively. PMID:24355764

Orkun, Ömer; Karaer, Zafer; Çakmak, Ay?e; Nalbanto?lu, Serpil

2014-03-01

92

Lyme borreliosis spirochetes and spotted fever group rickettsiae in ixodid ticks from Pianosa island, Tuscany Archipelago, Italy.  

PubMed

A study on tick fauna and tick-borne pathogens was undertaken in Pianosa, an island in the Tuscany Archipelago that constitutes an important stopping and nesting point for migratory birds. Ticks were removed from feral cats and a few terrestrial birds, and host-seeking ticks were collected by dragging. A total of 89 ticks were found on animals: 57 Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado, 1936 and 32 Ixodes acuminatus Neumann, 1901. Host-seeking ticks were 354 Hyalomma spp. larvae and 18 Hyalomma spp. adults, identified as Hyalomma marginatum C.L. Koch, 1844 (n=11) and 7 Hyalomma detritum Schulze, 1919 (n=7). A sample of adult ticks was subjected to molecular analyses to look for Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Sequence analysis of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region and OspA gene of B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive samples showed the presence of Borrelia spielmanii (n=3; 3.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-10.4) and Borrelia valaisiana (n=13; 13.6%, 95% CI 7.0-23.0) in Ixodes ticks from cats and terrestrial birds. Ixodes spp. were also infected by Rickettsia helvetica (n=19; 23.4%, 95% CI 14.7-34.2). Finally, we detected Rickettsia aeschlimannii in 3 out of 12 host-seeking Hyalomma spp. adults tested (25%, 95% CI 5.5-57.2). Our study shows the presence of several tick-borne pathogens in Pianosa. Hyalomma spp. and Ixodes ticks other than I. ricinus seem to be involved in their epidemiological cycle, and birds could contribute to the pathogen dispersal along their migration routes. This is the first finding of B. spielmanii in Italy. We hypothesize the involvement of peridomestic rodents or hedgehogs in its maintenance in Pianosa. PMID:23289398

Tomassone, L; Grego, E; Auricchio, D; Iori, A; Giannini, F; Rambozzi, L

2013-02-01

93

Special Publication No. 3, Ticks and Tickborne Diseases, II. Hosts, Part 1. A-F  

E-print Network

) Hyalomma sp. no. 1 near excavatum (Hoogstraal, H. & Kaiser, ?. N. , (1958A), 7-12) (Giza Province & El Ami ri ya) Rhipicephalus plumbeus (Neumann, L. G. , (1911C), 1-169) Hyalomma dromedarii (Hoogstraal, H. & Kaiser, M. N. , (1958A), 7-12) (Cairo area... latum (Tendeiro, J. , (1951B), 681-690) Aponomma latum (Theiler, G., (1945B), 179-190) (Zululand) Acontias plumbeus Aponomma exornatum (Eibl, A. & Anastos, G. , (1966D), 1-412) (Africa) Aponomma laeve capensis (Bedford, G. A. H. , (1936A), 69...

Doss, Mildred A.; Farr, Marion M.; Roach, Katharine F.; Anastos, George

1974-01-01

94

First International External Quality Assessment of Molecular Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonosis caused by a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. Infection is transmitted to humans mostly by Hyalomma ticks and also by direct contact with the blood or tissues of infected humans or viremic livestock. Clinical features usually include a rapid progression characterized by hemorrhage, myalgia and fever, with a lethality rate up to 30%.

Camille Escadafal; Stephan Ölschläger; Tatjana Avši?-Županc; Anna Papa; Jessica Vanhomwegen; Roman Wölfel; Ali Mirazimi; Anette Teichmann; Oliver Donoso-Mantke; Matthias Niedrig

2012-01-01

95

Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting cattle and African buffaloes in the Tsavo conservation area, Kenya.  

PubMed

Several ixodid tick species are shared between domestic cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). So too, are a number of tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to compare the species composition of ticks that infest cattle and buffaloes utilising the same habitat within the Tsavo Conservation Area, Kenya. To this end, 25 cattle and 62 buffaloes were each opportunistically sampled for ticks on a single occasion in February 2010. Eight species, namely Amblyomma gemma, Amblyomma lepidum, Hyalomma albiparmatum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus pravus and Rhipicephalus pulchellus infested both cattle and buffaloes. Three species, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) sp., Rhipicephalus kochi, and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected only from cattle, and three species, Hyalomma impeltatum, Rhipicephalus humeralis and Rhipicephalus praetextatus were present only on buffaloes. The attachment sites of the various tick species were also recorded. New locality records for H. impeltatum and H. truncatum and the first confirmed locality record for Rhipicephalus praetextatus sensu stricto in Kenya were documented. PMID:23327329

Kariuki, Edward K; Penzhorn, Barend L; Horak, Ivan G

2012-01-01

96

Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from wild animals in Israel.  

PubMed

We report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in Israel. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma detritum while Rickettsia massiliae was present in Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. Furthermore, a novel uncultured SFGR was detected in Haemaphysalis adleri and Haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. The pathogenicity of the novel SFGR for humans is unknown; however, the presence of multiple SFGR agents should be considered when serological surveillance data from Israel are interpreted because of significant antigenic cross-reactivity among Rickettsia. The epidemiology and ecology of SFGR in Israel appear to be more complicated than was previously believed. PMID:22049050

Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E; Leitner, Moshe; Din, Adi Beth; Wikswo, Mary E; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D; Shanas, Uri; King, Roni; Waner, Trevor

2011-11-01

97

Ticks infesting domestic animals in northern Greece.  

PubMed

The tick species infesting grazing animals in the countryside of 11 prefectures in Northern Greece were investigated during April-July and September-December of consecutive years 2003-2006. A total of 3,249 (1,952 males, 1,297 females) adult ticks were collected from goats, sheep, cattle and dogs. Ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus (44.57%), Ixodes gibbosus (4.09%), Rhipicephalus bursa (19.14%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus (5.79%), Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (12.40%), Dermacentor marginatus (0.31%) and Boophilus annulatus (4.43%). Rhipicephalus spp. and Hyalomma spp. were abundant in all prefectures, Ixodes spp. were present in 9/11 prefectures, Boophilus spp. in 4/11, while Dermacentor spp. were found only in one. Results of this study give an insight into the ecology of ticks and their potential of tick-borne diseases in the country. PMID:18563592

Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Gerou, Spyros; Kahrimanidou, Melania; Papa, Anna

2008-08-01

98

Reliminary survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan.  

PubMed

In a preliminary survey conducted in 2005, the species composition and seasonality of ticks infesting cattle in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan was determined. Three locations were selected (Gumbo, Khor Rumla and Nyaing) and surveyed every 3 months. Two cattle herds in each of the three locations were visited four times during the study period. Total body collections of ticks were made from each of five cattle (Nilotic Zebu breed) kept in six different herds. Four tick genera and ten species were identified. The tick species identified were Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus annulatus, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus praetextatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus group. The highest number of ticks was collected in October during the rainy season. A finding of great significance was that R. appendiculatus, vector of East Coast fever, has now firmly established itself throughout the year with possible implications for cattle production in Central Equatoria State. PMID:18575063

Salih, D A; Julla, I I; Hassan, S M; El Hussein, A M; Jongejan, F

2008-03-01

99

[The ixodes tick fauna in Orenburg region].  

PubMed

A total of 2665 ticks were collected in 26 administrative districts of the Orenburg Region, which belonged to 4 genera and 5 species. The proportions of the species Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulates, Hyalomma detrium, Rhipicephalus rossicus, and Ixodes persulcatus were 60.8, 21.6, 15.6, 1, and 1%, respectively. Information is given on the species-specific composition and biodiversity of Ixodidae in different landscape and geographical zones. PMID:20361636

Norkina, A S; Kiriukhina, E I

2010-01-01

100

[Bactericidal effect of lysozyme].  

PubMed

Isolation of lysozyme from hemolymph of Alveonasus lahorensis (Acari: Parasitiformes, Argasidae) and Hyalomma marginatum (Acari: Parasitiformes, Ixodidae) with using ultrasound is described. It was shown that the bactericidal effect of the ultrasound-extracted lysozyme against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus significantly exceeded that of the chicken egg lysozyme and lysozyme from ticks without ultrasound exposure. Disintegration of the hemolymph cells increased lysozyme production. PMID:24640148

Podborodov, V M; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Smirnova, I P; Burenkova, L A; Novikova, V P; Aristova, V A; Novikova, E L; Moskvitina, G G; Ioffe, A M

2013-01-01

101

Impact of climate change on risk of incursion of Crimian-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Livestock in Europe through migratory birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To predict the risk of incursion of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in livestock in Europe introduced through immature Hyalomma marginatum ticks on migratory birds under current conditions and in the decade 2075–2084 under a climate-change scenario. Methods and Results: A spatial risk map of Europe comprising 14 282 grid cells (25 × 25 km) was constructed using three

P. Gale; B. Stephenson; A. Brouwer; M. Martinez; A. de la Torre; J. Bosch; M. Foley-Fisher; P. Bonilauri; A. Lindstrom; R. G. Ulrich; Vos de C. J; M. Scremin; Z. Liu; M. J. Munoz

2012-01-01

102

Distribution and seasonal activity of tick species on cattle in the West Aegean region of Turkey.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the identity, seasonal activity and distribution of tick species of cattle in the West Aegean region of Turkey between June 2006 and May 2008. Nine villages within three provinces, viz. Manisa, Izmir and Aydin, were included in the study and a total of 75 animal barns were visited monthly for a period of 24 months and 443 cattle were examined for the presence of ticks. It was determined that 23% of cattle were infested with ticks. A total of 19,679 adult ticks were collected. The most abundant tick species was Hyalomma marginatum (33.5%) and H. excavatum (16.9%) in the study area. Seasonal appearance of the adult ticks varied among species. Adult ticks of the Hyalomma genus were present throughout the year, although in smaller numbers during the winter. Species of Rhipicephalus were detected in all seasons except autumn. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus was identified in July and August, Haemaphysalis parva was detected during the autumn. Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor marginatus were identified during spring, autumn and winter. The study demonstrated the presence of I. ricinus, D. marginatus, Hyalomma rufipes and Hae. parva for the first time in the West Aegean region of Turkey. PMID:22113777

Bakirci, Serkan; Sarali, Hakan; Aydin, Levent; Eren, Hasan; Karagenc, Tulin

2012-02-01

103

Reverse transcription PCR-based detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus isolated from ticks of domestic ruminants in Kurdistan province of Iran.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal viral vector-borne zoonosis which has a mortality rate of up to 30% without treatment in humans. CCHF virus is transmitted to humans by ticks, predominantly from the Hyalomma genus. Following the report of two confirmed and one suspected death due to CCHF virus in Kurdistan province of Iran in 2007, this study was undertaken to determine the fauna of hard ticks on domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats) and their possible infection with CCHF virus using reverse transcription PCR technique. This is the first detection of CCHF virus in ticks from the Kurdistan province of Iran. Overall, 414 ixodid ticks were collected from two districts in this province. They represented four genera from which 10 separate species were identified. The Hyalomma genus was the most abundant tick genus (70%). It was the only genus shown to be infected with the CCHF virus using RT-PCR technique. The number of ticks positive for CCHF virus was 5 out of 90 (5.6%) adult ticks. The three remaining genera (Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, and Dermacentor) were all negative following molecular survey. Four of the five virally-infected ticks were from cattle mainly in the Sanandaj district. We concluded that CCHF virus is present in the Hyalomma ticks on domestic ruminants (cattle) in Kurdistan province of Iran. PMID:22651389

Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Golmohammadi, Parvaneh; Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Azizi, Kourosh; Davari, Behrooz; Alipour, Hamzeh; Ahmadnia, Sara; Chinikar, Sadegh

2012-09-01

104

A molecular survey of Theileria and Babesia parasites in cattle, with a note on the distribution of ticks in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Between October and November 2006, a total of 278 bovine blood samples were examined, and 104 (37.4%) were positive for piroplasms by microscopy. A reverse line blot hybridisation with polymerase chain reaction detected Theileria annulata, T. buffeli, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina in cattle accounting for 48.6% of positive samples. The most frequently found species was T. buffeli, which was present in 39.2% of the samples. T. annulata was found in 48 samples (17.3%). Babesia infections were less frequently detected: B. bovis was found in 6.8% of the samples and B. bigemina in 4.3%. Mixed infections were detected in 45 samples, accounting for seven different combinations of species. Seven Ixodid tick species (Boophilus annulatus, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma excavatum, Hyalomma detritum, Haemaphysalis punctata and Haemaphysalis sulcata) were collected from examined cattle in the 23 visited farms. I. ricinus was the dominant species (36%), mainly collected in the humid zone, while it seemed to be very rare in the semi-arid zone (where only 15 specimens were collected), whereas B. annulatus was the most commonly collected species in the sub-humid area (68.5% of ticks collected in this zone). PMID:18458949

M'ghirbi, Y; Hurtado, A; Barandika, J F; Brandika, J; Khlif, K; Ketata, Z; Bouattour, A

2008-07-01

105

Comments on controversial tick (Acari: Ixodida) species names and species described or resurrected from 2003 to 2008.  

PubMed

There are numerous discrepancies in recent published lists of the ticks of the world. Here we review the controversial names, presenting evidence for or against their validity and excluding some altogether. We also address spelling errors and present a list of 17 species described or resurrected during the years 2003-2008. We consider the following 35 tick species names to be invalid: Argas fischeri Audouin, 1826, Ornithodoros boliviensis Kohls and Clifford, 1964, Ornithodoros steini (Schulze, 1935), Amblyomma acutangulatum Neumann, 1899, Amblyomma arianae Keirans and Garris, 1986, Amblyomma bibroni (Gervais, 1842), Amblyomma colasbelcouri (Santos Dias, 1958), Amblyomma concolor Neumann, 1899, Amblyomma cooperi Nuttall and Warburton, 1908, Amblyomma curruca Schulze, 1936, Amblyomma cyprium Neumann, 1899, Amblyomma decorosum (Koch, 1867), Amblyomma nocens Robinson, 1912, Amblyomma perpunctatum (Packard, 1869), Amblyomma striatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma superbum Santos Dias, 1953, Amblyomma testudinis (Conil, 1877), Amblyomma trinitatis Turk, 1948, Dermacentor confractus (Schulze 1933), Dermacentor daghestanicus Olenev, 1928, Haemaphysalis himalaya Hoogstraal, 1966, Haemaphysalis vietnamensis Hoogstraal and Wilson, 1966, Hyalomma detritum Schulze, 1919, Ixodes apteridis Maskell, 1897, Ixodes donarthuri Santos Dias, 1980, Ixodes kempi Nuttall, 1913, Ixodes neotomae Cooley, 1944, Ixodes rangtangensis Teng, 1973, Ixodes robertsi Camicas, Hervy, Adam and Morel, 1998, Ixodes serrafreirei Amorim, Gazetta, Bossi and Linhares, 2003, Ixodes tertiarius Scudder, 1885, Ixodes uruguayensis Kohls and Clifford, 1967, Ixodes zealandicus Dumbleton, 1961, Ixodes zumpti Arthur, 1960 and Rhipicephalus camelopardalis Walker and Wiley, 1959. We consider the following 40 names valid: Argas delicatus Neumann, 1910, Argas vulgaris Filippova, 1961, Ornithodoros aragaoi Fonseca, 1960, Ornithodoros dugesi Mazzoti, 1943, Ornithodoros knoxjonesi Jones and Clifford, 1972, Ornithodoros marocanus Velu, 1919, Ornithodoros nattereri Warburton, 1927, Amblyomma beaurepairei Vogelsang and Santos Dias, 1953, Amblyomma crassipes (Neumann, 1901), Amblyomma echidnae Roberts, 1953, Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907, Amblyomma orlovi (Kolonin, 1995), Amblyomma parkeri Fonseca and Aragão, 1952, Amblyomma pseudoconcolor Aragão, 1908, Bothriocroton oudemansi (Neumann, 1910), Bothriocroton tachyglossi (Roberts, 1953), Dermacentor abaensis Teng, 1963, Dermacentor confragus (Schulze 1933), Dermacentor ushakovae Filippova and Panova, 1987, Haemaphysalis anomaloceraea Teng, 1984, Haemaphysalis filippovae Bolotin, 1979, Haemaphysalis pavlovskyi Pospelova-Shtrom, 1935, Hyalomma excavatum Koch, 1844, Hyalomma isaaci Sharif, 1928, Hyalomma rufipes Koch, 1844, Hyalomma turanicum Pomerantzev, 1946, Ixodes arabukiensis Arthur, 1959, Ixodes boliviensis Neumann, 1904, Ixodes columnae Takada and Fujita, 1992, Ixodes maslovi Emel'yanova and Kozlovskaya, 1967, Ixodes sachalinensis Filippova, 1971, Ixodes siamensis Kitaoka and Suzuki, 1983, Ixodes sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin, 1976, Ixodes succineus Weidner, 1964, Rhipicephalus aurantiacus Neumann, 1907, Rhipicephalus cliffordi Morel, 1965, Rhipicephalus pilans Schulze, 1935, Rhipicephalus pseudolongus Santos Dias, 1953, Rhipicephalus serranoi Santos Dias, 1950 and Rhipicephalus tetracornus Kitaoka and Suzuki, 1983. PMID:19169832

Guglielmone, Alberto A; Robbins, Richard G; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Petney, Trevor N; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Horak, Ivan G

2009-08-01

106

Efficacy of 1% geraniol (Fulltec) as a tick repellent.  

