Science.gov

Sample records for hybrid power systems

  1. Hybrid power management system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  2. Hybrid Power Management System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  3. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van; Manwell, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Manzanita Hybrid Power system Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Trisha Frank

    2005-03-31

    The Manzanita Indian Reservation is located in southeastern San Diego County, California. The Tribe has long recognized that the Reservation has an abundant wind resource that could be commercially utilized to its benefit, and in 1995 the Tribe established the Manzanita Renewable Energy Office. Through the U.S. Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program the Band received funds to install a hybrid renewable power system to provide electricity to one of the tribal community buildings, the Manzanita Activities Center (MAC building). The project began September 30, 1999 and was completed March 31, 2005. The system was designed and the equipment supplied by Northern Power Systems, Inc, an engineering company with expertise in renewable hybrid system design and development. Personnel of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory provided technical assistance in system design, and continued to provide technical assistance in system monitoring. The grid-connected renewable hybrid wind/photovoltaic system provides a demonstration of a solar/wind energy hybrid power-generating project on Manzanita Tribal land. During the system design phase, the National Renewable Energy Lab estimated that the wind turbine is expected to produce 10,000-kilowatt hours per year and the solar array 2,000-kilowatt hours per year. The hybrid system was designed to provide approximately 80 percent of the electricity used annually in the MAC building. The project proposed to demonstrate that this kind of a system design would provide highly reliable renewable power for community uses.

  5. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    DOEpatents

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  6. High power battery systems for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corson, Donald W.

    Pure electric and hybrid vehicles have differing demands on the battery system of a vehicle. This results in correspondingly different demands on the battery management of a hybrid vehicle. Examples show the differing usage patterns. The consequences for the battery cells and the battery management are discussed. The importance of good thermal management is underlined.

  7. Bimode uninterruptible power supply compatibility in renewable hybrid energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, W. ); O'Sullivan, G. )

    1990-08-01

    Inverters installed in renewable hybrid energy systems are typically used in a stand-alone mode to supply ac power to loads from battery storage when the engine-generator is not being used. Similarities in topology and in the performance requirements of the standby uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system and the hybrid system suggest the UPS could be used in hybrid energy systems. Another alternative to inverters with add-on charging circuits or standby UPS hardware is the Bimode UPS. The bimode UPS uses common circuitry and power components for dc to ac inversion and battery charging. It also provides an automatic and nearly instantaneous ac power transfer function when the engine-generator is started or stopped. The measured operating and transfer characteristics of a bimode UPS in a utility system and in a hybrid system are presented. The applicability of the bimode UPS to hybrid systems and its compatibility in a PV/engine-generator hybrid system are given.

  8. Solar-Diesel Hybrid Power System Optimization and Experimental Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobus, Headley Stewart

    As of 2008 1.46 billion people, or 22 percent of the World's population, were without electricity. Many of these people live in remote areas where decentralized generation is the only method of electrification. Most mini-grids are powered by diesel generators, but new hybrid power systems are becoming a reliable method to incorporate renewable energy while also reducing total system cost. This thesis quantifies the measurable Operational Costs for an experimental hybrid power system in Sierra Leone. Two software programs, Hybrid2 and HOMER, are used during the system design and subsequent analysis. Experimental data from the installed system is used to validate the two programs and to quantify the savings created by each component within the hybrid system. This thesis bridges the gap between design optimization studies that frequently lack subsequent validation and experimental hybrid system performance studies.

  9. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh

    2004-07-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the January to June 2004 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  10. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  11. Optimization strategy for element sizing in hybrid power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Real, Alejandro J.; Arce, Alicia; Bordons, Carlos

    This paper presents a procedure to evaluate the optimal element sizing of hybrid power systems. In order to generalize the problem, this work exploits the "energy hub" formulation previously presented in the literature, defining an energy hub as an interface among energy producers, consumers and the transportation infrastructure. The resulting optimization minimizes an objective function which is based on costs and efficiencies of the system elements, while taking into account the hub model, energy and power constraints and estimated operational conditions, such as energy prices, input power flow availability and output energy demand. The resulting optimal architecture also constitutes a framework for further real-time control designs. Moreover, an example of a hybrid storage system is considered. In particular, the architecture of a hybrid plant incorporating a wind generator, batteries and intermediate hydrogen storage is optimized, based on real wind data and averaged residential demands, also taking into account possible estimation errors. The hydrogen system integrates an electrolyzer, a fuel cell stack and hydrogen tanks. The resulting optimal cost of such hybrid power plant is compared with the equivalent hydrogen-only and battery-only systems, showing improvements in investment costs of almost 30% in the worst case.

  12. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  13. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-07-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the January 2003 to June 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. This report summarizes the results obtained to date on: System performance analysis and model optimization; Reliability and cost model development; System control including dynamic model development; Heat exchanger material tests and life analysis; Pressurized SOFC evaluation; and Pre-baseline system definition for coal gasification fuel cell system concept.

  14. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh

    2002-03-31

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the January 2002 to March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. For this reporting period the following activities have been carried out: {lg_bullet} Conceptual system design trade studies were performed {lg_bullet} System-level performance model was created {lg_bullet} Dynamic control models are being developed {lg_bullet} Mechanical properties of candidate heat exchanger materials were investigated {lg_bullet} SOFC performance mapping as a function of flow rate and pressure was completed

  16. Scalable and Power Efficient Data Analytics for Hybrid Exascale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, Alok; Samatova, Nagiza; Wu, Kesheng; Liao, Wei-keng

    2015-03-19

    This project developed a generic and optimized set of core data analytics functions. These functions organically consolidate a broad constellation of high performance analytical pipelines. As the architectures of emerging HPC systems become inherently heterogeneous, there is a need to design algorithms for data analysis kernels accelerated on hybrid multi-node, multi-core HPC architectures comprised of a mix of CPUs, GPUs, and SSDs. Furthermore, the power-aware trend drives the advances in our performance-energy tradeoff analysis framework which enables our data analysis kernels algorithms and software to be parameterized so that users can choose the right power-performance optimizations.

  17. Simulation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, A.F.; Cole, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    Computer programs for the simulation of the operation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems are described. These programs treat cases in which high energy density ultracapacitors or high power density pulse batteries are used to load level the main energy storage battery in the vehicle. A generalized control strategy for splitting the power between the main battery and the pulse power devices is implemented such that the user can specify the nominal battery power as a function of the state-of-charge of the ultracapacitor or pulse power battery. The programs display graphically on the screen, as they run, the power from both the main battery and the pulse power device and the state-of-charge of the pulse power device. After each run is completed, a summary is printed out from which the effect of load leveling the battery on vehicle range and energy consumption can be determined. Default input files are provided with the programs so various combinations of vehicles, driveline components, and batteries of special current interest to the EV community can be run with either type of pulse power device. Typical simulation results are shown including cases in which the pulse power devices are connected in parallel with the main battery without interface electronics. 2 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Optimal dispatch strategy in remote hybrid power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barley, C.D.; Winn, C.B.

    1996-10-01

    For small villages in developing countries, local stand-alone power systems are often more cost-effective than utility grid extension. Various combinations of wind turbine generators, photovoltaic arrays, diesel gensets, and batteries - remote hybrid power systems - may be preferred to diesel-only systems. Dispatch strategy is the aspect of control strategy that pertains to energy flows among components. In systems with both batteries and diesel genset(s), dispatch affects the life-cycle cost through both the fuel usage and the battery life. In this study, dispatch strategies are compared using (1) an analysis of cost trade-offs, (2) a simple, quasi-steady-state time-series model, and finally (3) HYBRID2, a more sophisticated stochastic time-series model. An idealized predictive dispatch strategy, based on assumed perfect knowledge of future load and wind conditions, is developed and used as a benchmark in evaluating simple, non-predictive strategies. The results illustrate the nature of the optimal strategy and indicate that one of two simple diesel dispatch strategies - either load-following or full power for a minimum run time - can, in conjunction with the frugal use of stored energy (the Frugal Discharge Strategy), be virtually as cost-effective as the Ideal Predictive Strategy. The optimal choice of these two simple charging strategies is correlated to three dimensionless parameters, yielding a generalized dispatch design chart for an important class of systems. 30 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Modeling and simulation of a hybrid ship power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doktorcik, Christopher J.

    2011-12-01

    Optimizing the performance of naval ship power systems requires integrated design and coordination of the respective subsystems (sources, converters, and loads). A significant challenge in the system-level integration is solving the Power Management Control Problem (PMCP). The PMCP entails deciding on subsystem power usages for achieving a trade-off between the error in tracking a desired position/velocity profile, minimizing fuel consumption, and ensuring stable system operation, while at the same time meeting performance limitations of each subsystem. As such, the PMCP naturally arises at a supervisory level of a ship's operation. In this research, several critical steps toward the solution of the PMCP for surface ships have been undertaken. First, new behavioral models have been developed for gas turbine engines, wound rotor synchronous machines, DC super-capacitors, induction machines, and ship propulsion systems. Conventional models describe system inputs and outputs in terms of physical variables such as voltage, current, torque, and force. In contrast, the behavioral models developed herein express system inputs and outputs in terms of power whenever possible. Additionally, the models have been configured to form a hybrid system-level power model (HSPM) of a proposed ship electrical architecture. Lastly, several simulation studies have been completed to expose the capabilities and limitations of the HSPM.

  20. PV-hybrid village power systems in Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, C.L.; Taylor, R.W.; Ribeiro, C.M.; Moszkowicz, M.; Borba, A.J.V.

    1996-09-01

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Hundreds of diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable energy resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: US Department of Energy, through NREL, and Brazilian CEPEL/Eletrobras and state electric utilities. The first system is a 50-kW photovoltaic-wind-battery hybrid and the second is a 50-kW photovoltaic-diesel-battery hybrid.

