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Sample records for hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials

  1. Hyperbranched polymers and dendrimers as templates for organic/inorganic hybrid nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinhua; Zheng, Sudan; Kim, Il

    2014-02-01

    This paper reviews the recent research and development of hyperbranched polymers (HPs) and dendrimers, and their use as templates for organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials. Hyperbranched polymers (HPs) are highly branched macromolecules with three-dimensional globular structures featuring unique properties such as low viscosity, high solubility, and a large number of terminal functional groups compared to their linear analogs. They are easily prepared by (1) condensation polymerization, (2) self-condensing vinyl copolymerization (SCVCP), and (3) ring-opening multibranch polymerization methods. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials are synthesized by a template approach using HPs/dendrimers. Monometallic, bimetallic (alloy and core/shell), semiconductor, and metal oxide nanoparticles have been prepared by this route. The dendrimer component of these composites serves not only as a template for preparing the nanoparticles but also as a stabilizer for the nanoparticles. PMID:24749446

  2. Flexible Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Memory.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-05-24

    Active research has been done on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials for application to solar cells with high power conversion efficiency. However, this material often shows hysteresis, which is undesirable, shift in the current-voltage curve. The hysteresis may come from formation of defects and their movement in perovskite materials. Here, we utilize the defects in perovskite materials to be used in memory operations. We demonstrate flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite as the resistive switching layer on a plastic substrate. A uniform perovskite layer is formed on a transparent electrode-coated plastic substrate by solvent engineering. Flexible nonvolatile memory based on the perovskite layer shows reproducible and reliable memory characteristics in terms of program/erase operations, data retention, and endurance properties. The memory devices also show good mechanical flexibility. It is suggested that resistive switching is done by migration of vacancy defects and formation of conducting filaments under the electric field in the perovskite layer. It is believed that organic-inorganic perovskite materials have great potential to be used in high-performance, flexible memory devices. PMID:27093096

  3. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  4. Ion conducting organic/inorganic hybrid polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Maryann B. (Inventor); Kinder, James D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention relates to a series of organic/inorganic hybrid polymers that are easy to fabricate into dimensionally stable films with good ion-conductivity over a wide range of temperatures for use in a variety of applications. The polymers are prepared by the reaction of amines, preferably diamines and mixtures thereof with monoamines with epoxy-functionalized alkoxysilanes. The products of the reaction are polymerized by hydrolysis of the alkoxysilane groups to produce an organic-containing silica network. Suitable functionality introduced into the amine and alkoxysilane groups produce solid polymeric membranes which conduct ions for use in fuel cells, high-performance solid state batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electro-chromic windows or displays, analog memory devices and the like.

  5. Anticorrosive organic/inorganic hybrid coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tongzhai

    Organic/inorganic hybrid coating system was developed for anticorrosion applications using polyurea, polyurethane or epoxide as the organic phase and polysiloxane, formed by sol-gel process, as the inorganic phase. Polyurea/polysiloxane hybrid coatings were formulated and moisture cured using HDI isocyanurate, alkoxysilane-functionalized HDI isocyanurate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. Two urethanes were prepared using the same components as abovementioned in addition to the oligoesters derived from either cyclohexane diacids (CHDA) and 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) or adipic acid (AA), isophthalic acid (IPA), 1,6-hexanediol (HD), and trimethylol propane (TMP). Accelerated weathering and outdoor exposure were performed to study the weatherability of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coating system. FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the degradation of the hybrid coatings occurred at the urethane and ester functionalities of the organic phase. DMA and DSC analyses showed the glass transition temperature increased and broadened after weathering. SEM was employed to observe the change of morphology of the hybrid coatings and correlated with the gloss variation after weathering. Rutile TiO2 was formulated into polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings in order to investigate the effect of pigmentation on the coating properties and the sol-gel precursor. Chemical interaction between the TiO2 and the sol-gel precursor was investigated using solid-state 29Si NMR and XPS. The morphology, mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal properties of the pigmented coatings were evaluated as a function of pigmentation volume concentration (PVC). Using AFM and SEM, the pigment were observed to be well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The thermal stability, the tensile modulus and strength of the coatings were enhanced with increasing PVC, whereas the pull-off adhesion and flexibility were reduced with increasing PVC. Finally, the pigmented coatings were

  6. Natural hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Padova, Paola; Lucci, Massimiliano; Olivieri, Bruno; Quaresima, Claudio; Priori, Sandro; Francini, Roberto; Grilli, Antonio; Hricovini, Karol; Davoli, Ivan

    2009-06-01

    Natural hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic devices based on TiO 2 have been realized. Chlorophyll A (from anacystis nidulans algae), chlorophyll B (from spinach), carmic acid (from insect Coccus cacti L.), synthetic trans- β-carotene, natural fresh picked Morus nigra, and their mixtures have been used as an organic photo active layer to fabricate photovoltaic prototypes. In order to reduce the charge's interfacial recombination, different thicknesses (5-45 nm) of Si layers, subsequently oxidized in air, were inserted between the TiO 2 and chlorophyll B. Scanning electron microscopy of TiO 2 and Si/TiO 2 systems shows the coexistence at least of four classes of nanoparticles of 60, 100, 150 and 250 nm in size. Auger electron spectroscopy of the Si L 2,3V V transition demonstrates the presence of silica and SiO x suboxides. Photocurrent measurements versus radiation wavelength in the range 300-800 nm exhibit different peaks according to the absorption spectra of the organic molecules. All realized photovoltaic devices are suitable for solar light electric energy conversion. Those made of a blend of all organic molecules achieved higher current and voltage output. The Si/TiO 2-based devices containing chlorophyll B exhibited an enhanced photocurrent response with respect to those with TiO 2 only.

  7. Special section guest editorial: Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nogueira, Ana Flavia; Rumbles, Garry

    2015-04-06

    In this special section of the Journal of Photonics for Energy, there is a focus on some of the science and technology of a range of different hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. Prior to 1991 there were many significant scientific research reports of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells; finally, however, it wasn’t until the dye-sensitized solar cell entered the league table of certified research cell efficiencies that this area experienced an explosion of research activity.

  8. Special section guest editorial: Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, Ana Flavia; Rumbles, Garry

    2015-04-06

    In this special section of the Journal of Photonics for Energy, there is a focus on some of the science and technology of a range of different hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. Prior to 1991 there were many significant scientific research reports of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells; finally, however, it wasn’t until the dye-sensitized solar cell entered the league table of certified research cell efficiencies that this area experienced an explosion of research activity.

  9. Synergistic hybrid organic-inorganic aerogels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Jana, Sadhan C

    2013-07-10

    A class of inorganic-organic hybrid mesoporous aerogel structure was synthesized by growing gel in a gel. In Type 1, silica gels were grown inside the macropores of thermoreversible syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) gel, while Type 2 hybrid aerogels were obtained by thermoreversible gelation of sPS chains in the mesopores of preformed silica gel. The hybrid gels were converted into aerogels by exchanging the solvent with liquid carbon dioxide followed by supercritical drying. The hybrid aerogels presented cocontinuous networks of pearl-necklace silica particles and crystalline strands of sPS and exhibited the "petal effect" due to the presence of superhydrophobic sPS and hygroscopic silica. The compressive modulus and compressive strain show large enhancements over sPS and silica aerogels indicating synergy, although Type 1 hybrid aerogels were found to be more robust. The hybrid aerogels showed fast absorption and high absorption capacity for a representative hydrocarbon liquid. PMID:23773123

  10. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites (HOIPs): Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Berry, Joseph; Buonassisi, Tonio; Egger, David A; Hodes, Gary; Kronik, Leeor; Loo, Yueh-Lin; Lubomirsky, Igor; Marder, Seth R; Mastai, Yitzhak; Miller, Joel S; Mitzi, David B; Paz, Yaron; Rappe, Andrew M; Riess, Ilan; Rybtchinski, Boris; Stafsudd, Oscar; Stevanovic, Vladan; Toney, Michael F; Zitoun, David; Kahn, Antoine; Ginley, David; Cahen, David

    2015-09-16

    The conclusions reached by a diverse group of scientists who attended an intense 2-day workshop on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites are presented, including their thoughts on the most burning fundamental and practical questions regarding this unique class of materials, and their suggestions on various approaches to resolve these issues. PMID:26223962

  11. A hybrid organic-inorganic molecular daisy chain.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Antonio; Moreno Pineda, Eufemio; Ferrando-Soria, Jesùs; McInnes, Eric J L; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2015-07-14

    A hybrid organic-inorganic molecular daisy chain has been synthesised in one pot reaction. The molecule contains two {Cr6Zn2} rings linked through an organic molecule that acts as both template and ligand. Magnetic and spectroscopic data reveal the magnetic complexity of the daisy chain, which can be casted to two magnetic isomers through comparison of experimental and simulated data for Cr(III) chains. PMID:26073048

  12. Organic-inorganic hybrids from renewable plant oils and clay.

    PubMed

    Uyama, Hiroshi; Kuwabara, Mai; Tsujimoto, Takashi; Nakano, Mitsuru; Usuki, Arimitsu; Kobayashi, Shiro

    2004-03-15

    This study deals with the preparation and properties of a new class of organic-inorganic hybrids from renewable resources. The hybrids were synthesized by an acid-catalyzed curing of epoxidized triglycerides in the presence of an organophilic montmorillonite (a modified clay). The mechanical properties were improved by the incorporation of clay in the oil-based polymer matrix. The reinforcement effect due to the addition of clay was confirmed by dynamic viscoelasticity analysis. The hybrids showed relatively high thermal stability. The co-curing of epoxidized soybean and linseed oils in the presence of clay produced hybrids with controlled mechanical and coating properties. The barrier property of the hybrid towards water vapor was superior to that of the oil polymer. The development of the present hybrids consisting of inexpensive renewable resources, triglyceride and clay is expected to contribute to global sustainability. PMID:15468227

  13. Organic/inorganic hybrid materials: challenges for ab initio methodology.

    PubMed

    Draxl, Claudia; Nabok, Dmitrii; Hannewald, Karsten

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Organic/inorganic hybrid structures are most exciting since one can expect new properties that are absent in either of their building blocks. They open new perspectives toward the design and tailoring of materials with desired features and functions. Prerequisite for real progress is, however, the in-depth understanding of what happens on the atomic and electronic scale. In this respect, hybrid materials pose a challenge for electronic-structure theory. Methods that proved useful for describing one side may not be applicable for the other one, and they are likely to fail for the interfaces. In this Account, we address the question to what extent we can quantitatively describe hybrid materials and where we even miss a qualitative description. We note that we are dealing with extended systems and thus adopt a solid-state approach. Therefore, density-functional theory (DFT) and many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), the GW approach for charged and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for neutral excitations, are our methods of choice. We give a brief summary of the used methodology, focusing on those aspects where problems can be expected when materials of different character meet at an interface. These issues are then taken up when discussing hybrid materials. We argue when and why, for example, standard DFT may fall short when it comes to the electronic structure of organic/metal interfaces or where the framework of MBPT can or must take over. Selected examples of organic/inorganic interfaces, structural properties, electronic bands, optical excitation spectra, and charge-transport properties as obtained from DFT and MBPT highlight which properties can be reliably computed for such materials. The crucial role of van der Waals forces is shown for sexiphenyl films, where the subtle interplay between intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions is decisive for growth and morphologies. With a PTCDA monolayer on metal surfaces we discuss the performance of DFT in

  14. Two-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Photonic Films.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ke; Gao, Shanshan; Wu, Longlong; Wang, Geng; Liu, Xin; Chen, Gang; Liu, Zhou; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-13

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have created enormous expectations for low-cost and high-performance optoelectronic devices. In prospect, future advancements may derive from reaping novel electrical and optical properties beyond pristine perovskites through microscopic structure design and engineering. Herein, we report the successful preparation of two-dimensional inverse-opal perovskite (IOP) photonic films, featuring unique nanostructures and vivid colors. Further compositional and structural managements promise optical property and energy level tunability of the IOP films. They are further functionalized in solar cells, resulting in colorful devices with respectable power conversion efficiency. Such concept has not been previously applied for perovskite-based solar cells, which could open a route for more versatile optoelectronic devices. PMID:27267266

  15. Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol; Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of polymer/clay nanocomposites has been invented in an attempt to develop transparent, lightweight, durable materials for a variety of aerospace applications. As their name suggests, polymer/ clay nanocomposites comprise organic/ inorganic hybrid polymer matrices containing platelet-shaped clay particles that have sizes of the order of a few nanometers thick and several hundred nanometers long. Partly because of their high aspect ratios and high surface areas, the clay particles, if properly dispersed in the polymer matrix at a loading level of 1 to 5 weight percent, impart unique combinations of physical and chemical properties that make these nanocomposites attractive for making films and coatings for a variety of industrial applications. Relative to the unmodified polymer, the polymer/ clay nanocomposites may exhibit improvements in strength, modulus, and toughness; tear, radiation, and fire resistance; and lower thermal expansion and permeability to gases while retaining a high degree of optical transparency.

  16. Organic-Inorganic Hybrids Using Novel Phenylethynyl Imide Silanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Smith, J. G., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    In this presentation, polyimide-silica hybrids using novel phenylethynyl imide silanes are reported. The phenylethynyl group is present in the organic precursor as either a pendent or an end group to bond chemically with the polyimide adhesive containing phenylethynyl groups during processing, while the silane group of the organic precursor would chemically react with the inorganic precursor through oxane bond formation. The chemical compositions of these novel hybrids were examined using X-ray mapping modes of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed a silicon gradient interphase between the high surface energy substrate and the polyimide adhesive. Novel aromatic phenylethynyl imide silanes (APEISs) and pendent phenylethynyl imide oligomeric disilanes (PPEIDSs) have been synthesized, and sol-gel solutions containing the new silanes, a phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomer (PETI-5), and an inorganic precursor were formulated to develop a gradient hybrid interphase between a titanium alloy and the adhesive. Two different sol-gel systems were investigated to develop organic-inorganic hybrids. Hybrid I was composed of an organic precursor containing both phenylethynyl and silane groups (PPEIDS) and an inorganic precursor. Functional group concentrations were controlled by the variation of the molecular weight of the imide backbone of PPEIDS. Hybrid II was composed of organic and inorganic precursors and a coupling agent containing both phenylethynyl and silane groups. Morphology and chemical composition of the hybrid interphase between the inorganic substrate and the adhesive were investigated, and the bond strength and durability were evaluated using lap shear tests at various conditions. The assessment of how the bonding at an interface is affected by various sol-gel solution compositions and environments is reported.

  17. Chemistry of Mesoporous Organosilica in Nanotechnology: Molecularly Organic-Inorganic Hybridization into Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials aiming to combine the individual advantages of organic and inorganic components while overcoming their intrinsic drawbacks have shown great potential for future applications in broad fields. In particular, the integration of functional organic fragments into the framework of mesoporous silica to fabricate mesoporous organosilica materials has attracted great attention in the scientific community for decades. The development of such mesoporous organosilica materials has shifted from bulk materials to nanosized mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (designated as MONs, in comparison with traditional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs)) and corresponding applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this comprehensive review, the state-of-art progress of this important hybrid nanomaterial family is summarized, focusing on the structure/composition-performance relationship of MONs of well-defined morphology, nanostructure, and nanoparticulate dimension. The synthetic strategies and the corresponding mechanisms for the design and construction of MONs with varied morphologies, compositions, nanostructures, and functionalities are overviewed initially. Then, the following part specifically concentrates on their broad spectrum of applications in nanotechnology, mainly in nanomedicine, nanocatalysis, and nanofabrication. Finally, some critical issues, presenting challenges and the future development of MONs regarding the rational synthesis and applications in nanotechnology are summarized and discussed. It is highly expected that such a unique molecularly organic-inorganic nanohybrid family will find practical applications in nanotechnology, and promote the advances of this discipline regarding hybrid chemistry and materials. PMID:26936391

  18. Layered structures of organic/inorganic hybrid halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Tran Doan; Tuoc, Vu Ngoc; Minh, Nguyen Viet

    2016-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites, in which the A cations of an ABX3 perovskite are replaced by organic cations, may be used for photovoltaic and solar thermoelectric applications. In this contribution, we systematically study three lead-free hybrid perovskites, i.e., methylammonium tin iodide CH3NH3SnI3 , ammonium tin iodide NH4SnI3 , and formamidnium tin iodide HC (NH2)2SnI3 by first-principles calculations. We find that in addition to the commonly known motif in which the corner-shared SnI6 octahedra form a three-dimensional network, these materials may also favor a two-dimensional (layered) motif formed by alternating layers of the SnI6 octahedra and the organic cations. These two motifs are nearly equal in free energy and are separated by low barriers. These layered structures features many flat electronic bands near the band edges, making their electronic structures significantly different from those of the structural phases composed of three-dimension networks of SnI6 octahedra. Furthermore, because the electronic structures of HC (NH2)2SnI3 are found to be rather similar to those of CH3NH3SnI3 , formamidnium tin iodide may also be promising for the applications of methylammonium tin iodide.

  19. Laser Crystallization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Taewoo; Jin, Hyeong Min; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Ju Min; Park, Hyung Il; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae; Shin, Byungha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2016-08-23

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites attract enormous research interest for next generation solar energy harvest. Synergistic crystalline structures comprising organic and inorganic components enable solution processing of perovskite films. A reliable crystallization method for perovskites, compatible with fast continuous process over large-area flexible substrates, is crucial for high performance solar cell production. Here, we present laser crystallization of hybrid perovskite solar cells using near-infrared (NIR) laser (λ = 1064 nm). Crystalline morphology of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite films are widely controllable with laser irradiation condition while maintaining film uniformity. Photothermal heating effectively assisted by interfacial photoconversion layers is critical for phase transformation without beam damage of multilayered device structures. Notably, laser crystallization attains higher device performances than conventional thermal annealing. Fast laser crystallization with manufacture level scan rate (1 m min(-1)) demonstrates inverted-type perovskite solar cells with 11.3 and 8.0% efficiencies on typical glass and flexible polymer substrates, respectively, without rigorous device optimization. PMID:27377145

  20. Structural diversity in hybrid organic-inorganic lead iodide materials.

    PubMed

    Weber, Oliver J; Marshall, Kayleigh L; Dyson, Lewis M; Weller, Mark T

    2015-12-01

    The structural chemistry of hybrid organic-inorganic lead iodide materials has become of increasing significance for energy applications since the discovery and development of perovskite solar cells based on methylammonium lead iodide. Seven new hybrid lead iodide compounds have been synthesized and structurally characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The lead iodide units in materials templated with bipyridyl, 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane, 1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethylene and imidazole adopt one-dimensional chain structures, while crystallization from solutions containing piperazinium cations generates a salt containing isolated [PbI6](4-) octahedral anions. Templating with 4-chlorobenzylammonium lead iodide adopts the well known two-dimensional layered perovskite structure with vertex shared sheets of composition [PbI4](2-) separated by double layers of organic cations. The relationships between the various structures determined, their compositions, stability and hydrogen bonding between the protonated amine and the iodide ions of the PbI6 octahedra are described. PMID:26634723

  1. Novel organic-inorganic hybrid and nano-structured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Danliang

    Organic polymers, i.e. polymethacrylates and polystyrene, and inorganic silica were successfully integrated covalently into one body, i.e. hybrid materials, at molecular level in a continuum ranging from pure polymer to pure silica via the sol-gel process. The synthetic conditions have been systematically studied and optimized. A fast and convenient method for the synthesis of polymethacrylate-silica hybrids with significantly low volume-shrinkages has been developed to address the intrinsic problems of the sol-gel process, i.e. large volume shrinkage and long drying times. The relationship of properties of the hybrids with the structures and organic-inorganic compositions have been established. The density, hardness and thermal stability increase with the silica content. Atomic force microscopy study of the morphology shows that the transparent hybrid materials, in which the polymer chains have a strong and intimate interaction with the silica matrix, have significantly different surface features from a translucent control sample. The compressive behavior of the hybrid materials is completely different from that of traditional composites. Toughness of the hybrid materials can be maximized and the strength can be dramatically increased by varying the silica content. Possible mechanisms for the formation of hybrid materials are proposed. Potential applications of the hybrid materials as dental fillers and cation exchangers were investigated. Amorphous silica was functionalized by doping with optically active compounds such as scD-glucose, diphenyl tartaric acid and maltose. The resultant nano-structured materials show excellent optical transparency to visible light. Optical rotation of the materials in the solid state was demonstrated quantitatively to be the same as that in solution. The specific rotation can be calculated directly according to Biot's equation. A non-surfactant templating approach has been developed for the preparation of mesoporous silica by

  2. A novel photodiode made of hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Waleed E.

    2009-08-01

    Novel hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposites made of metal oxide and conjugated polymer nanocomposite and its application in bulk-heterojunction solar cells were studied. The composite was composed of different concentrations of strontium titanate (SrTiO3) and polyaniline doped phosphoric acid. The optimum concentration of strontium titanate was found to be 0.2 v/v. An inorganic-organic photovoltaic device with a structure of Ag/Pani-H3PO4-SrTiO3/Al has been fabricated. The ideality factor value of the diode was found to be 1.8. This n value of the diode implies a deviation from ideal junction behaviour. The barrier height phib value for the diode was found to be 0.56 eV. The Ag/Pani-H3PO4-SrTiO3/Al diode shows a photovoltaic behaviour with a maximum open-circuit voltage Voc of 2.49 V, and short-circuit current Isc of 5.6 mA under light illumination λ = 460 nm. The conversion efficiency was found to be 5.2%. It is evaluated that the Ag/Pani-H3PO4-SrTiO3/Al diode is a good photodiode with calculated electronic parameters.

  3. Hybrid organic-inorganic systems derived from organotin nanobuilding blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Ribot, F.O.; Eychenne-Baron, C.; Banse, F.; Sanchez, C.

    1996-12-31

    A new synthesis of the macro-cation [(BuSn){sub 12}O{sub 14}(OH){sub 6}]{sup 2+} is described from commercially available and easy to handle BuSnO(OH) and p-toluene sulfonic acid. A crystalline compound, [(BuSn){sub 12}O{sub 14}(OH){sub 6}] (O{sub 3}SC{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}C{sub 4}H{sub 8}O{sub 2}, is obtained. It can react with tetramethylammonium hydroxide to yield the more versatile composition: [(BuSn){sub 12}O{sub 14}(OH){sub 6}](OH){sub 2}. The macro-cations are then used as nanobuilding blocks and assembled in rosary-like structures by carboxy-terminated poly(ethyleneglycol). The resulting system can be pictured as hybrid organic-inorganic alternated block co-polymers. Characterizations were performed with {sup 119}Sn NMR (solution and solid state), {sup 13}C CP-MAS NMR and FT-IR.

  4. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Thiol-ene-Based Photopolymerized Networks

    PubMed Central

    Schreck, Kathleen M.; Leung, Diana; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    The thiol-ene reaction serves as a more oxygen tolerant alternative to traditional (meth)acrylate chemistry for forming photopolymerized networks with numerous desirable attributes including energy absorption, optical clarity, and reduced shrinkage stress. However, when utilizing commercially available monomers, many thiol-ene networks also exhibit decreases in properties such as glass transition temperature (Tg) and crosslink density. In this study, hybrid organic/inorganic thiol-ene resins incorporating silsesquioxane (SSQ) species into the photopolymerized networks were investigated as a route to improve these properties. Thiol- and ene-functionalized SSQs (SH-SSQ and allyl-SSQ, respectively) were synthesized via alkoxysilane hydrolysis/condensation chemistry, using a photopolymerizable monomer [either pentaerythriol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP) or 1,3,5-triallyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (TATATO)] as the reaction solvent. The resulting SSQ-containing solutions (SSQ-PETMP and SSQ-TATATO) were characterized, and their incorporation into photopolymerized networks was evaluated. PMID:21984847

  5. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Thiol-ene-Based Photopolymerized Networks.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Kathleen M; Leung, Diana; Bowman, Christopher N

    2011-09-15

    The thiol-ene reaction serves as a more oxygen tolerant alternative to traditional (meth)acrylate chemistry for forming photopolymerized networks with numerous desirable attributes including energy absorption, optical clarity, and reduced shrinkage stress. However, when utilizing commercially available monomers, many thiol-ene networks also exhibit decreases in properties such as glass transition temperature (T(g)) and crosslink density. In this study, hybrid organic/inorganic thiol-ene resins incorporating silsesquioxane (SSQ) species into the photopolymerized networks were investigated as a route to improve these properties. Thiol- and ene-functionalized SSQs (SH-SSQ and allyl-SSQ, respectively) were synthesized via alkoxysilane hydrolysis/condensation chemistry, using a photopolymerizable monomer [either pentaerythriol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP) or 1,3,5-triallyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (TATATO)] as the reaction solvent. The resulting SSQ-containing solutions (SSQ-PETMP and SSQ-TATATO) were characterized, and their incorporation into photopolymerized networks was evaluated. PMID:21984847

  6. Organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells via electropolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wenchun

    /ZnO photovoltaics. Our electropolymerization approach to integrate the organic and inorganic phases aims at understanding the chemistry at the interface, and the electronic and morphological properties of the system. This work should be generally applicable to other conjugated polymers and nanostructures, and it contributes to an understanding of organic-inorganic interfaces and electronic structures that may be advantageous to a range of electronic/photonic applications.

  7. Adhesion in flexible organic and hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting device and solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, D.; Kwabi, D.; Akogwu, O.; Du, J.; Oyewole, O. K.; Tong, T.; Anye, V. C.; Rwenyagila, E.; Asare, J.; Fashina, A.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2014-08-21

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the adhesion between bi-material pairs that are relevant to organic light emitting devices, hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices, organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, and hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells on flexible substrates. Adhesion between the possible bi-material pairs is measured using force microscopy (AFM) techniques. These include: interfaces that are relevant to organic light emitting devices, hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices, bulk heterojunction solar cells, and hybrid combinations of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and poly(3-hexylthiophene). The results of AFM measurements are incorporated into the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov model for the determination of adhesion energies. The implications of the results are then discussed for the design of robust organic and hybrid organic/inorganic electronic devices.

  8. Thin Film Solar Cells: Organic, Inorganic and Hybrid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankovich, John

    2004-01-01

    Thin film solar cells are an important developing resource for hundreds of applications including space travel. In addition to being more cost effective than traditional single crystal silicon cells, thin film multi-crystaline cells are plastic and light weight. The plasticity of the cells allows for whole solar panels to be rolled out from reams. Organic layers are being investigated in order to increase the efficiency of the cells to create an organic / inorganic hybrid cell. The main focus of the group is a thin film inorganic cell made with the absorber CuInS2. So far the group has been successful in creating the layer from a single-source precursor. They also use a unique method of film deposition called chemical vapor deposition for this. The general makeup of the cell is a molybdenum back contact with the CuInS2 layer, then CdS, ZnO and aluminum top contacts. While working cells have been produced, the efficiency so far has been low. Along with quantum dot fabrication the side project of this that is currently being studied is adding a polymer layer to increase efficiency. The polymer that we are using is P3OT (Poly(3-octylthiopene-2,5-diyll), retroregular). Before (and if) it is added to the cell, it must be understood in itself. To do this simple diodes are being constructed to begin to look at its behavior. The P3OT is spin coated onto indium tin oxide and silver or aluminum contacts are added. This method is being studied in order to find the optimal thickness of the layer as well as other important considerations that may later affect the composition of the finished solar cell. Because the sun is the most abundant renewable, energy source that we have, it is important to learn how to harness that energy and begin to move away from our other depleted non-renewable energy sources. While traditional silicon cells currently create electricity at relatively high efficiencies, they have drawbacks such as weight and rigidness that make them unattractive

  9. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites on the Move.

    PubMed

    Egger, David A; Rappe, Andrew M; Kronik, Leeor

    2016-03-15

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) are crystals with the structural formula ABX3, where A, B, and X are organic and inorganic ions, respectively. While known for several decades, HOIPs have only in recent years emerged as extremely promising semiconducting materials for solar energy applications. In particular, power-conversion efficiencies of HOIP-based solar cells have improved at a record speed and, after only little more than 6 years of photovoltaics research, surpassed the 20% threshold, which is an outstanding result for a solution-processable material. It is thus of fundamental importance to reveal physical and chemical phenomena that contribute to, or limit, these impressive photovoltaic efficiencies. To understand charge-transport and light-absorption properties of semiconducting materials, one often invokes a lattice of ions displaced from their static positions only by harmonic vibrations. However, a preponderance of recent studies suggests that this picture is not sufficient for HOIPs, where a variety of structurally dynamic effects, beyond small harmonic vibrations, arises already at room temperature. In this Account, we focus on these effects. First, we review structure and bonding in HOIPs and relate them to the promising charge-transport and absorption properties of these materials, in terms of favorable electronic properties. We point out that HOIPs are much "softer" mechanically, compared to other efficient solar-cell materials, and that this can result in large ionic displacements at room temperature. We therefore focus next on dynamic structural effects in HOIPs, going beyond a static band-structure picture. Specifically, we discuss pertinent experimental and theoretical findings as to phase-transition behavior and molecular/octahedral rearrangements. We then discuss atomic diffusion phenomena in HOIPs, with an emphasis on the migration of intrinsic and extrinsic ionic species. From this combined perspective, HOIPs appear as highly

  10. Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposite Infrared Photodetection by Intraband Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, Kevin Richard

    The ability to detect infrared radiation is vital for a host of applications that include optical communication, medical diagnosis, thermal imaging, atmospheric monitoring, and space science. The need to actively cool infrared photon detectors increases their operation cost and weight, and the focus of much recent research has been to limit the dark current and create room-temperature infrared photodetectors appropriate for mid-to-long-wave infrared detection. Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) provide electron quantum confinement in three dimensions and have been shown to demonstrate high temperature operation (T>150 K) due to lower dark currents. However, these inorganic devices have not achieved sensitivity comparable to state-of-the-art photon detectors, due in large part to the inability to control the uniformity (size and shape) of QDs during strained-layer epitaxy. The purpose of this dissertation research was to investigate the feasibility of room-temperature infrared photodetection that could overcome the shortfalls of QDIPs by using chemically synthesized inorganic colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). CQDs are coated with organic molecules known as surface ligands that prevent the agglomeration of dots while in solution. When CQDs are suspended in a semiconducting organic polymer, these materials are known as organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites. The novel approach investigated in this work was to use intraband transitions in the conduction band of the polymer-embedded CQD for room-temperature photodetection in the mid-wave, and possibly long-wave, infrared ranges. Hybrid nanocomposite materials promise room-temperature operation due to: (i) large bandgaps of the inorganic CQDs and the semiconducting polymer that reduce thermionic emission; and (ii) low dark current due to the three-dimensional electron confinement in the CQD and low carrier mobility in the semiconducting polymer. The primary material system investigated in this research was Cd

  11. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdulAlmohsin, Samir M.

    The enticing electro-optical properties of nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, CdS nanocrystals and ZnO nanowrie bring new vigor into the innovation of photovoltaics. The main purpose of this dissertation is to develop novel nano-structured materials for low cost solar cell applications. Fabrication, characterization, and solar cell application of organic-inorganic hybrid structures are the main focus of this research. Polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) composite films were synthesized by an electrochemical polymerization of aniline with airbrushed MWNTs on ITO substrates. It was found that the incorporation of MWNTs in PANI effectively increase the film conductivity with a percolation threshold of 5% of nanotubes in the composite. The solar cell performance strongly depends on the conductivity of the composite films, which can be tuned by adjusting nanotube concentration. A higher conductivity resulted in a better cell performance, resulting from an efficient charge collection. This study indicates that PANI/MWNT composite films with optimized conductivity are potentially useful for low-cost hybrid solar cell applications. CdS nanocrystal-sensitized solar cells (NCSSCs) were investigated by using polyaniline (PANI) as a replacement for conventional platinum counter electrode. The growth time of the nanocrystals significantly affects the solar cell performance. At an optimum growth, the NCSSCs exhibit 0.83% of the conversion efficiency in comparison to 0.13% for the identical cells without CdS nanocrystals. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the charge transfer in the solar cells with CdS nanocrystals was improved. The enhanced overall energy conversion efficiency by nanocrystals is attributed to improved light absorption and suppressed recombination rate of interfacial charges at the injection, resulting in significantly improved charge transfer and electron lifetime. In addition, the PANI electrodes

  12. Air stable organic-inorganic nanoparticles hybrid solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Qian, Lei; Yang, Jihua; Xue, Jiangeng; Holloway, Paul H.

    2015-09-29

    A solar cell includes a low work function cathode, an active layer of an organic-inorganic nanoparticle composite, a ZnO nanoparticle layer situated between and physically contacting the cathode and active layers; and a transparent high work function anode that is a bilayer electrode. The inclusion of the ZnO nanoparticle layer results in a solar cell displaying a conversion efficiency increase and reduces the device degradation rate. Embodiments of the invention are directed to novel ZnO nanoparticles that are advantageous for use as the ZnO nanoparticle layers of the novel solar cells and a method to prepare the ZnO nanoparticles.

  13. High capacitance hybrid organic-inorganic gate dielectrics for solution-processable electronic technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everaerts, Ken

    Solution-processable materials offer enormous opportunity in designing lightweight, flexible, and low-cost electronic technologies. Dielectric materials and the different classes of semiconductors (derived from organics, inorganics, or nanomaterials) comprise the two most important components in transistors, which are the basic building blocks of all modern electronic devices. New semiconductors such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and inorganic amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs), including indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO), are envisioned for high performance applications as a possible replacement for silicon within integrated circuits, display backplane technologies, or high throughput inkjet printing technologies that can be low in cost and waste. These new semiconductors, amongst others, require corresponding advances in gate dielectric materials to support optimum device function. Herein we describe research surrounding the advancement of organic-inorganic hybrid gate dielectric materials for use in thin-film transistor (TFT) architectures. We describe the reasoning, the strategy, and the properties of a new hafnium oxide-based self-assembled nanodielectric (Hf-SAND), and examine in detail the chemical structure/formation, and electronic performance. Record setting capacitance can be achieved by using thin multilayers of Hf-SAND (1.1 μF/cm2). Application of this new dielectric to the aforementioned SWCNT and IGZO semiconductors in an effort to demonstrate technological feasibility, yield record field-effect mobilities (20-130 cm2V-1s-1) and large ON state transconductances (up to 5 mS) at very low operating voltages (< 3 V), while retaining the ability to be processed completely from solution and in ambient atmosphere. These TFT performance metrics are examined in detail, and placed in perspective in relation to the Hf-SAND dielectric properties. Finally, we present some forward looking statements to help identify further opportunities for

  14. [Functionalization of screen printed electrodes with organic-inorganic hybrid nano-composites for bio-sensing applications].

    PubMed

    Shumyantseva, V V; Bulko, T V; Kuzikov, A V; Khan, R; Archakov, A I

    2015-01-01

    New types of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on nanosized Titanium (IV) oxide TiO2 (<100 nm particle size) and carbon nanotubes (CNT, outer diameter 10-15 nm, inner diamentre 2-6 nm, length 0.1-10 µm) and phosphatidilcholine were elaborated for improvement of analytical characteristics of screen printed electrodes. These nanomaterials were employed as an interface for the immobilization of skeletal myoglobin. Electrochemical behavior of myoglobin on such interfaces was characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). Direct unmediated electron transfer between myoglobin and electrodes modified with organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites was registered. TiO2 film and CNT film are biocompartible nanomaterials for myoglobin as was demonstrated with UV-Vis spectra. The midpoint potential of Fe3+/Fe2+ pair of myoglobin corresponded to Е1/2=-0,263 V for CNT film, and Е1/2=-0,468 V for TiO2 nanocomposite (vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode). PMID:26350738

  15. Multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers: synthesis and application as a colorimetric sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiayu; Ge, Jiechao; Liu, Weimin; Lan, Minhua; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Yanming; Niu, Zhongwei

    2013-12-01

    This study reports a facile method for the synthesis of multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers, using glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the organic components, and Cu3(PO4)2.3H2O as the inorganic component. The synthesized nanoflowers enable the combination of a two-enzyme cascade reaction in one step, in which the GOx component of the nanoflowers oxidizes glucose to generate H2O2, which then reacts with the adjacent HRP component on the nanoflowers to oxidize the chromogenic substrates, resulting in an apparent color change. Given the close proximity of the two enzyme components in a single nanoflower, this novel sensor greatly reduces the diffusion and decomposition of H2O2, and greatly enhances the sensitivity of glucose detection. Thus, the obtained multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers can be unquestionably used as highly sensitive colorimetric sensors for the detection of glucose. Notably, this work presents a very facile route for the synthesis of multi-enzyme co-embedded nanomaterials for the simultaneous catalysis of multi-step cascade enzymatic reactions. Furthermore, it has great potential for application in biotechnology, and biomedical and environmental chemistry.This study reports a facile method for the synthesis of multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers, using glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the organic components, and Cu3(PO4)2.3H2O as the inorganic component. The synthesized nanoflowers enable the combination of a two-enzyme cascade reaction in one step, in which the GOx component of the nanoflowers oxidizes glucose to generate H2O2, which then reacts with the adjacent HRP component on the nanoflowers to oxidize the chromogenic substrates, resulting in an apparent color change. Given the close proximity of the two enzyme components in a single nanoflower, this novel sensor greatly reduces the diffusion and decomposition of H2O2

  16. Hybrid organic-inorganic network coatings for protecting metal substrates from abrasion and corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Jordens, K.; Wilkes, G.

    1996-12-31

    Ceramers or Ormocers are hybrid organic-inorganic materials first created a decade ago, and are the subject of a recent review article. Recent research from the authors laboratory in this area of materials science has focused on synthesizing protective coatings for (soft) polymeric substrates, i.e. polycarbonate. The authors have now extended the application of such coatings to metallic substrates.

  17. Sulfur-Containing Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Gel Compositions and Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Owen R. (Inventor); Dong, Wenting (Inventor); Deshpande, Kiranmayi (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Methods and materials are described for preparing organic-inorganic hybrid gel compositions where a sulfur-containing cross-linking agent covalently links the organic and inorganic components. The gel compositions are further dried to provide porous gel compositions and aerogels. The mechanical and thermal properties of the dried gel compositions are also disclosed.

  18. Biomedical Applications of Magnetically Functionalized Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Jeong; Lee, Sang Joon; Uthaman, Saji; Thomas, Reju George; Hyun, Hoon; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Cho, Chong-Su; Park, In-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Nanofibers are one-dimensional nanomaterial in fiber form with diameter less than 1 µm and an aspect ratio (length/diameter) larger than 100:1. Among the different types of nanoparticle-loaded nanofiber systems, nanofibers loaded with magnetic nanoparticles have gained much attention from biomedical scientists due to a synergistic effect obtained from the unique properties of both the nanofibers and magnetic nanoparticles. These magnetic nanoparticle-encapsulated or -embedded nanofiber systems can be used not only for imaging purposes but also for therapy. In this review, we focused on recent advances in nanofibers loaded with magnetic nanoparticles, their biomedical applications, and future trends in the application of these nanofibers. PMID:26084046

  19. Biomedical Applications of Magnetically Functionalized Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Jeong; Lee, Sang Joon; Uthaman, Saji; Thomas, Reju George; Hyun, Hoon; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Cho, Chong-Su; Park, In-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Nanofibers are one-dimensional nanomaterial in fiber form with diameter less than 1 µm and an aspect ratio (length/diameter) larger than 100:1. Among the different types of nanoparticle-loaded nanofiber systems, nanofibers loaded with magnetic nanoparticles have gained much attention from biomedical scientists due to a synergistic effect obtained from the unique properties of both the nanofibers and magnetic nanoparticles. These magnetic nanoparticle-encapsulated or -embedded nanofiber systems can be used not only for imaging purposes but also for therapy. In this review, we focused on recent advances in nanofibers loaded with magnetic nanoparticles, their biomedical applications, and future trends in the application of these nanofibers. PMID:26084046

  20. Organic-inorganic hybrid gels for the selective absorption of oils from water.

    PubMed

    Ozan Aydin, Gulsah; Bulbul Sonmez, Hayal

    2016-06-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid gels were synthesized by the condensation of a linear aliphatic diol (1,8-octanediol) and altering the chain length of the alkyltriethoxysilanes (from ethyltriethoxysilane to hexadecyltrimethoxysilane) through a bulk polymerization process without using any initiator, activator, catalyst, or solvent for the selective removal of oils from water. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and solid-state (13)C and (29)Si cross-polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CPMAS NMR) were used for the structural analysis of hybrid gels. Thermal properties of the hybrid gels were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Oil absorbency of organic-inorganic hybrid gels was determined by oil absorption tests. The results showed that hybrid gels have high and fast absorption capacities and excellent reusability. Good selectivity, high thermal stability, low density, and excellent recyclability for the oil removal give the material potential applications. PMID:26939691

  1. Low consumption power variable optical attenuator with sol-gel derived organic/inorganic hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongxiao; Zhang, Yanwu; Liu, Liying; Xu, Lei

    2006-06-01

    An integrated optical waveguide variable optical attenuator (VOA) made of organic/inorganic hybrid materials was fabricated. At 1550 nm, the VOA showed a very low activation power of about 13 mW, due to the large thermo-optic coefficients of the hybrid materials. The optical power attenuations achieved were more than 25 dB for both TE and TM polarization. The response time of the device was less than 4.7 ms.

  2. Nonradiative exciton energy transfer in hybrid organic-inorganic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanyawadee, S.; Lagoudakis, P. G.; Harley, R. T.; Lidzey, D. G.; Henini, M.

    2008-05-01

    Nonradiative energy transfer from a GaAs quantum well to a thin overlayer of an infrared organic semiconductor dye is unambiguously demonstrated. The dynamics of exciton transfer are studied in the time domain by using pump-probe spectroscopy at the donor site and fluorescence spectroscopy at the acceptor site. The effect is observed as simultaneous increase in the population decay rate at the donor and of the rise time of optical emission at the acceptor sites. The hybrid configuration under investigation provides an alternative nonradiative, noncontact pumping route to electrical carrier injection that overcomes the losses imposed by the associated low carrier mobility of organic emitters.

  3. Organic-inorganic hybrid of chitosan/organoclay bionanocomposites for hexavalent chromium uptake.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sadanand; Mishra, Shivani B

    2011-09-15

    Organic-inorganic hybrid of chitosan and nanoclay (Cloisite 10A) was chosen to develop a nanomaterial with combine properties of hydrophilicity of an organic polycation and adsorption capacity of inorganic polyanion. The chitosan/clay nanocomposite (CCN) was prepared by solvent casting method. The material synthesis was found most efficient in adsorbent behavior was studied in detail taking Cr(VI) as representative ion. The chemical, structural and textural characteristics of the material were determined by FTIR, XRD, TEM, SEM and EDAX analysis. XRD and TEM results indicated that an exfoliated structure was formed with addition of small amounts of MMT-Na+(montmorillonite-Na(+)) to the chitosan matrix. These composite material were used for the removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solution. The conditions for the adsorption by the composite have been optimized and kinetics and thermodynamic studies were performed. Though the adsorption takes place in wide pH range, pH 3 was found most suitable and at this pH the adsorption data were modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms at 15 °C and 35 °C, where the data fitted satisfactorily to Langmuir isotherms, the R(2) values being 0.998 and 0.999 respectively indicating unilayer adsorption. Based on Langmuir model, Q(o) was calculated to be 357.14 mg/g. The adsorption showed pseudo second order kinetics with a rate constant of 8.0763 × 10(-4) g mg(-1) min(-1) at 100 ppm Cr(VI) concentration. PMID:21679960

  4. Improved efficiency of organic/inorganic hybrid near-infrared light upconverter by device optimization.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xinbo; Guan, Min; Li, Linsen; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yiyang; Zhu, Zhanping; Wang, Baoqiang; Zeng, Yiping

    2012-09-26

    An organic/inorganic hybrid up-conversion device was demonstrated in this work, which can convert near-infrared light (NIR) to visible green at high conversion efficiency. The upconverter was fabricated by integrating an In(0.12)Ga(0.88)As/GaAs multiquantum wells (MQWs) photodetector (PD) with an organic light emitting diode (OLED). The up-conversion efficiency of 4.0 W/W % was obtained at 20 V under NIR illumination of 1 mW/mm(2) at room temperature by optimizing the structure of the PD unit and adding MoO(3) doped perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) as interfacial layer of OLED. Meanwhile, the green light output induced by NIR achieved 6050 cd/m(2), which proves that the organic/inorganic hybrid upconverter an excellent candidate that can be applied in light converter field. PMID:22931090

  5. Laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of peptides on a hybrid CHCA organic-inorganic matrix.

    PubMed

    Fleith, Clément; Cantel, Sonia; Subra, Gilles; Mehdi, Ahmad; Ciccione, Jeremie; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2014-08-01

    We report applications of new hybrid organic-inorganic silica based materials as laser desorption/ionization (LDI)-promoting surfaces for high-throughput identification of peptides. The driving force of our work was to design a new material composed of a conventional MALDI matrix covalently attached to silica with a high organic/inorganic ratio in order to improve the UV absorption by such LDI hybrid matrices. Amorphous CHCA-functionalized silica presenting an organic content up to 1.3 mmol g(-1) (around 40% in weight from TGA and elementary analysis measurements) gave very interesting LDI performances in terms of detection sensitivity as well as relative ionization discrepancy (spectral suppression) through the analyses of small synthetic peptide mixtures (550-1300 Da) taking CHCA and amorphous silica as model matrices for control experiments. PMID:24910856

  6. Molecular Origin of Properties of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites: The Big Picture from Small Clusters.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hong; Jena, Puru

    2016-04-21

    We show that the electronic properties, including the band gap, the gap deformation potential, and the exciton binding energy as well as the chemical stability of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites can be traced back to their corresponding molecular motifs. This understanding allows one to quickly estimate the properties of the bulk semiconductors from their corresponding molecular building blocks. New hybrid perovskite admixtures are proposed by replacing halogens with superhalogens having compatible ionic radii. The mechanism of the boron-hydride based hybrid perovskite reacting with water is investigated by using a cluster model. PMID:27064550

  7. 45S5 Bioglass®-derived scaffolds coated with organic-inorganic hybrids containing graphene.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Paola; Valentini, Luca; Hum, Jasmin; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2013-10-01

    Highly porous 45S5 Bioglass®-based scaffolds fabricated by a foam replication technique were coated with electrically conductive organic-inorganic hybrid layers containing graphene by a solution method. α,ω-Triethoxysilane terminated poly (ethylene glycol) and tetraethoxysilane were used as the precursors of the organic-inorganic hybrid coatings, that contained 1.5 wt.% of homogeneously dispersed graphene nanoplatelets. The resulting coated scaffolds retained their original high porosity and interconnected pore structure after coating. The presence of graphene did not impair the bioactivity of the scaffolds in simulated body fluid. Initial tests carried out using MG-63 cells demonstrated that both uncoated scaffolds and scaffolds coated with organic/inorganic hybrids containing graphene offered the cultured cells an adequate surface for cell attachment, spreading and expression of extracellular matrix. The results showed that scaffolds coated with graphene are biocompatible and they can support cellular activity. The electrical conductivity introduced by the coating might have the potential to increase tissue growth when cell culture is carried out under an applied electric field. PMID:23910254

  8. Zirconia-based luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid materials with ternary europium (III) complexes bonded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Zhiqiang; Xu, Yang; Wang, Yige

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a novel red-emitting organic-inorganic hybrid material with europium (III) lanthanide β-diketonate complexes linked to a zirconia was reported, which was realized by adduct formation with zirconia-tethered terpyridine moieties. Luminescence enhancement of the hybrid material has been observed compared with pure Eu(tta)3·2H2O. Transparent and strongly luminescent thin films based on PMMA were also prepared at room temperature, which are highly luminescent under UV-light irradiation and possess a promising prospect in the area of optics.

  9. Organic-inorganic hybrid saponites obtained by intercalation of titano-silsesquioxane.

    PubMed

    Carniato, Fabio; Bisio, Chiara; Gatti, Giorgio; Guidotti, Matteo; Sordelli, Laura; Marchese, Leonardo

    2011-03-01

    The synthesis and characterization of two bifunctional composite materials based on synthetic saponite clays is here presented. These materials were prepared by intercalation of a Ti-containing aminopropylisobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (Ti-NH(2) POSS) in synthetic saponite samples containing interlayer sodium (Na-SAP) or protons (H-SAP). Hybrid organic-inorganic materials, Ti-NHM-1 and Ti-NHM-2, were obtained upon ion exchange. Structural, spectroscopic, and thermal properties of both hybrid materials were investigated in detail along with their catalytic activity in cyclohexene oxidation. PMID:21120985

  10. Organosilica: Chemistry of Mesoporous Organosilica in Nanotechnology: Molecularly Organic-Inorganic Hybridization into Frameworks (Adv. Mater. 17/2016).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials can combine the advantages of organic and inorganic materials, and overcome their drawbacks accordingly. On page 3235, Y. Chen and J. L. Shi review and discuss research progress on the design, synthesis, structure, and composition control of organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (MONs). Extensive applications of MONs in nanotechnology, mainly in nanomedicine, nanocatalysis and nanofabrication are discussed. PMID:27122112

  11. New organic-inorganic hybrid material based on functional cellulose nanowhisker, polypseudorotaxane and Au nanorods.

    PubMed

    Garavand, Ali; Dadkhah Tehrani, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    Organic-inorganic functional hybrid materials play a major role in the development of advanced functional materials and recently have gained growing interest of the worldwide community. In this context, new hybrid organic-inorganic gel consisting of cellulose nanowhisker xanthate (CNWX) and S-H functionalized polypseudorotaxane (PPR) as organic parts of gel and gold nanorods (GNRs) as inorganic cross-linking agent were prepared. Firstly, thiolated α-cyclodextrin (α-CD-SH) was threaded onto poly-(ethylene glycol) bis (mercaptoethanoate ester) (PEG-SH) to give polypseudorotaxane (PPR) and then it reacted with GNRs in the presence of CNWX to give the new hybrid gel material. The new synthesized gel and its components characterized by spectroscopic measurement methods such as FT-IR, UV-vis and NMR spectroscopy. Interestingly, hybrid gel showed new polygonal plate like morphology with 45-60nm thickness and 400-600nm width. The obtained gel may have potential application in many fields especially in biomedical applications. PMID:27516265

  12. Gravimetric chemical sensors based on silica-based mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiaqiang; Zheng, Qi; Zhu, Yongheng; Lou, Huihui; Xiang, Qun; Cheng, Zhixuan

    2014-09-01

    Silica-based mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrid material modified quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors have been examined for their ability to achieve highly sensitive and selective detection. Mesoporous silica SBA-15 serves as an inorganic host with large specific surface area, facilitating gas adsorption, and thus leads to highly sensitive response; while the presence of organic functional groups contributes to the greatly improved specific sensing property. In this work, we summarize our efforts in the rational design and synthesis of novel sensing materials for the detection of hazardous substances, including simulant nerve agent, organic vapor, and heavy metal ion, and develop high-performance QCM-based chemical sensors. PMID:25924299

  13. Ruthenium cation substitutional doping for efficient charge carrier transfer in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Degui; Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Du, Jiaxing; Tong, Jifeng; Chen, Changyong; Yang, Xuwei; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells have emerged as a new platform for low-cost optoelectronics. At the heart of photovoltaic devices lies the matching of a junction, which requires the suitable energy level alignment of n-type and p-type semiconductors. Incorporating foreign ions into bulk semiconductors has been largely employed for many decades, yet electronically active doping in energy level control of the hybrid bulk heterojunctions has been rarely involved and the demonstration of robust functional optoelectronic devices had thus far been elusive. Herein, we introduce Ru ions into TiO2 to decorate the energy level of the acceptor to gain better energy level alignment between the donor and acceptor. By reducing the 'excess' energy offset between the n-type and p-type semiconductors, the electron transfer becomes faster, thus leading to a notable enhancement in power conversion efficiency, i.e., from 2.20% to 2.89%. The results demonstrate that the energy level can be controlled effectively by the versatile Ru dopants. This work opens an effective route for accelerating the charge carrier transfer at the interface and achieving high-performance organic/inorganic hybrid optoelectronic devices.

  14. Hard X-rays for processing hybrid organic-inorganic thick films.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Carboni, Davide; Pinna, Alessandra; Marmiroli, Benedetta; Malfatti, Luca; Innocenzi, Plinio

    2016-01-01

    Hard X-rays, deriving from a synchrotron light source, have been used as an effective tool for processing hybrid organic-inorganic films and thick coatings up to several micrometres. These coatings could be directly modified, in terms of composition and properties, by controlled exposure to X-rays. The physico-chemical properties of the coatings, such as hardness, refractive index and fluorescence, can be properly tuned using the interaction of hard X-rays with the sol-gel hybrid films. The changes in the microstructure have been correlated especially with the modification of the optical and the mechanical properties. A relationship between the degradation rate of the organic groups and the rise of fluorescence from the hybrid material has been observed; nanoindentation analysis of the coatings as a function of the X-ray doses has shown a not linear dependence between thickness and film hardness. PMID:26698073

  15. Excited state and charge dynamics of hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunctions. I. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, C. Kyle; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2014-07-01

    The different cohesive forces that bond organic (i.e. excitonic) and inorganic semiconductors lead to widely disparate dielectric constants, charge mobilities, and other fundamental optoelectronic properties that make junctions between these materials interesting for numerous practical applications. Yet, there are no detailed theories addressing charge and energy transport across interfaces between these hybrid systems. Here, we develop a comprehensive physical model describing charge transport and photocurrent generation based on first-principles charge and excited state dynamics at the organic/inorganic heterojunction. We consider interfaces that are trap-free, as well as those with an exponential distribution of trap states. We find that the hybrid charge-transfer state resulting from photon absorption near the junction that subsequently migrates to the heterointerface is often unstable at room temperature, leading to its rapid dissociation into free charges that are collected at the device contacts. In the companion Paper II [A. Panda et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 045303 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.045303], we apply our theories to understanding the optical and electronic properties of archetype organic/inorganic heterojunction diodes. Our analysis provides insights for developing high performance optoelectronic devices whose properties are otherwise inaccessible to either conventional excitonic or inorganic semiconductor junctions.

  16. Polymeric media comprising polybenzimidazoles N-substituted with organic-inorganic hybrid moiety

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterson, Eric S [Idaho Falls, ID; Wertsching, Alan K [Idaho Falls, ID; Orme, Christopher J [Shelley, ID; Luther, Thomas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Michael G [Pocatello, ID

    2009-12-15

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be included in a separator medium. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2-- where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The separatory medium may exhibit an H.sub.2, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.3, or CO.sub.2 gas permeability greater than the gas permeability of a comparable separatory medium comprising the PBI compound without substitution. The separatory medium may further include an electronically conductive medium and/or ionically conductive medium. The separatory medium may be used as a membrane (semi-permeable, permeable, and non-permeable), a barrier, an ion exhcange media, a filter, a gas chromatography coating (such as stationary phase coating in affinity chromatography), etc.

  17. Controlled formation of calcium-phosphate-based hybrid mesocrystals by organic-inorganic co-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Halei; Chu, Xiaobin; Li, Li; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2010-11-01

    An understanding of controlled formation of biomimetic mesocrystals is of great importance in materials chemistry and engineering. Here we report that organic-inorganic hybrid plates and even mesocrystals can be conveniently synthesized using a one-pot reaction in a mixed system of protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)), surfactant (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)) and supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. The morphologies of calcium-phosphate-based products are analogous to the general inorganic crystals but they have abnormal and interesting substructures. The hybrids are constructed by the alternate stacking of organic layer (thickness of 1.31 nm) and well-crystallized inorganic mineral layer (thickness of 2.13 nm) at the nanoscale. Their morphologies (spindle, rhomboid and round) and sizes (200 nm-2 μm) can be tuned gradually by changing BSA, AOT and calcium phosphate concentrations. This modulation effect can be explained by a competition between the anisotropic and isotropic assembly of the ultrathin plate-like units. The anisotropic assembly confers mesocrystal characteristics on the hybrids while the round ones are the results of isotropic assembly. However, the basic lamellar organic-inorganic substructure remains unchanged during the hybrid formation, which is a key factor to ensure the self-assembly from molecule to micrometre scale. A morphological ternary diagram of BSA-AOT-calcium phosphate is used to describe this controlled formation process, providing a feasible strategy to prepare the required materials. This study highlights the cooperative effect of macromolecule (frame structure), small biomolecule (binding sites) and mineral phase (main component) on the generation and regulation of biomimetic hybrid mesocrystals.

  18. Controlled formation of calcium-phosphate-based hybrid mesocrystals by organic-inorganic co-assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Halei; Chu, Xiaobin; Li, Li; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2010-11-01

    An understanding of controlled formation of biomimetic mesocrystals is of great importance in materials chemistry and engineering. Here we report that organic-inorganic hybrid plates and even mesocrystals can be conveniently synthesized using a one-pot reaction in a mixed system of protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)), surfactant (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)) and supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. The morphologies of calcium-phosphate-based products are analogous to the general inorganic crystals but they have abnormal and interesting substructures. The hybrids are constructed by the alternate stacking of organic layer (thickness of 1.31 nm) and well-crystallized inorganic mineral layer (thickness of 2.13 nm) at the nanoscale. Their morphologies (spindle, rhomboid and round) and sizes (200 nm-2 μm) can be tuned gradually by changing BSA, AOT and calcium phosphate concentrations. This modulation effect can be explained by a competition between the anisotropic and isotropic assembly of the ultrathin plate-like units. The anisotropic assembly confers mesocrystal characteristics on the hybrids while the round ones are the results of isotropic assembly. However, the basic lamellar organic-inorganic substructure remains unchanged during the hybrid formation, which is a key factor to ensure the self-assembly from molecule to micrometre scale. A morphological ternary diagram of BSA-AOT-calcium phosphate is used to describe this controlled formation process, providing a feasible strategy to prepare the required materials. This study highlights the cooperative effect of macromolecule (frame structure), small biomolecule (binding sites) and mineral phase (main component) on the generation and regulation of biomimetic hybrid mesocrystals. PMID:20944837

  19. Bridged polysilsesquioxanes: Hybrid organic-inorganic materials as fuel cell polyelectrolyte membranes and functional nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiterer, Mariya

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid materials. Several classes of bridged polysilsesquioxanes are presented. The first class is a membrane material suitable for fuel cell technology as a proton conducting polyelectrolyte. The second class includes hybrid nanoparticles for display device applications and chromatographic media. Chapter 1 is an introduction to hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Sol-gel chemistry is discussed, followed by a survey of prominent examples of silica hybrids. Examples of physical organic-silica blends and covalent organo-silicas, including ORMOCERSRTM, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes, and bridged polysilsesquioxanes are discussed. Bridged polysilsesquioxanes are described in great detail. Monomer synthesis, sol-gel chemistry, processing, characterization, and physical properties are included. Chapter 2 describes the design of polyelectrolyte bridged polysilsesquioxane membranes. The materials contain covalently bound sulfonic acid groups originating from the corresponding disulfides. These organic-inorganic hybrid materials integrate a network supporting component which is systematically changed to fine-tune their physical properties. The membranes are characterized as PEM fuel cell electrolytes, where proton conductivities of 4-6 mS cm-1 were measured. In Chapter 3 techniques for the preparation of bridged polysilsesquioxane nanoparticles are described. An inverse water-in-oil microemulsion polymerization method is developed to prepare cationic nanoparticles, including viologen-bridged materials with applications in electrochromic display devices. An aqueous ammonia system is used to prepare neutral nanoparticles containing hydrocarbon bridging groups, which have potential applications as chromatographic media. Chapter 4 describes electrochromic devices developed in collaboration with the Heflin group of Virginia Tech, which incorporate viologen bridged nanoparticles

  20. Solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic complementary thin-film transistor inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Heajeong; Kuribara, Kazunori; Ogura, Shintaro; Fukuda, Nobuko; Yoshida, Manabu; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Uemura, Sei

    2016-04-01

    We investigated hybrid organic-inorganic complementary inverters with a solution-processed indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) n-channel thin-film transistor (TFT) and p-channel TFTs using the high-uniformity polymer poly[2,5-bis(alkyl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrolo-1,4(2H,5H)-dione-alt-5,5-di(thiophene-2-yl)-2,2-(E)-2-(2-(thiophen-2-yl)vinyl)thiophene] (PDVT-10). The IGZO TFT was fabricated at 150 °C for 1 min. It showed a high field-effect mobility of 0.9 cm2·V-1·s-1 and a high on/off current ratio of 107. A hybrid complementary inverter was fabricated by combining IGZO with a PDVT-10 thin-film transistor and its operation was confirmed.

  1. Organic-inorganic hybrid foams with diatomite addition: Effect on functional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdolotti, L.; D'Auria, M.; Lavorgna, M.; Vollaro, P.; Iannace, S.; Capasso, I.; Galzerano, B.; Caputo, D.; Liguori, B.

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams were prepared by using metakaolin, diatomite as a partial (or total) replacement of metakaolin, as matrix, silicon and whipped protein as pore forming. The foamed systems were hardened at defined temperature and time and then characterized by mechanical point of view through compression tests and by functional point of view through fire reaction and acoustic tests. The experimental findings highlighted that the replacement of diatomite in the formulation affected the morphological structure of the foams and consequently their mechanical properties. In particular, the consolidation mechanism in the diatomite based-hybrid foams changed from geopolymerization to a silicate polycondensation mechanism. Therefore, mechanical performances enhanced with increasing of the diatomite content. Fire reaction tests, such as non-combustibility and cone calorimeter tests, showed positive thermal inertia of samples regardless of the content of diatomite.

  2. Assessment of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Antimony Sulfides for Earth-Abundant Photovoltaic Applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruo Xi; Butler, Keith T; Walsh, Aron

    2015-12-17

    Hybrid organic-inorganic solar absorbers are currently the subject of intense interest; however, the highest-performing materials contain Pb. Here we assess the potential of three Sb-based semiconductors: (i) Sb2S3, (ii) Cs2Sb8S13, and (iii) (CH3NH3)2Sb8S13. While the crystal structure of Sb2S3 is composed of 1D chains, 2D layers are formed in the ternary cesium and hybrid methylammonium antimony sulfide compounds. In each case, a stereochemically active Sb 5s(2) lone pair is found, resulting in a distorted coordination environment for the Sb cations. The bandgap of the binary sulfide is found to increase, while the ionization potential also changes, upon transition to the more complex compounds. Based on the predicted electronic structure, device configurations are suggested to be suitable for photovoltaic applications. PMID:26624204

  3. Solution-processible organic-inorganic hybrid bipolar field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Gil Jo; Kim, Kang Dae; Cho, Shinuk; Walker, Bright; Seo, Jung Hwa

    2016-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid bipolar field-effect transistors (HBFETs) comprising a layer of p-type organic poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) separated from a parallel layer of n-type inorganic zinc oxide (ZnO) were demonstrated by solution processing. In order to achieve balanced hole and electron mobilities, we initially optimized the hole-transporting P3HT channel by the addition of the polar non-solvent acetonitrile (AN) to P3HT solutions in chloroform, which induced a selfassembled nano-fibril morphology and an enhancement of hole mobilities. For the electron channel, a wet-chemically-prepared ZnO layer was optimized by thermal annealing. Unipolar P3HT FET with 5% AN exhibited the highest hole mobility of 7.20 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1 while the highest electron mobility (3.64 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1) was observed in unipolar ZnO FETs annealed at 200°C. The organic-inorganic HBFETs consisting of the P3HT layer with 5% AN and ZnO annealed at 200°C exhibited well-balanced hole and electron mobilities of 1.94 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1 and 1.98 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1, respectively.

  4. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solution-Processed H₂-Evolving Photocathodes.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lai-Hung; Gomulya, Widianta; Berghuis, Matthijs; Protesescu, Loredana; Detz, Remko J; Reek, Joost N H; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Loi, Maria A

    2015-09-01

    Here we report for the first time an H2-evolving photocathode fabricated by a solution-processed organic-inorganic hybrid composed of CdSe and P3HT. The CdSe:P3HT (10:1 (w/w)) hybrid bulk heterojunction treated with 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) showed efficient water reduction and hydrogen generation. A photocurrent of -1.24 mA/cm(2) at 0 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (V(RHE)), EQE of 15%, and an unprecedented Voc of 0.85 V(RHE) under illumination of AM1.5G (100 mW/cm(2)) in mild electrolyte were observed. Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL), internal quantum efficiency (IQE), and transient photocurrent measurements were carried out to clarify the carrier dynamics of the hybrids. The exciton lifetime of CdSe was reduced by one order of magnitude in the hybrid blend, which is a sign of the fast charge separation upon illumination. By comparing the current magnitude of the solid-state devices and water-splitting devices made with identical active layers, we found that the interfaces of the water-splitting devices limit the device performance. The electron/hole transport properties investigated by comparing IQE spectra upon front- and back-side illumination evidenced balanced electron/hole transport. The Faradaic efficiency is 80-100% for the hybrid photocathodes with Pt catalysts and ∼70% for the one without Pt catalysts. PMID:26261996

  5. Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites for optoelectronic and electronic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yixin; Zhu, Kai

    2016-02-01

    Organic and inorganic hybrid perovskites (e.g., CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3)), with advantages of facile processing, tunable bandgaps, and superior charge-transfer properties, have emerged as a new class of revolutionary optoelectronic semiconductors promising for various applications. Perovskite solar cells constructed with a variety of configurations have demonstrated unprecedented progress in efficiency, reaching about 20% from multiple groups after only several years of active research. A key to this success is the development of various solution-synthesis and film-deposition techniques for controlling the morphology and composition of hybrid perovskites. The rapid progress in material synthesis and device fabrication has also promoted the development of other optoelectronic applications including light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, and transistors. Both experimental and theoretical investigations on organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have enabled some critical fundamental understandings of this material system. Recent studies have also demonstrated progress in addressing the potential stability issue, which has been identified as a main challenge for future research on halide perovskites. Here, we review recent progress on hybrid perovskites including basic chemical and crystal structures, chemical synthesis of bulk/nanocrystals and thin films with their chemical and physical properties, device configurations, operation principles for various optoelectronic applications (with a focus on solar cells), and photophysics of charge-carrier dynamics. We also discuss the importance of further understanding of the fundamental properties of hybrid perovskites, especially those related to chemical and structural stabilities. PMID:26645733

  6. Efficient organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells processed in air.

    PubMed

    Seetharaman S, Madhu; Nagarjuna, Puvvala; Kumar, P Naresh; Singh, Surya Prakash; Deepa, Melepurath; Namboothiry, Manoj A G

    2014-12-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells with fluorine doped tin oxide/titanium dioxide/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx/poly(3-hexylthiophene)/silver were made in air with more than 50% humidity. The best devices showed an open circuit voltage of 640 mV, a short circuit current density of 18.85 mA cm(-2), a fill factor of 0.407 and a power conversion efficiency of 5.67%. The devices showed external quantum efficiency varying from 60 to 80% over a wavelength region of 350 nm to 750 nm of the solar spectrum. The morphology of the perovskite was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and it was found to be porous in nature. This study provides insights into air-stability of perovskite solar cells. PMID:25315711

  7. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Coordination Complexes as Tunable Optical Response Materials.

    PubMed

    Travis, Will; Knapp, Caroline E; Savory, Christopher N; Ganose, Alex M; Kafourou, Panagiota; Song, Xingchi; Sharif, Zainab; Cockcroft, Jeremy K; Scanlon, David O; Bronstein, Hugo; Palgrave, Robert G

    2016-04-01

    Novel lead and bismuth dipyrido complexes have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which shows their structures to be directed by highly oriented π-stacking of planar fully conjugated organic ligands. Optical band gaps are influenced by the identity of both the organic and inorganic component. Density functional theory calculations show optical excitation leads to exciton separation between inorganic and organic components. Using UV-vis, photoluminescence, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopies, we have determined the materials' frontier energy levels and show their suitability for photovoltaic device fabrication by use of electron- and hole-transport materials such as TiO2 and spiro-OMeTAD respectively. Such organic/inorganic hybrid materials promise greater electronic tunability than the inflexible methylammonium lead iodide structure through variation of both the metal and organic components. PMID:26974692

  8. Anisotropic hybrid organic/inorganic (azopolymer/SiO2 NP) materials with enhanced photoinduced birefringence.

    PubMed

    Nazarova, Dimana; Nedelchev, Lian; Sharlandjiev, Peter; Dragostinova, Violeta

    2013-08-01

    Hybrid materials based on combination of polymers and inorganic nanoparticles (NP) attracted considerable attention in the last decade due to their advantageous electrical, optical, or mechanical properties. Recently, we reported a significant improvement of the photoresponse by doping azopolymers with ZnO NP. To study the influence of the composition of the dopant, in our present work we have synthesized anisotropic organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials by incorporating 5-15 nm sized SiO2 NP in a side-chain azopolymer. As a result we observe an enhancement of the photoinduced birefringence in these composite materials with about 20% compared to the nondoped sample. Additionally, we discuss possible mechanisms leading to this enhancement related with the scattering caused by the NP and the increased mobility of the azochromophores in the vicinity of NP. PMID:23913084

  9. Hybrid organic/inorganic coatings for abrasion resistance on plastic and metal substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J.; Jordens, K.; Wilkes, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    Novel abrasion resistant coatings have been successfully prepared by the sol-gel method. These materials are spin coated onto bisphenol-A polycarbonate, diallyl diglycol carbonate resin (CR-39) sheet, aluminum, and steel substrates and are thermally cured to obtain a transparent coating of a few microns in thickness. Following the curing, the abrasion resistance is measured and compared with an uncoated control. It was found that these hybrid organic/inorganic networks partially afford excellent abrasion resistance to the polycarbonate substrates investigated. In addition to having excellent abrasion resistance comparable to current commercial coatings, some newly developed systems are also UV resistant. Similar coating formulations applied to metals can greatly improve the abrasion resistance despite the fact that the coatings are lower in density than their substrates.