PubMed

A field trial on the efficacy of 1% geraniol (Fulltec) spray against ticks has been carried out in two farms near Rabat (Morocco). Results clearly revealed that 1% geraniol has a preventive effect against Hyalomma ticks. Comparison of geraniol sprayed cows with control herd showed a reduction of mean number of ticks per animal of 98.4%, 97.3% and 91.3% at respectively day 7, 14 and 21 post-spraying. These data give evidence that the geraniol, natural product extracted from plants, could be an alternative to limit use of chemical acaricides, which efficacy is compromised by development of resistance. PMID:19839268

Khallaayoune, K; Biron, J M; Chaoui, A; Duvallet, G

2009-09-01

107

Treatment of natural tropical theileriosis with the extract of the plant Peganum harmala.  

PubMed

Theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite of cattle and domestic buffaloes, is transmitted by ticks of the genus Hyalomma, and causes a disease named Mediterranean or tropical theileriosis. In this research 50 cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata were treated with the extract of the plant Peganum harmala. The treatment was continued for 5 days, the dose of the extract being 5 mg/kg per day. After the treatment, 39 cattle responded to the treatment and recovered, but 11 did not respond to the treatment and died. The recovery rate of animals treated with the extract of the plant Peganum harmala was 78%. PMID:18165708

Mirzaei, Mohammad

2007-12-01

108

Biogeography of Tick-Borne Bhanja Virus (Bunyaviridae) in Europe  

PubMed Central

Bhanja virus (BHAV) is pathogenic for young domestic ruminants and also for humans, causing fever and affections of the central nervous system. This generally neglected arbovirus of the family Bunyaviridae is transmitted by metastriate ticks of the genera Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Boophilus, and Amblyomma. Geographic distribution of BHAV covers southern and Central Asia, Africa, and southern (partially also central) Europe. Comparative biogeographic study of eight known natural foci of BHAV infections in Europe (in Italy, Croatia, Bulgaria, Slovakia) has revealed their common features. (1) submediterranean climatic pattern with dry growing season and wet mild winter (or microlimatically similar conditions, e.g., limestone karst areas in central Europe), (2) xerothermic woodland-grassland ecosystem, with plant alliances Quercetalia pubescentis, Festucetalia valesiacae, and Brometalia erecti, involving pastoral areas, (3) presence of at least one of the tick species Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus bursa, and/or Hyalomma marginatum, and (4) presence of ?60% of the 180 BHAV bioindicator (157 plant, 4 ixodid tick, and 19 vertebrate spp.). On that basis, Greece, France (southern, including Corsica), Albania, Spain, Hungary, European Turkey, Ukraine (southern), Switzerland (southern), Austria (southeastern), Germany (southern), Moldova, and European Russia (southern) have been predicted as additional European regions where BHAV might occur. PMID:20182535

Hubálek, Zdenek

2009-01-01

109

Ticks (Ixodidae) on birds migrating from Europe and Asia to Africa, 1959-61*  

PubMed Central

The need for imaginative thinking and research in the epidemiology of diseases transmitted by arthropods is made manifest by new views of the longevity and host ranges of arthropod-borne viruses, as well as by other biological and medical phenomena. Among these is the intercontinental transport of ticks by migrating birds. During the fall migration periods of 1959, 1960 and 1961, 32 086 birds (comprising 72 forms) were examined for ticks in Egypt while en route from Asia and eastern Europe to tropical Africa. Of these, 40 forms, represented by 31 434 birds, were tick-infested. The bird hosts, numbering 1040 (3.31% of the tick-infested bird forms examined), bore 1761 ticks, or 1.69 ticks per host. Common ticks taken were Hyalomma m. marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, and Ixodes ricinus. Ixodes frontalis and Hyalomma aegyptium were less common and Haemaphysalis sulcata, H. otophila, and H. pavlovskyi were rare. The common tick species are known to be reservoirs and vectors of pathogens causing a number of human and animal diseases in Europe and Asia. Several of the bird hosts have also been incriminated as reservoirs in their summer ranges. Over 20 strains of pathogenic viruses were isolated from these birds and their ticks in Egypt in the 1961 fall migration period. The most difficult problems in investigations such as this in many parts of the world are taxonomic ones: the correct identification of bird hosts, of immature stages of ticks and of viruses. PMID:13961632

Hoogstraal, Harry; Kaiser, Makram N.; Traylor, Melvin A.; Guindy, Ezzat; Gaber, Sobhy

1963-01-01

110

Hormonal interference with pheromone systems in parasitic acarines, especially ixodid ticks. Annual technical report No. 4, 1 May 1983-30 April 1984  

SciTech Connect

The most important result of recent project research was the demonstration of the juvenoid JH III by radioimmunoassay. This assay revealed an estimated 78 pg/tick in the hemolymph of partially fed Hyalomma dromedarii females, and an estimated 3 pg/tick in the hemolymph of partially fed D. variabilis. Other studies, especially digestion of tritium labelled JH III, provided additional evidence suggesting the presence of this hormone in adult ticks. The implications of these findings for our understanding of sex pheromone regulation in ticks is discussed. Other studies described in this report deal with the source of ecdysteroid in teh camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, and the soft tick, Ornithodoros parkeri. Studies done at ODU, using radioimmunoassay high performance liquid chromatography, and autoradiography, provide new evidence implicating the tick synganglion - lateral nerve plexus as an important site of ecdysteroid activity in the ixodid ticks. Other studies with ecdysteriods suggest that metabolism of ecdysone or 20-hydroxyecdysone (or both) to inactive metabolites, possibly including polar conjugates. If confirmed, these findings indicate the presence of only a single active ecdysteriod hormone in ticks, 20-hydroxyecdysone.

Sonenshine, D.E.; Oliver, J.H. Jr.; Homsher, P.J.

1984-05-01

111

The international trade in reptiles (Reptilia)--the cause of the transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) to Poland.  

PubMed

The problem of the unnatural transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland is presented. In the period from 2003 to 2007, 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to Poland from Ghana in Africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius. As a result of the investigations, the transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland was confirmed. There were 2104 specimens of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Donitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum (Schulze, 1941), Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma sp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Amblyomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed in the ticks A. flavomaculatum, A. latum and H. aegyptium. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological considerations, and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland. PMID:20153933

Nowak, Magdalena

2010-05-11

112

Ticks (acari: ixodoidea: argasidae, ixodidae) of China.  

PubMed

This paper presents results of an investigation and listing of tick species found in China during a survey in all 28 provinces. This will be a step towards a definitive list of tick species and their distribution. To date, the tick fauna of this area consists of 117 species in the following families: Argasidae-Argas (7 species), Carios (4 species) and Ornithodoros (2 species); Ixodidae-Amblyomma (8 species), Anomalohimalaya (2 species), Dermacentor (12 species), Haemaphysalis (44 species), Hyalomma (6 species), Ixodes (24 species) and Rhipicephalus (8 species). Some well known ticks carrying and transmitting many infectious agents to man and domestic animals are also found in China. These include Ixodes persulcatus, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. (Boophilus) microplus and Hyalomma asiaticum. It is worth mentioning that Ixodes rangtangensis Teng and Haemaphysalis xinjiangensis Teng should be relegated to a synonym of I. moschiferi and Hae. danieli, respectively. The distribution of ticks over the provinces of China is also discussed. The information on ticks in some areas such as Henan is not exhaustive. PMID:20101443

Chen, Ze; Yang, Xiaojun; Bu, Fengju; Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingze

2010-08-01

113

Tick loads in cattle raised on sweet and sour rangelands in the low-input farming areas of South Africa.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare tick loads and prevalence in Nguni and non-descript cattle in the sweet (palatable throughout the year) and sour (palatable only in the rainy season) communal rangelands of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Engorged adult female ixodid ticks were collected and identified seasonally from 144 cattle raised on sweet and sour rangelands from August 2007 to April 2008. Three tick species were identified in the sweet and sour rangelands namely Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi with prevalences of 71.1%, 29.2%, and 40.2%, respectively. Hyalomma species (19.0%) occurred only in the sour rangeland. Higher tick counts were recorded in the hot-wet season than in the cool-dry season (P < 0.05). Cattle in the sweet rangeland had significantly lower tick loads than those in the sour rangeland in all the seasons except the hot-dry season. The Nguni breed had lower (P < 0.05) tick loads of R. appendiculatus in the hot-wet and post-rainy season and Hyalomma species in all seasons than the non-descript cattle. The use of a tick-resistant Nguni breed in the integrated control of ticks on cattle in the communal areas of South Africa is recommended. PMID:20967568

Marufu, Munyaradzi C; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

2011-02-01

114

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks collected from humans, livestock, and picnic sites in the hyperendemic region of Turkey.  

PubMed

During June and July 2007, about 3125 adult ticks were collected from humans, animals, and vegetation in a hyperendemic region (Sivas and Tokat) of Turkey. A total of 2193 ticks were pooled in 225 pools and screened for the Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) presence by antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The dominant tick species was found to be Hyalomma marginatum with the following infestation rates in human, cattle and sheep, respectively: 47.43%, 66.07%, and 30.12%. Maximum likelihood estimation values of CCHFV in H. marginatum ticks collected from human, cattle, and sheep were 0.91% (CI 0.05-4.42), 2.10% (CI 1.12-3.64), and 3.11% (CI 1.18-6.87), respectively. CCHFV antigens were also demonstrated in Hyalomma excavatum, Haemaphysalis parva, and Boophilus annulatus ticks collected from cattle and Rhipicephalus bursa ticks from sheep. Our results suggest that the studied area might maintain its endemic properties in the near future unless effective tick control measures are implemented. PMID:21736490

Gunes, Turabi; Poyraz, Omer; Vatansever, Zati

2011-10-01

115

Tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in selected cattle herds of Matabeleland South, Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in 286 lactating cows and heifers at six properties in the smallholder and commercial sectors in Gwanda district of Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe. Eight tick species were identified: Amblyomma hebraeum, Hyalomma truncatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus zambeziensis and Rhipicephalus simus. Overall, 81.5% of the cattle were tick infested; prevalence of tick-infested cattle was significantly higher on communal land (93.8%) and recently claimed land (85.1%) than on commercial farms. The mean tick load on infested cattle on communal land was significantly higher than in the other two sectors. Although 53% of the sampled cattle had some degree of udder and teat damage, very few farmers (2.6%) treated their cattle for these conditions. Udder damage was ca. two times and three times, respectively, more likely to occur in cattle on communal land compared to cattle on recently claimed land and commercial farms. The occurrence of R. appendiculatus and R. zambeziensis indicate that the cattle population in the study area is at high risk of a theileriosis outbreak, a tick-borne disease that has not been reported from this area. PMID:20698443

Ndhlovu, D N; Makaya, P V; Penzhorn, B L

2009-06-01

116

Modelling the transmission dynamics of Theileria annulata: model structure and validation for the Turkish context.  

PubMed

A mathematical model that describes the transmission dynamics of Theileria annulata is proposed that consists of 2 host components: the Hyalomma tick population and a compartmental model of T. annulata infection in the cattle population. The model was parameterized using data describing tick infestation and the infection status of cattle in Turkey from 2006 to 2008. The tick attachment rates are highly seasonal and because of the temporal separation of infectious and susceptible ticks virtually all ticks are infected by carrier cattle, so that annual peaks of disease in cattle do not impact on infection in the Hyalomma tick population. The impact of intervention measures that target the tick population both on the host and in the environment and their impact on the transmission of T. annulata were investigated. Interventions that have a limited 'one-off' impact and interventions that have a more permanent impact were both considered. The results from the model show the importance of targeting ticks during the period when they have left their first host as nymphs but have yet to feed on their second host. PMID:22309815

Sutton, A J; Karagenc, T; Bakirci, S; Sarali, H; Pekel, G; Medley, G F

2012-04-01

117

First phylogenetic analysis of a Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus genome in naturally infected Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal systemic viral disease in many parts of the world, including Iran. The nationwide incidence of human CCHF in endemic areas was 870 confirmed cases with 126 deaths (case fatality rate, CFR = 17.6 %) in the decade leading to 2012. The detection of the CCHF virus (CCHFV) genome in tick vectors is of fundamental importance for identifying these ticks as potential reservoirs of CCHFV infection. From May to October 2013, following detection of four new clinical cases resulting in two deaths in the city of Mashhad (northeast Iran), hard ticks were recovered from infested livestock in 40 villages in Khorasan-Razavi province and examined by the microscopic method for species identification. About a quarter of the ticks were then subjected to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the CCHFV genome. The PCR products were then sequenced, and their phylogenetic lineages were determined. A total of 407 hard ticks were captured, representing seven different species in two distinct genera. Members of the genus Hyalomma were widely distributed in all but two of the villages studied, and this was also the most frequent (83.3 %) tick genus. Of 105 adult ticks subjected to RT-PCR, four (3.8 %) ticks were found positive for the CCHFV genome. One brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, was found to be naturally infected for the first time anywhere in the world. Ticks of Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, and Rhipicephalus turanicus were also found to be naturally infected with CCHFV. CCHFV found in these four different tick species were clustered in the same lineage with the Matin and SR3 strains from Pakistan and some other strains from Iran, indicating that these tick species were naturally infected with genetically closely related CCHFV in the region. The presence of CCHFV infection in four different hard tick species was confirmed using RT-PCR in northeast Iran. Part of this infection was attributed to Rh. appendiculatus, which is thus a potential new natural vector of CCHFV in Iran. It is also confirmed by phylogenetic analysis that CCHFV in this region is genetically closely related, even in the different tick species. PMID:25742932

Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Naddaf-Sani, Ali Asghar; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Azizi, Kourosh; Ahmadnia, Sara; Chinikar, Sadegh

2015-05-01

118

Ecology of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever endemic area in Albania.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is endemic in Albania. Ticks collected from cattle grazing in the endemic areas of Albania were tested for presence of CCHFV RNA, while serum samples collected from goats, cattle, hares, and birds were tested for the presence of specific IgG antibodies to CCHFV. One of the 31 pools prepared, consisting of four female Hyalomma spp. ticks, was found to carry CCHFV RNA with 99.2-100% homology to sequences detected in patients from the same region. Antibodies were not detected in cattle, hares, and birds, but 2/10 goats presented high titers of IgG antibodies. The shepherd of that flock was a member of a family affected by CCHF 10 days before the collection of goats' sera, and he presented a mild form of the disease. PMID:19402760

Papa, Anna; Velo, Enkelejda; Papadimitriou, Evangelia; Cahani, Gjyle; Kota, Majlinda; Bino, Silvia

2009-12-01

119

Ixodid Tick Infestation in Cattle and Wild Animals in Maswa and Iringa, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Ticks and tick-borne diseases are important in human and livestock health worldwide. In November 2012, ixodid ticks were collected and identified morphologically from cattle and wild animals in the Maswa district and Iringa urban, Tanzania. Amblyomma gemma, A. lepidum, and A. variegatum were identified from Maswa cattle, and A. variegatum was the predominant species. A. marmoreum, Hyalomma impeltatum, and Rhipicephalus pulchellus were identified from Iringa cattle in addition to the above 3 Amblyomma species, and A. gemma was the most abundant species. Total 4 Amblyomma and 6 Rhipicephalus species were identified from wild animals of the 2 areas. A. lepidum was predominant in Maswa buffaloes, whereas A. gemma was predominant in Iringa buffaloes. Overall, A. variegatum in cattle was predominant in the Maswa district and A. gemma was predominant in Iringa, Tanzania. PMID:25352709

Kwak, You Shine; Kim, Tae Yun; Nam, Sung-Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Pyo; Mduma, Simon; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert

2014-01-01

120

First record of the pantropical blue tick Rhipicephalus microplus in Namibia.  