  1. Hybrid vehicle powertrain system with power take-off driven vehicle accessory

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Zou, Zhanijang; Hope, Mark E.; Kang, Xiaosong; Carpenter, Jeffrey L.

    2006-09-12

    A hybrid vehicle powertrain system includes a first prime mover, a first prime mover driven power transmission mechanism having a power take-off adapted to drive a vehicle accessory, and a second prime mover. The second prime mover is operable to drive the power transmission mechanism alone or in combination with the first prime mover to provide power to the power take-off through the power transmission mechanism. The invention further includes methods for operating a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  2. Development and Demonstration of a 25 Watt Thermophotovoltaic Power Source for a Hybrid Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Edward; Shukla, Kailash; Metcalfe, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    The development of a propane-fueled, 25 W thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power source for use in a hybrid power system is described. The TPV power source uses a platinum emitting surface with an anti-reflective coating to radiate to gallium antimonide photocells, which converts the radiation to electric power. The development program started with the design and fabrication of an engineering prototype system. This was used as a component development vehicle to develop the technologies for the various components. A 25 W demonstration prototype was then designed and fabricated using the most advanced component approaches. The designs and test results from this development program are discussed.

  3. Power management strategy for vehicular-applied hybrid fuel cell/battery power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangjun; Xu, Liangfei; Hua, Jianfeng; Lin, Xinfan; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    In this paper, a control strategy for a hybrid PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell/BES (battery energy system) vehicular power system is presented. The strategy, based on fuzzy logic control, incorporates the slow dynamics of fuel cells and the state of charge (SOC) of the BES. Fuel cell output power was determined according to the driving load requirement and the SOC, using fuzzy dynamic decision-making and fuzzy self-organizing concepts. An analysis of the simulation results was conducted using Matlab/Simulink/Stateflow software in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. It was confirmed that the control scheme can be used to improve the operational efficiency of the hybrid power system.

  4. Hybrid robust predictive optimization method of power system dispatch

    DOEpatents

    Chandra, Ramu Sharat; Liu, Yan; Bose, Sumit; de Bedout, Juan Manuel

    2011-08-02

    A method of power system dispatch control solves power system dispatch problems by integrating a larger variety of generation, load and storage assets, including without limitation, combined heat and power (CHP) units, renewable generation with forecasting, controllable loads, electric, thermal and water energy storage. The method employs a predictive algorithm to dynamically schedule different assets in order to achieve global optimization and maintain the system normal operation.

  5. PV-hybrid village power systems in Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, C.L.; Taylor, R.W.; Ribeiro, C.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Hundreds of diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable energy resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL, and Brazilian CEPEL/Eletrobras and state electric utilities.

  6. An experimental study of potential residential and commercial applications of small-scale hybrid power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Michael Anthony

    The research presented in this thesis provides an understanding of small-scale hybrid power systems. Experiments were conducted to identify potential applications of renewable energy in residential and commercial applications in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Solar and wind energy converted into electric energy was stored in batteries and inverted to power common household and commercial appliances. Several small to medium size hybrid power systems were setup and utilized to conduct numerous tests to study renewable energy prospects and feasibility for various applications. The experimental results obtained indicate that carefully constructed solar power systems can provide people living in isolated communities with sufficient energy to consistently meet their basic power needs.

  7. A hybrid approach for detecting and isolating faults in nuclear power plant interacting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, J.W.; Miller, D.W.; Hajek, B.K.

    1996-09-01

    A fault detection and isolation (FDI) system is presented that can detect and isolate nuclear power plant (NPP) faults occurring in interacting systems. The proposed methodology combines two tools, observer-based residual generation and neural network pattern matching, into a powerful, hybrid diagnostic system. A computer-based model of a commercial boiling water reactor (BWR) is used as the reference plant. Two FDI methods are implemented on each of two BWR systems, and their performance characteristics are compared. One method uses conventional neural network techniques that use parameter values for input, and a second, hybrid methodology uses system models to create residuals for input to a neural network. Both FDI systems show good generalization abilities, but only the hybrid system decouples system interactions. Although implementation is impractical for all NPP systems, this hybrid technique is most useful in specific applications where operators have difficulty diagnosing faults in strongly interacting systems.

  8. Yeast Two-Hybrid, a Powerful Tool for Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Anna; Polge, Cécile; Lentze, Nicolas; Auerbach, Daniel; Schlattner, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    A key property of complex biological systems is the presence of interaction networks formed by its different components, primarily proteins. These are crucial for all levels of cellular function, including architecture, metabolism and signalling, as well as the availability of cellular energy. Very stable, but also rather transient and dynamic protein-protein interactions generate new system properties at the level of multiprotein complexes, cellular compartments or the entire cell. Thus, interactomics is expected to largely contribute to emerging fields like systems biology or systems bioenergetics. The more recent technological development of high-throughput methods for interactomics research will dramatically increase our knowledge of protein interaction networks. The two most frequently used methods are yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening, a well established genetic in vivo approach, and affinity purification of complexes followed by mass spectrometry analysis, an emerging biochemical in vitro technique. So far, a majority of published interactions have been detected using an Y2H screen. However, with the massive application of this method, also some limitations have become apparent. This review provides an overview on available yeast two-hybrid methods, in particular focusing on more recent approaches. These allow detection of protein interactions in their native environment, as e.g. in the cytosol or bound to a membrane, by using cytosolic signalling cascades or split protein constructs. Strengths and weaknesses of these genetic methods are discussed and some guidelines for verification of detected protein-protein interactions are provided. PMID:19582228

  9. Economics and performance of PV hybrid power systems: Three case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.L.; Durand, S.J.; Thomas, M.G.; Post, H.N.

    1998-07-01

    The Photovoltaic Systems Assistance Center (PVSAC) of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been supporting the development and implementation of off-grid PV hybrid power systems for many years. Technical support has included: refining hardware; understanding system design techniques; obtaining operation and maintenance data; studying use of energy produced. As part of the program, the PVSAC has provided technical expertise on hybrid systems to many federal agencies including the National Park Service, the Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Department of Defense. The goal of these partnerships has been to ensure that reliable and safe PV hybrid systems are specified and procured. At present, a critical review of performance and costs of several representative PV hybrid systems is underway. This paper presents a summary of the performance and economical analyses conducted on three PV hybrid systems.

  10. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  11. THYME: Toolkit for Hybrid Modeling of Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro Kalyan Perumalla, James Joseph

    2011-01-01

    THYME is an object oriented library for building models of wide area control and communications in electric power systems. This software is designed as a module to be used with existing open source simulators for discrete event systems in general and communication systems in particular. THYME consists of a typical model for simulating electro-mechanical transients (e.g., as are used in dynamic stability studies), data handling objects to work with CDF and PTI formatted power flow data, and sample models of discrete sensors and controllers.

  12. THYME: Toolkit for Hybrid Modeling of Electric Power Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-01-01

    THYME is an object oriented library for building models of wide area control and communications in electric power systems. This software is designed as a module to be used with existing open source simulators for discrete event systems in general and communication systems in particular. THYME consists of a typical model for simulating electro-mechanical transients (e.g., as are used in dynamic stability studies), data handling objects to work with CDF and PTI formatted power flowmore » data, and sample models of discrete sensors and controllers.« less

  13. Hybrid Power Management (HPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of the Engineering and Systems Division initiated the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and fuel cells. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. One of the unique power devices being utilized by HPM for energy storage is the ultracapacitor. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device, which has extremely high volumetric capacitance energy due to high surface area electrodes, and very small electrode separation. Ultracapacitors are a reliable, long life, maintenance free, energy storage system. This flexible operating system can be applied to all power systems to significantly improve system efficiency, reliability, and performance. There are many existing and conceptual applications of HPM.

  14. Design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C.; Warner, C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of a study centered on the design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for remote locations in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate high reliability hybrid power systems that have been designed for the lowest life cycle costs. The technical and economic analysis of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems was carried out using HYBRID2, a computational code developed at the University of Massachusetts in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). After a summary of a generalized design procedure for such systems based on the use of this code, a systematic parametric evaluation of a representative design case for a village power system in Brazil is presented. As summarized in the paper, the performance and economic effects of key design parameters are illustrated. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  15. A New Hybrid Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells-Battery Power System with Efficiencies Considered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Chung-Hsing; Shieh, Jenn-Jong

    Hybrid systems, based on lead-acid or lithium-ion batteries and proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), give the possibility of combining the benefit of both technologies. The merits of high energy density and power density for different applications are discussed in this paper in recognition of the practical realization of such hybrid power systems. Furthermore, experimental data for such a hybrid system is described and the results are shown and discussed. The results show that the combination of lead-acid batteries or lithium-ion batteries and PEMFCs shows advantages in cases of applications with high peak power requirements, such as electric scooters and applications where the fuel cell (FC) is used as an auxiliary power-supply to recharge the battery. The high efficiency of FCs operating with a partial load results in a good fuel economy for the purpose of recharging batteries within a FC system.

  16. Modeling & power management of standalone PV-Wind Hybrid energy system for remote location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawon, M. J. A.

    This thesis mainly focuses on a novel design of a standalone PV-Wind hybrid energy system for remote locations where grid extension is not feasible or is expensive. The Hybrid PV-Wind standalone energy system shows higher reliability compared to Wind or PV standalone systems as wind and solar are complementary. A Matlab/Simulink model of an integrated standalone PV-Wind hybrid system using a battery for storage and backup protection is presented. The individual component of the system is discussed and modeled. A novel and unique control strategy is designed and simulated to control the power flow of the system while maintaining the battery charging and discharging limit. In addition, different converter design and maximum power point tracking control are applied to ensure efficient and reliable power supply under various atmospheric and loading conditions.