  10. Intramolecular and Intermolecular Interactions in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Alucone Films Grown by Molecular Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Park, Yi-Seul; Kim, Hyein; Cho, Boram; Lee, Chaeyun; Choi, Sung-Eun; Sung, Myung Mo; Lee, Jin Seok

    2016-07-13

    Investigation of molecular interactions in polymeric films is crucial for understanding and engineering multiscale physical phenomena correlated to device function and performance, but this often involves a compromise between theoretical and experimental data, because of poor film uniformity. Here, we report the intramolecular and intermolecular interactions inside the ultrathin and conformal hybrid organic-inorganic alucone films grown by molecular layer deposition, based on sequential and self-limiting surface reactions. Varying the carbon chain length of organic precursors, which affects their molecular flexibility, caused intramolecular interactions such as double reactions by bending of the molecular backbone, resulting in formation of hole vacancies in the films. Furthermore, intermolecular interactions in alucone polymeric films are dependent on the thermal kinetics of molecules, leading to binding failures and cross-linking at low and high growth temperatures, respectively. We illustrate these key interactions and identify molecular geometries and potential energies by density functional theory calculations. PMID:27314844

  11. Random Terpolymer Designed with Tunable Fluorescence Lifetime for Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinghua; Jin, Xiao; Song, Yinglin; Zhang, Qin; Xu, Zhongyuan; Chen, Zihan; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Luo, Xubiao

    2015-08-12

    The long photoluminescence lifetime of the organic semiconductor materials is of great importance in assuring the photoexcited extion to have enough time to achieve successful separation at the interface and improving the performances of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. Unfortunately, many efforts have been devoted to the bandgap or molecular energy level control, whereas this viewpoint is rarely referred. Herein, we prepare a random D-A terpolymers based on PZT and BDT cores in conjugation with electron withdrawing BT unit and explore their applications in HSCs. Except for the energy level and the bandgap, the role that monomers ratio plays in photoluminescence lifetime is particularly involved. As a result, the average PL lifetimes of the terpolymer are significantly tuned. The optimized terpolymer exhibits a longer PL lifetime and prominent charge transfer ability, thus leading to a notable enhancement of PCE when compared with its counterparts, although their bandgaps and molecular energy levels are almost the same. PMID:26196279

  12. High-performance hybrid organic-inorganic solar cell based on planar n-type silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Dan; Qi, Boyuan; Wang, Jizheng; Qu, Shengchun Wang, Zhanguo

    2014-05-12

    Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells were fabricated by spin coating the hole transporting conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film on n-type crystalline silicon (n-Si). By incorporating different additives into the PEDOT:PSS, the conductivity and wettability of PEDOT:PSS film are markedly improved, and the device performance is greatly enhanced accordingly. To further optimize the device performance, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) layer was inserted between the n-Si and PEDOT:PSS layer. The P3HT layer blocks electrons from diffusing to the PEDOT:PSS, and hence reduces recombination at the anode side. The device eventually exhibits a high power conversion efficiency of 11.52%.

  13. Localization-dependent charge separation efficiency at an organic/inorganic hybrid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foglia, Laura; Bogner, Lea; Wolf, Martin; Stähler, Julia

    2016-02-01

    By combining complementary optical techniques, photoluminescence and time-resolved excited state absorption, we achieve a comprehensive picture of the relaxation processes in the organic/inorganic hybrid system SP6/ZnO. We identify two long-lived excited states of the organic molecules of which only the lowest energy one, localized on the sexiphenyl backbone of the molecule, is found to efficiently charge separate to the ZnO conduction band or radiatively recombine. The other state, most likely localized on the spiro-linked biphenyl, relaxes only by intersystem crossing to a long-lived, probably triplet state, thus acting as a sink of the excitation and limiting the charge separation efficiency.

  14. Tunable Radiation Response in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Gate Dielectrics for Low-Voltage Graphene Electronics.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Heather N; Cress, Cory D; McMorrow, Julian J; Schmucker, Scott W; Sangwan, Vinod K; Jaber-Ansari, Laila; Kumar, Rajan; Puntambekar, Kanan P; Luck, Kyle A; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2016-03-01

    Solution-processed semiconductor and dielectric materials are attractive for future lightweight, low-voltage, flexible electronics, but their response to ionizing radiation environments is not well understood. Here, we investigate the radiation response of graphene field-effect transistors employing multilayer, solution-processed zirconia self-assembled nanodielectrics (Zr-SANDs) with ZrOx as a control. Total ionizing dose (TID) testing is carried out in situ using a vacuum ultraviolet source to a total radiant exposure (RE) of 23.1 μJ/cm(2). The data reveal competing charge density accumulation within and between the individual dielectric layers. Additional measurements of a modified Zr-SAND show that varying individual layer thicknesses within the gate dielectric tuned the TID response. This study thus establishes that the radiation response of graphene electronics can be tailored to achieve a desired radiation sensitivity by incorporating hybrid organic-inorganic gate dielectrics. PMID:26882215

  15. ABX3-Type Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Phase Transition Material: 1-Pentyl-3-methylimidazolium Tribromoplumbate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianliang; Zhou, Yuelan; Sun, Zhihua; Zhang, Shuquan; Zhao, Sangen; Tang, Yuanyuan; Ji, Chengmin; Luo, Junhua

    2015-08-01

    A new one-dimensional ABX3-type organic-inorganic hybrid phase transition compound, 1-pentyl-3-methylimidazolium tribromoplumbate (1), where the Pb(II) ion exhibits hemicoordination geometry, resulting in anionic (PbBr3)n chains of an edge-shared PbBr5 polyhedron, has been successfully synthesized. 1 undergoes a reversible second-order phase transition at about 136 K. The dielectric constants of 1 exhibit an obvious steplike anomaly tuned between a high dielectric state in the high-temperature phase and a low state in the low-temperature phase. The origin of its phase transition is ascribed to the order-disorder transformation of the cation coupled with the relative displacement of the Br atoms. These findings provide a new approach to exploring a novel ABX3-type compound with functional phase transition properties. PMID:26168191

  16. Well-ordered organic-inorganic hybrid layered manganese oxide nanocomposites with excellent decolorization performance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Junli; Yu, Lin; Sun, Ming; Ye, Fei; Lan, Bang; Diao, Guiqiang; He, Jun

    2013-02-15

    Well-ordered organic-inorganic hybrid layered manganese oxide nanocomposites (CTAB-Al-MO) with excellent decolorization performance were prepared through a two-step process. Specifically, the MnO{sub 2} nanosheets were self-assembled in the presence of CTAB, and subsequently pillared with Keggin ions. The obtained CTAB-Al-MO with the basal spacing of 1.59 nm could be stable at 300 Degree-Sign C for 2 h and also possesses high total pore volumes (0.41 cm Superscript-Three g{sup -1}) and high specific BET surface area (161 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}), which is nine times larger than that of the pristine (19 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). Possible formation process for the highly thermal stable CTAB-Al-MO is proposed here. The decolorization experiments of methyl orange showed that the obtained CTAB-Al-MO exhibit excellent performance in wastewater treatment and the decolorization rate could reach 95% within 5 min. - Graphical Abstract: Well-ordered organic-inorganic hybrid LMO nanocomposites (CTAB-Al-MO) with excellent decolorization performance were prepared through a two-step process. Specifically, the MnO{sub 2} nanosheets were self-assembled by CTAB, and subsequently pillared with Keggin ions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A two-step synthesis method was used to prepare the CTAB-Al-MO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CTAB-Al-MO has the large basal spacing and high specific BET surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal stability of the well-ordered CTAB-Al-MO could obviously improve. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CTAB-Al-MO exhibits excellent oxidation and absorption ability to remove organic pollutants.

  17. Ag-In-Zn-S quantum dots for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eung-min; Ruankham, Pipat; Lee, Jae-hyeong; Hachiya, Kan; Sagawa, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Quantum dots of (AgIn)xZn2(1-x)S2 (x = 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0) capped by oleylamine were prepared and applied for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells consisting of glass-indium-tin-oxide/ZnO/(AgIn)xZn2(1-x)S2/poly(3-hexylthiophene)/MoO3/Ag. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) and open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the hybrid solar cells were measured, and we found a low power conversion efficiency (PCE) below 0.1%. From the incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) profiles of the hybrid devices, there is no marked photocurrent generation from 350 to 700 nm, which is ascribed to the absorption region of (AgIn)xZn2(1-x)S2. To improve the photovoltaic performance, ligand substitution from oleylamine to pyridine was performed. The PCE of the hybrid cell using the pyridine-capped (AgIn)xZn2(1-x)S2 was improved twofold in terms of both Jsc and Voc as compared with that of the oleylamine-capped one. In particular, from the IPCE measurements, a remarkable (more than doubled) enhancement of photocurrent generation from 400 to 450 nm was observed with the pyridine-substituted nanoparticles.

  18. Strontium-doped organic-inorganic hybrids towards three-dimensional scaffolds for osteogenic cells.

    PubMed

    John, Łukasz; Podgórska, Marta; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Cwynar-Zając, Łucja; Dzięgiel, Piotr

    2016-11-01

    Biomimetic organic-inorganic hybrid bioscaffolds are developed to complement or replace damaged fragments in bone tissue surgery. The aim of this work was to develop a simple and fast method to prepare composite material for bone engineering, avoiding time consuming and complex methodologies. The resulting materials (also called in this work as hybrid composites or hybrid scaffolds) have a three-dimensional macroporous polymer-like network derived from triethoxyvinylsilane (TEVS) and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) monomers, with incorporated calcium, strontium, and phosphate ions. The materials were fully characterized using FT-IR, biomineralization studies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scratch tests, Young's modulus and compressive strength tests, and gas physisorption. We report a comprehensive study on the in vitro effect of novel strontium doped materials on human bone cells. In vitro investigations were conducted using a normal human osteoblast cell line that mimics the cellular events of the in vivo intramembranous bone formation process. The materials do not have a negative impact on the survival of the normal human osteoblasts; moreover, materials doped with strontium show that not only are cells able to survive, but they also attach to and grow on a bioscaffolds surface. For this reason, they may be used in future in vivo experiments. PMID:27524003

  19. Development of nanostructured and surface modified semiconductors for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Julia, W. P.

    2008-09-01

    Solar energy conversion is increasingly being recognized as one of the principal ways to meet future energy needs without causing detrimental environmental impact. Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells (SCs) are attracting particular interest due to the potential for low cost manufacturing and for use in new applications, such as consumer electronics, architectural integration and light-weight sensors. Key materials advantages of these next generation SCs over conventional semiconductor SCs are in design opportunities--since the different functions of the SCs are carried out by different materials, there are greater materials choices for producing optimized structures. In this project, we explore the hybrid organic-inorganic solar cell system that consists of oxide, primarily ZnO, nanostructures as the electron transporter and poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the light-absorber and hole transporter. It builds on our capabilities in the solution synthesis of nanostructured semiconducting oxide arrays to this photovoltaic (PV) technology. The three challenges in this hybrid material system for solar applications are (1) achieving inorganic nanostructures with critical spacing that matches the exciton diffusion in the polymer, {approx} 10 nm, (2) infiltrating the polymer completely into the dense nanostructure arrays, and (3) optimizing the interfacial properties to facilitate efficient charge transfer. We have gained an understanding and control over growing oriented ZnO nanorods with sub-50 nm diameters and the required rod-to-rod spacing on various substrates. We have developed novel approaches to infiltrate commercially available P3HT in the narrow spacing between ZnO nanorods. Also, we have begun to explore ways to modify the interfacial properties. In addition, we have established device fabrication and testing capabilities at Sandia for prototype devices. Moreover, the control synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays lead to the development of an efficient anti

  20. Easily processable multimodal spectral converters based on metal oxide/organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Julián-López, Beatriz; Gonell, Francisco; Lima, Patricia P; Freitas, Vânia T; André, Paulo S; Carlos, Luis D; Ferreira, Rute A S

    2015-10-01

    This manuscript reports the synthesis and characterization of the first organic-inorganic hybrid material exhibiting efficient multimodal spectral converting properties. The nanocomposite, made of Er(3+), Yb(3+) codoped zirconia nanoparticles (NPs) entrapped in a di-ureasil d-U(600) hybrid matrix, is prepared by an easy two-step sol-gel synthesis leading to homogeneous and transparent materials that can be very easily processed as monolith or film. Extensive structural characterization reveals that zirconia nanocrystals of 10-20 nm in size are efficiently dispersed into the hybrid matrix and that the local structure of the di-ureasil is not affected by the presence of the NPs. A significant enhancement in the refractive index of the di-ureasil matrix with the incorporation of the ZrO2 nanocrystals is observed. The optical study demonstrates that luminescent properties of both constituents are perfectly preserved in the final hybrid. Thus, the material displays a white-light photoluminescence from the di-ureasil component upon excitation at UV/visible radiation and also intense green and red emissions from the Er(3+)- and Yb(3+)-doped NPs after NIR excitation. The dynamics of the optical processes were also studied as a function of the lanthanide content and the thickness of the films. Our results indicate that these luminescent hybrids represent a low-cost, environmentally friendly, size-controlled, easily processed and chemically stable alternative material to be used in light harvesting devices such as luminescent solar concentrators, optical fibres and sensors. Furthermore, this synthetic approach can be extended to a wide variety of luminescent NPs entrapped in hybrid matrices, thus leading to multifunctional and versatile materials for efficient tuneable nonlinear optical nanodevices. PMID:26374133

  1. Bridged polysilsesquioxane xerogels: A molecular based approach for the preparation of porous hybrid organic-inorganic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Small, J.H.; Shea, K.J.; Loy, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    Bridged polysilsesquioxanes represent an interesting family of hybrid organic-inorganic composite materials. It has been shown that manipulation of the organic bridging component offers the potential for the synthesis of a variety of materials with a range of surface areas and porosities. In addition, incorporation of a heteroatom within the bridging organic component allows for further chemical transformation of the polysilsesquioxane material.

  2. Rashba and Dresselhaus Effects in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: From Basics to Devices.

    PubMed

    Kepenekian, Mikaël; Robles, Roberto; Katan, Claudine; Sapori, Daniel; Pedesseau, Laurent; Even, Jacky

    2015-12-22

    We use symmetry analysis, density functional theory calculations, and k·p modeling to scrutinize Rashba and Dresselhaus effects in hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites. These perovskites are at the center of a recent revolution in the field of photovoltaics but have also demonstrated potential for optoelectronic applications such as transistors and light emitters. Due to a large spin-orbit coupling of the most frequently used metals, they are also predicted to offer a promising avenue for spin-based applications. With an in-depth inspection of the electronic structures and bulk lattice symmetries of a variety of systems, we analyze the origin of the spin splitting in two- and three-dimensional hybrid perovskites. It is shown that low-dimensional nanostructures made of CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br) lead to spin splittings that can be controlled by an applied electric field. These findings further open the door for a perovskite-based spintronics. PMID:26348023

  3. Ratiometric fluorescence detection of silver ions using thioflavin T-based organic/inorganic hybrid supraparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Yun; Zhang, Min; Lu, Ling-Fei; Zhu, Anwei; Xia, Fei; Zhou, Tianshu; Shi, Guoyue

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present a new type of functional organic/inorganic hybrid supraparticle that spontaneously assembles from silver ions (Ag(+)), iodide ions (I(-)) and thioflavin T (ThT) under aqueous solution conditions. ThT alone in aqueous solution was weakly fluorescent with an emission band at 494 nm, which was related to the monomer. However, in the above-mentioned hybrid supraparticle (i.e., ThT@AgI SP) structure, the ThT monomer can form a dimer with a new emission band. The new band shifted to 546 nm and the emission intensity increased. We further present a facile strategy of reversible fluorescence switching of ThT by a simple cation (Ag(+)) and anions (I(-) and S(2-)), which can be employed for the ratiometric fluorescence detection of Ag(+) with high sensitivity and selectivity. The linear range of detecting Ag(+) was from 100 nM to 10 μM, with a limit of detection as low as approximately 50 nM. Moreover, it can be successfully applied for the operation of a logic gate system and to the sensing of Ag(+) in real water samples. PMID:26212864

  4. Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid azobenzene materials for the preparation of nanofibers by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bućko, Aleksandra; Zielińska, Sonia; Ortyl, Ewelina; Larkowska, Maria; Barille, Regis

    2014-12-01

    The new photochromic hybrid materials containing different mole fractions of highly photoactive 4-[(E)-[4-[ethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]phenyl]azo]-N-(4-methylpyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (SMERe) were prepared by a low temperature sol-gel process. The guest-host systems with triethoxyphenylsilane matrix were obtained. These materials were used to form thin transparent films by a spin-coating technique. Then the ability of thin hybrid films to reversible trans-cis photoisomerization under illumination was investigated using ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The reversible changes of refractive index of the films under illumination were in the range of 0.005-0.056. The maximum absorption of these materials was located at 462-486 nm. Moreover, the organic-inorganic azobenzene materials were used to form nanofibers by electrospinning using various parameters of the process. The microstructure of electrospun fibers depended on sols properties (e.g. concentration and viscosity of the sols) and process conditions (e.g. the applied voltage, temperature or type of the collector) at ambient conditions. The morphology of obtained nanofibers was analyzed by an optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In most instances, the beadless fibers were obtained. The wettability of the surface of electrospun fibers deposited on glass substrates was investigated.

  5. PWA-diureasils organic-inorganic hybrids. Photochromism and effect of the organic chain length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, P. A.; Sarmento, V. H. V.; Ribeiro, S. J. L.; Nalin, M.; Molina, C.

    2015-08-01

    Di-ureasil organic-inorganic hybrids have been used together with Phosphotungstic acid (PWA- H3PW12O40) in the preparation of new photochromic materials. PWA was incorporated in different relative concentrations in di-ureasils displaying different organic chain lengths. The structure and photochromic behaviour of these novel material were investigated by means of infrared (FTIR), photoluminescence (PL) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopies and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) technique as a function of PWA content and also of the polymer chain length. Eu3+ has been incorporated as probe ion. For the short polymer chains, europium and PWA keggin structures are located close to oxygen in the ether type of the polyoxides segments and for the long polymer chain carbonyl groups of the urea units were observed to contribute in the coordination. Moreover, the photochromic effect was followed by UV-Vis measurements which showed that in both hybrid families changing from colorless to blue after UV exposure, and the bleaching process, depend directly on the polymer chain length and the nature of the sites where PWA are coordinated in the matrix.

  6. Reduced energy offset via substitutional doping for efficient organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Zhang, Qin; Ruan, Kelian; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xu, Haijiao; Xu, Zhongyuan; Li, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    Charge carrier transport in bulk heterojunction that is central to the device performance of solar cells is sensitively dependent on the energy level alignment of acceptor and donor. However, the effect of energy level regulation induced by nickel ions on the primary photoexcited electron transfer and the performance of P3HT/TiO2 hybrid solar cells remains being poorly understood and rarely studied. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of the versatile nickel ions into TiO2 nanocrystals can significantly elevate the conduction and valence band energy levels of the acceptor, thus resulting in a remarkable reduction of energy level offset between the conduction band of acceptor and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor. By applying transient photoluminescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopies, we demonstrate that the electron transfer becomes more competitive after incorporating nickel ions. In particular, the electron transfer life time is shortened from 30.2 to 16.7 ps, i.e., more than 44% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor, thus leading to a notable increase of power conversion efficiency in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. This work underscores the promising virtue of engineering the reduction of 'excess' energy offset to accelerate electron transport and demonstrates the potential of nickel ions in applications of solar energy conversion and photon detectors. PMID:26072869

  7. Photoluminescence Mechanism and Photocatalytic Activity of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials Formed by Sequential Vapor Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Akyildiz, Halil I; Stano, Kelly L; Roberts, Adam T; Everitt, Henry O; Jur, Jesse S

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials formed by sequential vapor infiltration (SVI) of trimethylaluminum into polyester fibers are demonstrated, and the photoluminescence of the fibers is evaluated using a combined UV-vis and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy approach. The optical activity of the modified fibers depends on infiltration thermal processing conditions and is attributed to the reaction mechanisms taking place at different temperatures. At low temperatures a single excitation band and dual emission bands are observed, while, at high temperatures, two distinct absorption bands and one emission band are observed, suggesting that the physical and chemical structure of the resulting hybrid material depends on the SVI temperature. Along with enhancing the photoluminescence intensity of the PET fibers, the internal quantum efficiency also increased to 5-fold from ∼4-5% to ∼24%. SVI processing also improved the photocatalytic activity of the fibers, as demonstrated by photodeposition of Ag and Au metal particles out of an aqueous metal salt solution onto fiber surfaces via UVA light exposure. Toward applications in flexible electronics, well-defined patterning of the metallic materials is achieved by using light masking and focused laser rastering approaches. PMID:27063955

  8. Organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes based on polyether diamine, alkoxysilane, and trichlorotriazine: Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Diganta; Wu, Cheng-Gang; Fang, Jason; Tsai, Li-Duan; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2014-12-01

    A new type of highly conductive organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes has been synthesized by the reaction of poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether), 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine and alkoxysilane precursor 3-(glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane, followed by doping of LiClO4. The 13C and 29Si solid-sate NMR results confirm the successful synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid structure. The solid hybrid electrolyte thus obtained exhibits a maximum ionic conductivity of 1.6 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 30 °C, which is the highest among the organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes. The hybrid electrolytes are electrochemically stable up to 4.2 V. The prototype electrochromic device with such a solid hybrid electrolyte demonstrates a good coloration efficiency value of 183 cm2 C-1 with a cycle life over 200 cycles. For the lithium-ion battery test, the salt free solid hybrid membrane is swelled with a LiPF6-containing electrolyte solution to reach an acceptable ionic conductivity value of 6.5 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 30 °C. The battery cell carries an initial discharge capacity of 100 mAh g-1 at 0.2C-rate and a coulombic efficiency of about 95% up to 30 cycles without the sign of cell failure. The present organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes hold promise for applications in electrochromic devices and lithium ion batteries.

  9. Rashba Effect and Carrier Mobility in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2016-08-18

    The outstanding photovoltaic performance in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) relies on their desirable carrier transport properties. In the HOIPs, strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and structural inversion asymmetry give rise to a giant spin splitting in the conduction and valence bands, that is, the Rashba effect (RE), a subject intensively studied in spintronics. Here we show that this giant RE can manifest itself in charge transport and is the key to understanding carrier mobility and its temperature dependence in the HOIPs. The RE greatly enhances acoustic-phonon scattering (APS) and alters the temperature dependence of carrier mobility from T(-3/2) to T(-1). Meanwhile, it reduces polar-optical phonon scattering (POPS). In CH3NH3PbI3, the carrier mobility is limited by the APS for temperatures up to 100 K, above which the POPS becomes dominant. The effective polar coupling is moderate, α = 1.1, indicating that band conduction is still a valid description of charge transport. Our results account for the observed carrier transport behaviors over the entire temperature range and highlight the importance of SOC in charge transport in the HOIPs. PMID:27459897

  10. Mechanism of charge recombination in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao; Wu, Chang-Qin; organic Group Team

    2015-03-01

    In the recent popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and open circuit voltages, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this work we study the recombination mechanism in perovskite solar cells and its roles on determining the device performance. Based on macroscopic device model simulations, the recombination resistances (Rrec) under different applied voltages are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism, and the current density-voltage (J - V) curves are simulated to describe the device performance under at the same time. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy (IS) extracted Rrec data, it is found that bimolecular recombination (BR) is the dominant recombination process in the whole applied voltage regime and can determine the open circuit voltage, while the trap-assisted SRH monomolecular recombination (MR) is only important if the trap density is high or the BR rate is significantly reduced. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can induce different patterns for the Rrec- V characteristics. Under the cases of increased band gap or decreased BR rate, the Rrec's are enhanced which leads to high open circuit voltages. We are grateful to the support from the state key laboratory of surface physics, Fudan University.

  11. Optical studies of photoactive states in mixed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites stabilized in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardynal, Beata; Xi, Lifei; Salim, Teddy; Borghardt, Sven; Stoica, Toma; Lam, Yeng Ming

    2015-03-01

    Mixed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites MAX-PbY2(X,Y =I, Br,Cl) have been demonstrated as very attractive materials for absorbers of solar cells and active layers of light emitting diodes and optically driven lasers. The bandgap of the perovskites can be tuned by mixing halogen atoms in different ratios. In this presentation we study mixed MAX-PbY2(X,Y =I, Br, Cl) particles synthesized directly in protective polymer matrices as light emitters. Both, time integrated and time resolved photoluminescence have been used to study the materials. So synthesized MAX-PbX2 are very stable when measured at room temperature and in air with radiative recombination of photogenerated carriers as the main decay path. In contrast, MAX-PbY2 with mixed halogen atoms display luminescence from sub-bandgap states which saturate at higher excitation levels. The density of these states depends on the used polymer matrix and increases upon illumination. We further compare the MAX-PbY2 synthesized in polymers and as films and show that these states are inherent to the material rather than its microstructure. This works has been supported by EU NWs4LIGHT grant.

  12. A novel cobalt(II)-molybdenum(V) phosphate organic-inorganic hybrid polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, F.-N.; Almeida Paz, Filipe A.; Girginova, Penka I.; Nogueira, Helena I.S.; Rocha, Joao; Amaral, Vitor S.; Klinowski, Jacek; Trindade, Tito . E-mail: ttrindade@dq.ua.pt

    2006-05-15

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid cobalt(II)-molybdenum(V) phosphate polymer incorporating piperazine (pip) (H{sub 2}pip){sub 3}[Co{sub 3}Mo{sub 12}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 8}(H{sub 1.5}pip){sub 4}].5(H{sub 2}O), was prepared under hydrothermal conditions. As revealed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies, the material is modular, built from a secondary building block composed of two anionic hexameric polyoxomolybdophosphate [Mo{sub 6}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}]{sup 9-} moieties, bridged by a central octahedral Co{sup 2+} centre. The sandwich-type {l_brace}Co[Mo{sub 6}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}]{sub 2}{r_brace}{sup 16-} dimers are connected via tetrahedral Co{sup 2+} metal centres, forming an infinite one-dimensional polymer. The compound constitutes the first example of a reduced sandwich-type cobalt-molybdenum phosphate in which the organic moiety (pip) is effectively coordinated to the inorganic backbone of the polymer, in this case via the tetrahedrally coordinated Co{sup 2+} centres. The magnetic behaviour of this material was investigated in the temperature range 4-298 K.

  13. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Capasso, Ilaria; Lavorgna, Marino; Liguori, Barbara; Caputo, Domenico; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-15

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a “meringue” type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (∼500 Kg/m{sup 3}) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the “meringue” approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  14. Efficient organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites and doped metal oxide heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaojuan

    Organic-Inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 has recently attracted much attention for its high efficient solar energy conversion. This semiconducting pigment with a direct bandgap of 1.55 eV has made it an interesting optical and electronic material over the whole visible solar emission spectrum. The role of hole conducting has been found in this semiconductor that allows perovskite solar cell (PSC) to be formed by CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 heterojunctions that use TiO2 as scaffold, and carbon as a back contact. We will report a double layer metal doped TiO2/Al2O3 mesoporous scaffold covered by the p-type semiconducting pigment to form a high efficient PSC through solution method. TiO2 and Al2O3 are both large band gap semiconductors that affect conducting and recombination rate in solar cells. One improvement work is doping other metal elements in TiO2 to raise the mobility while extend the recombination time. It has suggested that optimal amounts of doped metals such as Cu, Co, Mn can suppress the reduction of Ti4 + resulting better transportation. TiO2 thin films doped with metals are subjected to the EPR analysis and the results will be correlated with measurements of electronic-optical properties.

  15. Organic-inorganic hybrid thin film solar cells using conducting polymer and gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwan Jung, Hyung; Ho Kim, Dong; Su Kim, Chang; Bae, Tae-Sung; Bum Chung, Kwun; Yoon Ryu, Seung

    2013-05-01

    We employed poly(styrenesulfonate)-doped poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT:PSS) as a p-layer on textured fluorine-tin-oxide (FTO) glass in pin-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells (a-Si:H SCs). An amorphous tungsten oxide (WO3) layer and gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) 10 nm in size were included to prevent the degradation and to increase short-circuit current by the Plasmon effect, respectively, between the PEDOT:PSS and intrinsic-Si layer. The energy band between PEDOT:PSS and WO3 was meaningfully adjusted by Au-NPs. The p-type PEDOT:PSS layer in these organic-inorganic hybrid a-Si:H SCs results in an increased conversion efficiency from ˜2.42% to ˜5.49% and an increased open-circuit voltage from ˜0.29 V to ˜0.56 V. PEDOT:PSS on textured FTO glass is sufficiently showing that it can replace the p-type Si layer in pin-type a-Si:H SCs.

  16. Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunction solar cells with 12% efficiency by utilizing flexible film-silicon with a hierarchical surface.

    PubMed

    Thiyagu, Subramani; Hsueh, Chen-Chih; Liu, Chien-Ting; Syu, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-03-21

    This paper reports an organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell with a hierarchical surface composed of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. High-efficiency organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell Si/PEDOT-PSS with a hierarchical surface, showing a power conversion efficiency of 12%. The structure provides excellent light absorption over 97% for the spectral range of 300 to 1100 nm with a thickness of 60 μm due to internal multiple reflections caused by subwavelength features of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. In addition, from the angle of incidence (AOI) observed, even at the large angle of 75°, the reflectance value still exhibits less than 1%. With the advantage of very thin silicon material and inexpensive processing, hybrid silicon/polymer solar cells are promising for various applications and thus could be an economically feasible alternative energy solution in the future. PMID:24522339

  17. Temperature and exposure dependence of hybrid organic-inorganic layer formation by sequential vapor infiltration into polymer fibers.

    PubMed

    Akyildiz, Halil I; Padbury, Richard P; Parsons, Gregory N; Jur, Jesse S

    2012-11-01

    The characteristic processing behavior for growth of a conformal nanoscale hybrid organic-inorganic modification to polyamide 6 (PA6) by sequential vapor infiltration (SVI) is demonstrated. The SVI process is a materials growth technique by which exposure of organometallic vapors to a polymeric material promotes the formation of a hybrid organic-inorganic modification at the near surface region of the polymer. This work investigates the SVI exposure temperature and cycling times of sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum (TMA) on PA6 fiber mats. The result of TMA exposure is the preferential subsurface organic-inorganic growth by diffusion into the polymer and reaction with the carbonyl in PA6. Mass gain, infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analysis indicate enhanced materials growth and uniformity at lower processing temperatures. The inverse relationship between mass gain and exposure temperature is explained by the formation of a hybrid layer that prevents the diffusion of TMA into the polymer to react with the PA6 upon subsequent exposure cycles. As few as 10 SVI exposure cycles are observed to saturate the growth, yielding a modified thickness of ∼75 nm and mass increase of ∼14 wt %. Removal of the inherent PA6 moisture content reduces the mass gain by ∼4 wt % at low temperature exposures. The ability to understand the characteristic growth process is critical for the development of the hybrid materials fabrication and modification techniques. PMID:23050951

  18. Structure/property relations of elastomeric hybrid organic-inorganic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Thomas Michael

    Hybrid organic-inorganic composites have been synthesized by the sol-gel processing of triethoxysilane end functionalized poly(tetramethylene oxide) and tetraethxoysilane. The resulting transparent materials are elastomeric gels crosslinked by an amorphous polysilicate phase. Elementary rubber-elasticity theory in conjunction with dynamic mechanical spectroscopy was applied to these seemingly nonideal networks to quantify the change in phase interaction induced by aging the benchmark acid catalyzed gels in a basic solution of 70% ethylamine in water. The change in the average molar mass between crosslinks explained the previously published mechanical and dynamic mechanical results. Furthermore, the application of this theory to these seemingly nonideal networks resulted in network parameters that were in excellent agreement with traditional equilibrium swelling estimates. The work was then extended by utilizing this ethylamine solution to catalyze the sol-gel reaction in-situ. The effect of this change in catalyst upon the oxygen diffisivity of the hybrids as a function of polysilicate loading was investigated using a luminescence based approach. While the diffusivity of the acid catalyzed gels decreased with increasing loading, the base catalyzed gels did not indicating that the polysilicate domains resulting from the base catalysis possess considerable porosity. However, the pores appear to be much too small for Knudsen diffusion, a commonly observed gas separation mechanism in porous ceramic membranes. To investigate the influence of polysilicate network polarity and spatial distribution, the sol-gel processing of the hybrids was adjusted to produce two classes of gels. One exhibited a more discrete polysilicate phase possessing greater network connectivity and reduced silanol content than the other. This was accomplished by using dimethylformamide in place of tetrahydrofuran as the organic solvent constituent of the sol. Poly(methacrylic acid

  19. Application of an ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica material for the SPE of aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yihui; Wang, Tingting; Ma, Junfeng; Liang, Zhen; Chen, Mingliang; Fang, Jianghua; Gao, Haoqi; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-01-01

    An SPE cartridge based on an ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent has been adopted for the analysis of aromatic amines including 4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine, 2-naphthylamine, p-chloroaniline, 2,4,5-trimethylaniline, and 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine. Crucial variables governing the extraction efficiency of the material such as the pH of sample, sample loading volume, solvent used for elution, and elution volume have been thoroughly optimized. The adsorption capacities for the six aromatic amines ranged from 0.17 to 1.82 μg/mg. The recoveries of aromatic amines spiked in textile samples ranged from 78.9 to 103.0%, with RSDs of 1.1-11.9% (n = 3). Moreover, the extraction efficiency of the ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent was at least comparable with that of Oasis WCX. PMID:24178632

  20. Improvement in open circuit voltage of MEHPPV-FeS2 nanoparticle based organic inorganic hybrid solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layek, Animesh; Middya, Somnath; Ray, Partha Pratim

    2013-02-01

    In this study we have synthesized high quality FeS2 nanoparticles by solvothermal route and was applied as semiconducting acceptor in MEHPPV:FeS2 nanoparticle based organic inorganic hybrid solar cells. The open circuit voltage improved from 0.64V to 0.72V of the device due to modification of band gap of donor material by introducing nanoparticles.

  1. Layer-by-layer deposited organic/inorganic hybrid multilayer films containing noncentrosymmetrically orientated azobenzene chromophores.

    PubMed

    Kang, En-Hua; Bu, Tianjia; Jin, Pengcheng; Sun, Junqi; Yang, Yanqiang; Shen, Jiacong

    2007-07-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid multilayer films with noncentrosymmetrically orientated azobenzene chromophores were fabricated by the sequential deposition of ZrO2 layers by a surface sol-gel process and subsequent layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption of the nonlinear optical (NLO)-active azobenzene-containing polyanion PAC-azoBNS and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). Noncentrosymmetric orientation of the NLO-active azobenzene chromophores was achieved because of the strong repulsion between the negatively charged ZrO(2) and the sulfonate groups of the azobenzene chromophore in PAC-azoBNS. Regular deposition of ZrO(2)/PAC-azoBNS/PDDA multilayer films was verified by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance measurements. Both UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements confirmed the noncentrosymmetric orientation of the azobenzene chromophores in the as-prepared ZrO2/PAC-azoBNS/PDDA multilayer films. The square root of the SHG signal (I(2omega)(1/2)) increases with the increase of the azobenzene graft ratio in PAC-azoBNS as the number of deposition cycles of the ZrO(2)/PAC-azoBNS/PDDA films remains the same, while the second-order susceptibility chi(zzz)(2) of the film decreases with the increase of the azobenzene graft ratio. Furthermore, the present method was successfully extended to realize the noncentrosymmetric orientation of azobenzene chromophores in multilayer films when small organic azobenzene compounds with carboxylic acid and/or hydroxyl groups at one end and sulfonate groups at the other end were used. The present method was characterized by its simplicity and flexibility in film preparation, and it is anticipated to be a facile way to fabricate second-order nonlinear optical film materials. PMID:17555337

  2. Quantum-dot blue light emitting diodes utilizing organic/inorganic hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feifei; Hu, Lian; Zhang, Bingpo; Li, Ruifeng; Wu, Huizhen

    2015-02-01

    We report blue color quantum-dot light-emitting diodes (QDLEDs) using an organic-inorganic hybrid structure and CdZnS-ZnS core-shell quantum-dot emitters. In the device organic ploy(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):ploy(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and NN‧-bis(3-methylphenyl)-NN‧-bis(phenyl)-99-spiro-bifluorene (TPD) thin films are respectively used as the hole-injection layer (HIL) and the hole-transporting layer (HTL), and an inorganic ZnSnO thin film is used as the electron-transporting layer (ETL). In the blue QDLEDs, the function of the TPD-HTL is explored and it is found that the device employing a TPD-HTL exhibits much better optical characteristics compared with that having an identical device layout but without the TPD-HTL. The TPD HTL acts as a transition layer and offers a ladder for the injected holes from PEDOT:PSS to the QDs, leading to an more efficient hole injection. It is further found that the intensity ratio between surface-state emission (SSE) and band-edge emission (BEE) (RS/B) of the two devices shows significant difference at high bias voltages. The SSE becomes more prominent at higher bias voltage in the QDLEDs due to the imbalance injection of holes and electrons. The injected holes firstly encounter the excessive electrons accumulated at the surface of the charged QDs, thus the probability of hole-electron recombination at the QDs surface is greatly enhanced at high bias voltages.

  3. Excited state and charge dynamics of hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunctions. II. Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Anurag; Renshaw, C. Kyle; Oskooi, Ardavan; Lee, Kyusang; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2014-07-01

    In our companion paper (Paper I) [C. K. Renshaw and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 90, 045302 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.045302], we developed a model for charge transport and photogeneration at hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor heterojunctions (OI-HJs). Here we apply the model to two planar bilayer hybrid photovoltaic devices: the first using the wide-band gap n-TiO2 in combination with the hole transporting tetraphenyl-dibenzoperiflanthene (DBP), and the second based on the moderate-band gap n-InP and the hole transporting pentacene (PEN). We measure the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and current density vs voltage (J-V) characteristics of both devices as functions of temperature. The EQE spectra for both TiO2/DBP and InP/PEN provide convincing evidence that Frenkel states generated in the organic form hybrid charge transfer excitons (HCTEs) at the OI-HJ that are subsequently dissociated into free charges, and then collected at the opposing electrodes. The dissociation efficiency is found to be strongly influenced by the presence of surface states, particularly in the InP/PEN device. We further develop the J-V model from Paper I to include an analytical expression for space-charge effects in the organic at high currents. Model fits to the J-V data suggest that the temperature-dependent hole mobilities in both DBP and PEN result in increasing space-charge effects at low temperatures. Furthermore, we find that the J-V characteristics of the TiO2/DBP device both in the dark and under illumination are governed by interface recombination. In contrast, the dark current in the InP/PEN device is governed by injection over the OI-HJ barrier, whereas the photocurrent is dominated by interface recombination. This work elucidates the role of the HCTE state in photogeneration, and the applicability of our model to a range of important optoelectronic devices.

  4. Supramolecular organization in organic-inorganic heterogeneous hybrid catalysts formed from polyoxometalate and poly(ampholyte) polymer.

    PubMed

    Raj, Gijo; Swalus, Colas; Guillet, Alain; Devillers, Michel; Nysten, Bernard; Gaigneaux, Eric M

    2013-04-01

    Hybridization of polyoxometalates (POMs) via the formation of an organic-inorganic association constitutes a new route to develop a heterogeneous POM catalyst with tunable functionality imparted through supramolecular assembly. Herein, we report on strategies to obtain tunable well-defined supramolecular architectures of an organic-inorganic heterogeneous hybrid catalyst formed by the association of a hydrophobically substituted polyampholyte copolymer (poly N, N-diallyl-N-hexylamine-alt-maleic acid) and phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40) POMs. The self-assembling property of the initial polyampholyte copolymer matrix is modulated by controlling the pH of the hybridization solution. When deposited on a mica surface, isolated, long and extended polymer chains are formed under basic conditions (pH 7.9), while globular or coiled structures are formed under acidic conditions (pH 2). The supramolecular assembly of the POM-polymer hybrid is found to be directed by the type and quantities of charges present on the polyampholyte copolymer, which themselves depend on the pH conditions. The hypothesis is that the Keggin type [PW12O40](3-) anions, which have a size of ~1 nm, electrostatically bind to the positive charge sites of the polymer backbone. The hybrid material stabilized at pH 5.3 consists of POM-decorated polymer chains. Statistical analysis of distances between pairs of POM entities show narrow density distributions, suggesting that POM entities are attached to the polymer chains with a high level of order. Conversely, under acidic conditions (pH 2), the hybrid shows the formation of a core-shell type of structure. The strategies reported here, to tune the supramolecular assembly of organic-inorganic hybrid materials, are highly valuable for the design and a more rational utilization of POM heterogeneous catalysts in several chemical transformations. PMID:23480273

  5. Integrated optical components using hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishechkin, Oleg Viktorovich

    2003-10-01

    A technological platform based on low-temperature hybrid sol-gel method for fabrication of optical waveguides and integrated optical components has been developed. The developed chemistry for doping incorporation in the host network provides a range of refractive indexes (1.444--1.51) critical for device optimization. A passivation method for improving long-term stability of organic-inorganic sol-gel material is reported. The degradation of waveguide loss over time due to moisture adsorption from the atmosphere is drastically suppressed by coating the material with a protective thin SiO2 film. The results indicate a long-term optical loss below 0.3 dB/cm for protected waveguides. The theory of multimode interference couplers employing self-imaging effect is described. A novel approach for design of high-performance MMI devices in low-contrast material is proposed. The design method is based on optimization of refractive index contrast and width of a multimode waveguide (the body of MMI couplers) to achieve a maximum number of constructively interfering modes resulting to the best self-imaging. This optimization is carried out using 3D BPM simulations. This method was applied to design 1 x 4, 1 x 12, and 4 x 4 MMI couplers and led to a superior performance in excess loss, power imbalance in output ports, and polarization sensitivity. Taking advantage of the inherent input-output phase relations in a 4 x 4 MMI coupler, an optical 90° hybrid is realized by incorporation a Y-junction to coherently excite two ports of the coupler. A series of MMI couplers were fabricated and characterized. The experimental results are in good agreement with the design. Measured performance of the sol-gel derived MMI components was compared to analogues fabricated by other technologies. The comparison demonstrates the superior performance of the sol-gel devices. The polarization sensitivity of all fabricated couplers is below 0.05 dB.

  6. Low-cost, high-efficiency organic/inorganic hetero-junction hybrid solar cells for next generation photovoltaic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasaini, P. R.; Ayon, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid structures are considered innovative alternatives for the next generation of low-cost photovoltaic devices because they combine advantages of the purely organic and inorganic versions. Here, we report an efficient hybrid solar cell based on sub-wavelength silicon nanotexturization in combination with the spin-coating of poly (3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The described devices were analyzed by collecting current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements in order to explore the organic/inorganic heterojunction properties. ALD deposited ultrathin aluminium oxide was used as a junction passivation layer between the nanotextured silicon surface and the organic polymer. The measured interface defect density of the device was observed to decrease with the inclusion of an ultrathin Al2O3 passivation layer leading to an improved electrical performance. This effect is thought to be ascribed to the suppression of charge recombination at the organic/inorganic interface. A maximum power conversion efficiency in excess of 10% has been achieved for the optimized geometry of the device, in spite of lacking an antireflection layer or back surface field enhancement schemes.

  7. Regulation of responsiveness of phosphorescence toward dissolved oxygen concentration by modulating polymer contents in organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuo; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2014-06-15

    Platinum(II) octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP)-loaded organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained via the microwave-assisted sol-gel condensation with methyltrimethoxysilane and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). From transparent and homogeneous hybrid films, the strong phosphorescence from PtOEP was observed. Next, the resulting hybrids were immersed in the aqueous buffer, and the emission intensity was monitored by changing the dissolved oxygen level in the buffer. When the hybrid with relatively-higher amount of the silica element, the strong phosphorescence was observed even under the aerobic conditions. In contrast, the emission from the hybrids with lower amounts of the silica element was quenched under the hypoxic conditions. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first example to demonstrate that the responsiveness of the phosphorescence intensity of PtOEP in hybrid films to the dissolved oxygen concentration in water can be modulated by changing the percentage of the contents in the material. PMID:24794749

  8. Organic-inorganic hybrid proton exchange membrane based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes and sulfonated polyimides containing benzimidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Pu, Hongting; Chang, Zhihong

    2014-10-01

    A new series of organic-inorganic hybrid proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared using sulfonated polyimides containing benzimidazole (SPIBIs) and glycidyl ether of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (G-POSS). SPIBIs were synthesized using 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA), 5-amino-2-(4-aminophenyl) benzimidazole (APBIA) and 4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl ether-2,2‧-disulfonic acid (ODADS). The organic-inorganic cross-linked membranes can be prepared by SPIBIs with G-POSS by a thermal treatment process. The cross-linking density of the membranes was evaluated by gel fractions. The water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical property, thermal behavior, proton conductivity, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the cross-linked organic-inorganic membranes were intensively investigated. All the cross-linked membranes exhibit high cross-linking density for the gel fraction higher than 70%. Compared to pristine membranes (SPIBIs) and membranes without benzimidazole groups (SPI), the anti-free-radical oxidative and hydrolytic stabilities of cross-linked membranes are significantly higher. The anti-free-oxidative stability of SPIBI-100-P (cross-linked SPIBI membrane with 100% degree of sulfonation) is nearly four-fold higher than that of SPIBI-100. The proton conductivity of the cross-linked membranes ranges from 10-3 S cm-1 to 10-2 S cm-1 depending both on the degree of sulfonation (DS) of the SPIBI and temperature.

  9. Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid fillers at the molecular level and their application to composite resin.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Misaki; Ishikawa, Youichi; Yoshihashi, Kazue; Hirose, Hideharu; Nishiyama, Minoru

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to synthesize a hybrid type filler composed of an organic component with inorganic component at the molecular level and to examine the properties of the filler. The composite resin was prepared by mixing synthesized filler with monomer and its physical properties were also examined. An organic-inorganic hybrid filler was synthesized by using 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (3-MPTS), methyltriethyoxysilane (MTES) and methanol silica sol. Firstly, poly3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (poly3-MPTS) was synthesized by polymerization of 3-MPTS. A gelation product was obtained by graft-polymerization of poly3-MPTS with condensed organopolysiloxane after the hydrolysis of 3-MPTS, MTES and methanol silica sol. The gelation product was dried and ground to a filler. From the results of thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), the organic-inorganic hybrid filler was found to be composed of 16.5 wt% organic component, 83.1 wt% inorganic component and 0.4 wt% residual water. A trial composite resin was prepared by mixing 55 wt% dimethacryloxyethyl 2,2,4-trimethylhexamethylene diurethane (UDMA), 15 wt% triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), 30 wt% 1-fluoro-1,3,3,5,5-penta (methacryloxyethyleneoxy) cyclotriphosphazene [P3N3(F)1 (EMA)5] as a base monomer and then 32.0 wt% of this monomer was mixed with 68.0 wt % of synthesized filler and a photo initiator, comphorquinone (CQ), was added. Compressive strength of the trial visible-light cured composite resin showed 397.0 MPa, and flexural strength and elastic modulus showed 142.5 MPa and 11.5 GPa, respectively. From the results, it was demonstrated that the present organic-inorganic hybrid filler at the molecular level can be used as a composite resin filler. PMID:12613504

  10. Quantum confinement of zero-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic polaritons at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H. S.; Lafosse, X.; Amo, A.; Bouchoule, S.; Bloch, J.; Abdel-Baki, K.; Lauret, J.-S.; Deleporte, E.

    2014-02-24

    We report on the quantum confinement of zero-dimensional polaritons in perovskite-based microcavity at room temperature. Photoluminescence of discrete polaritonic states is observed for polaritons localized in symmetric sphere-like defects which are spontaneously nucleated on the top dielectric Bragg mirror. The linewidth of these confined states is found much sharper (almost one order of magnitude) than that of photonic modes in the perovskite planar microcavity. Our results show the possibility to study organic-inorganic cavity polaritons in confined microstructure and suggest a fabrication method to realize integrated polaritonic devices operating at room temperature.

  11. Luminescent Organic-Inorganic Hybrids of Functionalized Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 by Thio-Salicylidene Schiff Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Yan, Bing; Liu, Jin-Liang

    2010-05-01

    Novel organic-inorganic mesoporous luminescent hybrid material N, N'-bis(salicylidene)-thiocarbohydrazide (BSTC-SBA-15) has been obtained by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate and the organosilane in the presence of Pluronic P123 surfactant as a template. N, N'-bis(salicylidene)-thiocarbohydrazide (BSTC) grafted to the coupling agent 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TESPIC) was used as the precursor for the preparation of mesoporous materials. In addition, for comparison, SBA-15 doped with organic ligand BSTC was also synthesized, denoted as BSTC/SBA-15. This organic-inorganic hybrid material was well-characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and photoluminescence spectra, which reveals that they all have high surface area, uniformity in the mesostructure. The resulting materials (BSTC-SBA-15 and BSTC/SBA-15) exhibit regular uniform microstructures, and no phase separation happened for the organic and the inorganic compounds was covalently linked through Si-O bonds via a self-assemble process. Furthermore, the two materials have different luminescence range: BSTC/SBA-15 presents the strong dominant green luminescence, while BSTC-functionalized material BSTC-SBA-15 shows the dominant blue emission.

  12. Oxygen indicator composed of an organic/inorganic hybrid compound of methylene blue, reductant, surfactant and saponite.

    PubMed

    Sumitani, Makoto; Takagi, Shinsuke; Tanamura, Yoshihiko; Inoue, Haruo

    2004-08-01

    An organic/inorganic hybrid compound consisting of methylene blue, a cationic surfactant and a reductant intercalated into saponite was found to serve as an oxygen indicator that changes color in the presence of oxygen. A mixture of a blue colored dye, methylene blue, a reductant in the form of ascorbic acid or reducing sugar, and cetyltrimethylammonium ion intercalated into synthetic saponite became colorless in an atmosphere having an oxygen concentration of less than 0.1 vol%, and then returned to its blue color as a result of subsequent exposure to air. An oxygen indicator, in the form of a thin film coated on paper prepared by adding a pigment, phloxine B, to the above organic/inorganic hybrid compound, exhibited a pink color at oxygen concentrations of less than 0.1 vol%, and a blue color at oxygen concentrations of higher than 0.5 vol%. In addition, this oxygen indicator exhibited superior photo-fading resistance and storage stability compared with indicators using only methylene blue as the functional dye. PMID:15352503

  13. Antibacterial activity of plastics coated with silver-doped organic-inorganic hybrid coatings prepared by sol-gel processes.

    PubMed

    Marini, M; De Niederhausern, S; Iseppi, R; Bondi, M; Sabia, C; Toselli, M; Pilati, F

    2007-04-01

    Silver-doped organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared starting from tetraethoxysilane- and triethoxysilane-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-block-polyethylene by the sol-gel process. They were applied as a thin layer (0.6-1.1 microm) to polyethylene (PE) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films and the antibacterial activity of the coated films was tested against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538) bacteria. The effect of several factors (such as organic-inorganic ratio, type of catalyst, time of post-curing, silver ion concentration, etc.) was investigated. Measurements at different contact times showed a rapid decrease of the viable count for both tested strains. The highest antibacterial activity [more than 6 log reduction within 6 h starting from 106 colony-forming units (cfu) mL-1] was obtained for samples with an organic-inorganic weight ratio of 80:20 and 5 wt % silver salt with respect to the coating. For the coatings prepared by an acid-catalyzed process, a high level of permanence of the antibacterial activity of the coated films was demonstrated by repeatedly washing the samples in warm water or by immersion in physiological saline solution at 37 degrees C for 3 days. The release of silver ions per square meter of coating is very similar to that previously observed for polyamides filled with metallic silver nanoparticles; however, when compared on the basis of Ag content, the concentration of silver ions released from the coating is much higher than that released from 1 mm thick specimens of polyamide (PA) filled with silver nanoparticles. Transparency and good adhesion of the coating to PE and PVC plastic substrates without any previous surface treatment are further interesting features. PMID:17335284

  14. Dissociation of Methylammonium Cations in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weidong; Liu, Lijia; Yang, Linju; Shen, Pengfei; Sun, Baoquan; McLeod, John A

    2016-07-13

    Organic-inorganic lead perovskites have shown great promise as photovoltaic materials, and within this class of materials (CH3NH3)PbI3-xClx is of particular interest. Herein we use soft X-ray spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations to demonstrate that the methylammonium cations in a typical photovoltaic layer may dissociate into a metastable arrangement of CH3I-Pb2 defects and trapped NH3. The possibility that other metastable configurations of the organic components in (CH3NH3)PbI3-xClx is rarely considered but adds an entirely new dimension in understanding the charge trapping, ionic transport, and structural degradation mechanisms in these materials. Understanding the influence of these other configurations is of critical importance for further improving the performance of these photovoltaics. PMID:27337149

  15. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2010-10-08

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy )-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene](MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 {mu}m laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 {mu}m laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  16. Impedimetric and amperometric bifunctional glucose biosensor based on hybrid organic-inorganic thin films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huihui; Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Endo, Hideaki; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2015-02-01

    A novel glucose biosensor with an immobilized mediator was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and amperometry measurements. The biosensor has a characteristic ultrathin form and is composed of a self-assembled monolayer anchoring glucose oxidase (GOx) covered with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of Prussian blue (PB). The immobilized PB in the LB films acts as a mediator and enables the biosensor to work under a low potential (0.0V vs. Ag/AgCl). In the EIS measurements, a dramatic decrease in charge transfer resistance (Rct) was observed with sequential addition of glucose, which can be attributed to enzymatic activity. The linearity of the biosensor response was observed by the variation of the sensor response (1/Rct) as a function of glucose concentration in the range 0 to 25mM. The sensor also showed linear amperometric response below 130mM glucose. The organic-inorganic system of GOx and PB nanoclusters demonstrated bifunctional sensing action, both amperometry and EIS modes, as well as long sensing stability for 4 days. PMID:25014167

  17. Transmission electron microscope observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin active layers of light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitsui, Yusuke; Ohtani, Naoki

    2012-10-01

    We performed transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films fabricated by the sol-gel reaction and used as the active layers of organic light-emitting diodes. The cross-sectional TEM images show that the films consist of a triple-layer structure. To evaluate the composition of these layers, the distribution of atoms in them was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As a result, most of the organic emissive material, poly(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene-co- N-4-butylphenyl-diphenylamine (TFB), was found to be distributed in the middle layer sandwiched by SiO and SiO2 layers. The surface SiO layer was fabricated due to the lack of oxygen. This means that the best sol-gel condition was changed due to the TFB doping; thus, the novel best condition should be found.

  18. Transmission electron microscope observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin active layers of light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Jitsui, Yusuke; Ohtani, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    We performed transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films fabricated by the sol-gel reaction and used as the active layers of organic light-emitting diodes. The cross-sectional TEM images show that the films consist of a triple-layer structure. To evaluate the composition of these layers, the distribution of atoms in them was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As a result, most of the organic emissive material, poly(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene-co-N-4-butylphenyl-diphenylamine (TFB), was found to be distributed in the middle layer sandwiched by SiO and SiO2 layers. The surface SiO layer was fabricated due to the lack of oxygen. This means that the best sol-gel condition was changed due to the TFB doping; thus, the novel best condition should be found. PMID:23095451

  19. A 3D µPAD based on a multi-enzyme organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflower reactor.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Avidad, M; Salinas-Castillo, A; Capitán-Vallvey, L F

    2016-03-15

    This work reports on the development of a 3D microfluidic paper-based device (3D µPAD) for glucose detection using organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflower technology to immobilize the bi-enzymatic system (glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase). The system is based on nanoflowerssupported on cellulose paper (the microreactor zone) coupled to 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as the colorimetric probe in the detection zone. We used a digital camera for the quantitative analysis of glucose with the S coordinate of the HSV color space as the analytical parameter. Under optimal operational conditions, linearity was observed for glucose concentrations up to 300 μM, with a detection limit of 15.6 µM. The biosensor is reusable and remains stable for 75 days in conventional storage conditions. PMID:26386331

  20. Carbon nanotubes noncovalently functionalized by an organic-inorganic hybrid: new building blocks for constructing superhydrophobic conductive coatings.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mao; Qi, Ji; Zhou, Zhi; Liao, Zhangjie; Zhu, Zhongming; Guo, Honglei

    2010-08-17

    A facile method for constructing superhydrophobic, conductive, and transparent/translucent coatings is presented. Pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are first noncovalently (wrapped) modified by an organic-inorganic hybrid of an amphiphilic copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride and silica with the existence of gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (a silane coupling agent). The modified MWNTs were mixed with tetraethyl orthosilicate in ethanol, air sprayed, coated with a fluoroalkylsilane, and then heat treated to obtain the superhydrophobic, conductive, and transparent/translucent coatings. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the coatings have a micrometer- and nanometer-scale hierarchical structure similar to that of lotus leaves; therefore, they show both high water contact angles (>160 degrees) and low sliding angles (<2 degrees). The coatings also exhibit good transmittance and greatly improved conductivities. This method is convenient, inexpensive, and easy to scale up. Moreover, it does not require any chemical modification of the MWNTs or use any harsh chemicals. PMID:20695543

  1. Efficient conversion of furfuryl alcohol into alkyl levulinates catalyzed by an organic-inorganic hybrid solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zehui; Dong, Kun; Zhao, Zongbao Kent

    2011-01-17

    A clean, facile, and environment-friendly catalytic method has been developed for the conversion of furfuryl alcohol into alkyl levulinates making use of the novel solid catalyst methylimidazolebutylsulfate phosphotungstate ([MIMBS]₃PW₁₂O₄₀). The solid catalyst is an organic-inorganic hybrid material, which consists of an organic cation and an inorganic anion. A study for optimizing the reaction conditions such as the reaction time, the temperature and the catalyst loading has been performed. Under optimal conditions, a high n-butyl levulinate yield of up to 93 % is obtained. Furthermore, the kinetics of the reaction pathways and the mechanism for the alcoholysis of furfuryl alcohol are discussed. This method is environmentally benign and economical for the conversion of biomass-based derivatives into fine chemicals. PMID:21226220

  2. Self-aligned optical couplings by self-organized waveguides toward luminescent targets in organic/inorganic hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Tetsuzo; Iida, Makoto; Nawata, Hideyuki

    2014-06-15

    Self-organization of optical waveguides is observed between two opposed optical fibers placed in a photosensitive organic/inorganic hybrid material, Sunconnect. A luminescent target containing coumarin 481 was deposited onto the edge of one of the two fibers at the core. When a 448-nm write beam was introduced from the other fiber, the write beam and the luminescence from the photoexcited target increased the refractive index of Sunconnect to induce self-focusing. Traces of waveguides were seen to grow from the cores of both fibers and merged into a single self-aligned optical coupling between the fibers. This optical solder functionality enabled increases in both coupling efficiency and tolerance to lateral misalignment of the fibers. PMID:24978520

  3. Dehydrocoupling and Silazane Cleavage Routes to Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymers with NBN Units in the Main Chain.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Thomas; Lik, Artur; Plamper, Felix A; Helten, Holger

    2016-06-13

    Despite the great potential of both π-conjugated organoboron polymers and BN-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organic optoelectronics, our knowledge of conjugated polymers with B-N bonds in their main chain is currently scarce. Herein, the first examples of a new class of organic-inorganic hybrid polymers are presented, which consist of alternating NBN and para-phenylene units. Polycondensation with B-N bond formation provides facile access to soluble materials under mild conditions. The photophysical data for the polymer and molecular model systems of different chain lengths reveal a low extent of π-conjugation across the NBN units, which is supported by DFT calculations. The applicability of the new polymers as macromolecular polyligands is demonstrated by a cross-linking reaction with Zr(IV) . PMID:27151314

  4. Morphology and properties of a hybrid organic-inorganic system: Al nanoparticles embedded into CuPc thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Molodtsova, O. V.; Babenkov, S. V.; Aristova, I. M.; Vilkov, O. V.; Aristov, V. Yu.

    2014-04-28

    The evolution of the morphology and the electronic structure of the hybrid organic-inorganic system composed of aluminum nanoparticles (NPs) distributed in an organic semiconductor matrix—copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)—as a function of nominal aluminum content was studied by transmission electron microscopy and by photoemission spectroscopy methods. The aluminum atoms deposited onto the CuPc surface diffuse into the organic matrix and self-assemble to NPs in a well-defined manner with a narrow diameter distribution, which depends on the amount of aluminum that is evaporated onto the CuPc film. We find clear evidence of a charge transfer from Al to CuPc and we have been able to determine the lattice sites where Al ions sit. The finally at high coverage about 64 Å the formation of metallic aluminum overlayer on CuPc thin film takes place.

  5. Enzymatically degradable hybrid organic-inorganic bridged silsesquioxane nanoparticles for in vitro imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatieiev, Y.; Croissant, J. G.; Julfakyan, K.; Deng, L.; Anjum, D. H.; Gurinov, A.; Khashab, N. M.

    2015-09-01

    We describe biodegradable bridged silsesquioxane (BS) composite nanomaterials with an unusually high organic content (ca. 50%) based on oxamide components mimicking amino acid biocleavable groups. Unlike most bulk BS materials, the design of sub-200 nm nearly monodisperse nanoparticles (NPs) was achieved. These enzymatically degradable BS NPs were further tested as promising imaging nanoprobes.We describe biodegradable bridged silsesquioxane (BS) composite nanomaterials with an unusually high organic content (ca. 50%) based on oxamide components mimicking amino acid biocleavable groups. Unlike most bulk BS materials, the design of sub-200 nm nearly monodisperse nanoparticles (NPs) was achieved. These enzymatically degradable BS NPs were further tested as promising imaging nanoprobes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed synthetic procedure, experimental procedure and Fig. S1-15. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03065j

  6. Photo-responsive properties of azobenzene small molecules in sol-gel hybrid TiO2/ormosil organic-inorganic matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Que, Wenxiu; Hu, X.; Xia, X. L.; Zhao, L.

    2007-01-01

    Azodye-doped TiO2/ormosil hybrid materials for photonic applications were prepared by a low temperature sol-gel process from an organic-inorganic hybrid system. Acid-catalyzed solutions of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxysilane mixed with tetrapropyl orthotitanate were used as hybrid matrix precursors. The trans-cis-trans photoisomerization of azobenzene small molecules in sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic matrices was induced by a photoirradiation with UV light and subsequent visible light. It was found that the hybrid film doped with azodyes and heated at a lower temperature was much better for applications in optical storage or optical switch. The planar waveguide properties of the hybrid films were also investigated by using a prism coupling technique. These results indicates that it is possible for the as prepared hybrid films to allow directly integrating on the same chip the optical storage or optical switch devices with the pump source.

  7. Synthesis and structural characterization of inorganic-organic-inorganic hybrids of dipalladium-substituted γ-Keggin silicodecatungstates.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Tomohisa; Uehara, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Sayaka; Hibino, Mitsuhiro; Kamata, Keigo; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2013-03-01

    Three inorganic-organic-inorganic hybrids of dipalladium-substituted γ-Keggin silicodecatungstates with organic linkers of different lengths, TBA8[{(γ-H2SiW10O36Pd2)(O2C(CH2)nCO2)}2] (n = 1 (II), 3 (III), and 5 (IV), TBA = [(n-C4H9)4N](+)), were synthesized by exchange of the acetate ligands in TBA4[γ-H2SiW10O36Pd2(OAc)2] (ITBA) with malonic, glutaric, and pimelic acids, respectively. The X-ray crystallographic analysis of II, IIIA (IIIA: III with DCE, DCE = 1,2-dichloroethane), and IVA (IVA: IV with 10DCE) revealed that the anion parts of II, IIIA, and IVA were inorganic-organic-inorganic hybrids composed of two dipalladium-substituted γ-Keggin silicodecatungstates connected by two dicarboxylate ligands. In the crystal structure of IVA, 10 DCE molecules per polyanion were present in the vicinity of polyanions. Compound IVB (IVB: IV with 0.2DCE) was obtained by the evacuation of IVA. The DCE sorption-desorption isotherms of IVB showed that the amount of DCE sorbed was saturated at 10.5 mol mol(-1), of which the amount was close to that (10 mol mol(-1)) of crystallographically assigned DCE molecules. In the DCE sorption-desorption isotherms, a low-pressure hysteresis was observed probably because of hydrogen-bonding interaction between DCE molecules and polyanions. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of IVA changed with decrease in the relative DCE vapor pressure to form IVC (IVC: IV with 0.7DCE) at P/P0 = 0.0. The in situ powder XRD study showed reversible structure transformation between IVA and IVC driven by the sorption-desorption of DCE. PMID:23398623

  8. Nb-Ta, Nb-Mo and Nb-V oxides prepared from hybrid organic-inorganic precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Deligne, N.; Bayot, D.; Degand, M.; Devillers, M.

    2007-07-15

    New hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on group 5 elements and a well-defined polymeric matrix have been prepared and used as precursors for Nb-Ta and Nb-Mo mixed oxides. In this non-conventional but easily accessible route to multimetallic oxides, a copolymer of N,N-diallyl-N-hexylamine and maleic acid was synthesised and used as matrix to stabilise inorganic species generated in solution from (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}.4H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} (gu){sub 3}[Nb(O{sub 2}){sub 4}] and (gu){sub 3}[Ta(O{sub 2}){sub 4}]. Solid-state studies indicate that the homogeneity of the blends can be kept up to about 0.5 mol Nb{sup V} and Ta{sup V} and 0.25 mol V{sup V} per mol of repeat units of the copolymer. The calcination conditions of these homogeneous hybrid precursors were optimised to produce Nb-Mo, Nb-Ta and Nb-V oxides. While the thermal treatment of the Nb-V hybrid blends led only to a mixture of different phases, the characterisation of the final phases by X-ray diffraction (XRD) proved the formation of pure Nb{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 14} and showed that Nb-Ta oxides could be synthesised as single phases corresponding to a continuous series of solid solutions. - Graphical abstract: An alternative route based on hybrid organic-inorganic materials was implemented to synthesise Nb-Ta, Nb-Mo and Nb-V oxides. The hybrid materials were prepared by incorporation of inorganic salts based on Nb{sup V}, Ta{sup V}, V{sup V} and Mo{sup VI} in an organic polymer bearing cationic as well as anionic moieties. A thermal treatment of these hybrid blends has allowed the formation of multimetallic oxides.

  9. High-performance organic/inorganic hybrid heterojunction based on Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) substrates and a conjugated polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameel, D. A.; Felix, J. F.; Aziz, M.; Al Saqri, N.; Taylor, D.; de Azevedo, W. M.; da Silva, E. F.; Albalawi, H.; Alghamdi, H.; Al Mashary, F.; Henini, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present an extensive study of the electrical properties of organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunctions. Polyaniline (PANI) thin films were deposited by a very simple technique on (1 0 0) and (3 1 1)B n-type Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) substrates to fabricate hybrid devices with excellent electrical properties. The hybrid devices were electrically characterized using current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements in the temperature range 20-440 K. The analysis of I-V characteristics based on the thermionic emission mechanism has shown a decrease of the barrier height and an increase of the ideality factor at lower temperatures for both hybrid devices. The interface states were analyzed by series resistance obtained using the C-G-V methods. The interface state density (Dit) of PANI/(1 0 0) GaAs devices is approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of PANI/(3 1 1)B GaAs devices. This behaviour is attributed to the effect of crystallographic orientation of the substrates, and was confirmed by DLTS results as well. Additionally, the devices show excellent air stability, with rectification ratio values almost unaltered after two years of storage under ambient conditions, making the polyaniline an interesting conductor polymer for future devices applications.

  10. Biomineralized biomimetic organic/inorganic hybrid hydrogels based on hyaluronic acid and poloxamer.

    PubMed

    Huh, Hyun Wook; Zhao, Linlin; Kim, So Yeon

    2015-08-01

    A biomineralized hydrogel system containing hyaluronic acid (HA) and poloxamer composed of a poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene oxide)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymer was developed as a biomimetic thermo-responsive injectable hydrogel system for bone regeneration. Using HA and poloxamer macromers with polymerizable residues, organic/inorganic HA/poloxamer hydrogels with various compositions were prepared and subjected to a biomineralization process to mimic the bone extracellular matrix. An increase in HA content within the hydrogels enhanced intermolecular chelation with calcium ions, leading to an increase in nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate in the hydrogels. After the biomineralization procedure, a crystalline formation was observed within and on the surface of the hydrogel. All of the HA/poloxamer hydrogel samples exhibited relatively high water content of greater than 90% at 25 °C, and the water content was influenced by the HA/poloxamer composition, biomineralization, and temperature. In particular, the HA/poloxamer hydrogel was injectable through a syringe without demonstrating appreciable macroscopic fracture at room temperature, whereas it was more opaque and adopted a more rigid structure as the temperature increased because of the increasing hydrophobicity of poloxamer. The enzymatic degradation behavior of the hydrogels depended on the concentration of hyaluronidase, HA/poloxamer composition, and biomineralization. The release kinetics of model drugs from HA/poloxamer hydrogels was primarily dependent on the drug loading content, water content, biomineralization of the hydrogels, and ionic properties of the drug. These results indicate that biomineralized HA/poloxamer hydrogel is a promising candidate material for a biomimetic hydrogel system that promotes bone tissue repair and regeneration via local delivery of drugs. PMID:25933531

  11. New organic-inorganic hybrid molecular systems and highly organized materials in catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustov, L. M.

    2015-11-01

    Definitions of hybrid materials are suggested, and applications of these materials are considered. Particular attention is focused on the application of hybrid materials in hydrogenation, partial oxidation, plant biomass conversion, and natural gas reforming, primarily on the use of core-shell nanoparticles and decorated metal nanoparticles in these reactions. Application prospects of various hybrid materials, particularly those of metal-organic frameworks, are discussed.

  12. Characterization and evaluation of C18 HPLC stationary phases based on ethyl-bridged hybrid organic/inorganic particles.

    PubMed

    Wyndham, Kevin D; O'Gara, John E; Walter, Thomas H; Glose, Kenneth H; Lawrence, Nicole L; Alden, Bonnie A; Izzo, Gary S; Hudalla, Christopher J; Iraneta, Pamela C

    2003-12-15

    The characterization and evaluation of three novel 5-microm HPLC column packings, prepared using ethyl-bridged hybrid organic/inorganic materials, is described. These highly spherical hybrid particles, which vary in specific surface area (140, 187, and 270 m(2)/g) and average pore diameter (185, 148, and 108 A), were characterized by elemental analysis, SEM, and nitrogen sorption analysis and were chemically modified in a two-step process using octadecyltrichlorosilane and trimethylchlorosilane. The resultant bonded materials had an octadecyl surface concentration of 3.17-3.35 micromol/m(2), which is comparable to the coverage obtained for an identically bonded silica particle (3.44 micromol/m(2)) that had a surface area of 344 m(2)/g. These hybrid materials were shown to have sufficient mechanical strength under conditions normally employed for traditional reversed-phase HPLC applications, using a high-pressure column flow test. The chromatographic properties of the C(18) bonded hybrid phases were compared to a C(18) bonded silica using a variety of neutral and basic analytes under the same mobile-phase conditions. The hybrid phases exhibited similar selectivity to the silica-based column, yet had improved peak tailing factors for the basic analytes. Column retentivity increased with increasing particle surface area. Elevated pH aging studies of these hybrid materials showed dramatic improvement in chemical stability for both bonded and unbonded hybrid materials compared to the C(18) bonded silica phase, as determined by monitoring the loss in column efficiency through 140-h exposure to a pH 10 triethylamine mobile phase at 50 degrees C. PMID:14670036

  13. Covalent organic/inorganic hybrid proton-conductive membrane with semi-interpenetrating polymer network: Preparation and characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Rong-Qiang; Woo, Jung-Je; Seo, Seok-Jun; Lee, Jae-Suk; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2008-05-01

    A series of new covalent organic/inorganic hybrid proton-conductive membranes, each with a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN), for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications is prepared through the following sequence: (i) copolymerization of impregnated styrene (St), p-vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) and divinylbenzene (DVB) within a supporting polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film; (ii) reaction of the chloromethyl group with 3-(methylamine)propyl-trimethoxysilane (MAPTMS); (ii) a sol-gel process under acidic conditions; (iv) a sulfonation reaction. The developed membranes are characterized in terms of Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance (FTIR/ATR), scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDXA), elemental analysis (EA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which confirm the formation of the target membranes. The developed copolymer chains are interpenetrating with the PVC matrix to form the semi-IPN structure, and the inorganic silica is covalently bound to the copolymers. These features provide the membranes with high mechanical strength. The effect of silica content is investigated. As the silica content increases, proton conductivity and water content decrease, whereas oxidative stability is improved. In particular, methanol permeability and methanol uptake are reduced largely by the silica. The ratio of proton conductivity to methanol permeability for the hybrid membranes is higher than that of Nafion 117. All these properties make the hybrid membranes a potential candidate for DMFC applications.