PubMed

The invasive pantropical blue tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, has recently been collected from cattle in Namibia. A cross-sectional study aimed at recording the geographic distribution of Rhipicephalus decoloratus and establishing whether R. microplus is present in Namibia was conducted towards the end of summer (March-April) 2013. Ticks were collected from cattle on 18 privately owned farms across a large geographical scale. Ticks were collected from three to five cattle per farm and species belonging to the genera Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus were recovered. Rhipicephalus decoloratus was present on all farms and R. microplus was recorded on four of the farms. The small numbers of R. microplus compared to R. decoloratus collected in the mixed infestations, suggests that the introduction events were recent. PMID:23851930

Nyangiwe, Nkululeko; Matthee, Conrad; Horak, Ivan; Matthee, Sonja

2013-12-01

121

Ixodid tick infestation in cattle and wild animals in Maswa and Iringa, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Ticks and tick-borne diseases are important in human and livestock health worldwide. In November 2012, ixodid ticks were collected and identified morphologically from cattle and wild animals in the Maswa district and Iringa urban, Tanzania. Amblyomma gemma, A. lepidum, and A. variegatum were identified from Maswa cattle, and A. variegatum was the predominant species. A. marmoreum, Hyalomma impeltatum, and Rhipicephalus pulchellus were identified from Iringa cattle in addition to the above 3 Amblyomma species, and A. gemma was the most abundant species. Total 4 Amblyomma and 6 Rhipicephalus species were identified from wild animals of the 2 areas. A. lepidum was predominant in Maswa buffaloes, whereas A. gemma was predominant in Iringa buffaloes. Overall, A. variegatum in cattle was predominant in the Maswa district and A. gemma was predominant in Iringa, Tanzania. PMID:25352709

Kwak, You Shine; Kim, Tae Yun; Nam, Sung-Hyun; Lee, In-Yong; Kim, Hyung-Pyo; Mduma, Simon; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert; Yong, Tai-Soon

2014-10-01

122

Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Ethiopia and Chad.  

PubMed

DNA extracted from 363 ticks collected in Ethiopia and 9 ticks collected in Chad, Africa were screened by PCR to detect DNA from spotted fever group rickettsiae. Fifteen ticks (4.1%) collected in Ethiopia and one tick (11%) collected in Chad tested positive when PCR targeting the gltA and ompA rickettsial genes was performed. PCR-positive products of the gltA and ompA genes were used for DNA sequencing. Rickettsia africae was detected in 12/118 Amblyomma lepidum and in 1/2 A. variegatum. Also, 2/12 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes collected in Ethiopia and one H. marginatum rufipes collected in Chad were positive for R. aeschlimannii. Our results confirm the previously reported presence of R. africae in Ethiopia and also show the first evidence of R. aeschlimannii in ticks collected in Ethiopia and Chad. PMID:18440576

Mura, Alessandra; Socolovschi, Cristina; Ginesta, Jacques; Lafrance, Bertrand; Magnan, Stéphan; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Davoust, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

2008-09-01

123

Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi as well as the identification of associated ticks in sympatric Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya.  

PubMed

The role of equine piroplasmosis as a factor in the population decline of the Grevy's zebra is not known. We determined the prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in cograzing Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya and identified the associated tick vectors. Blood samples were taken from 71 donkeys and 16 Grevy's zebras from March to May 2011. A nested PCR reaction using 18s ribosomal (r)RNA primers on 87 blood spots showed 72% (51/71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 60.4-81.0%) of donkeys and 100% (16/16; 95% CI, 77.3-100%) of Grevy's zebras were T. equi positive. No samples were positive for B. caballi. Sequence comparison using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's basic local alignment search tool identified homologous 18s rRNA sequences with a global geographic spread. The T. equi-derived sequences were evaluated using Bayesian approaches with independent Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo runs. The sequences clustered with those found in Sudan, Croatia, Mongolia, and the US, with statistical support greater than 80% for the two main clades. Hyalomma tick species were found on both donkeys and Grevy's zebras, whereas Rhipicephalus pulchellus was found exclusively on Grevy's zebras and Hyalomma marginatum rupfipes on donkeys. The prevalence of T. equi was 100% in Grevy's zebras and 72% in donkeys with common tick vectors identified. Our results suggest that donkeys and Grevy's zebras can be asymptomatic carriers and that piroplasmosis is endemic in the study area. PMID:25380362

Hawkins, Elaine; Kock, Richard; McKeever, Declan; Gakuya, Francis; Musyoki, Charles; Chege, Stephen M; Mutinda, Mathew; Kariuki, Edward; Davidson, Zeke; Low, Belinda; Skilton, Robert A; Njahira, Moses N; Wamalwa, Mark; Maina, Elsie

2015-01-01

124

Isolation of Tick and Mosquito-Borne Arboviruses from Ticks Sampled from Livestock and Wild Animal Hosts in Ijara District, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Abstract Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service–protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne. PMID:23805790

Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary

2013-01-01

125

Ticks of the Central African Republic.  

PubMed

A review is presented of the ticks of the Central African Republic (C.A.R.), based on unpublished data and a literature review. We consider as established in the C.A.R. two species of Argasidae (one species of each of the genera Carios and Ornithodoros) and 49 species of Ixodidae: 5 Ixodes, 11 Amblyomma, 2 Dermacentor, 9 Haemaphysalis, 4 Hyalomma, and 18 Rhipicephalus species, 3 of which belong to the subgenus Boophilus. Two of these species, one Amblyomma and one Dermacentor, may by now have disappeared from the country together with their hosts, the black and white rhinoceroses. Moreover, four other species of Ixodidae have been recorded, but are not necessarily established in the country, and 6 species of Ixodidae have apparently been reported incorrectly; the data for the occurrence of three other species of Ixodidae are uncertain. Rhipicephalus species in the C.A.R. present the greatest difficulties in identification, on the one hand because of uncertainties in taxonomy, particularly in the capensis group, on the other hand because of individual variability, which means that individual specimens cannot always be reliably identified to species. Examining the dissected and cleared gonopore structure of females helps, but is very time-consuming where large numbers are involved. Some of the species of the genus Haemaphysalis are also difficult to identify with certainty. There are only a few species of Hyalomma in the country. We revised also some old records of ticks in C.A.R., which we consider as unreliable and should be disregarded because of subsequent changes in taxonomy and nomenclature, unless the material is still available for examination. PMID:22996417

Uilenberg, Gerrit; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Thal, Jean

2013-05-01

126

Tick burden and prevalence of Theileria parva infection in Tarime zebu cattle in the lake zone of Tanzania.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to assess the distribution, abundance of different tick genera and prevalence of Theileria parva infection in Tarime zebu cattle kept in selected wards of Serengeti and Tarime districts in Mara region. Adult ticks were identified and counted from half body parts of 360 animals which were extensively managed in communal land with natural pastures. Concurrently, blood samples were collected and thereafter DNA extracted and a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was done using primers specific for p104 gene to detect the presence of T. parva DNA. Ticks were identified into four groups: Amblyomma genus, Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus genus, other species of Rhipicephalus, and Hyalomma genus. Rhipicephalus genus accounted for 71.8 % of the total ticks, whereas Amblyomma, Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus genus and Hyalomma constituted 14.1, 14.0 and 0.1 %, respectively. There were more animals (p?

Laisser, Emmanuel Levillal Katamboi; Kipanyula, Maulilio John; Msalya, George; Mdegela, Robinson Hammerthon; Karimuribo, Esron Daniel; Mwilawa, Anjello Joseph; Mwega, Elisa Daniel; Kusiluka, Lughano; Chenyambuga, Sebastian Wilson

2014-12-01

127

Ticks and the city: ectoparasites of the Northern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus) in an urban park.  

PubMed

The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is known to host several ectoparasites and also tick-borne pathogens, but there is scant information on its eastern relative, the Northern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus). We have studied an urban population of E. roumanicus in a city park of central Budapest, Hungary, for 2 years to investigate their tick and flea species. A total of 5063 ticks and 818 fleas were collected from 247 hedgehogs (including 46 recaptures). Ectoparasite prevalence and intensity differed significantly (p<0.001) between the 2 study years attributable to the enhanced tick removal rate due to anaesthesia used in the second year. The most common tick species was Ixodes ricinus (93.7%) followed by unidentified Ixodes larvae (5%). Only 57 hedgehog ticks (I. hexagonus) were removed from 22 hedgehogs. One I. acuminatus and one Hyalomma marginatum nymph were also collected. Mean intensity of tick infestation was 26.5 (range: 0-155 ticks/host) and mean intensity of flea infestation was 6.6 (range: 0-78 fleas/host). Most fleas (99.4%) collected were hedgehog fleas (Archaeopsylla erinacei), dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) were found on 2 hedgehogs. Hyalomma marginatum has previously not been found in Hungary, and I. acuminatus was only reported sporadically before. The large number of ectoparasites and the 2 imported tick species may thus survive in close proximity to humans if hedgehogs are present. This calls attention to the risk of possible tick-borne human infections that urban hedgehogs can pose. PMID:22108019

Földvári, Gábor; Rigó, Krisztina; Jablonszky, Mónika; Biró, Nóra; Majoros, Gábor; Molnár, Viktor; Tóth, Mária

2011-12-01

128

Identification of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks Feeding on Humans in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. The tick-borne disease outbreaks reported in recent years and the abundance of tick species and the existence of suitable habitats increase the importance of studies related to the epidemiology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of and to determine the infection rates of some tick-borne pathogens, including Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in the ticks removed from humans in different parts of Ankara. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 169 ticks belonging to the genus Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus were collected by removing from humans in different parts of Ankara. Ticks were molecularly screened for Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae by PCR and sequencing analysis. We detected 4 Babesia spp.; B. crassa, B. major, B. occultans and B. rossi, one Borrelia spp.; B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae; R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca and R. hoogstraalii in the tick specimens analyzed. This is the report showing the presence of B. rossi in a region that is out of Africa and in the host species Ha. parva. In addition, B. crassa, for which limited information is available on its distribution and vector species, and B. occultans, for which no conclusive information is available on its presence in Turkey, were identified in Ha. parva and H. marginatum, respectively. Two human pathogenic rickettsia species (R. aeschlimannii and R. slovaca) were detected with a high prevalence in ticks. Additionally, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in unusual tick species (H. marginatum, H. excavatum, Hyalomma spp. (nymph) and Ha. parva). Conclusions/Significance This study investigates both the distribution of several tick-borne pathogens affecting humans and animals, and the presence of new tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. More epidemiological studies are warranted for B. rossi, which is very pathogenic for dogs, because the presented results suggest that B. rossi might have a wide distribution in Turkey. Furthermore, we recommend that tick-borne pathogens, especially R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, should be taken into consideration in patients who had a tick bite in Turkey. PMID:25101999

Orkun, Ömer; Karaer, Zafer; Çakmak, Ay?e; Nalbanto?lu, Serpil

2014-01-01

129

Rectal infusion and aspiration of material through the guts of ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

A technique for inoculating and removing substances via the anus of vector ticks was devised to define features of vector competence precisely. Calibrated inocula (greater than 5 nanoliter) containing aqueous dye and polystyrene beads as well as infectious agents were infused into the rectal sacs of ticks using glass microcapillary pipettes placed within the expanded anal orifice. The guts of preadult and adult ticks, Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Hyalomma impeltatum Schulze & Schlottke, and Amblyomma americanum (L.), were thereby infused with these inocula. Distribution of inocula was determined by examining hemolymph and sectioned ticks and confirmed that material placed in the rectal sac spread throughout the midgut diverticula. Ticks survived for greater than 6 mo after this procedure and were able to feed, molt to the next stage, or oviposit. In contrast, fewer ticks survived after intracelomic inoculation. The course of infection in ticks receiving anal infusions of Borrelia burgdorferi (the Lyme disease spirochete) was assessed. Such infections appear to differ from those established by feeding on infected hosts. Contents of the tick gut can be sampled nondestructively by anal perfusion to diagnose infection by this spirochete. PMID:1770516

Pollack, R J; Telford, S R; Spielman, A

1991-11-01

130

Determination of Rhipicephalus spp. as vectors for Babesia ovis in Iran.  

PubMed

The tick-borne diseases of livestock constitute a complex of several diseases with different etiological agents, such as protozoa, rickettsia, bacteria, and viruses. One problem discussed in protozoan infection is the determination and characterization of the transmitter agent. Because many analyses were performed with the salivary gland smears using the methyl-green-pyronin staining method or the Feulgen staining method, the transfer vector remains unanswered in some cases. The aim of this study is to recognize Babesia ovis in the salivary gland of Rhipicephalus spp. using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was isolated from 269 salivary gland of Rhipicephalus spp. (108 R. bursa, 87 R. turanicus, 74 R. sanguineus) collected from sheep with suspected to babesiosis. The isolated DNA was then analyzed with the primers derived from the hypervariable region V4 of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) of the Babesia species. For the specificity of the PCR product and discriminating from Babesia motasi and Babesia crassa, nested PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed. As positive control for the DNA extraction procedure, the DNA was analyzed with the common primers designed from the 18S rRNA of the Ticks (Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Haemophysalis, Dermacentor, Ixodes, Boophilus). B. ovis was detected in salivary gland of 18.5% R. bursa, 9.1% R .turanicus, and 8.1% R. sanguineus, respectively. PMID:17554562

Shayan, Parviz; Hooshmand, Elham; Rahbari, Sadegh; Nabian, Sedighe

2007-09-01

131

[Khurdun virus, a presumably new RNA-containing virus associated with coots (Fulica atra), isolated in the Volga river delta].  

PubMed

The prototype strain LEIV-Ast 01-5 of the unclassified enveloped RNA-containing Khurdun virus, less than 220 nm in size, which is widely distributed among coots (Fulica atra) in the Volga River delta, was deposited on November 4, 2004, at the State Virus Collection (SVC # 992). The virus was isolated annually (2001-2004) with a frequency of 2.3-8.5% (mean 6.3%) when examining 348 coots caught in the lower and middle zones of the Volga River delta. Virological examinations used mixed pools of the brain and spleen to inoculate neonatal albino mice and the cellular line Vero-E6. One strain was isolated from a pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus). The virus could not be isolated from other species of 1080 birds, 20 hares, 140,000 mosquitoes of 5 predominant species, and 6,700 Hyalomma marginatum ticks. Any antigenic relationship of the virus with all the viruses early isolated in the Northern Caspian Sea region has not been found. ELISA has been developed to detect and identify Khurdun virus antigen. PMID:16104519

Galkina, I V; L'vov, L N; Gromashevski?, V L; Moskvina, T M

2005-01-01

132

Transport of ticks by migratory passerine birds to Norway.  

PubMed

Ticks can be transported over large distances and across geographical barriers by avian hosts. During the spring migrations of 2003 to 2005, 9,768 passerine birds from 4 bird observatories along the southern coastline of Norway were examined for ticks. Altogether, 713 birds carried a total of 517 larvae and 1,440 nymphs. The highest prevalence of tick infestation was observed in thrushes and dunnock (Prunella modularis). The degree of tick infestation varied during each season, between localities, and from year to year. Blackbirds (Turdus merula) caught in localities with many ticks had greater infestation than those from localities with few or no ticks, suggesting local tick recruitment. A similar study performed during 1965–1970 involving 2 of the bird observatories in the present study found ticks on 4.2% of birds, while we found infestation of 6.9% at the same localities (P < 0.001). With the exception of 10 nymphs and 1 larva, the predominant tick was Ixodes ricinus. Seven nymphs of Hyalomma rufipes and 1 larva of Dermacentor sp. were also found. No species of Dermacentor had previously been found in Norway. PMID:19658452

Hasle, Gunnar; Bjune, Gunnar; Edvardsen, Erik; Jakobsen, Christer; Linnehol, Bjørn; Røer, Jan Erik; Mehl, Reidar; Røed, Knut H; Pedersen, Jon; Leinaas, Hans Petter

2009-12-01

133

Hard ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) of Croatia  

PubMed Central

Abstract The present paper is based on original and literature data. In Croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. The number of tick species recorded in Croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. A total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in Croatia. Ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. Haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by Rhipicephalus with four species. Dermacentor and Hyalomma are represented by two species each. The ticks were collected on 47 different host species. Eleven tick species were collected on Bos taurus and Ovis aries, followed by Capra hircus and Equus caballus with 8 species and Canis lupus familiaris with 6 species. On the remaining 42 host species one, two or three tick species were collected. The most widespread tick is Ixodes ricinus which was found on 25 different host species. PMID:23372407

Kr?mar, Stjepan

2012-01-01

134

Species diversity and abundance of ticks in three habitats in southern Italy.  