  17. Application of Hybrid Optimization-Expert System for Optimal Power Management on Board Space Power Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Basheer, Omar Ali AL

    1996-01-01

    The space power system has two sources of energy: photo-voltaic blankets and batteries. The optimal power management problem on-board has two broad operations: off-line power scheduling to determine the load allocation schedule of the next several hours based on the forecast of load and solar power availability. The nature of this study puts less emphasis on speed requirement for computation and more importance on the optimality of the solution. The second category problem, on-line power rescheduling, is needed in the event of occurrence of a contingency to optimally reschedule the loads to minimize the 'unused' or 'wasted' energy while keeping the priority on certain type of load and minimum disturbance of the original optimal schedule determined in the first-stage off-line study. The computational performance of the on-line 'rescheduler' is an important criterion and plays a critical role in the selection of the appropriate tool. The Howard University Center for Energy Systems and Control has developed a hybrid optimization-expert systems based power management program. The pre-scheduler has been developed using a non-linear multi-objective optimization technique called the Outer Approximation method and implemented using the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). The optimization model has the capability of dealing with multiple conflicting objectives viz. maximizing energy utilization, minimizing the variation of load over a day, etc. and incorporates several complex interaction between the loads in a space system. The rescheduling is performed using an expert system developed in PROLOG which utilizes a rule-base for reallocation of the loads in an emergency condition viz. shortage of power due to solar array failure, increase of base load, addition of new activity, repetition of old activity etc. Both the modules handle decision making on battery charging and discharging and allocation of loads over a time-horizon of a day divided into intervals of 10

  18. Wind/hybrid power system test facilities in the United States and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Green, H J; Clark, R N; Brothers, C; Saulnier, B

    1994-05-01

    By 1995, there will be four facilities available for testing of wind/hybrid power systems in the United States and Canada. This paper describes the mission, approach, capabilities, and status of activity at each of these facilities. These facilities have in common a focus on power systems for remote, off-grid locations that include wind energy. At the same time, these facilities have diverse, yet complimentary, missions that range from research to technology development to testing. The first facility is the test facility at the Institut de Recherche d`Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), Hydro-Quebec`s research institute near Montreal, Canada. This facility, not currently in operation, was used for initial experiments demonstrating the dynamic stability of a high penetration, no-storage wind/diesel (HPNSWD) concept. The second facility is located at the Atlantic Wind Test Site (AWTS) on Prince Edward Island, Canada, where testing of the HPNSWD concept developed by Hydro-Quebec is currently underway. The third is the Hybrid Power Test Facility planned for the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, which will focus on testing commercially available hybrid power systems. The fourth is the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Conservation and Production Research Laboratory in Bushland, Texas, where a test laboratory is being developed to study wind-energy penetration and control strategies for wind/hybrid systems. The authors recognize that this summary of test facilities is not all inclusive; for example, at least one US industrial facility is currently testing a hybrid power system. Our intent, though, is to describe four facilities owned by nonprofit or governmental institutions in North America that are or will be available for ongoing development of wind/hybrid power systems.

  19. Wind/hybrid power system test facilities in the United States and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, H. J.; Clark, R. N.; Brothers, C.; Saulnier, Bernard

    1994-05-01

    By 1995, there will be four facilities available for testing of wind/hybrid power systems in the United States and Canada. This paper describes the mission, approach, capabilities, and status of activity at each of these facilities. These facilities have in common a focus on power systems for remote, off-grid locations that include wind energy. At the same time, these facilities have diverse, yet complimentary, missions that range from research to technology development to testing. The first facility is the test facility at the Institut de Recherche d'Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), Hydro-Quebec's research institute near Montreal, Canada. This facility, not currently in operation, was used for initial experiments demonstrating the dynamic stability of a high penetration, no-storage wind/diesel (HPNSWD) concept. The second facility is located at the Atlantic Wind Test Site (AWTS) on Prince Edward Island, Canada, where testing of the HPNSWD concept developed by Hydro-Quebec is currently underway. The third is the Hybrid Power Test Facility planned for the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, which will focus on testing commercially available hybrid power systems. The fourth is the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Conservation and Production Research Laboratory in Bushland, Texas, where a test laboratory is being developed to study wind-energy penetration and control strategies for wind/hybrid systems. The authors recognize that this summary of test facilities is not all inclusive; for example, at least one U.S. industrial facility is currently testing a hybrid power system. Our intent, though, is to describe four facilities owned by nonprofit or governmental institutions in North America that are or will be available for ongoing development of wind/hybrid power systems.

  20. Hybrid Power Management Program Continued

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and photovoltaics. HPM has extremely wide potential with applications including power-generation, transportation, biotechnology, and space power systems. It may significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy.

  1. A Packaged Self-Powered System with Universal Connectors Based on Hybridized Nanogenerators.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bojing; Zheng, Qiang; Jiang, Wen; Yan, Ling; Wang, Xinxin; Liu, Hong; Yao, Yan; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-02-01

    A packaged self-powered system by hybridizing nanogenerators (PSNGS) is demonstrated. The performance of the PSNGS is tested in a biofluid and used for powering an electronic thermometer. Select waterproof universal connectors are designed and fabricated for energy and signal transmission. This PSNGS and the connectors can significantly advance the development of self-powered implanted medical devices and wearable/portable electronics. PMID:26634808

  2. Hybrid Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, A.; Bharathan, D.

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the identification and evaluation of methods by which the net power output of an air-cooled geothermal power plant can be enhanced during hot ambient conditions with a minimal amount of water use.

  3. A simple mathematical description of an off-grid hybrid solar-wind power generating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Luca, R.; Torre, G.

    2013-05-01

    We give a detailed description of the energy balance equation for a stand-alone hybrid solar-wind power generating system. The dimensions of the power generator and the energy capacity of a buffer battery (used as an energy storage system) are chosen to suit a known consumer's profile. Future applications of the mathematical model developed and analogies with a similar hydrodynamic problem are discussed.

  4. Optimization of hybrid power system composed of SMES and flywheel MG for large pulsed load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiyama, K.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

    2008-09-01

    A superconducting magnetic storage system (SMES) has some advantages such as rapid large power response and high storage efficiency which are superior to other energy storage systems. A flywheel motor generator (FWMG) has large scaled capacity and high reliability, and hence is broadly utilized for a large pulsed load, while it has comparatively low storage efficiency due to high mechanical loss compared with SMES. A fusion power plant such as International Thermo-Nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) requires a large and long pulsed load which causes a frequency deviation in a utility power system. In order to keep the frequency within an allowable deviation, we propose a hybrid power system for the pulsed load, which equips the SMES and the FWMG with the utility power system. We evaluate installation cost and frequency control performance of three power systems combined with energy storage devices; (i) SMES with the utility power, (ii) FWMG with the utility power, (iii) both SMES and FWMG with the utility power. The first power system has excellent frequency power control performance but its installation cost is high. The second system has inferior frequency control performance but its installation cost is the lowest. The third system has good frequency control performance and its installation cost is attained lower than the first power system by adjusting the ratio between SMES and FWMG.

  5. A Self-Powered Hybrid Energy Scavenging System Utilizing RF and Vibration Based Electromagnetic Harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluşan, H.; Gharehbaghi, K.; Zorlu, Ö.; Muhtaroğlu, A.; Külah, H.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a novel hybrid system that combines the power generated simultaneously by a vibration-based Electromagnetic (EM) harvester and a UHF band RF harvester. The novel hybrid scavenger interface uses a power management circuit in 180 nm CMOS technology to step-up and to regulate the combined output. At the first stage of the system, the RF harvester generates positive DC output with a 7-stage threshold compensated rectifier, while the EM harvester generates negative DC output with a self-powered AC/DC negative doubler circuit. At the second stage, the generated voltages are serially added, stepped-up with an on-chip charge pump circuit, and regulated to a typical battery voltage of 3 V. Test results indicate that the hybrid operation enables generation of 9 μW at 3 V output for a wide range of input stimulations, which could not be attained with either harvesting mode by itself. Moreover the hybrid system behaves as a typical battery, and keeps the output voltage stable at 3 V up to 18 μW of output power. The presented system is the first battery-like harvester to our knowledge that generates energy from two independent sources and regulates the output to a stable DC voltage.

  6. Hybrid Power Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    An engineering discipline denoted as hybrid power management (HPM) has emerged from continuing efforts to increase energy efficiency and reliability of hybrid power systems. HPM is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy-consuming devices in optimal configurations for both terrestrial and outer-space applications. The basic concepts of HPM are potentially applicable at power levels ranging from nanowatts to megawatts. Potential applications include terrestrial power-generation, terrestrial transportation, biotechnology, and outer-space power systems. Instances of this discipline at prior stages of development were reported (though not explicitly labeled as HPM) in three prior NASA Tech Briefs articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle"(LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW-17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; and "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 24, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37. As the titles of the cited articles indicate, the use of ultracapacitors as energy-storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller. Power-control circuits for ultracapacitors can be simpler than those for batteries, for two reasons: (1) Because of the absence of chemical reactions, charge and discharge currents can be greater than those in batteries, limited only by the electrical

  7. Hybrid power system intelligent operation and protection involving distributed architectures and pulsed loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Ahmed

    Efficient and reliable techniques for power delivery and utilization are needed to account for the increased penetration of renewable energy sources in electric power systems. Such methods are also required for current and future demands of plug-in electric vehicles and high-power electronic loads. Distributed control and optimal power network architectures will lead to viable solutions to the energy management issue with high level of reliability and security. This dissertation is aimed at developing and verifying new techniques for distributed control by deploying DC microgrids, involving distributed renewable generation and energy storage, through the operating AC power system. To achieve the findings of this dissertation, an energy system architecture was developed involving AC and DC networks, both with distributed generations and demands. The various components of the DC microgrid were designed and built including DC-DC converters, voltage source inverters (VSI) and AC-DC rectifiers featuring novel designs developed by the candidate. New control techniques were developed and implemented to maximize the operating range of the power conditioning units used for integrating renewable energy into the DC bus. The control and operation of the DC microgrids in the hybrid AC/DC system involve intelligent energy management. Real-time energy management algorithms were developed and experimentally verified. These algorithms are based on intelligent decision-making elements along with an optimization process. This was aimed at enhancing the overall performance of the power system and mitigating the effect of heavy non-linear loads with variable intensity and duration. The developed algorithms were also used for managing the charging/discharging process of plug-in electric vehicle emulators. The protection of the proposed hybrid AC/DC power system was studied. Fault analysis and protection scheme and coordination, in addition to ideas on how to retrofit currently available

  8. Analysis of a model of fuel cell - gas turbine hybrid power system for enhanced energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calay, Rajnish K.; Mustafa, Mohamad Y.; Virk, Mohammad S.; Mustafa, Mahmoud F.