  14. Organic/inorganic hybrid pn-junction between copper phthalocyanine and CdSe quantum dot layers as solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sudip K.; Guchhait, Asim; Pal, Amlan J.

    2012-08-01

    We have introduced an organic/inorganic hybrid pn-junction for solar cell applications. Layers of II-VI quantum dots and a metal-phthalocyanine in sequence have been used as n- and p-type materials, respectively, to form a junction. The film of quantum dots has been formed through a layer-by-layer process by replacing the long-chain ligands of the nanoparticles in each ultrathin layer or a monolayer with short-chain ones so that interparticle distance becomes small leading to a decrease in resistance of the quantum dot layer. With indium tin oxide and Au as electrodes, we have formed an inverted sandwiched structure. These electrodes formed ohmic contacts with the neighboring materials. From the current-voltage characteristics of the hybrid heterostructure, we have inferred formation of a depletion region at the pn-junction that played a key role in charge separation and correspondingly a photocurrent in the external circuit. For comparison, we have also formed and characterized Schottky devices based on components of the pn-junction keeping the electrode combination same. From capacitance-voltage characteristics, we have observed that the depletion region of the hybrid pn-junction was much wider as compared to that in Schottky devices based on components of the junction.

  15. Oxide Semiconductor-Based Flexible Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Polydimethylsiloxane Elastomer.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soon-Won; Choi, Jeong-Seon; Park, Jung Ho; Koo, Jae Bon; Park, Chan Woo; Na, Bock Soon; Oh, Ji-Young; Lim, Sang Chul; Lee, Sang Seok; Chu, Hye Yong

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate flexible organic/inorganic hybrid thin-film transistors (TFTs) on a polydimethysilox- ane (PDMS) elastomer substrate. The active channel and gate insulator of the hybrid TFT are composed of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) and blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF- TrFE)] with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), respectively. It has been confirmed that the fabri- cated TFT display excellent characteristics: the recorded field-effect mobility, sub-threshold voltage swing, and I(on)/I(off) ratio were approximately 0.35 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), 1.5 V/decade, and 10(4), respectively. These characteristics did not experience any degradation at a bending radius of 15 mm. These results correspond to the first demonstration of a hybrid-type TFT using an organic gate insulator/oxide semiconducting active channel structure fabricated on PDMS elastomer, and demonstrate the feasibility of a promising device in a flexible electronic system. PMID:27455702

  16. Hybrid organic inorganic materials: Layered hydroxy double salts intercalated with substituted thiophene monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronto, Jairo; Leroux, Fabrice; Dubois, Marc; Taviot-Gueho, Christine; Valim, João Barros

    2006-05-01

    The present paper describes the synthesis and characterization of Layered Hydroxy Double Salts (HDSs) containing substituted thiophene anions (2-thiophenecarboxylate, 3-thiophenecarboxylate, and 3-thiopheneacetate). The HDSs host was synthesized via hydrothermal method and the organic anions were incorporated between the sheets by anion-exchange reaction. The materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermal gravimetric (TG) analysis and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. For the 2D-hybrid materials, the basal spacing is found to be consistent with the formation of bilayers of the intercalated organic monomers. For the hybrid material formed after intercalation of 3-thiopheneacetate anion, the ESR signals suggest that the monomers connect each other directly forming small oligomers, whereas this process is not occurring for the two other monomers presenting short alkyl chain. The TG analyses show different stages of thermal decomposition between HDSs host and 2D-hybrid materials, underlining the enhanced thermal stability of the hybrid assembly.

  17. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials Depth Profiling Using Low Energy Cesium Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, Céline; Houssiau, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    The structures developed in organic electronics, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) or organic photovoltaics (OPVs) devices always involve hybrid interfaces, joining metal or oxide layers with organic layers. No satisfactory method to probe these hybrid interfaces physical chemistry currently exists. One promising way to analyze such interfaces is to use in situ ion beam etching, but this requires ion beams able to depth profile both inorganic and organic layers. Mono- or diatomic ion beams commonly used to depth profile inorganic materials usually perform badly on organics, while cluster ion beams perform excellently on organics but yield poor results when organics and inorganics are mixed. Conversely, low energy Cs+ beams (<500 eV) allow organic and inorganic materials depth profiling with comparable erosion rates. This paper shows a successful depth profiling of a model hybrid system made of metallic (Au, Cr) and organic (tyrosine) layers, sputtered with 500 eV Cs+ ions. Tyrosine layers capped with metallic overlayers are depth profiled easily, with high intensities for the characteristic molecular ions and other specific fragments. Metallic Au or Cr atoms are recoiled into the organic layer where they cause some damage near the hybrid interface as well as changes in the erosion rate. However, these recoil implanted metallic atoms do not appear to severely degrade the depth profile overall quality. This first successful hybrid depth profiling report opens new possibilities for the study of OLEDs, organic solar cells, or other hybrid devices.

  18. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials Depth Profiling Using Low Energy Cesium Ions.

    PubMed

    Noël, Céline; Houssiau, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The structures developed in organic electronics, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) or organic photovoltaics (OPVs) devices always involve hybrid interfaces, joining metal or oxide layers with organic layers. No satisfactory method to probe these hybrid interfaces physical chemistry currently exists. One promising way to analyze such interfaces is to use in situ ion beam etching, but this requires ion beams able to depth profile both inorganic and organic layers. Mono- or diatomic ion beams commonly used to depth profile inorganic materials usually perform badly on organics, while cluster ion beams perform excellently on organics but yield poor results when organics and inorganics are mixed. Conversely, low energy Cs(+) beams (<500 eV) allow organic and inorganic materials depth profiling with comparable erosion rates. This paper shows a successful depth profiling of a model hybrid system made of metallic (Au, Cr) and organic (tyrosine) layers, sputtered with 500 eV Cs(+) ions. Tyrosine layers capped with metallic overlayers are depth profiled easily, with high intensities for the characteristic molecular ions and other specific fragments. Metallic Au or Cr atoms are recoiled into the organic layer where they cause some damage near the hybrid interface as well as changes in the erosion rate. However, these recoil implanted metallic atoms do not appear to severely degrade the depth profile overall quality. This first successful hybrid depth profiling report opens new possibilities for the study of OLEDs, organic solar cells, or other hybrid devices. PMID:26883532

  19. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials Depth Profiling Using Low Energy Cesium Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, Céline; Houssiau, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The structures developed in organic electronics, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) or organic photovoltaics (OPVs) devices always involve hybrid interfaces, joining metal or oxide layers with organic layers. No satisfactory method to probe these hybrid interfaces physical chemistry currently exists. One promising way to analyze such interfaces is to use in situ ion beam etching, but this requires ion beams able to depth profile both inorganic and organic layers. Mono- or diatomic ion beams commonly used to depth profile inorganic materials usually perform badly on organics, while cluster ion beams perform excellently on organics but yield poor results when organics and inorganics are mixed. Conversely, low energy Cs+ beams (<500 eV) allow organic and inorganic materials depth profiling with comparable erosion rates. This paper shows a successful depth profiling of a model hybrid system made of metallic (Au, Cr) and organic (tyrosine) layers, sputtered with 500 eV Cs+ ions. Tyrosine layers capped with metallic overlayers are depth profiled easily, with high intensities for the characteristic molecular ions and other specific fragments. Metallic Au or Cr atoms are recoiled into the organic layer where they cause some damage near the hybrid interface as well as changes in the erosion rate. However, these recoil implanted metallic atoms do not appear to severely degrade the depth profile overall quality. This first successful hybrid depth profiling report opens new possibilities for the study of OLEDs, organic solar cells, or other hybrid devices.

  20. Solution-processed photodetectors based on organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite and nanocrystalline graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Du, Songnan; Yuan, Fang; Li, Zigang; Li, Zhenjun; Dai, Qing; Wang, Haolan; Luo, Shiqiang; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhou, Hang

    2016-04-01

    We present here solution-processed photodetectors based on a methyl ammonium lead iodide perovskite (MAPbI3) and nanocrystalline graphite (NCG) hybrid composite. The highest responsivity of the best MAPbI3/NCG photodetector was 795 mA W-1 at 500 nm visible light, which is almost twice as high as that of the NCG-free MAPbI3 photodetector (408 mA W-1). The enhanced performance of the MAPbI3/NCG photodetector arises from the improved charge extraction at the MAPbI3/NCG interface. The dependence of photodetector performance on the mass percentage of NCG (the ratio of NCG to MAPbI3) in the hybrid materials is also reported here, and is correlated to the fabrication process. Moreover, by comparing the responsivity of the devices with different channel lengths, we show that the performance of hybrid photodetectors can be further tuned by tailoring the channel length.

  1. Photoluminescence and quantum yields of organic/inorganic hybrids prepared through formic acid solvolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lianshe; Sá Ferreira, R. A.; Fernandes, M.; Nunes, S. C.; de Zea Bermudez, V.; Hungerford, Graham; Rocha, J.; Carlos, L. D.

    2008-03-01

    Three undoped di-urea cross-linked poly(oxyethylene) (POE)/siloxane hybrid matrices, classed as di-ureasils, incorporating POE segments with different lengths were prepared through the carboxylic acid solvolysis sol-gel method using formic acid. The resulting hybrids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy, 29Si and cross-polarization 13C magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The hybrids' structure is essentially independent of the polymer chain length and the materials are room temperature white-light emitters with emission quantum yields of ˜10 ± 1% and lifetime average values between 2 and 4 ns. For the di-ureasil host with short polymer chains the solvolysis method favours the increase of the PL quantum yields relatively to conventional sol-gel route.

  2. Electroluminescence from colloidal semiconductor CdSe nanoplatelets in hybrid organic-inorganic light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitukhnovsky, A. G.; Lebedev, V. S.; Selyukov, A. S.; Vashchenko, A. A.; Vasiliev, R. B.; Sokolikova, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of a hybrid light-emitting-diode based on colloidal semiconductor CdSe nanoplatelets as emitters and organic TAZ [3-(Biphenyl-4-yl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole] and TPD [N, N‧-bis (3-methylphenyl)-N, N‧-bis (phenyl)-benzidine] materials as the electron and hole transporting layers. Electroluminescent and current-voltage characteristics of the developed hybrid device with the turn-on voltage of 5.5 V and the radiation wavelength of 515 nm have been obtained. Semiconductor nanoplatelets like CdSe are attractive for the fabrication of hybrid LEDs with low operating voltages, spectrally pure color and short-wavelength electroluminescence, which is required for RGB devices.

  3. Spatial Electron-hole Separation in a One Dimensional Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Lead Iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savory, Christopher N.; Palgrave, Robert G.; Bronstein, Hugo; Scanlon, David O.

    2016-02-01

    The increasing efficiency of the inorganic-organic hybrid halides has revolutionised photovoltaic research. Despite this rapid progress, the significant issues of poor stability and toxicity have yet to be suitably overcome. In this article, we use Density Functional Theory to examine (Pb2I6) · (H2DPNDI) · (H2O) · (NMP), an alternative lead-based hybrid inorganic-organic solar absorber based on a photoactive organic cation. Our results demonstrate that optical properties suitable for photovoltaic applications, in addition to spatial electron-hole separation, are possible but efficient charge transport may be a limiting factor.

  4. Spatial Electron-hole Separation in a One Dimensional Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Lead Iodide.

    PubMed

    Savory, Christopher N; Palgrave, Robert G; Bronstein, Hugo; Scanlon, David O

    2016-01-01

    The increasing efficiency of the inorganic-organic hybrid halides has revolutionised photovoltaic research. Despite this rapid progress, the significant issues of poor stability and toxicity have yet to be suitably overcome. In this article, we use Density Functional Theory to examine (Pb2I6) · (H2DPNDI) · (H2O) · (NMP), an alternative lead-based hybrid inorganic-organic solar absorber based on a photoactive organic cation. Our results demonstrate that optical properties suitable for photovoltaic applications, in addition to spatial electron-hole separation, are possible but efficient charge transport may be a limiting factor. PMID:26858147

  5. Organic-inorganic hybrid inverted photodiode with planar heterojunction for achieving low dark current and high detectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, JaeUn; Yoon, Seongwon; Lee, Jong-Soo; Chung, Dae Sung

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the strategy of using an organic-inorganic hybrid planar heterojunction consisting of polymeric semiconductors and inorganic nanocrystals is introduced to realize a high-performance hybrid photodiode (HPD) with low dark current and high detectivity. To prevent undesired charge injection under the reverse bias condition, which is the major dark current source of the photodiode, a well-defined planar heterojunction is strategically constructed via smart solution process techniques. The optimized HPD renders a low dark current of ˜10-5 mA cm-2 at -5 V and ˜10-6 mA cm-2 at -1 V, as well as a high detectivity ˜1012 Jones across the entire visible wavelength range. Furthermore, excellent photocurrent stability is demonstrated under continuous light exposure. We believe that the solution-processed planar heterojunction with inverted structure can be an attractive alternative diode structure for fabricating high-performance HPDs, which usually suffer from high dark current issues.

  6. A Simple Approach for Molecular Controlled Release based on Atomic Layer Deposition Hybridized Organic-Inorganic Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehler, Christian; Güder, Firat; Kücükbayrak, Umut M.; Zacharias, Margit; Asplund, Maria

    2016-01-01

    On-demand release of bioactive substances with high spatial and temporal control offers ground-breaking possibilities in the field of life sciences. However, available strategies for developing such release systems lack the possibility of combining efficient control over release with adequate storage capability in a reasonably compact system. In this study we present a new approach to target this deficiency by the introduction of a hybrid material. This organic-inorganic material was fabricated by atomic layer deposition of ZnO into thin films of polyethylene glycol, forming the carrier matrix for the substance to be released. Sub-surface growth mechanisms during this process converted the liquid polymer into a solid, yet water-soluble, phase. This layer permits extended storage for various substances within a single film of only a few micrometers in thickness, and hence demands minimal space and complexity. Improved control over release of the model substance Fluorescein was achieved by coating the hybrid material with a conducting polymer film. Single dosage and repetitive dispensing from this system was demonstrated. Release was controlled by applying a bias potential of ±0.5 V to the polymer film enabling or respectively suppressing the expulsion of the model drug. In vitro tests showed excellent biocompatibility of the presented system.

  7. Quasiparticle band gap of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites: Crystal structure, spin-orbit coupling, and self-energy effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weiwei; Gao, Xiang; Abtew, Tesfaye; Sun, Yiyang; Zhang, Shengbai; Zhang, Peihong

    The quasiparticle band gaps of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are often determined (and can be controlled) by various factors, complicating predictive materials optimization. Here we report a comprehensive investigation on the band gap formation mechanism in CH3NH3PbI3 by decoupling various contributing factors which ultimately determine their electronic structure and quasiparticle band gap. Four major factors, namely, quasiparticle self-energy, spin-orbit coupling, volume (lattice constant) effects, and structural distortions due to the presence of organic molecules, and their influences on the quasiparticle band structure of organometal hybrid perovskites are illustrated. We find that although methylammonium cations do not contribute directly to the electronic states near band edges, they play an important role in defining the band gap through a lattice distortion mechanism and by controlling the overall lattice constants (thus the chemical bonding of the optically active PbI3-). The spin-orbit coupling effects drastically reduce the electron and hole effective masses in these systems, which is beneficial for high carrier mobilities and small exciton binding energies. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11328401), NSF (Grant No. DMR-0946404 and DMR-1506669), and the SUNY Networks of Excellence.

  8. Structure and magnetic properties of SiO2/PCL novel sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Cristina Mozzati, Maria; Ferrara, Chiara; Mustarelli, Piercarlo

    2013-07-01

    Organic-inorganic nanocomposite materials have been synthesized via sol-gel. They consist of an inorganic SiO2 matrix, in which different percentages of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) have been incorporated. The formation of H-bonds among the carbonyl groups of the polymer chains and Si-OH group of the inorganic matrix has been proved by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and has been confirmed by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis highlighted the amorphous nature of the synthesized materials. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph and atomic force microscope (AFM) topography showed their homogeneous morphology and nanostructure nature. Considering the opportunity to synthesize these hybrid materials under microgravity conditions by means of magnetic levitation, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry has been used to quantify their magnetic susceptibility. This measure has shown that the SiO2/PCL hybrid materials are diamagnetic and that their diamagnetic susceptibility is independent of temperature and increases with the PCL amount.

  9. Crafting semiconductor organic-inorganic nanocomposites via placing conjugated polymers in intimate contact with nanocrystals for hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Lin, Zhiqun

    2012-08-22

    Semiconductor organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells incorporating conjugated polymers (CPs) and nanocrystals (NCs) offer the potential to deliver efficient energy conversion with low-cost fabrication. The CP-based photovoltaic devices are complimented by an extensive set of advantageous characteristics from CPs and NCs, such as lightweight, flexibility, and solution-processability of CPs, combined with high electron mobility and size-dependent optical properties of NCs. Recent research has witnessed rapid advances in an emerging field of directly tethering CPs on the NC surface to yield an intimately contacted CP-NC nanocomposite possessing a well-defined interface that markedly promotes the dispersion of NCs within the CP matrix, facilitates the photoinduced charge transfer between these two semiconductor components, and provides an effective platform for studying the interfacial charge separation and transport. In this Review, we aim to highlight the recent developments in CP-NC nanocomposite materials, critically examine the viable preparative strategies geared to craft intimate CP-NC nanocomposites and their photovoltaic performance in hybrid solar cells, and finally provide an outlook for future directions of this extraordinarily rich field. PMID:22761026

  10. A Simple Approach for Molecular Controlled Release based on Atomic Layer Deposition Hybridized Organic-Inorganic Layers

    PubMed Central

    Boehler, Christian; Güder, Firat; Kücükbayrak, Umut M.; Zacharias, Margit; Asplund, Maria

    2016-01-01

    On-demand release of bioactive substances with high spatial and temporal control offers ground-breaking possibilities in the field of life sciences. However, available strategies for developing such release systems lack the possibility of combining efficient control over release with adequate storage capability in a reasonably compact system. In this study we present a new approach to target this deficiency by the introduction of a hybrid material. This organic-inorganic material was fabricated by atomic layer deposition of ZnO into thin films of polyethylene glycol, forming the carrier matrix for the substance to be released. Sub-surface growth mechanisms during this process converted the liquid polymer into a solid, yet water-soluble, phase. This layer permits extended storage for various substances within a single film of only a few micrometers in thickness, and hence demands minimal space and complexity. Improved control over release of the model substance Fluorescein was achieved by coating the hybrid material with a conducting polymer film. Single dosage and repetitive dispensing from this system was demonstrated. Release was controlled by applying a bias potential of ±0.5 V to the polymer film enabling or respectively suppressing the expulsion of the model drug. In vitro tests showed excellent biocompatibility of the presented system. PMID:26791399

  11. A Simple Approach for Molecular Controlled Release based on Atomic Layer Deposition Hybridized Organic-Inorganic Layers.

    PubMed

    Boehler, Christian; Güder, Firat; Kücükbayrak, Umut M; Zacharias, Margit; Asplund, Maria

    2016-01-01

    On-demand release of bioactive substances with high spatial and temporal control offers ground-breaking possibilities in the field of life sciences. However, available strategies for developing such release systems lack the possibility of combining efficient control over release with adequate storage capability in a reasonably compact system. In this study we present a new approach to target this deficiency by the introduction of a hybrid material. This organic-inorganic material was fabricated by atomic layer deposition of ZnO into thin films of polyethylene glycol, forming the carrier matrix for the substance to be released. Sub-surface growth mechanisms during this process converted the liquid polymer into a solid, yet water-soluble, phase. This layer permits extended storage for various substances within a single film of only a few micrometers in thickness, and hence demands minimal space and complexity. Improved control over release of the model substance Fluorescein was achieved by coating the hybrid material with a conducting polymer film. Single dosage and repetitive dispensing from this system was demonstrated. Release was controlled by applying a bias potential of ± 0.5 V to the polymer film enabling or respectively suppressing the expulsion of the model drug. In vitro tests showed excellent biocompatibility of the presented system. PMID:26791399

  12. Hybrid organic/inorganic thin-film multijunction solar cells exceeding 11% power conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Roland, Steffen; Neubert, Sebastian; Albrecht, Steve; Stannowski, Bernd; Seger, Mark; Facchetti, Antonio; Schlatmann, Rutger; Rech, Bernd; Neher, Dieter

    2015-02-18

    Hybrid multijunction solar cells comprising hydrogenated amorphous silicon and an organic bulk heterojunction are presented, reaching 11.7% power conversion efficiency. The benefits of merging inorganic and organic subcells are pointed out, the optimization of the cells, including optical modeling predictions and tuning of the recombination contact are described, and an outlook of this technique is given. PMID:25581318

  13. Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous tin oxophosphate in the presence of anionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Mal, Nawal Kishor; Fujiwara, Masahiro; Matsukata, Masahiko

    2005-11-01

    Synthesis of novel mesoporous hybrid tin oxophosphate is reported from phenylphosphonic acid as the only precursor of phosphorus in the presence of anionic surfactant (SDS), which possesses a wormhole mesoporous structure and is stable even after calcination at 550 degrees C. PMID:16228034

  14. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials: nanoparticle containing organogels with myriad applications.

    PubMed

    Peveler, William J; Bear, Joseph C; Southern, Paul; Parkin, Ivan P

    2014-11-28

    The synthesis of hybrid inorganic-organic materials from a single-component organogelator is reported. Varied functional inorganic materials were included and the resultant physico-chemical properties of the gels are presented. These materials are quick, versatile, can be cast into virtually any form, and the nanoparticles are easily reclaimed. PMID:25302345

  15. Hyperbranched quasi-1D TiO2 nanostructure for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ghadirzadeh, Ali; Passoni, Luca; Grancini, Giulia; Terraneo, Giancarlo; Li Bassi, Andrea; Petrozza, Annamaria; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2015-04-15

    The performance of hybrid solar cells is strongly affected by the device morphology. In this work, we demonstrate a poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/TiO2 hybrid solar cell where the TiO2 photoanode comprises an array of tree-like hyperbranched quasi-1D nanostructures self-assembled from the gas phase. This advanced architecture enables us to increase the power conversion efficiency to over 1%, doubling the efficiency with respect to state of the art devices employing standard mesoporous titania photoanodes. This improvement is attributed to several peculiar features of this array of nanostructures: high interfacial area; increased optical density thanks to the enhanced light scattering; and enhanced crystallization of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) inside the quasi-1D nanostructure. PMID:25822757

  16. Improvement of device performance by using zinc oxide in hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Akinobu; Sagawa, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowder was applied to hybrid solar cells in combination with poly(3-hexylthiophene). Stability tests of the hybrid solar cell with or without encapsulation with glass and UV cut-off films were performed under 1 sun at 63 °C at a relative humidity of 50%. It was found that the sealed cell showed worse device performance in terms of the loss of the open-circuit voltage (Voc), whereas the unsealed cell exposed to air retained an almost constant Voc for more than 3 d under dark and atmospheric conditions. Placement in O2 atmosphere in the dark led to the recovery of Voc. Cation (Sn4+) doping into ZnO was performed, and the loss of Voc was effectively suppressed through the restraint of the supply of the excited electron from the valence band to the conduction band.

  17. Construction & characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid materials for applications in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nikhil

    The use of soft matter to direct the organization of hard materials into functional geometries has been a paradigm inspired by nature. Polymer based systems can be engineered to reproducibly adopt nano-scale architectures. Designing interactions between such polymer templates and inorganic nanoparticles gives rise to nano-scale hybrid materials that may be deployable in applications ranging from magnetism to optoelectronics and lasing. In particular, hybrid one dimensional nanostructures exhibit a strong anisotropy in their physical properties. This anisotropy may be utilized for applications that require a directional transfer of signals or an orientation dependent physical response. The construction of one dimensional nanoparticle arrays via polymer based templates is detailed. Nano-scale arrays have been created using self-assembling peptide templates. Peptides adopt secondary and higher order hierarchical conformations in solution. The ability to engineer different types of functionality at precise locations in the assembled architecture presents possibilities of patterning matter at length scales inaccessible by lithographic techniques. Micro-scale particle arrays have been constructed via electrospinning, an electric-field assisted solution spinning technique. Correlations between the structural morphology and the optical behavior of these polymer-particle hybrid arrays have been investigated. Magnetic nanoparticle arrays displaying orientation dependent magnetic behavior have been constructed by coaxial electrospinning.

  18. Solution-processed photodetectors based on organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite and nanocrystalline graphite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Du, Songnan; Yuan, Fang; Li, Zigang; Li, Zhenjun; Dai, Qing; Wang, Haolan; Luo, Shiqiang; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhou, Hang

    2016-04-29

    We present here solution-processed photodetectors based on a methyl ammonium lead iodide perovskite (MAPbI3) and nanocrystalline graphite (NCG) hybrid composite. The highest responsivity of the best MAPbI3/NCG photodetector was 795 mA W(-1) at 500 nm visible light, which is almost twice as high as that of the NCG-free MAPbI3 photodetector (408 mA W(-1)). The enhanced performance of the MAPbI3/NCG photodetector arises from the improved charge extraction at the MAPbI3/NCG interface. The dependence of photodetector performance on the mass percentage of NCG (the ratio of NCG to MAPbI3) in the hybrid materials is also reported here, and is correlated to the fabrication process. Moreover, by comparing the responsivity of the devices with different channel lengths, we show that the performance of hybrid photodetectors can be further tuned by tailoring the channel length. PMID:26978061

  19. Photoconductive properties of organic-inorganic hybrid films of layered perovskite-type niobate.

    PubMed

    Saruwatari, Kazuko; Sato, Hisako; Idei, Tomochika; Kameda, Jun; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Takagaki, Atsushi; Domen, Kazunari

    2005-06-30

    A hybrid film of layered niobate and an organic amphiphile was prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. Trimethylammonium-exchanged perovskite-type niobates ((CH(3))(3)NHSr(2)Nb(3)O(10)) were exfoliative to form an aqueous suspension. A monolayer of octadecylamine was produced on such an aqueous dispersion as a template for a hybrid film. A hybrid film was transferred as a Y-type LB film onto a hydrophilic glass plate or an ITO substrate. The structure of a deposited film was investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements, indicating a layer-by-layer structure with a single or double sheet of niobate as an inorganic composite. From the cyclic voltammogram on an ITO electrode modified with the Y-type 10 layered film, the lower edge of the conduction band of a niobate layer was determined to be - 0.6 V (vs Ag/AgCl). ac impedance and dc measurements were carried out on 1, 5, and 10-layered LB films (2 mm (electrode spacing) x 8 mm (width)) with aluminum electrodes. The freshly deposited samples behaved as an insulator under the illumination of 280 nm light (2.04 x 10(16) quanta s(-1)). Photoconductivities appeared, however, when they were preirradiated with a 150 W Xe lamp (ca. 2 x 10(18) quanta s(-1)) for 0.5-8.5 h. The process was denoted as photomodification. From the FT-IR and XRD results, it was deduced that the photomodification of LB films caused the decomposition of organic templates (octadecylammonium) accompanied by the collapse of layer-by-layer structures. dc analyses on the 5- and 10-layered films after photomodification also showed that they behaved as a photosemiconductor under UV light illumination. PMID:16852536

  20. Hybrid organic-inorganic crystals based on ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and ammonium salicylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, A. P.; Salo, V. I.; Puzikov, V. M.; Babenko, G. N.; Roshal, A. D.; Tkachenko, V. F.

    2011-11-01

    ADP-NH 4Sal hybrid crystals are grown from aqueous solutions. The influence of the acidity of the mixed solution on the conditions of co-crystallization of the components is studied. The spectral and scintillation characteristics are determined. Co-crystallization of ammonium salicylate (NH 4Sal) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP, NH 4H 2PO 4) is shown to be feasible, the structure of the doping addition being defined by the solution рН. In basic and weak acidic media the hybrid crystals ADP:NH 4Sal are formed in which salicylate anions are located in the interplanar space between the {110}-type planes in the lattice of ADP. The luminescence spectra contain an emission band maximum with λ max=360 nm. In acidic solutions there are ADP:HSal crystals in which salicylic acid molecules captured by the growth macrosteps are located in the interplanar space of the prismatic {100} and pyramidal {101} growth sectors. The luminescence band undergoes bathochromic shift to λmax=400 nm. The sensitivity of ADP:NH 4Sal scintillation crystals to fast neutrons depends on the concentration of ammonium salicylate in ADP matrix. The highest neutron sensitivity is characteristic of the co-doped ADP:NH 4Sal/Tl scintillation crystals.

  1. Designing artificial photosynthetic devices using hybrid organic-inorganic modules based on polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Symes, Mark D; Cogdell, Richard J; Cronin, Leroy

    2013-08-13

    Artificial photosynthesis aims at capturing solar energy and using it to produce storable fuels. However, while there is reason to be optimistic that such approaches can deliver higher energy conversion efficiencies than natural photosynthetic systems, many serious challenges remain to be addressed. Perhaps chief among these is the issue of device stability. Almost all approaches to artificial photosynthesis employ easily oxidized organic molecules as light harvesters or in catalytic centres, frequently in solution with highly oxidizing species. The 'elephant in the room' in this regard is that oxidation of these organic moieties is likely to occur at least as rapidly as oxidation of water, meaning that current device performance is severely curtailed. Herein, we discuss one possible solution to this problem: using self-assembling organic-polyoxometalate hybrid structures to produce compartments inside which the individual component reactions of photosynthesis can occur without such a high incidence of deleterious side reactions. PMID:23816903

  2. Sol-gel synthesis of hybrid organic-inorganic tin oxide based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ribot, F.O.; Banse, F.; Sanchez, C.

    1994-12-31

    RSn(OAm{sup t}){sub 3} with R = n-butyl, n-butenyl or para-styryl, which are monomeric precursors, have been hydrolyzed. The so-obtained products have been characterized mainly by {sup 119}Sn NMR. In every case, tin expands its coordination from 4 to 5 and 6, and hydrolysis yields tin oxo-hydroxo species of small size. For n-butyl and n-butenyl, a cage-like tin oxo-hydroxo cluster, {l_brace}(RSn){sub 12}({mu}{sub 3}-O){sub 14}({mu}{sub 2}-OH){sub 6}{r_brace}{sup 2+}, was evidenced as the major compound formed. Organic polymerization of the unsaturated organic groups linked to tin was initiated on the hydrolysis products and yielded hybrid systems which can be pictured as tin oxo-hydroxo oligomers attached together by polymeric chains.

  3. Gold nanoparticles embedded in organic/inorganic hybrid matrix: electrical and electrochemical behavior (withdrawal notice)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Sandra D. F. C.; Silva, J. P. B.; Silva, Carlos J. R.; Capan, I.; Gomes, M. J. M.; Costa, Manuel F. M.

    2013-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with different diameters, from 3 to 32 nm, were immobilized in amine-alcohol-silicate matrix by mixing a preformed nanoparticle colloid with the precursors of amine-alcohol-silicate (AAs) prior to the solgel transition. These nanocomposites show high optical quality and optical features dictated by the size of the nanoparticle dopants but also present a high degree of flexibility which can largely enhance the range of practical applications. The current-voltage, impedance and capacitance-voltage characteristics of these materials have been measured. The electrochemical and impedimetric results reveal that AuNPs with different sizes give different signals, thus providing useful information that allows the employment of AuNPs in electrochemical biosensors. Capacitance- voltage measurements showed that these composites embedded AuNPs exhibited a large hysteresis window of 2.4V which indicates the possibility of charge storage in the Au nanoparticles embedded AAs hybrids.

  4. Organic-inorganic hybrid fluorous monolithic capillary column for selective solid-phase microextraction of perfluorinated persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiyue; Yang, Zihui; Huang, Yongbin; Jiang, Linbo; Chen, Yingzhuang; Shen, Yao; Chen, Bo

    2013-03-01

    A novel construction strategy of monolithic capillary column for selectively enriching perfluorinated persistent organic pollutants was proposed. The organic-inorganic hybrid fluorous monolithic capillary column was synthesized by a "one-pot" approach via the polycondensation of γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy-silane, then in situ copolymerization of 1H,1H,7H-dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate and vinyl group on the precondensed siloxanes. The obtained monolithic columns were systematically characterized. The results demonstrated that the optimal column possessed good mechanical stability and high permeability. The adsorption capacities of the optimized monolithic column for perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate were 0.257 and 0.513 μg/mg, respectively. Adsorption capacities of the monoliths were proved to increasing with increasing the amounts of fluorinated monomers in the fluorous monoliths. Sodium 1-octanesulfonate, as a comparison compound, was hardly adsorbed on the fluorous monolith. In addition, the trace amounts of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in water samples can be successfully concentrated about 160 times to their original concentrations by this monolithic column. These results demonstrated that the capacity and selectivity of the affinity fluorous column is high and can be applied to the selective enrichment for the perfluorinated persistent organic pollutants from environmental samples. PMID:23378177

  5. Dialkylenecarbonate-Bridged Polysilsesquioxanes. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Sol-Gels with a Thermally Labile Bridging Group

    SciTech Connect

    Assink, Roger A.; Baugher, Brigitta M.; Beach, James V.; Loy, Douglas A.; Shea, Kenneth J.; Small, James H.; Tran, Joseph

    1999-07-20

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach for altering the properties of bridged polysilsesquioxane xerogels using post-processing mobilization of the polymeric network. The bridging organic group contains latent functionalities that can be liberated thermally, photochemically, or by chemical means after the gel has been processed to a xerogel. These modifications can produce changes in density, volubility, porosity, and or chemical properties of the material. Since every monomer possesses two latent functional groups, the technique allows for the introduction of high levels of functionality in hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Dialkylenecarbonate-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels were prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)carbonate (1) and bis(triethoxysilylisobutyl)-carbonate (2). Thermal treatment of the resulting non-porous xerogels and aerogels at 300-350 C resulted in quantitative decarboxylation of the dialkylenecarbonate bridging groups to give new hydroxyalkyl and olefinic substituted polysilsesquioxane monolithic xerogels and aerogels that can not be directly prepared through direct sol-gel polymerization of organotrialkoxysilanes.

  6. Hybrid organic/inorganic copolymers with strongly hydrogen-bond acidic properties for acoustic wave and optical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, J.W.; Kaganove, S.N.; Patrash, S.J.

    1997-05-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic polymers have been prepared incorporating fluoroalkyl-substituted bisphenol groups linked using oligosiloxane spacers. These hydrogen-bond acidic materials have glass-to-rubber transition temperatures below room temperature and are excellent sorbents for basic vapors. The physical properties such as viscosity and refractive index can be tuned by varying the length of the oligosiloxane spacers and the molecular weight. In addition, the materials are easily cross-linked to yield solid elastomers. The potential use of these materials for chemical sensing has been demonstrated by applying them to surface acoustic wave devices as thin films and detecting the hydrogen-bond basic vapor dimethyl methylphosphonate with high sensitivity. It has also been demonstrated that one of these materials with suitable viscosity and refractive index can be used to clad silica optical fibers; the cladding was applied to freshly drawn fiber using a fiber drawing tower. These fibers have potential as evanescent wave optical fiber sensors. 38 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Quantum confinement and dielectric profiles of colloidal nanoplatelets of halide inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites.

    PubMed

    Sapori, Daniel; Kepenekian, Mikaël; Pedesseau, Laurent; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky

    2016-03-28

    Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled sizes of 2D and 3D HOP. This raises the need to achieve a thorough description of the electronic structure and dielectric properties of these systems. In this work, we go beyond the abrupt dielectric interface model and reach the atomic scale description. We examine the influence of the nature of the halogen and of the cation on the band structure and dielectric constants. Similarly, we survey the effect of dimensionality and shape of the perovskite. In agreement with recent experimental results, we show an increase of the band gap and a decrease of ε∞ when the size of a nanoplatelet reduces. By inspecting 2D HOP, we find that it cannot be described as a simple superposition of independent inorganic and organic layers. Finally, the dramatic impact of ionic contributions on the dielectric constant εs is analysed. PMID:26705549

  8. Preparation and characterization of superhydrophobic organic-inorganic hybrid cotton fabrics via γ-radiation-induced graft polymerization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qianhong; Hu, Jiangtao; Li, Rong; Pang, Lijuan; Xing, Zhe; Xu, Lu; Wang, Mouhua; Guo, Xiaojing; Wu, Guozhong

    2016-09-20

    A new kind of non-fluorine-based organic-inorganic hybrid superhydrophobic cotton fabric was successfully prepared by simultaneous radiation-induced graft polymerization of γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (MAPS) and subsequent end-capping modification with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). The chemical structure and surface topography of the pristine and modified cotton fabrics were investigated in detail by ATR-FTIR, XPS, (29)Si NMR, SEM and TGA to confirm that the graft reaction and end-capping modification had taken place. The above results demonstrated that the grafting polymerization and following end-capping reaction were completed, and a grafting layer was immobilized onto the surface of the cotton fabric. Surface wettability measurement and oil-water separation showed that the modified cotton surface not only exhibited the superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 165°, but also afforded a high efficiency of oil-water separation (96%). In particular, this modified cotton fabric retains superhydrophobicity even after 30 laundering cycles or 400 cycles of abrasion. PMID:27261755

  9. The Significance of Ion Conduction in a Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Lead-Iodide-Based Perovskite Photosensitizer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae-Youl; Gregori, Giuliano; Pellet, Norman; Grätzel, Michael; Maier, Joachim

    2015-06-26

    The success of perovskite solar cells has sparked enormous excitement in the photovoltaic community not only because of unexpectedly high efficiencies but also because of the future potential ascribed to such crystalline absorber materials. Far from being exhaustively studied in terms of solid-state properties, these materials surprised by anomalies such as a huge apparent low-frequency dielectric constant and pronounced hysteretic current-voltage behavior. Here we show that methylammonium (but also formamidinium) iodoplumbates are mixed conductors with a large fraction of ion conduction because of iodine ions. In particular, we measure and model the stoichiometric polarization caused by the mixed conduction and demonstrate that the above anomalies can be explained by the build-up of stoichiometric gradients as a consequence of ion blocking interfaces. These findings provide insight into electrical charge transport in the hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide solar cells as well as into new possibilities of improving the photovoltaic performance by controlling the ionic disorder. PMID:25980541

  10. Magnetically modulated electroluminescence from hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diodes based on electron donor-acceptor exciplex blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhiyong; Baniya, Sangita; Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2016-03-01

    We report room temperature magnetically modulated electroluminescence from a hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diode (h-OLED), in which an inorganic magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with large room temperature magnetoresistance is coupled to an N,N,N ',N '-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)benzidine (MeO-TPD): tris-[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB) [D-A] based OLED that shows thermally activated delayed luminescence. The exciplex-based OLED provides two spin-mixing channels: upper energy channel of polaron pairs and lower energy channel of exciplexes. In operation, the large resistance mismatch between the MTJ and OLED components is suppressed due to the non-linear I-V characteristic of the OLED. This leads to enhanced giant magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) at room temperature. We measured MEL of ~ 75% at ambient conditions. Supported by SAMSUNG Global Research Outreach (GRO) program, and also by the NSF-Material Science & Engineering Center (MRSEC) program at the University of Utah (DMR-1121252).

  11. Three iodometalate organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on methylene blue cation: Syntheses, structures, properties and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Wen-Xiang; Lin, Jian; Song, Li; Qin, Lai-Shun; Shi, Hong-Sheng; Guo, Jia-Yu; Shu, Kang-Ying

    2012-08-01

    The functional dye of methylene blue (MB) has been employed for seeking new organic-inorganic hybrid photochromic materials. Although the photochromism has not been observed yet, three iodometalate compounds, namely (MB) (PbI3) (DMF) (1), (MB)4(Cu2I4)2 (2), and (MB)3(Bi2I9) (DMF)2 (3), have been synthesized and characterized. The iodometalate anion features as a [PbI3]∞- chain in 1, a dinuclear unit of Cu2I42- in 2, and a dinuclear unit of Bi2I93- in 3. Due to the synergy of cations and anions, the MB+ cations present supramolecular column stacks in 1 and 3, but a novel supramolecular octamer structure in 2. Their thermogravimetric analyses reveal that the polymeric inorganic anion structure is helpful to increase the stability of cation whereas the discrete structure is adverse. For seeking some clues which is significant to searching new photochromic systems, the density functional theory (DFT) studies have been performed on 1, in which the electronic structure analyses suggests that the stacking mode of cations and anions could be also an important factor influencing the charge transfer between them. In addition, dielectric hysteresis loop testing has been performed on 1 due to its polar space group of Cc.

  12. Multifunctional hybrid organic-inorganic catalytic materials with a hierarchical system of well-defined micro- and mesopores.

    PubMed

    Corma, Avelino; Díaz, Urbano; García, Teresa; Sastre, Germán; Velty, Alexandra

    2010-10-27

    Novel layered zeolitic organic-inorganic materials (MWW-BTEB) have been synthesized by intercalation and stabilization of arylic silsesquioxane molecules between inorganic zeolitic MWW layers. The organic linkers are conformed by two condensed silyl-arylic groups from disilane molecules, such as 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene (BTEB), which react with the external silanol groups of the zeolitic layers. The hybrids contain micropores within the inorganic layers and a well-defined mesoporous system in between the organic linkers. An amination post-treatment introduces basic groups in the organic linkers close to the acid sites present in the structural inorganic counterpart. Through this methodology it has been possible to prepare bifunctional acid-base catalysts where the acid sites are of zeolitic nature located in the inorganic building blocks and the basic sites are part of the organic structure. The resultant materials can act as bifunctional catalysts for performing a two-step cascade reaction that involves the catalytic conversion of benzaldehyde dimethylacetal into benzylidene malononitrile. PMID:20879788

  13. Preparation and transport properties of hybrid organic-inorganic CH3NH3SnBr3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarella, F.; Ferro, P.; Licci, F.; Barra, M.; Biasiucci, M.; Cassinese, A.; Vaglio, R.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the preparation, structural and transport properties of CH3NH3SnBr3 organic-inorganic hybrid films (500 nm thick), which crystallize as cubic perovskites. They were deposited by single source thermal ablation technique, in a 10-6 mbar vacuum chamber on glass, polymeric and crystalline substrates. X-ray diffraction proved that they were well crystallized and c-axis oriented. Resistivity measurements as a function of temperature showed a semiconductor behaviour. The activation energy, ΔE, was estimated by fitting the linear portions of the resistivity vs. temperature plots and was found to be (0.30±0.01) eV in the 260-230 K temperature interval. A significant change in resistivity was observed at a low temperature T=225 K in coincidence with the structural distortion in the Sn-Br-Sn chains. A field effect device was used to determine the charge carrier type and mobility as a function of temperature and field. The charge carriers were hole type. Their mobility at room temperature was about 10-5 cm2V- 1s- 1. It increased by two orders of magnitude at 320 K and exhibited an almost exponential dependence on the applied gate voltage.

  14. Adsorption and separation of methane/hydrogen in octaphenylsilsesquioxane based covalently-linked organic-inorganic hybrid framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Hong; Tang, Yong-Jian; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2012-08-01

    The adsorption and separation of CH4/H2 in two covalently-linked organic-inorganic hybrid frameworks polyoctaphenylsilsesquioxane (JUC-Z1) were computationally studied using the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. The results show that JUC-Z1 with Linde type A (LTA) and polycubane (zeolite code ACO) net topologies can adsorb up to 20.32, 18.57 mmol/g of CH4 and 19.04, 17.89 mmol/g of H2 at 298 K and 10 MPa, respectively. For the adsorption of binary mixture, the selectivity of CH4 over H2 in LTA-JUC-Z1 decrease gradually with the increase of the pressure or the CH4 mole fraction of the mixture. As to ACO-JUC-Z1, the selectivity first increases at low pressure or CH4 mole fraction, and then begins to decrease with the further increase of the corresponding amount. Anyhow, the two materials both exhibit excellent adsorption and separation capacities of CH4/H2.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite organic/inorganic hybrid materials using living cationic polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Iljin

    A series of novel chlorosilyl functional initiators have been prepared and applied for the first time in the living cationic polymerization of isobutylene (IB). Well-defined polyisobutylenes (PIBs) carrying mono-, di-, and trichlorosilyl head-group, and a tert-chloro end-group were synthesized using newly designed silyl-functional initiators in conjunction with TiCl4 in Hex:MeCl (60:40, v:v) at -80°C. End-group analysis by 1H NMR spectroscopy verified the product structure and the survival of the Si-Cl head-groups during the polymerization. The chlorosilyl functional initiators and chlorosilyl functional PIBs have been employed for the synthesis of PIB brushes on planar silicate substrates by the "grafting from" and "grafting to" techniques. Structurally well-defined polymer/inorganic nanocomposites were prepared by surface-initiated living cationic polymerization of isobutylene (IB). The living cationic polymerization of IB was initiated from initiators self-assembled on the surface of silica nanoparticles in the presence of additional soluble "free initiator" with TiCl4 in hexanes/CH3Cl (60/40, v/v) at -80°C. The polymerization displayed the diagnostic criteria for living cationic polymerization and provided densely grafted polymers of controlled molecular weight with an approximate graft density of 3.3 chains/nm 2. The surface-initiated polymerization of IB without added "free initiator" also yielded grafted polymer chains with good molecular weight control and narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/M n). A series of novel hybrid poly(styryl-POSS), poly(isobutylene- b-(styryl-POSS)), and poly(isobutylene-b-(styryl-POSS)- b-isobutylene) are synthesized and characterized. Living cationic polymerization of styryl-POSS macromer was carried out using the 1-chloro-1-(4-methyphenyl)ethane (p-MeStCl)/TiCl4/MeChx:CH3Cl (60:40, v:v)/-80°C system in the presence of DTBP. Using these conditions, we have synthesized AB diblock, and ABA linear triblock copolymers

  16. Clustomesogens: Liquid Crystalline Hybrid Nanomaterials Containing Functional Metal Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Molard, Yann

    2016-08-16

    Inorganic phosphorescent octahedral metal nanoclusters fill the gap between metal complexes and nanoparticles. They are finite groups of metal atoms linked by metal-metal bonds, with an exact composition and structure at the nanometer scale. As their phosphorescence internal quantum efficiency can approach 100%, they represent a very attractive class of molecular building blocks to design hybrid nanomaterials dedicated to light energy conversion, optoelectronic, display, lighting, or theragnostic applications. They are obtained as AnM6X(i)8X(a)6 ternary salt powders (A = alkali cation, M = Mo, Re, W, X(i): halogen inner ligand, X(a) = halogen apical ligand) by high temperature solid state synthesis (750-1200 °C). However, their ceramic-like behavior has largely restricted their use as functional components in the past. Since these last two decades, several groups, including ours, started to tackle the challenge of integrating them in easy-to-process materials. Within this context, we have extensively explored the nanocluster ternary salt specificities to develop a new class of self-organized hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials known as clustomesogens. These materials, combine the specific properties of nanoclusters (magnetic, electronic, luminescence) with the anisotropy-related properties of liquid crystals (LCs). This Account covers the research and development of clustomesogens starting from the design concepts and synthesis to their introduction in functional devices. We developed three strategies to build such hybrid super- or supramolecules. In the covalent approach, we capitalized on the apical ligand-metal bond iono-covalent character to graft tailor-made organic LC promoters on the {M6X(i)8}(n+) nanocluster cores. The supramolecular approach relies on the host-guest complexation of the ternary cluster salt alkali cations with functional crown ether macrocycles. We showed that the hybrid LC behavior depends on the macrocycles structural features

  17. Mesoporous Silicia Nanowires by Space-Confined Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Self-Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Peng

    2007-10-01

    This research focuses on the space-confined self-assembly of P123-silica hybrid solution inside nano-scale channels. Mesoporous silica nanowires with various diameters (10-400nm) were synthesized via sol-gel combined evaporation-induced self-assembly in channels of both anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) and etched polycarbonate (EPC) substrate. Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) was utilized to characterize the samples in terms of nanopore size, ordering, and orientation. The mesoporous structures of silica wires formed in EPC channels with diameter less than 400 nm are investigated and reported for the first time. Substrate effect (EPC vs. AAO) and processing condition effect on the morphology of the mesoporous structure of silica wires are presented and discussed. The more ordered and uniform mesoporous structure is preferentially formed in narrower substrate channel confinement. A critical diameter of hard template channels is around 30-50 nm, below which the space confinement effect leads to more uniform nanostructured nanowires, and above which mixed meso-structures usually exist. The formation of various meso-structures of silica wires is sensitive to process conditions.

  18. Methylammonium Bismuth Iodide as a Lead-Free, Stable Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Solar Absorber.

    PubMed

    Hoye, Robert L Z; Brandt, Riley E; Osherov, Anna; Stevanović, Vladan; Stranks, Samuel D; Wilson, Mark W B; Kim, Hyunho; Akey, Austin J; Perkins, John D; Kurchin, Rachel C; Poindexter, Jeremy R; Wang, Evelyn N; Bawendi, Moungi G; Bulović, Vladimir; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-02-18

    Methylammonium lead halide (MAPbX3 ) perovskites exhibit exceptional carrier transport properties. But their commercial deployment as solar absorbers is currently limited by their intrinsic instability in the presence of humidity and their lead content. Guided by our theoretical predictions, we explored the potential of methylammonium bismuth iodide (MBI) as a solar absorber through detailed materials characterization. We synthesized phase-pure MBI by solution and vapor processing. In contrast to MAPbX3, MBI is air stable, forming a surface layer that does not increase the recombination rate. We found that MBI luminesces at room temperature, with the vapor-processed films exhibiting superior photoluminescence (PL) decay times that are promising for photovoltaic applications. The thermodynamic, electronic, and structural features of MBI that are amenable to these properties are also present in other hybrid ternary bismuth halide compounds. Through MBI, we demonstrate a lead-free and stable alternative to MAPbX3 that has a similar electronic structure and nanosecond lifetimes. PMID:26866821

  19. The effect of dimensionality of nanostructured carbon on the architecture of organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Misra, R D K; Depan, D; Shah, J

    2013-08-21

    The natural tendency of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to agglomerate is an underlying reason that prevents the realization of their full potential. On the other hand, covalent functionalization of CNTs to control dispersion leads to disruption of π-conjugation in CNTs and the non-covalent functionalization leads to a weak CNT-polymer interface. To overcome these challenges, we describe the characteristics of fostering of direct nucleation of polymers on nanostructured carbon (CNTs of diameters (~2-200 nm), carbon nanofibers (~200-300 nm), and graphene), which culminates in interfacial adhesion, resulting from electrostatic and van der Waals interaction in the hybrid nanostructured carbon-polymer architecture. Furthermore, the structure is tunable through a change in undercooling. High density polyethylene and polypropylene were selected as two model polymers and two sets of experiments were carried out. The first set of experiments was carried out using CNTs of diameter ~2-5 nm to explore the effect of undercooling and polymer concentration. The second set of experiments was focused on studying the effect of dimensionality on geometrical confinements. The periodic crystallization of polyethylene on small diameter CNTs is demonstrated to be a consequence of the geometrical confinement effect, rather than epitaxy, such that petal-like disks nucleate on large diameter CNTs, carbon nanofibers, and graphene. The application of the process is illustrated in terms of fabricating a system for cellular uptake and bioimaging. PMID:23817610

  20. Characterization of the photosensitive response in polysilane-based organic/inorganic hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Haripin

    The motivation for the current work stems from a unique application, i.e. the photopatterning of optical functionality in a photosensitive material immediately prior to use. In this case, optical devices such as diffraction gratings and optical interconnects are produced in thin films using integrated photonic sources under relatively uncontrolled environmental conditions. The compatibility of the material photoexcitation mechanism with wavelength and fluence levels available from compact solid-state optical sources and the need to understand the impact of local atmospheric composition and temperature on the photosensitive material response are therefore of primary concern. The primary goal of the current study was to investigate photoexcitation mechanisms and photoinduced optical and structural changes in promising candidate material systems for this application: polysilane and polygermane-based molecular hybrid polymers. The work pursued the development of a fundamental understanding of the key photophysical and photostructural responses of thin films composed of both pure, linear-chain polysilanes and of a Ge-Si copolymer. The effects of molecular modifications to the polymers, including polymer backbone catenate structure and side-group identity, on the optical and photosensitive behavior observed in these systems are examined. Through such effort, an understanding of how such structural characteristics influence key photosensitive properties, i.e. the excitation wavelength and the resulting photoinduced optical property changes, was attained. A related objective in the present work was to characterize the thermal stability of these hybrid polymers, specifically in terms of the effect of thermal treatment on as-deposited and photomodified materials. In this case, an evaluation of the similarities and differences in structural modification in response to both thermal and optical fields was pursued. The primary mechanism associated with the photoinduced phenomena

  1. Laser-induced photopatterning of organic-inorganic TiO2-based hybrid materials with tunable interfacial electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A I; Kameneva, O; Bityurin, N; Rozes, L; Sanchez, C; Kanaev, A

    2009-02-28

    Hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on TiO(2) gels demonstrate high photosensitivity. Associated with their stable photochromic behavior, these make them suitable for laser-induced photopatterning. We show that the electronic coupling along the extended interface between the inorganic, TiO(2)-based gel, and the organic, poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) networks allows (i) a rapid scavenging of the photo-excited holes by the polymer, (ii) an efficient trapping of the photo-exited electrons as small polarons (Ti(3+)) that develop "dark" absorption continuum covering the spectral range from 350 nm (UV) to 2.5 microm (IR), and (iii) long-term (over months) conservation of trapped charges at high number density. Furthermore, we give the proof that the electron transfer depends on the material microstructure, which can be affected by the material chemistry and processing. Undeniably, a delay between the gelation of the system and the organic polymerization step allows tuning the photochromic responses of the resulting nanocomposites. A comparison is made between the prepared gel-based samples and a reference sample, which is obtained by the organic copolymerization of functional precondensed inorganic building units, titanium oxo-clusters, Ti(16)O(16)(OEt)(24)(OEMA)(8) with hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The experiments show the highest values of quantum yield (12%) and Ti(3+) concentration (1.7 x 10(20) cm(-3) or 14% of titanium atoms) attained in samples where the organic polymerization is induced after gelation. This behavior is explained by a strong coupling between the organic and the inorganic components of the hybrid towards the hole exchange and a poor coupling towards the electron exchange. PMID:19209369

  2. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterial as a new fluorescent chemosensor and adsorbent for copper ion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Jin; Lee, Shim Sung; Lah, Myoung Soo; Hong, Jae-Min; Jung, Jong Hwa

    2006-11-21

    Functionalized silica nanotube (FSNT) possessing the phenanthroline moiety as a fluorescent receptor was fabricated by solgel reaction, and the binding ability of FSNT with metal ions was evaluated by fluorophotometry. PMID:17283811

  3. Resistive Switching Behavior in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid CH3 NH3 PbI3-x Clx Perovskite for Resistive Random Access Memory Devices.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Eun Ji; Lyu, Miaoqiang; Yun, Jung-Ho; Kang, Chi Jung; Choi, Young Jin; Wang, Lianzhou

    2015-10-28

    The CH3 NH3 PbI3- x Clx organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite material demonstrates remarkable resistive switching behavior, which can be applicable in resistive random access memory devices. The simply designed Au/CH3 NH3 PbI3- x Clx /FTO structure is fabricated by a low-temperature, solution-processable method, which exhibits remarkable bipolar resistive switching and nonvolatile properties. PMID:26331363

  4. Quantum confinement and dielectric profiles of colloidal nanoplatelets of halide inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapori, Daniel; Kepenekian, Mikaël; Pedesseau, Laurent; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky

    2016-03-01

    Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled sizes of 2D and 3D HOP. This raises the need to achieve a thorough description of the electronic structure and dielectric properties of these systems. In this work, we go beyond the abrupt dielectric interface model and reach the atomic scale description. We examine the influence of the nature of the halogen and of the cation on the band structure and dielectric constants. Similarly, we survey the effect of dimensionality and shape of the perovskite. In agreement with recent experimental results, we show an increase of the band gap and a decrease of ε∞ when the size of a nanoplatelet reduces. By inspecting 2D HOP, we find that it cannot be described as a simple superposition of independent inorganic and organic layers. Finally, the dramatic impact of ionic contributions on the dielectric constant εs is analysed.Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled

  5. The interaction between hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite and selective contacts in perovskite solar cells: an infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Idígoras, J; Todinova, A; Sánchez-Valencia, J R; Barranco, A; Borrás, A; Anta, J A

    2016-05-11

    The interaction of hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite and selective contacts is crucial to get efficient, stable and hysteresis-free perovskite-based solar cells. In this report, we analyze the vibrational properties of methylammonium lead halide perovskites deposited on different substrates by infrared absorption (IR) measurements (4000-500 cm(-1)). The materials employed as substrates are not only characterized by different chemical natures (TiO2, ZnO and Al2O3), but also by different morphologies. For all of them, we have investigated the influence of these substrate properties on perovskite formation and its degradation by humidity. The effect of selective-hole contact (Spiro-OmeTad and P3HT) layers on the degradation rate by moisture has also been studied. Our IR results reveal the existence of a strong interaction between perovskite and all ZnO materials considered, evidenced by a shift of the peaks related to the N-H vibrational modes. The interaction even induces a morphological change in ZnO nanoparticles after perovskite deposition, pointing to an acid-base reaction that takes place through the NH3(+) groups of the methylammonium cation. Our IR and X-ray diffraction results also indicate that this specific interaction favors perovskite decomposition and PbI2 formation for ZnO/perovskite films subjected to humid conditions. Although no interaction is observed for TiO2, Al2O3, and the hole selective contact, the morphology and chemical nature of both contacts appear to play an important role in the rate of degradation upon exposure to moisture. PMID:27138224

  6. Mechanism of charge recombination in meso-structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells: A macroscopic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao Wu, Chang-Qin

    2015-04-21

    In the currently popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and high open circuit voltages, but the underlying recombination mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the bimolecular recombination (BR) and the trap-assisted monomolecular recombination (MR) in meso-structured perovskite solar cells under steady state working condition, and try to reveal their roles on determining the device performance. Some interfacial effects such as the injection barriers at the selective contacts are examined as well. Based on the macroscopic device modeling, the recombination resistance-voltage (R{sub rec}−V) and the current density-voltage (J–V) curves are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism and describe the device performance, respectively. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy extracted R{sub rec} data, it is found that under the typical BR reduction factor and deep trap densities observed in experiments, the MR dominates the charge recombination in the low voltage regime, while the BR dominates in the high voltage regime. The short circuit current and the fill factor could be reduced by the significant MR but the open circuit voltage is generally determined by the BR. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can change the BR rate and induce different patterns for the R{sub rec}–V characteristics. For the perovskites of increased band gaps, the R{sub rec}'s are significantly enhanced, corresponding to the high open circuit voltages. Finally, it is revealed that the reduced effective charge mobility due to the transport in electron and hole transporting material makes the R{sub rec} decrease slowly with the increasing voltage, which leads to increased open circuit voltage.

  7. Mechanism of charge recombination in meso-structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells: A macroscopic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao; Wu, Chang-Qin

    2015-04-01

    In the currently popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and high open circuit voltages, but the underlying recombination mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the bimolecular recombination (BR) and the trap-assisted monomolecular recombination (MR) in meso-structured perovskite solar cells under steady state working condition, and try to reveal their roles on determining the device performance. Some interfacial effects such as the injection barriers at the selective contacts are examined as well. Based on the macroscopic device modeling, the recombination resistance-voltage (Rrec-V) and the current density-voltage (J-V) curves are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism and describe the device performance, respectively. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy extracted Rrec data, it is found that under the typical BR reduction factor and deep trap densities observed in experiments, the MR dominates the charge recombination in the low voltage regime, while the BR dominates in the high voltage regime. The short circuit current and the fill factor could be reduced by the significant MR but the open circuit voltage is generally determined by the BR. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can change the BR rate and induce different patterns for the Rrec-V characteristics. For the perovskites of increased band gaps, the Rrec's are significantly enhanced, corresponding to the high open circuit voltages. Finally, it is revealed that the reduced effective charge mobility due to the transport in electron and hole transporting material makes the Rrec decrease slowly with the increasing voltage, which leads to increased open circuit voltage.

  8. Ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica material as sorbent for solid-phase extraction of acidic and basic compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Chen, Yihui; Ma, Junfeng; Chen, Mingliang; Nie, Chenggang; Hu, Minjie; Li, Ying; Jia, Zhijian; Fang, Jianghua; Gao, Haoqi

    2013-09-20

    A novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) was synthesized by chemical immobilization of ampholine on hybrid organic-inorganic silica material. The ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent is consisted of aliphatic amine groups, carboxyl groups and long carbon chains, allowing for extraction of both acidic and basic compounds. The retention properties of the developed sorbent were evaluated for 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNA), 1-naphthoic acid (NA), 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), benzoic acid (BA), sorbic acid (SA), vanillic aldehyde (VA), butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (BHB), propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (PHB), ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (EHB), and methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (MHB). The results show that such a sorbent has three types of interaction, i.e., electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic interaction, and hydrogen bonding, exhibiting high extraction efficiency towards the compounds tested. The adsorption capacities of the analytes ranged from 0.61 to 6.54μgmg(-1). The reproducibility of the sorbent preparation was evaluated at three spiking concentration levels, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.0-10.5%. The recoveries of ten acidic and basic compounds spiked in beverage Coca-Cola(®) sample ranged from 82.5% to 98.2% with RSDs less than 5.8%. Under optimum conditions, the ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent rendered higher extraction efficiency for acidic compounds than that of the commercially available ampholine-functionalized silica particles, and was comparable to that of the commercial Oasis WAX and Oasis WCX. PMID:23953713

  9. Strong and fast-recovery organic/inorganic hybrid AuNPs-supramolecular gels based on loofah-like 3D networks.

    PubMed

    He, Huiwen; Chen, Si; Tong, Xiaoqian; Chen, Yining; Wu, Bozhen; Ma, Meng; Wang, Xiaosong; Wang, Xu

    2016-01-21

    Super strong and fast-recovery organic/inorganic hybrid gold nanoparticle (AuNPs)-supramolecular gels based on a three-dimensional loofah-like nanoscale network self-assembled by polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) core supramolecular gelators are reported for the first time. Two series of POSS core organic/inorganic hybrid gelators, POSS-BOC-l-Homophenylalanine (POSS-Hpy) and POSS-Boc-Cys(Bzl)-OH (POSS-Cys), with two types of peripherals having different abilities for driving the self-assembly of AuNPs in gels were designed and synthesized, both of which self-assembled into three-dimensional loofah-like nanoscale gel networks producing hybrid physical gels with fast-recovery behaviors. The mechanical properties of the resultant hybrid gels were dramatically increased by as much as 100 times in the system of sulfur containing POSS-Cys gelators without destroying the fast-recovery behaviors, with the addition of AuNPs, which had direct interaction with AuNPs to give S-Au non-covalent driving force to lead AuNPs self-assemble onto the 3D loofah-like network nanofibres in the supramolecular hybrid gel system. However, in the POSS-Hpy gelator system without sulfur, no strong interaction with AuNPs existed and the POSS-Hpy nanocomposites showed no clear changes in morphology, thermal stability or rheological properties, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tube-inversion and rotational rheometer measurements. This indicated that the organic/inorganic hybrid gelator POSS-Cys could be applied to the formation of soft materials in which AuNPs were self-assembled and closely arranged into three-dimensional nanoscale networks. This hybrid material has great potential for applications in self-recovery, nano- and micron-scale electronic devices, because it has both a large mechanical strength and a fast-recovery capability. PMID:26568047

  10. Hybrid upconversion nanomaterials for optogenetic neuronal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Shreyas; Liu, Jing-Jing; Pasquale, Nicholas; Lai, Jinping; McGowan, Heather; Pang, Zhiping P.; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2015-10-01

    Nanotechnology-based approaches offer the chemical control required to develop precision tools suitable for applications in neuroscience. We report a novel approach employing hybrid upconversion nanomaterials, combined with the photoresponsive ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), to achieve near-infrared light (NIR)-mediated optogenetic control of neuronal activity. Current optogenetic methodologies rely on using visible light (e.g. 470 nm blue light), which tends to exhibit high scattering and low tissue penetration, to activate ChR2. In contrast, our approach enables the use of 980 nm NIR light, which addresses the short-comings of visible light as an excitation source. This was facilitated by embedding upconversion nanomaterials, which can convert NIR light to blue luminescence, into polymeric scaffolds. These hybrid nanomaterial scaffolds allowed for NIR-mediated neuronal stimulation, with comparable efficiency as that of 470 nm blue light. Our platform was optimized for NIR-mediated optogenetic control by balancing multiple physicochemical properties of the nanomaterial (e.g. size, morphology, structure, emission spectra, concentration), thus providing an early demonstration of rationally-designing nanomaterial-based strategies for advanced neural applications.Nanotechnology-based approaches offer the chemical control required to develop precision tools suitable for applications in neuroscience. We report a novel approach employing hybrid upconversion nanomaterials, combined with the photoresponsive ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), to achieve near-infrared light (NIR)-mediated optogenetic control of neuronal activity. Current optogenetic methodologies rely on using visible light (e.g. 470 nm blue light), which tends to exhibit high scattering and low tissue penetration, to activate ChR2. In contrast, our approach enables the use of 980 nm NIR light, which addresses the short-comings of visible light as an excitation source. This was facilitated by

  11. Characteristics of oxidative homolytic alkylation of imidazoles and organic-inorganic hybrid extended networks from large aromatic building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kunhao

    The discovery of the dramatic in vitro antimalarial activity of 2-iodo-L-histidine and 2-fluoro-L-histidine, as well as their in vivo limitations, has prompted a systematic search for novel 2-substituted imidazoles and bioimidazoles as agents against human malaria. Previous research has shown that the regioselective alkyl free radical substitution on imidazoles and bioimidazoles could serve as a simple and efficient route to a wide variety of 2-alkylimidazoles. In this research, this methodology was successfully extended to include alkyl radicals substituted with various functional groups such as amide or ester. While this novel methodology should be of some synthetic utility when tertiary radicals are used, poorer yields are usually encountered in the cases of primary radicals. In the second part of this dissertation, a series of novel ligands containing multiple ortho-bis(organothio) groups were synthesized and their coordination and network forming properties were studied in the context of crystalline organic-inorganic hybrid extended networks. For the syntheses of HRTTs [2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakis(alkylthio)triphenylenes], a simpler, safer and higher yielding one-pot process was developed. Quenching the hexa-anions (formed when sodium methylthiolate was refluxed with hexabromotriphenylene) with alkyl halides or acid chlorides afforded HRTTs. This newly developed process was also successfully expanded to the pyrene system. In the syntheses of unsymmetrically substituted triphenlyenes, it was shown for the first time that the oxidative cyclization process is applicable to thioether containing systems, pointing to a novel strategy for the preparation of this type of unsymmetrically substituted triphenlyenes. Treating these novel ligands with various metal salts [i.e. bismuth(III) chloride and bismuth(III) bromide] under carefully controlled conditions resulted in a series of air-stable semiconductive coordination networks. Their single crystal structures were

  12. Preparation of an aptamer based organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column with gold nanoparticles as an intermediary for the enrichment of proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Cheng; Zhu, Qing-Yun; Zhao, Ling-Yu; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    A novel strategy for the preparation of an aptamer based organic-inorganic hybrid affinity monolithic column was developed successfully using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as an intermediary for a sandwich structure to realize the functional modification of the surface of the monolithic matrix. This monolithic matrix was facilely pre-synthesized via one-step co-condensation. Due to the high surface-to-volume ratio of GNPs and the large specific surface area of the hybrid matrix, the average coverage density of aptamers on the hybrid monolith reached 342 pmol μL(-1). With the combination of an aptamer based hybrid affinity monolithic column and enzymatic chromogenic assay, the quantitation and detection limits of thrombin were as low as 5 nM and 2 nM, respectively. These results indicated that the GNPs attached monolith provided a novel technique to immobilize aptamers on an organic-inorganic hybrid monolith and it could be used to achieve highly selective recognition and determination of trace proteins. PMID:27307035

  13. Synthesis, structure, and electrochemical properties of nano-layered organic-inorganic perovskites containing Fe(CN)6 3- layers and its application for detection of DNA hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Hanxing; Lin, Zhidong; Cao, Minghe; Yu, Zhiyong; Hao, Hua; Guo, Linlin

    2009-07-01

    Steady organic-inorganic perovskite hybrids with [H22-AMP]3/2Fe(CN)6, [H23-AMP]3/2Fe(CN)6 and [H24- AMP]3/2Fe(CN)6 (AMP = aminomethylpyridine) were formed in the air. Each structure shows an unusual layered organic-inorganic structural type. The hybrids enveloped in paraffin, respectively, to prepare hybrid paste electrode (HPE) (HPE-2 with [H22-AMP]3/2Fe(CN)6, HPE-3 with [H23-AMP]3/2Fe(CN)6, HPE-4 with [H24-AMP]3/2Fe(CN)6). Three hybrids in HPEs showed good electrochemical characteristics. The sequence of redox activity is [H24- AMP]3/2Fe(CN)6 > [H22-AMP]3/2Fe(CN)6 > [H23-AMP]3/2Fe(CN)6 and that of electrocatalytical characteristics is [H23- AMP]3/2Fe(CN)6 > [H22-AMP]3/2Fe(CN)6 > [H24-AMP]3/2 Fe(CN)6. Three hybrids have been employed to investigate the interaction between DNA and three hybrids. The results indicate that between [H23-AMP]3/2Fe(CN)6 and DNA is useful and [H23-AMP]3/2Fe(CN)6 can detect the hybridization of DNA. And the interaction between [H22-AMP]3/2Fe(CN)6 and DNA and between [H24-AMP]3/2Fe(CN)6 and DNA is slender. Three HPEs display remarkable electrochemical sensitivity and stability. The variation coefficients (RSD) of repeatedly successive and interval assays are less than 2.5%. The chemical and physical stability of three hybrids is satisfactory.

  14. Synthesis, structural and optical characterization of APbX3 (A=methylammonium, dimethylammonium, trimethylammonium; X=I, Br, Cl) hybrid organic-inorganic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Alessandro; Quadrelli, Paolo; Amoroso, Giuseppe; Milanese, Chiara; Boiocchi, Massimo; Sironi, Angelo; Patrini, Maddalena; Guizzetti, Giorgio; Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we report the synthesis, the crystal structure and the optical response of APbX3 (A=MA, DMA, and TMA; X=I, Br) hybrid organic-inorganic materials including some new phases. We observe that as the cation group increases in size, the optical absorption edge shifts to higher energies with energy steps which are systematic and independent on the anion. A linear correlation between the optical bad gap and the tolerance factor has been shown for the series of samples investigated.