PubMed

A 2-year study was conducted from March 2010 to March 2012 in a forested area in southern Italy to evaluate the species diversity and abundance of free-living ticks in 3 different habitats: (i) a meadow habitat within an enclosure inhabited by roe deer (Capreolus capreolus); (ii) a man-made trail located in a high-altitude, forested area; and (iii) a grassland near a house inhabited by 3 people. In total, 10,795 ticks were collected. Ixodes ricinus was the most abundant species (69.0%), followed by Haemaphysalis inermis (19.1%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (6.7%), Dermacentor marginatus (3.2%), and Hyalomma marginatum (1.0%). The least frequently collected species were Rhipicephalus bursa, Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis sulcata, and Haemaphysalis concinna, representing together less than 1% of the collections. Immature ticks predominated over adult ticks. In particular, immature stages of Ix. ricinus (i.e., 3246 larvae and 3554 nymphs) represented 63% of the total number of ticks collected. High levels of species diversity and abundance of ticks were recorded in all habitats and the daily number of ticks collected was negatively correlated with daily mean temperature, evapotranspiration, and saturation deficit. This study indicates that the southern Italian climate is suitable for different tick species, which may find a preferred 'climate niche' during a specific season, when a combination of factors (e.g., suitable meteorological and environmental conditions) associated with the presence of suitable hosts will facilitate their development and reproduction. PMID:23403153

Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

2013-04-01

135

Diversity and seasonal patterns of ticks parasitizing wild birds in western Portugal.  

PubMed

The diversity and abundance of questing ticks and ticks parasitizing birds was assessed during 1 year in two recreational forests in western Portugal, a suburban forest and an enclosed game area. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and seasonality of tick species and to understand the role of bird species as hosts for ticks. Ixodes ricinus was the most abundant questing tick collected in the enclosed game area, whereas in the suburban forest, only three ticks were collected by blanket dragging. Tick species parasitizing birds included I. ricinus, I. frontalis, I. arboricola, I. acuminatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma marginatum and H. lusitanicum. This is the first record of I. arboricola in Portugal. Tick prevalence and intensity of infestation differed between study areas and was higher in birds from the game area where a large population of deer and wild boar may support tick populations. Ground and shrub dwelling bird species such as Turdus merula, Erithacus rubecula and Sylvia melanocephala were the most heavily parasitized by ticks, but the importance of different bird species as hosts of larvae and nymphs of I. ricinus and I. frontalis differed. Therefore, different bird species may contribute differently for tick population maintenance. PMID:22669280

Norte, A C; de Carvalho, I Lopes; Ramos, J A; Gonçalves, M; Gern, L; Núncio, M S

2012-11-01

136

The Influence of Interspecific Competition and Host Preference on the Phylogeography of Two African Ixodid Tick Species  

PubMed Central

A comparative phylogeographic study on two economically important African tick species, Amblyomma hebraeum and Hyalomma rufipes was performed to test the influence of host specificity and host movement on dispersion. Pairwise AMOVA analyses of 277 mtDNA COI sequences supported significant population differentiation among the majority of sampling sites. The geographic mitochondrial structure was not supported by nuclear ITS-2 sequencing, probably attributed to a recent divergence. The three-host generalist, A. hebraeum, showed less mtDNA geographic structure, and a lower level of genetic diversity, while the more host-specific H. rufipes displayed higher levels of population differentiation and two distinct mtDNA assemblages (one predominantly confined to South Africa/Namibia and the other to Mozambique and East Africa). A zone of overlap is present in southern Mozambique. A mechanistic climate model suggests that climate alone cannot be responsible for the disruption in female gene flow. Our findings furthermore suggest that female gene dispersal of ticks is more dependent on the presence of juvenile hosts in the environment than on the ability of adult hosts to disperse across the landscape. Documented interspecific competition between the juvenile stages of H. rufipes and H. truncatum is implicated as a contributing factor towards disrupting gene flow between the two southern African H. rufipes genetic assemblages. PMID:24130813

Cangi, Nídia; Horak, Ivan G.; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A.; Matthee, Sonja; das Neves, Luís C. B. G.; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Matthee, Conrad A.

2013-01-01

137

Molecular detection of piroplasms in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western Oromia, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

In Ethiopia, ticks and tick-borne diseases are widely distributed and contribute to important economic losses. Several studies investigated the prevalence and species composition of ticks infesting ruminants; however, data on tick-borne pathogens are still scarce. During the study period from October 2010 to April 2011, a total of 1,246 adult ticks and 264 nymphs were collected from 267 cattle and 45 sheep in Bako District, western Oromia, Ethiopia. The study showed infestation of 228/267 (85.4 %) cattle and 35/45 (77.8 %) sheep with adult ticks. Overall, eight tick species, belonging to three genera (Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma), were identified and Amblyomma cohaerens (n?=?577), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (n?=?290), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (n?=?287), and Amblyomma variegatum (n?=?85) were the more prevalent species. A statistically significant host preference in A. cohaerens for cattle and R. evertsi evertsi for sheep was noticed. Molecular detection of piroplasms, performed only for adult ticks of two species of the genus Rhipicephalus (R. evertsi evertsi and R. decoloratus), revealed an overall prevalence of 4 % (8/202) Theileria buffeli/sergenti/orientalis, 0.5 % (1/202) Theileria velifera, and 2 % (4/202) Theileria ovis. The study showed that tick infestation prevalence is considerably high in both cattle and sheep of the area, but with a low intensity of tick burden and a moderate circulation of mildly pathogenic piroplasm species. PMID:23846769

Kumsa, Bersissa; Signorini, Manuela; Teshale, Sori; Tessarin, Cinzia; Duguma, Reta; Ayana, Dinka; Martini, Marco; Cassini, Rudi

2014-01-01

138

Fatal cases of Theileria annulata infection in calves in Portugal associated with neoplastic-like lymphoid cell proliferation.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to investigate fifteen cases of acute lethal infection of calves (Hyalomma) was intense. Theileria was seen in blood and lymph node smears, and T. annulata infection was confirmed by isolation of schizont-transformed cells and sequencing of hypervariable region 4 of the 18S rRNA gene. At necropsy, hemorrhagic nodules or nodules with a hemorrhagic halo were seen, particularly in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal and cardiac muscles, pharynx, trachea and intestinal serosa. Histologically, nodules were formed by large, round, lymphoblastoid neoplastic-like cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) identified these cells as mostly CD3 positive T lymphocytes and MAC387 positive macrophages. A marker for B lymphocytes (CD79alphacy) labeled very few cells. T. annulata infected cells in these nodules were also identified by IHC through the use of two monoclonal antibodies (1C7 and 1C12) which are diagnostic for the parasite. It was concluded that the pathological changes observed in the different organs and tissues were caused by proliferation of schizont-infected macrophages, which subsequently stimulate a severe uncontrolled proliferation of uninfected T lymphocytes. PMID:20195062

Branco, Sandra; Orvalho, João; Leitão, Alexandre; Pereira, Isadora; Malta, Manuel; Mariano, Isabel; Carvalho, Tânia; Baptista, Rui; Shiels, Brian R; Peleteiro, Maria C

2010-03-01

139

Resistant ticks inhibit Metarhizium infection prior to haemocoel invasion by reducing fungal viability on the cuticle surface.  

PubMed

We studied disease progression of, and host responses to, four species in the Metarhizium anisopliae complex expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). We compared development and determined their relative levels of virulence against two susceptible arthropods, the cattle tick Rhipicephalus annulatus and the lepidopteran Galleria mellonella, and two resistant ticks, Hyalomma excavatum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Metarhizium brunneum Ma7 caused the greatest mortality of R.?annulatus, Metarhizium robertsii ARSEF 2575 and Metarhizium pingshaense PPRC51 exhibited intermediate levels of virulence, and Metarhizium majus PPRC27 caused low mortality of cattle ticks. Conidia of all four species germinated on all hosts examined, but on resistant hosts, sustained hyphal growth was inhibited and GFP emission steadily and significantly decreased over time, suggesting a loss of fungal viability. Cuticle penetration was observed only for the three most virulent species infecting susceptible hosts. Cuticles of resistant and susceptible engorged female ticks showed significant increases in red autofluorescence at sites immediately under fungal hyphae. This is the first report (i) of tick mortality occurring after cuticle penetration but prior to haemocoel colonization and (ii) that resistant ticks do not support development of Metarhizium germlings on the outer surface of the cuticle. Whether reduced Metarhizium viability on resistant tick cuticles is due to antibiosis or limited nutrient availability is unknown. PMID:22507442

Ment, Dana; Churchill, Alice C L; Gindin, Galina; Belausov, Eduard; Glazer, Itamar; Rehner, Stephen A; Rot, Asael; Donzelli, Bruno G G; Samish, Michael

2012-06-01

140

Retrospective study of hemoparasites in cattle in southern Italy by reverse line blot hybridization.  

PubMed

Tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. In order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern Italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. The study had been carried out in three regions of southern Italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. RLB showed that 43.7% of the cattle were positive for nine different species of hemoparasites with either a single infection or a mixed infection. Theileria buffeli was the most common species found, being present in 27.3% of the animals, followed by Anaplasma marginale in 18.1%, Anaplasma centrale in 13.8%, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma bovis in 4.2%, Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.7%, Babesia bovis in 1.6%, Babesia major in 0.2% and Babesia divergens in 0.1%. Complete blood counts showed different degrees of anemia in 363 animals (24.2%) and of these, 169 were RLB-positive for at least one pathogen. Among the ticks that were collected from the cattle, the following species were identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma marginatum, Boophilus annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis (sulcata, parva, inermis and punctata). The results obtained confirmed the spread of endemic tick-borne pathogens in the regions studied. PMID:24614604

Ceci, Luigi; Iarussi, Fabrizio; Greco, Beatrice; Lacinio, Rosanna; Fornelli, Stefania; Carelli, Grazia

2014-06-01

141

Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks in Sicily.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia and Babesia/Theileria species was analysed in questing and feeding adult ticks in Sicily. A total of 678 ticks were collected and analysed in this study. Of these, 29 were questing ticks and 649 were collected from infested cattle, sheep, goats or dogs. Tick species analysed included Rhipicephalus bursa, R. turanicus, R. sanguineus, Hyalomma lusitanicum, H. marginatum, Dermacentor marginatus, Ixodes ricinus, R. (Boophilus) annulatus and Haemaphysalis punctata. With the exception of R. annulatus and H. punctata for which only eight and 15 ticks were analysed, respectively, all tick species were found to be infected. Most ticks were found to be infected with a single pathogen genus. Data obtained from questing ticks was analysed to test for differences between tick species in the prevalence of infection for different pathogens. These preliminary results suggested that the most important vectors of pathogens that may affect human and/or animal health in Sicily are R. turanicus for Anaplasma spp. and D. marginatus for Rickettsia spp. For Ehrlichia spp. and Babesia/Theileria spp., R. turanicus/D. marginatus and H. lusitanicum may be the most important vectors but additional studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:20537102

Torina, A; Alongi, A; Scimeca, S; Vicente, J; Caracappa, S; de la Fuente, J

2010-04-01

142

New insights into the epidemiology of bovine piroplasmoses in Italy.  

PubMed

Few studies have been published on bovine piroplasmoses in Italy, and therefore a clear picture of the epidemiology of these infections is difficult to obtain. Vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in Central and Northern Regions of Italy were investigated in 2005 and 2006, when microscopy, molecular tools and serological tests were applied to 468 blood samples drawn from cattle in order to evaluate the presence of these protozoa and identify possible risk factors. Ticks were also collected, identified and analyzed by molecular techniques. Microscopy identified 6.5% of the animals as positive, whereas PCR detected piroplasm DNA in 21.6%. BLAST analysis showed 67 amplicons (17.0%) referable to the Theileria sergenti/buffeli/orientalis group, 17 (4.3%) to Theileria annae, and 1 to Babesia divergens. Serology evidenced a prevalence of 45.4% for Babesia bovis, 17.4% for Babesia bigemina, and 34.9% for B. divergens. The 127 collected ticks were identified as belonging to 5 species, mostly represented by Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma marginatum and Ixodes ricinus. Molecular analyses evidenced the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina, in 3 and 5 ticks, respectively. Our findings suggest that different species of piroplasms are circulating in bovine populations in Central and Northern Italy, and provide new insights into the complex epidemiology of bovine piroplasmoses in Italy. PMID:21864982

Cassini, R; Marcer, F; di Regalbono, A Frangipane; Cancrini, G; Gabrielli, S; Moretti, A; Galuppi, R; Tampieri, M P; Pietrobelli, M

2012-02-28

143

Ticks on pastures and on two breeds of cattle in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.  

PubMed

Many studies on the population dynamics of questing ticks on pastures and of parasitic ticks on cattle have been conducted. Few, however, have attempted to link the two in a single study. This study aimed to assess the population dynamics of questing ixodid ticks on pastures and of adult ticks on two breeds of cattle with different levels of susceptibility to tick infestation on the same pastures. Between January 2005 and December 2009 questing ixodid ticks were collected monthly from natural pastures at the Döhne Agricultural Development Institute and at the adjacent Campagna Production System in the Amahlathi District, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Between February 2007 and January 2010 adult ticks were collected monthly from Bonsmara and Nguni cattle grazing these pastures. Ten tick species were collected from the pastures and 12 from the cattle. Significantly more questing larvae of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi and Rhipicephalus microplus were recovered from the pastures grazed by Bonsmara cattle than from those grazed by Nguni cattle (p ? 0.05). Significantly more adult Hyalomma rufipes, Rhipicephalus follis, R. appendiculatus, R. decoloratus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. microplus were collected from the Bonsmara cattle than from the Nguni cattle (p ? 0.05). The study showed that Nguni cattle are less susceptible to tick infestation than are Bonsmara cattle and fewer questing ticks are collected from pastures grazed by Nguni cattle than by Bonsmara cattle. PMID:23327215

Nyangiwe, Nkululeko; Goni, Sindisile; Hervé-Claude, Louis P; Ruddat, Inga; Horak, Ivan G

2011-01-01

144

Tick-borne rickettsiae in Guinea and Liberia.  