    2012-11-01

    A simple mathematical model to evaluate the performance of FC-GT hybrid system is presented in this paper. The model is used to analyse the influence of various parameters on the performance of a typical hybrid system, where excess heat rejected from the solid-oxide fuel cell stack is utilised to generate additional power through a gas turbine system and to provide heat energy for space heating. The model is based on thermodynamic analysis of various components of the plant and can be adapted for various configurations of the plant components. Because there are many parameters defining the efficiency and work output of the hybrid system, the technique is based on mathematical and graphical optimisation of various parameters; to obtain the maximum efficiency for a given plant configuration.

  9. Analysis of DMFC/battery hybrid power system for portable applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bong-Do; Jung, Doo-Hwan; Ko, Young-Ho

    This study was carried out to develop a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)/battery hybrid power system used in portable applications. For a portable power system, the DMFC was applied for the main power source at average load and the battery was applied for auxiliary power at overload. Load share characteristics of hybrid power source were analyzed by computational simulation. The connection apparatus between the DMFC and the battery was set and investigated in the real system. Voltages and currents of the load, the battery and the DMFC were measured according to fuel, air and load changes. The relationship between load share characteristic and battery capacity was surveyed. The relationship was also studied in abnormal operation. A DMFC stack was manufactured for this experiment. For the study of the connection characteristics to the fuel cell Pb-acid, Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries were tested. The results of this study can be applied to design the interface module of the fuel cell/battery hybrid system and to determine the design requirement in the fuel cell stack for portable applications.

  10. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume III. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumpton, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains appendices to the conceptual design and systems analysis studies gien in Volume II, Books 1 and 2. (WHK)

  11. Fractional order fuzzy control of hybrid power system with renewable generation using chaotic PSO.

    PubMed

    Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the operation of a hybrid power system through a novel fuzzy control scheme. The hybrid power system employs various autonomous generation systems like wind turbine, solar photovoltaic, diesel engine, fuel-cell, aqua electrolyzer etc. Other energy storage devices like the battery, flywheel and ultra-capacitor are also present in the network. A novel fractional order (FO) fuzzy control scheme is employed and its parameters are tuned with a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm augmented with two chaotic maps for achieving an improved performance. This FO fuzzy controller shows better performance over the classical PID, and the integer order fuzzy PID controller in both linear and nonlinear operating regimes. The FO fuzzy controller also shows stronger robustness properties against system parameter variation and rate constraint nonlinearity, than that with the other controller structures. The robustness is a highly desirable property in such a scenario since many components of the hybrid power system may be switched on/off or may run at lower/higher power output, at different time instants. PMID:25816968

  12. A hybrid superconducting fault current limiter for enhancing transient stability in Korean power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Sangsoo; Kim, Seog-Joo; Moon, Young-Hwan; Lee, Byongjun

    2013-11-01

    Additional power generation sites have been limited in Korea, despite the fact load demands are gradually increasing. In order to meet these increasing demands, Korea’s power system company has begun constructing new generators at existing sites. Thus, multi-unit plants can create problems in terms of transient stability when a large disturbance occurs. This paper proposes a hybrid superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) application to enhance the transient stability of multi-unit power plants. SFCLs reduce fault currents, and limitation currents decrease the imbalance of the mechanical and electrical torque of the generators, resulting in an improvement in transient stability.

  13. Optimized efficiency of all-electric ships by dc hybrid power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, Bijan; Norum, Lars E.; Ludvigsen, Kristine B.

    2014-06-01

    Hybrid power systems with dc distribution are being considered for commercial marine vessels to comply with new stringent environmental regulations, and to achieve higher fuel economy. In this paper, detailed efficiency analysis of a shipboard dc hybrid power system is carried out. An optimization algorithm is proposed to minimize fuel consumption under various loading conditions. The studied system includes diesel engines, synchronous generator-rectifier units, a full-bridge bidirectional converter, and a Li-Ion battery bank as energy storage. In order to evaluate potential fuel saving provided by such a system, an online optimization strategy for fuel consumption is implemented. An Offshore Support Vessel (OSV) is simulated over different operating modes using the online control strategy. The resulted consumed fuel in the simulation is compared to that of a conventional ac power system, and also a dc power system without energy storage. The results show that while the dc system without energy storage provides noticeable fuel saving compared to the conventional ac system, optimal utilization of the energy storage in the dc system results in twice as much fuel saving.

  14. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Cherry; Richard D. Boardman; Steven Aumeier

    2012-02-01

    Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

  15. Power quality control of an autonomous wind-diesel power system based on hybrid intelligent controller.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hee-Sang; Lee, Kwang Y; Kang, Min-Jae; Kim, Ho-Chan

    2008-12-01

    Wind power generation is gaining popularity as the power industry in the world is moving toward more liberalized trade of energy along with public concerns of more environmentally friendly mode of electricity generation. The weakness of wind power generation is its dependence on nature-the power output varies in quite a wide range due to the change of wind speed, which is difficult to model and predict. The excess fluctuation of power output and voltages can influence negatively the quality of electricity in the distribution system connected to the wind power generation plant. In this paper, the authors propose an intelligent adaptive system to control the output of a wind power generation plant to maintain the quality of electricity in the distribution system. The target wind generator is a cost-effective induction generator, while the plant is equipped with a small capacity energy storage based on conventional batteries, heater load for co-generation and braking, and a voltage smoothing device such as a static Var compensator (SVC). Fuzzy logic controller provides a flexible controller covering a wide range of energy/voltage compensation. A neural network inverse model is designed to provide compensating control amount for a system. The system can be optimized to cope with the fluctuating market-based electricity price conditions to lower the cost of electricity consumption or to maximize the power sales opportunities from the wind generation plant. PMID:18996680

  16. Hybrid Configuration of Darrieus and Savonius Rotors for Stand-alone Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Tanzawa, Yoshiaki; Hashizume, Takumi; Nagao, Toshio

    The suitable hybrid configuration of Darrieus lift-type and Savonius drag-type rotors for stand-alone wind turbine-generator systems is discussed using our dynamic simulation model. Two types of hybrid configurations are taken up: Type-A installs the Savonius rotor inside the Darrieus rotor and Type-B installs the Savonius rotor outside the Darrieus rotor. The computed results of the output characteristics and the dynamic behaviors of the system operated at the maximum power coefficient points show that Type-A, which has fine operating behavior to wind speed changes and can be compactly designed because of a shorter rotational shaft, is an effective way for self-controlled stand-alone small-scale systems.

  17. Optimization of a stand-alone Solar PV-Wind-DG Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation at Sagar Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. C.; Majumder, A.; Chakraborty, N.

    2010-10-01

    An estimation of a stand-alone solar PV and wind hybrid system for distributed power generation has been made based on the resources available at Sagar island, a remote area distant to grid operation. Optimization and sensitivity analysis has been made to evaluate the feasibility and size of the power generation unit. A comparison of the different modes of hybrid system has been studied. It has been estimated that Solar PV-Wind-DG hybrid system provides lesser per unit electricity cost. Capital investment is observed to be lesser when the system run with Wind-DG compared to Solar PV-DG.

  18. Modeling and sizing optimization of hybrid photovoltaic/wind power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanpanah, Mohammad-Ali

    2014-03-01

    The rapid industrialization and growth of world's human population have resulted in the unprecedented increase in the demand for energy and in particular electricity. Depletion of fossil fuels and impacts of global warming caused widespread attention using renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar energies. Energy security under varying weather conditions and the corresponding system cost are the two major issues in designing hybrid power generation systems. In this paper, the match evaluation method (MEM) is developed based on renewable energy supply/demand match evaluation criteria to size the proposed system in lowest cost. This work is undertaken with triple objective function: inequality coefficient, correlation coefficient, and annualized cost of system. It provides optimum capacity of as many numbers of supplies as required to match with a load demand in lowest investment, so it can handle large-scale design problems. Meteorological data were collected from the city of Zabol, located in south-east of Iran, as a case study. Six types of wind turbine and also six types of PV modules, with different output powers and costs, are considered for this optimization procedure. A battery storage system is used to even out irregularities in meteorological data. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm has been used for the prediction of an optimized set of design based on the MEM technique. The results of this study are valuable for evaluating the performance of future stand-alone hybrid power system. It is worth mentioning that the proposed methodology can be effectively employed for any composition of hybrid energy systems in any locations taking into account the meteorological data and the consumer's demand.

  19. Joint U.S./Brazilian hybrid power system (wind-PV-diesel) on Marajo Island

    SciTech Connect

    Leboeuf, C.; Taylor, R.W.; Corbus, D.; Moszkowicz, M.; Lima, J.; Ribeiro, C.