  15. Crystal structure and electric properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid: [(CH2)6(NH3)2]ZnCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, M. F.; El-khiyami, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    The new organic-inorganic hybrid [(CH2)6(NH3)2]ZnCl4, Mr=325.406 crystallized in a triclinic, P1¯, a=7.2816 (5) Å, b=10.0996 (7) Å, c=10.0972 (7) Å, α=74.368 (4)°, β=88.046 (4)°, γ=85.974 (3)°, V=713.24 (9) Å3 and Z=2, Dx=1.486 Mg m-3. Differential thermal scanning and x-ray powder diffraction, permittivity and ac conductivity indicated three phase transitions. Conduction takes place via correlated barrier hopping.

  16. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase immobilized in hybrid organic-inorganic film of chitosan/sol-gel/carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Xinhuang; Wang, Jun; Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-04-15

    A hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposite film of chitosan/sol-gel/multi-walled carbon nanotubes was constructed for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). This film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Direct electron transfer (DET) and bioelectrocatalysis of HRP incorporated into the composite film were investigated. The results indicate that the film can provide a favorable microenvironment for HRP to perform DET on the surface of glassy carbon electrodes with a pair of quasi-reversible redox waves and to retain its bioelectrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide.

  17. Gold nanoparticles-induced enhancement of the analytical response of an electrochemical biosensor based on an organic-inorganic hybrid composite material.

    PubMed

    Barbadillo, M; Casero, E; Petit-Domínguez, M D; Vázquez, L; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E

    2009-12-15

    The design and characterization of a new organic-inorganic hybrid composite material for glucose electrochemical sensing are described. This material is based on the entrapment of both gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and glucose oxidase, which was chosen as a model, into a sol-gel matrix. The addition of spectroscopic grade graphite to this system, which confers conductivity, leads to the development of a material particularly attractive for electrochemical biosensor fabrication. The characterization of the hybrid composite material was performed using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. This composite material was applied to the determination of glucose in presence of hydroxymethylferrocene as a redox mediator. The system exhibits a clear electrocatalytic activity towards glucose, allowing its determination at 250 mV vs Ag/AgCl. The performance of the resulting enzyme biosensor was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, detection limit, linear response range, stability and accuracy. Finally, the enhancement of the analytical response of the resulting biosensor induced by the presence of gold nanoparticles was evaluated by comparison with a similar organic-inorganic hybrid composite material without AuNPs. PMID:19836554

  18. Organic and organic-inorganic hybrid polymer thin films deposited by PECVD using TEOS and cyclohexene for ULSI interlayer-dielectric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyeon Jin; Nam, Sang-Hun; Kim, Sungsoo; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2015-11-01

    Organic and organic-inorganic hybrid polymer thin films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates at various ratios of TEOS (tetraethoxysilane) to cyclohexene by the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The as-grown polymerized thin films were first analyzed by FT-IR and XPS. The results of FT-IR showed that the hybrid polymer thin films were polymerized with each fragmented precursor. The XPS results showed the chemical species and binding energies of each species. The Si 2p core-level spectra from the hybrid polymer thin film showed the status of the Si oxidation number. Impedance analysis was utilized for the measurement of the capacitance values and I-V curves, and an ultra low-k value and leakage current density of 1.75 and 10-9 A/cm2 at 1 MV/cm were obtained, respectively.

  19. All-optical logic gate based on transient grating from disperse red 1 doped organic-inorganic hybrid films with an improved figure of merit

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Tianxi; Que, Wenxiu Shao, Jinyou; Wang, Yushu

    2015-10-21

    Azobenzene dyes have large refractive index near their main resonance, but the poor figure of merit (FOM) limits their potential for all-optical applications. To improve this situation, disperse red 1 (DR1) molecules were dispersed in a sol-gel germanium/Ormosil organic-inorganic hybrid matrix. Z-scan measurement results showed a good compatibility between the dopant and the matrix, and also, an improved FOM was obtained as compared to the DR1/polymer films reported previously. To demonstrate the all-optical signal processing effect, a cw Nd:YAG laser emitting at 532 nm and a He-Ne laser emitting at 632.8 nm were used as pump and probe beams, respectively. DR1 acts as an initiator of the photo-induced transient holographic grating, which is attributed to the trans-cis-trans photoisomerization. Thus, a three inputs AND all-optical logic gate was achieved by using choppers with different frequencies. The detailed mechanism of operation is discussed. These results indicate that the DR1 doped germanium/Ormosil organic-inorganic hybrid film with an improved FOM has a great potential in all-optical devices around its main resonance.

  20. Thermally Induced Reversible Double Phase Transitions in an Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Iodoplumbate C4H12NPbI3 with Symmetry Breaking.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangfeng; Liu, Jie; Sun, Zhihua; Zhang, Zhenyi; Chang, Lei; Wang, Junling; Tao, Xutang; Zhang, Qichun

    2016-08-15

    A one-dimensional (1D) organic-inorganic hybrid iodoplumbate crystal (1, C4H12NPbI3, TMAPbI3) can undergo two reversible phase transitions as the temperature decreases. Its dynamic phase-transition behaviors were carefully studied by dielectric measurements, thermal analysis, and variable-temperature crystallographic studies. These results indicate that the phase transitions possess a disorder-order feature with a noncentrosymmetrical intermediate phase structure. Due to the existence of the ordered motion and reorientation of the C4H12N(+) cation, 1 undergoes two phase transitions: the first one from space group P63/m at room temperature to Pm at 163 K with symmetry breaking, and the second one from space group Pm at 163 K to P61 at 142 K with partial symmetry restoration. Our results indicate that there is an existence of a transitional structure with a low symmetry space group during the disorder-order-type phase transitions, which can provide us valuable information to deeply understand the disorder-order phase transition in organic-inorganic hybrids. PMID:27459127

  1. Structural direction of hybrid organic-inorganic materials: Synthesis of vanadium oxyfluoride, copper vanadate, and copper molybdate solid state materials through solvuthermal and solution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deburgomaster, Paul

    The vast structural complexity of inorganic oxides with structure directing organocations, nitrogen containing ligands and organophosphonate ligands was explored. The hydrothermal reaction conditions utilized herein include the variables of temperature, pH, fill volume and stoichiometry. The systems studied included: (1) the complex materials rendered from reactions of organoamine cations on the structure of vanadium oxides, oxyfluorides and fluorides. As with other systems, the influence of the mineralizer HF was not limited to pH as fluorine incorporation was not uncommon. In specific cases this coincided with reduction of vanadium sites. (2) The copper-organonitrogen ligand/vanadium oxide/aromatic phosphonate system has been studied. The rigid aromatic di- and tri-phosphonate tethers have provided a series of materials which are structurally distinct from the previously investigated aliphatic series. The inclusion of copper-coordinated nitrogen bi- and tri-dentate ligands also provided structural diversity. Product composition was highly influenced by the HF/V ratio. A similar study was conducted with the ligand 1,4-carboxy-phenylphosphonic acid. (3) The preparation of a series of bimetallic organic-inorganic hybrid materials of the M(II)/VxOy/organonitrogen ligand class was further evidence of the utility of thermodynamically driven hydrothermal synthesis. (4) While decomposition of the spherical Keplerate molybdenum clusters is encountered under hydrothermal conditions, this highly soluble form of molybdate was investigated for the development of hybrid organic-inorganic room temperature solution synthesis.

  2. High voltage and efficient bilayer heterojunction solar cells based on an organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite absorber with a low-cost flexible substrate.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yi-Fang; Jeng, Jun-Yuan; Lee, Mu-Huan; Peng, Shin-Rung; Chen, Peter; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Wen, Ten-Chin; Hsu, Yao-Jane; Hsu, Ching-Ming

    2014-04-01

    A low temperature (<100 °C), flexible solar cell based on an organic-inorganic hybrid CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite-fullerene planar heterojunction (PHJ) is successfully demonstrated. In this manuscript, we study the effects of energy level offset between a solar absorber (organic-inorganic hybrid CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite) and the selective contact materials on the photovoltaic behaviors of the planar organometallic perovskite-fullerene heterojunction solar cells. We find that the difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite and the Fermi level of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) dominates the voltage output of the device. ITO films on glass or on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrate with different work functions are investigated to illustrate this phenomenon. The higher work function of the PET/ITO substrate decreases the energy loss of hole transfer from the HOMO of perovskite to ITO and minimizes the energy redundancy of the photovoltage output. The devices using the high work function ITO substrate as contact material show significant open-circuit voltage enhancement (920 mV), with the power conversion efficiency of 4.54%, and these types of extra-thin planar bilayer heterojunction solar cells have the potential advantages of low-cost and lightweight. PMID:24553998

  3. Biodegradable polymer adhesives, hybrids and nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylonakis, Andreas

    Biodegradable polymeric products and organic-inorganic hybrid materials for a diversity of applications are the two main fields on which this research has been focused. A novel biodegradable adhesive, which mimics marine adhesive proteins, has been synthesized by the covalent incorporation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid onto the chitosan backbone. The adhesive strength of these materials varies with the molecular weight of the polysaccharide, the amount of diphenolics present and the curing time. Infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV) have been used to qualitatively and quantitatively establish the amount of the diphenolic moiety present on the backbone of the biodegradable polymers. The as synthesized polymers combine both the adhesive capability of the diphenolic function and the healing effect of chitosan. The biocompatibility and biodegradability of these modified chitosans offer the promise of utility of these novel materials in dental and medical applications. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials with low volume shrinkage and excellent mechanical properties were synthesized by the covalent incorporation of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate on pre-hydrolyzed sol-gel silica. These hybrid materials exhibited low volume shrinkage during polymerization and were crack-free during storage for about twelve months. The mechanical properties of these materials are composition dependent. Incorporation of silica effectively increased the compressive yield stress and modulus of the obtained poly(HEMAGMA-silica) hybrid materials. A series of new electroactive hybrid materials have been synthesized by covalent incorporation of polyaniline into polyacrylate-silica hybrids. The formulation involves the radical co-polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate-polyaniline (GMA-PANi) and glycidyl methacrylate2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-silica (GMA-HEMA-silica) to yield poly

  4. Experimental and theoretical study of AC electrical conduction mechanisms of Organic-inorganic hybrid compound Bis (4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocadmiate (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jellibi, A.; Chaabane, I.; Guidara, K.

    2016-06-01

    A new organic-inorganic bis (4-acetylaniline) tetrachlorocadmate [C8H10NO]2[CdCl4] can be obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. It crystallized in an orthorhombic system (Cmca space group). The material electrical properties were characterized by impedance spectroscopy technique in the frequency range from 209 Hz-5 MHz and temperature 413 to 460 K. Besides, the impedance plots show semicircle arcs at different temperatures and an electrical equivalent circuit has been proposed to interpret the impedance results. The circuits consist of the parallel combination of a resistance (R), capacitance (C) and fractal capacitance (CPE). The variation of the exponent s as a function of temperature suggested that the conduction mechanism in Bis (4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocadmiate compound is governed by two processes which can be ascribed to a hopping transport mechanism: correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model below 443 K and the small polaron tunneling (SPT) model above 443 K.

  5. Design and Simulation of 2×2 MMI Coupler and Thermo-optic Switch Using Sol-Gel Derived Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samah, M. Firdaus A.; Nawabjan, Amirjan; Abdullah, Ahmad Sharmi; Ibrahim, Mohd Haniff; Kassim, Norazan Mohd; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2011-05-01

    A new design of Multimode Interference (MMI) thermo-optic switch with improved crosstalk figure is demonstrated in this paper. The device is designed and simulated using BeamProp 3D from Rsoft and 3D BPM CAD softwares. The devices are designed based on sol-gel derived organic-inorganic hybrid material, vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and tetrabutoxytitanate (TTBu) or VTT with refractive index of 1.47 as a core and surrounded by silica with refractive index of 1.45 at 1550 nm wavelength. The switching power is 164mW and the simulation result show that the propagation loss of the MMI device is 1.8 dB and zero crosstalk.

  6. Controllable Assembly of Vanadium-Containing Polyoxoniobate-Based Three-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Compounds and Their Photocatalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jufang; Wang, Yin; Zhang, Xinning; Chi, Yingnan; Yang, Song; Li, Jikun; Hu, Changwen

    2016-08-01

    The controllable synthesis of two vanadium-containing polyoxoniobate-based three-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, [Co(pn)2]4[HPNb10V(IV)2O40(V(IV)O)4]·17H2O (1) and [Co(pn)2]5[PNb12O40(V(IV)O)6](OH)7·15H2O (2), where pn = 1,2-diaminopropane, is realized by changing the hydrothermal temperature or adding N-(aminoethyl)piperazine as an additive. Both compounds 1 and 2 are structurally characterized by single-crystal/powder X-ray diffraction and IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compound 1 features a new divanadium-substituted Keggin polyoxoniobate capped by four vanadyl groups, and the polyanion in 2 exhibits the highest coordination number (10-connected) in polyoxoniobate chemistry. Moreover, the photocatalytic activities of 1 and 2 for hydrogen evolution are preliminarily assessed. PMID:27442602

  7. High-energy X-ray detection by hafnium-doped organic-inorganic hybrid scintillators prepared by sol-gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yan; Koshimizu, Masanori Yahaba, Natsuna; Asai, Keisuke; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Kishimoto, Shunji; Haruki, Rie

    2014-04-28

    With the aim of enhancing the efficiency with which plastic scintillators detect high-energy X-rays, hafnium-doped organic-inorganic hybrid scintillators were fabricated via a sol-gel method. Transmission electron microscopy of sampled material reveals the presence of Hf{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}O{sub 2} nanoparticles, dispersed in a polymer matrix that constitutes the active material of the X-ray detector. With Hf{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}O{sub 2} nanoparticles incorporated in the polymer matrix, the absorption edge and the luminescence wavelength is shifted, which we attribute to Mie scattering. The detection efficiency for 67.4-keV X-rays in a 0.6-mm-thick piece of this material is two times better than the same thickness of a commercial plastic scintillator-NE142.

  8. Two novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials from tetrachloridometallate(II) salts and 4-[(E)-2-(pyridin-1-ium-2-yl)ethenyl]pyridinium.

    PubMed

    Campos-Gaxiola, José J; Arredondo Rea, Susana P; Corral Higuera, Ramón; Höpfl, Herbert; Cruz Enríquez, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Two organic-inorganic hybrid compounds have been prepared by the combination of the 4-[(E)-2-(pyridin-1-ium-2-yl)ethenyl]pyridinium cation with perhalometallate anions to give 4-[(E)-2-(pyridin-1-ium-2-yl)ethenyl]pyridinium tetrachloridocobaltate(II), (C12H12N2)[CoCl4], (I), and 4-[(E)-2-(pyridin-1-ium-2-yl)ethenyl]pyridinium tetrachloridozincate(II), (C12H12N2)[ZnCl4], (II). The compounds have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, showing the formation of a three-dimensional network through X-H...ClnM(-) (X = C, N(+); n = 1, 2; M = Co(II), Zn(II)) hydrogen-bonding interactions and π-π stacking interactions. The title compounds were also characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PMID:25567575

  9. Moderate Humidity Delays Electron-Hole Recombination in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Time-Domain Ab Initio Simulations Rationalize Experiments.

    PubMed

    Long, Run; Fang, Weihai; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2016-08-18

    Experiments show both positive and negative changes in performance of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells upon exposure to moisture. Ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics reveals the influence of humidity on nonradiative electron-hole recombination. In small amounts, water molecules perturb perovskite surface and localize photoexcited electron close to the surface. Importantly, deep electron traps are avoided. The electron-hole overlap decreases, and the excited state lifetime increases. In large amounts, water forms stable hydrogen-bonded networks, has a higher barrier to enter perovskite, and produces little impact on charge localization. At the same time, by contributing high frequency polar vibrations, water molecules increase nonadiabatic coupling and accelerate recombination. In general, short coherence between electron and hole benefits photovoltaic response of the perovskites. The calculated recombination time scales show excellent agreement with experiment. The time-domain atomistic simulations reveal the microscopic effects of humidity on perovskite excited-state lifetimes and rationalize the conflicting experimental observations. PMID:27485025

  10. A possibility as a new type of thermoelectric application on organic-inorganic hybrid perovsike ABI3 system: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changhoon; Hong, Jisook; Shim, Ji Hoon; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Postech Team

    2015-03-01

    The electronic structures of organic-inorganic hybrid systems ABI3 (A = CH3NH3, NH2CHNH2; B = Sn, Pb; X = I) in the distorted phase from their patent cubic phase are systematically studied using the first-principles calculations. Here, we examine thermoelectric properties for ABI3 compounds based on the DFT electronic structures of their optimized crystal structures. The ABI3 compounds should be considered for good thermoelectric application. We reveal that good thermoelectric performance of ABI3 systems originate from large seebeck coefficients and low thermal conductivities. As a consequence, we predict that ABI3 system is a promising material for new thermoelectric application compared to thermoelectric properties of well-known thermoelectric material Bi2Te3. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2013R1A1A2060341).

  11. Facile preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid polymeric ionic liquid monolithic column with a one-pot process for protein separation in capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuicui; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Feng, Xue; Qian, Hailong; Wang, Shuo

    2014-11-01

    An organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column based on 1-vinyl-3-dodecylimidazolium bromide (VC12Im(+)Br(-)) has been prepared in a single step by combining radical copolymerization with a non-hydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) process. The NHSG process was significantly shortened to 6 h by using formic acid as catalyst. For comparison, we also prepared polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) monolithic columns by hydrolytic sol-gel and organic polymeric process, respectively. The resulting monolithic columns were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. Under the capillary electrochromatography mode, these columns were applied to separate alkylbenzenes, anilines, and proteins, respectively. The results indicated that the NHSG-based hybrid PIL monolithic column exhibited the highest column efficiency among the three types of columns; organic solvent, commonly required by the traditional columns to achieve satisfactory separation efficiency for proteins, was absent in the NHSG-based hybrid PIL monolithic column because of the biocompatibility of the VC12Im(+)Br(-), which was beneficial to analysis of protein containing samples. In order to demonstrate its application potential, the developed NHSG-based hybrid PIL monolithic column was also employed to separate egg white sample. PMID:25277101

  12. A Mechanistic Explanation of the Peculiar Amphiphobic Properties of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Coatings by Combining XPS Characterization and DFT Modeling.

    PubMed

    Motta, Alessandro; Cannelli, Oliviero; Boccia, Alice; Zanoni, Robertino; Raimondo, Mariarosa; Caldarelli, Aurora; Veronesi, Federico

    2015-09-16

    We report a combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical modeling analysis of hybrid functional coatings constituted by fluorinated alkylsilane monolayers covalently grafted on a nanostructured ceramic oxide (Al2O3) thin film deposited on aluminum alloy substrates. Such engineered surfaces, bearing hybrid coatings obtained via a classic sol-gel route, have been previously shown to possess amphiphobic behavior (superhydrophobicity plus oleophobicity) and excellent durability, even under simulated severe working environments. Starting from XPS, SEM, and contact angle results and analysis, and combining it with DFT results, the present investigation offers a first mechanistic explanation at a molecular level of the peculiar properties of the hybrid organic-inorganic coating in terms of composition and surface structural arrangements. Theoretical modeling shows that the active fluorinated moiety is strongly anchored on the alumina sites with single Si-O-Al bridges and that the residual valence of Si is saturated by Si-O-Si bonds which form a reticulation with two vicinal fluoroalkylsilanes. The resulting hybrid coating consists of stable rows of fluorinated alkyl chains in reciprocal contact, which form well-ordered and packed monolayers. PMID:26308186

  13. Sulfonic acid-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic proton exchange membranes synthesized by sol-gel using 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosa, J.; Durán, A.; Aparicio, M.

    2015-11-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid membranes based on (3-glycidoxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) have been prepared by sol-gel method and organic polymerisation, as candidate materials for proton exchange membranes in direct alcohol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. The -SH groups of MPTMS are oxidized to sulfonic acid groups, which are attributed to enhance the proton conductivity of hybrid membranes. FTIR, XPS and contact angle were used to characterize and confirm the hybrid structure and oxidation reaction progress. Membranes characterization also includes ion exchange capacity, water uptake, methanol permeability and proton conductivity to confirm their applicability in fuel cells. All the membranes were homogeneous and thermally and chemically resistant. In particular, the hybrid membranes demonstrated proton conductivities as high as 0.16 S cm-1 at high temperature, while exhibiting a low methanol permeability as compared to Nafion®. These results are associated with proton conducting paths through the silica pseudo-PEO network in which sulfonic acid groups work as proton donor.

  14. Thermochemistry of Multiferroic Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites [(CH3)2NH2][M(HCOO)3] (M = Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn).

    PubMed

    Nagabhushana, G P; Shivaramaiah, Radha; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-08-19

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials have enormous potential for applications in catalysis, gas storage, sensors, drug delivery, and energy generation, among others. A class of hybrid materials adopts the ABX3 perovskite topology. We report here the synthesis and characterization of an isostructural series of dense hybrid perovskites, [(CH3)2NH2][M(HCOO)3], with M = Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn. These compounds have shown promising multiferroic behavior. Understanding their stability is crucial for their practical application. We report their formation enthalpies based on direct measurement by room-temperature acid solution calorimetry. The enthalpy of formation of this dimethylammonium metal formate series becomes less exothermic in the order Mn, Zn, Co, Ni. The stability of the hybrid perovskite decreases as the tolerance factor increases, unlike trends seen in inorganic perovskites. However, the trends are similar to those seen in a number of ternary transition metal oxides, suggesting that specific bonding interactions rather than geometric factors dominate the energetics. PMID:26214549

  15. Calcium phosphate-based organic-inorganic hybrid nanocarriers with pH-responsive on/off switch for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Takahiro; Fukushima, Shigeto; Kumagai, Michiaki; Miyazaki, Kozo; Inoue, Aki; Mi, Peng; Maeda, Yoshinori; Toh, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Yu; Morimoto, Yuji; Kishimura, Akihiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2016-05-26

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for malignant tumors in a light-selective manner. To improve the PDT efficacy, numerous kinds of nanocarriers have been developed to deliver photosensitizers (PSs) selectively into the tumor through leaky tumor-associated vasculature. However, the corresponding prolonged retention of the nanocarrier in the bloodstream may lead to unfavorable photochemical damage to normal tissues such as skin. Here, we report an organic-inorganic hybrid nanocarrier with a pH-responsive on/off switch of PDT efficacy. This hybrid nanocarrier is constructed by hydrothermal synthesis after simple mixing of calcium/phosphate ions, chlorin e6 (amphiphilic low molecular weight PS), and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(aspartic acid) (PEG-PAsp) copolymers in an aqueous solution. The hybrid nanocarrier possesses a calcium phosphate (CaP) core encapsulating the PSs, which is surrounded by a PEG shielding layer. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.4), the nanocarrier suppressed the photochemical activity of PS by lowering the access of oxygen molecules to the incorporated PS, while PDT efficacy was restored in a pH-responsive manner because of the dissolution of CaP and eventual recovery of access between the oxygen and the PS. Owing to this switch, the nanocarrier reduced the photochemical damage in the bloodstream, while it induced effective PDT efficacy inside the tumor cell in response to the acidic conditions of the endo-/lysosomes. PMID:26971562

  16. Fabrication and electrical characterization of a polycarbazole/ZnO based organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunction diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Aditi; Chakrabarti, P.

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper a hybrid heterojuction of an organic and inorganic semiconductor junction diode has been proposed. The p-polycarbazole/n-ZnO hybrid-heterojunction (HHJ) diode has been fabricated and characterized. The organic semiconducting polymer has been deposited on the ITO coated glass by electrochemical method followed by deposition of inorganic ZnO semiconductor by vacuum thermal evaporation method. The electrical parameters such as barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratio and reverse saturation current are extracted from the measured I-V characteristics of the hybrid heterojunction. The proposed hybrid heterojunction exhibits a very low dark current (∼10-11 A) and is therefore expected to have great commercial applications.

  17. Organic-inorganic hybrid proton exchange membranes based on silicon-containing polyacrylate nanoparticles with phosphotungstic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xuejun; Zhong, Shuangling; Wang, Hongyan

    A series of silicon-containing polyacrylate nanoparticles (SiPANPs) were successfully synthesized by simple emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization technique. The resulting latex particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The SiPANP membranes and SiPANP/phosphotungstic acid (SiPANP/PWA) hybrid membranes were also prepared and characterized to evaluate their potential as proton exchange membranes in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Compared with the pure SiPANP membrane, the hybrid membranes displayed lower thermal stability. However, the degradation temperatures were still above 190 °C, satisfying the requirement of thermal stability for PEMFC operation. In addition, the hybrid membranes showed lower water uptake but higher proton conductivity than the SiPANP precursor. The proton conductivity of the hybrid membranes was in the range of 10 -3 to 10 -2 S cm -1 and increased gradually with PWA content and temperature. The excellent hydrolytic stability was also observed in the hybrid membranes because of the existence of crosslinked silica network. The good thermal stability, reasonable water uptake, excellent hydrolytic stability, suitable proton conductivity and cost effectiveness make these hybrids quite attractive as proton exchange membranes for PEMFC applications.

  18. Preparation of SnS2 colloidal quantum dots and their application in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dispersive SnS2 colloidal quantum dots have been synthesized via hot-injection method. Hybrid photovoltaic devices based on blends of a conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(3",7"dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) as electron donor and crystalline SnS2 quantum dots as electron acceptor have been studied. Photoluminescence measurement has been performed to study the surfactant effect on the excitons splitting process. The photocurrent of solar cells with the hybrid depends greatly on the ligands exchange as well as the device heat treatment. AFM characterization has demonstrated morphology changes happening upon surfactant replacement and annealing, which can explain the performance variation of hybrid solar cells. PMID:21711811

  19. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Ternary Bulk Heterojunction of Nanostructured Perovskite-Low Bandgap Polymer-PCBM for Improved Efficiency of Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hanbin; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2015-12-30

    A new organic-inorganic ternary bulk heterojunction (TBHJ) hybrid configuration comprised of nanostructured (CH3)3NHPbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite-low bandgap PCPDTBT-PCBM was investigated. Well-organized TBHJ films were readily prepared by sequential spin-casting of sparsely covered MAPbI3 nano dots and PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) composites on ITO/PEDOT:PSS substrates. The TBHJ hybrid device configuration comprising diiooctane (DIO) treated MAPbI3 perovskite nano dots and a PCPDTBT-PCBM BHJ composite processed with DIO additive exhibited excellent performances. The DIO additive played a key role in developing perovskite structures of MAPbI3 nano dots and induced the (110) directional crystallinity growth of longitudinal constructive morphologies such as nano rods. The improved photocurrent and fill factor compared to those of conventional BHJ devices led to an increase in efficiency of ∼28%. This improved photovoltaic performance originated from the higher quantum efficiencies contributed by the charge transfer from nanostructured MAPbI3 perovskite to PCBM. These TBHJs composed of nanostructured MAPbI3 perovskite, PCPDTBT, and PCBM also facilitated the exciton dissociation in the multi-BHJ system between MAPbI3 perovskite, PCPDTBT, and PCBM. PMID:26636343

  20. Formation of gel of preformed size-selected titanium-oxo-alkoxy nanoparticles: towards organic-inorganic hybrid material with efficient interfacial electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbovyi, Pavlo; Uklein, Andrii; Traore, Mamadou; Museur, Luc; Kanaev, Andrei

    2014-12-01

    We report on preparation of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material with high photonic sensitivity, of which the inorganic component is gel of preformed size-selected titanium-oxo-alkoxy (TOA) nanoparticles. The inorganic nanoparticles of 5 nm size are generated in perfect micromixing conditions and assembled into the gel network in monomer HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) solutions at sufficiently slow input of water molecules in neutral pH conditions. The gelation is found to compete with precipitation and is promoted by an increase of the nanoparticle concentration. As a result, homogeneous optical-grade gels are obtained at titanium molar concentrations of 1.5 M and higher. After the organic polymerization, the organicinorganic pHEMA-TOA hybrids (pHEMA = poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)) show a high quantum yield of photoinduced charges separation (Ti3+/absorbed photons) and storage capacity (Ti3+/Ti4+), respectively 75% and 25%, which confirm the importance of the material nanoscale morphology control.

  1. Optimization of hybrid organic/inorganic poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, Martin; Sanders, Simon; Stümmler, Dominik; Pfeiffer, Pascal; Vescan, Andrei; Kalisch, Holger

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, hybrid organic/silicon solar cells have attracted great interest in photovoltaic research due to their potential to become a low-cost alternative for the conventionally used silicon pn-junction solar cells. This work is focused on hybrid solar cells based on the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), which was deposited on n-doped crystalline silicon via spin-coating under ambient conditions. By employing an anisotropic etching step with potassium hydroxide (KOH), the reflection losses at the silicon surface were reduced. Hereby, the short-circuit current density of the hybrid devices was increased by 31%, leading to a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.1% compared to a PCE of 10.7% for the devices without KOH etching. In addition, the contacts were improved by replacing gold with the more conductive silver as top grid material to reduce the contact resistance and by introducing a thin (˜0.5 nm) lithium fluoride layer between the silicon and the aluminum backside contact to improve electron collection and hole blocking. Hereby, the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the hybrid solar cells were further improved and devices with very high PCE up to 14.2% have been realized.

  2. Photovoltaic hybrid device with broad tunable spectral response achieved by organic/inorganic thin-film heteropairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, R.; Ullrich, B.

    2002-07-01

    By means of laser deposition, spin casting and vacuum evaporation, optoelectronic hybrid devices were manufactured based upon the thin-film heteropairing of a perylene-derived molecule [di-isoquinoline perylene derivative (DQP)] and CdS. The photovoltaic characteristics of the devices are presented and discussed. We demonstrate that by exploitation of relatively high carrier mobilities in the CdS layer and the high photonic yield and deposition ease of the DQP film, efficient and technologically appealing optoelectronic devices are feasible. In addition, bias dependence of the spectral sensitivity demonstrates the versatility of the introduced device concept in light of photonic sensor applications.

  3. Molecular design and fluorescent whitening emission from novel lanthanide activated organic-inorganic covalently hybrid micro-particles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai-Feng; Yan, Bing

    2008-09-01

    A series of potential lanthanide activated fluorescent-whitening hybrid micro-particles has been prepared by sol-gel method. The precursor derived from 2,2'-dipyridylamine derivative modified though hydrogen transfer addition exhibited a self-organization under the coordination to RE(3+) (Eu(3+), Tb(3+), Sm(3+), Dy(3+), respectively) evaluated by SEM (micrometric scale) and X-ray diffraction studies (nanometric scale). The adapting traditional routes used in this paper affected the shape of the materials and can be taken as a new method to control the hydrolysis-polycondensation process. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectra (DRUVS) and (1)H NMR spectra were used to confirm the modifications. These activated phosphors with lanthanide ions represent a novel way to produce fluorescent whitening agents. PMID:18176781

  4. Studies on the synthesis, spectral, optical and thermal properties of L-Valine Zinc Sulphate: An organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puhal Raj, A.; Ramachandra Raja, C.

    2012-11-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) organic inorganic hybrid L-Valine Zinc Sulphate (LVZS) was synthesized and single crystals were obtained from saturated aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at 36 °C using a constant temperature bath (CTB) with an accuracy of ±0.01 °C. This crystal is reported with its characterization by single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR, TG/DTA analysis and SHG test. Single crystal XRD study reveals that LVZS crystallizes in monoclinic system with the lattice constants a = 9.969(3) Å, b = 7.238(3) Å, c = 24.334(9) Å and cell volume is 1736.00 Å3. Sharp peaks observed in powder X-ray diffraction studies confirm the high degree of crystallinity of grown crystal. The incorporation of sulphate ion with L-valine is confirmed by FTIR spectrum in LVZS crystal. A remarkable increase in optical transparency has been observed in LVZS when compared to L-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate Thermal properties of LVZS have been reported by using TG/DTA analysis. Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test confirms NLO property of the crystal and SHG efficiency of LVZS was found to be 1.34 times more than pure L-valine.

  5. Synthesis and structure of the first organic-inorganic hybrid tin (II) chlorosulfate: [C 6N 2H 14][SnCl 2SO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Xu, Jia-ning; Sun, Jin-yu; Wang, Li; Sun, Fu-xing; Fan, Yong; Xin, Ming-hong; Shi, Su-hua; Zhu, Guang-shan

    2006-09-01

    The first organic-inorganic hybrid tin (II) chlorosulfate [C 6N 2H 14][SnCl 2SO 4] ( I) has been synthesized hydrothermally in the presence of organic amine 1,4-diazobicyclo[2,2,2]octane (DABCO) and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR, ICP and elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis and its structure solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of I consists of [SnCl 2SO 4] 2- anions and diprotonated DABCO cations resulting in the formation of a 2D supramolecular network based on hydrogen bonds which contact between diprotonated DABCO cations and [SnCl 2SO 4] 2- anions. Crystal data for compound I, orthorhombic space group C222 1, a = 9.354(6) Å, b = 9.6880(7) Å, c = 13.2888(9) Å, V = 1204.32(14) Å 3, Z = 4, M = 399.84(1), Dcalc = 2.205 g cm -3, Mo Kα, R1 = 0.0254, wR2 = 0.0616, GOF = 1.092.

  6. Neutron powder diffraction study of the layer organic-inorganic hybrid iron(II) methylphosphonate-hydrate, Fe[(CD 3PO 3)(D 2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léone, Philippe; Bellitto, Carlo; Bauer, Elvira M.; Righini, Guido; André, Gilles; Bourée, Françoise

    2008-11-01

    The crystal and magnetic structures of the hybrid organic-inorganic layer compound Fe[(CD 3PO 3)(D 2O)] have been studied by neutron powder diffraction as a function of temperature down to 1.5 K. The neutron diffraction pattern recorded at 200 K shows that the fully deuterated compound crystallizes in one of the two known forms of the undeuterated Fe[(CH 3PO 3)(H 2O)]. The crystal structure is orthorhombic, space group Pmn2 1, with the following unit-cell parameters: a=5.7095(1) Å, b=8.8053(3) Å and c=4.7987(1) Å; Z=2. The crystal structure remains unchanged on cooling from 200 to 1.5 K. Moreover, at low temperature, Fe[(CD 3PO 3)(D 2O)] shows a commensurate magnetic structure ( k=(0,0,0)). As revealed by bulk susceptibility measurements on Fe[(CH 3PO 3)(H 2O)], the magnetic structure corresponds to a canted antiferromagnet with a critical temperature TN=25 K. Neutron powder diffraction reveals that below TN=23.5 K the iron magnetic moments in Fe[(CD 3PO 3)(D 2O)] are antiferromagnetically coupled and oriented along the b-axis, perpendicular to the inorganic layers. No ferromagnetic component is observable in the neutron powder diffraction experiment, due to its too small value (<0.1 μB).

  7. Fabrication of highly hydrophobic organic-inorganic hybrid magnetic polysulfone microcapsules: A lab-scale feasibility study for removal of oil and organic dyes from environmental aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yanan; Wang, Jiaojiao; Sun, Caiyun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-05-15

    In this work, three kinds of organic-inorganic hybrid materials (vinyl benzene linear polymer modified SBA-15, attapulgite and halloysite nanotubes) in the shape of powder and the corresponding magnetic polysulfone microcapsules were developed for removal of oil and dyes from environmental aqueous samples, respectively. As determined from the oil and dye adsorption studies, the developed magnetic polysulfone microcapsules exhibited high adsorption capacity of 13.8-17.3g/g for oil. The prepared functionalized materials and the corresponding microcapsules can remove 85.0-91.6% and 81.8-87.8% Sudan I in 80 min and 7.6h, respectively. The results showed a significant improvement in their adsorption capacities and removal efficiencies compared to the parent matrices, indicating that the introducing of the vinyl benzene linear polymer was a major factor in the removal of the hydrophobic pollutants. At the same time, the adsorption capacity for the investigated pollutants also depended on the textural feature of matrix itself. In view of the utilization of low-cost clay minerals (attapulgite and halloysite nanotubes), these proposed functionalized materials and the corresponding magnetic polysulfone microcapsules had a great promise to be used as an efficient sorbent for removal of pollutants from environmental aqueous samples. PMID:26874312

  8. Preparation of hybrid organic-inorganic mesoporous silicas applied to mercury removal from aqueous media: Influence of the synthesis route on adsorption capacity and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Sánchez, Alfredo; Sierra, Isabel

    2016-06-15

    New hybrid organic-inorganic mesoporous silicas were prepared by employing three different synthesis routes and mercury adsorption studies were done in aqueous media using the batch technique. The organic ligands employed for the functionalization were derivatives of 2-mercaptopyrimidine or 2-mercaptothiazoline, and the synthesis pathways used were post-synthesis, post-synthesis with surface ion-imprinting and co-condensation with ion-imprinting. The incorporation of functional groups and the presence of ordered mesopores in the organosilicas was confirmed by XRD, TEM and SEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, (13)C MAS-NMR, (29)Si MAS-NMR, elemental and thermogravimetric analysis. The highest adsorption capacity and selectivity observed was for the material functionalized with 2-mercaptothiazoline ligand by means the co-condensation with ion-imprinting route (1.03mmolg(-1) at pH 6). The prepared material could be potential sorbent for the extraction of this heavy metal from environmental and drinking waters. PMID:27023632

  9. Preparation of silica-supported porous sorbent for heavy metal ions removal in wastewater treatment by organic-inorganic hybridization combined with sucrose and polyethylene glycol imprinting.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Du, Ping; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Shusheng

    2007-03-01

    A new porous sorbent for wastewater treatment of metal ions was synthesized by covalent grafting of molecularly imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid on silica gel. With sucrose and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) being synergic imprinting molecules, covalent surface coating on silica gel was achieved by using polysaccharide-incorporated sol-gel process starting from the functional biopolymer, chitosan and an inorganic epoxy-precursor, gamma-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysiloxane (GPTMS) at room temperature. The prepared porous sorbent was characterized by using simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimeter (TG/DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption porosimetry measurement and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Copper ion, Cu(2+), was chosen as the model metal ion to evaluate the effectiveness of the new biosorbent in wastewater treatment. The influence of epoxy-siloxane dose, buffer pH and co-existed ions on Cu(2+) adsorption was assessed through batch experiments. The imprinted composite sorbent offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption of Cu(2+). The uptake capacity of the sorbent imprinted by two pore-building components was higher than those imprinted with only a single component. The dynamic adsorption in column underwent a good elimination of Cu(2+) in treating electric plating wastewater. The prepared composite sorbent exhibited high reusability. Easy preparation of the described porous composite sorbent, absence of organic solvents, cost-effectiveness and high stability make this approach attractive in biosorption. PMID:17386667

  10. Reinvestigation of hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on molybdate and piperazininum cations: Influence of the synthesis conditions on the chemical composition and characterizations of the photochromic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Coue, Violaine; Dessapt, Remi Bujoli-Doeuff, Martine; Evain, Michel; Jobic, Stephane

    2008-05-15

    The reactivity of the [Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}]{sup 6-} anion towards the structure directing-reagent piperazine (pipz) has been investigated and new synthetic routes to achieve the known (H{sub 2}pipz){sub 3}[Mo{sub 8}O{sub 27}] 1, (H{sub 2}pipz)[Mo{sub 3}O{sub 10}].H{sub 2}O 2, and (H{sub 2}pipz)[Mo{sub 5}O{sub 16}] 3 molybdenum(VI) containing compounds are proposed. The role of the pH on the stabilization of the different compounds and their interconversion pathways is discussed. Compounds 1 and 2 show photochromic behavior under UV excitation, related to the particular organization of the organic component around the mineral framework. Their optical properties are reported and commented. - Graphical abstract: Three organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been prepared from the investigations of the [Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}]{sup 6-}/piperazine system in hydrothermal conditions. The role of the pH on the stabilization of the different polyoxomolybdate blocks in the materials i.e. 1/({infinity}) [Mo{sub 3}O{sub 10}]{sup 2-} and 1/({infinity}) [Mo{sub 8}O{sub 27}]{sup 6-} chains and 2/({infinity}) [Mo{sub 5}O{sub 16}]{sup 2-} layer has been investigated.

  11. Characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid layered perovskite and intercalated compound (n-C12H25NH3)2ZnCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Kader, M. M.; Aboud, A. I.; Gamal, W. M.

    2016-05-01

    We report on some electrical properties and solid-solid phase transitions of organic-inorganic hybrid layered halide perovskite and intercalated compound (n-C12H25NH3)2ZnCl4 which is one member of the long-chain compounds of the series (n-CnH2n+1NH3)2,(n = 8-18). The complex dielectric permittivity ɛ*(ω,T) and the ac conductivity σ (ω,T) were measured as functions of temperature 100 K < T < 390 K and frequency 5 kHz < f < 100 kHz. Moreover, the differential scanning calorimetery and the differential thermal analysis thermograms were performed. The analysis of our data confirms the existence of a structural phase transition at T ≈ (362 ± 2) K, where the compound changes its state from intercalation to non-intercalation with a drastic increase in the c-axis by about 16.4%. The behavior of the frequency-dependent conductivity follows the Jonscher universal power law: σ (ω, T) αῳs(ῳ,T). The mechanism of electrical conduction in the low-temperature phase (phase II) can be described as quantum mechanical tunneling model.

  12. Unprecedented 1/∞[β-Mo8O26]4- polymeric chains and four novel organic-inorganic hybrids based on Mo-POMs and azaheterocycles templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hai-Juan; Zun-Zhe, Shu; Niu, Yun-Yin; Song, Li-Sha; Zhu, Yu

    2012-06-01

    AbstrctFour novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on Mo-POMs and organic templates, namely [DEB] [β-Mo8O26] [NH4]2 (1), [BMIM] [β-Mo8O26]0.5·H2O (2), [BMIM] [1D-Mo8O26]0.5 (3) and {3D-[Cu(DIE)2] [1D-Mo8O26]0.5}∞ (4) [DEB= 1,1‧-diethyl-4,4‧-bipyridinium, BMIM=1,1‧-bis(1-methylimidazolium)methylene, DIE=1,2-diimidazoloethane] have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds 1 and 2 are POMs-based supramolecular compounds consisted of independent [β-Mo8O26]4- anions and [DEB]2+ or [BMIM]2+ organic cations. Compound 3 is the first external template example of Mo-POMs-based supramolecular network incorporated with novel 1/∞[β-Mo8O26]4- polymeric chains. Compound 4 is a rare supramolecular structure that contains octamolybdate 1/∞[β-Mo8O26]4- polymeric chains interconnected via DIE ligands to form a 3D net. Moreover, it was indicated that these polyacid compounds had definite catalytic activities on the probe reaction of acetaldehyde oxidation to acetic acid with H2O2.

  13. Synthesis, crystal structure, and spectroscopic studies of organic-inorganic hybrid material: [C7H10NO]2BiBr5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloui, Z.; Ferretti, V.; Abid, S.; Lefebvre, F.; Rzaigui, M.; Ben Nasr, C.

    2016-08-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid compound, 2-methoxyanilinium pentabromobismuthate(III), [C7H10NO]2BiBr5, was synthesized and its structure determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction studies at room temperature. The molecule crystallizes in the orthorhombic C2221 space group with cell parameters a = 11.8870(4), b = 23.4775(8), c = 8.1232(3) Å, V = 2267.0(1) Å3 and four molecules in the unit cell. The structure of the title compound is built up from one-dimensional [BiBr5]2n-n polyanionic zig-zag chains composed of deformed BiBr6 octahedra share Br(2) apex and 2-methoxyanilinium cations. The assignment of the vibrational bands was based on comparison with vibrational mode frequencies of homologous compounds. Theoretical calculations were performed using density functional theory (DFT) for studying the vibrational spectrum of the investigated molecule in its ground state. The 13C CP-MAS NMR spectrum is in agreement with the X-ray structure.

  14. Analysis of drugs in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients by column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with organic-inorganic hybrid cyanopropyl monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Souza, Israel Donizeti de; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia Costa

    2015-07-01

    This study reports on the development of a rapid, selective, and sensitive column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyze sixteen drugs (antidepressants, anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, and antipsychotics) in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients. The developed organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column with cyanopropyl groups was used for the first dimension of the column-switching arrangement. This arrangement enabled online pre-concentration of the drugs (monolithic column) and their subsequent analytical separation on an XSelect SCH C18 column. The drugs were detected on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (multiple reactions monitoring mode) with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ion mode. The developed method afforded adequate linearity for the sixteen target drugs; the coefficients of determination (R(2)) lay above 0.9932, the interassay precision had coefficients of variation lower than 6.5%, and the relative standard error values of the accuracy ranged from -14.0 to 11.8%. The lower limits of quantification in plasma samples ranged from 63 to 1250pgmL(-1). The developed method successfully analyzed the target drugs in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). PMID:25984963

  15. Chemical, electrical and electrochemical characterization of hybrid organic/inorganic polypyrrole/PW 12 O 40 3- coating deposited on polyester fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, J.; Fernández, J.; del Río, A. I.; Bonastre, J.; Cases, F.

    2011-09-01

    A study of the stability of conducting fabrics of polyester (PES) coated with polypyrrole/PW12O403- (organic/inorganic hybrid material) in different pH solutions (1, 7, 13) has been done. Washing tests were also done in views of its possible application in electronic textiles such as antistatic clothing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies have been done to quantify the amount of counter ion that remains in the polymer matrix and determine the doping ratio (N+/N) after the different tests. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also used to observe morphological differences after the different tests. Surface resistivity changes were measured by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was employed to measure changes in electroactivity after the different tests. Higher pHs caused a decrease of the doping ratio (N+/N), the loss of part of the counter ions and the decrease of its conducting and electrocatalytic properties. The stability in acid media and neutral media and after the washing test was good. Only at pH 13 the loss of the counter ion was widespread and there was a decrease of its conducting and catalytic properties; although the fabrics continued acting mainly as a conducting material.

  16. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic surface imprinted Mn-doped ZnS QDs and their application as a sensing material for target proteins.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lei; Huang, Cong; Peng, Rongfei; Tang, Youwen; Li, Weiming

    2014-11-15

    Applying molecular imprinting techniques to the surface of functionalized quantum dots (QDs) allows the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with accessible, surface exposed binding sites and excellent optical properties. This paper demonstrates a new strategy for producing such hybrid organic-inorganic imprinted Mn-doped ZnS QDs for specific recognition of bovine hemoglobin. The technique provides surface grafting imprinting in aqueous solutions using amino modified Mn-doped ZnS QDs as supports, acrylamide and methacrylic acid as functional monomers, γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane as the grafting agent, and bovine hemoglobin as a template. The amino propyl functional monomer layer directs the selective occurrence of imprinting polymerization at the QDs surface through copolymerization of grafting agents with functional monomers, but also acts as an assistive monomer to drive the template into the formed polymer shells to create effective recognition sites. Using MIP-QDs composites as a fluorescence sensing material, trace amounts of bovine hemoglobin are signaled with high selectivity by emission intensity changes of Mn-doped ZnS QDs, which is embedded into the imprinted polymers. PMID:24951920

  17. Co-functionalized organic/inorganic hybrid ZnO nanorods as electron transporting layers for inverted organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Swapnil B; Ambade, Rohan B; Eom, Seung Hun; Baek, Myung-Jin; Bagde, Sushil S; Mane, Rajaram S; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-03-01

    In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM-ZnO NRs) leads to higher aggregation owing to the weaker solubility of SMs in solutions of ZnO NRs dispersed in chlorobenzene (CB). A prior addition of organic 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEA) over ZnO NRs not only inhibits aggregation of SMs over ZnO NRs, but also provides enough sites for the SM to strongly couple with the ZnO NRs to yield transparent SM-MEA-ZnO NRs hybrids that exhibited excellent capability as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in inverted organic solar cells (iOSCs) of P3HT:PC60BM bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive layers. A strongly coupled SM-MEA-ZnO NR hybrid reduces the series resistance by enhancing the interfacial area and tunes the energy level alignment at the interface between the (indium-doped tin oxide, ITO) cathode and BHJ photoactive layers. A significant enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for iOSCs comprising ETLs of SM-MEA-ZnO NRs (3.64%) advancing from 0.9% for pristine ZnO NRs, while the iOSCs of aggregated SM-ZnO NRs ETL exhibited a much lower PCE of 2.6%, thus demonstrating the potential of the co-functionalization approach. The superiority of the co-functionalized SM-MEA-ZnO NRs ETL is also evident from the highest PCE of 7.38% obtained for the iOSCs comprising BHJ of PTB7-Th:PC60BM compared with extremely poor 0.05% for non-functionalized ZnO NRs. PMID:26864170

  18. Co-functionalized organic/inorganic hybrid ZnO nanorods as electron transporting layers for inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambade, Swapnil B.; Ambade, Rohan B.; Eom, Seung Hun; Baek, Myung-Jin; Bagde, Sushil S.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-02-01

    In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM-ZnO NRs) leads to higher aggregation owing to the weaker solubility of SMs in solutions of ZnO NRs dispersed in chlorobenzene (CB). A prior addition of organic 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEA) over ZnO NRs not only inhibits aggregation of SMs over ZnO NRs, but also provides enough sites for the SM to strongly couple with the ZnO NRs to yield transparent SM-MEA-ZnO NRs hybrids that exhibited excellent capability as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in inverted organic solar cells (iOSCs) of P3HT:PC60BM bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive layers. A strongly coupled SM-MEA-ZnO NR hybrid reduces the series resistance by enhancing the interfacial area and tunes the energy level alignment at the interface between the (indium-doped tin oxide, ITO) cathode and BHJ photoactive layers. A significant enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for iOSCs comprising ETLs of SM-MEA-ZnO NRs (3.64%) advancing from 0.9% for pristine ZnO NRs, while the iOSCs of aggregated SM-ZnO NRs ETL exhibited a much lower PCE of 2.6%, thus demonstrating the potential of the co-functionalization approach. The superiority of the co-functionalized SM-MEA-ZnO NRs ETL is also evident from the highest PCE of 7.38% obtained for the iOSCs comprising BHJ of PTB7-Th:PC60BM compared with extremely poor 0.05% for non-functionalized ZnO NRs.In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM

  19. Enhanced charge transport and photovoltaic performance induced by incorporating rare-earth phosphor into organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zihan; Li, Qinghua; Chen, Chuyang; Du, Jiaxing; Tong, Jifeng; Jin, Xiao; Li, Yue; Yuan, Yongbiao; Qin, Yuancheng; Wei, Taihuei; Sun, Weifu

    2014-11-28

    In this work, dysprosium ion decorated yttrium oxide (Dy(3+):Y2O3) nanocrystal phosphors were incorporated into TiO2 acceptor thin film in a bid to enhance the light harvest, charge separation and transfer in the hybrid solar cells. The results show that the energy level offset between the donor (P3HT) and the acceptor (Dy(3+):Y2O3-TiO2) has been narrowed down, thus leading to the enhanced electron and hole transports, and also photovoltaic performances as compared to pure TiO2 without incorporating Dy(3+):Y2O3. By applying femtosecond transient optical spectroscopy, after the incorporation of dopant Dy(3+):Y2O3 into TiO2 at 6 wt%, both the hot electron and hole transfer lifetimes have been shortened, that is, from 30.2 ps and 6.94 ns to 25.1 ps and 1.26 ns, respectively, and an enhanced efficiency approaching 3% was achieved as compared to 2.0% without doping, indicating that the energetic charges are captured more efficiently benefitting a higher power conversion efficiency. Moreover, these results reveal that both the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) edges of the acceptor were elevated by 0.57 and 0.32 eV, respectively, after incorporating 6 wt% Dy(3+):Y2O3. This work demonstrates that distinct energy level alignment engineered by Dy(3+):Y2O3 phosphor has an important role in pursuing efficient future solar cells and underscores the promising potential of rare-earth phosphor in solar applications. PMID:25307965

  20. Photo-Patternable ZnO Thin Films Based on Cross-Linked Zinc Acrylate for Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Complementary Inverters.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Jin; An, Tae Kyu; Yun, Dong-Jin; Kim, Lae Ho; Park, Seonuk; Kim, Yebyeol; Nam, Sooji; Lee, Keun Hyung; Kim, Se Hyun; Jang, Jaeyoung; Park, Chan Eon

    2016-03-01

    Complementary inverters consisting of p-type organic and n-type metal oxide semiconductors have received considerable attention as key elements for realizing low-cost and large-area future electronics. Solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) have great potential for use in hybrid complementary inverters as n-type load transistors because of the low cost of their fabrication process and natural abundance of active materials. The integration of a single ZnO TFT into an inverter requires the development of a simple patterning method as an alternative to conventional time-consuming and complicated photolithography techniques. In this study, we used a photocurable polymer precursor, zinc acrylate (or zinc diacrylate, ZDA), to conveniently fabricate photopatternable ZnO thin films for use as the active layers of n-type ZnO TFTs. UV-irradiated ZDA thin films became insoluble in developing solvent as the acrylate moiety photo-cross-linked; therefore, we were able to successfully photopattern solution-processed ZDA thin films using UV light. We studied the effects of addition of a tiny amount of indium dopant on the transistor characteristics of the photopatterned ZnO thin films and demonstrated low-voltage operation of the ZnO TFTs within ±3 V by utilizing Al2O3/TiO2 laminate thin films or ion-gels as gate dielectrics. By combining the ZnO TFTs with p-type pentacene TFTs, we successfully fabricated organic/inorganic hybrid complementary inverters using solution-processed and photopatterned ZnO TFTs. PMID:26840992

  1. Comprehensive analysis of photonic effects on up-conversion of β-NaYF4:Er3+ nanoparticles in an organic-inorganic hybrid 1D photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, C. L. M.; Fischer, S.; Reitz, C.; Richards, B. S.; Goldschmidt, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    Upconversion (UC) presents a possibility to exploit sub-bandgap photons for current generation in solar cells by creating one high-energy photon out of at least two lower-energy photons. Photonic structures can enhance UC by two effects: a locally increased irradiance and a modified local density of photon states (LDOS). Bragg stacks are promising photonic structures for this application, because they are straightforward to optimize and overall absorption can be increased by adding more layers. In this work, we present a comprehensive simulation-based analysis of the photonic effects of a Bragg stack on UC luminescence. The investigated organic-inorganic hybrid Bragg stack consists of alternating layers of Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), containing purpose-built β-NaYF4:25% Er3+ core-shell nanoparticles and titanium dioxide (TiO2). From optical characterization of single thin layers, input parameters for simulations of the photonic effects are generated. The local irradiance enhancement and modulated LDOS are first simulated separately. Subsequently they are coupled in a rate equation model of the upconversion dynamics. Using the integrated model, UC luminescence is maximized by adapting the Bragg stack design. For a Bragg stack of only 5 bilayers, UC luminescence is enhanced by a factor of 3.8 at an incident irradiance of 2000 W/m2. Our results identify the Bragg stack as promising for enhancing UC, especially in the low-irradiance regime, relevant for the application in photovoltaics. Therefore, we experimentally realized optimized Bragg stack designs. The PMMA layers, containing UC nanoparticles, are produced via spin-coating from a toluene based solution. The TiO2 layers are produced by atomic layer deposition from molecular precursors. The reflectance measurements show that the realized Bragg stacks are in good agreement with predictions from simulation.

  2. Development of ethenetetrathiolate hybrid thermoelectric materials consisting of cellulose acetate and semiconductor nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hitoshi; Sakura, Naoko; Oshima, Keisuke; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Toshima, Naoki

    2016-02-01

    We investigated novel organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric materials prepared using several metal-polymer complexes, binders (insulating polymers), and inorganic semiconductor nanomaterials. It was found that the three-component hybrid thermoelectric materials, which consisted of nanodispersed poly(nickel 1,1,2,2-ethenetetrathiolate) (Ni-PETT), cellulose acetate (CA), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), showed high thermoelectric performance. Ni-PETT had a large negative Seebeck coefficient of -42 µV K-1 and was an n-type semiconducting polymer complex. Ni-PETT sufficiently dispersed p-type CNTs in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. The charge transfer interaction between Ni-PETT and CNTs could provide a strong contact. Good films could be obtained by using CA as a binder. In addition, the electrical conductivity of the three-component hybrid films was increased by methanol treatment. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and power factor of Ni-PETT/CA/CNT films normalized on the basis of the CNT mass were 1.9, 5.2, and 2.8 times higher than those of the CNT sheets.

  3. Hybrid nanomaterial and its applications: IR sensing and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsuan

    In this dissertation, a hybrid nanomaterial, single-wall carbon nanotubes-copper sulfide nanoparticles (SWNTs-CuS NPs), was synthesized and its properties were analyzed. Due to its unique optical and thermal properties, the hybrid nanomaterial exhibited great potential for infrared (IR) sensing and energy harvesting. The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized with the non-covalent bond technique to functionalize the surface of the SWNTs and bind the CuS nanoparticles on the surface of the SWNTs. For testing and analyzing the hybrid nanomaterial, SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles were formed as a thin film structure using the vacuum filtration method. Two conductive wires were bound on the ends of the thin film to build a thin film device for measurements and analyses. Measurements found that the hybrid nanomaterial had a significantly increased light absorption (up to 80%) compared to the pure SWNTs. Moreover, the hybrid nanomaterial thin film devices exhibited a clear optical and thermal switching effect, which could be further enhanced up to ten times with asymmetric illumination of light and thermal radiation on the thin film devices instead of symmetric illumination. A simple prototype thermoelectric generator enabled by the hybrid nanomaterials was demonstrated, indicating a new route for achieving thermoelectricity. In addition, CuS nanoparticles have great optical absorption especially in the near-infrared region. Therefore, the hybrid nanomaterial thin films also have the potential for IR sensing applications. The first application to be covered in this dissertation is the IR sensing application. IR thin film sensors based on the SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles hybrid nanomaterials were fabricated. The IR response in the photocurrent of the hybrid thin film sensor was significantly enhanced, increasing the photocurrent by 300% when the IR light illuminates the thin film device asymmetrically. The detection limit could be as low as 48mW mm-2. The dramatically enhanced

  4. Sol-gel approach to in situ creation of high pH-resistant surface-bonded organic-inorganic hybrid zirconia coating for capillary microextraction (in-tube SPME).

    PubMed

    Alhooshani, Khalid; Kim, Tae-Young; Kabir, Abuzar; Malik, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    A novel zirconia-based hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel coating was developed for capillary microextraction (CME) (in-tube SPME). High degree of chemical inertness inherent in zirconia makes it very difficult to covalently bind a suitable organic ligand to its surface. In the present work, this problem was addressed from a sol-gel chemistry point of view. Principles of sol-gel chemistry were employed to chemically bind a hydroxy-terminated silicone polymer (polydimethyldiphenylsiloxane, PDMDPS) to a sol-gel zirconia network in the course of its evolution from a highly reactive alkoxide precursor undergoing controlled hydrolytic polycondensation reactions. A fused silica capillary was filled with a properly designed sol solution to allow for the sol-gel reactions to take place within the capillary for a predetermined period of time (typically 15-30 min). In the course of this process, a layer of the evolving hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel polymer got chemically anchored to the silanol groups on the capillary inner walls via condensation reaction. At the end of this in-capillary residence time, the unbonded part of the sol solution was expelled from the capillary under helium pressure, leaving behind a chemically bonded sol-gel zirconia-PDMDPS coating on the inner walls. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, and aldehydes were efficiently extracted and preconcentrated from dilute aqueous samples using sol-gel zirconia-PDMDPS coated capillaries followed by thermal desorption and GC analysis of the extracted solutes. The newly developed sol-gel hybrid zirconia coatings demonstrated excellent pH stability, and retained the extraction characteristics intact even after continuous rinsing with a 0.1 M NaOH solution for 24 h. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of a sol-gel zirconia-based hybrid organic-inorganic coating as an extraction medium in solid phase microextraction (SPME). PMID:15679137

  5. Synthesis and characterization of a new layered organic-inorganic hybrid nickel(II) 1,4:5,8-naphthalenediimide bis-phosphonate, exhibiting canted antiferromagnetism, with T{sub c}{approx}21 K

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Elvira M. Bellitto, Carlo; Gomez Garcia, Carlos J. Righini, Guido

    2008-05-15

    A new Ni(II) layered hybrid organic-inorganic compound of formula Ni{sub 2}[(NDI-BP)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].2H{sub 2}O has been prepared in very mild conditions from N,N'-bis(2-phosphonoethyl)napthalene-1,4:5,8-tetracarboximide (NDI-BP ligand) and NiCl{sub 2}. The X-ray powder structure characterization of the title compound suggests a pillared layered organic-inorganic hybrid structure. The distance between the organic and inorganic layers has been found to be 17.8 A. The inorganic layers consist of corner sharing [NiO{sub 5}(H{sub 2}O)] octahedra and they are pillared by the diphosphonate groups. DC and AC magnetic measurements as a function of temperature and field indicate the presence of 2D antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the nearest-neighbor Ni(II) ions below 100 K. A long-range magnetic ordering at T{sub c}{approx}21 K has been established and is attributed to the presence of spin canting. AC magnetic measurements as a function of temperature at different frequencies confirm the occurrence of the magnetic ordering temperature at T=21 K and the presence of a slight structural disorder in the title compound. - Graphical abstract: A new layered hybrid organic-inorganic Ni(II) N,N'-bis(2-phosphonoethyl)-naphthalene 1,4:5,8 tetracarboxydiimide complex has been synthesized and characterized. Magnetic measurements as a function of temperature and at different fields show that the compound is magnetically ordered below T{sub c}{approx}21 K.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of a new layered organic inorganic hybrid nickel(II) 1,4:5,8-naphthalenediimide bis-phosphonate, exhibiting canted antiferromagnetism, with Tc˜21 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Elvira M.; Bellitto, Carlo; Gómez García, Carlos J.; Righini, Guido

    2008-05-01

    A new Ni(II) layered hybrid organic-inorganic compound of formula Ni 2[(NDI-BP)(H 2O) 2]·2H 2O has been prepared in very mild conditions from N, N'- bis(2-phosphonoethyl)napthalene-1,4:5,8-tetracarboximide (NDI-BP ligand) and NiCl 2. The X-ray powder structure characterization of the title compound suggests a pillared layered organic-inorganic hybrid structure. The distance between the organic and inorganic layers has been found to be 17.8 Å. The inorganic layers consist of corner sharing [NiO 5(H 2O)] octahedra and they are pillared by the diphosphonate groups. DC and AC magnetic measurements as a function of temperature and field indicate the presence of 2D antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the nearest-neighbor Ni(II) ions below 100 K. A long-range magnetic ordering at Tc˜21 K has been established and is attributed to the presence of spin canting. AC magnetic measurements as a function of temperature at different frequencies confirm the occurrence of the magnetic ordering temperature at T=21 K and the presence of a slight structural disorder in the title compound.

  7. Hybrid Nanomaterial Complexes for Advanced Phage-guided Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yata, Teerapong; Lee, Koon-Yang; Dharakul, Tararaj; Songsivilai, Sirirurg; Bismarck, Alexander; Mintz, Paul J; Hajitou, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Developing nanomaterials that are effective, safe, and selective for gene transfer applications is challenging. Bacteriophages (phage), viruses that infect bacteria only, have shown promise for targeted gene transfer applications. Unfortunately, limited progress has been achieved in improving their potential to overcome mammalian cellular barriers. We hypothesized that chemical modification of the bacteriophage capsid could be applied to improve targeted gene delivery by phage vectors into mammalian cells. Here, we introduce a novel hybrid system consisting of two classes of nanomaterial systems, cationic polymers and M13 bacteriophage virus particles genetically engineered to display a tumor-targeting ligand and carry a transgene cassette. We demonstrate that the phage complex with cationic polymers generates positively charged phage and large aggregates that show enhanced cell surface attachment, buffering capacity, and improved transgene expression while retaining cell type specificity. Moreover, phage/polymer complexes carrying a therapeutic gene achieve greater cancer cell killing than phage alone. This new class of hybrid nanomaterial platform can advance targeted gene delivery applications by bacteriophage. PMID:25118171

  8. Self-assembly, crystal structure and photoluminescent properties of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid coordination polymer: [CdCl 3(CH 3) 3NH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kuirong; Xu, Jianing; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Ying; Wang, Li; Fan, Yong; Song, Tianyou

    2006-12-01

    A novel organic-inorganic coordination polymer [CdCl 3(CH 3) 3NH] 1 was synthesized by the reaction of CdCl 2 with trimethylamine (TMA) at 170 °C for 5 days in ethanol and structurally characterized by means of X-ray single diffraction. The title compound affords a one-dimensional chain structure. It crystallizes in hexagonal system space group P6(3)/m with a=9.1401(13) Å, b=9.1401(13) Å, c=6.7313(13) Å, γ=120.00°, V=487.00(14) Å, Z=2, D=1.895 Mg/m, F(000)=266, Mr=277.86, μ(Mo K)=2.99 mm, the final R=0.0420 and ωR=0.1020 for 355 observed reflections with I>2σ(I). The title compound consists of cation [(CH 3) 3NH] + and anion chain [(CdCl)]n-, and they are combined by static attracting forces in the crystal. TG-DTA, XRD and IR data for the title compound are reported and discussed. The photoluminescent properties of the compound 1 were also investigated.

  9. Electron Microscopy Characterization of Hybrid Metallic Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, Daisuke; Akase, Zentaro

    In order to understand the excellent properties of nanoscale hybridized materials, it is very important to investigate the microstructures and interfaces of these materials at the nanometer scale. In this chapter, we present the basic principles of transmission electron microscopy and its applications to these materials. In addition to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM) and high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), analytical electron microscopy, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energyloss spectroscopy (EELS) as well as elemental mapping methods using these spectroscopy techniques will be presented. Also, the electron holographic technique for characterization of magnetic fields of nanohybridized materials will be explained. In addition to electron microscopic observation techniques, recently developed specimen preparation techniques, which are indispensable for obtaining homogeneous and thin films of nanohybridized materials, will be presented. In particular, a focused ion beam (FIB) method will be emphasized. The nanohybridized materials discussed in this chapter include carbon-based core-shell structure, nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials, nanocomposite magnets, and high-T c superconducting oxides. Application data will be provided in order to explain the usefulness of these analytical techniques for characterization of nanohybridized materials.

  10. An organic-inorganic broadband photodetector based on a single polyaniline nanowire doped with quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianguang; Liu, Yong; Lei, Hongxiang; Li, Baojun

    2016-08-25

    The capability to detect light over a broad waveband is highly important for practical optoelectronic applications and has been achieved with photodetectors of one-dimensional inorganic nanomaterials such as Si, ZnO, and GaN. However, achieving high speed responsivity over an entire waveband within such a photodetector remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a broadband photodetector using a single polyaniline nanowire doped with quantum dots that is highly responsive over a broadband from 350 to 700 nm. The high responsivity is due to the high density of trapping states at the enormous interfaces between polyaniline and quantum dots. The interface trapping can effectively reduce the recombination rate and enhance the efficiency for light detection. Furthermore, a tunable spectral range can be achieved by size-based spectral tuning of quantum dots. The use of organic-inorganic hybrid polyaniline nanowires in broadband photodetection may offer novel functionalities in optoelectronic devices and circuits. PMID:27417337

  11. Fabrication of a Homogeneous, Integrated, and Compact Film of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Ni(en)3Ag2I4 with Near-Infrared Absorbance and Semiconducting Features.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian-Yu; Shi, Lei; Yang, Hao; Ren, Xiao-Ming; Xiao, Chen; Jin, Wanqin

    2016-02-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrid crystal Ni(en)3Ag2I4 (where en represents 1,2-ethylenediamine) crystallizes in hexagonal space group P63, in which the AgI4(3-) tetrahedra connect into a diamondlike inorganic framework via sharing of the vertex and the Ni(en)3(2+) octahedra fill in the pores of the framework. UV-vis-near-IR (NIR) spectroscopy disclosed that this hybrid shows intense NIR absorbance centered at ca. 870 nm, and the variable-temperature conductivity measurement revealed that the hybrid is a semiconductor with Ea = 0.46 eV. The electronic band structure of Ni(en)3Ag2I4 was calculated using the density functional theory method, indicating that the NIR absorbance arises from d-d transition within the Ni(2+) cation of Ni(en)3(2+). The homogeneous, compact, and transparent crystalline film of Ni(en)3Ag2I4 was fabricated via a secondary seed growth strategy, which has promising application in NIR devices. PMID:26771538

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and biosensing application of novel hybrid nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shun

    Hybrid nanomaterials consisting of nanoparticles (NPs) distributed on the surface of the carbon nanotube (CNT)/graphene represent a new class of materials. These materials could potentially display not only the unique properties of NPs and those of the CNT/graphene, but also additional novel properties due to the interaction between the NP and the CNT/graphene. This thesis entails the synthesis and characterization of NP-CNT/graphene hybrid nanomaterials and the demonstration of their use for biosensors. A simple method that combines an electrospray technique with electrostatic force directed assembly (ESFDA) was developed for successful functionalization of the CNT/thermally-reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) with NPs. Colloidal CdSe NPs, Au NPs, and Au NP-antibody conjugates were electrosprayed and assembled onto random CNTs, vertically-aligned CNT arrays, and TRGO sheets in a controlled manner. CNT and TRGO field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated; and novel electronic protein biosensors based on the CNTFET/TRGO FET and Au NP-antibody conjugates were demonstrated. The electrical detection of the protein binding was accomplished by the introduction of Au NP-antibody conjugates in the CNTFET/TRGO FET, in which the Au-coated CNT/TRGO serves as the electrical conducting channel. Antibody (anti-horseradish peroxidase/anti-Immunoglobulin G) and antigen (horseradish peroxidase/Immunoglobulin G) binding events led to the change in the CNT/TRGO conductivity, which was sensitively detected by FET and direct current (dc) measurements. The CNTFET biosensor had a detection limit of 0.2 mg/ml (˜4.5 microM, horseradish peroxidase) while the TRGO FET biosensor exhibited a detection limit of 2 ng/ml (˜13 pM, Immunoglobulin G), which is among the best of carbon nanomaterial (e.g., CNT, graphene, GO)-based protein sensors. The dependence of the sensor response on the TRGO resistance and the antibody areal density on the TRGO sheet was systematically studied, and the sensor

  13. High polar organic-inorganic hybrid coating stir bar sorptive extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the speciation of seleno-amino acids and seleno-oligopeptides in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiangju; Hu, Bin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei

    2012-09-21

    In this work, partially sulfonated polystyrene-titania (PSP-TiO(2)) organic-inorganic hybrid stir bar coating was prepared by sol-gel and blending methods, and a new method of PSP-TiO(2) coating stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established for the analysis of seleno-amino acids (selenocystine (SeCys(2)), methylseleno-cysteine (MeSeCys), selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenoethionine (SeEt)) and seleno-oligopeptides (γ-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine (γ-GluMeSeCys) and selenodiglutathione (GS-Se-SG)) in biological samples. The prepared high polar PSP-TiO(2) hybrid coating avoided the swelling of PSP and cracking of TiO(2) coating by combining the good film-forming property of PSP with the high mechanical strength of TiO(2). The scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that no obvious swelling and damage occurred for the PSP-TiO(2) hybrid stir bar coating after 30 extraction/desorption cycles. The preparation reproducibility of PSP-TiO(2) coated stir bar, evaluated with the relative standard deviations (RSDs), was in the range of 6.7-12.6% (n=5) in one batch, and 9.9-17.6% (n=7) among different batches. The limits of detection (LODs) of the developed method for six target selenium species were in the range of 50.2-185.5 ngL(-1) (as (77)Se) and 45.9-158.8 ngL(-1) (as (82)Se) with the RSDs within 4.9-11.7%. The dynamic linear range was found to cover three orders of magnitude with correlation coefficient of 0.9995-0.9999. The developed method was applied for the analysis of Certified Reference Material SELM-1 selenium enriched yeast and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. The method has also been applied for the analysis of seleno-amino acids and seleno-oligopeptides in human urine and garlic samples. Different from the conventional organic polymer SBSE coatings (such as polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS), the extraction mechanism

  14. Optical and thermal response of single-walled carbon nanotube-copper sulfide nanoparticle hybrid nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yi-Hsuan; He, Yuan; Lakshmanan, Santana; Yang, Chang; Chen, Wei; Que, Long

    2012-11-16

    This paper reports the optical and thermal response of a single-walled carbon nanotube-copper sulfide nanoparticle (SWNT-CuS NP) hybrid nanomaterial and its application as a thermoelectric generator. The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized using oleylamine molecules as the linker molecules between SWNTs and CuS NPs. Measurements found that the hybrid nanomaterial has significantly increased light absorption (up to 80%) compared to the pure SWNT. Measurements also found that the hybrid nanomaterial thin-film devices exhibit a clear optical and thermal switching effect, which can be further enhanced up to 10 ×  by asymmetric illumination of light and thermal radiation on the thin-film devices instead of symmetric illumination. A simple prototype thermoelectric generator enabled by the hybrid nanomaterials is demonstrated, indicating a new route for achieving thermoelectricity. PMID:23089651

  15. Bioinspired Synthesis of All-in-One Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanoflowers Combined with a Handheld pH Meter for On-Site Detection of Food Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ranfeng; Zhu, Chengzhou; Song, Yang; Lu, Qian; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xu; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Dan; Li, He; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-06-01

    With a mild elaborately bioinspired one-pot process, Con A-GOx-CaHPO4 nanoflowers are prepared. Employing the as-prepared all-in-one hybrid nanoflowers as signal tags, a simple but potentially powerful amplification biosensing technology for the detection of food pathogen with excellent simplicity, portability, sensitivity, and adaptability is achieved. PMID:27121135

  16. Ion-Conducting Organic/Inorganic Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinder, James D.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    Ion-conducting polymers that are hybrids of organic and inorganic moieties and that are suitable for forming into solid-electrolyte membranes have been invented in an effort to improve upon the polymeric materials that have been used previously for such membranes. Examples of the prior materials include perfluorosulfonic acid-based formulations, polybenzimidazoles, sulfonated polyetherketone, sulfonated naphthalenic polyimides, and polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based formulations. Relative to the prior materials, the polymers of the present invention offer greater dimensional stability, greater ease of formation into mechanically resilient films, and acceptably high ionic conductivities over wider temperature ranges. Devices in which films made of these ion-conducting organic/inorganic polymers could be used include fuel cells, lithium batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electrochromic windows and display devices, and analog memory devices. The synthesis of a polymer of this type (see Figure 1) starts with a reaction between an epoxide-functionalized alkoxysilane and a diamine. The product of this reaction is polymerized by hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxysilane group, producing a molecular network that contains both organic and inorganic (silica) links. The silica in the network contributes to the ionic conductivity and to the desired thermal and mechanical properties. Examples of other diamines that have been used in the reaction sequence of Figure 1 are shown in Figure 2. One can use any of these diamines or any combination of them in proportions chosen to impart desired properties to the finished product. Alternatively or in addition, one could similarly vary the functionality of the alkoxysilane to obtain desired properties. The variety of available alkoxysilanes and diamines thus affords flexibility to optimize the organic/inorganic polymer for a given application.