PubMed

While the high seroprevalence for the rickettsiae that cause spotted fevers and the multiple pathogenic rickettsiae is known, the data on the distribution of rickettsial diseases in Africa are often incomplete. We collected ticks from domestic or wild animals (generally a source of bushmeat) that were in contact with humans in 2 neighboring countries of tropical West Africa, Guinea and Liberia. In total, 382 ticks representing 6 species were collected in Liberia and 655 ticks representing 7 species were collected in Guinea. We found rickettsiae in 9 different species of ticks from both countries. Rickettsia africae was found in 93-100% of Amblyomma variegatum, in 14-93% of Rhipicephalus (B.) geigyi, Rh. (B.) annulatus, and Rh. (B.) decoloratus, and in several Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Haemaphysalis paraleachi. A genetic variant of R. africae was found in Amblyomma compressum. R. massiliae was found in 10/61 (16%) of Rh. senegalensis ticks and in 2% of Haemaphysalis paraleachi ticks collected from dogs. We identified a new rickettsia in one of 44 (2%) Ixodes muniensis collected from a dog in Liberia. As this rickettsia is not yet isolated, we propose the provisional name "Candidatus Rickettsia liberiensis" (for the West African country where the host tick was collected). PMID:22309858

Mediannikov, Oleg; Diatta, Georges; Zolia, Yah; Balde, Mamadou Cellou; Kohar, Henry; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier

2012-02-01

145

Retrospective Study of Hemoparasites in Cattle in Southern Italy by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. In order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern Italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. The study had been carried out in three regions of southern Italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. RLB showed that 43.7% of the cattle were positive for nine different species of hemoparasites with either a single infection or a mixed infection. Theileria buffeli was the most common species found, being present in 27.3% of the animals, followed by Anaplasma marginale in 18.1%, Anaplasma centrale in 13.8%, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma bovis in 4.2%, Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.7%, Babesia bovis in 1.6%, Babesia major in 0.2% and Babesia divergens in 0.1%. Complete blood counts showed different degrees of anemia in 363 animals (24.2%) and of these, 169 were RLB-positive for at least one pathogen. Among the ticks that were collected from the cattle, the following species were identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma marginatum, Boophilus annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis (sulcata, parva, inermis and punctata). The results obtained confirmed the spread of endemic tick-borne pathogens in the regions studied. PMID:24614604

CECI, Luigi; IARUSSI, Fabrizio; GRECO, Beatrice; LACINIO, Rosanna; FORNELLI, Stefania; CARELLI, Grazia

2014-01-01

146

Ticks infesting humans in Italy and associated pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background Ticks may transmit a large variety of pathogens, which cause illnesses in animals and humans, commonly referred to as to tick-borne diseases (TBDs). The incidence of human TBDs in Italy is underestimated because of poor surveillance and the scant amount of studies available. Methods Samples (n =?561) were collected from humans in four main geographical areas of Italy (i.e., northwestern, northeastern, southern Italy, and Sicily), which represent a variety of environments. After being morphologically identified, ticks were molecularly tested with selected protocols for the presence of pathogens of the genera Rickettsia, Babesia, Theileria, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Borrelia and Anaplasma. Results Ticks belonged to 16 species of the genera Argas, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, with Ixodes ricinus (59.5%) being the species most frequently retrieved, followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (21.4%). Nymphs were the life stage most frequently retrieved (41%), followed by adult females (34.6%). The overall positivity to any pathogen detected was 18%. Detected microorganisms were Rickettsia spp. (17.0%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (0.8%), Borrelia afzelii (0.5%), Borrelia valaisiana (0.3%), C. N. mikurensis (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.6%). Conclusions Results indicate that people living in the Italian peninsula are at risk of being bitten by different tick species, which may transmit a plethora of TBD causing pathogens and that co-infections may also occur. PMID:25023709

2014-01-01

147

Detection of Microbial Agents in Ticks Collected from Migratory Birds in Central Italy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Tick species characterization and molecular studies were performed within ornithological surveys conducted during 2010 and 2011 in the Lazio Region of central Italy. A total of 137 ticks were collected from 41 migratory birds belonging to 17 species (four partial migrants and 13 long-distance migrants). Most ticks were nymphs, with a predominance of Hyalomma marginatum marginatum and H. m. rufipes, and a small portion of Ixodes and Amblyomma species. All tick species analyzed were infected, and the molecular pathogen recognition revealed the presence of Rickettsia aeschlimannii, Rickettsia africae, Erlichia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, and Babesia microti, whereas no genomic DNA of Bartonella spp. or Francisella tularensis was detected. The results of the survey show that H. marginatum ticks appear to be a vector of microbial agents that may affect human and animal health and that migratory birds may be an important carrier of these ticks. Additional studies are needed to better investigate the role of migratory birds in the epidemiology of these pathogens. PMID:24576218

Toma, Luciano; Mancini, Fabiola; Di Luca, Marco; Cecere, Jacopo G.; Bianchi, Riccardo; Khoury, Cristina; Quarchioni, Elisa; Manzia, Francesca; Rezza, Giovanni

2014-01-01

148

Birds as potential reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens: first evidence of bacteraemia with Rickettsia helvetica  

PubMed Central

Background Birds have long been known as carriers of ticks, but data from the literature are lacking on their role as a reservoir in the epidemiology of certain tick-borne disease-causing agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of three emerging, zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in blood samples and ticks of birds and to assess the impact of feeding location preference and migration distance of bird species on their tick infestation. Methods Blood samples and ticks of birds were analysed with TaqMan real-time PCRs and conventional PCR followed by sequencing. Results During the spring and autumn bird migrations, 128 blood samples and 140 ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis concinna and a Hyalomma specimen) were collected from birds belonging to 16 species. The prevalence of tick infestation and the presence of tick species were related to the feeding and migration habits of avian hosts. Birds were shown to be bacteraemic with Rickettsia helvetica and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, but not with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis. The prevalence of rickettsiae was high (51.4%) in ticks, suggesting that some of them may have acquired their infection from their avian host. Conclusion Based on the present results birds are potential reservoirs of both I. ricinus transmitted zoonotic pathogens, R. helvetica and A. phagocytophilum, but their epidemiological role appears to be less important concerning the latter, at least in Central Europe. PMID:24679245

2014-01-01

149

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum , the causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. We used direct and indirect methods to compare and evaluate exposure to A. phagocytophilum in horses in northern Tunisia. Methods Serum from 60 horses was tested by IFA for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum , and whole blood was tested for A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene using a nested-PCR. To examine the risk of A. phagocytophilum transmission, 154 ticks that had been collected from horses were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by nested-PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene. Results This is the first time that A. phagocytophilum has been detected in horses in Tunisia, with an overall seroprevalence of 40/60 (67%). Six of the seroreactive samples (10%) had an IFA titer of 1:80, 14 (23%) of 1:160, 8 (13%) of 1:320 and 12 (20%) a titer 1???640. The seroprevalence revealed no significant regional and sex differences. In contrast, a significant difference was observed between breeds. Eight (13%) of the horses were positive for A. phagocytophilum in the PCR, with no significant breed and age differences. Hyalomma marginatum was a predominant tick species (130/154), and 3 were infected by A. phagocytophilum (a prevalence of 2.3%). The concordance rate of A. phagocytophilum detection between IFA and PCR had a k value of ?0.07. Conclusions The results presented in this study suggest that horses infested by ticks in Tunisia are exposed to A. phagocytophilum. PMID:22935132

2012-01-01

150

Circulation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Revealed by Screening of Cattle Sera Using a Novel Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay  

PubMed Central

Background There are only few assays available for the detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV)-specific antibodies in animals, and data about diagnostic sensitivity and specificity are incompletely documented for most of these tests. This is unfortunate since CCHFV antibodies in animals can be used as indicator for virus circulation in a geographic area and therewith potential risk of human exposure. This paper therefore reports on a novel ELISA for the detection of CCHFV-specific antibodies in cattle and on its application for testing ruminant sera from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Principal Findings A highly sensitive and specific ELISA was developed to detect CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle. The assay was validated by using 503 negative serum samples from a country where CCHFV has never been detected until now, and by using 54 positive serum samples. The positive sera were verified by using two commercially available assays (for testing human serum) which we have adapted for use in animals. The sensitivity of the novel ELISA was 98% and its specificity 99%. The presence of Hyalomma ticks was demonstrated in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and depending on the region antibody prevalence rates up to 80% were detected in the cattle population. Conclusion This article describes a fully validated, highly sensitive and specific ELISA for the detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle. Using this assay, CCHFV-specific antibodies were detected for the first time in cattle in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, giving evidence for an active circulation of this virus in the country. Supporting this conclusion, the occurrence of the main vector of CCHFV was demonstrated in the present work for the first time in Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. PMID:25742017

Mertens, Marc; Vatansever, Zati; Mrenoshki, Slavcho; Krstevski, Kiril; Stefanovska, Jovana; Djadjovski, Igor; Cvetkovikj, Iskra; Farkas, Robert; Schuster, Isolde; Donnet, Fabien; Comtet, Loic; Tordo, Noël; Ben Mechlia, Mohamed; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Mitrov, Dine; Groschup, Martin H.

2015-01-01

151

New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

2013-01-01

152

Protozoan and bacterial pathogens in tick salivary glands in wild and domestic animal environments in South Africa.  

PubMed

A total of 7364 ticks belonging to 13 species was collected from 64 game animals (belonging to 11 species) and from 64 livestock animals (cattle and sheep) living in close vicinity at 6 localities in 3 South African Provinces (Free State, Mpumalanga, and Limpopo). The geographic distribution of all tick species was congruent with the literature except for Haemaphysalis silacea. From each infested host, a maximum of 10 males and 10 females of each tick species were dissected to isolate the salivary glands. Salivary glands were screened for tick-borne pathogens using polymerase chain reaction followed by reverse line blotting and sequencing. This approach allowed us to evaluate the exposure of wild and domestic hosts to tick-borne pathogens in their respective environments. Among the 2117 examined ticks, 329 (15.5%), belonging to 8 species, were infected and harboured 397 infections. Among those, 57.7% were identified to species level and were assigned to 23 pathogen species of the genera Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia. In 3 out of 6 localities, salivary glands from ticks infesting wild ruminants displayed significantly higher infection prevalence and pathogen mean density than salivary glands from ticks infesting livestock animals. Four piroplasm species [Theileria bicornis, Babesia sp. (sable), Theileria sp. (giraffe), and Theileria sp. (kudu)] were detected for the first time in ticks. The tick species Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Hyalomma rufipes, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, and Amblyomma hebraeum were associated with a broader pathogen range than previously known, and thus new vector-pathogen combinations are described. In addition, previously unknown coinfection patterns in tick salivary glands are reported. PMID:24378080

Berggoetz, M; Schmid, M; Ston, D; Wyss, V; Chevillon, C; Pretorius, A-M; Gern, L

2014-03-01

153

Gene silencing in tick cell lines using small interfering or long double-stranded RNA.  

PubMed

Gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is an important research tool in many areas of biology. To effectively harness the power of this technique in order to explore tick functional genomics and tick-microorganism interactions, optimised parameters for RNAi-mediated gene silencing in tick cells need to be established. Ten cell lines from four economically important ixodid tick genera (Amblyomma, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus including the sub-species Boophilus) were used to examine key parameters including small interfering RNA (siRNA), double stranded RNA (dsRNA), transfection reagent and incubation time for silencing virus reporter and endogenous tick genes. Transfection reagents were essential for the uptake of siRNA whereas long dsRNA alone was taken up by most tick cell lines. Significant virus reporter protein knockdown was achieved using either siRNA or dsRNA in all the cell lines tested. Optimum conditions varied according to the cell line. Consistency between replicates and duration of incubation with dsRNA were addressed for two Ixodes scapularis cell lines; IDE8 supported more consistent and effective silencing of the endogenous gene subolesin than ISE6, and highly significant knockdown of the endogenous gene 2I1F6 in IDE8 cells was achieved within 48 h incubation with dsRNA. In summary, this study shows that gene silencing by RNAi in tick cell lines is generally more efficient with dsRNA than with siRNA but results vary between cell lines and optimal parameters need to be determined for each experimental system. PMID:22773071

Barry, Gerald; Alberdi, Pilar; Schnettler, Esther; Weisheit, Sabine; Kohl, Alain; Fazakerley, John K; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

2013-03-01

154

Cattle ticks in Cameroon: Is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus absent in Cameroon and the Central African region?  

PubMed

In most parts of the world, ticks are rapidly developing resistance to commonly used acaricides thus rendering control difficult. This constraint is further compounded by the introduction of new species in areas where they did not exist before. Such is the case with the introduction into and rapid spread of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in some countries of West Africa. With the looming threat of its further spread in the region, the objective of the present study was to update knowledge on cattle ticks in Cameroon. Among 19,189 ticks collected monthly from 60 animals in 5 herds from March 2012 to February 2013, Rh. (B.) decoloratus was the most abundant species with a relative prevalence of 62.2%, followed by Amblyomma variegatum (28.4%), Rh. (B.) annulatus (0.2%), Rh. (B.) geigyi (0.03%), other Rhipicephalus spp. (8.4%) and Hyalomma spp. (0.3%). Rh. (B.) decoloratus and A. variegatum were also the most widely distributed in space. Infestation rate was generally high, with average tick count/animal of about 80 during peak periods. Tick distribution and abundance in the different sites was as varied as the underlying factors, among which the most important were management systems and climatic factors. The effects of rainfall and temperature were confounded by other factors and difficult to evaluate. However, it appears tick development depends among other factors, on a humidity threshold, above which there is not much more effect. Rh. microplus was not found during this study, but more extensive tick collections have to be done to confirm this. In conclusion, cattle tick infestation in Cameroon remains an important cause for concern. Farmers need assistance in the use and management of acaricides in order to increase their efficiency and reduce the development of resistance. Although Rh. microplus was not found, its introduction from other West African countries is imminent if adequate measures, especially in the control and limitation of animal movements, are not taken. PMID:25575435

Awa, D N; Adakal, H; Luogbou, N D D; Wachong, K H; Leinyuy, I; Achukwi, M D

2015-03-01

155

Ectoparasites of Rodents Captured in Bandar Abbas, Southern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Rodents play important role as host of ectoparasites and reservoir of different zoonotic diseases. The aim of this study was to asses the infestation of commensal rodents with ectoparasites in Bandar Abbas, a port city located in the northern part of the Persian Gulf in Iran. Methods: Rodents were captured using live traps during the study period in year 2007. After transferring the rodents to the laboratory, they were identified and then their ectoparasites were collected and mounted for species identification using appropriate systematic keys. Results: A total of 77 rodents were identified including Rattus norvegicus (74%), R. rattus (16.9%), Mus musculus (7.8%) and one hamster. Among all rodents, 40.3% were found infested with ectoparasites. A total of 69 ectoparasites were collected comprising flea, lice, mite and tick. Two species of fleas; Xenopsylla cheopis and X. astia were identified with higher index of X. astia. Two genera of ticks including Hyalomma sp. and Rhipicephalus sp. were identified. Laelaps nuttalli was the only mite found. The Polyplax spinulosa was considered as lice ectoparasite. Conclusion: Among all arthropods collected, flea and lice had the most and the least frequency, respectively. Nearly all rodent species were infested with Xenopsylla. These fleas are important due to their role in plague and murine typhus transmission. Ticks are important due to their role in CCHF (Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever), theileriosis, babesiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis transmission .Monitoring of ectoparaiste infestation is important for preparedness and early warning preparation for possible control of arthropod-borne diseases. PMID:22808381

Kia, EB; Moghddas-Sani, H; Hassanpoor, H; Vatandoost, H; Zahabiun, F; Akhavan, AA; Hanafi-Bojd, AA; Telmadarraiy, Z

2009-01-01

156

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus clades V and VI (Europe 1 and 2) in ticks in Kosovo, 2012.  

PubMed

Despite being a small country, Kosovo represents one of the few foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Europe. The distribution of Kosovar tick vectors and the evolution of CCHF virus in ticks are both as yet unknown. A better description of the extent and the genetic diversity of CCHFV in ticks from endemic settings is essential, in order to be controlled. We investigated the 2012 distribution of Kosovar ticks alongside the prevalence and the phylogeography of tick-derived CCHFV. Hyalomma marginatum dominated in the endemic municipalities with 90.2% versus 24.3% in the non-endemic regions. Of 1,102 tested ticks, 40 (3.6%) were CCHFV-positive, belonging to H. marginatum (29), Rhipicephalus bursa (10), and Ixodes ricinus (1). The virus strains clustered with clade V and VI related sequences. They fell into two lineages: Kosovo I and II. Kosovo I comprised strains recovered exclusively from R. bursa ticks and was closely related to AP92 prototype strain. Kosovo II clustered into Kosovo IIa, including human-derived strains, and IIb including only strains detected in H. marginatum and I. ricinus. Our phylogeographic reconstruction suggests two temporally distinct CCHFV introductions: the most probable location of the most recent common ancestor of Kosovo I lineage was in Greece (63 years ago) and that of lineages IIa-b in Turkey (35 years ago). After each CCHFV introduction into Kosovo, subsequent lineage expansions suggest periods of in situ evolution. The study provides the first insight into the genetic variability and the origin of CCHFV in ticks from Kosovo. Our findings indicate the spreading of CCHFV to non-endemic areas, which underlines the importance of further studies in order to monitor and predict future CCHF outbreaks in Kosovo. The AP92-like strains appear to be more widespread than previously thought and may provide a promising target for experimental studies due to their assumed low pathogenicity. PMID:25255381

Sherifi, Kurtesh; Cadar, Daniel; Muji, Skender; Robaj, Avni; Ahmeti, Salih; Jakupi, Xhevat; Emmerich, Petra; Krüger, Andreas

2014-09-01

157

Extensive diversity of Rickettsiales bacteria in two species of ticks from China and the evolution of the Rickettsiales  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteria of the order Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria) are obligate intracellular parasites that infect species from virtually every major eukaryotic lineage. Several rickettsial genera harbor species that are significant emerging and re-emerging pathogens of humans. As species of Rickettsiales are associated with an extremely diverse host range, a better understanding of the historical associations between these bacteria and their hosts will provide important information on their evolutionary trajectories and, particularly, their potential emergence as pathogens. Results Nine species of Rickettsiales (two in the genus Rickettsia, three in the genus Anaplasma, and four in the genus Ehrlichia) were identified in two species of hard ticks (Dermacentor nuttalli and Hyalomma asiaticum) from two geographic regions in Xinjiang through genetic analyses of 16S rRNA, gltA, and groEL gene sequences. Notably, two lineages of Ehrlichia and one lineage of Anaplasma were distinct from any known Rickettsiales, suggesting the presence of potentially novel species in ticks in Xinjiang. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed some topological differences between the phylogenies of the bacteria and their vectors, which led us to marginally reject a model of exclusive bacteria-vector co-divergence. Conclusions Ticks are an important natural reservoir of many diverse species of Rickettsiales. In this work, we identified a single tick species that harbors multiple species of Rickettsiales, and uncovered extensive genetic diversity of these bacteria in two tick species from Xinjiang. Both bacteria-vector co-divergence and cross-species transmission appear to have played important roles in Rickettsiales evolution. PMID:25073875

2014-01-01

158

[Taxonomic status of the Chim virus (CHIMV) (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus, Qalyub group) isolated from the Ixodidae and Argasidae ticks collected in the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus Lichtenstein, 1823) (Muridae, Gerbillinae) burrows in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan].  