    1995-09-01

    A cooperative renewable energy project is underway between the U.S. Department of Energy (through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL), and the Federal Republic of Brazil (through the Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, CEPEL). The objectives of this joint US/Brazilian program are to establish technical, institutional, and economic confidence in using renewable energy systems to meet the needs of the people of rural Brazil, to build ongoing partnerships beneficial to both countries, and to demonstrate the potential for large-scale rural electrification through the use of renewable energy systems. Phase 1 of this program resulted in the deployment of more than 700 photovoltaic (PV) electric lighting systems in the Brazilian states of Pernambuco and Ceara. Phase 2 of the program extends the pilot project into six additional Brazilian states and demonstrates a wider variety of stand-alone end uses, including the use of wind electric power generation for selected sites and applications. Additionally, Phase 2 also includes the development of two hybrid village power systems, including one comprising PV, wind, battery, and diesel power sources. This paper focuses on this hybrid system, which is located in the Amazon River delta.

  20. Hybrid power source

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  1. Optimization-based power management of hybrid power systems with applications in advanced hybrid electric vehicles and wind farms with battery storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borhan, Hoseinali

    Modern hybrid electric vehicles and many stationary renewable power generation systems combine multiple power generating and energy storage devices to achieve an overall system-level efficiency and flexibility which is higher than their individual components. The power or energy management control, "brain" of these "hybrid" systems, determines adaptively and based on the power demand the power split between multiple subsystems and plays a critical role in overall system-level efficiency. This dissertation proposes that a receding horizon optimal control (aka Model Predictive Control) approach can be a natural and systematic framework for formulating this type of power management controls. More importantly the dissertation develops new results based on the classical theory of optimal control that allow solving the resulting optimal control problem in real-time, in spite of the complexities that arise due to several system nonlinearities and constraints. The dissertation focus is on two classes of hybrid systems: hybrid electric vehicles in the first part and wind farms with battery storage in the second part. The first part of the dissertation proposes and fully develops a real-time optimization-based power management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Current industry practice uses rule-based control techniques with "else-then-if" logic and look-up maps and tables in the power management of production hybrid vehicles. These algorithms are not guaranteed to result in the best possible fuel economy and there exists a gap between their performance and a minimum possible fuel economy benchmark. Furthermore, considerable time and effort are spent calibrating the control system in the vehicle development phase, and there is little flexibility in real-time handling of constraints and re-optimization of the system operation in the event of changing operating conditions and varying parameters. In addition, a proliferation of different powertrain configurations may

  2. Lessons learned from hybrid wind/PV village power system installations in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bergey, M.

    1995-09-01

    In the last three years eight decentralized village power systems utilizing small wind turbines as the primary energy source have been installed in rural Mexico. Hybrid wind/PV systems have been installed in five States and by three vendors. Seven out of the eight systems, which range i size from 9.3--71.2kW in combined wind and PV capacity, utilize one or more 10 kW wind turbines. All of these installations have battery banks and use static inverters to provide AC power for distribution to homes, businesses, and community facilities. On all but one of the systems a diesel generator is used to provide back-up power. This paper attempts to summarize the range of costs and economics, performance, and operational experiences for all eight installations. Several of the systems are monitored for performance, including one that is extensively monitored under a cooperative program between the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas and Sandia National Laboratory. Lessons learned from these systems provide insights that may allow future village power systems of this architecture to be installed at lower costs, to be operated more effectively and efficiently, and to be better able to satisfy customer requirements.

  3. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-07-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600-1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles.

  4. Hybrid Automaton Based Controller Design for Damage Mitigation of Islanded Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Sudipta

    Spurred by increasingly unpredictable weather, high penetration of renewable resources and a period of focused US government policy, it is widely expected that microgrids within the electric distribution system will show exponential growth in the coming decade. Microgrids comprise of power generation, delivery and consumption assets within restricted electrical boundaries and under contiguous control oversight that enables holistic management of these assets. Microgrids can be islanded and operated independent of a larger electric power network, and as such, a primary function of microgrids is to enhance the energy reliability of the underlying loads. In this work, we focus on naval shipboard power systems. Apart from being islanded, in the true sense, resiliency and damage mitigation are key considerations in the design and operation of these power systems. Islanded power systems encompass a rich diversity of discrete and continuous dynamic behavior in multiple time-scales. A high penetration of devices with power electronics interface, low inherent system inertia, and high density of switching devices can lead to rapid disturbance propagation and system failure without advanced damage mitigation strategies. Hybrid systems formalism incorporates continuous dynamics as well as discrete switching behavior into a modeling and control framework, thus allowing a complete system description while crystallizing concepts of safety into system design criteria. We build on existing work to enhance a Dynamic Mixed Integer Programming (DMIP) model of a power system that combines continuous time differential algebraic models with switching dynamics synthesized into mixed integer inequalities. We use this model to derive an optimal system reconfiguration strategy to prevent voltage collapse of a benchmark shipboard power system. However, this methodology is restricted by the computational complexity of dynamic programming and scalability of non-automated processes. To overcome

  5. Concentrating Solar Power Hybrid System Study: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-506

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C.

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this PTS is to collaboratively leverage the collective resources at General Electric Global Research (GEGRC) and National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) in the areas of concentrating solar power hybrid systems to advance state-of-the-art concentrating solar and conventional power generation system integration.

  6. Status and modeling improvements of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C.; Taylor, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper present a summary of the ongoing work on the modeling and system design of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for two different sites in the Amazonia region of Brazil. The work incorporates the latest resource data and is based on the use of the Hybrid2 simulation code developed by the University of Massachusetts and NREL. Details of the baseline operating hybrid systems are reviewed, and the results of the latest detailed hybrid system evaluation for each site are summarized. Based on the system modeling results, separate recommendations for system modification and improvements are made.

  7. Multiobjective optimal unit sizing of hybrid power generation systems utilizing photovoltaic and wind energy

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ito, Koichi . Dept. of Energy Systems Engineering); Yuasa, Yoshiro . Technical Research Center)

    1994-11-01

    A deterministic approach to optimal unit sizing is presented for hybrid power generation systems utilizing photovoltaic and wind energy. Device capacities and electric contract demand are determined so as to minimize the annual total cost and annual energy consumption from the viewpoints of economy and energy saving or reduction in NO[sub x] and CO[sub 2] emission, respectively. This optimization problem is considered as a multiobjective one, and a discrete set of Pareto optimal solutions is derived numerically by using the weighting method. Two systems interconnected with the electric power grid are investigated: one has the option of reverse electricity flow into the grid, and the other has no option. By carrying out some case studies, the tradeoff relationships between the two objectives as well as the optimal values of device capacities are clarified. The influence of electricity deficit on unit sizing is also investigated.

  8. Power Management Based Current Control Technique for Photovoltaic-Battery Assisted Wind-Hydro Hybrid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  9. Design of a hybrid wind power storage and generation system for a remote community

    SciTech Connect

    Devgan, S.S.; Walker, D.R. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    There are thousands of small communities in various parts of the world, even in developed countries, that are too far away to be economically connected to an electric supply system. Clean water is essential for health and well being and electric energy is essential for economic development of the community. This paper describes the design of a {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} Wind/Diesel power generation and storage system. and the electric power distribution system for a small rural community of 50 persons and live stock. The most cost effective and reliable system designed to satisfy reasonable growth over the next twenty-five years consists of three 10 kW wind turbines, a 30 kWh storage battery and a 17.5 kW backup diesel generator. This paper also describe efforts to train a neural network to predict wind power over the next time interval and few more time intervals. This is very essential for significant penetration of wind power systems.

  10. Hybrid integrated biological-solid-state system powered with adenosine triphosphate.

    PubMed

    Roseman, Jared M; Lin, Jianxun; Ramakrishnan, Siddharth; Rosenstein, Jacob K; Shepard, Kenneth L

    2015-01-01

    There is enormous potential in combining the capabilities of the biological and the solid state to create hybrid engineered systems. While there have been recent efforts to harness power from naturally occurring potentials in living systems in plants and animals to power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits, here we report the first successful effort to isolate the energetics of an electrogenic ion pump in an engineered in vitro environment to power such an artificial system. An integrated circuit is powered by adenosine triphosphate through the action of Na(+)/K(+) adenosine triphosphatases in an integrated in vitro lipid bilayer membrane. The ion pumps (active in the membrane at numbers exceeding 2 × 10(6) mm(-2)) are able to sustain a short-circuit current of 32.6 pA mm(-2) and an open-circuit voltage of 78 mV, providing for a maximum power transfer of 1.27 pW mm(-2) from a single bilayer. Two series-stacked bilayers provide a voltage sufficient to operate an integrated circuit with a conversion efficiency of chemical to electrical energy of 14.9%. PMID:26638983

  11. Hybrid integrated biological–solid-state system powered with adenosine triphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Roseman, Jared M.; Lin, Jianxun; Ramakrishnan, Siddharth; Rosenstein, Jacob K.; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    There is enormous potential in combining the capabilities of the biological and the solid state to create hybrid engineered systems. While there have been recent efforts to harness power from naturally occurring potentials in living systems in plants and animals to power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits, here we report the first successful effort to isolate the energetics of an electrogenic ion pump in an engineered in vitro environment to power such an artificial system. An integrated circuit is powered by adenosine triphosphate through the action of Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatases in an integrated in vitro lipid bilayer membrane. The ion pumps (active in the membrane at numbers exceeding 2 × 106 mm−2) are able to sustain a short-circuit current of 32.6 pA mm−2 and an open-circuit voltage of 78 mV, providing for a maximum power transfer of 1.27 pW mm−2 from a single bilayer. Two series-stacked bilayers provide a voltage sufficient to operate an integrated circuit with a conversion efficiency of chemical to electrical energy of 14.9%. PMID:26638983

  12. Hybrid integrated biological-solid-state system powered with adenosine triphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roseman, Jared M.; Lin, Jianxun; Ramakrishnan, Siddharth; Rosenstein, Jacob K.; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2015-12-01

    There is enormous potential in combining the capabilities of the biological and the solid state to create hybrid engineered systems. While there have been recent efforts to harness power from naturally occurring potentials in living systems in plants and animals to power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits, here we report the first successful effort to isolate the energetics of an electrogenic ion pump in an engineered in vitro environment to power such an artificial system. An integrated circuit is powered by adenosine triphosphate through the action of Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatases in an integrated in vitro lipid bilayer membrane. The ion pumps (active in the membrane at numbers exceeding 2 × 106 mm-2) are able to sustain a short-circuit current of 32.6 pA mm-2 and an open-circuit voltage of 78 mV, providing for a maximum power transfer of 1.27 pW mm-2 from a single bilayer. Two series-stacked bilayers provide a voltage sufficient to operate an integrated circuit with a conversion efficiency of chemical to electrical energy of 14.9%.