  17. Predicting and Screening Dielectric Transitions in a Series of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Double Perovskites via an Extended Tolerance Factor Approach.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chao; Yu, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Wen

    2016-05-01

    Extended Goldschmidt tolerance factor t is applied to the hybrid double perovskites (MA)2 [B'B''(CN)6 ] (MA=methylammonium cation) to predict and screen dielectric transitions in 121 compounds through the correlations among t, the radius of the B component rB and the transition temperature Tc , based on experimental results from model compounds. For (MA)2 [B'Co(CN)6 ], it is concluded that: i) when t>0.873, the cubic phase would be stable below 298 K; ii) when 0.873>t>0.805, the cubic phase would be stable between 298 and 523 K; iii) the larger the rB , the higher the Tc of the perovskite (Tc (1/2) ∝rB ); and iv) the Tc of the hybrid perovskites can be well tuned by doping the B components. PMID:27060616

  18. Highly Robust Hybrid Photocatalyst for Carbon Dioxide Reduction: Tuning and Optimization of Catalytic Activities of Dye/TiO2/Re(I) Organic-Inorganic Ternary Systems.

    PubMed

    Won, Dong-Il; Lee, Jong-Su; Ji, Jung-Min; Jung, Won-Jo; Son, Ho-Jin; Pac, Chyongjin; Kang, Sang Ook

    2015-10-28

    Herein we report a detailed investigation of a highly robust hybrid system (sensitizer/TiO2/catalyst) for the visible-light reduction of CO2 to CO; the system comprises 5'-(4-[bis(4-methoxymethylphenyl)amino]phenyl-2,2'-dithiophen-5-yl)cyanoacrylic acid as the sensitizer and (4,4'-bis(methylphosphonic acid)-2,2'-bipyridine)Re(I)(CO)3Cl as the catalyst, both of which have been anchored on three different types of TiO2 particles (s-TiO2, h-TiO2, d-TiO2). It was found that remarkable enhancements in the CO2 conversion activity of the hybrid photocatalytic system can be achieved by addition of water or such other additives as Li(+), Na(+), and TEOA. The photocatalytic CO2 reduction efficiency was enhanced by approximately 300% upon addition of 3% (v/v) H2O, giving a turnover number of ≥570 for 30 h. A series of Mott-Schottky (MS) analyses on nanoparticle TiO2 films demonstrated that the flat-band potential (V(fb)) of TiO2 in dry DMF is substantially negative but positively shifts to considerable degrees in the presence of water or Li(+), indicating that the enhancement effects of the additives on the catalytic activity should mainly arise from optimal alignment of the TiO2 V(fb) with respect to the excited-state oxidation potential of the sensitizer and the reduction potential of the catalyst in our ternary system. The present results confirm that the TiO2 semiconductor in our heterogeneous hybrid system is an essential component that can effectively work as an electron reservoir and as an electron transporting mediator to play essential roles in the persistent photocatalysis activity of the hybrid system in the selective reduction of CO2 to CO. PMID:26456369

  19. Two anionic [Cu I6X7] nn- ( X=Br and I) chain-based organic-inorganic hybrid solids with N-substituted benzotriazole ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xia; Zhai, Quan-Guo; Li, Shu-Ni; Xia, Rui; Xiang, Hai-Juan; Jiang, Yu-Cheng; Hu, Man-Cheng

    2010-05-01

    Solvothermal reactions of the flexible ligand 1,6-Bi(benzotriazole)hexane with CuI and KI or CuBr and KBr in ethanol generate two hybrid compounds, namely, {(HETA)[(Cu 6I 7)(ETA) 2]} n( 1) and {K(Cu 6Br 7)(BBTH)} n( 2) (ETA= N-ethylbenzotriazole, HETA=protonated N-ethylbenzotriazole, BBTH=1,6-bi(benzotriazole)hexane). In 1, two [Cu 3I 4] vertex missing cubane-like subunits link each other by sharing one I atom to give a [Cu 6I 7] cluster, which further form novel 1D [Cu 6I 7] nn- anionic chain. Two in-situ generated ETA ligands finished the 4-coordinated environments of copper centers and another one discrete protonated ETA ligand keeps the charge neutrality for 1. In complex 2, bowl-shaped [Cu 5Br 4] clusters and rhomboid [Cu 2Br 2] dimers link each other to generate a [Cu 6Br 7] nn- 1D chain. BBTH ligands complete the tetrahedral spheres of Cu(I), and 7-coordinated K atoms further extend the 1D chain motifs to a 2D hybrid layer of 2. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum and luminescence measurements show that compound 1 and 2 both are potential semiconductor and photoluminescence materials.

  20. Syntheses, structures and properties of two new organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on ε-Zn Keggin units {ε-PMo(V)8Mo(VI)4O(40-x)(OH)(x)Zn4}.

    PubMed

    Miao, Hao; Hu, Gonghao; Guo, Jiuyu; Wan, Hongxiang; Mei, Hua; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-14

    Two novel organic-inorganic hybrids, Na[PMo(V)8Mo(VI)4O38(OH)2Zn4][pyim]2·1.5H2O [ε(pyim)2] (pyim = 2-(2-pyridyl)-imidazole) and [PMo(V)8Mo(VI)4O37(OH)3Zn4]2[pyim]6·4H2O [ε2(pyim)6], based on ε-Zn Keggin units {ε-PMo(V)8Mo(VI)4O(40-x)(OH)(x)Zn4}, have been successfully synthesized under hydrothermal conditions by controlling the pH values. Structural analysis indicates that the framework of ε(pyim)2 is a 1D chain constructed by monomeric ε-Zn units modified by pyim ligands, while ε2(pyim)6 is an isolated structural compound with dimeric ε-Zn units modified by pyim ligands. This is the first isolated structure of the ε-Keggin POMs system. The luminescent and electrochemical properties of ε(pyim)2 and ε2(pyim)6 were investigated. ε2(pyim)6 also shows high catalytic activity for the esterification of phosphoric acid with equimolar lauryl alcohol to monoalkyl phosphate ester (MAP). PMID:25387358

  1. Evidence and detailed study of a second-order phase transition in the (C{sub 6}H{sub 11}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}[PbI{sub 4}] organic-inorganic hybrid material

    SciTech Connect

    Yangui, A.; Pillet, S.; Garrot, D.; Boukheddaden, K.; Triki, S.; Abid, Y.

    2015-03-21

    The thermal properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid material (C{sub 6}H{sub 11}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}[PbI{sub 4}] are investigated using diffuse reflectivity, spectroscopic ellipsometry, differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The diffuse reflectivity, performed in heating mode, clearly evidences the presence of a singularity at 336 K. This is confirmed by the temperature dependence of the spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra, which points out a second-order phase transition at 336 K with a critical exponent ∼0.5. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements on a polycrystalline powder of (C{sub 6}H{sub 11}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}[PbI{sub 4}] show a reversible phase transition detected at T{sub C} = 336 K without hysteresis. Raman spectroscopy data suggest that this transition arises from a change in the interactions between inorganic sheets (([PbI{sub 4}]{sup 2−}){sub ∞}) and organic protonated molecules ([C{sub 6}H{sub 11}NH{sub 3}]{sup +}). The structural analysis from power X-ray diffraction reveals an incomplete order-disorder transition of the cyclohexylammonium cation, causing a subtle contraction of the inter-plane distance. The transition results from repulsive close contacts between the organic molecules in the interlayer spacing.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant activity of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid material trans-2,5-dimethylpiperazine-1,4-diium pentachlorobismuthate(III): [C6H16N2]BiCl5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essid, Manel; Rzaigui, Mohamed; Marouani, Houda

    2016-08-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid compound, trans-2,5-dimethylpiperazine-1,4-diium pentachlorobismuthate(III), [C6H16N2]BiCl5, was synthesized and its structure determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, with the following parameters: a = 15.365(5), b = 12.634(3), c = 8.313(3) Å, β = 120.59(3)°, Z = 4 and V = 1389.1(7) Å3. Its crystal structure consists of [BiCl5]2- anions surrounded by [C6H16N2]2+ cations. Complex hydrogen bonding interactions between [BiCl5]2- and organic cations through N(C)-H … Cl hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional network. The crystal packing is stabilized by Cl … Cl interactions. The structure reveals that the piperazine ring is in a chair conformation. The vibrational spectrum has been measured at room temperature by FT-infrared spectroscopy (4000-400 cm-1) on polycrystalline samples. The number of the NMR components in the 13C CP-MAS NMR spectrum proves the presence of three crystallographically independent carbons as revealed by X-ray structure determination. Investigation of antioxidant activity of compound was carried out by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical, Ferric Reducing Power (FRP) and Ferrous ion chelating (FIC) methods. The synthesized compound exhibited significant antioxidant activities.

  3. Structural characterization, phase transition and switchable dielectric behaviors in a new zigzag chain organic-inorganic hybrid compound: [C3H7NH3]2SbI5.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chen-Yu; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Zhong-Xia; Li, Peng-Fei; Lv, Xing-Hui; Ye, Heng-Yun; Zhang, Yi

    2016-03-28

    A novel zigzag chain organic-inorganic hybrid compound of the general formula R2MI5, [n-C3H7NH3]2[SbI5] (1), was successfully synthesized, in which the n-propylammonium cations were located in the free cavities between the one-dimensional zigzag chains. Systematic characterization was performed to investigate the phase transition of 1. A pair of sharp peaks at 211.8 K (heating) and 203.7 K (cooling) with a hysteresis 8.1 K were observed in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curve, indicating the first-order phase transition behavior of 1. The temperature dependence dielectric measurement demonstrated a step-like change at around 211.8 K, which makes 1 a potential switchable dielectric material. Frequency dependence measurement revealed that the frequency exerts a weak influence on the dielectric permittivity. Further structural analysis shows that both anionic and cationic moieties contribute to the phase transition, accompanied by weak hydrogen bond interactions between cations and the [SbI5]n(2-) chains. PMID:26893146

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of a new organic-inorganic hybrid with Dawson type polyanions as building blocks: Na3(C7NH8O2)3[P2W18O62]·16H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmida, Fatma; Ayed, Brahim; Haddad, Amor

    2016-07-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid compound based on dawson polyoxotungstate, Na3(C7NH8O2)3 [P2W18O62].16H2O have been isolated under autogenous pressure method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared, ultraviolet spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). This compound crystallized in the triclinic system, space group P-1, with a = 14.063 (1) Å; b = 17.009 (1) Å; c = 17.868 (1) Å; α = 79.88 (1)°; β = 77.14 (1)°; γ = 79.25 (1)° and Z = 2. The crystal structures of the compounds exhibit three-dimensional supramolecular assembly based on the extensive hydrogen bonding interactions between organic cations, sodium cations, water molecules and Dawson polyoxoanions. The infrared spectrum fully confirms the X-ray crystal structure and the UV spectrum of the title compound exhibits an absorption peak at 295 nm.

  5. Strain-induced crystallization in elastomeric polymer networks prepared in solution and sol-gel derived high-temperature organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premachandra, Jagath Kumara

    Cross-linking polymer chains in solution should bring about fewer inter-chain entanglements in the resulting network. The subsequent drying of this network should compress the chains into a "super-contracted" state. The opposing effects of these changes on strain-induced crystallization in cis-1,4-polyisoprene networks formed in solution were investigated. Higher elongations were required to achieve strain-induced crystallinity in the networks prepared at higher dilutions, suggesting that in this regard the compressed states of the chains was more important than their reduced entangling. The constrained-junction theory was applied to strain-induced crystallization in the above networks. The stress-strain isotherms generated from this theory were in satisfactory agreement with experiment. It was found that the constraint parameter kappa decreases with increase in dilution during cross-linking mainly due to the fact that cross-linking in solution decreases chain interpenetration. The dependence of hydrolysis and condensation of gamma-ureidopropyltrimethoxysilane on pH in the water-methanol system at 23sp°C was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of rates of hydrolysis showed that gamma-ureidopropyltrimethoxysilane is most stable in the water-methanol system at pH 7.7. The rate of overall condensation of silanols produced by the hydrolysis was qualitatively analyzed. These silanol groups are relatively more stable around pH 4.87. The mechanical properties, thermal stability and water absorption of high-temperature sulfopolybenzobisthiazole-silica hybrid materials were investigated. The use of a bonding agent N,N-diethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane facilitated the interfacial bonding between the organic and inorganic phases in these materials prepared through the sol-gel process. Tensile modulus, thermal stability and the resistant to water absorption were increased with increase in silica content in the resulting composites

  6. Impact of preparation condition of ZnO electron transport layer on performance of hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun-Yuan; Yang, Chih-Chiang; Yu, Hsin-Chieh; Chen, Ying-Chih

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we have demonstrated the hybrid polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) with a sol-gel derived or rf-sputtered ZnO electron transport layer (ETL). For the ZnO films prepared under different conditions, low annealing temperature (300 °C) leads to the film amorphous while the polycrystalline films is readily achieved by sputtering. Though the surface roughness can be improved by thermal annealing at 400 °C for sputtered films, the release of compressive stress after treatment has shrunk the optical band gap from 3.282 to 3.268 eV. As the ETL in PLEDs, the reduced band gap could increase potential barrier for electron injection and decrease the hole blocking capability. In our cases, luminance larger than 7000 cd/m2 can be obtained in device with pristine sputtered ZnO ETL. It is concluded that crystalline structure of ZnO films is important to facilitate the balance of carrier mobility to obtain high luminance and high efficiency devices.

  7. A new organic-inorganic hybrid oxyfluorotitanate [Hgua]2·(Ti5O5F12) as a transparent UV filter.

    PubMed

    Lhoste, J; Rocquefelte, X; Adil, K; Dessapt, R; Jobic, S; Leblanc, M; Maisonneuve, V; Bujoli-Doeuff, M

    2011-06-20

    A new generation UV absorber is obtained by microwave-heating-assisted hydrothermal synthesis: [Hgua](2)·(Ti(5)O(5)F(12)). The structure of this hybrid titanium(IV) oxyfluoride is ab initio determined from powder X-ray data by combining a direct space method, Rietveld refinement [orthorhombic, Cmm2, a = 22.410(1) Å, b = 11.191(1) Å, c = 3.802(1) Å], and density functional theory geometry optimization. The three-dimensional network is built up from infinite inorganic layers (∞)(Ti(5)O(5)F(12)) separated by guanidinium cations. The theoretical optical gap (3.2 eV) estimated from density of state calculations is in good agreement with the experimental gap (3.3 eV) obtained by UV-vis diffuse reflectivity. The optical absorption is mainly due to O(2p) → Ti(3d) and F(2p) → Ti(3d) transitions at higher energies. The refraction index is low in the visible range (n ≈ 1.9) compared to that of TiO(2) and, consequently, [Hgua](2)·(Ti(5)O(5)F(12)) shows a good transparency adapted to UV shielding. Under UV irradiation at 254 nm for 40 h, the white microcrystalline powder turns to light purple-gray. This color change is caused by the reduction of Ti(IV) to Ti(III), confirmed by magnetic measurements. PMID:21545091

  8. The role of a LiF layer on the performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/Si organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yunfang; Liu, Ruiyuan; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Sun, Baoquan

    2014-02-24

    We report an ultra-thin layer of lithium fluoride (LiF) between silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) in a Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid solar cell which resulted in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11.09%. The insertion of a thin layer of LiF improved the contact between Si and Al, which decreased the contact resistance from 5.4 × 10{sup −1} Ω cm{sup 2} to 2.6 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm{sup 2}. Also, the electron transport from Si to Al was improved and charge carrier recombination was suppressed. As a result, the short circuit current density, the open circuit voltage, and the fill factor were all improved with the presence of the LiF layer. The solar cell with the LiF/Al bilayer as a cathode displayed a 14.45% enhancement on PCE when compared with the device using pristine Al as a cathode.

  9. Impact of preparation condition of ZnO electron transport layer on performance of hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chun-Yuan; Yang, Chih-Chiang; Yu, Hsin-Chieh; Chen, Ying-Chih

    2014-02-28

    In this article, we have demonstrated the hybrid polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) with a sol-gel derived or rf-sputtered ZnO electron transport layer (ETL). For the ZnO films prepared under different conditions, low annealing temperature (300 °C) leads to the film amorphous while the polycrystalline films is readily achieved by sputtering. Though the surface roughness can be improved by thermal annealing at 400 °C for sputtered films, the release of compressive stress after treatment has shrunk the optical band gap from 3.282 to 3.268 eV. As the ETL in PLEDs, the reduced band gap could increase potential barrier for electron injection and decrease the hole blocking capability. In our cases, luminance larger than 7000 cd/m{sup 2} can be obtained in device with pristine sputtered ZnO ETL. It is concluded that crystalline structure of ZnO films is important to facilitate the balance of carrier mobility to obtain high luminance and high efficiency devices.

  10. Biogenic nanomaterials from photosynthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Rorrer, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    The use of algal cell cultures represents a sustainable and environmentally friendly platform for the biogenic production of nanobiomaterials and biocatalysts. For example, advances in the production of biogeneic nanomaterials from algal cell cultures, such as crystalline β-chitin nanofibrils and gold and silver nanoparticles, could enable the 'green' production of biomaterials such as tissue-engineering scaffolds or drug carriers, supercapacitors and optoelectric materials. The in vivo functionalization, as well as newly demonstrated methods of production and modification, of biogenic diatom biosilica have led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid catalytic systems as well as new biomaterials for drug delivery, biosensors and heavy-metal adsorbents. PMID:25445544

  11. Synthesis and characterization of bis (acetylacetonato κ-O, O') [zinc(ii)/copper(ii)] hybrid organic-inorganic complexes as solid metal organic precursors.

    PubMed

    Rooydell, Reza; Wang, Ruey-Chi; Brahma, Sanjaya; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzaneh; Liu, Chuan-Pu

    2015-05-01

    We have synthesized novel metal organic hybrid mixed compounds of bis (acetylacetonato κ-O, O') [zinc(ii)/copper(ii)]. Taking C10H14O4Zn0.7Cu0.3 (Z0.7C0.3AA) as an example, the crystals are composed of Z0.7C0.3AA units and uncoordinated water molecules. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction results show that the complex Z0.7C0.3AA crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/n. The unit cell dimensions are a = 10.329(4) Å, b = 4.6947(18) Å, and c = 11.369(4) Å; the angles are α = 90°, β = 91.881(6)°, and γ = 90°, the volume is 551.0(4) Å(3), and Z = 2. In this process, the M(ii) ions of Zn and Cu mix and occupy the centers of symmetrical structural units, which are coordinated to two ligands. The measured bond lengths and angles of O-M-O vary with the ratio of metal species over the entire series of the complexes synthesized. The chemistry of the as-synthesized compounds has been characterized using infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, and the morphology of the products has been characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The thermal decomposition of the Z0.7C0.3AA composites measured by thermogravimetric analysis suggests that these complexes are volatile. The thermal characteristics of these complexes make them attractive precursors for metal organic chemical vapor deposition. PMID:25826776

  12. Hybrid organic/inorganic band-edge modulation of p-Si(111) photoelectrodes: effects of R, metal oxide, and Pt on H2 generation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Junhyeok; Kim, Hark Jin; Pekarek, Ryan T; Rose, Michael J

    2015-03-11

    The efficient generation of dihydrogen on molecularly modified p-Si(111) has remained a challenge due to the low barrier heights observed on such surfaces. The band-edge and barrier height challenge is a primary obstruction to progress in the area of integration of molecular H2 electrocatalysts with silicon photoelectrodes. In this work, we demonstrate that an optimal combination of organic passivating agent and inorganic metal oxide leads to H2 evolution at photovoltages positive of RHE. Modulation of the passivating R group [CH3 → Ph → Naph → Anth → Ph(OMe)2] improves both the band-edge position and ΔV (Vonset - VJmax). Subsequent atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 or TiO2 along with ALD-Pt deposition results in to our knowledge the first example of a positive H2 operating potential on molecularly modified Si(111). Mott-Schottky analyses reveal that the flat-band potential of the stable Ph(OMe)2 surface approaches that of the native (but unstable) hydride-terminated surface. The series resistance is diminished by the methoxy functional groups on the phenyl unit, due to its chemical and electronic connectivity with the TiO2 layer. Overall, judicious choice of the R group in conjunction with TiO2|Pt effects H2 generation on p-Si(111) photoelectrodes (Voc = 207 ± 5.2 mV; Jsc = -21.7 mA/cm(2); ff = 0.22; ηH2 = 0.99%). These results provide a viable hybrid strategy toward the operation of catalysts on molecularly modified p-Si(111). PMID:25716423

  13. Near-infrared sensitive organic-inorganic photorefractive device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinova, Vera; Liu, Ren-Chung; Lin, Shiuan-Huei; Chen, Ming-Syuan; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Ken-Yuh

    2016-07-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid structure, assembled by Rh-doped Bi12TiO20 crystal and liquid crystal (LC) layer, operating at near-infrared range is proposed and demonstrated. Due to the photorefractive properties of inorganic substrate, light illumination caused a space charge field which acts as a driving force for LC molecules re-alignment and subsequent refractive index modulation. All optically controlled phase retardation ability has been demonstrated supporting possibilities for further infrared applications.

  14. Polyoxometalate-based organic-inorganic hybrid compounds containing transition metal mixed-organic-ligand complexes of N-containing and pyridinecarboxylate ligands.

    PubMed

    Zhao, De-Chuan; Hu, Yang-Yang; Ding, Hong; Guo, Hai-Yang; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Xiao; Huo, Qi-Sheng; Xu, Ji-Qing

    2015-05-21

    Five new organic–inorganic hybrid compounds based on the Keggin-type polyoxoanion [SiW12O40]4−, namely [Cu3(2,2′-bpy)3(inic)(μ2-OH)(H2O)][SiW12O40]·2H2O (1), [Cu6(phen)6(μ3-Cl)2(μ2-Cl)2Cl2(inic)2][SiW12O40]·6H2O (2), [Cu2(hnic)(2,2′-bpy)2Cl]2[H2SiW12O40] (3), [Cu2(nic)(phen)2Cl2]2[SiW12O40] (4) and [Cu2(pic)(2,2′-bpy)2Cl]2[SiW12O40] (5) (inic = isonicotinic acid, hnic = 2-hydroxy-nicotinic acid, nic = nicotinic acid, pic = picolinic acid, 2,2′-bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis, XPS, XRD, cyclic voltammetric measurements, photoluminescence analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystal analysis reveals that compound 1 exhibits a 2-D double layered framework structure constructed from [SiW12O40]4− and copper-aqua-2,2′-bipy-hydroxyl-isonicotinate complexes. Compound 2 is a 0-D discrete structure formed by [SiW12O40]4− and copper-chloro-isonicotinate-phenanthroline complexes. Compound 3 shows a 1-D single chain structure based on the linkage of copper-2,2-bpy-chloro-2-hydroxy-nicotinate complexes and [SiW12O40]4−. Compounds 4 and 5 both contain polyoxometalate supported transition metal complexes, one is a polyoxometalate supported copper-chloro-nicotinate-phenanthroline complex in 4, and the other is a polyoxometalate supported copper-2,2-bpy-chloro-nicotinate complex in 5. It should be noted that nicotinic, isonicotinic and picolinic acids are structural isomers and 2-hydroxy-nicotinic acid is an in situ hydroxylated product of nicotinic acid. In addition, photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) by compounds 1–5 has been investigated in aqueous solutions. PMID:25882351

  15. Multifunctional carbon nanomaterial hybrids for magnetic manipulation and targeting.

    PubMed

    Quyen Chau, Ngoc Do; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Kostarelos, Kostas; Bianco, Alberto

    2015-12-18

    Nanosized materials and multifunctional nanoscale platforms have attracted in the last years considerable interest in a variety of different fields including biomedicine. Carbon nanotubes and graphene are some of the most widely used carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) due to their unique morphology and structure and their characteristic physicochemical properties. Their high surface area allows efficient drug loading and bioconjugation and makes them the ideal platforms for decoration with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). In the biomedical area, MNPs are of particular importance due to their broad range of potential applications in drug delivery, non-invasive tumor imaging and early detection based on their optical and magnetic properties. The remarkable characteristics of CNMs and MNPs can be combined leading to CNM/MNP hybrids which offer numerous promising, desirable and strikingly advantageous properties for improved performance in comparison to the use of either material alone. In this minireview, we attempt to comprehensively report the most recent advances made with CNMs conjugated to different types of MNPs for magnetic targeting, magnetic manipulation, capture and separation of cells towards development of magnetic carbon-based devices. PMID:26129773

  16. An ion-imprinted silica-supported organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent prepared by a surface imprinting technique combined with a polysaccharide incorporated sol-gel process for selective separation of cadmium(II) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Jiang, Hongquan; Zhang, Shusheng

    2007-03-15

    Ion-imprinting concept and polysaccharide incorporated sol-gel process were applied to the preparation of a new silica-supported organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent for selective separation of Cd(II) from aqueous solution. In the prepared shell/core composite sorbent, covalently surface coating on the supporting silica gel was achieved by using a Cd(II)-imprinting sol-gel process starting from an inorganic precursor, gamma-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysiloxane (GPTMS), and a functional biopolymer, chitosan (CS). The sorbent was prepared through self-hydrolysis of GPTMS, self-condensation and co-condensation of silanol groups (Si-OH) from siloxane and silica gel surface, in combination with in situ covalent cross-linking of CS with partial amine shielded by Cd(II) complexation. Extraction of the imprinting molecules left a predetermined arrangement of ligands and tailored binding pockets for Cd(II). The prepared sorbent was characterized by using X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Batch experiments were conducted to study the sorption performance by removal of Cd(II) when present singly or in binary system, an aqueous Cd(II) and Zn(II) mixture. The ion-imprinted composite sorbent offered a fast kinetics for the sorption of Cd(II) and the maximum capacity was 1.14mmolg(-1). The uptake capacity of the imprinted sorbent and the selectivity coefficient were much higher than that of the non-imprinted sorbent. The imprinted sorbent exhibited high reusability. The prepared functional sorbent was shown to be promising for the preconcentration of cadmium in environmental and biological samples. PMID:19071480

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectroscopy, optical properties and theoretical studies of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material: [((CH3)2NH2)(+)]6·[(BiBr6)(3-)]2.

    PubMed

    Ben Ahmed, A; Feki, H; Abid, Y

    2014-12-10

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid material, [((CH3)2NH2)(+)]6·[(BiBr6)(3-)]2, has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Visible absorption. The studied compound crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P1¯ with the following parameters: a=8.4749(6)(Å), b=17.1392(12)(Å), c=17.1392(12)(Å), α=117.339(0)°, β=99.487(0)°, γ=99.487(0)° and Z=2. The crystal lattice is composed of a two discrete (BiBr6)(3-) anions surrounded by six ((CH3)2NH2)(+) cations. Complex hydrogen bonding interactions between (BiBr6)(3-) and organic cations from a three-dimensional network. Theoretical calculations were performed using density functional theory (DFT) for studying the molecular structure, vibrational spectra and optical properties of the investigated molecule in the ground state. The full geometry optimization of designed system is performed using DFT method at B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory using the Gaussian03. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by DFT calculations are in good agreement with single crystal XRD data. The vibrational spectral data obtained from FT-IR and Raman spectra are assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. The simulated spectra satisfactorily coincide with the experimental UV-Visible spectrum. The results show good consistent with the experiment and confirm the contribution of metal orbital to the HOMO-LUMO boundary. PMID:24967541

  18. Neutron powder diffraction study of the layer organic-inorganic hybrid iron(II) methylphosphonate-hydrate, Fe[(CD{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(D{sub 2}O)

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, Philippe Bellitto, Carlo; Bauer, Elvira M.; Righini, Guido; Andre, Gilles; Bouree, Francoise

    2008-11-15

    The crystal and magnetic structures of the hybrid organic-inorganic layer compound Fe[(CD{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(D{sub 2}O)] have been studied by neutron powder diffraction as a function of temperature down to 1.5 K. The neutron diffraction pattern recorded at 200 K shows that the fully deuterated compound crystallizes in one of the two known forms of the undeuterated Fe[(CH{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)]. The crystal structure is orthorhombic, space group Pmn2{sub 1}, with the following unit-cell parameters: a=5.7095(1) A, b=8.8053(3) A and c=4.7987(1) A; Z=2. The crystal structure remains unchanged on cooling from 200 to 1.5 K. Moreover, at low temperature, Fe[(CD{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(D{sub 2}O)] shows a commensurate magnetic structure (k=(0,0,0)). As revealed by bulk susceptibility measurements on Fe[(CH{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)], the magnetic structure corresponds to a canted antiferromagnet with a critical temperature T{sub N}=25 K. Neutron powder diffraction reveals that below T{sub N}=23.5 K the iron magnetic moments in Fe[(CD{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(D{sub 2}O)] are antiferromagnetically coupled and oriented along the b-axis, perpendicular to the inorganic layers. No ferromagnetic component is observable in the neutron powder diffraction experiment, due to its too small value (<0.1{mu}{sub B}). - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure and magnetic structure of Fe[(CD{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(D{sub 2}O)].

  19. Crystal structure, thermal studies, Hirshfeld surface analysis, vibrational and DFT investigation of organic-inorganic hybrid compound [C9H6NOBr2]2CuBr4·2H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbeh, Radhia; Hamdi, Besma; Zouari, Ridha

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of a hybrid organic/inorganic material with the formula [C9H6NOBr2]2CuBr4·2H2O were studied by X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c with the following unit cell parameters: a = 7.8201 (12) Ǻ, b = 18.203 (3) Ǻ, c = 19.486 (3) Ǻ, β = 98.330 (5)°, Z = 4, V = 2744.6 (7) Ǻ3. Crystal structure was solved with a final R = 5.66% for 3483 independent reflections. The atomic arrangement shows an alternation of organic and inorganic layers. Between layers, the cohesion is performed via Osbnd H⋯Br, Csbnd H⋯Br, Nsbnd H⋯Br, Nsbnd H⋯O and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bending. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements have been carried out on [C9H6NOBr2]2CuBr4·2H2O crystal in the temperature range between 50 and 500 °C. The assignment of the observed bands in the solid state FTIR and Raman spectra of the compound was assisted by the theoretically predicted frequencies and compared with data previously reported for similar compounds. The theoretical geometrical parameters in the ground state have been investigated by density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory. The optical properties were investigated by optical absorption and show two bands at 279, 300 nm. The percentages of hydrogen bonding interactions are analyzed by Fingerprint plots of Hirshfeld surface.

  20. Two anionic [Cu{sup I}{sub 6}X{sub 7}]{sub n}{sup n-} (X=Br and I) chain-based organic-inorganic hybrid solids with N-substituted benzotriazole ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Xia; Zhai Quanguo; Li Shuni; Xia Rui; Xiang Haijuan; Jiang Yucheng; Hu Mancheng

    2010-05-15

    Solvothermal reactions of the flexible ligand 1,6-Bi(benzotriazole)hexane with CuI and KI or CuBr and KBr in ethanol generate two hybrid compounds, namely, {l_brace}(HETA)[(Cu{sub 6}I{sub 7})(ETA){sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n}(1) and {l_brace}K(Cu{sub 6}Br{sub 7})(BBTH){r_brace}{sub n}(2) (ETA=N-ethylbenzotriazole, HETA=protonated N-ethylbenzotriazole, BBTH=1,6-bi(benzotriazole)hexane). In 1, two [Cu{sub 3}I{sub 4}] vertex missing cubane-like subunits link each other by sharing one I atom to give a [Cu{sub 6}I{sub 7}] cluster, which further form novel 1D [Cu{sub 6}I{sub 7}]{sub n}{sup n-} anionic chain. Two in-situ generated ETA ligands finished the 4-coordinated environments of copper centers and another one discrete protonated ETA ligand keeps the charge neutrality for 1. In complex 2, bowl-shaped [Cu{sub 5}Br{sub 4}] clusters and rhomboid [Cu{sub 2}Br{sub 2}] dimers link each other to generate a [Cu{sub 6}Br{sub 7}]{sub n}{sup n-} 1D chain. BBTH ligands complete the tetrahedral spheres of Cu(I), and 7-coordinated K atoms further extend the 1D chain motifs to a 2D hybrid layer of 2. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum and luminescence measurements show that compound 1 and 2 both are potential semiconductor and photoluminescence materials. - Graphical abstract: Two unprecedented anionic [Cu{sup I}{sub 6}X{sub 7}]{sub n}{sup n-} (X=Br and I) chain-based organic-inorganic hybrid solids, namely, {l_brace}(HETA)[(Cu{sub 6}I{sub 7})(ETA){sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n} (1) and {l_brace}K(Cu{sub 6}Br{sub 7})(BBTH){r_brace}{sub n}(2) (ETA=N-ethylbenzotriazole, HETA=protonated N-ethylbenzotriazole, BBTH=1,6-bi(benzotriazole)- hexane) have been synthesized under solvothermal reactions and characterized.

  1. Spintronics in hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmatiyan, Shayan; McNellis, Erik; Sinova, Jairo

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we present the results of extensive analytical and numerical calculations to investigate spin and charge transport inside organic semiconductors and also at the interface with ferromagnetic metals. Based upon these calculations, we will describe the underlying spin relaxation mechanisms with reference to the spin dependent characteristic parameters e.g. spin relaxation time and spin diffusion length of the organic semiconductors in connection with the ferromagnetic electrodes. ERC-Synergy, Alexander von Humboldt.

  2. Theory of hydrogen migration in organic-inorganic halide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Egger, David A; Kronik, Leeor; Rappe, Andrew M

    2015-10-12

    Solar cells based on organic-inorganic halide perovskites have recently been proven to be remarkably efficient. However, they exhibit hysteresis in their current-voltage curves, and their stability in the presence of water is problematic. Both issues are possibly related to a diffusion of defects in the perovskite material. By using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we study the properties of an important defect in hybrid perovskites-interstitial hydrogen. We show that differently charged defects occupy different crystal sites, which may allow for ionization-enhanced defect migration following the Bourgoin-Corbett mechanism. Our analysis highlights the structural flexibility of organic-inorganic perovskites: successive iodide displacements, combined with hydrogen bonding, enable proton diffusion with low migration barriers. These findings indicate that hydrogen defects can be mobile and thus highly relevant for the performance of perovskite solar cells. PMID:26073061

  3. Gold-based hybrid nanomaterials for biosensing and molecular diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Eun; Choi, Ji Hye; Colas, Marion; Kim, Dong Ha; Lee, Hyukjin

    2016-06-15

    The properties of gold nanomaterials are particularly of interest to many researchers, since they show unique physiochemical properties such as optical adsorption of specific wavelength of light, high electrical conductance with rich surface electrons, and facile surface modification with sulfhydryl groups. These properties have facilitated the use of gold nanomaterials in the development of various hybrid systems for biosensors and molecular diagnostics. Combined with various synthetic materials such as fluorescence dyes, polymers, oligonucleotides, graphene oxides (GO), and quantum dots (QDs), the gold-based hybrid nanomaterials offer multi-functionalities in molecular detection with high specificity and sensitivity. These two aspects result in the increase of detection speed as well as the lower detection limits, having shown that this diagnosis method is more effective than other conventional ones. In this review, we have highlighted various examples of nanomaterials for biosensing and molecular diagnostics. The gold-based hybrid systems are categorized by three distinct detection approaches, in which include (1) optical, such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), RAMAN, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), (2) fluorescence, such as förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and nanomaterial surface energy transfer (NSET), and (3) electrochemical, such as potentiometic, amperometric, and conductometric. Each example provides the detailed mechanism of molecular detection as well as the supporting experimental result with the limit of detection (LOD). Lastly, future perspective on novel development of gold-based hybrid nanomaterials is discussed as well as their challenges. PMID:26894985

  4. Macro-ions collapse leading to hybrid bio-nanomaterials.

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor E.

    2009-10-01

    I used supramolecular self-assembling cyanine and the polyamine spermine binding to Escherichia coli genomic DNA as a model for DNA collapse during high throughput screening. Polyamine binding to DNA converts the normally right handed B-DNA into left handed Z-DNA conformation. Polyamine binding to DNA was inhibited by the supramolecular self-assembling cyanine. Self-assembly of cyanine upon DNA scaffold was likewise competitively inhibited by spermine as signaled by fluorescence quench from DNA-cyanine ensemble. Sequence of DNA exposure to cyanine or spermine was critical in determining the magnitude of fluorescence quench. Methanol potentiated spermine inhibition by >10-fold. The IC{sub 50} for spermine inhibition was 0.35 {+-} 0.03 {micro}M and the association constant Ka was 2.86 x 10{sup -6}M. Reversibility of the DNA-polyamine interactions was evident from quench mitigation at higher concentrations of cyanine. System flexibility was demonstrated by similar spermine interactions with {lambda}DNA. The choices and rationale regarding the polyamine, the cyanine dye as well as the remarkable effects of methanol are discussed in detail. Cyanine might be a safer alternative to the mutagenic toxin ethidium bromide for investigating DNA-drug interactions. The combined actions of polyamines and alcohols mediate DNA collapse producing hybrid bio-nanomaterials with novel signaling properties that might be useful in biosensor applications. Finally, this work will be submitted to Analytical Sciences (Japan) for publication. This journal published our earlier, related work on cyanine supramolecular self-assembly upon a variety of nucleic acid scaffolds.

  5. New insights into organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 nanoparticles. An experimental and theoretical study of doping in Pb2+ sites with Sn2+, Sr2+, Cd2+ and Ca2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, Javier; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Gallardo, Juan Jesús; Cruz Hernández, Norge; Piñero, Jose Carlos; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; de Los Santos, Desireé M.; Aguilar, Teresa; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3, doped in the Pb2+ position with Sn2+, Sr2+, Cd2+ and Ca2+. The incorporation of the dopants into the crystalline structure was analysed, observing how the characteristics of the dopant affected properties such as the crystalline phase, emission and optical properties. XRD showed how doping with Sn2+, Sr2+ and Cd2+ did not modify the normal tetragonal phase. When doping with Ca2+, the cubic phase was obtained. Moreover, DR-UV-Vis spectroscopy showed how the band gap decreased with the dopants, the values following the trend Sr2+ < Cd2+ < Ca2+ < CH3NH3PbI3 ~ Sn2+. The biggest decrease was generated by Sr2+, which reduced the CH3NH3PbI3 value by 4.5%. In turn, cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements confirmed the band gap obtained. Periodic-DFT calculations were performed to understand the experimental structures. The DOS analysis confirmed the experimental results obtained using UV-Vis spectroscopy, with the values calculated following the trend Sn2+ ~ Pb2+ > Cd2+ > Sr2+ for the tetragonal structure and Pb2+ > Ca2+ for the cubic phase. The electron localization function (ELF) analysis showed similar electron localizations for undoped and Sn2+-doped tetragonal structures, which were different from those doped with Sr2+ and Cd2+. Furthermore, when Cd2+ was incorporated, the Cd-I interaction was strengthened. For Ca2+ doping, the Ca-I interaction had a greater ionic nature than Cd-I. Finally, an analysis based on the non-covalent interaction (NCI) index is presented to determine the weak-type interactions of the CH3NH3 groups with the dopant and I atoms. To our knowledge, this kind of analysis with these hybrid systems has not been performed previously.This paper presents the synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3, doped in the Pb2+ position with Sn2+, Sr2+, Cd2+ and Ca2+. The incorporation of the dopants into the crystalline structure was analysed

  6. Hybrid organic-inorganic chlorozincate and a molecular zinc complex involving the in situ formed imidazo[1,5-a]pyridinium cation: serendipitous oxidative cyclization, structures and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Buvaylo, Elena A; Kokozay, Vladimir N; Linnik, Rostyslav P; Vassilyeva, Olga Yu; Skelton, Brian W

    2015-08-14

    Two novel compounds, the organic-inorganic hybrid [L](2)[ZnCl(4)] (1) and the coordination complex LZnCl(3) (2), where L is the 2-methyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)imidazo[1,5-a]pyridinium cation, were prepared using the oxidative condensation-cyclization of 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde and CH(3)NH(2)·HCl in methanol in the presence of Zn(2+) cations. The metal-free interaction of the organic components afforded the salt [L][Cl]·1.5H(2)O (3). The use of methylamine hydrochloride instead of its aqueous solution is believed to be responsible for the cyclocondensation with the formation of L instead of the expected Schiff base ligand. Compounds 1-3 have been obtained as single crystals and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The structure of 1 is described as layers of cations and anions stacked along the c-axis, with the minimum ZnZn distance being 8.435 Å inside a layer. In the crystal lattice of 3, the cations are arranged in stacks propagating along the a-axis; the 1D H-bonding polymer built of chloride ions and water molecules runs parallel to a column of stacked cations. The organic cations in salts 1 and 3 show various patterns of π-π stacking. The discrete molecular structure of 2 shows coordination of a Zn atom to the N(pyridyl) atom, which enables one of the chloride atoms attached to the metal centre to interact with a π-system of the positively charged imidazolium ring. Numerous C-HCl contacts in a 1-3 are seen as space-filling van der Waals interactions of minor importance in determining crystal packing. The (1)H NMR studies suggest that the Zn-N coordination found in the solid-state structure of 2 is not retained in dmso, and 1, 2 and 3 are completely dissociated in solution. The emission spectra of 1 and 2 (λ(max) = 455 and 445 nm, respectively) exhibit red-shifts of fluorescence wavelength when compared to 3 and differ in the shapes and maxima of the emission as well as in relative

  7. Unprecedented {sup 1}/{sub {infinity}}[{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} polymeric chains and four novel organic-inorganic hybrids based on Mo-POMs and azaheterocycles templates

    SciTech Connect

    Du Haijuan; Zunzhe Shu; Niu Yunyin; Song Lisha; Zhu Yu

    2012-06-15

    Abstrct: Four novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on Mo-POMs and organic templates, namely [DEB] [{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}] [NH{sub 4}]{sub 2} (1), [BMIM] [{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (2), [BMIM] [1D-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sub 0.5} (3) and {l_brace}3D-[Cu(DIE){sub 2}] [1D-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}{r_brace}{sub {infinity}} (4) [DEB= 1,1 Prime -diethyl-4,4 Prime -bipyridinium, BMIM=1,1 Prime -bis(1-methylimidazolium)methylene, DIE=1,2-diimidazoloethane] have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds 1 and 2 are POMs-based supramolecular compounds consisted of independent [{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} anions and [DEB]{sup 2+} or [BMIM]{sup 2+} organic cations. Compound 3 is the first external template example of Mo-POMs-based supramolecular network incorporated with novel {sup 1}/{sub {infinity}}[{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} polymeric chains. Compound 4 is a rare supramolecular structure that contains octamolybdate {sup 1}/{sub {infinity}}[{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} polymeric chains interconnected via DIE ligands to form a 3D net. Moreover, it was indicated that these polyacid compounds had definite catalytic activities on the probe reaction of acetaldehyde oxidation to acetic acid with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Four novel organic templated polyoxometalates comprising of 0D, 1D and 3D supramolecular frameworks together with the catalytic activities on the acetaldehyde oxidation to acetic acid were reported. Highlights: Using cation templated self-assembly four novel polyoxometalates were prepared. Compounds 1 and 2 consisted of independent [{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} anions and organic cations. Compound 3 is the first external template-assisted POMs with {sup 1}/{sub {infinity}}[{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} chain. Compound 4 is a rare 3D net

  8. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Nanomaterials for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vivero-Escoto, Juan L.; Huang, Yu-Tzu

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers outstanding potential for future biomedical applications. In particular, due to their unique characteristics, hybrid nanomaterials have recently been investigated as promising platforms for imaging and therapeutic applications. This class of nanoparticles can not only retain valuable features of both inorganic and organic moieties, but also provides the ability to systematically modify the properties of the hybrid material through the combination of functional elements. Moreover, the conjugation of targeting moieties on the surface of these nanomaterials gives them specific targeted imaging and therapeutic properties. In this review, we summarize the recent reports in the synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials and their applications in biomedical areas. Their applications as imaging and therapeutic agents in vivo will be highlighted. PMID:21747714

  9. Organic-Inorganic Composites of Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Efficient Excitonics.

    PubMed

    Guzelturk, Burak; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-06-18

    Nanocomposites of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals integrated into conjugated polymers are the key to soft-material hybrid optoelectronics, combining advantages of both plastics and particles. Synergic combination of the favorable properties in the hybrids of colloidal nanocrystals and conjugated polymers offers enhanced performance and new functionalities in light-generation and light-harvesting applications, where controlling and mastering the excitonic interactions at the nanoscale are essential. In this Perspective, we highlight and critically consider the excitonic interactions in the organic-inorganic nanocomposites to achieve highly efficient exciton transfer through rational design of the nanocomposites. The use of strong excitonic interactions in optoelectronic devices can trigger efficiency breakthroughs in hybrid optoelectronics. PMID:26266593

  10. Hybrid nanostructures of metal/two-dimensional nanomaterials for plasmon-enhanced applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuanhua; Zhu, Jinmeng; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid nanostructures composed of graphene or other two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials and plasmonic metal components have been extensively studied. The unusual properties of 2D materials are associated with their atomically thin thickness and 2D morphology, and many impressive structures enable the metal nanomaterials to establish various interesting hybrid nanostructures with outstanding plasmonic properties. In addition, the hybrid nanostructures display unique optical characteristics that are derived from the close conjunction of plasmonic optical effects and the unique physicochemical properties of 2D materials. More importantly, the hybrid nanostructures show several plasmonic electrical effects including an improved photogeneration rate, efficient carrier transfer, and a plasmon-induced "hot carrier", playing a significant role in enhancing device performance. They have been widely studied for plasmon-enhanced optical signals, photocatalysis, photodetectors (PDs), and solar cells. In this review, the developments in the field of metal/2D hybrid nanostructures are comprehensively described. Preparation of hybrid nanostructures is first presented according to the 2D material type, as well as the metal nanomaterial morphology. The plasmonic properties and the enabled applications of the hybrid nanostructures are then described. Lastly, possible future research in this promising field is discussed. PMID:27048993

  11. Stable graphene-polyoxometalate nanomaterials for application in hybrid supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Guevara, Jullieth; Ruiz, Vanesa; Gómez-Romero, Pedro

    2014-10-14

    We report the synthesis of hybrid supercapacitor electrodes by a novel reduction of GO with simultaneous incorporation of polyoxometalate. These hybrids show a 30% increase in specific capacitance and excellent stability after 10,000 cycles. PMID:25164153

  12. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Hybrid Nanomaterials via Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Focusing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Shape-controlled synthesis of nanomaterials through a simple, continuous, and low-cost method is essential to nanomaterials research toward practical applications. Hydrodynamic focusing, with its advantages of simplicity, low-cost, and precise control over reaction conditions, has been used for nanomaterial synthesis. While most studies have focused on improving the uniformity and size control, few have addressed the potential of tuning the shape of the synthesized nanomaterials. Here we demonstrate a facile method to synthesize hybrid materials by three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing (3D-HF). While keeping the flow rates of the reagents constant and changing only the flow rate of the buffer solution, the molar ratio of two reactants (i.e., tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and HAuCl4) within the reaction zone varies. The synthesized TTF–Au hybrid materials possess very different and predictable morphologies. The reaction conditions at different buffer flow rates are studied through computational simulation, and the formation mechanisms of different structures are discussed. This simple one-step method to achieve continuous shape-tunable synthesis highlights the potential of 3D-HF in nanomaterials research. PMID:25268035

  13. Wavelength-tunable waveguides based on polycrystalline organic-inorganic perovskite microwires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziyu; Liu, Jingying; Xu, Zai-Quan; Xue, Yunzhou; Jiang, Liangcong; Song, Jingchao; Huang, Fuzhi; Wang, Yusheng; Zhong, Yu Lin; Zhang, Yupeng; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2016-03-28

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as new photovoltaic materials with impressively high power conversion efficiency due to their high optical absorption coefficient and long charge carrier diffusion length. In addition to high photoluminescence quantum efficiency and chemical tunability, hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites also show intriguing potential for diverse photonic applications. In this work, we demonstrate that polycrystalline organic-inorganic perovskite microwires can function as active optical waveguides with small propagation loss. The successful production of high quality perovskite microwires with different halogen elements enables the guiding of light with different colours. Furthermore, it is interesting to find that out-coupled light intensity from the microwire can be effectively modulated by an external electric field, which behaves as an electro-optical modulator. This finding suggests the promising applications of perovskite microwires as effective building blocks in micro/nano scale photonic circuits. PMID:26508593

  14. Wavelength-tunable waveguides based on polycrystalline organic-inorganic perovskite microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziyu; Liu, Jingying; Xu, Zai-Quan; Xue, Yunzhou; Jiang, Liangcong; Song, Jingchao; Huang, Fuzhi; Wang, Yusheng; Zhong, Yu Lin; Zhang, Yupeng; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2016-03-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as new photovoltaic materials with impressively high power conversion efficiency due to their high optical absorption coefficient and long charge carrier diffusion length. In addition to high photoluminescence quantum efficiency and chemical tunability, hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites also show intriguing potential for diverse photonic applications. In this work, we demonstrate that polycrystalline organic-inorganic perovskite microwires can function as active optical waveguides with small propagation loss. The successful production of high quality perovskite microwires with different halogen elements enables the guiding of light with different colours. Furthermore, it is interesting to find that out-coupled light intensity from the microwire can be effectively modulated by an external electric field, which behaves as an electro-optical modulator. This finding suggests the promising applications of perovskite microwires as effective building blocks in micro/nano scale photonic circuits.

  15. Hybrid Nanomaterials by Surface Grafting of Synthetic Polypeptides Using N-Carboxyanhydride (NCA) Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Borase, Tushar; Heise, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The interaction of materials with their environment is largely dictated by interfacial phenomena. Polymers are very versatile materials to modulate material interfaces to provide functionality, stability and compatibility. A class of polymers that can close the gap between fully synthetic and natural macromolecules are polypeptides derived from N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) polymerization. Recent advances in using this technique to create biomimetic interfaces and hybrid materials are highlighted, with special emphasis on nanomaterials. PMID:26780161

  16. Giant photostriction in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; You, Lu; Wang, Shiwei; Ku, Zhiliang; Fan, Hongjin; Schmidt, Daniel; Rusydi, Andrivo; Chang, Lei; Wang, Le; Ren, Peng; Chen, Liufang; Yuan, Guoliang; Chen, Lang; Wang, Junling

    2016-01-01

    Among the many materials investigated for next-generation photovoltaic cells, organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites have demonstrated great potential thanks to their high power conversion efficiency and solution processability. Within a short period of about 5 years, the efficiency of solar cells based on these materials has increased dramatically from 3.8 to over 20%. Despite the tremendous progress in device performance, much less is known about the underlying photophysics involving charge-orbital-lattice interactions and the role of the organic molecules in this hybrid material remains poorly understood. Here, we report a giant photostrictive response, that is, light-induced lattice change, of >1,200 p.p.m. in methylammonium lead iodide, which could be the key to understand its superior optical properties. The strong photon-lattice coupling also opens up the possibility of employing these materials in wireless opto-mechanical devices. PMID:27044485

  17. Giant photostriction in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang; You, Lu; Wang, Shiwei; Ku, Zhiliang; Fan, Hongjin; Schmidt, Daniel; Rusydi, Andrivo; Chang, Lei; Wang, Le; Ren, Peng; Chen, Liufang; Yuan, Guoliang; Chen, Lang; Wang, Junling

    2016-04-01

    Among the many materials investigated for next-generation photovoltaic cells, organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites have demonstrated great potential thanks to their high power conversion efficiency and solution processability. Within a short period of about 5 years, the efficiency of solar cells based on these materials has increased dramatically from 3.8 to over 20%. Despite the tremendous progress in device performance, much less is known about the underlying photophysics involving charge-orbital-lattice interactions and the role of the organic molecules in this hybrid material remains poorly understood. Here, we report a giant photostrictive response, that is, light-induced lattice change, of >1,200 p.p.m. in methylammonium lead iodide, which could be the key to understand its superior optical properties. The strong photon-lattice coupling also opens up the possibility of employing these materials in wireless opto-mechanical devices.

  18. Evaluation of cytotoxicity, biophysics and biomechanics of cells treated with functionalized hybrid nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Ramesh; Ramasundaram, Subramaniyan; Du, Ping; Hyojin, Kim; Sung, Dongkyung; Park, Kwideok; Lee, Nae-Eung; Yun, Kyusik; Choi, Kyoung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Hybrids consisting of carboxylated, single-walled carbon nanotube (c-SWNT)–silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-DNA–poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) are synthesized via sequential functionalization to mimic the theragnostic (therapy and diagnosis) system. Carboxylation of SWNT has minimized the metal impurities with plenty of –COOH groups to produce hybrid (c-SWNT-AgNPs). The hybrid is further wrapped with DNA (hybrid-DNA) and encapsulated with PVA as hybrid composite (HC). Materials were tested against human alveolar epithelial cells (A549), mouse fibroblasts cells (NIH3T3) and human bone marrow stromal cells (HS-5). The composition-sensitive physico-chemical interactions, biophysics and biomechanics of materials-treated cells are evaluated. The cell viability was improved for HC, hybrid-PVA and c-SWNT when compared with SWNT and hybrid. SWNT and hybrid showed cell viability less than 60% at high dose (40 µg ml−1) and hybrid-PVA and HC retained 80% or more cell viability. The treatment of hybrid nanomaterials considerably changed cell morphology and intercellular interaction with respect to the composition of materials. Peculiarly, PVA-coated hybrid was found to minimize the growth of invadopodia of A549 cells, which is responsible for the proliferation of cancer cells. Surface roughness of cells increased after treatment with hybrid, where cytoplasmic regions specifically showed higher roughness. Nanoindentation results suggest that changes in biomechanics occurred owing to possible internalization of the hybrid. The changes in force spectra of treated cells indicated a possible greater interaction between the cells and hybrid with distinct stiffness and demonstrated the surface adherence and internalization of hybrid on or inside the cells. PMID:23985739

  19. Hybrid carbon nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurila, Tomi

    2015-09-01

    Electrochemical detection of different biomolecules in vivo is a promising path towards in situ monitoring of human body and its functions. However, there are several major obstacles, such as sensitivity, selectivity and biocompatiblity, which must be tackled in order to achieve reliably and safely operating sensor devices. Here we show that by utilizing hybrid carbon materials as electrodes to detect two types of neurotransmitters, dopamine and glutamate, several advantages over commonly used electrode materials can be achieved. In particular, we will demonstrate here that it is possible to combine the properties of different carbon allotropes to obtain hybrid materials with greatly improved electrochemical performance. Three following examples of the approach are given: (i) diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film electrodes with different layer thicknesses, (ii) multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown directly on top of DLC and (iii) carbon nanofibres synthesized on top of DLC thin films. Detailed structural and electrochemical characterization is carried out to rationalize the reasons behind the observed behvior. In addition, results from the atomistic simulations are utilized to obtain more information about the properties of the amorphous carbon thin films.

  20. Programmable SERS active substrates for chemical and biosensing applications using amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon nanomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Jeffery Alexander; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We present the creation of a unique nanostructured amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon material that exhibits surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. This nanomaterial is an interconnected network of amorphous/crystalline nanospheroids which form a nanoweb structure; to our knowledge this material has not been previously observed nor has it been applied for use as a SERS sensing material. This material is formed using a femtosecond synthesis technique which facilitates a laser plume ion condensation formation mechanism. By fine-tuning the laser plume temperature and ion interaction mechanisms within the plume, we are able to precisely program the relative proportion of crystalline Si to amorphous Si content in the nanospheroids as well as the size distribution of individual nanospheroids and the size of Raman hotspot nanogaps. With the use of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and Crystal Violet (CV) chemical dyes, we have been able to observe a maximum enhancement factor of 5.38 × 106 and 3.72 × 106 respectively, for the hybrid nanomaterial compared to a bulk Si wafer substrate. With the creation of a silicon-based nanomaterial capable of SERS detection of analytes, this work demonstrates a redefinition of the role of nanostructured Si from an inactive to SERS active role in nano-Raman sensing applications.

  1. Programmable SERS active substrates for chemical and biosensing applications using amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon nanomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jeffery Alexander; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We present the creation of a unique nanostructured amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon material that exhibits surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. This nanomaterial is an interconnected network of amorphous/crystalline nanospheroids which form a nanoweb structure; to our knowledge this material has not been previously observed nor has it been applied for use as a SERS sensing material. This material is formed using a femtosecond synthesis technique which facilitates a laser plume ion condensation formation mechanism. By fine-tuning the laser plume temperature and ion interaction mechanisms within the plume, we are able to precisely program the relative proportion of crystalline Si to amorphous Si content in the nanospheroids as well as the size distribution of individual nanospheroids and the size of Raman hotspot nanogaps. With the use of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and Crystal Violet (CV) chemical dyes, we have been able to observe a maximum enhancement factor of 5.38 × 106 and 3.72 × 106 respectively, for the hybrid nanomaterial compared to a bulk Si wafer substrate. With the creation of a silicon-based nanomaterial capable of SERS detection of analytes, this work demonstrates a redefinition of the role of nanostructured Si from an inactive to SERS active role in nano-Raman sensing applications. PMID:26785682

  2. Programmable SERS active substrates for chemical and biosensing applications using amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon nanomaterial.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jeffery Alexander; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We present the creation of a unique nanostructured amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon material that exhibits surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. This nanomaterial is an interconnected network of amorphous/crystalline nanospheroids which form a nanoweb structure; to our knowledge this material has not been previously observed nor has it been applied for use as a SERS sensing material. This material is formed using a femtosecond synthesis technique which facilitates a laser plume ion condensation formation mechanism. By fine-tuning the laser plume temperature and ion interaction mechanisms within the plume, we are able to precisely program the relative proportion of crystalline Si to amorphous Si content in the nanospheroids as well as the size distribution of individual nanospheroids and the size of Raman hotspot nanogaps. With the use of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and Crystal Violet (CV) chemical dyes, we have been able to observe a maximum enhancement factor of 5.38 × 10(6) and 3.72 × 10(6) respectively, for the hybrid nanomaterial compared to a bulk Si wafer substrate. With the creation of a silicon-based nanomaterial capable of SERS detection of analytes, this work demonstrates a redefinition of the role of nanostructured Si from an inactive to SERS active role in nano-Raman sensing applications. PMID:26785682

  3. Biocompatible hybrid nanomaterials involving polymers and hydrogels interfaced with phosphorescent complexes and toxin-free metallic nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marpu, Sreekar B.

    The major topics discussed are all relevant to interfacing brightly phosphorescent and non-luminescent coinage metal complexes of [Ag(I) and Au(I)] with biopolymers and thermoresponsive gels for making hybrid nanomaterials with an explanation on syntheses, characterization and their significance in biomedical fields. Experimental results and ongoing work on determining outreaching consequences of these hybrid nanomaterials for various biomedical applications like cancer therapy, bio-imaging and antibacterial abilities are described. In vitro and in vivo studies have been performed on majority of the discussed hybrid nanomaterials and determined that the cytotoxicity or antibacterial activity are comparatively superior when compared to analogues in literature. Consequential differences are noticed in photoluminescence enhancement from hybrid phosphorescent hydrogels, phosphorescent complex ability to physically crosslink, Au(I) sulfides tendency to form NIR (near-infrared) absorbing AuNPs compared to any similar work in literature. Syntheses of these hybrid nanomaterials has been thoroughly investigated and it is determined that either metallic nanoparticles syntheses or syntheses of phosphorescent hydrogels can be carried in single step without involving any hazardous reducing agents or crosslinkers or stabilizers that are commonly employed during multiple step syntheses protocols for syntheses of similar materials in literature. These astounding results that have been discovered within studies of hybrid nanomaterials are an asset to applications ranging from materials development to health science and will have striking effect on environmental and green chemistry approaches.

  4. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yangang; Yao, Yangyi; Zhang, Xiaohang; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Gong, Yunhui; Shin, Jongmoon; Wachsman, Eric D.; Dagenais, Mario; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH3NH3PbI3 thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  5. Magnetic nanomaterial derived from graphene oxide/layered double hydroxide hybrid for efficient removal of methyl orange from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe; Ji, Shanshan; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Ren, Lulu; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng; Liu, Tianxi

    2013-10-15

    Magnetic hybrid nanomaterials composed of reduced graphene oxide, zero-valent nickel, and NiAl-mixed metal oxides (rGO/Ni/MMO) have been synthesized by calcining graphene oxide (GO)/layered double hydroxide (LDH) hybrid in nitrogen atmosphere. Structural characterizations demonstrate that with the presence of GO substrate, NiAl-LDHs can be reduced into zero-valent Ni and NiAl-MMOs during calcination. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to investigate the morphology of the as-prepared hybrid nanomaterials, demonstrating that the introduction of GO substrate prevents the aggregation of LDHs. Magnetism characterization proves the ferromagnetic property of rGO/Ni/MMO hybrid. This magnetic hybrid nanomaterial exhibits excellent adsorption ability toward methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solutions. The kinetics of the adsorption process and the adsorption isotherm are investigated. The MO removal process is found to obey the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model, and its kinetics follows pseudo-second-order rate equation. In addition, the magnetic hybrid also exhibits good recycle ability for MO removal. This novel magnetic hybrid nanomaterial derived from GO/LDH hybrid demonstrates great potential in the applications of water treatment. PMID:23928490

  6. Supramolecular hydrogen-bonding patterns in the organic-inorganic hybrid compound bis(4-amino-5-chloro-2,6-dimethylpyrimidinium) tetrathiocyanatozinc(II)-4-amino-5-chloro-2,6-dimethylpyrimidine-water (1/2/2).

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Ammasai; Zeller, Matthias; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan

    2016-04-01

    Zinc thiocyanate complexes have been found to be biologically active compounds. Zinc is also an essential element for the normal function of most organisms and is the main constituent in a number of metalloenzyme proteins. Pyrimidine and aminopyrimidine derivatives are biologically very important as they are components of nucleic acids. Thiocyanate ions can bridge metal ions by employing both their N and S atoms for coordination. They can play an important role in assembling different coordination structures and yield an interesting variety of one-, two- and three-dimensional polymeric metal-thiocyanate supramolecular frameworks. The structure of a new zinc thiocyanate-aminopyrimidine organic-inorganic compound, (C6H9ClN3)2[Zn(NCS)4]·2C6H8ClN3·2H2O, is reported. The asymmetric unit consist of half a tetrathiocyanatozinc(II) dianion, an uncoordinated 4-amino-5-chloro-2,6-dimethylpyrimidinium cation, a 4-amino-5-chloro-2,6-dimethylpyrimidine molecule and a water molecule. The Zn(II) atom adopts a distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry and is coordinated by four N atoms from the thiocyanate anions. The Zn(II) atom is located on a special position (twofold axis of symmetry). The pyrimidinium cation and the pyrimidine molecule are not coordinated to the Zn(II) atom, but are hydrogen bonded to the uncoordinated water molecules and the metal-coordinated thiocyanate ligands. The pyrimidine molecules and pyrimidinium cations also form base-pair-like structures with an R2(2)(8) ring motif via N-H...N hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure is further stabilized by intermolecular N-H...O, O-H...S, N-H...S and O-H...N hydrogen bonds, by intramolecular N-H...Cl and C-H...Cl hydrogen bonds, and also by π-π stacking interactions. PMID:27045184

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure and high temperature phase transition in the new organic-inorganic hybrid [N(C4H9)4]3Zn2Cl7H2O crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Gzaiel, Malika; Oueslati, Abderrazek; Lhoste, Jérôme; Gargouri, Mohamed; Bulou, Alain

    2015-06-01

    The present paper accounts for the synthesis, crystal structure, differential scanning calorimetry and vibrational spectroscopy of a new compound tri-tetrabutylammonium heptachloro-dizincate (I) grown at room temperature by slow evaporation of aqueous solution. From X-ray diffraction data collected at room temperature, it is concluded that it crystallizes in the monoclinic system (P21/n space group) containing ZnCl42- and ZnCl3H2O1- tetrahedra. The atomic arrangement can be described by an alternation of organic and organic-inorganic layers stacked along the c direction. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the range 250-450 K disclosed a reversible structural phase transition of order-disorder type at 358 K, prior to the melting at 395 K. The temperature dependence of the Raman spectra of [N(C4H9)4]3Zn2Cl7H2O single crystals was studied in the spectral range 100-3500 cm-1 and for temperatures between 300 and 386 K. The most important changes are observed for the line at 261 cm-1 issued from ν1(ZnCl4). The analysis of the wavenumber, intensity and the line width based on an order-disorder model allowed to obtain information relative to the activation energy and the correlation length. The decrease of the activation energy with increasing temperature has been interpreted in term of a change in the re-orientation motion of the anionic parts. The assumption of cluster fluctuations also allowed the critical exponents to be obtained for the transition δ = 0.011 and the correlation length ξ0 = 598 Å.

  8. Controlling the Interface Areas of Organic/Inorganic Semiconductor Heterojunction Nanowires for High-Performance Diodes.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zheng; Yang, Hui; Gao, Juan; Li, Jiaofu; Chen, Yanhuan; Jia, Zhiyu; Li, Yongjun; Liu, Huibiao; Yang, Wensheng; Li, Yuliang; Li, Dan

    2016-08-24

    A new method of in situ electrically induced self-assembly technology combined with electrochemical deposition has been developed for the controllable preparation of organic/inorganic core/shell semiconductor heterojunction nanowire arrays. The size of the interface of the heterojunction nanowire can be tuned by the growing parameter. The heterojunction nanowires of graphdiyne/CuS with core/shell structure showed the strong dependence of rectification ratio and perfect diode performance on the size of the interface. It will be a new way for controlling the structures and properties of one-dimensional heterojunction nanomaterials. PMID:27472226

  9. Facile synthesis of two-dimensional graphene/SnO2/Pt ternary hybrid nanomaterials and their catalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Wang, Ping; Wang, Li; Han, Lei; Dong, Shaojun

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we reported a simple, aqueous-phase route to the synthesis of two-dimensional graphene/SnO2 composite nanosheets (GSCN) hybrid nanostructures consisting of 5 nm Pt nanoparticles supported on the both sides of GSCN. Functional two-dimensional GSCN were obtained through the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using SnCl2 in the presence of polyelectrolyte poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). The main advantages of this preparation are that the reduction of GO, the formation of SnO2 and the functionalization of GSCN were achieved simultaneously through one-pot reaction. GSCN/Pt ternary hybrid nanomaterials were generated by in situ reduction of negatively charged PtCl62- precursors adsorbed on the positively charged surface of GSCN through electrostatic attraction. The as-synthesized GSCN/Pt ternary hybrid nanomaterials exhibited high cycle stabilization during the catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol into p-aminophenol by NaBH4. Additionally, our approach is expected to extend to other hybrid nanomaterials. We believe that the obtained GSCN/Pt ternary hybrid nanomaterials have great potential for applications in other field, such as electrochemical energy storage, sensors, and so on.In this paper, we reported a simple, aqueous-phase route to the synthesis of two-dimensional graphene/SnO2 composite nanosheets (GSCN) hybrid nanostructures consisting of 5 nm Pt nanoparticles supported on the both sides of GSCN. Functional two-dimensional GSCN were obtained through the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using SnCl2 in the presence of polyelectrolyte poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). The main advantages of this preparation are that the reduction of GO, the formation of SnO2 and the functionalization of GSCN were achieved simultaneously through one-pot reaction. GSCN/Pt ternary hybrid nanomaterials were generated by in situ reduction of negatively charged PtCl62- precursors adsorbed on the positively charged surface of GSCN through

  10. Spectroscopic Studies of Azul Maya: Novel Organic/Inorganic Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Layra; Manciu, Felicia; Torres, Brenda; Polette, Lori; Chianelli, Russell

    2006-10-01

    Maya pigments are novel organic/inorganic hybrid materials with multiple technological applications. The materials are surface compounds formed by heating an organic molecule such as indigo with an inorganic compound such as palygorskite, which is a common clay. The organic molecule upon heating forms a strong interaction with the clay surface stabilizing both entities. This strong interaction is exhibited through a color change from deep blue to the well-known Maya Blue indicating an exchange of electron density at the surface. Analysis by infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy demonstrate the disappearance of nitrogen-hydrogen (N-H) bonding, as the indigo molecule incorporates into the inorganic palygorskite material. Infrared data confirm the loss of zeolitic water and a partial removal of structural water after the heating process. Carbon and oxygen studies at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory by X-Ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), respectively, suggest possible cationic (Al^+3) bonding of the organic molecule to palygorskite compound.