PubMed

Full-length genome of the Chim virus (CHIMV) (strain LEIV-858Uz) was sequenced using the next-generation sequencing approach (ID GenBank: KF801656). The CHIMV/LEIV-858Uz was isolated from the Ornithodoros tartakovskyi Olenev, 1931 ticks collected in the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus Lichtenstein, 1823) burrow in Uzbekistan near Chim town (Kashkadarinsky region) in July of 1971. Later, four more CHIMV strains were isolated from the O. tartakovskyi, O. papillipes Birula, 1895, Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantsev, 1936 collected in the great gerbil burrows in Kashkadarinsky, Bukhara, and Syrdarya regions of Uzbekistan, and three strains--from the Hyalomma asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1930 from the great gerbil burrows in Dzheskazgan region of Kazakhstan. The virus is a potential pathogen of humans and camels. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CHIMV is a novel member of the Nairovirus genus (Bunyaviridae) and closely related to the Qalyub virus (QYBV), which is prototype for the group of the same name. The amino acid homology between the CHIMV and QYBV is 87% for the RdRp catalytic center (L-segment) that is coincident with both QYBV and CHIMV associated with the Ornithodoros ticks and burrow of rodents as well. The CHIMV homologies with other nairoviruses are 30-40% for the amino acid sequences of precursor polyprotein GnGc (M-segment), whereas 50%--for the nucleocapsid N (S-segment). The data obtained permit to classify the CHIMV as a member of the QYBV group in the genus of Nairovirus (Bunyaviridae). PMID:25335414

L'vov, D K; Al'khovski?, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Aristova, V A; Morozova, T N; Gitel'man, A K; Deriabin, P G; Botikov, A G

2014-01-01

159

Detection and identification of putative bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous viruses in tick cell lines.  

PubMed

As well as being vectors of many viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, ticks harbour a variety of microorganisms which are not known to be pathogenic for vertebrate hosts. Continuous cell lines established from ixodid and argasid ticks could be infected with such endosymbiotic bacteria and endogenous viruses, but to date very few cell lines have been examined for their presence. DNA and RNA extracted from over 50 tick cell lines deposited in the Roslin Wellcome Trust Tick Cell Biobank (http://tickcells.roslin.ac.uk) were screened for presence of bacteria and RNA viruses, respectively. Sequencing of PCR products amplified using pan-16S rRNA primers revealed the presence of DNA sequences from bacterial endosymbionts in several cell lines derived from Amblyomma and Dermacentor spp. ticks. Identification to species level was attempted using Rickettsia- and Francisella-specific primers. Pan-Nairovirus primers amplified PCR products of uncertain specificity in cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Ixodes, Carios, and Ornithodoros spp. ticks. Further characterisation attempted with primers specific for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus segments confirmed the absence of this arbovirus in the cells. A set of pan-Flavivirus primers did not detect endogenous viruses in any of the cell lines. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of endogenous reovirus-like viruses in many of the cell lines; only 4 of these lines gave positive results with primers specific for the tick Orbivirus St Croix River virus, indicating that there may be additional, as yet undescribed 'tick-only' viruses inhabiting tick cell lines. PMID:22743047

Alberdi, M Pilar; Dalby, Matthew J; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Fazakerley, John K; Kohl, Alain; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

2012-06-01

160

Isolation and characterization of Babesia pecorum sp. nov. from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).  

PubMed

The diversity of Babesia species infecting cervids in parts of central and southern Spain was analyzed by collecting blood from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Babesia sp. was isolated in vitro from two red deer herds in Cádiz and Ciudad Real. The number of Babesia sp. carriers differed between the two herds: 36/77 in Cádiz and 1/35 in Ciudad Real. Hyalomma lusitanicum was the most prevalent tick species identified on the Cádiz farm vegetation and on sampled animals, and is therefore a candidate vector. The molecular characteristics of 21 isolates were determined by complete (8 isolates) or partial (13 isolates) 18S rRNA gene sequencing. The sequences were highly similar (over 99.4% identity) and 6 sequence types were identified at the level of one herd only, demonstrating a rather high genetic diversity. They formed a monophyletic clade, and members of the three main sequence types shared a similar morphology and the same erythrocyte susceptibility pattern. This clade also included Babesia sp. Xinjiang isolated from sheep in China and Babesia sp. identified in giraffe in South Africa, with identities higher than 98.3% and statistically relevant phylogenetic support. None of the biological properties analyzed for both Babesia from red deer and Babesia sp. Xinjiang allowed their differentiation (ability to develop in vitro in erythrocytes from cattle and sheep, as well as in erythrocytes from different cervids, unsuccessful infection of calves). We propose the Babesia isolated from red deer as a new species named B. pecorum. Whether Babesia sp. Xinjiang and the Babesia characterized in South Africa belong to the same species is debated. PMID:25155988

Jouglin, Maggy; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; de la Cotte, Nathalie; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Gortázar, Christian; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Bastian, Suzanne; de la Fuente, José; Malandrin, Laurence

2014-01-01

161

Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in livestock from nomadic herds in the Somali Region, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Between May 2006 and January 2007, blood samples and ticks were randomly collected from 220 nomadic animals from Filtu and Dollo Odo districts, Libaan zone, in the Somali Region of Ethiopia. Overall, 81.5% cattle, 98.2% camels, 53.4% goats and 61.1% sheep were infested by ixodid ticks. Collected ticks (n = 1,036) were identified as Rhipicephalus pulchellus (40.1%), R. pravus (25.8%), Amblyomma gemma (9.4%), Hyalomma rufipes (13.3%), H. truncatum (2.8%), H. impeltatum (1.2%) and H. dromedarii (0.5%); immature stages (6.1%) belonged to the genera Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma. Tick infestation burden was evaluated by the Tick Abundance Score method on 57 animals from Dollo Odo in August 2006, and it was significantly higher in cattle and camels than in small ruminants (p < 0.001). Reverse Line Blot Hybridisation was applied to detect Theileria, Babesia, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. Five out of 50 blood samples from Filtu, four from cattle and, surprisingly, one from a camel, were positive for Theileria mutans and two from cattle for T. velifera. Adult ticks (n = 104) from both districts were tested and A. gemma from cattle were positive to T. velifera (1) and Ehrlichia ruminantium (5 samples). Positive E. ruminantium samples were also tested by PCR targeting pCS20 and 16S rRNA genes and submitted to DNA sequencing. The phylogenetic reconstruction of pCS20 fragment showed the presence of the Somali region sequences in the East-South African group. Our results are the first available on ticks and selected tick-borne diseases from the Somali region of Ethiopia and could be used as preliminary information for planning sustainable control strategies for tick and tick-borne pathogens in the study area and in neighbouring areas with similar socio-ecological features. PMID:22349943

Tomassone, Laura; Grego, E; Callà, G; Rodighiero, P; Pressi, G; Gebre, S; Zeleke, B; De Meneghi, D

2012-04-01

162

A survey of ixodid ticks feeding on cattle and prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in the Black Sea region of Turkey.  

PubMed

The study reports the frequency of infestation and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in feeding adult ticks detached from cattle in two climatic zones of the Black Sea region of Turkey. A total of 2160 adult ticks were collected during 2007-2008. Of these, 1062 were randomly selected, divided into 224 pools, and tested for the presence of bovine Theileria, Babesia, and Anaplasma species. Eleven tick species were recognized on cattle in the study. Hyalomma marginatum was widely disrubuted in the semi-arid bioclimatic zone, but few specimens were collected in the humid bioclimatic zone. The most prevalent tick species in the humid climatic zone was Ixodes ricinus. Infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, 4% (CI 2.87-5.44) of 224 tick pools were found to be positive for the pathoges by Reverse line blot. Maximum likelihood estimation of the infection rate varied among tick species, ranging from 2.68% (CI 0.16-12.68) in Haemaphysalis sulcata to 10.49% (CI 4.07-23.66) in Rhipicephalus bursa. The most prevalent tick-borne pathogen was Anaplasma phagocytophilum at 6.78% (CI 3.41-12.18) followed by A. centrale (6.56%, CI 0.42-31.47), Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. (3.61%, CI 1.99-6.06), Babesia spp. (3.33%, CI 1.65-6.03), and T. buffeli/orientalis (2.71%, CI 0.73-7.18). Sequencing results indicated that Babesia spp. shared 99% to 100% similarity with the unnamed Babesia sp. Kashi 1 and 2, Babesia sp. Kayseri 1 and Babesia sp.CS58. Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. were 98% and 100% identical to Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia sp. Omatjenne strain, respectively. PMID:22365338

Aktas, Munir; Altay, Kursat; Ozubek, Sezayi; Dumanli, Nazir

2012-07-01

163

The prevalence of serum antibodies to Ehrlichia ruminantium infection in ranch cattle in Tanzania: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Serum samples collected in a cross-sectional survey of grazing cattle on Manyara Ranch, Monduli district, Tanzania, were tested by indirect major antigenic protein 1 fragment B (MAP 1-B) ELISA to determine the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia ruminantium and to assess ranch-level risk factors for heartwater. Heartwater-exposed cattle were widespread on the ranch and overall seroprevalence was 50.3% (95% CI, 44.9-55.6), enough to indicate an endemically unstable situation. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was used to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity. Two factors appeared to increase the herd's risk for contracting heartwater. Seroprevalence increased significantly with age (beta = 0.19 per year of age, P < 0.001) and animals carrying ticks of any species were associated with an increased risk of infection with E. ruminantium (Odds ratio, OR = 3.3, P < 0.001). The force of infection based on the age seroprevalence profile was estimated at 18 per 100 cattle year-risk. The current tick control measures on the ranch were associated with a decreased risk of infection with E. ruminantium (OR = 0.25 for no dipping and OR = 0.31 for low dipping, P < 0.001). Six tick species were identified; in order of frequency these were: Ambylomma variegatum 59.9%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi 13.9%, Rhipicephalus pulchellus 12.5%, Hyalomma truncatum 7.03% and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus 6.07%. The least encountered tick was Rhipicephalus simus, which accounted for 0.38%. The cattle seemed well adapted to their environment and capable of resisting the tick burden under this extensive wildlife/livestock grazing and interaction system. PMID:18846851

Swai, E S; Mtui, P F; Chang'a, A K; Machange, G E

2008-06-01

164

Molecular cloning of a small heat shock protein (sHSPII) from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus salivary gland.  

PubMed

Immunoscreening of a cDNA expression library of the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus tick with purified rabbit anti-R annulatus salivary glands antigens polyclonal antibodies led to the identification of a 661bp sequence. The sequence includes an open reading frame of 543bp encoding a protein of 180 amino acids with calculated molecular weight of 20.51kDa, isoelectric point of 9.071 and with no signal sequence. Comparison of the deduced amino acids with protein data bank showed that the identified polypeptide belongs to the alpha crystallin small heat shock proteins superfamily and shows sequence similarity of 62% and 55% to Ixodes scapularis fed tick salivary gland protein and Ornithodoros parkeri alpha-crystallin protein, respectively. Accordingly, this protein was called Ra-sHSPII. The Ra-sHSPII protein was expressed in E. coli under T7 promotor of the pET-30b vector, purified under denaturation conditions and the immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of the recombinant Ra-sHSPII were evaluated. Direct ELISA showed that the Ra-sHSPII is a strong immunogen. In immunoblotting assay the anti-rRa-sHSPII antisera reacted specifically with purified rRa-sHSPII, with several proteins in R. annulatus whole tick, larval and gut protein extracts in addition to Hyalomma dromedarii and Ornithodoros moubata whole tick protein extracts, as examples of hard and soft tick species, respectively. The rRa-sHSPII protein confers thermal protection to other proteins in vitro as found in other sHSPs. E. coli cell extracts containing the protein were protected from heat-denatured precipitation when heated up to 100°C, whereas extracts from cells not expressing the protein were heat-sensitive at 60°C. PMID:20723560

Shahein, Yasser E; El-Rahim, Mohamed T Abd; Hussein, Nahla A; Hamed, Ragaa R; El-Hakim, Amr E; Barakat, Maged M

2010-12-01

165

Ticks and tick-borne viruses from livestock hosts in arid and semiarid regions of the eastern and northeastern parts of Kenya.  

PubMed

Biodiversity and relative abundance of ticks and associated arboviruses in Garissa (northeastern) and Isiolo (eastern) provinces of Kenya were evaluated. Ticks were collected from livestock, identified to species, pooled, and processed for virus isolation. In Garissa, Rhipicephalus pulchellus Gerstacker (57.8%) and Hyalomma truncatum Koch (27.8%) were the most abundant species sampled, whereas R. pulchellus (80.4%) and Amblyomma gemma Donitz (9.6%) were the most abundant in Isiolo. Forty-four virus isolates, comprising Dugbe virus (DUGV; n = 22) and Kupe virus (n = 10; Bunyaviridae: Nirovirus), Dhori virus (DHOV; n = 10; Orthomyxoviridae: Thogotovirus),and Ngari virus (NRIV; n = 2; Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus), were recovered mostly from R. pulchellus sampled in Isiolo. DUGV was mostly recovered from R. pulchellus from sheep and cattle, and DHOV from R. pulchellus from sheep. All Kupe virus isolates were from Isiolo ticks, including R. pulchellus from all the livestock, A. gemma and Amblyomma variegatum F. from cattle, and H. truncatum from goat. NRIV was obtained from R. pulchellus and A. gemma sampled from cattle in Isiolo and Garissa, respectively, while all DHOV and most DUGV (n = 12) were from R. pulchellus sampled from cattle in Garissa. DUGV was also recovered from H. truncatum and Amblyomma hebraeum Koch from cattle and from Rhipicephalus annulatus Say from camel. This surveillance study has demonstrated the circulation of select tick-borne viruses in parts of eastern and northeastern provinces of Kenya, some of which are of public health importance. The isolation of NRIV from ticks is particularly significant because it is usually known to be a mosquito-borne virus affecting humans. PMID:24605478

Lutomiah, Joel; Musila, Lillian; Makio, Albina; Ochieng, Caroline; Koka, Hellen; Chepkorir, Edith; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Khamadi, Samoel; Miller, Barry R; Bast, Joshua; Schnabel, David; Wurapa, Eyako K; Sang, Rosemary

2014-01-01

166

Tick survey and detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in tick species from a non-endemic area, South Marmara region, Turkey.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an increasing health concern in Turkey since 2002. There were also some recent human cases from the South Marmara region of Turkey; thus, a tick survey was performed, and possible vector tick species for the CCHF virus were determined in the region. A total of 740 adult ticks were collected from infested livestock from five locations: Çanakkale-Biga, Bursa-Orhaneli, Bursa-Keles, Bal?kesir and Bilecik. Total of 11 tick species from the genera Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor, Ixodes and Haemaphysalis were identified. Rhipicephalus ticks were dominant in the region; the most frequently observed tick species was R. turanicus, (53.1 %), and only 15.4 % of the identified ticks were H. marginatum. The occurrence of H. rufipes infestation in the region fort he first time. A total of 73 pools of adult ticks were tested with both an antigen-detecting ELISA and RT real-time PCR (RT rt PCR). The presence of the CCHF virus was demonstrated in 9 (12.3 %) of the tested tick pools. Although seven of the tick pools were positive for the CCHF virus with both of the methods, one pool was positive only with RT rt PCR and the other pool was only positive with the ELISA. Positive results were obtained from ticks collected from cattle, sheep and goats from two locations, Bursa-Orhaneli and Bilecik. The CCHF virus was detected in R. turanicus (n = 3), R. bursa (n = 2), H. marginatum (n = 2) and D. marginatus (n = 2) ticks. The results of this study confirm the presence of the CCHF virus and present preliminary data on the vector tick species in the southern Marmara region of Turkey. PMID:23229492

Yesilbag, Kadir; Aydin, Levent; Dincer, Ender; Alpay, Gizem; Girisgin, A Onur; Tuncer, Pelin; Ozkul, Aykut

2013-06-01

167

Molecular evidence for bacterial and protozoan pathogens in hard ticks from Romania.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania. For this, feeding and questing ticks were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and by PCR and subsequent sequencing for Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. A total of 382 ticks, encompassing 5 species from 4 genera, were collected in April-July 2010 from different areas of Romania; of them, 40 were questing ticks and the remainder was collected from naturally infested cattle, sheep, goats, horses or dogs. Tick species analyzed included Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Four rickettsiae of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern were identified for the first time in Romania: Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in D. marginatus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia afzelii, and Babesia microti were found in I. ricinus. Pathogens of veterinary importance were also identified, including Theileria equi in H. marginatum, Babesia occultans in D. marginatus and H. marginatum, Theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli-group in I. ricinus and in H. marginatum and E. canis in R. sanguineus. These findings show a wide distribution of very diverse bacterial and protozoan pathogens at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania, with the potential of causing both animal and human diseases. PMID:23428204

Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia

2013-09-01

168

New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands.  