  13. Hybrid power semiconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, D. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The voltage rating of a bipolar transistor may be greatly extended while at the same time reducing its switching time by operating it in conjunction with FETs in a hybrid circuit. One FET is used to drive the bipolar transistor while the other FET is connected in series with the transistor and an inductive load. Both FETs are turned on or off by a single drive signal of load power, the second FET upon ceasing conductions, rendering one power electrode of the bipolar transistor open. Means are provided to dissipate currents which flow after the bipolar transistor is rendered nonconducting.

  14. Multi-objective optimization for hybrid fuel cells power system under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyan, Karthik; Diwekar, Urmila M.; Goyal, Amit

    One of the major applications of fuel cells is as onsite stationary electric power plants. Several types of configurations have been hypothesized and tested for these kinds of applications at the conceptual level but hybrid power plants are one of the most efficient. These are designs that combine a fuel cell cycle with other thermodynamic cycles to provide higher efficiency. Generally, the heat rejected by the fuel cell at a higher temperature is used in a bottoming cycle to generate steam. In this work we are considering a conceptual design of a solid oxide fuel cell-proton exchange membrane (SOFC-PEM) fuel cell hybrid power plant [R. Geisbrecht, Compact Electrochemical Reformer Based on SOFC Technology, AIChE Spring National Meeting, Atlanta, GA, 2000] in which the high temperature SOFC fuel cell acts both as electricity producer and fuel reformer for the low temperature PEM fuel cell (PEMFC). The exhaust from the PEM fuel cell goes to a waste hydrogen burner and heat recovery steam generator that produces steam for further utilizations. Optimizing this conceptual design involves consideration of a number of objectives. The process should have low pollutant emissions as well as cost competitive with the existing technology. The solution of a multi-objective optimization problem is not a single solution but a complete non-dominated or Pareto set, which includes the alternatives representing potential compromise solutions among the objectives. This makes a range of choice available to decision makers and provides them with the trade-off information among the multiple objectives effectively. This paper presents the optimal trade-off design solutions or the Pareto set for this hybrid power plant through a multi-objective optimization framework. This hybrid technology is new and the system level models used for fuel cells performance have significant uncertainties in them. In this paper, we characterize these uncertainties and study the effect of these uncertainties

  15. Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun-Kook; Won, Byeong-Cheol; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Kim, Shi-Ho; Yoo, Jeong-Ho; Jang, Ju-Chan

    2011-05-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles, using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly connected to the exhaust pipe, and the amount of electricity generated by the TEMs is directly proportional to their heated area. Current exhaust pipes fail to offer a sufficiently large hot surface area for the high-efficiency waste heat recovery required. To overcome this, a new TEG system has been designed to have an enlarged hot surface area by the addition of ten heat pipes, which act as highly efficient heat transfer devices and can transmit the heat to many TEMs. As designed, this new waste heat recovery system produces a maximum 350 W when the hot exhaust gas heats the evaporator surface of the heat pipe to 170°C; this promises great possibilities for application of this technology in future energy-efficient hybrid vehicles.

  16. Design, Operation and Economic Analysis of Autonomous Hybrid PV-Diesel Power Systems Including Battery Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Demetrios P.; Maltas, Eleftherios Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic techno-economic analysis of autonomous PV-Diesel energy system with battery storage. This hybrid type power system was developed and installed on the roof of the Electrical Engineering Laboratory building in the city of Xanthi, Greece, where a weather station is also installed providing necessary meteorological data since 2002. Such system can be generally used to supply electrical loads of isolated remote areas. The actual design of such a system is based on: a pre-defined load pattern to be supplied; the pertinent weather data; the relevant market prices; and the applicable recent economic rates (eg June 2009 for the Greek case). The system is operated on a predictive manner using a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) which controls the main system parameters for safe and continuous power supply to meet reliably the desired load demand. Three distinct systems of this type and of equal capacity, which combine energy sources and battery storage have been proposed and assessed technically and economically.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Biomass Power Generation Systems in China Using Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huacai; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG) systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI) approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China. PMID:25383383

  18. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic–Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  19. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  20. A Multiobjective Optimal Design of a Hybrid Power Source System for a Railway Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Tomoyuki; Wakao, Shinji; Kondo, Keiichiro

    In this paper, we study an optimal design for a hybrid power source railway vehicle as an alternative to diesel railway vehicles. The hybrid power source railway vehicle is assumed to be composed of the fuel cell and the electric double layer capacitor. We apply the multiobjective optimization based on the genetic algorithm for the vehicle design, aiming at reduction of both initial cost and energy consumption. The pareto optimal solutions are obtained using the multiobjective optimization. First we develop a simulation model of the hybrid power source railway vehicle and its electric power control methods. Next we derive the pareto optimal solutions as a result of the multiobjective optimization. Finally, we categorize the pareto optimal solutions to some groups, which enables us to elucidate characteristics of the pareto optimal solutions. Consequently, using the multiobjective optimization approach we effectively comprehend the problem characteristics and can obtain the plural valuable solutions.

  1. Feasibility of a Hydraulic Power Assist System for Use in Hybrid Neuroprostheses

    PubMed Central

    Foglyano, Kevin M.; Kobetic, Rudi; To, Curtis S.; Bulea, Thomas C.; Schnellenberger, John R.; Audu, Musa L.; Nandor, Mark J.; Quinn, Roger D.; Triolo, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility of using pressurized hydraulic fluid as a source of on-demand assistive power for hybrid neuroprosthesis combining exoskeleton with functional neuromuscular stimulation was explored. Hydraulic systems were selected as an alternative to electric motors for their high torque/mass ratio and ability to be located proximally on the exoskeleton and distribute power distally to assist in moving the joints. The power assist system (PAS) was designed and constructed using off-the-shelf components to test the feasibility of using high pressure fluid from an accumulator to provide assistive torque to an exoskeletal hip joint. The PAS was able to provide 21 Nm of assistive torque at an input pressure of 3171 kPa with a response time of 93 ms resulting in 32° of hip flexion in an able-bodied test. The torque output was independent of initial position of the joint and was linearly related to pressure. Thus, accumulator pressure can be specified to provide assistive torque as needed in exoskeletal devices for walking or stair climbing beyond those possible either volitionally or with electrical stimulation alone. PMID:27017963

  2. Optimization of Electric Power Systems for Off-Grid Domestic Applications: An Argument for Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, W.; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal configuration of home power systems relevant to different regions in the United States. The hypothesis was that, regardless of region, the optimal system would be a hybrid incorporating wind technology, versus a photovoltaic hybrid system without the use of wind technology. The method used in this research was HOMER, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. HOMER is a computer program that optimizes electrical configurations under user-defined circumstances. According to HOMER, the optimal system for the four regions studied (Kansas, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Arizona) was a hybrid incorporating wind technology. The cost differences between these regions, however, were dependent upon regional renewable resources. Future studies will be necessary, as it is difficult to estimate meteorological impacts for other regions.

  3. Development of energy management system based on a power sharing strategy for a fuel cell-battery-supercapacitor hybrid tramway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Zhixiang; Li, Ming; Ma, Lei

    2015-04-01

    A hybrid powertrain configuration based on a proton exchange membrane (PEMFC), a battery and a supercapacitor (SC) is designed without grid connection for the LF-LRV tramway. In order to avoid rapid changes of power demand and achieve high efficiency without degrading the mechanism performance, a power sharing strategy based on a combination of fuzzy logic control (FLC) and Haar wavelet transform (Haar-WT) is proposed for an energy management system of the hybrid tramway. The results demonstrate that the proposed energy management system is able to ensure the major positive portion of the low frequency components of power demand can be deals with the PEMFC. The battery can help provide a portion of the positive low frequency components of power demand to reduce the PEMFC burden while the SC bank can supply all the high frequency components which could damage the PEMFC membrane. Therefore, the energy management system of high-power hybrid tramway is able to guarantee a safe operating condition with transient free for the PEMFC and extend the lifetime of each power source. Finally, the comparisons with other control strategies verify that the proposed energy management system can achieve better energy efficiency of the overall hybrid tramway.

  4. Performance of OVERFLOW-D Applications based on Hybrid and MPI Paradigms on IBM Power4 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djomehri, M. Jahed; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report briefly discusses our preliminary performance experiments with parallel versions of OVERFLOW-D applications. These applications are based on MPI and hybrid paradigms on the IBM Power4 system here at the NAS Division. This work is part of an effort to determine the suitability of the system and its parallel libraries (MPI/OpenMP) for specific scientific computing objectives.