  11. New Hybrid Nanomaterial Based on Self-Assembly of Cyclodextrins and Cobalt Prussian Blue Analogue Nanocubes

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Caio L. C.; Silva, Anna T. B.; Macedo, Lucyano J. A.; Luz, Roberto A. S.; Neto, José M. Moita; Filho, Ubirajara P. Rodrigues; Cantanhêde, Welter

    2015-01-01

    Supramolecular self-assembly has been demonstrated to be a useful approach to developing new functional nanomaterials. In this work, we used a cobalt Prussian blue analogue (PBA, Co3[Co(CN)6]2) compound and a β-cyclodextrin (CD) macrocycle to develop a novel host-guest PBA-CD nanomaterial. The preparation of the functional magnetic material involved the self-assembly of CD molecules onto a PBA surface by a co-precipitation method. According to transmission electronic microscopy results, PBA-CD exhibited a polydisperse structure composed of 3D nanocubes with a mean edge length of 85 nm, which became shorter after CD incorporation. The supramolecular arrangement and structural, crystalline and thermal properties of the hybrid material were studied in detail by vibrational and electronic spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction. The cyclic voltammogram of the hybrid material in a 0.1 mol·L−1 NaCl supporting electrolyte exhibited a quasi-reversible redox process, attributed to Co2+/Co3+ conversion, with an E1/2 value of 0.46 V (vs. SCE), with higher reversibility observed for the system in the presence of CD. The standard rate constants for PBA and PBA-CD were determined to be 0.07 and 0.13 s−1, respectively, which suggests that the interaction between the nanocubes and CD at the supramolecular level improves electron transfer. We expect that the properties observed for the hybrid material make it a potential candidate for (bio)sensing designs with a desirable capability for drug delivery. PMID:26132565

  12. Gold Nano Popcorn Attached SWCNT Hybrid Nanomaterial for Targeted Diagnosis and Photothermal Therapy of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Beqa, Lule; Fan, Zhen; Singh, Anant Kumar; Senapati, Dulal; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer presents greatest challenge in health care in today’s world. The key to ultimately successful treatment of breast cancer disease is an early and accurate diagnosis. Current breast cancer treatments are often associated with severe side effects. Driven by the need, we report the design of novel hybrid nanomaterial using gold nano popcorn-attached single wall carbon nanotube for targeted diagnosis and selective photothermal treatment. Targeted SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cell sensing have been performed in 10 cancer cells/mL level, using surface enhanced Raman scattering of single walls carbon nanotube’s D and G bands. Our data show that S6 aptamer attached hybrid nanomaterial based SERS assay is highly sensitive to targeted human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cell line and it will be able to distinguish it from other non targeted MDA-MB breast cancer cell line and HaCaT normal skin cell line. Our results also show that 10 minutes of photothermal therapy treatment by 1.5 W/cm2 power, 785 nm laser is enough to kill cancer cells very effectively using S6 aptamer attached hybrid nanomaterials. Possible mechanisms for targeted sensing and operating principle for highly efficient photothermal therapy have been discussed. Our experimental results reported here open up a new possibility for using aptamers modified hybrid nanomaterial for reliable diagnosis and targeted therapy of cancer cell lines quickly. PMID:21842867

  13. Selective Inactivation of Resistant Gram-Positive Pathogens with a Light-Driven Hybrid Nanomaterial.

    PubMed

    Grüner, Malte; Tuchscherr, Lorena; Löffler, Bettina; Gonnissen, Dominik; Riehemann, Kristina; Staniford, Mark C; Kynast, Ulrich; Strassert, Cristian A

    2015-09-23

    Herein, we present a straightforward strategy to disperse highly insoluble photosensitizers in aqueous environments, without major synthetic efforts and keeping their photosensitizing abilities unaffected. A layered nanoclay was employed to adsorb and to solubilize a highly efficient yet hydrophobic Si(IV) phthalocyaninate in water. The aggregation of the photoactive dye was correlated with its photophysical properties, particularly with the ability to produce highly cytotoxic singlet oxygen. Moreover, the resulting hybrid nanomaterial is able to selectively photoinactivate Gram-positive pathogens, due to local interactions between the bacterial membranes and the negatively charged nanodiscs. Nanotoxicity assays confirmed its innocuousness toward eukaryotic cells, showing that it constitutes a new class of "phototriggered magic bullet" for the inactivation of pathogens in phototherapy, as well as in the development of coatings for self-disinfecting surfaces. PMID:26360157

  14. Solid-state NMR characterization of the structure and thermal stability of hybrid organic-inorganic compounds based on a HLaNb2O7 Dion-Jacobson layered perovskite.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Alice S; Ferrara, Chiara; Marculescu, Adriana Mossuto; Giannici, Francesco; Martorana, Antonino; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Tealdi, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    Dion-Jacobson phases, like MLaNb2O7, are an interesting class of ion-exchangeable layered perovskites possessing electronic and photocatalytic properties. Their protonated and organo-modified homologues, in particular, have already been indicated as promising catalysts. However, the structural analysis of these highly tailorable materials is still incomplete, and both the intercalation process and thermal stability of the included organic moieties are far from being completely understood. In this study, we present a thorough solid-state NMR characterization of HLaNb2O7·xH2O intercalated with different amounts of octylamine, or with decylamine. Samples were analyzed as prepared, and after thermal treatment at different temperatures up to 220 °C. The substitution of pristine proton ions was followed via(1)H MAS NMR spectroscopy, whereas the alkyl chains were monitored through (13)C((1)H) CP MAS experiments. The interactions in the interlayer space were explored using (13)C((1)H) 2D heteronuclear correlation experiments. We demonstrate that some of the protons are involved in the functionalization reaction, and some of them are in close proximity to the alkyl ammonium chains. Heating of the hybrid materials leads first to a rearrangement of the alkyl chains and then to their degradation. The spatial arrangement of the chains, their interactions and the thermal behavior of the materials depend on the extent of the functionalization, and on the nature of the intercalated alkyl ammonium ions. PMID:27440133

  15. Dielectric properties and electrical conductivity of the hybrid organic-inorganic polyvanadates (H{sub 3}N(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}NH{sub 3})[V{sub 6}O{sub 14}

    SciTech Connect

    Nefzi, H.; Sediri, F.; Hamzaoui, H.; Gharbi, N.

    2012-06-15

    Plate-like crystals of the polyvanadate (H{sub 3}N(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}NH{sub 3})[V{sub 6}O{sub 14}] have been synthesized via an hydrothermal treatment. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electron spin resonance and complex impedance spectroscopy were used to analyze the hybrid material. The frequency dependence of AC conductivity at different temperatures indicates that the CBH model is the probable mechanism for the AC conduction behavior. The conductivity was measured by complex impedance spectroscopy which is equal to 31.10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1} m{sup -1} at 443 K. The Arrhenius diagram is not linear, it presents a rupture situated at 357 K and the activation energies' average values are 0.22 eV and 0.14 eV, deduced from the Arrhenius relation. - Graphical abstract: At high temperature {epsilon} Double-Prime increases more rapidly which is due to the increasing conduction loss which rises with the increment in the DC conductivity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rectangular plate-like crystals (H{sub 3}N(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}NH{sub 3})[V{sub 6}O{sub 14}] were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer frequency and temperature dependence of AC conductivity indicate CBH model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature dependence of DC conductivity exhibits two conduction mechanisms.

  16. Computational analysis of electrical conduction in hybrid nanomaterials with embedded non-penetrating conductive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jizhe; Naraghi, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a comprehensive multi-resolution two-dimensional (2D) resistor network model is proposed to analyze the electrical conductivity of hybrid nanomaterials made of insulating matrix with conductive particles such as CNT reinforced nanocomposites and thick film resistors. Unlike existing approaches, our model takes into account the impenetrability of the particles and their random placement within the matrix. Moreover, our model presents a detailed description of intra-particle conductivity via finite element analysis, which to the authors’ best knowledge has not been addressed before. The inter-particle conductivity is assumed to be primarily due to electron tunneling. The model is then used to predict the electrical conductivity of electrospun carbon nanofibers as a function of microstructural parameters such as turbostratic domain alignment and aspect ratio. To simulate the microstructure of single CNF, randomly positioned nucleation sites were seeded and grown as turbostratic particles with anisotropic growth rates. Particle growth was in steps and growth of each particle in each direction was stopped upon contact with other particles. The study points to the significant contribution of both intra-particle and inter-particle conductivity to the overall conductivity of hybrid composites. Influence of particle alignment and anisotropic growth rate ratio on electrical conductivity is also discussed. The results show that partial alignment in contrast to complete alignment can result in maximum electrical conductivity of whole CNF. High degrees of alignment can adversely affect conductivity by lowering the probability of the formation of a conductive path. The results demonstrate approaches to enhance electrical conductivity of hybrid materials through controlling their microstructure which is applicable not only to carbon nanofibers, but also many other types of hybrid composites such as thick film resistors.

  17. Structure formation in metal complex/polymer hybrid nanomaterials prepared by miniemulsion.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Christoph P; Jagielski, Nicole; Heller, Jeannine; Hinderberger, Dariush; Spiess, Hans W; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Weiss, Clemens K; Landfester, Katharina

    2011-11-01

    Polymer/complex hybrid nanostructures were prepared using a variety of hydrophobic metal β-diketonato complexes. The mechanism of structure formation was investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in the liquid phase. Structure formation is attributed to an interaction between free coordination sites of metal β-diketonato complexes and coordinating anionic surfactants. Lamellar structures are already present in the miniemulsion. By subsequent polymerization the lamellae can be embedded in a great variety of different polymeric matrices. The morphology of the lamellar structures, as elucidated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), can be controlled by the choice of anionic surfactant. Using sodium alkylsulfates and sodium dodecylphosphate, "nano-onions" are formed, while sodium carboxylates lead to "kebab-like" structures. The composition of the hybrid nanostructures can be described as bilayer lamellae, embedded in a polymeric matrix. The metal complexes are separated by surfactant molecules which are arranged tail-to-tail; by increasing the carbon chain length of the surfactant the layer distance of the structured nanomaterial can be adjusted between 2 and 5 nm. PMID:21977909

  18. Organic-inorganic planar hybrid materials for spasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toropov, Nikita A.; Kamalieva, Aisylu N.; Vartanyan, Tigran A.

    2015-05-01

    We strive to obtain highly fluorescent planar materials that may be used for the development of nanolasers based on localized plasmons. The promissing candidates for this purpose are materials consisting of mixtures of organic molecules, polymer, and silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were preliminary deposited on the quartz substrates. These samples were characterized by SEM and absorption spectroscopy. Then, they were covered by the polymer/rhodamine and polymer/coumarin layers using either spin-coating or evaporation techniques and characterized by confocal luminescent microscopy and spectroscopy. As a result of the localized surface plasmon excitation, we observed the enhancement of the rhodamine and coumarine absorption in the near fields of silver nanoparticles. The fluorescence of the thin films of polymer activated by dyes molecules with silver nanoparticles was almost 20-fold more intense than that on the bare dielectric surfaces without silver nanoparticles. In the presence Ag nanoparticles and at increased intensities of excitation we found also slight narrowing of the luminescence spectrum of polymer/coumarin layers.

  19. Solid state radioluminescent sources: Mixed organic/inorganic hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T. ); Renschler, C.L. ); Shepodd, T.J. ); Smith, H.M. )

    1990-01-01

    This concept brings a condensed source of tritium into close proximity with an inorganic phosphor. That source may thus become the equivalent of many atmospheres of tritium gas pressure. If both phosphor and tritium source material are optically clear, then a lamp's brightness may be made to scale with optical path length. Proof of principle of this concept has been demonstrated and will be described. A theoretical treatment is presented for the results here and for results from aerogel experiments. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Charge extraction from nanostructured hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Chiatzun

    Conjugated polymers are attractive for use in photovoltaic (PV) cells because they are highly absorptive, their absorption spectrum can be tuned to match various regions of the solar spectrum and their solubility in common solvents enables the use of low-cost printing technique to mass produce PV panels. Photoexcitation of conjugated polymers forms excitons, which are bound electron-hole pairs. In order to convert these excitons into free carriers, the polymers have to be blended with an electron acceptor in close promixity of ˜10 nm. The charge transfer process at the donor-acceptor interface provides the necessary driving force to split excitons, while the close proximity guarantees excitons reaching an interface before decaying. Once the carriers are split, they have to be transported to their respective electrodes before recombining. Ordered nanostructured titania (TiO2) matrix infiltrated with conjugated polymers is a promising acceptor-donor system, which can potentially meet these requirements. In this work, several optimizations are shown to be essential for increasing the performance of TiO2/polymer cells. First, we measure the hole mobility of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in a thin film diode in the space-charge limited regime. We show that the mobility increases with the polymer molecular weight and can be correlated to the film morphology. The anisotropy in P3HT chain packing suggests that its diode mobility of 10-4 cm 2/Vs can be further enhanced upon chain alignment in straight nanopores. Second, we investigate the use of molecular surface modification to control the interfacial energetics and charge transfer dynamics. By introducing dipoles at the TiO2/P3HT interface, the interfacial energy offset can be changed resulting in a concomitant change in the open circuit voltage. In addition, certain modifiers improve exciton harvesting by mediating charge transfer from the polymer to TiO2. We further show that the use of an amphiphilic molecule suppresses charge recombination across the TiO 2/P3HT interface. By controlling open circuit voltage, enhancing photocurrent and suppressing recombination through interface modification, the power efficiency of TiO2/P3HT device is almost doubled. Lastly, we demonstrate a novel imprinting method to nanostructure straight pores in TiO2, which can be infiltrated with conjugated polymers to make ordered inorganic-organic PV cells.

  1. Solution processable organic/inorganic hybrid ultraviolet photovoltaic detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Tang, Libin; Xiang, Jinzhong; Ji, Rongbin; Zhang, Kai; Lai, Sin Ki; Zhao, Jun; Kong, Jincheng; Lau, Shu Ping

    2016-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) photodetector is a kind of important optoelectronic device which can be widely used in scientific and engineering fields including astronomical research, environmental monitoring, forest-fire prevention, medical analysis, and missile approach warning etc. The development of UV detector is hindered by the acquirement of stable p-type materials, which makes it difficult to realize large array, low-power consumption UV focal plane array (FPA) detector. Here, we provide a novel structure (Al/Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfuorenyl-2,7-diyl)(PFO)/ZnO/ITO) to demonstrate the UV photovoltaic (PV) response. A rather smooth surface (RMS roughness: 0.28 nm) may be reached by solution process, which sheds light on the development of large-array, light-weight and low-cost UV FPA detectors.

  2. Piezoelectric Enhancement of Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Photovoltaic Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, Joe; Shoaee, Safa; Durrant, James R.; Dunn, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Solar cells are produced using solution processing that combine ZnO nanorods with the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). ZnO nanorods have an average length and diameter of 2.7 μm and 81 nm, and are well coated with P3HT. The solar cells have a power conversion efficiency of 1.24 %, which increases to 1.78 % when 10 kHz acoustic vibrations are applied to the device at 75 dB using a loudspeaker. Transient absorption studies demonstrate that the efficiency increase originates from a decrease in the non-geminate recombination rate in the system. It is proposed that electric fields at the ZnO:P3HT interface arising from the piezoelectric effect in ZnO increase the charge-carrier separation, producing this reduction in recombination and associated efficiency increase.

  3. Self-assembled hierarchically structured organic-inorganic composite systems.

    PubMed

    Tritschler, Ulrich; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Designing bio-inspired, multifunctional organic-inorganic composite materials is one of the most popular current research objectives. Due to the high complexity of biocomposite structures found in nacre and bone, for example, a one-pot scalable and versatile synthesis approach addressing structural key features of biominerals and affording bio-inspired, multifunctional organic-inorganic composites with advanced physical properties is highly challenging. This article reviews recent progress in synthesizing organic-inorganic composite materials via various self-assembly techniques and in this context highlights a recently developed bio-inspired synthesis concept for the fabrication of hierarchically structured, organic-inorganic composite materials. This one-step self-organization concept based on simultaneous liquid crystal formation of anisotropic inorganic nanoparticles and a functional liquid crystalline polymer turned out to be simple, fast, scalable and versatile, leading to various (multi-)functional composite materials, which exhibit hierarchical structuring over several length scales. Consequently, this synthesis approach is relevant for further progress and scientific breakthrough in the research field of bio-inspired and biomimetic materials. PMID:27175790

  4. Hybrid nanomaterial for stabilizing the antibiofilm activity of Eugenia carryophyllata essential oil.

    PubMed

    Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Saviuc, Crina; Grumezescu, Valentina; Hristu, Radu; Mihaiescu, Dan Eduard; Stanciu, George A; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that Fe(3)O(4)/oleic acid core/shell nanostructures could be used as systems for stabilizing the Eugenia carryophyllata essential oil (EO) on catheter surface pellicles, in order to improve their resistance to fungal colonization. EO microwave assisted extraction was performed in a Neo-Clevenger (related) device and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Fe(3)O(4)/oleic acid-core/shell nanoparticles (NP) were obtained by a precipitation method under microwave condition. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) was used as a primary characterization method. The NPs were processed to achieve a core/shell/EO coated-shell nanosystem further used for coating the inner surface of central venous catheter samples. The tested fungal strains have been recently isolated from different clinical specimens. The biofilm architecture was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Our results claim the usage of hybrid nanomaterial (core/shell/coated-shell) for the stabilization of E. carryophyllata EO, which prevented or inhibited the fungal biofilm development on the functionalized catheter, highlighting the opportunity of using these nanosystems to obtain improved, anti-biofilm coatings for biomedical applications. PMID:22949098

  5. Insights into biogenic and chemical production of inorganic nanomaterials and nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Sadighi, Armin

    2013-03-01

    The synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials and nanostructures by the means of diverse physical, chemical, and biological principles has been developed in recent decades. The nanoscale materials and structures creation continue to be an active area of researches due to the exciting properties of the resulting nanomaterials and their innovative applications. Despite physical and chemical approaches which have been used for a long time to produce nanomaterials, biological resources as green candidates that can replace old production methods have been focused in recent years to generate various inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) or other nanoscale structures. Cost-effective, eco-friendly, energy efficient, and nontoxic produced nanomaterials using diverse biological entities have been received increasing attention in the last two decades in contrast to physical and chemical methods owe using toxic solvents, generate unwanted by-products, and high energy consumption which restrict the popularity of these ways employed in nanometric science and engineering. In this review, the biosynthesis of gold, silver, gold-silver alloy, magnetic, semiconductor nanocrystals, silica, zirconia, titania, palladium, bismuth, selenium, antimony sulfide, and platinum NPs, using bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, yeasts, plant extracts and also informational bio-macromolecules including proteins, polypeptides, DNA, and RNA have been reported extensively to mention the current status of the biological inorganic nanomaterial production. In other hand, two well-known wet chemical techniques, namely chemical reduction and sol-gel methods, used to produce various types of nanocrystalline powders, metal oxides, and hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials have presented. PMID:23332127

  6. Self-assembly of ferromagnetic organic-inorganic perovskite-like films.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naureen; Polyakov, Alexey O; Aqeel, Aisha; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Blake, Graeme R; Baas, Jacob; Amenitsch, Heinz; Herrmann, Andreas; Rudolf, Petra; Palstra, Thomas T M

    2014-12-10

    Perovskite-based organic-inorganic hybrids hold great potential as active layers in electronics or optoelectronics or as components of biosensors. However, many of these applications require thin films grown with good control over structure and thickness--a major challenge that needs to be addressed. The work presented here is an effort towards this goal and concerns the layer-by-layer deposition at ambient conditions of ferromagnetic organic-inorganic hybrids consisting of alternating CuCl4-octahedra and organic layers. The Langmuir-Blodgett technique used to assemble these structures provides intrinsic control over the molecular organization and film thickness down to the molecular level. Magnetic characterization reveals that the coercive field for these thin films is larger than that for solution-grown layered bulk crystals. The strategy presented here suggests a promising cost effective route to facilitate the excellently controlled growth of sophisticated materials on a wide variety of substrates that have properties relevant for the high density storage media and spintronic devices. PMID:25059565

  7. Theoretical Design of Coupled Organic-Inorganic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, G.; Filippone, F.; Giannozzi, P.; Caminiti, R.; Amore Bonapasta, A.

    2008-09-01

    Metallo-organic molecules with highly conjugated π-electrons, like phthalocyanines (Pc’s), are widely investigated for usage in electronic and electro-optic devices. However, their weak coupling with semiconductors is an obstacle to technological applications. Here we report a first-principle theoretical study of some fundamental features of the Pc-semiconductor interaction. Our results shed light on the general problem of organic-inorganic coupling and show that an effective coupling can be achieved by a careful choice of the Pc-substrate system and the semiconductor doping. Our results also reveal a universal alignment of the Pc electronic levels to the semiconductor band gap and suggest a general procedure for designing efficiently coupled organic-inorganic systems.

  8. Designing interfaces of hydrogenase-nanomaterial hybrids for efficient solar conversion.

    PubMed

    King, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    The direct conversion of sunlight into biofuels is an intriguing alternative to a continued reliance on fossil fuels. Natural photosynthesis has long been investigated both as a potential solution, and as a model for utilizing solar energy to drive a water-to-fuel cycle. The molecules and organizational structure provide a template to inspire the design of efficient molecular systems for photocatalysis. A clear design strategy is the coordination of molecular interactions that match kinetic rates and energetic levels to control the direction and flow of energy from light harvesting to catalysis. Energy transduction and electron-transfer reactions occur through interfaces formed between complexes of donor-acceptor molecules. Although the structures of several of the key biological complexes have been solved, detailed descriptions of many electron-transfer complexes are lacking, which presents a challenge to designing and engineering biomolecular systems for solar conversion. Alternatively, it is possible to couple the catalytic power of biological enzymes to light harvesting by semiconductor nanomaterials. In these molecules, surface chemistry and structure can be designed using ligands. The passivation effect of the ligand can also dramatically affect the photophysical properties of the semiconductor, and energetics of external charge-transfer. The length, degree of bond saturation (aromaticity), and solvent exposed functional groups of ligands can be manipulated to further tune the interface to control molecular assembly, and complex stability in photocatalytic hybrids. The results of this research show how ligand selection is critical to designing molecular interfaces that promote efficient self-assembly, charge-transfer and photocatalysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Metals in Bioenergetics and Biomimetics Systems. PMID:23541891

  9. Synthesis and characterization of two new photochromic organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on isopolyoxomolybdate: (HDBU){sub 3}(NH{sub 4})[{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}].H{sub 2}O and (HDBU){sub 4}[{delta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}

    SciTech Connect

    Coue, Violaine; Dessapt, Remi; Bujoli-Doeuff, Martine; Evain, Michel; Jobic, Stephane . E-mail: stephane.jobic@cnrs-imn.fr

    2006-12-15

    Two new organic-inorganic hybrid compounds of molybdenum(VI) (HDBU){sub 3}(NH{sub 4})[{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}].H{sub 2}O 1 and (HDBU){sub 4}[{delta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}] 2 have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopies, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (at 293 and 100K, respectively). Compound 1 is obtained at room temperature by adding 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) on aqueous molybdate solution at pH=5.7. Compound 2 is obtained hydrothermally from 1 (110 deg. C, 24h, autogenous pressure). Compound 1 crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system, space group P1-bar , with a=11.2492(9), b=14.1907(10), c=16.7498(10)A, {alpha}=80.993(4), {beta}=72.272(6), {gamma}=71.696(7){sup o}, V=2412.5(3)A{sup 3} at T=20 deg. C and Z=2. The refinement of the structure leads to a residual factor R=0.0697 for 10234 independent observed reflections [I/{sigma}(I)>=2] and 623 parameters. Compound 2 crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system, space group P1-bar , with a=11.3158(9), b=11.3773(8), c=13.2884(17)A, {alpha}=92.110(8), {beta}=112.127(9), {gamma}=117.581(7){sup o}, V=1357.4(3)A{sup 3} at T=-173{sup o}C and Z=2. The refinement of the structure leads to a residualtor R=0.0226 for 11812 independent observed reflections [I/{sigma}(I)>=2] and 354 parameters. The structure of 1 consists of {beta}-[Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} anions with HDBU{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} cations connected to the mineral parts by hydrogen bonds and the structure of 2 contains {delta}-[Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} anions with HDBU{sup +} counter-cations. Both the thermal and chemical isomerizations of the two [Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} isomers are highlighted and discussed. Photochromic behaviors of compounds 1 and 2 are also reported.

  10. Structured Organic-Inorganic Perovskite toward a Distributed Feedback Laser.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Michael; Wood, Simon M; Patel, Jay B; Nayak, Pabitra K; Huang, Jian; Alexander-Webber, Jack A; Wenger, Bernard; Stranks, Samuel D; Hörantner, Maximilian T; Wang, Jacob Tse-Wei; Nicholas, Robin J; Herz, Laura M; Johnston, Michael B; Morris, Stephen M; Snaith, Henry J; Riede, Moritz K

    2016-02-01

    A general strategy for the in-plane structuring of organic-inorganic perovskite films is presented. The method is used to fabricate an industrially relevant distributed feedback (DFB) cavity, which is a critical step toward all-electrially pumped injection laser diodes. This approach opens the prospects of perovskite materials for much improved optical control in LEDs, solar cells, and also toward applications as optical devices. PMID:26630410

  11. Organic/Inorganic Complex Pigments: Ancient Colors Maya Blue

    SciTech Connect

    Polette-Niewold, L.A.; Manciu, F.S.; Torres, B.; Alvarado, M.; Jr.; Chianelli, R.R.

    2009-06-04

    Maya Blue is an ancient blue pigment composed of palygorskite clay and indigo. It was used by the ancient Maya and provides a dramatic background for some of the most impressive murals throughout Mesoamerica. Despite exposure to acids, alkalis, and chemical solvents, the color of the Maya Blue pigment remains unaltered. The chemical interaction between palygorskite and indigo form an organic/inorganic complex with the carbonyl oxygen of the indigo bound to a surface Al{sup 3+} in the Si-O lattice. In addition indigo will undergo an oxidation to dehydroindigo during preparation. The dehydro-indigo molecule forms a similar but stronger complex with the Al{sup 3+}. Thus, Maya Blue varies in color due to the mixed indigo/dehydroindigo complex. The above conclusions are the result of application of multiple techniques (X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis/thermal gravimetric analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy) to the characterization of the organic/inorganic complex. A picture of the bonding of the organic molecule to the palygorskite surface forming a surface complex is developed and supported by the results of density functional theory calculations. We also report that other organic molecules such as thioindigo form similar organic/inorganic complexes thus, opening an entirely new class of complex materials for future applications.

  12. Simultaneous band-gap narrowing and carrier-lifetime prolongation of organic-inorganic trihalide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingping; Liu, Gang; Gong, Jue; Hu, Qingyang; Schaller, Richard D; Dera, Przemyslaw; Zhang, Dongzhou; Liu, Zhenxian; Yang, Wenge; Zhu, Kai; Tang, Yuzhao; Wang, Chuanyi; Wei, Su-Huai; Xu, Tao; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2016-08-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrid lead trihalide perovskites have been emerging as the most attractive photovoltaic materials. As regulated by Shockley-Queisser theory, a formidable materials science challenge for improvement to the next level requires further band-gap narrowing for broader absorption in solar spectrum, while retaining or even synergistically prolonging the carrier lifetime, a critical factor responsible for attaining the near-band-gap photovoltage. Herein, by applying controllable hydrostatic pressure, we have achieved unprecedented simultaneous enhancement in both band-gap narrowing and carrier-lifetime prolongation (up to 70% to ∼100% increase) under mild pressures at ∼0.3 GPa. The pressure-induced modulation on pure hybrid perovskites without introducing any adverse chemical or thermal effect clearly demonstrates the importance of band edges on the photon-electron interaction and maps a pioneering route toward a further increase in their photovoltaic performance. PMID:27444014

  13. A synthetic nanomaterial for virus recognition produced by surface imprinting.

    PubMed

    Cumbo, Alessandro; Lorber, Bernard; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Meier, Wolfgang; Shahgaldian, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Major stumbling blocks in the production of fully synthetic materials designed to feature virus recognition properties are that the target is large and its self-assembled architecture is fragile. Here we describe a synthetic strategy to produce organic/inorganic nanoparticulate hybrids that recognize non-enveloped icosahedral viruses in water at concentrations down to the picomolar range. We demonstrate that these systems bind a virus that, in turn, acts as a template during the nanomaterial synthesis. These virus imprinted particles then display remarkable selectivity and affinity. The reported method, which is based on surface imprinting using silica nanoparticles that act as a carrier material and organosilanes serving as biomimetic building blocks, goes beyond simple shape imprinting. We demonstrate the formation of a chemical imprint, comparable to the formation of biosilica, due to the template effect of the virion surface on the synthesis of the recognition material. PMID:23422671

  14. Organic-Inorganic Thermoelectrics from Single Monomers to Polymer Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, William Bee

    nanocrystal arrays are a good model platform to scale molecular junctions to the macroscale, I aim to bring the same Landauer transport physics observed in single molecule junctions to macroscale devices. I further investigate the role of different binding groups, where I find that the character of the ligand binding group directly affects whether the sign of the Seebeck coefficient of the overall array. Finally, I elaborate on our work with conductive polymers as thermoelectric materials, and specifically investigate the thermoelectric effect in polymers that are solely ion conductors or are capable of both ions and electrons transport. I demonstrate that thermoelectrics based ionic or mixed conduction can be well-described using the developed fundamental equations, and by using these rules we develop positive or negative Seebeck coefficient materials. I present our work on the newly developed thermoelectric AFM technique and how we use the thermoelectric response of different domains to understand the morphology of PEDOT:PSS. By fully understanding the thermoelectric properties of organic-inorganic hybrids from the monomer level, we can extend this same understanding to develop polymer thermoelectrics.

  15. Modular Hybrid Plasma Reactor for Low Cost Bulk Production of Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C. Kong

    2011-12-01

    INL developed a bench scale modular hybrid plasma system for gas phase nanomaterials synthesis. The system was being optimized for WO3 nanoparticles production and scale model projection to a 300 kW pilot system. During the course of technology development many modifications had been done to the system to resolve technical issues that had surfaced and also to improve the performance. All project tasks had been completed except 2 optimization subtasks. These 2 subtasks, a 4-hour and an 8-hour continuous powder production runs at 1 lb/hr powder feeding rate, were unable to complete due to technical issues developed with the reactor system. The 4-hour run had been attempted twice and both times the run was terminated prematurely. The modular electrode for the plasma system was significantly redesigned to address the technical issues. Fabrication of the redesigned modular electrodes and additional components had been completed at the end of the project life. However, not enough resource was available to perform tests to evaluate the performance of the new modifications. More development work would be needed to resolve these problems prior to scaling. The technology demonstrated a surprising capability of synthesizing a single phase of meta-stable delta-Al2O3 from pure alpha-phase large Al2O3 powder. The formation of delta-Al2O3 was surprising because this phase is meta-stable and only formed between 973-1073 K, and delta-Al2O3 is very difficult to synthesize as a single phase. Besides the specific temperature window to form this phase, this meta-stable phase may have been stabilized by nanoparticle size formed in a high temperature plasma process. This technology may possess the capability to produce unusual meta-stable nanophase materials that would be otherwise difficult to produce by conventional methods. A 300 kW INL modular hybrid plasma pilot scale model reactor had been projected using the experimental data from PPG Industries 300 kW hot wall plasma reactor. The

  16. Electron-Rotor Interaction in Organic-Inorganic Lead Iodide Perovskites Discovered by Isotope Effects.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jue; Yang, Mengjin; Ma, Xiangchao; Schaller, Richard D; Liu, Gang; Kong, Lingping; Yang, Ye; Beard, Matthew C; Lesslie, Michael; Dai, Ying; Huang, Baibiao; Zhu, Kai; Xu, Tao

    2016-08-01

    We report on the carrier-rotor coupling effect in perovskite organic-inorganic hybrid lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) compounds discovered by isotope effects. Deuterated organic-inorganic perovskite compounds including CH3ND3PbI3, CD3NH3PbI3, and CD3ND3PbI3 were synthesized. Devices made from regular CH3NH3PbI3 and deuterated CH3ND3PbI3 exhibit comparable performance in band gap, current-voltage, carrier mobility, and power conversion efficiency. However, a time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) study reveals that CH3NH3PbI3 exhibits notably longer carrier lifetime than that of CH3ND3PbI3, in both thin-film and single-crystal formats. Furthermore, the comparison in carrier lifetime between CD3NH3PbI3 and CH3ND3PbI3 single crystals suggests that vibrational modes in methylammonium (MA(+)) have little impact on carrier lifetime. In contrast, the fully deuterated compound CD3ND3PbI3 reconfirmed the trend of decreasing carrier lifetime upon the increasing moment of inertia of cationic MA(+). Polaron model elucidates the electron-rotor interaction. PMID:27396858

  17. Optical Properties of Photovoltaic Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Green, Martin A; Jiang, Yajie; Soufiani, Arman Mahboubi; Ho-Baillie, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Over the last several years, organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites have rapidly emerged as a new photovoltaic contender. Although energy conversion efficiency above 20% has now been certified, improved understanding of the material properties contributing to these high performance levels may allow the progression to even higher efficiency, stable cells. The optical properties of these new materials are important not only to device design but also because of the insight they provide into less directly accessible properties, including energy-band structures, binding energies, and likely impact of excitons, as well as into absorption and inverse radiative recombination processes. PMID:26560862

  18. Automated process for solvent separation of organic/inorganic substance

    DOEpatents

    Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1986-01-01

    There is described an automated process for the solvent separation of organic/inorganic substances that operates continuously and unattended and eliminates potential errors resulting from subjectivity and the aging of the sample during analysis. In the process, metered amounts of one or more solvents are passed sequentially through a filter containing the sample under the direction of a microprocessor control apparatus. The mixture in the filter is agitated by ultrasonic cavitation for a timed period and the filtrate is collected. The filtrate of each solvent extraction is collected individually and the residue on the filter element is collected to complete the extraction process.

  19. Automated process for solvent separation of organic/inorganic substance

    DOEpatents

    Schweighardt, F.K.

    1986-07-29

    There is described an automated process for the solvent separation of organic/inorganic substances that operates continuously and unattended and eliminates potential errors resulting from subjectivity and the aging of the sample during analysis. In the process, metered amounts of one or more solvents are passed sequentially through a filter containing the sample under the direction of a microprocessor control apparatus. The mixture in the filter is agitated by ultrasonic cavitation for a timed period and the filtrate is collected. The filtrate of each solvent extraction is collected individually and the residue on the filter element is collected to complete the extraction process. 4 figs.

  20. Magnetic and luminescent hybrid nanomaterial based on Fe(3)O(4) nanocrystals and GdPO(4):Eu(3+) nanoneedles.

    PubMed

    Runowski, Marcin; Grzyb, Tomasz; Lis, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    A bifunctional hybrid nanomaterial, which can show magnetic and luminescent properties, was obtained. A magnetic phase was synthesized as a core/shell type composite. Nanocrystalline magnetite, Fe(3)O(4) was used as the core and was encapsulated in a silica shell. The luminescent phase was GdPO(4) doped with Eu(3+) ions, as the emitter. The investigated materials were synthesized using a coprecipitation method. Encapsulated Fe(3)O(4) was "trapped" in a nano-scaffold composed of GdPO(4) crystalline nanoneedles. When an external magnetic field was applied, this hybrid composite was attracted in one direction. Also, the luminescent phase can move simultaneously with magnetite due to a "trapping" effect. The structure and morphology of the obtained nanocomposites were examined with the use of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. Spectroscopic properties of the Eu(3+)-doped nanomaterials were studied by measuring their excitation and emission spectra as well as their luminescence decay times. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: PMID:23087596

  1. Organic/Inorganic Polymeric Composites for Heat-Transfer Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trent; Williams, Martha

    2008-01-01

    Organic/inorganic polymeric composite materials have been invented with significant reduction in heat-transfer properties. Measured decreases of 20-50 percent in thermal conductivity versus that of the unmodified polymer matrix have been attained. These novel composite materials also maintain mechanical properties of the unmodified polymer matrix. The present embodiments are applicable, but not limited to: racing applications, aerospace applications, textile industry, electronic applications, military hardware improvements, and even food service industries. One specific application of the polymeric composition is for use in tanks, pipes, valves, structural supports, and components for hot or cold fluid process systems where heat flow through materials is problematic and not desired. With respect to thermal conductivity and physical properties, these materials are superior alternatives to prior composite materials. These materials may prove useful as substitutes for metals in some cryogenic applications. A material of this type can be made from a blend of thermoplastics, elastomers, and appropriate additives and processed on normal polymer processing equipment. The resulting processed organic/inorganic composite can be made into fibers, molded, or otherwise processed into useable articles.

  2. Improved oxidation resistance of organic/inorganic composite atomic layer deposition coated cellulose nanocrystal aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Sean W.; Matthews, David J.; Conley, John F.; Buesch, Christian; Simonsen, John

    2014-07-01

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) aerogels are coated with thin conformal layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using atomic layer deposition to form hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposites. Electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} penetrated more than 1500 μm into the aerogel for extended precursor pulse and exposure/purge times. The measured profile of coated fiber radius versus depth from the aerogel surface agrees well with simulations of precursor penetration depth in modeled aerogel structures. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated CNC aerogel nanocomposites do not show significant thermal degradation below 295 °C as compared with 175 °C for uncoated CNC aerogels, an improvement of over 100 °C.

  3. Excitons in ultrathin organic-inorganic perovskite crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaffe, Omer; Chernikov, Alexey; Norman, Zachariah M.; Zhong, Yu; Velauthapillai, Ajanthkrishna; van der Zande, Arend; Owen, Jonathan S.; Heinz, Tony F.

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the formation of large sheets of layered organic-inorganic perovskite (OIPC) crystals, as thin as a single unit cell, prepared by mechanical exfoliation. The resulting two-dimensional OIPC nanosheets of 2.4 nm thickness are direct semiconductors with an optical band gap of 2.4 eV. They exhibit unusually strong light-matter interaction with an optical absorption as high as 25% at the main excitonic resonance, as well as bright photoluminescence. We extract an exciton binding energy of 490 meV from measurement of the series of excited exciton states. The properties of the excitons are shown to be strongly influenced by the changes in the dielectric surroundings. The environmental sensitivity of these ultrathin OIPC sheets is further reflected in the strong suppression of a thermally driven phase transition present in the bulk crystals.

  4. Semiconducting organic-inorganic nanocomposites by intimately tethering conjugated polymers to inorganic tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehan; Yoon, Young Jun; Lin, Zhiqun

    2016-04-28

    Semiconducting organic-inorganic nanocomposites were judiciously crafted by placing conjugated polymers in intimate contact with inorganic tetrapods via click reaction. CdSe tetrapods were first synthesized by inducing elongated arms from CdSe zincblende seeds through seed-mediated growth. The subsequent effective inorganic ligand treatment, followed by reacting with short bifunctional ligands, yielded azide-functionalized CdSe tetrapods (i.e., CdSe-N3). Finally, the ethynyl-terminated conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (i.e., P3HT-[triple bond, length as m-dash]) was tethered to CdSe-N3 tetrapods via a catalyst-free alkyne-azide cycloaddition, forming intimate semiconducting P3HT-CdSe tetrapod nanocomposites. Intriguingly, the intimate contact between P3HT and CdSe tetrapod was found to not only render the effective dispersion of CdSe tetrapods in the P3HT matrix, but also facilitate the efficient electronic interaction between these two semiconducting constituents. The successful anchoring of P3HT chains onto CdSe tetrapods was substantiated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements. Moreover, the absorption and photoluminescence studies further corroborated the intimate tethering between P3HT and CdSe tetrapods. The effect of the type of bifunctional ligands (i.e., aryl vs. aliphatic ligands) and the size of tetrapods on the device performance of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells was also scrutinized. Interestingly, P3HT-CdSe tetrapod nanocomposites produced via the use of an aryl bifunctional ligand (i.e., 4-azidobenzoic acid) exhibited an improved photovoltaic performance compared to that synthesized with their aliphatic ligand counterpart (i.e., 5-bromovaleric acid). Clearly, the optimal size of CdSe tetrapods ensuring the effective charge transport in conjunction with the good dispersion of CdSe tetrapods rendered an improved device performance. We envision that the click

  5. A van der Waals pn heterojunction with organic/inorganic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Daowei; Pan, Yiming; Nan, Haiyan; Gu, Shuai; Yang, Ziyi; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaoguang; Xu, Bingchen; Zhang, Yuhan; Li, Yun; Ni, Zhenhua; Wang, Baigeng; Zhu, Jia; Chai, Yang; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xinran

    2015-11-01

    van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions formed by two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent electrical/optical properties and device applications. However, current 2D heterojunctions are largely limited to atomic crystals, and hybrid organic/inorganic structures are rarely explored. Here, we fabricate the hybrid 2D heterostructures with p-type dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C8-BTBT) and n-type MoS2. We find that few-layer C8-BTBT molecular crystals can be grown on monolayer MoS2 by vdW epitaxy, with pristine interface and controllable thickness down to monolayer. The operation of the C8-BTBT/MoS2 vertical heterojunction devices is highly tunable by bias and gate voltages between three different regimes: interfacial recombination, tunneling, and blocking. The pn junction shows diode-like behavior with rectifying ratio up to 105 at the room temperature. Our devices also exhibit photovoltaic responses with a power conversion efficiency of 0.31% and a photoresponsivity of 22 mA/W. With wide material combinations, such hybrid 2D structures will offer possibilities for opto-electronic devices that are not possible from individual constituents.

  6. A van der Waals pn heterojunction with organic/inorganic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    He, Daowei; Yang, Ziyi; Wu, Bing; Xu, Bingchen; Zhang, Yuhan; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi E-mail: xrwang@nju.edu.cn; Wang, Xinran E-mail: xrwang@nju.edu.cn; Pan, Yiming; Wang, Baigeng; Nan, Haiyan; Luo, Xiaoguang; Ni, Zhenhua; Gu, Shuai; Zhu, Jia; Chai, Yang

    2015-11-02

    van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions formed by two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent electrical/optical properties and device applications. However, current 2D heterojunctions are largely limited to atomic crystals, and hybrid organic/inorganic structures are rarely explored. Here, we fabricate the hybrid 2D heterostructures with p-type dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C{sub 8}-BTBT) and n-type MoS{sub 2}. We find that few-layer C{sub 8}-BTBT molecular crystals can be grown on monolayer MoS{sub 2} by vdW epitaxy, with pristine interface and controllable thickness down to monolayer. The operation of the C{sub 8}-BTBT/MoS{sub 2} vertical heterojunction devices is highly tunable by bias and gate voltages between three different regimes: interfacial recombination, tunneling, and blocking. The pn junction shows diode-like behavior with rectifying ratio up to 10{sup 5} at the room temperature. Our devices also exhibit photovoltaic responses with a power conversion efficiency of 0.31% and a photoresponsivity of 22 mA/W. With wide material combinations, such hybrid 2D structures will offer possibilities for opto-electronic devices that are not possible from individual constituents.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and functionalization of silicon nanoparticle based hybrid nanomaterials for photovoltaic and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zejing

    Silicon nanoparticles are attractive candidates for biological, photovoltaic and energy storage applications due to their size dependent optoelectronic properties. These include tunable light emission, high brightness, and stability against photo-bleaching relative to organic dyes (see Chapter 1). The preparation and characterization of silicon nanoparticle based hybrid nanomaterials and their relevance to photovoltaic and biological applications are described. The surface-passivated silicon nanoparticles were produced in one step from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with various organic ligands. The surface structure and optical properties of the passivated silicon nanoparticles were systematically characterized. Fast approaches for purifying and at the same time size separating the silicon nanoparticles using a gravity GPC column were developed. The hydrodynamic diameter and size distribution of these size-separated silicon nanoparticles were determined using GPC and Diffusion Ordered NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY) as fast, reliable alternative approaches to TEM. Water soluble silicon nanoparticles were synthesized by grafting PEG polymers onto functionalized silicon nanoparticles with distal alkyne or azide moieties. The surface-functionalized silicon nanoparticles were produced from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with a mixture of either 5-chloro-1-pentyne in 1-pentyne or 1,7 octadiyne in 1-hexyne to afford air and water stable chloroalkyl or alkynyl terminated nanoparticles, respectively. Nanoparticles with the ω-chloroalkyl substituents were easily converted to ω-azidoalkyl groups through the reaction of the silicon nanoparticles with sodium azide in DMF. The azido terminated nanoparticles were then grafted with monoalkynyl-PEG polymers using a copper catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction to afford core-shell silicon nanoparticles with a covalently attached PEG shell. Covalently

  8. High performance organic-inorganic perovskite-optocoupler based on low-voltage and fast response perovskite compound photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Dong, Guifang; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Liduo

    2015-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid photodetectors attract considerable attention because they can combine the advantages of both organic and inorganic systems. Here, a perovskite compound with a broad absorption spectrum and high power conversion efficiency is used as a photosensitive layer in an organic/inorganic hybrid heterojunction photodetector with a high and fast response. The high sensitivity exceeding 104 is obtained at bias of 0-4 V. Using a tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) as the light source, we fabricated an optocoupler device. The optocoupler achieved a maximum photoresponsivity of 1.0 A W-1 at 341.3 μWcm-2 at an input voltage of 6 V. The device also exhibits rapid response times of τrise ~ 20 μs and τfall ~ 17 μs as well as a high current transfer ratio (CTR) of 28.2%. After applying an amplification circuit, the CTR of the optocoupler increases to 263.3%, which is comparable with that of commercial inorganic optocouplers. The developed hybrid optocoupler thus shows great promise for use in photonics.

  9. High performance organic-inorganic perovskite-optocoupler based on low-voltage and fast response perovskite compound photodetector

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Dong, Guifang; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Liduo

    2015-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid photodetectors attract considerable attention because they can combine the advantages of both organic and inorganic systems. Here, a perovskite compound with a broad absorption spectrum and high power conversion efficiency is used as a photosensitive layer in an organic/inorganic hybrid heterojunction photodetector with a high and fast response. The high sensitivity exceeding 104 is obtained at bias of 0–4 V. Using a tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) as the light source, we fabricated an optocoupler device. The optocoupler achieved a maximum photoresponsivity of 1.0 A W−1 at 341.3 μWcm−2 at an input voltage of 6 V. The device also exhibits rapid response times of τrise ~ 20 μs and τfall ~ 17 μs; as well as a high current transfer ratio (CTR) of 28.2%. After applying an amplification circuit, the CTR of the optocoupler increases to 263.3%, which is comparable with that of commercial inorganic optocouplers. The developed hybrid optocoupler thus shows great promise for use in photonics. PMID:25600830

  10. Nonlinear optics of hybrid nano-materials under strong coupling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukharev, Maxim

    2014-03-01

    Modern optics fueled with both tremendous advances in nano-fabrication and laser physics is currently experiencing significant growth. We are presently witnessing a unique situation - the research centered at interaction of matter with electromagnetic radiation is fully diving into nanoscale, where one considers purely quantum systems optically driven by nano-materials. The possibilities are vast ranging from fundamental ideas on single atom/molecule optical manipulation, through control of light far below the diffraction limit, to optical engineering and photonic circuitry. Despite progress, the research in optics of quantum media coupled to nano- materials is not complete. Many recent works consider just several quantum emitters driven by near-fields altered by plasmonic materials with a few very promising attempts to include collective effects, which as I will show in this talk play a pivotal role in quantum optics of nano-materials. I will discuss general concepts of nano- plasmonics (one of the most promising sub-fields of nano-optics) with several examples ranging from linear spectroscopy to nonlinear transient absorption.

  11. Semiconducting organic-inorganic nanocomposites by intimately tethering conjugated polymers to inorganic tetrapods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jaehan; Yoon, Young Jun; Lin, Zhiqun

    2016-04-01

    Semiconducting organic-inorganic nanocomposites were judiciously crafted by placing conjugated polymers in intimate contact with inorganic tetrapods via click reaction. CdSe tetrapods were first synthesized by inducing elongated arms from CdSe zincblende seeds through seed-mediated growth. The subsequent effective inorganic ligand treatment, followed by reacting with short bifunctional ligands, yielded azide-functionalized CdSe tetrapods (i.e., CdSe-N3). Finally, the ethynyl-terminated conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (i.e., P3HT-&z.tbd;) was tethered to CdSe-N3 tetrapods via a catalyst-free alkyne-azide cycloaddition, forming intimate semiconducting P3HT-CdSe tetrapod nanocomposites. Intriguingly, the intimate contact between P3HT and CdSe tetrapod was found to not only render the effective dispersion of CdSe tetrapods in the P3HT matrix, but also facilitate the efficient electronic interaction between these two semiconducting constituents. The successful anchoring of P3HT chains onto CdSe tetrapods was substantiated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements. Moreover, the absorption and photoluminescence studies further corroborated the intimate tethering between P3HT and CdSe tetrapods. The effect of the type of bifunctional ligands (i.e., aryl vs. aliphatic ligands) and the size of tetrapods on the device performance of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells was also scrutinized. Interestingly, P3HT-CdSe tetrapod nanocomposites produced via the use of an aryl bifunctional ligand (i.e., 4-azidobenzoic acid) exhibited an improved photovoltaic performance compared to that synthesized with their aliphatic ligand counterpart (i.e., 5-bromovaleric acid). Clearly, the optimal size of CdSe tetrapods ensuring the effective charge transport in conjunction with the good dispersion of CdSe tetrapods rendered an improved device performance. We envision that the click-reaction strategy enabled by

  12. AC electrophoretic deposition of organic-inorganic composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, T; Chávez-Valdez, A; Roether, J A; Schubert, D W; Boccaccini, A R

    2013-02-15

    Alternating current electrophoretic deposition (AC-EPD) of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-titanium oxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticle composites on stainless steel electrodes was investigated in basic aqueous solution. AC square wave with duty cycle of 80% was applied at a frequency of 1 kHz. FTIR-ATR spectra showed that both AC and direct current (DC) EPD successfully deposited PAA-TiO(2) composites. The deposition rate using AC-EPD was lower than that obtained in direct current DC-EPD. However, the microstructure and surface morphology of the deposited composite coatings were different depending on the type of electric field applied. AC-EPD applied for not more than 5 min led to smooth films without bubble formation, while DC-EPD for 1 min or more showed deposits with microstructural defects possibly as result of water electrolysis. AC-EPD was thus for the first time demonstrated to be a suitable technique to deposit organic-inorganic composite coatings from aqueous suspensions, showing that applying a square wave and frequency of 1 kHz leads to uniform PAA-TiO(2) composite coatings on conductive materials. PMID:23218240

  13. Nanostructured organic-inorganic photodiodes with high rectification ratio.

    PubMed

    Karan, Santanu; Mallik, Biswanath

    2008-12-10

    High quality organic-inorganic heterojunction photodiodes based on nanostructured copper (II) phthalocyanine (CuPc) and intrinsic zinc oxide (i-ZnO) have been fabricated. The i-ZnO thin films/layers were grown by RF magnetron sputtering on clean indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. These films have been characterized by optical absorption and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). CuPc thin films deposited at room temperature on i-ZnO have exhibited a change in their surface morphology with the post-deposition annealing temperature under normal atmosphere. The electrical dark conductivity and the photoconductivity of ITO/i-ZnO/CuPc/Au sandwich structures have been measured under various photoexcitation intensities using a xenon light source. The devices have shown excellent reproducibility of their electrical characteristics and high rectification ratios. The highest rectification ratio is nearly 831 calculated above the threshold voltage at room temperature for the sample annealed at 250 °C (i.e. Pc 250). The effects of the annealing temperature of CuPc on the surface morphology, rectification ratio, and optical properties have been discussed. PMID:21730664

  14. Organic-inorganic composites for THz device fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, B.; Ye, T. M.; Bo, G.; Wang, X. C.; Li, Y. Z.; Zhu, Y. M.; Sugihara, O.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, several organic-inorganic composites were prepared for Terahertz (THz) devices fabrication. First, a two-layer structure was designed for femtosecond (fs) laser/THz radiation separation. The top layer was made by sintered 20-40 nm hollow quartz particles which can diffuse the incident fs laser thus decrease the power intensity. The bottom layer comprised of silicon 100 nm particles and cycle-olefine polymer (COP), by which the fs laser light can be greatly scattered and absorbed but THz radiation can propagate insusceptibly. With this two-layer structure a high efficient fs-laser/THz filter was fabricated successfully. Second, titania-polymer composites with a very high refractiveindex tunability and high transparency in the THz region were prepared. By controlling the blending ratio of the titania particle, a broad refractive-index tuning range from 1.5 to 3.1 was realized. Then, the composites were used to fabricate antireflective (AR) layers on a high-resistivity silicon (HR-Si) substrate. By utilizing the thermoplasticity of the titania- polymer composite, a graded-index structure was fabricated via a hot-embossing method. Because of the good refractive-index matching between the composite and the HR-Si substrate, a broadband AR layer was fabricated.

  15. Nanostructured organic inorganic photodiodes with high rectification ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karan, Santanu; Mallik, Biswanath

    2008-12-01

    High quality organic-inorganic heterojunction photodiodes based on nanostructured copper (II) phthalocyanine (CuPc) and intrinsic zinc oxide (i-ZnO) have been fabricated. The i-ZnO thin films/layers were grown by RF magnetron sputtering on clean indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. These films have been characterized by optical absorption and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). CuPc thin films deposited at room temperature on i-ZnO have exhibited a change in their surface morphology with the post-deposition annealing temperature under normal atmosphere. The electrical dark conductivity and the photoconductivity of ITO/i-ZnO/CuPc/Au sandwich structures have been measured under various photoexcitation intensities using a xenon light source. The devices have shown excellent reproducibility of their electrical characteristics and high rectification ratios. The highest rectification ratio is nearly 831 calculated above the threshold voltage at room temperature for the sample annealed at 250 °C (i.e. Pc 250). The effects of the annealing temperature of CuPc on the surface morphology, rectification ratio, and optical properties have been discussed.

  16. Optical spintronics in organic-inorganic perovskite photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junwen; Haney, Paul M.

    2016-04-01

    Organic-inorganic halide CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells have attracted enormous attention in recent years due to their remarkable power conversion efficiency. When inversion symmetry is broken, these materials should exhibit interesting spin-dependent properties as well, owing to their strong spin-orbit coupling. In this work, we consider the spin-dependent optical response of CH3NH3PbI3 . We first use density functional theory to compute the ballistic spin current generated by absorption of unpolarized light. We then consider diffusive transport of photogenerated charge and spin for a thin CH3NH3PbI3 layer with a passivated surface and an Ohmic, nonselective contact. The spin density and spin current are evaluated by solving the drift-diffusion equations for a simplified three-dimensional Rashba model of the electronic structure of the valence and conduction bands. We provide analytic expressions for the photon flux required to induce measurable spin densities, and propose that these spin densities can provide useful information about the role of grain boundaries in the photovoltaic behavior of these materials. We also discuss the prospects for measuring the optically generated spin current with the inverse spin Hall effect.

  17. Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2010-12-01

    Multifunctional slow-release organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (MSOF) has been investigated to improve fertilizer use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution derived from fertilizer overdosage. The special fertilizer is based on natural attapulgite (APT) clay used as a matrix, sodium alginate used as an inner coating and sodium alginate-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/humic acid (SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA) superabsorbent polymer used as an outer coating. The coated multielement compound fertilizer granules were produced in a pan granulator, and the diameter of the prills was in the range of 2.5-3.5 mm. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrients release, were examined. In addition, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D of nutrients in MSOF. The degradation of the SA-g-P(AA-co-AM)/HA coating was assessed by examining the weight loss with incubation time in soil. It is demonstrated that the product prepared by a simple route with good slow-release property may be expected to have wide potential applications in modern agriculture and horticulture. PMID:21058723

  18. Organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials by electrospinning and their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guan

    One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanobelts, nanofibers and nanotubes, have been the focus of intensive research due to their peculiar structures and resultant fascinating properties. However, the applications of 1D nanostructures have been hindered by the slow progress of the synthesis and characterization methods for these nanoscaled materials. Well controlled dimensionality, tailorable morphology and assembly, high phase purity and controllable crystallinity are major concerns when generating these nanostructures. In this work, a relatively simple technique---electrospinning---has been introduced for the preparation of 1D organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Materials under investigation include polymer/metal oxide (WO 3, MoO3) composite nanofibers and polymer/MWNT composite nanofibers. Notably, peculiar nanostructures, such as polycrystalline nanowires, nanoplatelets and nanobelts, can also be obtained after post-calcination processing on the nanocomposite materials. Spectroscopy techniques, such as XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM and Raman have been carried out to obtain structural and morphological information from the electrospun composite nanofibers. Meanwhile, some advanced characterization methods and measurements have been developed and designed to investigate the nanofibers from a basic science view point as to their properties. Specific designs of experiment include: synchrotron-based in situ XRD for phase transition monitoring; gas flow control bench for sensitivity measurement; three-point-bending by AFM for mechanical property measurement. In summary, the electrospinning technique provides a versatile method for synthesizing and assembling 1D nanocomposite structures. The electrospun composite nanofibers showed promising electrical and mechanical properties, which may find applications for gas sensors, reinforced fibrous materials and nano-electrical devices.

  19. Density functional study of H-induced defects as nucleation sites in hybrid carbon nanomaterials.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, A.; Terranova, M. L.; Rossi, M.; Dip. Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche; Dip di Energetica; INFM

    2005-01-01

    Recently we have reported on the growth of an exciting new class of hybrid nanostructured carbon materials, coupling nanosized diamond with single-walled carbon nanotubes. The inner structures were shown to be single-walled C nanotubes or bundles of single-walled nanotubes up to 15 {micro}m long, and the outer deposit consisted of faceted diamond crystallites with diameters in the range of 20-100 nm. To aid in understanding the mechanisms responsible for the formation of such materials, the present study uses density functional theory to examine the role of atomic hydrogen in creating localized sp{sup 3} hybridized defects on the outer wall of carbon nanotubes. The results illustrate that certain absorption configurations may produce defects containing dangling carbon bonds, and thus promote the formation of suitable sites for nanodiamond nucleation.

  20. Fibrillar networks of glycyrrhizic acid for hybrid nanomaterials with catalytic features.

    PubMed

    Saha, Abhijit; Adamcik, Jozef; Bolisetty, Sreenath; Handschin, Stephan; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2015-04-27

    Self-assembly of the naturally occurring sweetening agent, glycyrrhizic acid (GA) in water is studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and microscopic techniques. Statistical analysis on atomic force microscopy images reveals the formation of ultralong GA fibrils with uniform thickness of 2.5 nm and right-handed twist with a pitch of 9 nm, independently of GA concentration. Transparent nematic GA hydrogels are exploited to create functional hybrid materials. Two-fold and three-fold hybrids are developed by introducing graphene oxide (GO) and in situ-synthesized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in the hydrogel matrix for catalysis applications. In the presence of GO, the catalytic efficiency of Au NPs in the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol is enhanced by 2.5 times. Gold microplate single crystals are further synthesized in the GA hydrogel, expanding the scope of these hybrids and demonstrating their versatility in materials design. PMID:25759108

  1. Charge-Carrier Dynamics in Organic-Inorganic Metal Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Herz, Laura M

    2016-05-27

    Hybrid organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites have recently emerged as exciting new light-harvesting and charge-transporting materials for efficient photovoltaic devices. Yet knowledge of the nature of the photogenerated excitations and their subsequent dynamics is only just emerging. This article reviews the current state of the field, focusing first on a description of the crystal and electronic band structure that give rise to the strong optical transitions that enable light harvesting. An overview is presented of the numerous experimental approaches toward determining values for exciton binding energies, which appear to be small (a few milli-electron volts to a few tens of milli-electron volts) and depend significantly on temperature because of associated changes in the dielectric function. Experimental evidence for charge-carrier relaxation dynamics within the first few picoseconds after excitation is discussed in terms of thermalization, cooling, and many-body effects. Charge-carrier recombination mechanisms are reviewed, encompassing trap-assisted nonradiative recombination that is highly specific to processing conditions, radiative bimolecular (electron-hole) recombination, and nonradiative many-body (Auger) mechanisms. PMID:26980309

  2. Purifying Nanomaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor); Hurst, Janet (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of purifying a nanomaterial and the resultant purified nanomaterial in which a salt, such as ferric chloride, at or near its liquid phase temperature, is used to penetrate and wet the internal surfaces of a nanomaterial to dissolve impurities that may be present, for example, from processes used in the manufacture of the nanomaterial.

  3. Efficiency enhancement in solution processed organic and organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhengguo

    Solution processed thin film photovoltaic devices are one of the most promising renewable energy sources. Organic solar cells have been intensively studied due to their advantages of light-weight, flexibility and low-cost materials and manufacturing. The organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials have recently shown great potential application in solar cells. The PCE increased dramatically from 3.8% in 2009 to a certified efficiency of 20.1% in 2014. In this dissertation, we focus on the efficiency enhancement for solution processed organic and organic-inorganic solar cells. In Chapter 2, I demonstrated that the crystallinity of the ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE) at the organic active layer/ electrode interface plays a critical role in the efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells. Then, The ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) nanocrystals was synthesized and successfully applied in the low band gap polymers. A high efficiency of 6.8% was achieved in the PCDTBT:PCBM system. Another small polar molecule, TPACA, was also applied to increase the efficiency of organic solar cells. In Chapter 3, I developed a universal approach of solvent fluxing to fabricate graded bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer:fullerene films to increase the device efficiency. The solvent fluxing process can extract part of the fullerene inside the BHJ film to the top surface to form graded BHJ. The PCE of the devices after solvent fluxing is increased by 15%--50% compared with the control devices without solvent fluxing. In Chapter 5, a two-step spin coating approach was developed to fabricate the continuous and compact organolead trihalide perovskite (OTP) films. The average PCE of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite devices reached 14.5% and 85% of the devices had efficiency above 14%. In Chapter 6, I discovered that the solvent annealing can be used to increase the grain size and crystallinity of the perovskite films. The highest device efficiency reached 15.6%, and device

  4. Hybrid Nanomaterials Based on Graphene and Gold Nanoclusters for Efficient Electrocatalytic Reduction of Oxygen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhong; Li, Na; Wang, Qiannan; Tang, Zhenghua

    2016-12-01

    Nanocomposites based on gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with polyvinyl pyrrolidone as ligand and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) have been prepared and employed as efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). AuNCs were synthesized through a wet chemical approach and then loaded onto the RGO. The as-prepared hybrid materials were pyrolyzed to remove the organic ligands. The composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as other techniques. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that the hybrid materials exhibited effective ORR activity in alkaline media. Among a series of samples tested, the pyrolyzed sample with 50 % AuNCs mass loading exhibited the best activity, superior than AuNCs alone, RGO alone, and the others, in terms of onset potential and kinetic current density as well as durability. The method here may provide a generic approach to prepare supported noble metal nanoclusters with excellent reactivity and robust stability for ORR. PMID:27431494

  5. Hybrid Nanomaterials Based on Graphene and Gold Nanoclusters for Efficient Electrocatalytic Reduction of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changhong; Li, Na; Wang, Qiannan; Tang, Zhenghua

    2016-07-01

    Nanocomposites based on gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with polyvinyl pyrrolidone as ligand and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) have been prepared and employed as efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). AuNCs were synthesized through a wet chemical approach and then loaded onto the RGO. The as-prepared hybrid materials were pyrolyzed to remove the organic ligands. The composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as other techniques. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that the hybrid materials exhibited effective ORR activity in alkaline media. Among a series of samples tested, the pyrolyzed sample with 50 % AuNCs mass loading exhibited the best activity, superior than AuNCs alone, RGO alone, and the others, in terms of onset potential and kinetic current density as well as durability. The method here may provide a generic approach to prepare supported noble metal nanoclusters with excellent reactivity and robust stability for ORR.

  6. Band alignment at organic-inorganic heterojunctions between P3HT and n-type 6H-SiC.

    PubMed

    Dietmueller, Roland; Nesswetter, Helmut; Schoell, Sebastian J; Sharp, Ian D; Stutzmann, Martin

    2011-11-01

    The exact band alignment at organic/inorganic semiconductor heterojunctions is influenced by a variety of properties and is difficult to predict. For organic/inorganic bilayer heterojunctions made of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and n-type 6H-SiC, the band alignment is determined via current-voltage measurements. For this purpose, a model equivalent circuit, combining thermionic emission and space-charge-limited current effects, is proposed which describes the behavior of the heterojunction very well. From the fitting parameters, an interface barrier height of 1.1 eV between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of P3HT and the conduction band (CB) of 6H-SiC is determined. In addition, from the maximum open circuit voltage of 6H-SiC/P3HT diodes, a difference of 0.9 eV between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of P3HT and the CB of 6H-SiC is deduced. These two values determine the alignment of the energy bands of 6H-SiC relative to the HOMO and LUMO of P3HT. The 6H-SiC/P3HT bilayer heterojunction exhibits an open circuit voltage of ~0.5 V at room temperature, which makes such a materials system a potential candidate for bulk heterojunction hybrid solar cells with 6H-SiC nanoparticles. PMID:21936559

  7. Core-Shell γ-Fe2O3/SiO2/PCA/Ag-NPs Hybrid Nanomaterials as a New Candidate for Future Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleyman, R.; Pourjavadi, A.; Masoud, N.; Varamesh, A.

    2014-04-01

    In the current study, γ-Fe2O3/SiO2/PCA/Ag-NPs hybrid nanomaterials were successfully synthesized and characterized. At first, prepared γ-Fe2O3 core nanoparticles were modified by SiO2 layer. Then they were covered by poly citric acid (PCA) via melting esterification method as well. PCA shell acts as an effective linker, and provides vacancies for conveying drugs. Moreover, this shell as an effective capping agent directs synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) via in situ photo-reduction of silver ions by sunlight-UV irradiation. This system has several benefits as a suitable cancer therapy nanomaterial. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can guide Ag-NPs and drugs to cancer cells and then Ag-NPs can affect those cells via Ag-NPs anti-angiogenesis effect. Size and structure of the prepared magnetic hybrid nanomaterials were characterized using FTIR and UV-Vis spectra, AFM and TEM pictures and XRD data.

  8. A First-Principles Study on the Structural and Electronic Properties of Sn-Based Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zi-Qian; Pan, Hui; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-08-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskites have attracted increasing interest on solar-energy harvesting because of their outstanding electronic properties. In this work, we systematically investigate the structural and electronic properties of Sn-based hybrid perovskites MASnX3 and FASnX3 (X = I, Br) based on density-functional-theory calculations. We find that their electronic properties strongly depend on the organic molecules, halide atoms, and structures. We show that there is a general rule to predict the band gap of the Sn-based hybrid perovskite: its band gap increases as the size of halide atom decreases as well as that of organic molecule increase. The band gap of high temperature phase (cubic structure) is smaller than that of low temperature phase (orthorhombic structure). The band gap of tetragonal structure (medium-temperature phase) may be larger or smaller than that of cubic phase, depending on the orientation of the molecule. Tunable band gap within a range of 0.73-1.53 eV can be achieved by choosing halide atom and organic molecule, and controlling structure. We further show that carrier effective mass also reduces as the size of halide atom increases and that of molecule decreases. By comparing with Pb-based hybrid perovskites, the Sn-based systems show enhanced visible-light absorption and carrier mobility due to narrowed band gap and reduced carrier effective mass. These Sn-based organic-inorganic halide perovskites may find applications in solar energy harvesting with improved performance.

  9. Towards Organized Hybrid Nanomaterials at the Air/Water Interface Based on Liquid-Crystal/ZnO Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Paczesny, Jan; Wolska-Pietkiewicz, Małgorzata; Binkiewicz, Ilona; Wróbel, Zbigniew; Wadowska, Monika; Matuła, Kinga; Dzięcielewski, Igor; Pociecha, Damian; Smalc-Koziorowska, Julita; Lewiński, Janusz; Hołyst, Robert

    2015-11-16

    The ability to self-assemble nanosized ligand-stabilized metal oxide or semiconductor materials offers an intriguing route to engineer nanomaterials with new tailored properties from the disparate components. We describe a novel one-pot two-step organometallic approach to prepare ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) coated with deprotonated 4-(dodecyloxy)benzoic acid (i.e., an X-type liquid-crystalline ligand) as a model LC system (termed ZnO-LC1 NCs). Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of the resulting hybrids are investigated. The observed behavior of the ZnO NCs at the air/water interface is rationalized by invoking a ZnO-interdigitation process mediated by the anchored liquid-crystalline shell. The ordered superstructures form according to mechanism based on a ZnO-interdigitation process mediated by liquid crystals (termed ZIP-LC). The external and directed force applied upon compression at the air/water interface and the packing of the ligands that stabilize the ZnO cores drives the formation of nanorods of ordered internal structure. To study the process in detail, we follow a nontraditional protocol of thin-film investigation. We collect the films from the air/water interface in powder form (ZnO-LC1 LB), resuspend the powder in organic solvents and utilize otherwise unavailable experimental techniques. The structural and physical properties of the resulting superlattices were studied by using electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray studies, dynamic light scattering, thermogravimetric analysis, UV/Vis absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. PMID:26427916

  10. Imaging and quantifying the morphology of an organic-inorganic nanoparticle at the sub-nanometre level.

    PubMed

    van Schooneveld, Matti M; Gloter, Alexandre; Stephan, Odile; Zagonel, Luiz F; Koole, Rolf; Meijerink, Andries; Mulder, Willem J M; de Groot, Frank M F

    2010-07-01

    The development of hybrid organic-inorganic nanoparticles is of interest for applications such as drug delivery, DNA and protein recognition, and medical diagnostics. However, the characterization of such nanoparticles remains a significant challenge due to the heterogeneous nature of these particles. Here, we report the direct visualization and quantification of the organic and inorganic components of a lipid-coated silica particle that contains a smaller semiconductor quantum dot. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy was used to determine the thickness and chemical signature of molecular coating layers, the element atomic ratios, and the exact positions of different elements in single nanoparticles. Moreover, the lipid ratio and lipid phase segregation were also quantified. PMID:20526325

  11. Study of organic-inorganic hetero-interfaces and electrical transport in semiconducting nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Sean Robert

    centered around thermally evaporated ZnPc. These molecules display a highly-ordered, close-packed, tilted configuration which differs from any known bulk packing motif. The ZnPc molecules are able to diffuse rapidly on the Si surface and preferentially nucleate at Si step-edges. This is followed by the formation of highly-ordered anisotropic stripe structures which grow across the Si terraces, i.e. anisotropic step-flow growth. The step-flow growth mode further impacts the growth by reducing the allowed symmetry of the molecular domains such that thin films with an exclusive in-plane molecular ordering are formed. Additionally, the ZnPc tilted packing motif stabilizes the molecular film, allowing it to maintain this packing for multilayered films, despite the decreasing substrate influence. The strength of the MPc-substrate interaction can be modified by changing the central transition-metal ion within the molecule. Through selective p-d orbital coupling between MPc molecules and the substrate, the degree of orbital coupling can induce modifications in the molecular ordering and orientation of MPc molecules at the interface. The secondary focus of this study is to initiate preliminary experimentation towards understanding how ordered organic molecular thin films can be applied to silicon-based devices that could have a significant impact on the electronics market. Si nanomembrane is a flexible, low-dimensional nanomaterial with electronic properties that are highly sensitive to the interface condition. By merging the knowledge of MPc thin film growth on Si with Si nanomembrane technology, possibilities towards modifying the transport properties of nanomaterials through engineering the organic-inorganic hetero-interface can be explored.