PubMed

Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

Stachurski, Frédéric; Tortosa, Pablo; Rahajarison, Patrick; Jacquet, Stéphanie; Yssouf, Amina; Huber, Karine

2013-01-01

169

Bm86 homologues and novel ATAQ proteins with multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains from hard and soft ticks.  

PubMed

Tick control on livestock relies principally on the use of acaricides but the development of acaricide resistance and concerns for environmental pollution underscore the need for alternative control methods, for instance through the use of anti-tick vaccines. Two commercial vaccines based on the recombinant Bm86 protein from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were developed. Partial protection of the Bm86 vaccine against other Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) and Hyalomma tick species suggests that the efficacy of a Bm86-based vaccine may be enhanced when based on the orthologous recombinant Bm86 antigen. We therefore identified and analysed the Bm86 homologues from species representing the main argasid and ixodid tick genera, including two from the prostriate Ixodes ricinus tick species. A novel protein from metastriate ticks with multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains which is structurally related to Bm86 was identified by using a 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3'-RACE) method with a degenerate primer based on a highly conserved region of Bm86 and its orthologues. This second protein was named ATAQ after a part of its signature peptide. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that ATAQ proteins are expressed in both midguts and Malpighian tubules, in contrast to Bm86 orthologues which are expressed exclusively in tick midguts. Furthermore, expression of this protein over the life stages of R. microplus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was more continuous compared with Bm86. Although a highly effective vaccine antigen, gene silencing of Bm86 by RNA interference (RNAi) produced only a weak phenotype. Similarly the RNAi phenotype of Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi females in which the expression of Ree86, ReeATAQ or a combination of both genes was silenced by RNAi did not differ from a mock-injected control group. The vaccine potential of ATAQ proteins against tick infestations is yet to be evaluated. PMID:20647015

Nijhof, Ard M; Balk, Jesper A; Postigo, Milagros; Rhebergen, Anne Marie; Taoufik, Amar; Jongejan, Frans

2010-12-01

170

Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.  

PubMed

Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations and dispersal in regions where deer are relevant hosts for these ectoparasites. PMID:22079077

Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José

2012-01-01

171

Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a functional GSTmu class from the cattle tick Boophilus annulatus.  

PubMed

A full-length cDNA of a glutathione S-transferase (GST) was cloned from a cDNA library of the local Egyptian cattle tick Boophilus annulatus. The 672 bp cloned fragment was sequenced and showed an open reading frame encoding a protein of 223 amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with GSTs from other species revealed that the sequence is closely related to the mammalian mu-class GST. The cloned gene was expressed in E. coli under T7 promotor of pET-30b vector, and purified under native conditions. The purified enzyme appeared as a single band on 12% SDS-PAGE and has a molecular weight of 30.8 kDa including the histidine tag of the vector. The purified enzyme was assayed upon the chromogenic substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and the recombinant enzyme showed high level of activity even in the presence of the beta-galactosidase region on its 5' end and showed maximum activity at pH 7.5. The Km values for CDNB and GSH were 0.57 and 0.79 mM, respectively. The over expressed rBaGST showed high activity toward CDNB (121 units/mg protein) and less toward DCNB (29.3 units/mg protein). rBaGST exhibited peroxidatic activity on cumene hydroperoxide sharing this property with GSTs belonging to the GST alpha class. I50 values for cibacron blue and bromosulfophthalein were 0.22 and 8.45 microM, respectively, sharing this property with the mammalian GSTmu class. Immunoblotting revealed the presence of the GST molecule in B. annulatus protein extracts; whole tick, larvae, gut, salivary gland and ovary. Homologues to the GSTmu were also detected in other tick species as Hyalomma dromedarii and Rhipicephalus sp. while in Ornithodoros moubata, GSTmu homologue could not be detected. PMID:18241993

Shahein, Yasser Ezzat; El Sayed El-Hakim, Amr; Abouelella, Amira Mohamed Kamal; Hamed, Ragaa Reda; Allam, Shaimaa Abdul-Moez; Farid, Nevin Mahmoud

2008-03-25

172

Metarhizium anisopliae conidial responses to lipids from tick cuticle and tick mammalian host surface.  

PubMed

Conidial germination and the formation of appressoria are important events in the interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and their arthropod hosts. In this study, we demonstrate the effects of lipids extracted from tick epicuticle and the surface of a mammalian host (calf) on conidial germination and the development of appressoria in two subspecies of Metarhizium anisopliae, M. anisopliae var. anisopliae (M.an.an.-7) and M. anisopliae var. acridum (M.an.ac.-5), which have different levels of virulence toward ticks. Pentane extracts of epicuticles of ticks susceptible and resistant to fungal infection always stimulated the germination of M.an.an.-7 conidia and the development of their appressoria; whereas the effects of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of tick epicuticle varied depending on the tick. The DCM extracts from most of the tick species and developmental stages stimulated conidial germination and/or the formation of appressoria in M.an.an.-7. However, a DCM extract of lipids from the most resistant tick, engorged Hyalomma excavatum female, inhibited the germination of M.an.an.-7 conidia. Conidia of the non-virulent M.an.ac.-5 did not germinate on agarose amended with any of the examined tick extracts. However, when the tick extracts were placed on bactoagar, conidial germination increased 7- to 8-fold. Extracts from the skin, hair and ear secretions of a calf stimulated conidial germination and the formation of appressoria in M.an.an.-7, but not M.an.ac.-5. This study demonstrates that lipids from tick epicuticles and mammalian skin selectively affect the germination of conidia of entomopathogenic fungi. The effects of these lipids may explain the variability in tick control these fungi provide for different hosts. PMID:20036669

Ment, Dana; Gindin, Galina; Soroker, Victoria; Glazer, Itamar; Rot, Asael; Samish, Michael

2010-02-01

173

Relationships between tick counts and coat characteristics in Nguni and Bonsmara cattle reared on semiarid rangelands in South Africa.  

PubMed

Indigenous Nguni cattle are adapted to the semiarid rangeland and appear to be resistant to ticks; however, the mechanism for tick resistance is yet to be established. To understand tick resistance in cattle, relationships among skin thickness, hair length, coat score, and tick counts were estimated in Nguni (n=12) and Bonsmara (n=12) heifers on semiarid rangelands of South Africa. The tick species observed to infest the heifers were Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (frequency: 76%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (9%), Amblyomma hebraeum (5%), Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (5%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (3%), and Hyalomma marginatum (2%). Nguni heifers had lower (P<0.05) log(10) (x+1)-transformed coat scores (0.6±0.01), hair length (1.4±0.01), and tick counts (1.4±0.03) than Bonsmara heifers whose log(10) (x+1)-transformed coat score, hair length, and tick count values were 0.7±0.01, 1.5±0.01, and 1.8±0.02, respectively. The skin thickness between the two breeds were similar (P>0.05). There was a positive linear (P<0.05) relationship between log(10) (x+1) tick counts and log(10) (x+1) coat score in the Nguni (y=1.90x-0.40) and a quadratic relationship in the Bonsmara (y=-7.98x(2)+12.74x-3.12) breed. It was concluded that the smooth coats may be one of the important mechanisms of tick resistance in the indigenous Nguni breed. Determination of genetic resistance to ticks in the Nguni breed is recommended as this will give more specific indication to the mechanism of host resistance in this breed. PMID:21890073

Marufu, Munyaradzi C; Qokweni, Luxolo; Chimonyo, Michael; Dzama, Kennedy

2011-09-01

174

The feasibility of developing a risk assessment for the impact of climate change on the emergence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in livestock in Europe: a review.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most widespread of all medically important arboviruses with ticks of the Hyalomma spp. serving as the main vectors. Infection of livestock by CCHFV serves as a route of exposure to humans, as a reservoir of disease and as a route of importation. This study discusses the pathways and data requirements for a qualitative risk assessment for the emergence of CCHFV in livestock in Europe. A risk map approach is proposed based on layers that include the potential routes of release (e.g. by migrating birds carrying infected ticks) together with the main components for exposure, namely the distributions of the tick vectors, the small vertebrate host reservoirs and the livestock. A layer on landscape fragmentation serves as a surrogate for proximity of livestock to the tick cycle. Although the impact of climate change on the emergence of CCHF is not clear, comparing the distribution of risk factors in each layer currently with those predicted in the 2080s with climate change can be used to speculate how potential high-risk areas may shift. According to the risk pathway, transstadial and/or transovarial transmission in the tick vector are crucial for CCHFV spread. Vector competence and tick vector switching, however, remain critical factors for CCHFV colonization of new regions in Europe. The species of migratory bird is also an important consideration in the release assessment with greater abundance and biodiversity of ground-dwelling birds in southern Europe than in northern Europe. PMID:20015209

Gale, P; Estrada-Peña, A; Martinez, M; Ulrich, R G; Wilson, A; Capelli, G; Phipps, P; de la Torre, A; Muñoz, M J; Dottori, M; Mioulet, V; Fooks, A R

2010-06-01

175

Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

In Ethiopia, information on the transmission of human zoonotic pathogens through ixodid ticks remains scarce. To address the occurrence and molecular identity of spotted fever group rickettsiae using molecular tools, a total of 767 ixodid ticks belonging to thirteen different species were collected from domestic animals from September 2011 to March 2014. Rickettsia africae DNA was detected in 30.2% (16/53) Amblyommma variegatum, 28.6% (12/42) Am. gemma, 0.8% (1/119) Am. cohaerens, 18.2% (4/22) Amblyomma larvae, 6.7% (2/60) Amblyomma nymphs, 0.7% (1/139) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus and 25% (1/4) nymphs of Rh. (Bo.) decoloratus. A markedly low prevalence of R. africae was recorded in both Am. cohaerens and Rh. (Bo.) decoloratus (p<0.0001) compared with that in Am. variegatum and Am. gemma. The prevalence of R. africae was markedly low in the western districts (Gachi and Abdela) (p<0.0001); however, the prevalence of R. africae was relatively high in the central (Ada'a, Wolmara and Arsi) and eastern (Arero, Moyale and Yabelo) districts, where Am. variegatum and Am. gemma were predominantly associated with R. africae, respectively. R. aeschlimannii DNA was detected in 45.4% (5/11) Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and 2.2% (1/46) Hy. truncatum. Moreover, the first report of R. massiliae DNA in 1.9% (1/52) Rhipicephalus praetextatus ticks in Ethiopia is presented herein. Altogether, these results suggest that the transmission of spotted fever group rickettsiae through ixodid ticks is a potential risk for human health in different parts of Ethiopia. Clinicians in this country should consider these pathogens as a potential cause of febrile illness in patients. PMID:25262832

Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

2015-02-01

176

Tick surveillance in Great Britain.  

PubMed

The ability for public/veterinary health agencies to assess the risks posed by tick-borne pathogens is reliant on an understanding of the main tick vector species. Crucially, the status, distribution, and changing trends in tick distribution and abundance are implicit requirements of any risk assessment; however, this is contingent on the quality of tick distribution data. Since 2005 the Health Protection Agency has promoted an enhanced tick surveillance program. Through engagement with a variety of public and veterinary health agencies and practitioners (e.g., clinicians and veterinarians), wildlife groups (deer society, zoos, animal refuge centers, and academics), and amateur entomologists, >4000 ticks from 900 separate records across Great Britain have been submitted, representing 14 tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, Ixodes acuminatus, Ixodes arboricola, Ixodes canisuga, Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes lividus, Ixodes trianguliceps, Ixodes ventalloi, Carios vespertilionis, Dermacentor reticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma marginatum, and Amblyomma species). The majority of ticks submitted were I. ricinus (81%), followed by I. hexagonus (10%) and I. frontalis (2.5%). Predominant host groups include companion animals (411 records), humans (198 records), wild birds (111 records), and large wild mammals (88 records), with records also from small/medium wild mammals, livestock, the environment and domestic/aviary birds. The scheme has elucidated the detection of two nonnative tick species, the expansion of previously geographically restricted D. reticulatus and produced ground data on the spread of I. ricinus in southwest England. It has also provided a forum for submission of ticks from the concerned public and particularly those infected with Lyme borreliosis, thus raising awareness among public health agencies of the increased peri-urban tick problem in Britain. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to run a cost-effective nationwide surveillance program to successfully monitor endemic tick species, identify subtle changes in their distribution, and detect the arrival and presence of exotic species. PMID:20849277

Jameson, Lisa J; Medlock, Jolyon M

2011-04-01

177

Molecular identification of Theileria and Babesia in ticks collected from sheep and goats in the Black Sea region of Turkey.  