  5. Maximum power output and load matching of a phosphoric acid fuel cell-thermoelectric generator hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohang; Wang, Yuan; Cai, Ling; Zhou, Yinghui

    2015-10-01

    Based on the current models of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) and thermoelectric generators (TGs), a new hybrid system is proposed, in which the effects of multi-irreversibilities resulting from the activation, concentration, and ohmic overpotentials in the PAFC, Joule heat and heat leak in the TG, finite-rate heat transfer between the TG and the heat reservoirs, and heat leak from the PAFC to the environment are taken into account. Expressions for the power output and efficiency of the PAFC, TG, and hybrid system are analytically derived and directly used to discuss the performance characteristics of the hybrid system. The optimal relationship between the electric currents in the PAFC and TG is obtained. The maximum power output is numerically calculated. It is found that the maximum power output density of the hybrid system will increase about 150 Wm-2, compared with that of a single PAFC. The problem how to optimally match the load resistances of two subsystems is discussed. Some significant results for practical hybrid systems are obtained.

  6. Unit sizing and control of hybrid wind-solar power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chedid, R.; Rahman, S.

    1997-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide the core of a CAD/CAA tool that can help designers determine the optimal design of a hybrid wind-solar power system for either autonomous or grid-linked applications. The proposed analysis employs linear programming techniques to minimize the average production cost of electricity while meeting the load requirements in a reliable manner, and takes environmental factors into consideration both in the design and operation phases. While in autonomous systems, the environmental credit gained as compared to diesel alternatives can be obtained through direct optimization, in grid-linked systems emission is another variable to be minimized such that the use of renewable energy can be justified. A controller that monitors the operation of the autonomous/grid-linked systems is designed. Such a controller determines the energy available from each of the system components and the environmental credit of the system. It then gives details related to cost, unmet and spilled energies, and battery charge and discharge losses.

  7. Optimization of a hybrid electric power system design for large commercial buildings: An application design guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keun

    Renewable energy in different forms has been used in various applications for survival since the beginning of human existence. However, there is a new dire need to reevaluate and recalibrate the overall energy issue both nationally and globally. This includes, but is not limited to, the finite availability of fossil fuel, energy sustainability with an increasing demand, escalating energy costs, environmental impact such as global warming and green-house gases, to name a few. This dissertation is primarily focused and related to the production and usage of electricity from non-hydro renewable sources. Among non-hydro renewable energy sources, electricity generation from wind and solar energy are the fastest-growing technologies in the United States and in the world. However, due to the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage devices are required to maintain proper operation of the grid system and in order to increase reliability. A hybrid system, as the name suggests, is a combination of different forms of non-renewable and renewable energy generation, with or without storage devices. Hybrid systems, when applied properly, are able to improve reliability and enhance stability, reduce emissions and noise pollution, provide continuous power, increase operation life, reduce cost, and efficiently use all available energy. In the United States (U.S.), buildings consume approximately 40% of the total primary energy and 74% of the total electricity. Therefore, reduction of energy consumption and improved energy efficiency in U.S. buildings will play a vital role in the overall energy picture. Electrical energy usage for any such building varies widely depending on age (construction technique), electricity and natural gas usage, appearance, location and climate. In this research, a hybrid system including non-renewable and renewable energy generation with storage devices specifically for building applications, is studied in detail. This research deals

  8. Systems for hybrid cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  9. Design of a 60 T Quasi-continuous Magnetic Field System with a Hybrid Capacitor/Rectifier Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Ding, H. F.; Peng, T.; Xiao, H. X.; Jiang, C. X.

    2013-03-01

    At the Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, a 135 MW rectifier power supply is being installed nearby a 11 MJ capacitor bank power supply. By combining the two power supplies, a 60 T / 100 ms quasi-continuous magnetic field can be achieved in a monolithic copper coil magnet with a 22 mm diameter bore. Comsol Multiphysics 3.5a and Matlab 7.11.0 were adopted to verify the performance of the magnet and the hybrid power supply system. Details of the designed magnet, the power supply and the simulation results are presented.

  10. Advanced Propulsion Power Distribution System for Next Generation Electric/Hybrid Vehicle. Phase 1; Preliminary System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Bimal K.; Kim, Min-Huei

    1995-01-01

    The report essentially summarizes the work performed in order to satisfy the above project objective. In the beginning, different energy storage devices, such as battery, flywheel and ultra capacitor are reviewed and compared, establishing the superiority of the battery. Then, the possible power sources, such as IC engine, diesel engine, gas turbine and fuel cell are reviewed and compared, and the superiority of IC engine has been established. Different types of machines for drive motor/engine generator, such as induction machine, PM synchronous machine and switched reluctance machine are compared, and the induction machine is established as the superior candidate. Similar discussion was made for power converters and devices. The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) appears to be the most superior device although Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) shows future promise. Different types of candidate distribution systems with the possible combinations of power and energy sources have been discussed and the most viable system consisting of battery, IC engine and induction machine has been identified. Then, HFAC system has been compared with the DC system establishing the superiority of the former. The detailed component sizing calculations of HFAC and DC systems reinforce the superiority of the former. A preliminary control strategy has been developed for the candidate HFAC system. Finally, modeling and simulation study have been made to validate the system performance. The study in the report demonstrates the superiority of HFAC distribution system for next generation electric/hybrid vehicle.

  11. Aircraft Electric/Hybrid-Electric Power and Propulsion Workshop Perspective of the V/STOL Aircraft Systems Tech Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hange, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the AIAA Electric Hybrid-Electric Power Propulsion Workshop on July 29, 2016. The workshop is being held so the AIAA can determine how it can support the introduction of electric aircraft into the aerospace industry. This presentation will address the needs of the community within the industry that advocates the use of powered-lift as important new technologies for future aircraft and air transportation systems. As the current chairman of the VSTOL Aircraft Systems Technical Committee, I will be presenting generalized descriptions of the past research in developing powered-lift and generalized observations on how electric and hybrid-electric propulsion may provide advances in the powered-lift field.

  12. Technical and economic feasibility study of solar/fossil hybrid power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Calogeras, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Results show that new hybrid systems utilizing fossil fuel augmentation of solar energy can provide significant capital and energy cost benefits when compared with solar thermal systems requiring thermal storage. These benefits accrue from a reduction of solar collection area that results from both the use of highly efficient gas and combined cycle energy conversion subsystems and elimination of the requirement for long-term energy storage subsystems. Technical feasibility and fuel savings benefits of solar hybrid retrofit to existing fossil-fired, gas and vapor cycle powerplants was confirmed; however, economic viability of steam cycle retrofit was found to be dependent on the thermodynamic and operational characteristics of the existing powerplant.

  13. Hybrid Stochastic Search Technique based Suboptimal AGC Regulator Design for Power System using Constrained Feedback Control Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Omveer, Hasan, N.

    2010-10-01

    A new hybrid stochastic search technique is proposed to design of suboptimal AGC regulator for a two area interconnected non reheat thermal power system incorporating DC link in parallel with AC tie-line. In this technique, we are proposing the hybrid form of Genetic Algorithm (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) based regulator. GASA has been successfully applied to constrained feedback control problems where other PI based techniques have often failed. The main idea in this scheme is to seek a feasible PI based suboptimal solution at each sampling time. The feasible solution decreases the cost function rather than minimizing the cost function.

  14. Hybrid solid state laser system using a neodymium-based master oscillator and an ytterbium-based power amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Marshall, Christopher D.; Powell, Howard T.; Krupke, William F.

    2001-01-01

    In a master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) hybrid laser system, the master oscillator (MO) utilizes a Nd.sup.3+ -doped gain medium and the power amplifier (PA) utilizes a diode-pumped Yb.sup.3+ -doped material. The use of two different laser gain media in the hybrid MOPA system provides advantages that are otherwise not available. The Nd-doped gain medium preferably serves as the MO because such gain media offer the lowest threshold of operation and have already been engineered as practical systems. The Yb-doped gain medium preferably serves in the diode-pumped PA to store pump energy effectively and efficiently by virtue of the long emission lifetime, thereby reducing diode pump costs. One crucial constraint on the MO and PA gain media is that the Nd and Yb lasers must operate at nearly the same wavelength. The 1.047 .mu.m Nd:YLF/Yb:S-FAP [Nd:LiYF.sub.4 /Yb:Sr.sub.5 (PO.sub.4).sub.3 F] hybrid MOPA system is a preferred embodiment of the hybrid Nd/Yb MOPA.

  15. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  16. Flight Testing of Hybrid Powered Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George; Arves, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid Rocket powered vehicles have had a limited number of flights. Most recently in 2004, Scaled Composites had a successful orbital trajectory that put a private vehicle twice to over 62 miles high, the edge of space to win the X-Prize. This endeavor man rates a hybrid system. Hybrids have also been used in a number of one time launch attempts - SET-1, HYSR, HPDP. Hybrids have also been developed for use and flown in target drones. This chapter discusses various flight-test programs that have been conducted, hybrid vehicles that are in development, other hybrid vehicles that have been proposed and some strap-on applications have also been examined.

  17. Hybrid PV/diesel solar power system design using multi-level factor analysis optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Joshua P.

    Solar power systems represent a large area of interest across a spectrum of organizations at a global level. It was determined that a clear understanding of current state of the art software and design methods, as well as optimization methods, could be used to improve the design methodology. Solar power design literature was researched for an in depth understanding of solar power system design methods and algorithms. Multiple software packages for the design and optimization of solar power systems were analyzed for a critical understanding of their design workflow. In addition, several methods of optimization were studied, including brute force, Pareto analysis, Monte Carlo, linear and nonlinear programming, and multi-way factor analysis. Factor analysis was selected as the most efficient optimization method for engineering design as it applied to solar power system design. The solar power design algorithms, software work flow analysis, and factor analysis optimization were combined to develop a solar power system design optimization software package called FireDrake. This software was used for the design of multiple solar power systems in conjunction with an energy audit case study performed in seven Tibetan refugee camps located in Mainpat, India. A report of solar system designs for the camps, as well as a proposed schedule for future installations was generated. It was determined that there were several improvements that could be made to the state of the art in modern solar power system design, though the complexity of current applications is significant.