  12. Biological materials: Part A. tuning LCST of raft copolymers and gold/copolymer hybrid nanoparticles and Part B. Biobased nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ning

    The research described in this dissertation is comprised of two major parts. The first part studied the effects of asymmetric amphiphilic end groups on the thermo-response of diblock copolymers of (oligo/di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether (meth)acrylates, OEGA/DEGMA) and the hybrid nanoparticles of these copolymers with a gold nanoparticle core. Placing the more hydrophilic end group on the more hydrophilic block significantly increased the cloud point compared to a similar copolymer composition with the end group placement reversed. For a given composition, the cloud point was shifted by as much as 28 °C depending on the placement of end groups. This is a much stronger effect than either changing the hydrophilic/hydrophobic block ratio or replacing the hydrophilic acrylate monomer with the equivalent methacrylate monomer. The temperature range of the coil-globule transition was also altered. Binding these diblock copolymers to a gold core decreased the cloud point by 5-15 °C and narrowed the temperature range of the coil-globule transition. The effects were more pronounced when the gold core was bound to the less hydrophilic block. Given the limited numbers of monomers that are approved safe for in vivo use, employing amphiphilic end group placement is a useful tool to tune a thermo-response without otherwise changing the copolymer composition. The second part of the dissertation investigated the production of value-added nanomaterials from two biorefinery "wastes": lignin and peptidoglycan. Different solvents and spinning methods (melt-, wet-, and electro-spinning) were tested to make lignin/cellulose blended and carbonized fibers. Only electro-spinning yielded fibers having a small enough diameter for efficient carbonization (≤ 5-10 μm), but it was concluded that cellulose was not a suitable binder. Cellulose lignin fibers before carbonization showed up to 90% decrease in moisture uptake compared to pure cellulose. Peptidoglycan (a bacterial cell wall

  13. Combined organic-inorganic fouling of forward osmosis hollow fiber membranes.

    PubMed

    Arkhangelsky, Elizabeth; Wicaksana, Filicia; Tang, Chuyang; Al-Rabiah, Abdulrahman A; Al-Zahrani, Saeed M; Wang, Rong

    2012-12-01

    This research focused on combined organic-inorganic fouling and cleaning studies of forward osmosis (FO) membranes. Various organic/inorganic model foulants such as sodium alginate, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and silica nanoparticles were applied to polyamide-polyethersulfone FO hollow fiber membranes fabricated in our laboratory. In order to understand all possible interactions, experiments were performed with a single foulant as well as combinations of foulants. Experimental results suggested that the degree of FO membrane fouling could be promoted by synergistic effect of organic foulants, the presence of divalent cations, low cross-flow velocity and high permeation drag force. The water flux of fouled FO hollow fibers could be fully restored by simple physical cleaning. It was also found that hydrodynamic regime played an important role in combined organic-inorganic fouling of FO membranes. PMID:23026125

  14. A novel nanomolecular organic-inorganic hybrid compound: Na{sub 2}[NH(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH){sub 3}]{sub 4}{l_brace}Mo{sub 36}O{sub 112}(OH{sub 2}){sub 14}[OHCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH){sub 2}]{sub 2}{r_brace}.nH{sub 2}O (n{approx}72) exhibiting a supramolecular one-dimensional chainlike structure

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Dadong; Liu Shuxia Wang Chunling; Ren Yuanhang

    2007-02-15

    A novel nanomolecular organic-inorganic hybrid compound, Na{sub 2}[NH(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH){sub 3}]{sub 4}{l_brace}Mo{sub 36}O{sub 112}(OH{sub 2}){sub 14} [OHCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH){sub 2}]{sub 2}{r_brace}.nH{sub 2}O (n{approx}72) (1), was synthesized in aqueous acidic medium with a high yield (85%) and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography, IR spectroscopy, {sup 1}H NMR, XRD and TG analysis. Compound 1 exhibits a supramolecular one-dimensional chainlike structure which consists of nanosized {l_brace}[Mo{sub 36}O{sub 112}(H{sub 2}O){sub 14}(HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}NHC{sub 2}H{sub 4}OH]{sub 2}{r_brace}{sup 6-} anions ({l_brace}Mo{sub 36}(TEAH{sup +}){sub 2}{r_brace} for short) and cage-like dimers of TEAH{sup +} cations (TEAH{sup +}=protonated triethanolamine). In the {l_brace}Mo{sub 36}(TEAH{sup +}){sub 2}{r_brace} anion, two TEAH{sup +} cations connect to one ring-like {l_brace}[Mo{sub 36}O{sub 112}(H{sub 2}O){sub 16}]{sup 8-} ({l_brace}Mo{sub 36}{r_brace} for short) anion by covalent bonds via replacing two water ligands by the alkoxy ligands. The {l_brace}Mo{sub 36}(TEAH{sup +}){sub 2}{r_brace} unit could be considered as nanosized chelating ligand with [2N, 4O] donor sets. Crystal Data: triclinic, P-1, a=16.019(9) A, b=17.372(4) A, c=18.287(2) A, {alpha}=101.410(0){sup o}, {beta}=95.904(0){sup o}, {gamma}=116.332(0){sup o}, Z=1. - Graphical abstract: A novel organic-inorganic hybrid material based on macroisopolyanion {l_brace}Mo{sub 36}{r_brace} has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray single-crystal crystallography, XRD, IR spectroscopy, and TG analysis. The material exhibits a supramolecular one-dimensional chainlike structure. The {l_brace}Mo{sub 36}(TEAH{sup +}){sub 2}{r_brace} unit could be considered as nanosized chelating ligand with [2N, 4O] donor sets.

  15. Optical signal processing: Hybrid success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Despite two decades of work geared towards improving the nonlinear optical properties of organic molecules, practical organic light modulators have not yet reached the market in large numbers. New organic-inorganic hybrid approaches may revolutionize the field.

  16. Layered hybrid organic-inorganic Co(II) alkylphosphonates. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetism of the first two members of the series: Co[(CH{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)] and Co[(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}PO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Elvira M.; Bellitto, Carlo . E-mail: carlo.bellitto@ism.cnr.it; Colapietro, Marcello . E-mail: m.colapietro@caspur.it; Ibrahim, Said A.; Mahmoud, Mohamed R.; Portalone, Gustavo; Righini, Guido

    2006-02-15

    Co[(CH{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)] (1) and Co[(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}PO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)] (2) were prepared by the hydrothermal method and isolated as blue-violet platelet crystals. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, TGA-DSC techniques and their magnetic properties studied by a dc-SQUID magnetometer. Compound (1) shows an hybrid layered structure, made of alternating inorganic and organic layers along the a-direction of the unit cell. The inorganic layers contain Co(II) ions six-coordinated by five phosphonate oxygen atoms and one from the water molecule. These layers are separated by bi-layers of methyl groups and van der Waals contacts are established between them. In compound (2), the layered hybrid structure is rather similar to that described for compound (1), but the alternation of the inorganic and organic layers is along the b-direction of the unit cell. The magnetic behavior of (1) and (2) as function of temperature and magnetic field was studied. The compounds obey the Curie-Weiss law at temperatures above 100K, the Curie C, and Weiss {theta} constants for the methyl derivative being C=3.36cm{sup 3}Kmol{sup -1} and {theta}=-53K and for the ethyl derivative C=3.62cm{sup 3}Kmol{sup -1} and {theta}=-75K, respectively. The observed magnetic moments for Co atom at room temperature (i.e. {mu}{sub eff}=5.18 and 5.38 BM, respectively) are higher than those expected for a spin-only value for high spin Co(II) (S=3/2), revealing a substantial orbital contribution to the magnetic moment. The negative values of {theta} are an indication of the presence of antiferromagnetic exchange couplings between the near-neighbors Co(II) ions, within the layers. [Co(C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}PO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)] (n=1,2) are 2D Ising antiferromagnets at low temperatures.

  17. Bio-inspired synthesis of hybrid silica nanoparticles templated from elastin-like polypeptide micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; MacEwan, Sarah R.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; López, Gabriel P.

    2015-07-01

    The programmed self-assembly of block copolymers into higher order nanoscale structures offers many attractive attributes for the development of new nanomaterials for numerous applications including drug delivery and biosensing. The incorporation of biomimetic silaffin peptides in these block copolymers enables the formation of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, which can potentially enhance the utility and stability of self-assembled nanostructures. We demonstrate the design, synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) diblock copolymers that undergo temperature-triggered self-assembly into well-defined spherical micelles. Genetically encoded incorporation of the silaffin R5 peptide at the hydrophilic terminus of the diblock ELP leads to presentation of the silaffin R5 peptide on the coronae of the micelles, which results in localized condensation of silica and the formation of near-monodisperse, discrete, sub-100 nm diameter hybrid ELP-silica particles. This synthesis method, can be carried out under mild reaction conditions suitable for bioactive materials, and will serve as the basis for the development and application of functional nanomaterials. Beyond silicification, the general strategies described herein may also be adapted for the synthesis of other biohybrid nanomaterials as well.The programmed self-assembly of block copolymers into higher order nanoscale structures offers many attractive attributes for the development of new nanomaterials for numerous applications including drug delivery and biosensing. The incorporation of biomimetic silaffin peptides in these block copolymers enables the formation of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, which can potentially enhance the utility and stability of self-assembled nanostructures. We demonstrate the design, synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) diblock copolymers that undergo temperature-triggered self-assembly into well

  18. Nanomaterials for Space Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moloney, Padraig G.

    2006-01-01

    Nano-engineered materials are multi-functional materials with superior mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Nanomaterials may be used for a variety of space exploration applications, including ultracapacitors, active/passive thermal management materials, and nanofiltration for water recovery. Additional applications include electrical power/energy storage systems, hybrid systems power generation, advanced proton exchange membrane fuel cells, and air revitalization. The need for nanomaterials and their growth, characterization, processing and space exploration applications is discussed. Data is presented for developing solid-supported amine adsorbents based on carbon nanotube materials and functionalization of nanomaterials is examined.

  19. Energetics and dynamics in organic-inorganic halide perovskite photovoltaics and light emitters.

    PubMed

    Sum, Tze Chien; Chen, Shi; Xing, Guichuan; Liu, Xinfeng; Wu, Bo

    2015-08-28

    The rapid transcendence of organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells to above the 20% efficiency mark has captivated the broad photovoltaic community. As the efficiency race continues unabated, it is essential that fundamental studies keep pace with these developments. Further gains in device efficiencies are expected to be increasingly arduous and harder to come by. The key to driving the perovskite solar cell efficiencies towards their Shockley-Queisser limit is through a clear understanding of the interfacial energetics and dynamics between perovskites and other functional materials in nanostructured- and heterojunction-type devices. In this review, we focus on the current progress in basic characterization studies to elucidate the interfacial energetics (energy-level alignment and band bending) and dynamical processes (from the ultrafast to the ultraslow) in organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite photovoltaics and light emitters. Major findings from these studies will be distilled. Open questions and scientific challenges will also be highlighted. PMID:26234397

  20. Energetics and dynamics in organic-inorganic halide perovskite photovoltaics and light emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien Sum, Tze; Chen, Shi; Xing, Guichuan; Liu, Xinfeng; Wu, Bo

    2015-08-01

    The rapid transcendence of organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells to above the 20% efficiency mark has captivated the broad photovoltaic community. As the efficiency race continues unabated, it is essential that fundamental studies keep pace with these developments. Further gains in device efficiencies are expected to be increasingly arduous and harder to come by. The key to driving the perovskite solar cell efficiencies towards their Shockley-Queisser limit is through a clear understanding of the interfacial energetics and dynamics between perovskites and other functional materials in nanostructured- and heterojunction-type devices. In this review, we focus on the current progress in basic characterization studies to elucidate the interfacial energetics (energy-level alignment and band bending) and dynamical processes (from the ultrafast to the ultraslow) in organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite photovoltaics and light emitters. Major findings from these studies will be distilled. Open questions and scientific challenges will also be highlighted.

  1. Low birefringent magneto-optical waveguides fabricated via organic-inorganic sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choueikani, F.; Royer, F.; Douadi, S.; Skora, A.; Jamon, D.; Blanc, D.; Siblini, A.

    2009-09-01

    This paper is devoted to the study and the characterization of novel magneto-optical waveguides prepared via organic-inorganic sol-gel process. Thin silica/zirconia films doped with magnetic nanoparticles were coated on glass substrate using dip-coating technique. After annealing, samples were UV-treated. Two different techniques were used to measure their properties: m-lines spectroscopy and free space ellipsometry. Results evidence low refractive index waveguides that combine a low modal birefringence (2×10-4) with a Faraday rotation around 15 °/cm (φ = 0.1%). The low birefringence is obtained with a soft UV treatment and a graded intrinsic anisotropy is evidenced for films thicker than 5 μm. Therefore, we prove that the organic-inorganic sol-gel approach is very promising to realize magneto-optical waveguides with a non-reciprocal functionality such as TE-TM mode conversion.

  2. Organic-inorganic nanostructures for luminescent indication in the near-infrared range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratenko, T. S.; Ovchinnikov, O. V.; Grevtseva, I. G.; Smirnov, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Amplifying and quenching of IR luminescence of colloidal Ag2S quantum dots were revealed to take place when they couple to organic dye molecules of 3,3'-di-(γ-sulfopropyl)-9-ethyl-4,5,4',5'-dibenzothiacarbocyanine betaine and erytrosine pyridinium salts, respectively. The observed effects are explained as due to the formation of organic-inorganic heterostructures with different mutual arrangement of electronic states of the dyes and the quantum dots.

  3. Facile fabrication of organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingzhi; Li, Aoxiang; Yue, Xiaoqi; Wang, Lu-Ning; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Kang, Feiyu; Volinsky, Alex A

    2016-07-01

    Organic/inorganic heterojunction photoanodes are appealing for making concurrent use of the highly photoactive organic semiconductors, and the efficient dielectric screening provided by their inorganic counterparts. In the present work, organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays composed of TiO2 nanotube arrays and a semiconducting N,N-(dicyclohexyl) perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDi) layer were fabricated for photoelectrochemical water splitting. In this arrayed architecture, a PDi layer with a tunable thickness was coated on anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays by physical vapor deposition, which is advantageous for the formation of a uniform layer and an adequate interface contact between PDi and TiO2. The obtained PDi/TiO2 junction exhibited broadened visible light absorption, and an effective interface for enhanced photogenerated electron-hole separation, which is supported by the reduced charge transfer resistance and prolonged excitation lifetime via impedance spectroscopy analysis and fluorescence emission decay investigations. Consequently, such a heterojunction photoanode was photoresponsive to a wide visible light region of 400-600 nm, and thus demonstrated a highly enhanced photocurrent density at 1.23 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode. Additionally, the durability of such a photoanode can be guaranteed after long-time illumination because of the geometrical restraint imposed by the PDi aggregates. These results pave the way to discover new organic/inorganic assemblies for high-performance photoelectric applications and device integration. PMID:26926569

  4. Two-dimensional nanoarchitectonics: organic and hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, T; Avinash, M B

    2012-10-21

    Programmed molecular assemblies with molecular-level precision have always intrigued mankind in the quest to master the art of molecular engineering. In this regard, our review seeks to highlight the state of the art in supramolecular engineering. Herein we describe two-dimensional (2D) nanoarchitectonics of organic and organic-inorganic based hybrid materials. Molecular systems ranging from simpler hydrogen bonding driven bis-acylurea and cyclic dipeptide derivatives to complex peptoids, arylenes, cucurbiturils, biphenyls, organosilicons and organometallics, which involve a delicate interplay of multiple noncovalent interactions are discussed. These specifically chosen examples illustrate the molecular design principles and synthetic protocols to realize 2D nanosheets. The description also emphasizes the wide variety of functional properties and technological implications of these 2D nanomaterials besides an outlook for future progress. PMID:22782293

  5. Effects of Organic-Inorganic Interactions on the Hygroscopicity of Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuend, A.; Lienhard, D.; Krieger, U. K.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol hygroscopicity is an important property affecting size as well as phase transitions and viscosity of soluble or partially soluble particles following changes in ambient relative humidity (RH) and temperature. The effects of hygroscopic particle growth on the water contents and physical states of aerosol phases in turn may significantly affect multiphase chemistry, the direct effect of aerosols on climate, and the ability of specific particles to act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. The hygroscopic growth of organic-inorganic mixtures in stable or metastable equilibrium with the RH of the surrounding air is governed by chemical thermodynamics and can be described, in principle, by adequate thermodynamic models. Organic-inorganic interactions involving dissolved ionic species in liquid (potentially highly viscous) phases tend to deviate substantially from ideal mixing and can lead to hygroscopicity behaviour deviating from simple linear additivity assumptions at given RH. The latter assumptions are employed in the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule, which is typically found to describe hygroscopic mass growth well in the RH range of completely liquid aerosol systems. We present a comparison and discussion of thermodynamic calculations based on the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model and hygroscopic growth factor data from new measurements with an electrodynamic balance (EDB) as well as data from the literature. We focus on the different hygroscopicity features below the full deliquescence RH of multicomponent organic-inorganic systems. Experiments and model calculations are performed for different multicomponent systems showing varying degrees of organic-inorganic miscibility, including liquid-liquid phase separation, hygroscopicity, and hysteresis effects between metastable and stable gas-aerosol equilibria. It is found that depending on the hygroscopicity of the organic aerosol fraction

  6. Organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Zhu, Li Qiang; Wan, Xiang; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The idea of building a brain-inspired cognitive system has been around for several decades. Recently, electric-double-layer transistors gated by ion conducting electrolytes were reported as the promising candidates for synaptic electronics and neuromorphic system. In this letter, indium-zinc-oxide transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose electrolyte films were experimentally demonstrated with synaptic plasticity including paired-pulse facilitation and spatiotemporal-correlated dynamic logic. More importantly, a model based on proton-related electric-double-layer modulation and stretched-exponential decay function was proposed, and the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimentally measured synaptic behaviors.

  7. Development of durable self-cleaning coatings using organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Divya; Wu, Xinghua; Fu, Qitao; Ho, Jeffrey Weng Chye; Kanhere, Pushkar D.; Li, Lin; Chen, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Self-cleaning coatings with excellent water-repellence and good mechanical properties are in high demand. However, producing such coatings with resistance to mechanical abrasion and environmental weathering remains a key challenge. Mechanically robust coatings based on tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and glycidoxypropyltriethoxysilane (Glymo) have been prepared using a sol-gel method. Emphasis is given to the addition of Glymo, an epoxy silane which creates an organic matrix that blends with the inorganic Sisbnd Osbnd Si matrix formed from the TEOS. The combination of the blended matrix produced coatings with good adhesion to substrates and improved mechanical properties. Fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) and silica fillers were introduced to increase the hydrophobicity of the coating. It was found that the water contact angle (CA) of these coatings increases from 115° to 164° upon decreasing filler size from 1-5 μm to 10-20 nm. The sliding angle (SA) for coatings with 15 wt.% loading of 10-20 nm silica is around 2°. UV weathering does not show significant effect on the properties of the coatings. Mechanical properties and performances including hardness, Young's modulus, coating adhesion and abrasion resistance were systematically analyzed. In the current work, a simple self-cleaning test, which measures the extent of dirt accumulation and subsequent removal by water spray, was performed. The coatings with 15 wt.% loading of 10-20 nm silica particles show the best self-cleaning performance both before and after mechanical abrasion. The developed coating process is simple and can be easily scaled-up for large surfaces that require self-cleaning function.

  8. Hybrid organic-inorganic porous semiconductor transducer for multi-parameters sensing.

    PubMed

    Caliò, Alessandro; Cassinese, Antonio; Casalino, Maurizio; Rea, Ilaria; Barra, Mario; Chiarella, Fabio; De Stefano, Luca

    2015-07-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) non-symmetric multi-layers are modified by organic molecular beam deposition of an organic semiconductor, namely the N,N'-1H,1H-perfluorobutyldicyanoperylene-carboxydi-imide (PDIF-CN2). Joule evaporation of PDIF-CN2 into the PSi sponge-like matrix not only improves but also adds transducing skills, making this solid-state device a dual signal sensor for chemical monitoring. PDIF-CN2 modified PSi optical microcavities show an increase of about five orders of magnitude in electric current with respect to the same bare device. This feature can be used to sense volatile substances. PDIF-CN2 also improves chemical resistance of PSi against alkaline and acid corrosion. PMID:26063814

  9. High-performance ultraviolet photodetector based on organic-inorganic hybrid structure.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dali; Yu, Mingpeng; Sun, Hongtao; Xin, Guoqing; Lian, Jie; Sawyer, Shayla

    2014-08-27

    An ultraviolet (UV) photodetector is fabricated by sandwiching a nanocomposite active layer between charge-selective semiconducting polymers. The nanocomposite active layer composed of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) blended with 1,3-bis(N-carbazolyl)benzene (mCP), which acts as a "valve" controller that enables hole injection into the device upon UV illumination. The UV photodetector demonstrated a high photocurrent to dark current ratio (∼10(4)), a large linear dynamic range of 60 dB, and a remarkable external quantum efficiency (∼8.5 × 10(4)%) for the UV light at 351 nm. In addition to discussing the performance of the UV photodetector, a general strategy for design and fabrication of high-performance UV photodetectors with hole injection operation mode is suggested. PMID:24988050

  10. LDRD final report on polyphosphaacetylenes, new hybrid conducting organic-inorganic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, G.M.; Loy, D.A.; Saunders, R.S.; Alam, T.M.

    1996-06-01

    Thermal, electrochemical and transition metal mediated reactions of phosphaacetylene monomers were conducted in attempts to form novel polyphosphaacetylenes as a new class of potentially electrically conducting polymers. Molecular modeling was used to simulate the molecular conformations of optimized, isolated oligomers to identify the proper monomeric repeat units for highly conjugated molecules. Electrodeposition of suitable monomers led to low molecular weight oligomers. Thermal polymerization of phosphaacetylene monomers bearing aromatic substituents ed to the formation of polyhedral cage oligomers. Under metathesis polymerization conditions the phosphaacetylene monomers form unique complexes via an unprecedented sequence of intermediates which suggest that metathesis to linear oligomers is achievable. Conductivity measurements on electrodeposited oligomers indicate modest electrical conductivity.

  11. New Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Polysilsesquioxane-Silica Particles as Sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, Stephanie H; McFadden, Peter D; Loy, Douglas A

    2016-02-10

    Effectiveness of organic sunscreens is limited by phototoxicity and degradation. Both of which can be significantly reduced by encapsulation in hollow particles or covalent incorporation into the solid structure of particles, but direct comparisons of the two methods have not been reported. In this study, physical encapsulation and covalent incorporation of sunscreens were compared with 1 mol % salicylate and curcumeroid sunscreens. 2-Ethylhexyl salicylate was physically encapsulated in hollow silica nanoparticles prepared by oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion polymerizations (E-Sal). Some of these particles were coated with an additional shell or cap of silica to reduce leaking of sunscreen (cap-E-Sal). Covalent incorporation involved co-polymerizing tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) with 0.2 mol % of new salicylate and curcuminoid sunscreen monomers with triethoxsilyl groups. Particles were prepared with the salicylate attached to the silica matrix through single silsesquioxane groups (pendant; P-Sal) and two silsesquioxane groups (bridged; B-Sal). Particles based on a new curcuminoid-bridged monomer were also prepared (B-Curc). Sunscreen leaching, photodegradation, and sunscreen performance were determined for the E-Sal, cap-E-Sal, P-Sal, B-Sal, and B-Curc particles. Covalent attachment, particularly with bridged sunscreen monomers, reduced leaching and photodegradation over physical encapsulation, even with capping. PMID:26730573

  12. Chemical Vapor Sensing Using Dual Channel Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Shannon; Schoefer, Sebastian; Sharma, Deepak; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2008-03-01

    We have developed a field-effect chemical sensing device architecture in which two semiconducting channels are employed, one of which is exposed to the analyte and is chemically sensitive. The second channel (usually silicon) is used for signal transduction/amplification. Such sensors work can work in many device modes including one that can be described as a ``chemical memory mode''. For the chemically sensitive channel, several classes of materials can be employed including small molecule organic semiconductors, conjugated polymers, and inorganic oxides such as SnOx. With organic semiconductor channels, it is possible to demonstrate charge trapping of volatile organic molecules with significant dipole moments such as ketones and alcohols. We will describe the physics of operation of such sensors in various modes and also outline how the selectivity/sensitivity can be enhanced by incorporating organic receptors.

  13. Adhesion and degradation of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting devices

    SciTech Connect

    Momodu, D. Y.; Chioh, A. V.; Tong, T.; Zebaze Kana, M. G.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2014-02-28

    This paper presents the results of a combined analytical, computational, and experimental study of adhesion and degradation of Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs). The adhesion between layers that are relevant to OLEDs is studied using an atomic force microscopy technique. The interfacial failure mechanisms associated with blister formation in OLEDs and those due to the addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles into the active regions are then elucidated using a combination of fracture mechanics, finite element modeling and experiments. The blisters observed in the models are shown to be consistent with the results from adhesion, interfacial fracture mechanics models, and prior reports of diffusion-assisted phenomena. The implications of the work are then discussed for the design of OLED structures with improved lifetimes and robustness.

  14. A novel nanoscale organic-inorganic hybrid system with significantly enhanced AIE in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tingting; Xu, Jia-Long; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Jian; Jiao, Xiuling; Wang, Ting; Chen, Dairong

    2016-05-25

    We report the design and fluorescence properties of a novel aggregation-induced emission (AIE) system obtained by grafting carboxyl group conjugated AIE molecules onto monodispersed colloidal GaOOH nanocubes. Compared with nanoaggregates formed in mixed solvents, as-formed nanohybrids avoid contact with a "good" solvent, restrict the molecular motions more efficiently and show a significantly enhanced AIE. PMID:27147199

  15. Optical chemical sensors based on hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel nanoreactors.

    PubMed

    Tran-Thi, Thu-Hoa; Dagnelie, Romain; Crunaire, Sabine; Nicole, Lionel

    2011-02-01

    Sol-gel porous materials with tailored or nanostructured cavities have been increasingly used as nanoreactors for the enhancement of reactions between entrapped chemical reactants. The domains of applications issued from these designs and engineering are extremely wide. This tutorial review will focus on one of these domains, in particular on optical chemical sensors, which are the subject of extensive research and development in environment, industry and health. PMID:21180764

  16. Microstructures and photovoltaic properties of fullerene-based organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oku, T.; Takeda, A.; Nagata, A.; Fujimoto, K.; Akiyama, T.; Suzuki, A.

    2012-03-01

    C60-based bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated, and the electronic and optical properties were investigated. C60 were used as n-type semiconductors, and copper oxides, CuInS2 and diamond were used as p-type semiconductors. Electronic structures of the molecules were investigated by molecular orbital calculation, and energy levels of the solar cells were discussed. Nanostructures of the solar cells were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction, which indicated formation of mixed nanocrystals.

  17. Molecular organic crystalline matrix for hybrid organic-inorganic (nano) composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, A.; Tugulea, L.; Alexandru, H. V.; Stanculescu, F.; Socol, M.

    2005-02-01

    Metal-doped benzil crystals have been grown by thermal gradient solidification in a vertical transparent growth configuration to investigate the effect of metallic guest on the ordered organic host. We have identified the conditions for growing homogeneous, optically good crystals of benzil doped with sodium and silver, limiting the effect of supercooling, low thermal conductivity and anisotropy of the growth speed (temperature gradient at the liquid-solid interface: 10-25 °C, moving speed of the growth interface 2.0 mm/h). The nature and concentration of the dopant are parameters affecting, through the growth process, the crystalline perfection and the optical properties of the organic matrix. Bulk optical characterisation, by spectrophotometrical methods, has offered details on some intrinsic properties of the system metal particles/benzil crystalline matrix. Analytical processing of the experimental data emphasised that benzil is a wide optical band gap organic semiconductor Eg=2.65 eV. We also have investigated the effect of sodium and silver on the properties of benzil crystal as potential transparent semiconductor matrix for (nano)composite metal/molecular organic material. With the increase of sodium concentration from c=1 to 6 wt%, a small narrowing of the band gap has been remarked. The same behaviour has been found for benzil doped with silver (c=2 wt%) compared to pure benzil.

  18. Design of injectable organic-inorganic hybrid for bone tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Dessì, Mariagemiliana; Raucci, Maria Grazia; Zeppetelli, Stefania; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2012-08-01

    Injectable bone substitutes are rapidly gained success in tissue engineering applications for their less invasive surgical aspect. Here, the design and the characterization of a novel degradable paste of PCL reinforced with nanocrystals of hydroxyapatite have been presented aiming to mimic natural tissue. Nanohydroxyapatite has been successfully synthesized via sol-gel technique. Dynamic and steady state viscoelastic properties of the solutions and paste were investigated to control the kinetic of phase transition. Correspondingly, the morphology and composition were characterized via TEM, EDAX, and thermal analysis. Injection test underlines the completely ability of the paste of being injected without altering its features. Preliminary biological study showed that the composite paste is not cytotoxic. The synergistic rheological and biological properties, combined with the positive effect of chemical synthesis method indicate that the composite paste is very suitable as local bone substitute in low-load areas. PMID:22581691

  19. Extended organic-inorganic hybrids based on Dawson and double-Dawson-type polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiming; Li, Yangguang; Wang, Yonghui; Qi, Yanfei; Wang, Enbo

    2008-09-01

    The reaction between K 12[H 2P 2W 12O 48] and CuCl 2 in a NaCl aqueous solution assisted with organoamines (1,2-ethylenediamine (en), 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (hn), or both) leads to the isolation of three compounds: K 4Na 10[alpha 1-CuP 2W 17O 60(OH)] 2. approximately 58H 2O ( 1), Na 2[H 2en][H 2hn] 0.5[Cu(en) 2] 4.5[alpha 1-CuP 2W 17O 60(OH)] 2. approximately 43H 2O ( 2), and Na 3[H 2hn] 2.5[alpha 1-P 2W 17O 60Cu(OH) 2]. approximately 14H 2O ( 3). The polyoxoanion [alpha 1-CuP 2W 17O 60(OH)] 2 (14-) in 1 and 2 exhibits a double-Dawson-type polyoxoanion that consists of two alpha 1-type mono-Cu-substituted WellsDawson anions, which can be synthesized by both the conventional aqueous solution method and the hydrothermal technique. Furthermore, the double-Dawson-type polyoxoanions in 2 are linked by the [Cu(en) 2] (2+) bridges to form 2-D networks, which are further packed into a 3-D supramolecular porous framework via extensive hydrogen bonding interactions, exhibiting two types of tunnels (A and B). Compound 3 possesses a 3-D supramolecular framework with 1-D tunnels constructed from the alpha 1-type mono-Cu-substituted WellsDawson anion. The magnetic studies of compounds 1 and 2 indicate that weak antiferromagnetic interactions exist in these two compounds. PMID:18680281

  20. Ambient Engineering for High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiabin; Yu, Xuegong; Xie, Jiangsheng; Xu, Dikai; Tang, Zeguo; Cui, Can; Yang, Deren

    2016-08-24

    Considering the evaporation of solvents during fabrication of perovskite films, the organic ambience will present a significant influence on the morphologies and properties of perovskite films. To clarify this issue, various ambiences of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and chlorobenzene (CBZ) are introduced during fabrication of perovskite films by two-step sequential deposition method. The results reveal that an ambient CBZ atmosphere is favorable to control the nucleation and growth of CH3NH3PbI3 grains while the others present a negative effect. The statistical results show that the average efficiencies of perovskite solar cells processed in an ambient CBZ atmosphere can be significantly improved by a relatively average value of 35%, compared with those processed under air. The efficiency of the best perovskite solar cells can be improved from 10.65% to 14.55% by introducing this ambience engineering technology. The CH3NH3PbI3 film with large-size grains produced in an ambient CBZ atmosphere can effectively reduce the density of grain boundaries, and then the recombination centers for photoinduced carriers. Therefore, a higher short-circuit current density is achieved, which makes main contribution to the improvement in efficiency. These results provide vital progress toward understanding the role of ambience in the realization of highly efficient perovskite solar cells. PMID:27489961

  1. Rapid synthesis of a versatile organic/inorganic hybrid material based on pyrogenic silica.

    PubMed

    Becuwe, M; Cazier, F; Woisel, P; Landy, D; Delattre, F

    2010-10-01

    An efficient approach has been developed to synthesize a new versatile organo-silica material by non-conventional method (microwave irradiation and ultrasonic vibration) from amorphous pyrogenic silica and has been compared with thermic procedure. The samples were fully characterized by FTIR, solid-state (29)Si and (13)C CP/MAS NMR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by N(2)-sorption isotherms measurements. The functionalization of silicon dioxide by 4-(chloromethylphenyl) trichlorosilane has been easily achieved by ultrasound irradiation in a very short time with high loading of organic fragments. Significant different sizes of pores were observed according to conventional or non-conventional synthesis procedure. In addition, new structural properties have been created with the emergence of a mesoporosity. PMID:20580377

  2. The dynamics of methylammonium ions in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leguy, Aurelien M. A.; Frost, Jarvist Moore; McMahon, Andrew P.; Sakai, Victoria Garcia; Kochelmann, W.; Law, Chunhung; Li, Xiaoe; Foglia, Fabrizia; Walsh, Aron; O'Regan, Brian C.; Nelson, Jenny; Cabral, João T.; Barnes, Piers R. F.

    2015-05-01

    Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite can make high-efficiency solar cells, which also show an unexplained photocurrent hysteresis dependent on the device-poling history. Here we report quasielastic neutron scattering measurements showing that dipolar CH3NH3+ ions reorientate between the faces, corners or edges of the pseudo-cubic lattice cages in CH3NH3PbI3 crystals with a room temperature residence time of ~14 ps. Free rotation, π-flips and ionic diffusion are ruled out within a 1-200-ps time window. Monte Carlo simulations of interacting CH3NH3+ dipoles realigning within a 3D lattice suggest that the scattering measurements may be explained by the stabilization of CH3NH3+ in either antiferroelectric or ferroelectric domains. Collective realignment of CH3NH3+ to screen a device's built-in potential could reduce photovoltaic performance. However, we estimate the timescale for a domain wall to traverse a typical device to be ~0.1-1 ms, faster than most observed hysteresis.

  3. Fluorescence microscopy as an alternative to electron microscopy for microscale dispersion evaluation of organic-inorganic composites.

    PubMed

    Guan, Weijiang; Wang, Si; Lu, Chao; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic dispersion is of great importance for actual implementation of advanced properties of organic-inorganic composites. Currently, electron microscopy is the most conventional approach for observing dispersion of inorganic fillers from ultrathin sections of organic-inorganic composites at the nanoscale by professional technicians. However, direct visualization of macrodispersion of inorganic fillers in organic-inorganic composites using high-contrast fluorescent imaging method is hampered. Here we design and synthesize a unique fluorescent surfactant, which combines the properties of the aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and amphiphilicity, to image macrodispersion of montmorillonite and layered double hydroxide fillers in polymer matrix. The proposed fluorescence imaging provides a number of important advantages over electron microscope imaging, and opens a new avenue in the development of direct three-dimensional observation of inorganic filler macrodispersion in organic-inorganic composites. PMID:27251015

  4. Fluorescence microscopy as an alternative to electron microscopy for microscale dispersion evaluation of organic-inorganic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Weijiang; Wang, Si; Lu, Chao; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2016-06-01

    Inorganic dispersion is of great importance for actual implementation of advanced properties of organic-inorganic composites. Currently, electron microscopy is the most conventional approach for observing dispersion of inorganic fillers from ultrathin sections of organic-inorganic composites at the nanoscale by professional technicians. However, direct visualization of macrodispersion of inorganic fillers in organic-inorganic composites using high-contrast fluorescent imaging method is hampered. Here we design and synthesize a unique fluorescent surfactant, which combines the properties of the aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and amphiphilicity, to image macrodispersion of montmorillonite and layered double hydroxide fillers in polymer matrix. The proposed fluorescence imaging provides a number of important advantages over electron microscope imaging, and opens a new avenue in the development of direct three-dimensional observation of inorganic filler macrodispersion in organic-inorganic composites.

  5. Hybridization Between Natural Extract of Angelica gigas Nakai and Inorganic Nanomaterial of Layered Double Hydroxide via Reconstruction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Choi, Ae-Jin; Choi, Hyun-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

    2016-01-01

    We have hybridized layered double hydroxide (LDH) with Angelica gigas Nakai root extract (AGNR) through reversible dehydration-rehydration reaction which is known as reconstruction. LDHs having well-ordered hydrotalcite-like crystal structure and average size 250 ± 20 nm were prepared by hydrothermal method. The root of Angelica gigas Nakai, which has been utilized in the treatment of female disorders as herbal medicine, was treated with methanol to obtain extract. Pristine LDHs were calcined at 400 °C for 8 hours to obtain layered double oxide (LDO), which was further dispersed into extract solution with various AGNR/LDO weight ratios, 0.11, 0.21 and 0.43. The extract content in each hybrid increased in proportion to initial AGNR/LDO ratio, showing the highest content of ~12%. The zeta potential of LDH shifted from +44 mV to +20 mV upon hybridization with extract, which was attributed to the adsorption of negatively charged organic moieties in AGNR on LDH surface. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) results exhibited that the random stacking of LDH nanolayers resulted in LDH-AGNR hybrid with house-of-cards structure, of which inter-particle cavity serves nano-reservoir for natural extract. According to quantitative analyses, it was revealed that the content of active components in AGNR increased when they were hybridized with LDHs compared with those in AGNR alone. PMID:27398576

  6. Facile fabrication of organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yingzhi; Li, Aoxiang; Yue, Xiaoqi; Wang, Lu-Ning; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Kang, Feiyu; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2016-07-01

    Organic/inorganic heterojunction photoanodes are appealing for making concurrent use of the highly photoactive organic semiconductors, and the efficient dielectric screening provided by their inorganic counterparts. In the present work, organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays composed of TiO2 nanotube arrays and a semiconducting N,N-(dicyclohexyl) perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDi) layer were fabricated for photoelectrochemical water splitting. In this arrayed architecture, a PDi layer with a tunable thickness was coated on anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays by physical vapor deposition, which is advantageous for the formation of a uniform layer and an adequate interface contact between PDi and TiO2. The obtained PDi/TiO2 junction exhibited broadened visible light absorption, and an effective interface for enhanced photogenerated electron-hole separation, which is supported by the reduced charge transfer resistance and prolonged excitation lifetime via impedance spectroscopy analysis and fluorescence emission decay investigations. Consequently, such a heterojunction photoanode was photoresponsive to a wide visible light region of 400-600 nm, and thus demonstrated a highly enhanced photocurrent density at 1.23 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode. Additionally, the durability of such a photoanode can be guaranteed after long-time illumination because of the geometrical restraint imposed by the PDi aggregates. These results pave the way to discover new organic/inorganic assemblies for high-performance photoelectric applications and device integration.Organic/inorganic heterojunction photoanodes are appealing for making concurrent use of the highly photoactive organic semiconductors, and the efficient dielectric screening provided by their inorganic counterparts. In the present work, organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays composed of TiO2 nanotube arrays and a semiconducting N,N-(dicyclohexyl) perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDi

  7. Polystyrene-poly(vinylphenol) copolymers as compatibilzers for organic-inorganic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, C.J.T.; Coltrain, B.K.; Teegarden, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Random, graft, and block copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh), and PVPh homopolymer are shown to act as compatibilizers for incompatible organic-inorganic composite materials. The VPh component reacts, or interacts strongly with the polymerizing inorganic (titanium or zirconium) alkoxide. The organic components studied were PS, poly(vinyl methyl ether), and poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). The use of such compatibilizers provides a means of combining in situ polymerized inorganic oxides and hydrophobic polymers. This is seen as a reduction in the size of the dispersed inorganic phase and results in improved optical and mechanical properties.

  8. Organic-inorganic composite nanocoatings with superhydrophobicity, good transparency, and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian Feng; Wang, Jian Nong; Sanderson, Kevin D

    2010-04-27

    Superhydrophobic, highly transparent, and stable organic-inorganic composite nanocoating is successfully prepared by a simple sol-gel dip-coating method. This method involves control of the aggregation of inorganic colloid particles by polymerization and ultrasonic vibration to create the desired micro/nanostructure in the coating. Superhydrophobicity and transparency of the coating can be controlled by adjusting the initial concentration of monomer and the size of aggregates in the sol-gel. Thus, superhydrophobicity and high transparency can be concurrently achieved in a single coating. The prepared coating also possesses good thermal stability. Its superhydrophobicity can be maintained from 20 to 90 degrees C. PMID:20302323

  9. Electrical properties and switching mechanisms of flexible organic-inorganic bistable devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onlaor, K.; Tunhoo, B.; Thiwawong, T.; Nukeaw, J.

    2013-08-01

    The electrical properties of flexible organic-inorganic bistable devices fabricated with aluminum (Al) sandwiched between tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) and zinc selenide (ZnSe) layers were investigated. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were conducted under conditions before, during, and after bending while changing the bending distance of the base plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) systematically. The maximum ON/OFF current ratios of the flexible bistable devices at flat and bent conditions were approximately 2.7×104 and 1.9×104, respectively. The conduction mechanisms in both ON and OFF states were analyzed by a theoretical model.

  10. Bio-inspired synthesis of hybrid silica nanoparticles templated from elastin-like polypeptide micelles.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; MacEwan, Sarah R; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; López, Gabriel P

    2015-07-28

    The programmed self-assembly of block copolymers into higher order nanoscale structures offers many attractive attributes for the development of new nanomaterials for numerous applications including drug delivery and biosensing. The incorporation of biomimetic silaffin peptides in these block copolymers enables the formation of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, which can potentially enhance the utility and stability of self-assembled nanostructures. We demonstrate the design, synthesis and characterization of amphiphilic elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) diblock copolymers that undergo temperature-triggered self-assembly into well-defined spherical micelles. Genetically encoded incorporation of the silaffin R5 peptide at the hydrophilic terminus of the diblock ELP leads to presentation of the silaffin R5 peptide on the coronae of the micelles, which results in localized condensation of silica and the formation of near-monodisperse, discrete, sub-100 nm diameter hybrid ELP-silica particles. This synthesis method, can be carried out under mild reaction conditions suitable for bioactive materials, and will serve as the basis for the development and application of functional nanomaterials. Beyond silicification, the general strategies described herein may also be adapted for the synthesis of other biohybrid nanomaterials as well. PMID:26114664

  11. Modeling the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwier, A. N.; Viglione, G. A.; Li, Z.; McNeill, V. Faye

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can contain thousands of organic compounds which impact aerosol surface tension, affecting aerosol properties such as heterogeneous reactivity, ice nucleation, and cloud droplet formation. We present new experimental data for the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic aqueous mixtures mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Each solution contained 2-6 organic compounds, including methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, oxalic acid, succinic acid, leucine, alanine, glycine, and serine, with and without ammonium sulfate. We test two semi-empirical surface tension models and find that most reactive, complex, aqueous organic mixtures which do not contain salt are well described by a weighted Szyszkowski-Langmuir (S-L) model which was first presented by Henning et al. (2005). Two approaches for modeling the effects of salt were tested: (1) the Tuckermann approach (an extension of the Henning model with an additional explicit salt term), and (2) a new implicit method proposed here which employs experimental surface tension data obtained for each organic species in the presence of salt used with the Henning model. We recommend the use of method (2) for surface tension modeling of aerosol systems because the Henning model (using data obtained from organic-inorganic systems) and Tuckermann approach provide similar modeling results and goodness-of-fit (χ2) values, yet the Henning model is a simpler and more physical approach to modeling the effects of salt, requiring less empirically determined parameters.

  12. Modeling the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwier, A. N.; Viglione, G. A.; Li, Z.; McNeill, V. F.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can contain thousands of organic compounds which impact aerosol surface tension, affecting aerosol properties such as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) ability. We present new experimental data for the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic aqueous mixtures mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Each solution contained 2-6 organic compounds, including methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, oxalic acid, succinic acid, leucine, alanine, glycine, and serine, with and without ammonium sulfate. We test two surface tension models and find that most reactive, complex, aqueous organic mixtures which do not contain salt are well-described by a weighted Szyszkowski-Langmuir (S-L) model which was first presented by Henning et al. (2005). Two approaches for modeling the effects of salt were tested: (1) the Tuckermann approach (an extension of the Henning model with an additional explicit salt term), and (2) a new implicit method proposed here which employs experimental surface tension data obtained for each organic species in the presence of salt used with the Henning model. We recommend the use of method (2) for surface tension modeling because the Henning model (using data obtained from organic-inorganic systems) and Tuckermann approach provide similar modeling fits and goodness of fit (χ2) values, yet the Henning model is a simpler and more physical approach to modeling the effects of salt, requiring less empirically determined parameters.

  13. Exciton Binding Energy in Organic-Inorganic Tri-Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Askar, Abdelrahman M; Shankar, Karthik

    2016-06-01

    The recent dramatic increase in the power conversion efficiencies of organic-inorganic tri-halide perovskite solar cells has triggered intense research worldwide and created a paradigm shift in the photovoltaics field. It is crucial to develop a solid understanding of the photophysical processes underlying solar cell operation in order to both further improve the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells as well as to exploit the broader optoelectronic applications of the tri-halide perovskites. In this short review, we summarize the main research findings about the binding energy of excitons in tri-halide perovskite materials and find that a value in the range of 2-22 meV at room temperature would be a safe estimate. Spontaneous free carrier generation is the dominant process taking place directly after photoexcitation in organic-inorganic tri-halide perovskites at room temperature, which eliminates the exciton diffusion bottleneck present in organic solar cells and constitutes a major contributing factor to the high photovoltaic performance of this material. PMID:27427650

  14. Organic-inorganic materials containing nanoparticles of zirconium hydrophosphate for baromembrane separation.

    PubMed

    Dzyazko, Yuliya S; Rozhdestvenskaya, Ludmila M; Zmievskii, Yu G; Vilenskii, Alexander I; Myronchuk, Valerii G; Kornienko, Ludmila V; Vasilyuk, Sergey V; Tsyba, Nikolay N

    2015-01-01

    Organic-inorganic membranes were obtained by stepwise modification of poly(ethyleneterephthalate) track membrane with nanoparticles of zirconium hydrophosphate. The modifier was inserted inside pores of the polymer, a size of which is 0.33 μm. Inner active layer was formed by this manner. Evolution of morphology and functional properties of the membranes were investigated using methods of porosimetry, potentiometry and electron microscopy. The nanoparticles (4 to 10 nm) were found to form aggregates, which block pores of the polymer. Pores between the aggregates (4 to 8 nm) as well as considerable surface charge density provide significant transport numbers of counter ions (up to 0.86 for Na(+)). The materials were applied to baromembrane separation of corn distillery. It was found that precipitate is formed mainly inside the pores of the pristine membrane. In the case of the organic-inorganic material, the deposition occurs onto the outer surface and can be removed by mechanical way. Location of the active layer inside membranes protects it against damage. PMID:25852361

  15. Syntheses, structures, spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of two 1D organic-inorganic CuII-LnIII heterometallic germanotungstates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingli; Li, Jie; Li, Lijie; Zhao, Haozhe; Ma, Pengtao; Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Lijuan

    2013-10-01

    Two organic-inorganic hybrid copper-lanthanide heterometallic germanotungstates KNa2H7[enH2]3[Cu(en)2(H2O)]2[Cu(en)2]2{Cu(en)2[Eu(α-GeW11O39)2]2}·13H2O (1) and Na2H4[Cu(en)2(H2O)]2[Cu(en)2]6[Cu(en)2]{Cu(en)2[La(α-GeW11O39)2]2}·12H2O (2) have been hydrothermally synthesized by reaction of K8Na2[A-α-GeW9O34]·25H2O with CuCl2·2H2O and EuCl3/LaCl3 in the presence of en (en=ethylenediamine) and structurally characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 exhibits the 1D chain motif built by tetrameric {[Cu(en)2(H2O)]2[Cu(en)2]2{Cu(en)2[Eu(α-GeW11O39)2]2}}(16-) moieties through square antiprismatic K(+) cations while 2 displays the 1D architecture made by tetrameric [[Cu(en)2]6[Cu(en)2]{Cu(en)2[La(α-GeW11O39)2]2}](10-) units via octahedral [Cu(en)2](2+) cations. Furthermore, the solid-state electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of 1 have been investigated and 1 indicates the good electrocatalytic activity for nitrite reduction. In addition, the photoluminescence property of 1 has been investigated. PMID:23786977

  16. Radioactive Nanomaterials for Multimodality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daiqin; Dougherty, Casey A.; Yang, Dongzhi; Wu, Hongwei; Hong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear imaging techniques, including primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), can provide quantitative information for a biological event in vivo with ultra-high sensitivity, however, the comparatively low spatial resolution is their major limitation in clinical application. By convergence of nuclear imaging with other imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging, the hybrid imaging platforms can overcome the limitations from each individual imaging technique. Possessing versatile chemical linking ability and good cargo-loading capacity, radioactive nanomaterials can serve as ideal imaging contrast agents. In this review, we provide a brief overview about current state-of-the-art applications of radioactive nanomaterials in the circumstances of multimodality imaging. We present strategies for incorporation of radioisotope(s) into nanomaterials along with applications of radioactive nanomaterials in multimodal imaging. Advantages and limitations of radioactive nanomaterials for multimodal imaging applications are discussed. Finally, a future perspective of possible radioactive nanomaterial utilization is presented for improving diagnosis and patient management in a variety of diseases. PMID:27227167

  17. Electrochemical sensor for sensitive detection of paracetamol based on novel multi-walled carbon nanotubes-derived organic-inorganic material.

    PubMed

    Hui, Junmin; Li, Wenjuan; Guo, Yanlei; Yang, Zhu; Wang, Yingxiong; Yu, Chao

    2014-03-01

    A new electrochemical sensor based on a novel organic-inorganic material (PNFCTs) was proposed for detection of paracetamol in this paper. First, PNFCTs were prepared with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and a derivative of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTC-NH2) via cross-linking method. Then, PNFCTs were coated onto the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to form porous organic conducting polymer films (PNFCTs/GCE), which could not only increase the loading of paracetamol efficiently but also provide an interface with exceptional electrical conductivity for paracetamol. Finally, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were attached to the electrode surface through electrodepositing method, which obtained GNPs/PNFCTs/GCE electrode. The electrochemical behavior of paracetamol on GNPs/PNFCTs/GCE was explored by cyclic voltammetrys (CVs) and differential pulse voltammograms (DPVs). The results showed that the GNPs/PNFCTs/GCE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity to paracetamol, which should be attributed to remarkable properties of the new composite nanomaterials with porous nanostructure and exceptional electrical conductivity. The wide liner range and detection limit were 0.3-575 and 0.1 μM, respectively. Finally, it was successfully used to detect paracetamol in dilution human serum and commercial tablets. The sensor shows great promise for simple, sensitive, and selective detection paracetamol and provides a promising approach in paracetamol clinical research and overdose diagnostic applications. PMID:24005761

  18. Exfoliation of self-assembled 2D organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Wendy Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Eiden, Anna; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    2014-04-28

    Ultra-thin flakes of 2D organic-inorganic perovskite (C{sub 6}H{sub 9}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbI{sub 4} are produced using micromechanical exfoliation. Mono- and few-layer areas are identified using optical and atomic force microscopy, with an interlayer spacing of 1.6 nm. Refractive indices extracted from the optical spectra reveal a sample thickness dependence due to the charge transfer between organic and inorganic layers. These measurements demonstrate a clear difference in the exciton properties between “bulk” (>15 layers) and very thin (<8 layer) regions as a result of the structural rearrangement of organic molecules around the inorganic sheets.

  19. Organic/Inorganic Composite Latexes: The Marriage of Emulsion Polymerization and Inorganic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Lansalot, Muriel

    This review article describes recent advances in the synthesis and properties of waterborne organic/inorganic colloids elaborated through conventional emulsion polymerization, a well-established technology. These materials can be defined as aqueous suspensions of composite latex particles made up of organic and inorganic domains organized into well-defined core-shell, multinuclear, raspberry-like, multipod-like, or armored morphologies. Particular emphasis is placed on the synthetic strategies for fabrication of these colloidal materials. Two main approaches are described: the polymerization of organic monomers in the presence of preformed inorganic particles, and the reverse approach by which inorganic materials are synthesized in the presence of preformed polymer latexes. The list of examples provided in this review is by no means exhaustive but rather intends to give an overview of synthetic methods for selected inorganic compounds (e.g., silica, iron oxide, pigments, clays, quantum dots, and metals), and briefly reports on potential applications of the resulting materials.

  20. Preparation and properties of organic-inorganic composite superabsorbent based on xanthan gum and loess.

    PubMed

    Feng, Enke; Ma, Guofu; Wu, Yajuan; Wang, Haiping; Lei, Ziqiang

    2014-10-13

    A new, low-cost, and eco-friendly organic-inorganic composite superabsorbent was successfully synthesized in aqueous solution by polymerization xanthan gum (XG), neutralized acrylic acid (AA) and loess using ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinker. Structure and morphological characterizations of the composite superabsorbent were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The loess content, pH values, surfactants, salts and temperature which could affect the swelling and water-retention capabilities of the composite superabsorbent were investigated. The composite superabsorbent exhibits excellent water absorbency (610 g/g in distilled water), pH-stability (pH 5-10), and higher swelling capacity in anionic surfactant solution; on the other hand, the composite superabsorbent can be used for removing multivalent metal ions. PMID:25037376

  1. Effect of temperature on series resistance of organic/inorganic semiconductor junction diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Udbhav; Kaur, Ramneek; Bharti, Shivani

    2016-05-01

    The paper reports the fabrication and characterization of CuPc/n-Si organic/inorganic semiconductor diode. Copper phthalocyanine, a p-type organic semiconductor layer has been deposited on Si substrate by thermal evaporation technique. The detailed analysis of the forward and reverse bias current-voltage characteristics has been provided. Temperature dependence of the schottky diode parameters has been studied and discussed in the temperature range, 303 K to 353 K. Series resistance of the diode has been determined using Cheung's function method. Series resistance decreases with increase in temperature. The large value of series resistance at low temperature has been explained on the basis of barrier inhomogeneities in the diode.

  2. Photochromic organic-inorganic composite materials prepared by sol-gel processing: Properties and potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, L. |; Mennig, M.; Schmidt, H.

    1994-12-31

    The sol-gel method which features a low-temperature wet-chemical process opens vast possibilities to incorporating organic dyes into solid matrices for various optical applications. In this paper the authors present their experimental results on the sol-gel derived photochromic organic-inorganic composite (Ormocer) materials following an introductory description of the sol-gel process and a brief review on the state of the art of the photochromic solids prepared using this method. Their photochromic spirooxazine-Ormocer gels and coatings possess better photochromic response and color-change speed than the corresponding photochromic polymer coatings and similar photochemical stability to the latter. Further developments are proposed as to tackle the temperature dependence problem and further tap the potentialities of the photochromic dye-Ormocer material for practical applications.

  3. Purcell effect in an organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductor microcavity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Cao, Runan; Da, Peimei; Wang, Yafeng; Hu, Tao; Wu, Lin; Lu, Jian; Shen, Xuechu; Xu, Fei; Zheng, Gengfeng; Chen, Zhanghai

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductors with the attractive physics properties, including strong photoluminescence (PL), huge oscillator strengths, and low nonradiative recombination losses, are ideal candidates for studying the light-matter interaction in nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate the coupling of the exciton state and the cavity mode in the lead halide perovskite microcavity system at room temperature. The Purcell effect in the coupling system is clearly observed by using angle-resolved photoluminescence spectra. Kinetic analysis based on time-resolved PL reveals that the spontaneous emission rate of the halide perovskite semiconductor is significantly enhanced at resonance of the exciton energy and the cavity mode. Our results provide the way for developing electrically driven organic polariton lasers, optical devices, and on-chip coherent quantum light sources.

  4. Formation of thin films of organic-inorganic perovskites for high-efficiency solar cells.

    PubMed

    Stranks, Samuel D; Nayak, Pabitra K; Zhang, Wei; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Snaith, Henry J

    2015-03-01

    Organic-inorganic perovskites are currently one of the hottest topics in photovoltaic (PV) research, with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of cells on a laboratory scale already competing with those of established thin-film PV technologies. Most enhancements have been achieved by improving the quality of the perovskite films, suggesting that the optimization of film formation and crystallization is of paramount importance for further advances. Here, we review the various techniques for film formation and the role of the solvents and precursors in the processes. We address the role chloride ions play in film formation of mixed-halide perovskites, which is an outstanding question in the field. We highlight the material properties that are essential for high-efficiency operation of solar cells, and identify how further improved morphologies might be achieved. PMID:25663077

  5. Synthesis and characterization of tunable coumarin- linked glasses as new class of organic/inorganic phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Luridiana, Alberto; Pretta, Gianluca; Secci, Francesco; Frongia, Angelo; Chiriu, Daniele; Carbonaro, Carlo Maria; Corpino, Riccardo; Ricci, Pier Carlo

    2014-10-21

    It is well known that stilbene with a trans conformation is highly fluorescent. From the viewpoint of molecular structure, coumarins bear a carbon-carbon double bond which is fixed as trans conformation as in trans-stilbene through a lactone structure. This can help to avoid the trans-cis transformation of the double bond under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as observed in stilbene compounds and results in strong fluorescence and high fluorescence quantum yield and photostability in most of coumarin derivatives. Herein we report some preliminary results about the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of tunable coumarins and the development of a new linkage protocol for the obtainment of monolayer coumarin-covalently linked glasses. The resulting organic/inorganic coumarin/silica based Self-Assembled Monolayer (SMA) film is proposed as new phosphors for the substituting of critical raw materials, like rare earths, in photonics applications.

  6. The Dynamic Organic/Inorganic Interface of Colloidal PbS Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Grisorio, Roberto; Debellis, Doriana; Suranna, Gian Paolo; Gigli, Giuseppe; Giansante, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Colloidal quantum dots are composed of nanometer-sized crystallites of inorganic semiconductor materials bearing organic molecules at their surface. The organic/inorganic interface markedly affects forms and functions of the quantum dots, therefore its description and control are important for effective application. Herein we demonstrate that archetypal colloidal PbS quantum dots adapt their interface to the surroundings, thus existing in solution phase as equilibrium mixtures with their (metal-)organic ligand and inorganic core components. The interfacial equilibria are dictated by solvent polarity and concentration, show striking size dependence (leading to more stable ligand/core adducts for larger quantum dots), and selectively involve nanocrystal facets. This notion of ligand/core dynamic equilibrium may open novel synthetic paths and refined nanocrystal surface-chemistry strategies. PMID:27038221

  7. Electron Microscopy Localization and Characterization of Functionalized Composite Organic-Inorganic SERS Nanoparticles on Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Ai Leen; Shachaf, Catherine M.; Elchuri, Sailaja; Nolan, Garry P.; Sinclair, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of electron microscopy as a powerful characterization tool to identify and locate antibody-conjugated composite organic-inorganic (COINs) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles on cells. U937 leukemia cells labeled with antibody CD54-conjugated COINs were characterized in their native, hydrated state using wet Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and in their dehydrated state using high-resolution SEM. In both cases, the backscattered electron detector (BSE) was used to detect and identify the silver constituents in COINs due to its high sensitivity to atomic number variations within a specimen. The imaging and analytical capabilities in the SEM were further complemented by higher resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images and Scanning Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) data to give reliable and high-resolution information about nanoparticles and their binding to cell surface antigens. PMID:18995965

  8. A thermodynamic model of mixed organic-inorganic aerosols to predict activity coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Luo, B. P.; Peter, T.

    2008-08-01

    Tropospheric aerosols contain mixtures of inorganic salts, acids, water, and a large variety of organic compounds. Interactions between these substances in liquid mixtures lead to discrepancies from ideal thermodynamic behaviour. By means of activity coefficients, non-ideal behaviour can be taken into account. We present here a thermodynamic model named AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients) that is able to calculate activity coefficients covering inorganic, organic, and organic-inorganic interactions in aqueous solutions over a wide concentration range. This model is based on the activity coefficient model LIFAC by Yan et al. (1999) that we modified and reparametrised to better describe atmospherically relevant conditions and mixture compositions. Focusing on atmospheric applications we considered H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH+4, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, Br-, NO-3, HSO-4, and SO2-4 as cations and anions and a wide range of alcohols/polyols composed of the functional groups CHn and OH as organic compounds. With AIOMFAC, the activities of the components within an aqueous electrolyte solution are well represented up to high ionic strength. Most notably, a semi-empirical middle-range parametrisation of direct organic-inorganic interactions in alcohol+water+salt solutions strongly improves the agreement between experimental and modelled activity coefficients. At room temperature, this novel thermodynamic model offers the possibility to compute equilibrium relative humidities, gas/particle partitioning and liquid-liquid phase separations with high accuracy. In further studies, other organic functional groups will be introduced. The model framework is not restricted to specific ions or organic compounds and is therefore also applicable for other research topics.

  9. A thermodynamic model of mixed organic-inorganic aerosols to predict activity coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Luo, B. P.; Peter, Th.

    2008-03-01

    Tropospheric aerosols contain mixtures of inorganic salts, acids, water, and a large variety of organic compounds. Interactions between these substances in liquid mixtures lead to discrepancies from ideal thermodynamic behaviour. By means of activity coefficients, non-ideal behaviour can be taken into account. We present here a thermodynamic model named AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients) that is able to calculate activity coefficients covering inorganic, organic, and organic-inorganic interactions in aqueous solutions over a wide concentration range. This model is based on the activity coefficient model LIFAC by Yan et al. (1999) that we modified and reparametrised to better describe atmospherically relevant conditions and mixture compositions. Focusing on atmospheric applications we considered H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, Br-, NO3-, HSO4-, and SO42- as cations and anions and a wide range of alcohols/polyols composed of the functional groups CHn and OH as organic compounds. With AIOMFAC, the activities of the components within an aqueous electrolyte solution are well represented up to high ionic strength. Most notably, a semi-empirical middle-range parametrisation of direct organic-inorganic interactions in alcohol + water + salt solutions strongly improves the agreement between experimental and modelled activity coefficients. At room temperature, this novel thermodynamic model offers the possibility to compute equilibrium relative humidities, gas/particle partitioning and liquid-liquid phase separations with high accuracy. In further studies, other organic functional groups will be introduced. The model framework is not restricted to specific ions or organic compounds and is therefore also applicable for other research topics.

  10. Neutral red interlinked gold nanoparticles/multiwalled carbon nanotubes hybrid nanomaterial and its application for the detection of NADH

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Ida Gupta, Mandakini

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabricated a nanostructured hybrid material of GNPs/neutral red/MWCNTs. • GNPs decorated on MWCNT template by using neutral red as interlinker for first time. • Nanocomposite modified electrode employed successfully as sensor for NADH. • The electrode has high stability as it does not involve any biological entity. - Abstract: A novel nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles/neutral red/MWCNTs was prepared which was used to modify glassy carbon electrode. The prepared nanocomposite was physically characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential measurement, energy dispersive X-ray, FTIR spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy. Electrochemical characterization was done using cyclic voltammetry technique. The modified glassy carbon electrode showed electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of NADH in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution, pH 5.0. The modified electrode has better adhesion over the electrode surface, good stability as no leaching of neutral red based nanocomposite was observed. The oxidation of NADH started at 0.37 V and reached maxima at 0.52 V at the modified electrode surface. So the prepared composite modified electrode can be applied as electrochemical sensor for NADH. The sensitivity and detection limits of the modified glassy carbon electrode were found to be 0.588 μA/mM and 5 × 10{sup −7} at signal to noise ratio 3.

  11. Physicochemical properties determine nanomaterial cellular uptake, transport and fate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Motao; Nie, Guangjun; Meng, Huan; Xia, Tian; Nel, Andre; Zhao, Yuliang

    2015-01-01

    CONSPECTUS There are a growing range of innovations in the field of nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. However, the increased number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and their novel physicochemical properties pose a new challenge of understanding the full spectrum of their interactions at the nano/bio interface, including the potential to engage in hazardous interactions. A comprehensive understanding of these interactions is required, including the physicochemical properties that control bioavailability and how this knowledge could be used for safer nanomaterial design. To this end, considerable knowledge generation and exploration is required to understand how material properties influence ENM uptake, transport and fate, as well as the biological consequences of these interactions at cellular level. The toxicity mechanisms of different ENMs differ with nanosize/nanosurface which directly correlates to the physicochemical activities of ENMs in vivo. So, to explore their underlying physicochemical processes of ENMs in cells will be essentially helpful for definitely understanding the toxicity of ENMs. In addition, the in vitro results are indispensable for modeling the biokinetics of ENMs. Nevertheless, we need to proceed such extrapolation with due caution, because the dosage relevance between the in vitro and in vivo exposure largely influences outcomes of the toxic response. In this Account, we delineate our view of the impact of ENM physicochemical properties on cellular bioprocessing based on the research performed in our laboratories. Because organic, inorganic, and hybrid ENMs can be produced in various sizes, shapes, surface modifications and compositions, and their widely tunable compositions and structures that can be dynamically modified under different biological and environmental use conditions. Therefore, a description of how ENM chemical properties such as (1) hydrophobicity and hydropholicity, (2) material composition, (3) surface

  12. Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Energy Transfer in an Organic/Inorganic Composite of Zinc Oxide and Graphite Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secor, Jeff A.

    This thesis describes the ultrafast processes in a hybrid organic/inorganic composite of Zinc (hydr)oxide and graphite oxide. The zinc phase is a large bandgap semi-conductor metal oxide with broadband visible emission from 430 - 600 nm caused by large density of surface and defects that act as trap states within the bandgap of the metal oxide. These surface states are observed to be brightly luminescent with long lifetimes. Steady state absorption, emission and Raman scattering provide a first look into the nature and effects of the hybridized defect states. Different luminescent structures are observed when the energy of excitation lies below the fundamental band edge of the zinc phase eventhough there is no structure in the absorption spectra caused by these intermediate states. This is analyzed with tunable laser excitation energy and the appearance of the blue-shifted emission with sub band gap excitation energies is attributed to a range of defect levels and the charge transfer state near the band edge of ZnO that becomes unaccessible under resonant absorption due to band bending effects of the excited electrons in the conduction band. In the time domain, the composite system GO shows very long and reversible nanosecond decay characteristics of the GO and shortened decay processes in the zinc phase. It is hypothesized that the overlap of the defect states of the two materials leads to strong interaction of the dense defect states of each material. To analyze this, spectrally and polarization resolved ultrafast decays are compared between the components in neat form and in composite form to give details on the ultrafast transfer/decay processes. The lifetimes of the different spectral regions of the emission show multi-exponential behavior that can be grouped into three energy regions: the zinc phase exciton, the charge transfer/ surface state overlap emission, and the defect level emission. Comparison of each region as a function of excitation energy build up

  13. Electrophysical behavior of ion-conductive organic-inorganic polymer system based on aliphatic epoxy resin and salt of lithium perchlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkovska, Liubov; Iurzhenko, Maksym; Mamunya, Yevgen; Matkovska, Olga; Demchenko, Valeriy; Lebedev, Eugene; Boiteux, Gisele; Serghei, Anatoli

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, ion-conductive hybrid organic-inorganic polymers based on epoxy oligomer of diglycide aliphatic ester of polyethylene glycol (DEG) and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) were synthesized. The effect of LiClO4 content on the electrophysical properties of epoxy polymers has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS). The effect of LiClO4 content on the structure has been studied by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). It was found that LiClO4 impacts on the structure of the synthesized hybrid epoxy polymers, probably, by formation of coordinative complexes {ether oxygen-lithium cations-ether oxygen} as evidenced from a significant increase in their glass transition temperatures with increasing LiClO4 concentration and WAXS studies. The presence of ether oxygen in DEG macromolecules provides a transfer mechanism of the lithium cations with the ether oxygen similar to polyethylene oxide (PEO). Thus, the obtained hybrid polymers have high values of ionic conductivity σ' (approximately 10-3 S/cm) and permittivity ɛ' (6 × 105) at elevated temperatures (200°C). On the other hand, DEG has higher heat resistance compared to PEO that makes these systems perspective as solid polymer electrolytes able to operate at high temperature.