PubMed

A molecular survey was undertaken in the Black Sea region of Turkey to determine the presence of Theileria and Babesia species of medical and veterinary importance. The ticks were removed from sheep and goats, pooled according to species and locations, and analyzed by PCR-based reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing. A total of 2241 ixodid ticks belonging to 5 genus and 12 species were collected and divided into 310 pools. Infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 310 pools tested, 46 (14.83%) were found to be infected with Theileria or Babesia species, and the overall MLE of the infection rate was calculated as 2.27% (CI 1.67-2.99). The MLE of the infection rates were calculated as 0.691% (CI 0.171-1.78) in Haemaphysalis parva, 1.47% (CI 0.081-6.37) in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 1.84% (CI 0.101-7.87) in Ixodes ricinus, 2.86% (CI 1.68-4.48) in Rhipicephalus turanicus, 5.57% (CI 0.941-16.3) in Hyalomma marginatum, and 6.2% (CI 4.02-9.02) in Rhipicephalus bursa. Pathogens identified in ticks included Theileria ovis, Babesia ovis, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia microti. Most tick pools were infected with a single pathogen. However, five pools displayed mixed infections with T. ovis and B. ovis. This study provides the first molecular evidence for the presence of B. microti in ticks in Turkey. PMID:25260692

Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Aktas, Munir; Dumanli, Nazir

2015-01-01

178

Seasonal dynamics of Rhipicephalus rossicus attacking domestic dogs from the steppic region of southeastern Romania  

PubMed Central

Background Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve is one of the most interesting regions in Europe from an epidemiological point of view due to its great biodiversity, local climatic conditions and various types of habitats. Moreover, there is no data regarding the ectoparasite communities of dogs from this area. In this frame, the aims of our study were to establish the tick communities parasitizing dogs and to provide new data regarding seasonal dynamics of a neglected tick species, Rhipicephalus rossicus. Methods A survey was carried out in order to gather information regarding tick species attaching to domestic dogs from a steppic region of southeastern Romania and to establish their seasonal dynamics. The research was conducted from 1 December 2012 to 30 November 2013, on 8 dogs from Iazurile, a locality from the west-central part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. In total, 384 examinations were made, each dog being checked for tick infestation 4 times per month, for one year. Results The 893 ticks found belonged to six species: R. rossicus (95.6%), Dermacentor reticulatus (3.2%), Ixodes ricinus (0.5%), Hyalomma marginatum (0.3%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) (0.2%) and Ixodes crenulatus (0.1%). From the 91 positive examinations, R. rossicus was found in 80 (87.9%). Single species infestation occurred in 84 examinations. In 7 out of 91 positive examinations mixed infestation were found. No ticks were found in December, January and September. Conclusions For R. rossicus, high frequency and intensity were observed in May, June and July. The activity peaks for D. reticulatus were in spring and autumn. Our results highlight that within the range of R. sanguineus s.l., the most common dog tick worldwide, selected dog populations may be predominantly infested by closely related species, like in our case, R. rossicus. PMID:24612483

2014-01-01

179

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Clades V and VI (Europe 1 and 2) in Ticks in Kosovo, 2012  

PubMed Central

Despite being a small country, Kosovo represents one of the few foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Europe. The distribution of Kosovar tick vectors and the evolution of CCHF virus in ticks are both as yet unknown. A better description of the extent and the genetic diversity of CCHFV in ticks from endemic settings is essential, in order to be controlled. We investigated the 2012 distribution of Kosovar ticks alongside the prevalence and the phylogeography of tick-derived CCHFV. Hyalomma marginatum dominated in the endemic municipalities with 90.2% versus 24.3% in the non-endemic regions. Of 1,102 tested ticks, 40 (3.6%) were CCHFV-positive, belonging to H. marginatum (29), Rhipicephalus bursa (10), and Ixodes ricinus (1). The virus strains clustered with clade V and VI related sequences. They fell into two lineages: Kosovo I and II. Kosovo I comprised strains recovered exclusively from R. bursa ticks and was closely related to AP92 prototype strain. Kosovo II clustered into Kosovo IIa, including human-derived strains, and IIb including only strains detected in H. marginatum and I. ricinus. Our phylogeographic reconstruction suggests two temporally distinct CCHFV introductions: the most probable location of the most recent common ancestor of Kosovo I lineage was in Greece (63 years ago) and that of lineages IIa-b in Turkey (35 years ago). After each CCHFV introduction into Kosovo, subsequent lineage expansions suggest periods of in situ evolution. The study provides the first insight into the genetic variability and the origin of CCHFV in ticks from Kosovo. Our findings indicate the spreading of CCHFV to non-endemic areas, which underlines the importance of further studies in order to monitor and predict future CCHF outbreaks in Kosovo. The AP92-like strains appear to be more widespread than previously thought and may provide a promising target for experimental studies due to their assumed low pathogenicity. PMID:25255381

Muji, Skender; Robaj, Avni; Ahmeti, Salih; Jakupi, Xhevat; Emmerich, Petra; Krüger, Andreas

2014-01-01

180

Assessing the effects of variables and background selection on the capture of the tick climate niche  

PubMed Central

Background Modelling the environmental niche and spatial distribution of pathogen-transmitting arthropods involves various quality and methodological concerns related to using climate data to capture the environmental niche. This study tested the potential of MODIS remotely sensed and interpolated gridded covariates to estimate the climate niche of the medically important ticks Ixodes ricinus and Hyalomma marginatum. We also assessed model inflation resulting from spatial autocorrelation (SA) and collinearity (CO) of covariates used as time series of data (monthly values of variables), principal components analysis (PCA), and a discrete Fourier transformation. Performance of the models was measured using area under the curve (AUC), autocorrelation by Moran’s I, and collinearity by the variance inflation factor (VIF). Results The covariate spatial resolution slightly affected the final AUC. Consistently, models for H. marginatum performed better than models for I. ricinus, likely because of a species-derived rather than covariate effect because the former occupies a more limited niche. Monthly series of interpolated climate always better captured the climate niche of the ticks, but the SA was around 2 times higher and the maximum VIF between covariates around 30 times higher in interpolated than in MODIS-derived covariates. Interpolated or remotely sensed monthly series of covariates always had higher SA and CO than their transformations by PCA or Fourier. Regarding the effects of background point selection on AUC, we found that selection based on a set of rules for the distance to the core distribution and the heterogeneity of the landscape influenced model outcomes. The best selection relied on a random selection of points as close as possible to the target organism area of distribution, but effects are variable according to the species modelled. Conclusion Testing for effects of SA and CO is necessary before incorporating these covariates into algorithms building a climate envelope. Results support a higher SA and CO in an interpolated climate dataset than in remotely sensed covariates. Satellite-derived information has fewer drawbacks compared to interpolated climate for modelling tick relationships with environmental niche. Removal of SA and CO by a harmonic regression seems most promising because it retains both biological and statistical meaning. PMID:24069960

2013-01-01

181

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical syndrome and genetic diversity.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most important tick-borne viral disease of humans, causing sporadic cases or outbreaks of severe illness across a huge geographic area, from western China to the Middle East and southeastern Europe and throughout most of Africa. CCHFV is maintained in vertical and horizontal transmission cycles involving ixodid ticks and a variety of wild and domestic vertebrates, which do not show signs of illness. The virus circulates in a number of tick genera, but Hyalomma ticks are the principal source of human infection, probably because both immature and adult forms actively seek hosts for the blood meals required at each stage of maturation. CCHF occurs most frequently among agricultural workers following the bite of an infected tick, and to a lesser extent among slaughterhouse workers exposed to the blood and tissues of infected livestock and medical personnel through contact with the body fluids of infected patients. CCHFV is the most genetically diverse of the arboviruses, with nucleotide sequence differences among isolates ranging from 20% for the viral S segment to 31% for the M segment. Viruses with diverse sequences can be found within the same geographic area, while closely related viruses have been isolated in far distant regions, suggesting that widespread dispersion of CCHFV has occurred at times in the past, possibly by ticks carried on migratory birds or through the international livestock trade. Reassortment among genome segments during co-infection of ticks or vertebrates appears to have played an important role in generating diversity, and represents a potential future source of novel viruses. In this article, we first review current knowledge of CCHFV, summarizing its molecular biology, maintenance and transmission, epidemiology and geographic range. We also include an extensive discussion of CCHFV genetic diversity, including maps of the range of the virus with superimposed phylogenetic trees. We then review the features of CCHF, including the clinical syndrome, diagnosis, treatment, pathogenesis, vaccine development and laboratory animal models of CCHF. The paper ends with a discussion of the possible future geographic range of the virus. For the benefit of researchers, we include a Supplementary Table listing all published reports of CCHF cases and outbreaks in the English-language literature, plus some principal articles in other languages, with total case numbers, case fatality rates and all CCHFV strains on GenBank. PMID:23906741

Bente, Dennis A; Forrester, Naomi L; Watts, Douglas M; McAuley, Alexander J; Whitehouse, Chris A; Bray, Mike

2013-10-01

182

Monitoring piroplasms infection in three cattle farms in Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) with previous history of clinical piroplamosis.  

PubMed

Bovine piroplasmosis are tick-borne protozoan diseases caused by parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia. Three Friesian cattle farms (F1-F3) with previous history of clinical piroplamosis were selected in Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). Blood samples were collected from 8 to 11 animals every two months throughout a year and, a newly developed multiplex DNA bead-based suspension array based on the Luminex(®) xMAP technology was used to monitor for the presence of piroplasms. The assay incorporated probes for Babesia divergens, Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Babesia major, Babesia occultans, Theileria annulata and Theileria buffeli, and a Catch-all Theileria and Babesia (TB) control probe. An internal amplification control that was detected with a Luminex probe was also included to monitor for inhibition. Infection was detected in 87.5% of the samples, 38.7% as single infections and 48.8% as mixed infections. T. annulata was widespread in Farm F1, with all animals positive over the whole study; albeit less frequently, T. annulata was also detected in Farms F2 and F3. T. buffeli was the overall most prevalent piroplasm, with a wide distribution in Farms F2 and F3 but only occasionally detected in F1. B. bigemina was the most frequent Babesia species, but was absent from Farm F1. B. bovis, previously reported in Minorca, was only sporadically detected in F2 and F3. A further 3 Babesia species not previously found in Minorca were also identified: B. major present in the 3 farms; B. divergens detected once in 2 animals in F2; and B. occultans found in 4 animals in F2 and in 1 Hyalomma marginatum female tick collected from a positive animal. Sequencing confirmed the identity of B. occultans thus extending the distribution of this species to Mediterranean Europe. This study confirmed the endemic situation for piroplasm infection in the region and detected the presence of a large number of chronic asymptomatic carriers. More importantly, 3 Babesia species not previously detected in the region were detected for the first time. PMID:22884914

Ros-García, A; García-Pérez, A L; Verdera, J; Juste, R A; Hurtado, A

2012-12-21

183

Molecular cloning and expression of a larval immunogenic protein from the cattle tick Boophilus annulatus.  

PubMed

A full-length cDNA of an immunogenic protein was cloned from a cDNA library of the local Egyptian cattle tick Boophilus annulatus. Antibodies raised against B. annulatus larval proteins were used to screen a cDNA expression library. A 936bp cloned fragment was sequenced and showed an open reading frame of 516bp encoding a protein of 171 amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with protein data bank revealed that the sequence is related to a sequence isolated from the hard tick Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (Hq05). Southern blot analysis of B. annulatus genomic DNA showed that the cloned cDNA hybridized to double bands per restriction digest, suggesting that the cloned cDNA is a double copy gene. Amino acid analysis of the cloned gene revealed the presence of two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites in the N-terminal domain suggesting that this molecule may be involved in the signal transduction or gene expression pathways. RT-PCR and northern blotting revealed the presence of two isoforms of the Ba05 gene in salivary glands and in the 3-day-old eggs. The cloned gene without the signal peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli under T7 promotor of pET-30b vector, and purified under denaturation conditions. The purified protein appeared as a single band on 12% SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight around 22.8kDa including the histidine tag of the vector. Antibodies raised against the purified molecule were used to detect the B. annulatus homologue to the Hq05 gene in whole tick, larvae and gut protein extracts. Immunoblotting revealed the presence of this molecule Ba05 only in whole tick and larval protein extracts and not in the gut protein extract. Using the same antibodies, homologues to the Ba05 gene were detected in other tick species as Hyalomma dromedarii and Rhipicephalus sp. but not in Ornithodoros moubata. PMID:18054085

Shahein, Yasser Ezzat

2008-02-15

184

Zoonotic surveillance for rickettsiae in domestic animals in Kenya.  

PubMed

Abstract Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause zoonotic and human diseases. Arthropod vectors, such as fleas, mites, ticks, and lice, transmit rickettsiae to vertebrates during blood meals. In humans, the disease can be life threatening. This study was conducted amidst rising reports of rickettsioses among travelers to Kenya. Ticks and whole blood were collected from domestic animals presented for slaughter at major slaughterhouses in Nairobi and Mombasa that receive animals from nearly all counties in the country. Blood samples and ticks were collected from 1019 cattle, 379 goats, and 299 sheep and were screened for rickettsiae by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay (Rick17b) using primers and probe that target the genus-specific 17-kD gene (htrA). The ticks were identified using standard taxonomic keys. All Rick17b-positive tick DNA samples were amplified and sequenced with primers sets that target rickettsial outer membrane protein genes (ompA and ompB) and the citrate-synthase encoding gene (gltA). Using the Rick17b qPCR, rickettsial infections in domestic animals were found in 25/32 counties sampled (78.1% prevalence). Infection rates were comparable in cattle (16.3%) and sheep (15.1%) but were lower in goats (7.1%). Of the 596 ticks collected, 139 had rickettsiae (23.3%), and the detection rates were highest in Amblyomma (62.3%; n=104), then Rhipicephalus (45.5%; n=120), Hyalomma (35.9%; n=28), and Boophilus (34.9%; n=30). Following sequencing, 104 out of the 139 Rick17b-positive tick DNA had good reverse and forward sequences for the 3 target genes. On querying GenBank with the generated consensus sequences, homologies of 92-100% for the following spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia africae (93.%, n=97), Rickettsia aeschlimannii (1.9%, n=2), Rickettsia mongolotimonae (0.96%, n=1), Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis (0.96%, n=1), Candidatus Rickettsia kulagini (0.96% n=1), and Rickettsia spp. (1.9% n=2). In conclusion, molecular methods were used in this study to detect and identify rickettsial infections in domestic animals and ticks throughout Kenya. PMID:23477290

Mutai, Beth K; Wainaina, James M; Magiri, Charles G; Nganga, Joseph K; Ithondeka, Peter M; Njagi, Obadiah N; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L; Waitumbi, John N

2013-06-01

185

Identification of ticks and detection of blood protozoa in friesian cattle by polmerase chain reacton test and estimation of blood parameters in district Kasur, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to detect Theileria annulata, the causative agent of theileriosis, and Babesia bovis, the causative agent for babesiosis, in Friesian cattle by PCR and conventional blood smear examination. One hundred blood samples obtained from diseased Friesian cattle kept on private livestock farms at Pattoki, District Kasur, Pakistan were collected in addition to 20 blood samples obtained from non-diseased animals. The disease manifestations observed clinically included high fever, swelling of sub mandibular and sub scapular lymph nodes, weakness, increased respiration and pulse, anorexia, loss of condition and rough hair coat. Neurologic sign of in coordination was also seen in weak animals. Signs of lacrimation, pale conjunctiva, diarrhoea, dyspnea and frothy nasal discharge were observed in only one animal. Clinically nine animals showed signs of haemoglobinuria. Diagnosis of bovine theileria and babesia species was based on finding many intraerythrocytic piroplasms of both blood protozoa with clinical signs associated with anaemia, lymph node hyperplasia and haemoglobinuria. One hundred samples of ticks were also collected for identification of vector. Results showed that the prevalence of Hyalomma tick was highest (15%) followed by Boophilus (12%), Haemaphysalis (5%) and Rhipicephalus (3%). The blood smear examination showed 21% (21/100) samples positive for blood parasites out of which 66.6% (14/ 21) samples were positive for theileriosis while 42.8% (9/21) were positive for babesiosis. It was also recorded that 66.66% (6/9) samples were positive for B.bigemina while 33.33% (3/9) were positive for B.bovis. The results showed that 60% (60/100) samples were positive for blood parasites by PCR test. Out of these 60% (36/60) were positive for T.annulata while 33.33% (20/60) were positive for babesia. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR test was higher than blood smear examination. The blood parameters in haemoparasites infection were also analyzed and the results showed significant decrease in total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin while MCV, MCH values increased and MCHC was slightly less than normal indicating macrocytic hypochromic anaemia. PMID:18575972

Durrani, A Z; Kamal, N

2008-08-01

186

Efficacy of ivermectin delivered from an intraruminal sustained-release bolus against natural infestations of five African tick species on cattle.  

PubMed

The efficacy of ivermectin delivered by an orally administered prototype sustained-release bolus over approximately 90 days was evaluated against natural infestations of five African tick species. Twenty cattle, allocated by restricted randomization based on counts of standard Boophilus decoloratus, were allocated to two groups and were either given an ivermectin bolus or designated as non-medicated controls. All cattle grazed a single pasture of native grasses for 20-40 days before treatment and until trial termination. Starting on Days 27, 40, 68 and 82 after bolus administration, four replicates were confined to individual tick-collection stanchions for 4 to 5-day periods. Ticks recovered from these cattle were counted by species, sex, and stage and degree of repletion; engorged females were weighed and incubated to determine the number which oviposited. For the other replicates, half-body counts of adult ticks (classified by species, sex and degree of repletion by females) were made at 1- and 2-week intervals through Day 90. Among replicates confined to stanchions periodically, fewer (P less than 0.05) engorged adult female B. decoloratus, Hyalomma spp., Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were collected from bolus-treated cattle than from controls. Numbers of engorged adult female Amblyomma hebraeum were reduced, but differences were not statistically significant (P greater than 0.10). Among cattle maintained continuously on pasture, tick numbers were reduced on the ivermectin-treated groups. A significant (P less than 0.05) treatment by linear time effect was seen for all adult ticks counted except R. appendiculatus. A significant (P less than 0.05) treatment by quadratic time effect was seen for A. hebraeum, B. decoloratus and R. evertsi evertsi, and overall treatment differences were significantly different (P less than 0.05) for these species. The differences tended to increase with time. Except for Boophilus, reductions in tick numbers on treated animals relative to controls were not readily apparent. There were no adverse reactions attributable to ivermectin treatment or the presence of the bolus. Each treated animal retained its bolus throughout the trial, based on metal detection. PMID:2267728

Soll, M D; Benz, G W; Carmichael, I H; Gross, S J

1990-11-01