  14. Photoluminescent properties of novel rare earth organic-inorganic nanocomposite with TiO2 modified silica via double crosslinking units.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Yan, Bing

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel organic/inorganic rare earth (europium, terbium) hybrid materials through the coordination bond and covalent bond are synthesized and form an inorganic Si-O-Si by the sol-gel process. Mercapto-functionalized 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA-Si) is obtained by using MBA and 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TESPIC) as an organic bridge molecule, and then the carboxyl group of the precursor MBA-Si is used to modify the titanium dioxide, so as to sensitize the luminescence of rare earth ions. CdS-TiO(2) is added to observe the influence of photoluminescence. 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) is also used to modify the CdS quantum dot and obtain MPS functionalized MPS-CdS nanocomposite. These multicomponent hybrids with double cross-linking siloxane (MBA-Si) covalently bonding MPS-CdS are characterized. Subsequently, 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) and 2,2,-bipyridyl (Bipy) as the assistant ligands together with water molecules are introduced into the rare earth hybrid system. The FT-IR, X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis, thermogravimetry and especially the photoluminescence properties of them are studied in detail. PMID:22126262

  15. Nanomaterials for rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Peter G; Scrosati, Bruno; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Energy storage is more important today than at any time in human history. Future generations of rechargeable lithium batteries are required to power portable electronic devices (cellphones, laptop computers etc.), store electricity from renewable sources, and as a vital component in new hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve the increase in energy and power density essential to meet the future challenges of energy storage, new materials chemistry, and especially new nanomaterials chemistry, is essential. We must find ways of synthesizing new nanomaterials with new properties or combinations of properties, for use as electrodes and electrolytes in lithium batteries. Herein we review some of the recent scientific advances in nanomaterials, and especially in nanostructured materials, for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. PMID:18338357

  16. Reactivity I: A Foundation-Level Course for Both Majors and Nonmajors in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    A foundation level course is presented that integrates aspects of organic, inorganic and biochemistry in the context of reactivity. The course was designed to serve majors in chemistry and other sciences (biochemistry, biology, nutrition), as well as nursing and pre-health professions students. Themes of the course were designed to highlight a…

  17. Influence of particle-phase state on the hygroscopic behavior of mixed organic-inorganic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodas, N.; Zuend, A.; Mui, W.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that organic and mixed organic-inorganic particles can exhibit multiple phase states depending on their chemical composition and on ambient conditions such as relative humidity (RH). To explore the extent to which water uptake varies with particle-phase behavior, hygroscopic growth factors (HGFs) of nine laboratory-generated, organic and organic-inorganic aerosol systems with physical states ranging from well-mixed liquids to phase-separated particles to viscous liquids or semi-solids were measured with the Differential Aerosol Sizing and Hygroscopicity Spectrometer Probe at RH values ranging from 40 to 90%. Water-uptake measurements were accompanied by HGF and RH-dependent thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model. In addition, AIOMFAC-predicted growth curves are compared to several simplified HGF modeling approaches: (1) representing particles as ideal, well-mixed liquids; (2) forcing a single phase but accounting for non-ideal interactions through activity coefficient calculations; and (3) a Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson-like calculation in which complete separation of the inorganic and organic components is assumed at all RH values, with water uptake treated separately in each of the individual phases. We observed variability in the characteristics of measured hygroscopic growth curves across aerosol systems with differing phase behaviors, with growth curves approaching smoother, more continuous water uptake with decreasing prevalence of liquid-liquid phase separation and increasing oxygen : carbon ratios of the organic aerosol components. We also observed indirect evidence for the dehydration-induced formation of highly viscous semi-solid phases and for kinetic limitations to the crystallization of ammonium sulfate at low RH for sucrose-containing particles. AIOMFAC-predicted growth curves are generally in good agreement with the HGF

  18. Influence of particle phase state on the hygroscopic behavior of mixed organic-inorganic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodas, N.; Zuend, A.; Mui, W.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that organic and mixed organic-inorganic particles can exhibit multiple phase states depending on their chemical composition and on ambient conditions such as relative humidity (RH). To explore the extent to which water uptake varies with particle phase behavior, hygroscopic growth factors (HGFs) of nine laboratory-generated, organic and organic-inorganic aerosol systems with physical states ranging from well-mixed liquids, to phase-separated particles, to viscous liquids or semi-solids were measured with the Differential Aerosol Sizing and Hygroscopicity Spectrometer Probe at RH values ranging from 40-90%. Water-uptake measurements were accompanied by HGF and RH-dependent thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model. In addition, AIOMFAC-predicted growth curves are compared to several simplified HGF modeling approaches: (1) representing particles as ideal, well-mixed liquids, (2) forcing a single phase, but accounting for non-ideal interactions through activity coefficient calculations, and (3) a Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson-like calculation in which complete separation between the inorganic and organic components is assumed at all RH values, with water-uptake treated separately in each of the individual phases. We observed variability in the characteristics of measured hygroscopic growth curves across aerosol systems with differing phase behaviors, with growth curves approaching smoother, more continuous water uptake with decreasing prevalence of liquid-liquid phase separation and increasing oxygen : carbon ratios of the organic aerosol components. We also observed indirect evidence for the dehydration-induced formation of highly viscous semi-solid phases and for kinetic limitations to the crystallization of ammonium sulfate at low RH for sucrose-containing particles. AIOMFAC-predicted growth curves are generally in good agreement with the HGF

  19. Simple orientational control over cylindrical organic-inorganic block copolymer domains for etch mask applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, M.; Nettleton, E.; Darling, S. B.

    2009-02-01

    Bottom-up patterning methodologies, predicated on chemical self-assembly, have the potential to transcend limitations associated with more traditional lithographies. By controlling the domain orientation of a cylinder-forming organic-inorganic block copolymer, poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane), it is possible to straightforwardly fabricate massive arrays of either nanoscale dots or wires out of a film composed of a wide variety of materials. In the work reported here, orientational control is achieved by manipulating the polymer film thickness in concert with the annealing treatment. For films much thinner than the equilibrium periodicity of the microdomains, the cylinders spontaneously orient themselves perpendicular to the substrate. Films with thickness close to the equilibrium periodicity exhibit the more common in-plane orientation following thermal annealing. Solvent annealing leads to an in-plane orientation for the full range of film thicknesses studied. As a demonstration of the effectiveness of this method, semiconductor substrates were patterned with arrays of posts and wires, respectively, using the same starting polymeric material as the etch mask. Compatibility of this polymer with various substrate materials is also demonstrated.

  20. Enhanced power efficiency of ZnO based organic/inorganic solar cells by surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shuangshuang; Tang, Ning; Meng, Xiuqing; Huang, Shihua; Hao, Yafei

    2016-09-01

    We present series of strategies to enhance efficiency of ZnO nanorods based organic/inorganic solar cells with spin-coated P3HT:PCBM blend as active layer. The performance of the as-fabricated devices is improved by controlling the size of ZnO nanorods, annealing temperature and time of active layer, surface modification of ZnO with PSBTBT. Optimized device of ITO/ZnO nanorod/P3HT:PCBM/Ag device with PSBTBT surface modification and air exposure reaches an efficiency of 2.02% with a short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage and fill factor of 13.23 mA cm-2, 0.547 V and 28%, respectively, under AM 1.5 irradiation of 100 mW m-2, the increase in efficiency is 7-fold of the PSBTBT surface modified ITO/ZnO nanorods/P3HT:PCBM/Ag device compared with the unmodified one, which is own to the increased interface contact, expanded light absorption, tailored band alignment attributed to PSBTBT. We found exposure to air and surface modification is crucial to improve the device performance, and we discussed the mechanisms that affect the performance of the devices in detail.

  1. In Situ Photo Sonosynthesis of Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites on Wool Fabric Introducing Multifunctional Properties.

    PubMed

    Behzadnia, Amir; Montazer, Majid; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Here, a novel and efficient process is introduced for producing wool fabric with multifunctional features through facile in situ photosonochemical synthesis of organic/inorganic nanocomposites. The fabric was treated with titanium isopropoxide, silver nitrate and ammonia in a sonobath for 1 h at 75-80°C. The crystal phase of the sono-treated samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction. The uniform distribution of the nanocomposite on the fiber surface was proved by field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray and mapping patterns. Further, the composition of the nanocomposites was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sono-treated wool fabrics illustrated excellent photocatalytic activities toward discoloration of Methylene Blue under sunlight and UV-A irradiation. Also the fabrics indicated reasonable antibacterial/antifungal activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The tensile properties of the sono-treated fabrics enhanced comparing to the untreated and even conventional stirrer-treated fabrics. Moreover, a central composite design based on response surface methodology was used to study the influence of titanium isopropoxide and silver molar ratio on the prepared nanocomposites sonobath. Finally, the optimum molar ratio was reported for the best responses. PMID:26496861

  2. Flexible single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks towards precise nano-size separation.

    PubMed

    Yue, Liang; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ding; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bao; Wu, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Consecutive two-dimensional frameworks comprised of molecular or cluster building blocks in large area represent ideal candidates for membranes sieving molecules and nano-objects, but challenges still remain in methodology and practical preparation. Here we exploit a new strategy to build soft single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks via electrostatic interaction without preferential binding direction in water. Upon consideration of steric effect and additional interaction, polyanionic clusters as connection nodes and cationic pseudorotaxanes acting as bridging monomers connect with each other to form a single-layer ionic self-assembled framework with 1.4 nm layer thickness. Such soft supramolecular polymer frameworks possess uniform and adjustable ortho-tetragonal nanoporous structure in pore size of 3.4-4.1 nm and exhibit greatly convenient solution processability. The stable membranes maintaining uniform porous structure demonstrate precisely size-selective separation of semiconductor quantum dots within 0.1 nm of accuracy and may hold promise for practical applications in selective transport, molecular separation and dialysis systems. PMID:26923611

  3. Organometallic Iridium Complex Containing a Dianionic, Tridentate, Mixed Organic-Inorganic Ligand.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Aaron J; Matula, Adam J; Mercado, Brandon Q; Batista, Victor S; Crabtree, Robert H

    2016-08-15

    A pentamethylcyclopentadienyl-iridium complex containing a tricyclic, dianionic, tridentate, scorpionate (facial binding), mixed organic-inorganic ligand was synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, as well as polynuclear NMR, UV-vis, and IR spectroscopies. The central cycle of the tridentate ligand consists of a modified boroxine in which two of the boron centers are tetrahedral, anionic borates. The complex is stable to hydrolysis in aqueous solution for >9 weeks at 25 °C but reacts with a 50 mM solution of sodium periodate within 12 s to form a periodate-driven oxygen evolution catalyst that has a turnover frquency of >15 s(-1). However, the catalyst is almost completely deactivated within 5 min, achieving an average turnover number of ca. 2500 molecules of oxygen per atom of iridium. Nanoparticles were not observed on this time scale but did form within 4 h of catalyst activation under these experimental conditions. The parent complex was modeled using density functional theory, which accurately reflected the geometry of the complex and indicated significant interaction of iridium- and boracycle-centered orbitals. PMID:27462911

  4. Photo-induced halide redistribution in organic-inorganic perovskite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dequilettes, Dane W.; Zhang, Wei; Burlakov, Victor M.; Graham, Daniel J.; Leijtens, Tomas; Osherov, Anna; Bulović, Vladimir; Snaith, Henry J.; Ginger, David S.; Stranks, Samuel D.

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic perovskites such as CH3NH3PbI3 are promising materials for a variety of optoelectronic applications, with certified power conversion efficiencies in solar cells already exceeding 21%. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art films still contain performance-limiting non-radiative recombination sites and exhibit a range of complex dynamic phenomena under illumination that remain poorly understood. Here we use a unique combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and chemical imaging to correlate the local changes in photophysics with composition in CH3NH3PbI3 films under illumination. We demonstrate that the photo-induced `brightening' of the perovskite PL can be attributed to an order-of-magnitude reduction in trap state density. By imaging the same regions with time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, we correlate this photobrightening with a net migration of iodine. Our work provides visual evidence for photo-induced halide migration in triiodide perovskites and reveals the complex interplay between charge carrier populations, electronic traps and mobile halides that collectively impact optoelectronic performance.

  5. Organic-inorganic templates in biomineralization of shells, bone, teeth, and bacterial biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Stasio, Gelsomina Pupa

    2005-03-01

    Recent experiments with the Spectromicroscope for PHotoelectron Imaging of Nanostructure with X-rays (SPHINX)[1] on the biofilm formed by Fe-oxidizing bacteria in fresh, ground water, demonstrated that microbially extruded polysaccharide filaments provide the precipitation site for amorphous FeOOH filaments [2]. Upon aging the mineralized filaments crystallize to ferrihydrite (2-line FeOOH), with one curved pseudo-single crystal of akaganeite β-FeOOH), at the core of each filament. The crystals are only 2 nm wide and up to 10 micron long (aspect ratio 1:1000:1), and their structure and morphology is unprecedented. Furthermore, akaganeite should not form in fresh water, therefore a templation mechanism was hypothesized, and supported by SPHINX analysis of carbon XANES. The results indicate that after formation of the crystal fiber, the polysaccharide structure is also altered, and C1s spectra suggest that the COO^- group is involved in the templation mechanism. This was the first successful attempt to understand the organic-inorganic chemical interface in a biomineralized system. Many more templated biomineral systems can and will now be analyzed with this new approach. *Ultramicroscopy 99, 87-94 (2004). *Science 303, 1656-1658 (2004).

  6. Photo-induced halide redistribution in organic-inorganic perovskite films.

    PubMed

    deQuilettes, Dane W; Zhang, Wei; Burlakov, Victor M; Graham, Daniel J; Leijtens, Tomas; Osherov, Anna; Bulović, Vladimir; Snaith, Henry J; Ginger, David S; Stranks, Samuel D

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic perovskites such as CH3NH3PbI3 are promising materials for a variety of optoelectronic applications, with certified power conversion efficiencies in solar cells already exceeding 21%. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art films still contain performance-limiting non-radiative recombination sites and exhibit a range of complex dynamic phenomena under illumination that remain poorly understood. Here we use a unique combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and chemical imaging to correlate the local changes in photophysics with composition in CH3NH3PbI3 films under illumination. We demonstrate that the photo-induced 'brightening' of the perovskite PL can be attributed to an order-of-magnitude reduction in trap state density. By imaging the same regions with time-of-flight secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, we correlate this photobrightening with a net migration of iodine. Our work provides visual evidence for photo-induced halide migration in triiodide perovskites and reveals the complex interplay between charge carrier populations, electronic traps and mobile halides that collectively impact optoelectronic performance. PMID:27216703

  7. Organic/inorganic interfaced field-effect transistor properties with a novel organic semiconducting material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Ahmet; Atahan, Alparslan; Bağcı, Sadık; Aslan, Metin; Saif Islam, M.

    2016-01-01

    A novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole-substituted benzo[b]triphenylene was synthesized by three-step synthetic procedure and OFET device design was successfully designed after theoretical calculations made using Gaussian software. For investigating the field-effect properties of designed organic electronic device, a SiO2 (300 nm) was thermally grown on p-Si wafer at 1000 °C as a dielectric layer and gate, source and drain contacts have been deposited using Au metal with physical vapour deposition. 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-substituted benzo[b]triphenylene was spin coated on the source and drain electrodes of our device, forming organic/inorganic interfaced field-effect transistors. Surface morphology and thin film properties were investigated using AFM. All electrical measurements were done in air ambient. The device showed a typical p-type channel behaviour with increasing negative gate bias voltage values. Our results have surprisingly shown that the saturation regime of this device has high mobility (μFET), excellent on/off ratio (Ion/Ioff), high transconductance (gm) and a small threshold voltage (VTh). The values of μFET, Ion/Ioff, gm and VTh were found as 5.02 cm2/Vs, 0.7 × 103, 5.64 μS/mm and 1.37 V, respectively. These values show that our novel organic material could be a potential candidate for organic electronic device applications in the future.

  8. Investigation of organic, inorganic and synthetic adsorbents for the pretreatment of landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, H; Fernandes, L; Tezel, F H

    2008-05-01

    An investigation into the use of organic, inorganic and synthetic adsorbents for the pretreatment of landfill leachate, generated by the City of Ottawa Trail Road Landfill, was carried out. The purpose of this project was to reduce the concentration of contaminants in order to meet the local Sewer Use By-Laws, prior to transporting the leachate from the generating site to the local municipal sewage treatment plant, and thereby reducing the disposal fees. Peat moss, compost, clinoptilolite, basalt and two types of activated carbon (DSR-A and F400) were investigated to determine the adsorption capacity for contaminants from leachate. Kinetic studies were also performed. The results based on batch adsorption isotherms show that peat moss has the highest adsorption capacity for boron (B) and barium (Ba), compared with the other adsorbents. Also peat moss has good removals of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Total Organic Carbon (TOC), and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX), but these are lower than the removals obtained with activated carbon. Because of its relatively low cost and higher adsorption of B and Ba, peat moss was selected as the filter media for the column studies. The treated leachate was tested for B, Ba, TKN, carbonaceous biological oxygen demand (CBOD5) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The breakthrough curves for B and Ba showed the effectiveness of peat moss in removing these contaminants. PMID:18661738

  9. Flexible single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks towards precise nano-size separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Liang; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ding; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bao; Wu, Lixin

    2016-02-01

    Consecutive two-dimensional frameworks comprised of molecular or cluster building blocks in large area represent ideal candidates for membranes sieving molecules and nano-objects, but challenges still remain in methodology and practical preparation. Here we exploit a new strategy to build soft single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks via electrostatic interaction without preferential binding direction in water. Upon consideration of steric effect and additional interaction, polyanionic clusters as connection nodes and cationic pseudorotaxanes acting as bridging monomers connect with each other to form a single-layer ionic self-assembled framework with 1.4 nm layer thickness. Such soft supramolecular polymer frameworks possess uniform and adjustable ortho-tetragonal nanoporous structure in pore size of 3.4-4.1 nm and exhibit greatly convenient solution processability. The stable membranes maintaining uniform porous structure demonstrate precisely size-selective separation of semiconductor quantum dots within 0.1 nm of accuracy and may hold promise for practical applications in selective transport, molecular separation and dialysis systems.

  10. Composite organic-inorganic butterfly scales: production of photonic structures with atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Gaillot, Davy P; Deparis, Olivier; Welch, Victoria; Wagner, Brent K; Vigneron, Jean Pol; Summers, Christopher J

    2008-09-01

    Recent advances in the photonics and optics industries have produced great demand for ever more sophisticated optical devices, such as photonic crystals. However, photonic crystals are notoriously difficult to manufacture. Increasingly, therefore, researchers have turned towards naturally occurring photonic structures for inspiration and a wide variety of elaborate techniques have been attempted to copy and harness biological processes to manufacture artificial photonic structures. Here, we describe a simple, direct process for producing an artificial photonic device by using a naturally occurring structure from the wings of the butterfly Papilio blumei as a template and low-temperature atomic layer deposition of TiO2 to create a faithful cast of the structure. The optical properties of the organic-inorganic diffraction structures produced are assessed by normal-incidence specular reflectance and found to be well described by multilayer computation method using a two-dimensional photonic crystal model. Depending on the structural integrity of the initially sealed scale, it was found possible not only to replicate the outer but also the inner and more complex surfaces of the structure, each resulting in distinct multicolor optical behavior as revealed by experimental and theoretical data. In this paper, we also explore tailoring the process to design composite skeleton architectures with desired optical properties and integrated multifunctional (mechanical, thermal, optical, fluidic) properties. PMID:18851080

  11. [Development and evaluation of fertilizers cemented and coated with organic-inorganic materials].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qiang; Wang, Jia-Chen; Zuo, Qiang; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Bao-Cun; Zhao, Tong-Ke; Zou, Guo-Yuan; Xu, Qiu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Four kinds of organic-inorganic cementing and coating materials were prepared by a coating method using water as the solvent, and the corresponding cemented and coated fertilizers (B2, PS, F2, and F2F) were produced by disc pelletizer. The tests on the properties of these fertilizers showed that the granulation rate, compression strength, and film-forming rate were B2 > PS > F2 > F2F. Soil column leaching experiment showed that the curve of accumulated nitrogen-dissolving rate was the gentlest for B2. In 48 days, the accumulated nitrogen-dissolving rate was in the order of B2, 54.65% < PS, 56.16% < F2, 59.47%, < F2F, 63.12%. Field experiment showed that compared with the same application amount of NPK, all the test fertilizers had better effects on corn yield, among which, B2 was the best, with the corn yield and fertilizer use efficiency increased by 19.72% and 20.30%, respectively. The yield-increasing effect of other test fertilizers was in the order of PS > F2 > F2F. PMID:20387432

  12. Synthesis optimisation and characterisation of the organic-inorganic layered materials ZnS(m-xylylenediamine)1/2 and ZnS(p-xylylenediamine)1/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luberda-Durnaś, K.; Guillén, A. González; Łasocha, W.

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic layered materials of the type ZnS(amine)1/2, where amine=m-xylylenediamine (MXDA) or p-xylylenediamine (PXDA), were synthesised using a simple solvothermal method. Since the samples crystallised in the form of very fine powder, X-ray powder diffraction techniques were used for structural characterisation. The crystal structure studies, involving direct methods, show that both compounds crystallised in the orthorhombic crystal system, but in different space groups: ZnS(MXDA)1/2 in non-centrosymmetric Ccm21, ZnS(PXDA)1/2 in centrosymmetric Pcab. The obtained materials are built according to similar orders: semiconducting monolayers with the formula ZnS, parallel to the (010) plane, are separated by diamines. The organic and inorganic fragments are connected by covalent bonds between metal atoms of the layers and nitrogen atoms of the amino groups. The optical properties of the hybrid materials differ from those of their bulk counterpart. In both compounds a blue-shift of about 0.8 or 0.9 eV was observed with reference to the bulk phase of ZnS.

  13. Atomic structure of metal-halide perovskites from first principles: The chicken-and-egg paradox of the organic-inorganic interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingrui; Rinke, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    We have studied the prototype hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 and its three close relatives, CH3NH3SnI3 ,CH3NH3PbCl3 , and CsPbI3, using relativistic density function theory. The long-range van der Waals (vdW) interactions were incorporated into the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange-correlation functional using the Tkatchenko-Scheffler pairwise scheme. Our results reveal that hydrogen bonding, which is well described by the PBE functional, plays a decisive role for the structural parameters of these systems, including the position and orientation of the organic cation as well as the deformation of the inorganic framework. The magnitude of the inorganic-framework deformation depends sensitively on the orientation of the organic cation, and directly influences the stability of the hybrid perovskites. Our results suggest that the organic and the inorganic components complement each other; the low symmetry of the organic cation is the origin of the inorganic-framework deformation, which then aids the overall stabilization of the hybrid perovskite structure. This stabilization is indirectly affected by vdW interactions, which lead to smaller unit-cell volumes than in PBE and therefore modulate the interaction between the organic cation and the inorganic framework. The vdW-induced lattice-constant corrections are system dependent and lead to PBE+vdW lattice constants in good agreement with experiment. Further insight is gained by analyzing the vdW contributions. In all iodide-based hybrid perovskites, the interaction between the organic cation and the iodide anions provides the largest lattice-constant change, followed by iodine-iodine and the organic cation—heavy-metal cation interaction. These corrections follow an almost linear dependence on the lattice constant within the range considered in our study and are therefore approximately additive.

  14. Fundamental understanding of the synthesis and tribological behavior of organic-inorganic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Arpana

    The objective of this doctoral research is to design, synthesize, and test an advanced lubricant additive using novel active nanostructures of inorganic layered solid lubricant particles (MoS2), integrated and encapsulated with organic molecules, namely triglycerides and phospholipids, respectively. It was hypothesized that this combination can uniquely respond under severe boundary lubrication conditions (where high frictional losses exist). These organic-inorganic nanoparticles were synthesized using a top-down nanomanufacturing process, commonly known as high-energy ball milling or mechanical milling. It was performed in the presence of ambient air followed by organic molecules (triglycerides) to produce nanoparticles with controlled morphologies and surface properties. SEM, particle size analysis, and XRD showed a particle size reduction up to 100 nm and a grain size of 6 nm. TEM showed that after air milling for 48 hrs, agglomerated clusters of quasi-spherical nanoparticles of MoS2 were formed. HRTEM shows that the inter-planar defects and milling assisted shearing between the platelets caused the resultant curling of the planes, forming these unique nanostructures. Further milling of these clusters for 48 hrs in an organic medium (triglycerides) produced mono-dispersed quasi-spherical nanoparticles (<100 nm size). Surface analysis showed the presence of hydrocarbons, COO- molecules on the deagglomerated nanoparticles indicating a chemisorbed capping layer. A capping layer was also confirmed by zeta potential analysis. Tribological studies using pin-on-disk and four-ball tests showed that this novel active material can significantly reduce friction and wear. The coefficient of friction was reduced in pin-on-disk from 0.15 to 0.04 when these nanoparticles were mixed with the base oil. Similarly, in four-ball tests, significant reduction in coefficient of friction (0.06-0.07) and wear (0.47 mm) reduction were observed. To understand the underlying mechanism of

  15. Electrospun Superhydrophobic Organic/Inorganic Composite Nanofibrous Membranes for Membrane Distillation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiong; Yu, Xufeng; Cheng, Cheng; Deng, Li; Wang, Min; Wang, Xuefen

    2015-10-01

    Electrospun superhydrophobic organic/inorganic composite nanofibrous membranes exhibiting excellent direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performance were fabricated by a facile route combining the hydrophobization of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) and colloid electrospinning of the hydrophobic silica/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix. Benefiting from the utilization of SiO2 NPs with three different particle sizes, the electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENMs) were endowed with three different delicate nanofiber morphologies and fiber diameter distribution, high porosity, and superhydrophobic property, which resulted in excellent waterproofing and breathability. Significantly, structural attributes analyses have indicated the major contributing role of fiber diameter distribution on determining the augment of permeate vapor flux through regulating mean flow pore size (MFP). Meanwhile, the extremely high liquid entry pressure of water (LEPw, 2.40 ± 0.10 bar), robust nanofiber morphology of PVDF immobilized SiO2 NPs, remarkable mechanical properties, thermal stability, and corrosion resistance endowed the as-prepared membranes with prominent desalination capability and stability for long-term MD process. The resultant choreographed PVDF/silica ENMs with optimized MFP presented an outstanding permeate vapor flux of 41.1 kg/(m(2)·h) and stable low permeate conductivity (∼2.45 μs/cm) (3.5 wt % NaCl salt feed; ΔT = 40 °C) over a DCMD test period of 24 h without membrane pores wetting detected. This result was better than those of typical commercial PVDF membranes and PVDF and modified PVDF ENMs reported so far, suggesting them as promising alternatives for MD applications. PMID:26371965

  16. Glass transition measurements in mixed organic and organic/inorganic aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dette, Hans Peter; Qi, Mian; Schröder, David; Godt, Adelheid; Koop, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The recent proposal of a semi-solid or glassy state of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles has sparked intense research in that area. In particular, potential effects of a glassy aerosol state such as incomplete gas-to-particle partitioning of semi-volatile organics, inhibited chemical reactions and water uptake, and the potential to act as heterogeneous ice nuclei have been identified so far. Many of these studies use well-studied proxies for oxidized organics such as sugars or other polyols. There are, however, few measurements on compounds that do exist in atmospheric aerosol particles. Here, we have performed studies on the phase state of organics that actually occur in natural SOA particles arising from the oxidation of alpha-pinene emitted in boreal forests. We have investigated the two marker compounds pinonic acid and 3-methylbutane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA) and their mixtures. 3-MBCTA was synthesized from methyl isobutyrate and dimethyl maleate in two steps. In order to transfer these substances into a glassy state we have developed a novel aerosol spray drying technique. Dilute solutions of the relevant organics are atomized into aerosol particles which are dried subsequently by diffusion drying. The dried aerosol particles are then recollected in an impactor and studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which provides unambiguous information on the aerosols' phase state, i.e. whether the particles are crystalline or glassy. In the latter case DSC is used to determine the glass transition temperature Tg of the investigated samples. Using the above setup we were able to determine Tg of various mixtures of organic aerosol compounds as a function of their dry mass fraction, thus allowing to infer a relation between Tg and the O:C ratio of the aerosols. Moreover, we also studied the glass transition behavior of mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles, including the effects of liquid-liquid phase separation upon drying.

  17. Defect states at organic-inorganic interfaces: Insight from first principles calculations for pentaerythritol tetranitrate on MgO surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyshevsky, Roman V.; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Kuklja, Maija M.

    2015-07-01

    Light-responsive organic-inorganic interfaces offer experimental opportunities that are otherwise difficult to achieve. Since laser light can be manipulated very precisely, it becomes possible to engineer selective, predictive, and highly controlled interface properties. Photochemistry of organic-inorganic energetic interfaces is a rapidly emerging research field in which energy absorption and interface stability mechanisms have yet to be established. To explore the interaction of the laser irradiation with molecular materials, we performed first principle calculations of a prototype organic-inorganic interface between a nitroester (pentaerythritol tetranitrate, PETN, C5H8N4O12) and a magnesium oxide (MgO) surface. We found that the light absorption is defined by the band alignment between interface components and interfacial charge transfer coupled with electronic states in the band gap, generated by oxide surface defects. Hence the choice of an oxide substrate and its morphology makes the optical absorption tunable and governs both the energy accumulation and energy release at the interface. The obtained results offer a possible consistent interpretation of experiments on selective laser initiation of energetic materials, which reported that the presence of metal oxide additives triggered the photoinitiation by excitation energy much lower than the band gap. We suggest that PETN photodecomposition is catalyzed by oxygen vacancies (F0 centers) at the MgO surface. Our conclusions predict ways for a complete separation of thermo- and photo-stimulated interface chemistry of molecular materials, which is imperative for highly controllable fast decomposition and was not attainable before. The methodology described here can be applied to any type of molecular material/wide band gap dielectric interfaces. It provides a solid basis for novel design and targeted improvements of organic-inorganic interfaces with desired properties that promise to enable vastly new concepts

  18. Organic-inorganic random copolymers from methacrylate-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) with 3-methacryloxypropylheptaphenyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane: synthesis via RAFT polymerization and self-assembly behavior.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kun; Li, Lei; Zheng, Sixun; Wang, Ge; Liang, Qi

    2014-01-14

    In this contribution, we report the synthesis of organic-inorganic random polymers from methacrylate-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (MAPEO) (Mn = 950) and 3-methacryloxypropylheptaphenyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (MAPOSS) macromers via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization with 4-cyano-4-(thiobenzoylthio) valeric acid (CTBTVA) as the chain transfer agent. The organic-inorganic random copolymers were characterized by means of (1)H NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results of GPC indicate that the polymerizations were carried out in a controlled fashion. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the organic-inorganic random copolymers in bulk were microphase-separated and the POSS microdomains were formed via POSS-POSS interactions. In aqueous solutions the organic-inorganic random copolymers were capable of self-assembling into spherical nanoobjects as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic laser scattering (DLS). The self-assembly behavior of the organic-inorganic random copolymers was also found to occur in the mixtures with the precursors of epoxy. The nanostructures were further fixed via subsequent curing reaction and thus the organic-inorganic nanocomposites were obtained. The formation of nanophases in epoxy thermosets was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The organic-inorganic nanocomposites displayed the enhanced surface hydrophobicity as evidenced by surface contact angle measurements. PMID:24651714

  19. Development of a Nanomaterials One-Week Intersession Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Keith A.; Bullen, Heather A.

    2008-01-01

    A novel one-week intersession lecture-lab hybrid course on nanomaterials is presented. The course provided a combination of background theory and hands-on laboratory experiments to educate students about nanomaterials and nanotechnology. The design of the course, subject matter, and laboratory experiments are discussed. Topics and level were…

  20. Laser-induced down-conversion and infrared phosphorescence emissivity of novel ligand-free perovskite nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Khafagy, Rasha M.; El-sayed, O.

    2014-03-01

    ability as laser active components. Such a single infrared-emitting-perovskite nanomaterial replaced, for the first time, the need for a polymeric ligand, which was a routine approach in such an application. Also, it avoided the complicated synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrids, prevented wide spectral-range emissions usually produced by polymers, facilitated obtaining near-infrared emission spectra within certain limits of wavelengths, and is considered as a new approach for fabricating a standalone perovskite nanomaterial for phosphorescent optoelectronic components and military uses.

  1. ECOTOXICOLOGY OF NANOMATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of issues associated with potential ecological toxicity of nanomaterials with research needs outlined, current literature reviewed and discussion of nanomaterial toxicity relative to concerns that EPA and state risk assessors might have.

  2. Organic-inorganic interactions of single crystalline organolead halide perovskites studied by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-Qiang; Zhang, Tai-Yang; Chen, Liang; Guo, Nanjie; Wang, Yu; Liu, Guo-Kun; Wang, Jia-Rui; Zhou, Jian-Zhang; Yan, Jia-Wei; Zhao, Yi-Xin; Mao, Bing-Wei; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2016-07-21

    Organolead halide perovskites exhibit superior photoelectric properties, which have given rise to the perovskite-based solar cells whose power conversion efficiency has rapidly reached above 20% in the past few years. However, perovskite-based solar cells have also encountered problems such as current-voltage hysteresis and degradation under practical working conditions. Yet investigations into the intrinsic chemical nature of the perovskite material and its role on the performance of the solar cells are relatively rare. In this work, Raman spectroscopy is employed together with CASTEP calculations to investigate the organic-inorganic interactions in CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3-xClx perovskite single crystals with comparison to those having ammonic acid as the cations. For Raman measurements of CH3NH3PbI3, a low energy line of 1030 nm is used to avoid excitation of strong photoluminescence of CH3NH3PbI3. Raman spectra covering a wide range of wavenumbers are obtained, and the restricted rotation modes of CH3-NH3(+) embedded in CH3NH3PbBr3 (325 cm(-1)) are overwhelmingly stronger over the other vibrational bands of the cations. However, the band intensity diminishes dramatically in CH3NH3PbBr3-xClx and most of the bands shift towards high frequency, indicating the interaction with the halides. The details of such an interaction are further revealed by inspecting the band shift of the restricted rotation mode as well as the C-N, NH3(+) and CH3 stretching of the CH3NH3(+) as a function of Cl composition and length of the cationic ammonic acids. The results show that the CH3NH3(+) interacts with the PbX3(-) octahedral framework via the NH3(+) end through N(+)-HX hydrogen bonding whose strength can be tuned by the composition of halides but is insensitive to the size of the organic cations. Moreover, an increase of the Cl content strengthens the hydrogen bonding and thus blueshifts the C-N stretching bands. This is due to the fact that Cl is more electronegative than Br

  3. Rapid and robust spatiotemporal dynamics of the first-order phase transition in crystals of the organic-inorganic perovskite (C12H25NH3)2PbI4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yangui, Aymen; Sy, Mouhamadou; Li, Liang; Abid, Younes; Naumov, Panče; Boukheddaden, Kamel

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics of the thermally induced first-order structural phase transition in a high-quality single crystal of the organic-inorganic perovskite (C12H25NH3)2PbI4 was investigated by optical microscopy. The propagation of the straight phase front (habit plane) during the phase transition along the cooling and heating pathways of the thermal hysteresis was observed. The thermochromic character of the transition allowed monitoring of the thermal dependence of average optical density and aided the visualization of the interface propagation. The thermal hysteresis loop is 10 K wide, and the interface velocity is constant at V ≈ 1.6 mm s-1. The transition is accompanied with sizeable change in crystal size, with elongation of ~6% along the b axis and compression of ~ -2% along the a axis, in excellent agreement with previously reported X-ray diffraction data. The progression of the habit plane is at least 160 times faster than in spin-crossover materials, and opens new prospects for organic-inorganic perovskites as solid switching materials. Moreover, the crystals of (C12H25NH3)2PbI4 are unusually mechanically robust and present excellent resilience to thermal cycling. These hitherto unrecognized properties turn this and possibly similar hybrid perovskites into perspective candidates as active medium for microscopic actuation.

  4. Rapid and robust spatiotemporal dynamics of the first-order phase transition in crystals of the organic-inorganic perovskite (C12H25NH3)2PbI4.

    PubMed

    Yangui, Aymen; Sy, Mouhamadou; Li, Liang; Abid, Younes; Naumov, Panče; Boukheddaden, Kamel

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of the thermally induced first-order structural phase transition in a high-quality single crystal of the organic-inorganic perovskite (C12H25NH3)2PbI4 was investigated by optical microscopy. The propagation of the straight phase front (habit plane) during the phase transition along the cooling and heating pathways of the thermal hysteresis was observed. The thermochromic character of the transition allowed monitoring of the thermal dependence of average optical density and aided the visualization of the interface propagation. The thermal hysteresis loop is 10 K wide, and the interface velocity is constant at V ≈ 1.6 mm s(-1). The transition is accompanied with sizeable change in crystal size, with elongation of ~6% along the b axis and compression of ~ -2% along the a axis, in excellent agreement with previously reported X-ray diffraction data. The progression of the habit plane is at least 160 times faster than in spin-crossover materials, and opens new prospects for organic-inorganic perovskites as solid switching materials. Moreover, the crystals of (C12H25NH3)2PbI4 are unusually mechanically robust and present excellent resilience to thermal cycling. These hitherto unrecognized properties turn this and possibly similar hybrid perovskites into perspective candidates as active medium for microscopic actuation. PMID:26568147

  5. Rapid and robust spatiotemporal dynamics of the first-order phase transition in crystals of the organic-inorganic perovskite (C12H25NH3)2PbI4

    PubMed Central

    Yangui, Aymen; Sy, Mouhamadou; Li, Liang; Abid, Younes; Naumov, Panče; Boukheddaden, Kamel

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of the thermally induced first-order structural phase transition in a high-quality single crystal of the organic-inorganic perovskite (C12H25NH3)2PbI4 was investigated by optical microscopy. The propagation of the straight phase front (habit plane) during the phase transition along the cooling and heating pathways of the thermal hysteresis was observed. The thermochromic character of the transition allowed monitoring of the thermal dependence of average optical density and aided the visualization of the interface propagation. The thermal hysteresis loop is 10 K wide, and the interface velocity is constant at V ≈ 1.6 mm s–1. The transition is accompanied with sizeable change in crystal size, with elongation of ~6% along the b axis and compression of ~ –2% along the a axis, in excellent agreement with previously reported X-ray diffraction data. The progression of the habit plane is at least 160 times faster than in spin-crossover materials, and opens new prospects for organic-inorganic perovskites as solid switching materials. Moreover, the crystals of (C12H25NH3)2PbI4 are unusually mechanically robust and present excellent resilience to thermal cycling. These hitherto unrecognized properties turn this and possibly similar hybrid perovskites into perspective candidates as active medium for microscopic actuation. PMID:26568147

  6. FOREWORD Nanomaterials science Nanomaterials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrer, Heinrich

    2010-10-01

    can only emerge from a common understanding of the respective languages and problems. The lack of such an understanding is the Achilles' heel of so many collaborations. Despite the intrinsic interdisciplinary nature, materials science has split into various segments according to the type of material, for example, metals, organic, inorganic, biological, molecular, and so on. Each of them leads an independent life with little understanding for the others. This segmentation has made materials science lose, to an undesirable extent, its all-embracing mission for science and technology. There are laudable efforts to reunite different branches of materials science into comprehensive institutions; examples are NIMS in Tsukuba and IMR at Tohoku University, but institutions alone do not make the day. The nanoscale provides an excellent opportunity for scientists. The nanoscale was the bifurcation point where disciplines split and developed their own disciplinary views and language. This was the necessary core for the tremendous developments of science. Technology always had to rely on broader views. Now, disciplines merge again at the nanoscale, which will hopefully bring back to materials science much of what was lost over recent decades. It is difficult to delimit the nanodomain using general criteria since everything consists of atoms that are roughly a third of a nanometer in size, as is their distance from each other in condensed matter. In most cases, the individual addressabilities of nanostructures, properties, and processes are important. Atoms emerged from the anonymity as members of an ensemble; they have become our partners as individuals. As upper limits for nano, we might agree on 100-200 nm in object size and 1-10 nm in accuracy for local positioning, measuring, modifying, and controlling processes. The lower limit is open; a hundredth of a nanometer in positioning and measuring is nothing extraordinary. As a reviewer, I would accept a very interesting and

  7. EDITORIAL: Whither nanomaterials? Whither nanomaterials?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallouk, Thomas E.; Pinkerton, Fred; Stetson, Ned

    2009-10-01

    As the journal Nanotechnology enters its third decade it is interesting to look back on the field and to think about where it may be headed in the future. The growth of the journal over the past twenty years mirrors that of the field, with exponentially rising numbers of citations and a widening diversity of topics that we identify as nanotechnology. In the early 1990s, Nanotechnology was focused primarily on nanoscale electronics and on scanning probe tools for fabricating and characterizing nanostructures. The synthesis and assembly of nanomaterials was already an active area in chemical research; however, it did not yet intersect strongly with the activities of the physics community, which was interested primarily in new phenomena that emerged on the nanoscale and on the devices that derived from them. In the 1990s there were several key advances that began to bridge this gap. Techniques were developed for making nanocrystals of compound semiconductors, oxides, and metals with very fine control over shape and superstructure. Carbon nanotubes were discovered and their unique electronic properties were demonstrated. Research on the self-assembly of organic molecules on surfaces led to the development of soft lithography and layer-by- layer assembly of materials. The potential to use DNA and then proteins as building blocks of precise assemblies of nanoparticles was explored. These bottom-up structures could not be made by top-down techniques, and their unique properties as components of sensors, electronic devices, biological imaging agents, and drug delivery vehicles began to change the definition of the field. Ten years ago, Inelke Malsch published a study on the scientific trends and organizational dynamics of nanotechology in Europe (1999 Nanotechnology 10 1-7). Scientists from a variety of disciplines were asked which areas of research they would include in the definition of nanotechnology. Although the article concluded with forward-looking thoughts in the

  8. Synthesis, Characterization, and Tribological Evaluation of TiO2-Reinforced Boron and Nitrogen co-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Based Hybrid Nanomaterials as Efficient Antiwear Lubricant Additives.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Vinay; Kalyani; Umrao, Sima; Rastogi, Rashmi B; Kumar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Anchal

    2016-05-11

    The microwave-synthesized reduced graphene oxide (MRG), boron-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-MRG), nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-MRG), boron-nitrogen-co-doped reduced graphene oxide (B-N-MRG), and TiO2-reinforced B-N-MRG (TiO2-B-N-MRG) nanomaterials have been synthesized and characterized by various state-of-the-art techniques, like Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the tribological properties of prepared nanomaterials as antiwear additives in neutral paraffin oil have been evaluated using a four-ball machine at an optimized additive concentration (0.15% w/v). The tribological parameters, like mean wear scar diameter, coefficient of friction, and wear rates, revealed that these nanomaterials have potential to be developed as environmentally friendly sulfated-ash-, phosphorus-, and sulfur-free antiwear lubricant additives. The friction- and wear-reducing behavior of MRG increased upon successive doping of nitrogen, boron, and both nitrogen and boron. Among these additives, B-N-co-doped MRG shows superior tribological behavior in paraffin base oil. Besides this, the load-carrying properties of B-N-co-doped MRG have significantly improved after its reinforcement with TiO2 nanoparticles. A comparative study of the surface morphology of a lubricated track in the presence of various additives has been assessed by SEM and contact-mode atomic force microscopy. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have proved that the excellent lubrication properties of TiO2-B-N-MRG are due to the in situ formation of a tribofilm composed of boron nitride, adsorbed graphene layers, and tribosintered TiO2 nanoparticles during the tribocontact. Being sulfur-, halogen-, and phosphorus-free, these graphene-based nanomaterials act as green antiwear additives, protecting interacting

  9. Study of Local Structure in Selected Organic-Inorganic Perovskites in the Pm3⁻m Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Worhatch, Richard J; Kim, HyunJeong; Swainson, Ian P; Yonkeu, Andre L; Billinge, Simon J.L.

    2008-06-30

    The local structures of the inorganic component of selected organic-inorganic perovskites (OIPs) are studied by analyzing the X-ray pair distribution function. Whereas the long-range structure of each perovskite is the untilted Pm3m phase, all the OIPs showed significant internal distortion of the octahedra. Varying the halide has a significant impact on the lattice constant. There is evidence of local lone-pair distortions for certain compositions. The most complex case of disorder appears to be that of CH3NH3SnBr3.

  10. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration.

    PubMed

    Holder, Amara L; Vejerano, Eric P; Zhou, Xinzhe; Marr, Linsey C

    2013-09-01

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which nanomaterials may enter incinerator waste streams and the fate of these nanomaterials during the incineration process. Although the literature on incineration of nanomaterials is scarce, results from studies of their behavior at high temperature or in combustion environments for other applications can help predict their fate within an incinerator. Preliminary evidence suggests nanomaterials may catalyze the formation or destruction of combustion by-products. Depending on their composition, nanomaterials may undergo physical and chemical transformations within the incinerator, impacting their partitioning within the incineration system (e.g., bottom ash, fly ash) and the effectiveness of control technology for removing them. These transformations may also drastically affect nanomaterial transport and impacts in the environment. Current regulations on incinerator emissions do not specifically address nanomaterials, but limits on particle and metal emissions may prove somewhat effective at reducing the release of nanomaterials in incinerator effluent. Control technology used to meet these regulations, such as fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators, and wet electrostatic scrubbers, are expected to be at least partially effective at removing nanomaterials from incinerator flue gas. PMID:23880913

  11. Impact of a Mesoporous Titania-Perovskite Interface on the Performance of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba; Dar, M Ibrahim; Sadhanala, Aditya; Senanayak, Satyaprasad P; Giordano, Fabrizio; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Grätzel, Michael; Friend, Richard H

    2016-08-18

    We report on the optimization of the interfacial properties of titania in mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells. Modification of the mesoporous TiO2 film by TiCl4 treatment substantially reduced the surface traps, as is evident from the sharpness of the absorption edge with a significant reduction in Urbach energy (from 320 to 140 meV) determined from photothermal deflection spectroscopy, and led to an order of magnitude enhancement in the bulk electron mobility and corresponding decrease in the transport activation energy (from 170 to 90 meV) within a device. After optimization of the photoanode-perovskite interface using various sizes of TiO2 nanoparticles, the best photovoltaic efficiency of 16.3% was achieved with the mesoporous TiO2 composed of 36 nm sized nanoparticles. The improvement in device performance can be attributed to the enhanced charge collection efficiency that is driven by improved charge transport in the mesoporous TiO2 layer. Also, the decreased recombination at the TiO2-perovskite interface and better perovskite coverage play important roles. PMID:27472458

  12. Strong coupling of exciton and photon modes in photonic crystal infiltrated with organic-inorganic layered perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumioka, Kazuhiro; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2001-03-01

    Large vacuum Rabi-splitting, the evidence of strong coupling of photon and exciton modes, was observed at room temperature in an ordered array of silica microspheres infiltrated with organic-inorganic layered perovskite. By natural sedimentation of a colloidal suspension of monodispersed silica microspheres with a diameter of 256 nm, three-dimensional ordered array of silica microspheres (silica opal) were prepared. Into an air space of the silica opal, organic-inorganic perovskite, bis-(phenethylammonium) tetraiodoplumbate (PAPI), which exhibits intense exciton absorption at 2.40 eV, was infiltrated. The silica opal infiltrated with PAPI (23% of air space was filled) exhibited a stop band at 2.13 eV, when observed at a normal direction to the sample surface. By changing the observation angle, the coupling of the stop band at around 2.1-2.4 eV and the exciton band at 2.40 eV due to PAPI was attained. From angle-tuning measurements of reflection spectra, a vacuum Rabi-splitting of 240 meV was evaluated.

  13. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  14. Electrodynamic Arrays Having Nanomaterial Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steven (Inventor); Biris, Alexandru S. (Inventor); Calle, Carlos I. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electrodynamic array of conductive nanomaterial electrodes and a method of making such an electrodynamic array. In one embodiment, a liquid solution containing nanomaterials is deposited as an array of conductive electrodes on a substrate, including rigid or flexible substrates such as fabrics, and opaque or transparent substrates. The nanomaterial electrodes may also be grown in situ. The nanomaterials may include carbon nanomaterials, other organic or inorganic nanomaterials or mixtures.

  15. [Photoexcitation mechanism of photoconductive device by organic/inorganic thin-film heteropairing].

    PubMed

    Jin, Hui; Teng, Feng; Liu, Jun-Feng; Meng, Xian-Guo; Xu, Zheng; Hou, Yan-Bing; Xu, Xu-Rong

    2004-08-01

    Photoconductive devices with organic (polyvinylcarbazole-PVK)/inorganic (zinc-sulfide--ZnS) thin-film heteropairing were fabricated. In external field, the excitation profile of the steady-state photoconductivity and the primary photoexcitation process of hybrid devices were presented and discussed. Comparison of photoconductivity of the devices and absorption spectra of PVK and ZnS implied that both layers absorption contributes to the photocurrent, but the effective part is at the interface of PVK and ZnS. The dependence of maximum photocurrent on the applied voltage and the dark and illuminated current spectra indicates the ultrafast charge transfer at the interface. PMID:15766107

  16. New magnetic organic inorganic composites based on hydrotalcite-like anionic clays for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carja, Gabriela; Chiriac, Horia; Lupu, Nicoleta

    2007-04-01

    The structural "memory effect" of anionic clays was used to obtain layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with tailored magnetic properties, by loading iron oxides and/or spinel structures on iron partially substituted hydrotalcite-like materials. The obtained magnetic layered structures were further used as precursors for new hybrid nanostructures, such as aspirin-hydrotalcite-like anionic clays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows that small iron oxide or spinel nanoparticles coexist with the fibrous drug particles on the surface of partially aggregated typical clay-like particles. The specific saturation magnetization of the loaded LDHs can be increased up to 70 emu/g by using specific post-synthesis treatments.

  17. Phototoxicity of Selected Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantification of exposure to nanomaterials is critical for assessing their environmental hazard and risk. This is an immediate issue for nano-TiO2 because it is one of more common nanomaterials now in commerce, and is difficult to analyze using common acid-digestion techniques. ...

  18. The interplay between carbon nanomaterials and amyloid fibrils in bio-nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaoxu; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2013-06-01

    Recent advances in bio-nanotechnology have not only rapidly broadened the applications and scope of hybrid nanomaterials in biological fields, but also greatly enriched the examples of ordered materials based on supramolecular self-assembly. Among eminent examples of functional nanostructured materials of undisputed impact in nanotechnology and biological environments, carbon nanomaterials (such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene) and amyloid fibrils have attracted great attention because of their unique architectures and exceptional physical properties. Nonetheless, combination of these two classes of nanomaterials into functional hybrids is far from trivial. For example, the presence of carbon nanomaterials can offer either an inhibitory effect or promotion of amyloid fibrillation, depending on the structural architectures of carbon nanomaterials and the starting amyloid proteins/peptides considered. To date, numerous studies have been devoted to evaluating both the biological toxicity of carbon nanomaterials and their use in developing therapies for amyloidosis. At the same time, hybridization of these two classes of nanomaterials offers new possibilities for combining some of their desirable properties into nanocomposites of possible use in electronics, actuators, sensing, biomedicine and structural materials. This review describes recent developments in the hybridization of carbon nanomaterials and amyloid fibrils and discusses the current state of the art on the application of carbon nanomaterial-amyloid fibril hybrids in bio-nanotechnology.

  19. Isomerization and optical bistability of DR1 doped organic-inorganic sol-gel thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tianxi; Que, Wenxiu; Shao, Jinyou

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the isomerization process of the disperse red 1 (DR1) doped TiO2/ormosil thin film, both the photo-isomerization and the thermal isomerization of the thin films were observed as a change of the absorption spectrum. Under a real-time heat treatment, the change of the linear refractive index shows a thermal stable working temperature range below Tg. The optical bistability (OB) effect of the DR1 doped thin films based on different matrices was studied and measured at a wavelength of 532 nm. Results indicate that the TiO2/ormosils based thin film presents a better OB-gain than that of the poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based thin film due to its more rigid network structure. Moreover, it is also noted that higher titanium content is helpful for enhancing the OB-gain of the as-prepared hybrid thin films.

  20. Synthesis and properties of cellulose functionalized -4, 4'-(propane-2, 2'-diyl) diphenol-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposites materials for high performance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Sivalingam; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Kim, Heung-Soo; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2013-04-01

    The general class of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites materials is a fast growing area of research. The significant effort is focused on the ability to control the nanoscale structures via organic functional synthetic approaches with inorganic metal oxides. The properties of nanocomposites material depends on the properties of their individual components but also their morphological and interfacial characteristics. This rapidly expanding field is generating many exciting new materials with novel properties. Mainly, cellulose is considered as the richest renewable materials are presently among the most promising candidates for use in photonics due to their versatility, flexibility, light weight, low cost and ease of modification. Cellulose-metal oxide nanomaterials were developed the technologies to manipulate selfassembly and multifunctionallity, of new technologies to the point where industry can produce advanced and costcompetitive cellulose metal oxide hybrid materials. Therefore, the present study is focused on cellulose-functionalized - 4, 4'-(propane-2, 2'-diyl) diphenol-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nano-composites materials by in-situ sol-gel process. The chemical and morphological properties of cellulose-functionalized SiO2/TiO2 materials via covalent crosslinking hybrids were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA, DSC, SEM, TEM and optical properties.

  1. An alternative method to remove PEO-PPO-PEO template in organic-inorganic mesoporous nanocomposites by sulfuric acid extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Xin; Qian, Xufang; Lv, Jiahui; Wan, Ying

    2010-06-01

    Sulfuric acid is used as an extraction agent to remove PEO-PPO-PEO templates in the organic-inorganic mesoporous nanocomposites from the triconstituent co-assembly which includes the low-polymerized phenolic resins, TEOS and triblock copolymer F127. The XRD and TEM results show well ordered mesostructure after extraction with sulfuric acid. As followed from the N 2 sorption isotherms the extracted composites possess high surface areas (332-367 m 2/g), large pore volumes (0.66-0.78 cm 3/g), and large pore sizes (about 10.7 nm). The FT-IR analysis reveals almost complete elimination of triblock copolymer F127, and the maintenance of organic groups. This method shows potentials in removing templates from nanocomposites containing functional moieties.

  2. Ultrasmooth organic-inorganic perovskite thin-film formation and crystallization for efficient planar heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Saliba, Michael; Moore, David T.; Pathak, Sandeep K.; Hörantner, Maximilian T.; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Stranks, Samuel D.; Eperon, Giles E.; Alexander-Webber, Jack A.; Abate, Antonio; Sadhanala, Aditya; Yao, Shuhua; Chen, Yulin; Friend, Richard H.; Estroff, Lara A.; Wiesner, Ulrich; Snaith, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    To date, there have been a plethora of reports on different means to fabricate organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite thin films; however, the inorganic starting materials have been limited to halide-based anions. Here we study the role of the anions in the perovskite solution and their influence upon perovskite crystal growth, film formation and device performance. We find that by using a non-halide lead source (lead acetate) instead of lead chloride or iodide, the perovskite crystal growth is much faster, which allows us to obtain ultrasmooth and almost pinhole-free perovskite films by a simple one-step solution coating with only a few minutes annealing. This synthesis leads to improved device performance in planar heterojunction architectures and answers a critical question as to the role of the anion and excess organic component during crystallization. Our work paves the way to tune the crystal growth kinetics by simple chemistry.

  3. Understanding the low-loss mechanism of general organic-inorganic perovskites from first-principles calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Meng, Jingjing; Niu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongmin; Liang, Chunjun

    2015-05-01

    To understand the low-loss mechanism of organic-inorganic perovskites, the electronic structures of nine halide perovskites were investigated by first principle methods. We provide evidence that spatial separation significantly influences the recombination rate of electrons and holes. For AMPbI3-1, AMPbI3-2, FMPbI3-1, FMPbI3-2, and FAPbI3, the considerable remaining charge density localized at the organic cations in addition to a part of charge density of CBM localized at Pb atoms, leading to very few hopping with the surrounding inorganic matrix and further reducing the recombination rate of the carrier. Excellent optical absorption properties were found for all calculated APbI3 perovskites.

  4. Ultrasmooth organic-inorganic perovskite thin-film formation and crystallization for efficient planar heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Saliba, Michael; Moore, David T; Pathak, Sandeep K; Hörantner, Maximilian T; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Stranks, Samuel D; Eperon, Giles E; Alexander-Webber, Jack A; Abate, Antonio; Sadhanala, Aditya; Yao, Shuhua; Chen, Yulin; Friend, Richard H; Estroff, Lara A; Wiesner, Ulrich; Snaith, Henry J

    2015-01-01

    To date, there have been a plethora of reports on different means to fabricate organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite thin films; however, the inorganic starting materials have been limited to halide-based anions. Here we study the role of the anions in the perovskite solution and their influence upon perovskite crystal growth, film formation and device performance. We find that by using a non-halide lead source (lead acetate) instead of lead chloride or iodide, the perovskite crystal growth is much faster, which allows us to obtain ultrasmooth and almost pinhole-free perovskite films by a simple one-step solution coating with only a few minutes annealing. This synthesis leads to improved device performance in planar heterojunction architectures and answers a critical question as to the role of the anion and excess organic component during crystallization. Our work paves the way to tune the crystal growth kinetics by simple chemistry. PMID:25635571

  5. Synthesis and characterisation of a new stable organo-mineral hybrid nanomaterial: 4-Chlorobenzenesulfonate in the zinc-aluminium layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lakraimi, Mohamed; Legrouri, Ahmed . E-mail: legrouri@aui.ma; Barroug, Allal; De Roy, Andre; Besse, Jean Pierre

    2006-09-14

    4-Chlorobenzenesulfonate (4-CBS) was intercalated between layers of Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Two methods of incorporation were applied: (1) direct synthesis by coprecipitation of metal nitrates and sodium 4-CBS and (2) ion exchange of the LDH nitrate with the organic ion. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The direct method, effected at different pH values, led to a hybrid material with good degree of intercalation. In order to optimise the exchange conditions, particular attention was given to the effect of solution pH, 4-CBS/NO{sub 3} ratio and exchange temperature. The total exchange was successful and a new stable hybrid nanostructured material was obtained at pH 8 and with a 4-CBS concentration of 0.0028 M. This solid was further characterised by chemical and thermal analyses.

  6. Recent Development of Nano-Materials Used in DNA Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai; Huang, Junran; Ye, Zunzhong; Ying, Yibin; Li, Yanbin

    2009-01-01

    As knowledge of the structure and function of nucleic acid molecules has increased, sequence-specific DNA detection has gained increased importance. DNA biosensors based on nucleic acid hybridization have been actively developed because of their specificity, speed, portability, and low cost. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using nano-materials for DNA biosensors. Because of their high surface-to-volume ratios and excellent biological compatibilities, nano-materials could be used to increase the amount of DNA immobilization; moreover, DNA bound to nano-materials can maintain its biological activity. Alternatively, signal amplification by labeling a targeted analyte with nano-materials has also been reported for DNA biosensors in many papers. This review summarizes the applications of various nano-materials for DNA biosensors during past five years. We found that nano-materials of small sizes were advantageous as substrates for DNA attachment or as labels for signal amplification; and use of two or more types of nano-materials in the biosensors could improve their overall quality and to overcome the deficiencies of the individual nano-components. Most current DNA biosensors require the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in their protocols. However, further development of nano-materials with smaller size and/or with improved biological and chemical properties would substantially enhance the accuracy, selectivity and sensitivity of DNA biosensors. Thus, DNA biosensors without PCR amplification may become a reality in the foreseeable future. PMID:22346713

  7. Food decontamination using nanomaterials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research indicates that nanomaterials including nanoemulsions are promising decontamination media for the reduction of food contaminating pathogens. The inhibitory effect of nanoparticles for pathogens could be due to deactivate cellular enzymes and DNA; disrupting of membrane permeability; and/...

  8. Electronic Structure of Organic/Inorganic Interfaces: Insights from First Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segev, Lior

    monolayer and the underlying Si substrate. We discover that states with energy close to the highest occupied states (HOMO) and lowest occupied states (LUMO) are interfacial Bloch states that originate from the Si substrate and decay exponentially by hybridization to the alkyl orbitals on to the alkyl chain. These states are also known as an induced density of interface states (IDIS) and are of great importance to the understanding of electronic transport measurement, because their energetic dictates the nature of the tunneling barrier seen by the tunneling electrons or holes. From DFT simulations we identify that carbon-carbon double bonds produce states in the energy range near the Fermi energy, which overlaps with the IDIS energy range. This is found to be in agreement with irradiation experiments, which follow the evolution of states lying near the Fermi level upon irradiating the sample with x-ray radiation. Transport measurements on alkyl and alkenyl chains show that alkenyl monolayer carry more current than alkyl chains. From DFT simulations, we propose that the states originating from double bonds in alkenyl monolayers shorten the tunneling barrier width, compared with alkyl monolayers, for electrons tunneling through the junction. we show through DFT studies that alkyl monolayer/Si(100) reduces the work function by 0.6eV compared with a fully hydrogenated Si(100) surface. This finding is in agreement with Kelvin probe experiments. We explain this reduction as originating from dipole formation at the Si-C found at the interface and at the methyl head group.

  9. Photoluminescence characterisations of a dynamic aging process of organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, R.; Wen, X.; Huang, S.; Hao, X.; Chen, S.; Jiang, Y.; Deng, X.; Green, M. A.; Ho-Baillie, A. W. Y.

    2016-01-01

    After unprecedented development of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells over the past few years, one of the biggest barriers towards their commercialization is the stability of the perovskite material. It is thus important to understand the interaction between the perovskite material and oxygen and/or humidity and the associated degradation process in order to improve device and encapsulation design for better durability. Here we characterize the dynamic aging process in vapour-assisted deposited (VASP) CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films using advanced optical techniques, such as time-resolved photoluminescence and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Our investigation reveals that the perovskite grains grow spontaneously and the larger grains are formed at room temperature in the presence of moisture and oxygen. This crystallization process leads to a higher density of defects and a shorter carrier lifetime, specifically in the larger grains. Excitation-intensity-dependent steady-state photoluminescence shows both N2 stored and aged perovskite exhibit a super-linear increase of photoluminescence intensity with increasing excitation intensity; and the larger slope in aged sample suggests a larger density of defects is generated, consistent with time-resolved PL measurements.

  10. Use of cysteine-modified TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst for treatment of combined organic/inorganic wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.W.; Wu, J.M.; Meshkov, N.; Thurnauer, M.C.; Ostafin, A.G.

    1995-03-01

    The utilization of semiconductor-based photocatalysts, such as titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), for carrying out photochemical reactions to treat water contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds has received considerable attention in recent years. The authors strategy for optimizing the process of photocatalytic reduction of heavy metals on TiO{sub 2} colloids involves modifying the colloid surface. Specific project objectives included: (1) identification and development of potential biomimetic photocatalysts for simultaneous heavy metal recovery and organic destruction; (2) identification of treatment conditions that minimize the residual metal concentration(s) contained in the effluent, even in the presence of complexants and interferences, and development of appropriate scale-up criteria; and (3) determination of system performance, including an economic analysis for comparison with conventional technologies (such as pump-and-treat using metal hydroxide precipitation of ion exchange). The experimental results indicate that simultaneous removal of organic compounds (such as naphthalene) and inorganic compounds (such as lead ions) in aqueous solution can be achieved using a TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst system with UV light. The removal rates of organic and inorganic compounds can be enhanced through surface modification of the TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst using an organic substance such as cysteine. The cysteine-modified TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst enhanced the oxidation rates of organics as well as the reduction rates of heavy metals in the irradiated solution, resulting in improved treatment efficiencies for combined organic/inorganic wastestreams.

  11. Single-chamber plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of transparent organic/inorganic multilayer barrier coating at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. M.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, S. I.; Lee, N.-E.

    2008-07-15

    Deposition of organic/inorganic multilayers is usually carried out by two different process steps by two different deposition methods. A single-chamber process for the deposition of multilayer stacks can make the process and deposition system simpler. In this work, SiOCH and plasma-polymerized methylcyclohexane (pp-MCH) films and their multilayer stacks for application to transparent diffusion barrier coatings were deposited in a single low-temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor using hexamethyldisilazane/N{sub 2}O/O{sub 2}/Ar and methylcyclohexane/Ar mixtures for SiOCH and pp-MCH layers, respectively. The deposition rates of the SiOCH and pp-MCH layers were increased with increasing the N{sub 2}O:O{sub 2} gas flow ratio and rf plasma power, respectively. Oxygen concentration in the SiOCH films was decreased and carbon and hydrogen incorporation was increased when increasing the N{sub 2}O:O{sub 2} gas flow ratio from 0:1 to 3:1. In this work, the water vapor transmission rate of polyester sulfone substrate could be reduced from a level of 50 (bare substrate) to 0.8 g/m{sup 2} day after deposition of a pp-MCH/SiOCH/pp-MCH multilayer coating.

  12. Visible/near-IR-light-driven TNFePc/BiOCl organic-inorganic heterostructures with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Zhang, Mingyi; Zhao, Zhenyu; Sun, Baodong; Zhang, Xitian

    2016-06-21

    Although semiconductor photocatalysis has been reported for more than 40 years, the spectral response is still focused on the region of UV-Visible and it is seldom extended to more than 600 nm. In this work, visible/near-IR-light-driven 2,9,16,23-tetranitrophthalocyanine iron (FeTNPc)/bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) organic-inorganic heterostructures have been synthesized by a two-step solvothermal method. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron and transmission microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and electrochemical measurements. The photocatalytic activity for the decomposition of methyl orange and bisphenol A solution can be significantly improved under visible/near-IR-light irradiation. Through detecting the main oxidative species by trapping experiments, the results show holes and ˙O2(-) radicals are majorly and minorly responsible for photodegradation respectively. What's more, the FeTNPc/BiOCl composite photocatalyst still retained the photocatalytic activity after three cycle measurements. PMID:27192122

  13. Aerosol-assisted atmospheric cold plasma deposition and characterization of superhydrophobic organic-inorganic nanocomposite thin films.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, Fiorenza; Mastrangelo, Anna M; Fracassi, Francesco

    2014-01-28

    A facile atmospheric pressure cold plasma process is presented to deposit a novel organic-inorganic hydrocarbon polymer/ZnO nanoparticles nanocomposite coating. Specifically, this method involves the utilization of an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) fed with helium and the aerosol of a dispersion of oleate-capped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in n-octane. As assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, the deposited nanocomposite coating combines the chemical features of both the oleate-capped ZnO NPs and the polyethylene-like organic component originated from the plasma polymerization of n-octane. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission scanning electron microscopy (TSEM) confirm the synthesis of hierarchical micro/nanostructured coatings containing quasi-spherical NPs agglomerates. The polyethylene-like polymer covers the NPs agglomerates to different extents and contributes to their immobilization in the three-dimensional network of the coating. The increase of both the deposition time (1-10 min) and the NPs concentration in the dispersion (0.5-5 wt %) has a significant effect on the chemical and morphological structure of the thin films and, in fact, results in the increase the ZnO NPs content, which ultimately leads to superhydrophobic surfaces (advancing and receding water contact angles higher than 160°) with low hysteresis due to the hierarchical multiscale roughness of the coating. PMID:24393041

  14. Development of a sodium alginate-based organic/inorganic superabsorbent composite hydrogel for adsorption of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sourbh; Pandey, Sadanand; Arotiba, Omotayo A

    2016-11-20

    Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of methylene blue (MB) cationic dye from aqueous solution using organic/inorganic hydrogel nanocomposite of titania incorporated sodium alginate crosslinked polyacrylic acid (SA-cl-poly(AA)-TiO2). The hydrogel was prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto sodium alginate (SA) biopolymer in the presence of a crosslinking agent, a free radical initiator and TiO2 nanoparticles. The hydrogel exhibited a high swelling capacity of 412.98g/g. The factors influencing adsorption capacity of the absorbents such as pH of the dye solutions, initial concentration of the dye, amount of absorbents, and temperature were investigated and used to propose a possible mechanism of adsorption. The adsorption process concurs with a pseudo-second-order kinetics and with Langmuir isotherm equation. A very high adsorption capacity (Qmax=2257.36 (mg/g)) and a correlation coefficient of 0.998 calculated from isotherm equations show the high efficiency of the absorbent and thus expected to be a good candidate as an absorbent for water treatment. PMID:27561469

  15. Photoluminescence characterisations of a dynamic aging process of organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite.

    PubMed

    Sheng, R; Wen, X; Huang, S; Hao, X; Chen, S; Jiang, Y; Deng, X; Green, M A; Ho-Baillie, A W Y

    2016-01-28

    After unprecedented development of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells over the past few years, one of the biggest barriers towards their commercialization is the stability of the perovskite material. It is thus important to understand the interaction between the perovskite material and oxygen and/or humidity and the associated degradation process in order to improve device and encapsulation design for better durability. Here we characterize the dynamic aging process in vapour-assisted deposited (VASP) CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films using advanced optical techniques, such as time-resolved photoluminescence and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Our investigation reveals that the perovskite grains grow spontaneously and the larger grains are formed at room temperature in the presence of moisture and oxygen. This crystallization process leads to a higher density of defects and a shorter carrier lifetime, specifically in the larger grains. Excitation-intensity-dependent steady-state photoluminescence shows both N2 stored and aged perovskite exhibit a super-linear increase of photoluminescence intensity with increasing excitation intensity; and the larger slope in aged sample suggests a larger density of defects is generated, consistent with time-resolved PL measurements. PMID:26753563

  16. Influence of UV and visible laser light on the structure and composition of layered organic - inorganic zinc and copper nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Borodina, T I; Val'yano, G E; Gololobova, O A; Karpukhin, Vyacheslav T; Malikov, Mikhail M; Strikanov, D A

    2013-06-30

    The effect of UV and visible laser light on the structure and composition of layered organic-inorganic nanocomposites of transition metals, zinc [zinc hydroxide/dodecyl sulfate, Zn(OH){sub 2}DS] and copper [copper hydroxide/dodecyl sulfate, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}DS], has been experimentally investigated. Nanocomposites have been synthesised by laser ablation of targets from the aforementioned materials in aqueous solutions of a surfactant: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The absorption and Raman spectra of the thus obtained colloids are analysed. The structural composition and morphology of the solid phase isolated from the colloids are determined using X-ray diffraction, atomic-force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that exposure of nanocomposites to UV and visible laser light with intensities in the range of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} W cm{sup -2} or higher leads to their fragmentation and change in their composition. (optical nanostructures)

  17. Aggregation, Deposition and Release of Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials in the Aquatic Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Graphene is an atomically thin two dimensional carbon-based nanomaterial that is composed of a single layer of sp2 – hybridized carbon atoms as found in graphite.1, 2 Usage of graphene-based nanomaterials is increasing rapidly and these materials are predicted to be the most abun...

  18. Nanomaterials and bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Tao; Xie, Jing; Liao, Jinfeng; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Shiyu; Lin, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions has been increasing. Bone is a nanomaterials composed of organic (mainly collagen) and inorganic (mainly nano-hydroxyapatite) components, with a hierarchical structure ranging from nanoscale to macroscale. In consideration of the serious limitation in traditional therapies, nanomaterials provide some new strategy in bone regeneration. Nanostructured scaffolds provide a closer structural support approximation to native bone architecture for the cells and regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, which results in the formation of functional tissues. In this article, we focused on reviewing the classification and design of nanostructured materials and nanocarrier materials for bone regeneration, their cell interaction properties, and their application in bone tissue engineering and regeneration. Furthermore, some new challenges about the future research on the application of nanomaterials for bone regeneration are described in the conclusion and perspectives part. PMID:26558141

  19. Using Inorganic Nanomaterials to Endow Biocatalytic Systems with Unique Features.

    PubMed

    Lin, Youhui; Chen, Zhengwei; Liu, Xiang Yang

    2016-04-01

    The rapid growth in nanotechnology and biotechnology offers a wealth of opportunities for the combination of natural enzymes with different kinds of nanomaterial. Here, we highlight recent advances in constructing nanomaterial-incorporated enzymes that integrate the specific recognition and biocatalytic properties of enzymes with the attractive electronic, optical, magnetic, and catalytic properties of nanomaterials. These composite materials have some extra features that are not possessed by the enzymes themselves, such as electron transfer mediated by nanoparticles, enzyme delivery, remote activation and/or deactivation of enzymatic activity, and fabrication of catalytic entities with complementary functions. Additionally, we describe briefly the current challenges and future development of unique enzyme-nanomaterial hybrid systems. We hope that this review will help to accelerate further progress in this promising field. PMID:26822167

  20. Photophysical efficiency-boost of aqueous aluminium phthalocyanine by hybrid formation with nano-clays.

    PubMed

    Staniford, Mark C; Lezhnina, Marina M; Gruener, Malte; Stegemann, Linda; Kuczius, Rauni; Bleicher, Vera; Strassert, Cristian A; Kynast, Ulrich H

    2015-09-11

    Novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprising nanoscaled layered silicates and native aluminium hydroxide phthalocyanine (Al(OH)Pc) allowed for the first time the exploitation of their unique photophysical properties in aqueous ambience. In particular, we were able to observe the efficient emission of Al(OH)Pc-nanoclay hybrids and generation of singlet oxygen in aqueous solution. PMID:26221639