  18. Onboard power line conditioning system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Kajouke, Lateef A.; Perisic, Milun

    2016-06-14

    A power line quality conditioning system for a vehicle includes an onboard rechargeable direct current (DC) energy storage system and an onboard electrical system coupled to the energy storage system. The energy storage system provides DC energy to drive an electric traction motor of the vehicle. The electrical system operates in a charging mode such that alternating current (AC) energy from a power grid external to the vehicle is converted to DC energy to charge the DC energy storage system. The electrical system also operates in a vehicle-to-grid power conditioning mode such that DC energy from the DC energy storage system is converted to AC energy to condition an AC voltage of the power grid.

  19. Application of Hybrid Real-Time Power System Simulator for Designing and Researching of Relay Protection and Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovikov, Yu S.; Sulaymanov, A. O.; Andreev, M. V.

    2015-10-01

    Development, research and operation of smart grids (SG) with active-adaptive networks (AAS) are actual tasks for today. Planned integration of high-speed FACTS devices greatly complicates complex dynamic properties of power systems. As a result the operating conditions of equipment of power systems are significantly changing. Such situation creates the new actual problem of development and research of relay protection and automation (RPA) which will be able to adequately operate in the SGs and adapt to its regimes. Effectiveness of solution of the problem depends on using tools - different simulators of electric power systems. Analysis of the most famous and widely exploited simulators led to the conclusion about the impossibility of using them for solution of the mentioned problem. In Tomsk Polytechnic University developed the prototype of hybrid multiprocessor software and hardware system - Hybrid Real-Time Power System Simulator (HRTSim). Because of its unique features this simulator can be used for solution of mentioned tasks. This article introduces the concept of development and research of relay protection and automation with usage of HRTSim.

  20. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (< 2 ha) powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  1. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Grid-Connected Hybrid (Photovoltaic-Wind) Power System in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Saheb-Koussa, Djohra; Koussa, Mustapha; Said, Nourredine

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the technical, economic, and environmental analysis of wind and photovoltaic power systems connected to a conventional grid. The main interest in such systems is on-site consumption of the produced energy, system hybridization, pooling of resources, and contribution to the environment protection. To ensure a better management of system energy, models have been used for determining the power that the constituting subsystems can deliver under specific weather conditions. Simulation is performed using MATLAB-SIMULINK. While, the economic and environmental study is performed using HOMER software. From an economic point of view, this allows to compare the financial constraints on each part of the system for the case of Adrar site which is located to the northern part of the south of Algeria. It also permits to optimally size and select the system presenting the best features on the basis of two parameters, that is, cost and effectiveness. From an environmental point of view, this study allows highlighting the role of renewable energy in reducing gas emissions related to greenhouse effects. In addition, through a set of sensitivity analysis, it is found that the wind speed has more effects on the environmental and economic performances of grid-connected hybrid (photovoltaic-wind) power systems. PMID:24489488

  2. POWER (power optimization for wireless energy requirements): A MATLAB based algorithm for design of hybrid energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. A.; Albano, F.; Nevius, P. E.; Sastry, A. M.

    We have expanded and implemented an algorithm for selecting power supplies into a turnkey MATLAB code, "POWER" (power optimization for wireless energy requirements). Our algorithm uses three approaches to system design, specifying either: (1) a single, aggregate power profile; (2) a power system designed to satisfy several power ranges (micro-, milli- and Watt); or (3) a power system designed to be housed within specified spaces within the system. POWER was verified by conducting two case studies on hearing prosthetics: the TICA (LZ 3001) (Baumann group at the Tübingen University) and Amadeus cochlear implant (CI) (WIMS-ERC at the University of Michigan) based on a volume constraint of 2 cm 3. The most suitable solution identified by POWER for the TICA device came from Approach 1, wherein one secondary cell provided 26,000 cycles of 16 h operation. POWER identified Approach 2 as the solution for the WIMS-ERC Amadeus CI, which consisted of 1 cell for the microWatt power range and 1 cell for the milliWatt range (4.43 cm 3, ∼55% higher than the target volume), and provided 3280 cycles of 16 h operation (including re-charge of the batteries). Future work will be focused on continuously improving our present tool.

  3. Simulation and optimum design of hybrid solar-wind and solar-wind-diesel power generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei

    Solar and wind energy systems are considered as promising power generating sources due to its availability and topological advantages in local power generations. However, a drawback, common to solar and wind options, is their unpredictable nature and dependence on weather changes, both of these energy systems would have to be oversized to make them completely reliable. Fortunately, the problems caused by variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by integrating these two resources in a proper combination to form a hybrid system. However, with the increased complexity in comparison with single energy systems, optimum design of hybrid system becomes more complicated. In order to efficiently and economically utilize the renewable energy resources, one optimal sizing method is necessary. This thesis developed an optimal sizing method to find the global optimum configuration of stand-alone hybrid (both solar-wind and solar-wind-diesel) power generation systems. By using Genetic Algorithm (GA), the optimal sizing method was developed to calculate the system optimum configuration which offers to guarantee the lowest investment with full use of the PV array, wind turbine and battery bank. For the hybrid solar-wind system, the optimal sizing method is developed based on the Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) and the Annualized Cost of System (ACS) concepts. The optimization procedure aims to find the configuration that yields the best compromise between the two considered objectives: LPSP and ACS. The decision variables, which need to be optimized in the optimization process, are the PV module capacity, wind turbine capacity, battery capacity, PV module slope angle and wind turbine installation height. For the hybrid solar-wind-diesel system, minimization of the system cost is achieved not only by selecting an appropriate system configuration, but also by finding a suitable control strategy (starting and stopping point) of the diesel generator. The

  4. Development of a hybrid (solid state/gas) femtosecond laser system of multiterawatt peak power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losev, V.; Alekseev, S.; Ivanov, N.; Kovalchuk, B.; Mikheev, L.; Mesyats, G.; Panchenko, Yu.; Ratakhin, N.; Yastremsky, A.

    2010-09-01

    Terawatt hybrid laser (THL-100) system on the basis of Ti:sapphire starting complex and final amplifier with gaseous optically driven active media on XeF(C-A) molecules is presented. Laser system is built at Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia. It consists of Ti:sapphire starting complex and photochemical XeF(C-A) amplifier. The active media of amplifier pumped by VUV radiation has 24 cm aperture and 110 cm length. The results of numerical modeling of the output parameters and first experimental results are presented in this paper.

  5. Solar powered hybrid sensor module program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. M.; Holmes, H. K.

    1985-01-01

    Geo-orbital systems of the near future will require more sophisticated electronic and electromechanical monitoring and control systems than current satellite systems with an emphasis in the design on the electronic density and autonomy of the subsystem components. Results of a project to develop, design, and implement a proof-of-concept sensor system for space applications, with hybrids forming the active subsystem components are described. The design of the solar power hybrid sensor modules is discussed. Module construction and function are described. These modules combined low power CMOS electronics, GaAs solar cells, a crystal oscillatory standard UART data formatting, and a bidirectional optical data link into a single 1.25 x 1.25 x 0.25 inch hybrid package which has no need for electrical input or output. Several modules were built and tested. Applications of such a system for future space missions are also discussed.

  6. Hybrid community energy systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Karvelas, D. E.; Energy Systems

    2000-01-01

    The availability of efficient, economical, and reliable energy supplies can help attract industry and commercial businesses to a municipality or a region. Efficient use of energy can also improve the air quality and reduce pollution. Therefore, municipalities should explore and encourage the development and implementation of efficient energy systems. Integrated hybrid energy systems can be designed to meet the total energy requirements of large and small communities. These systems can yield significant energy and cost savings when compared with independent systems serving individual units or when compared with the conventional practice of buying power from a utility and producing thermal energy on-site. To maximize energy and cost savings, the design engineer should look beyond the conventional when designing such systems.

  7. Feasibility study for SOFC-GT hybrid locomotive power part II. System packaging and operating route simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Andrew S.; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2012-09-01

    This work assesses the feasibility of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid power systems for use as the prime mover in freight locomotives. The available space in a diesel engine-powered locomotive is compared to that required for an SOFC-GT system, inclusive of fuel processing systems necessary for the SOFC-GT. The SOFC-GT space requirement is found to be similar to current diesel engines, without consideration of the electrical balance of plant. Preliminary design of the system layout within the locomotive is carried out for illustration. Recent advances in SOFC technology and implications of future improvements are discussed as well. A previously-developed FORTRAN model of an SOFC-GT system is then augmented to simulate the kinematics and power notching of a train and its locomotives. The operation of the SOFC-GT-powered train is investigated along a representative route in Southern California, with simulations presented for diesel reformate as well as natural gas reformate and hydrogen as fuels. Operational parameters and difficulties are explored as are comparisons of expected system performance to modern diesel engines. It is found that even in the diesel case, the SOFC-GT system provides significant savings in fuel and CO2 emissions, making it an attractive option for the rail industry.

  8. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments. PMID:10107959

  9. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 2, book 2: Conceptual design, sections 5 and 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible are described. The detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system are given.

  10. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 1. Development and characterization of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, A I; Broeckmann, A; Richards, B S

    2007-02-01

    In isolated communities where potable water sources as well as energy grids are limited or nonexistent, treating brackish groundwater aquifers with small-scale desalination systems can be a viable alternative to existing water infrastructures. Given the unavailability of power in many such situations, renewable energy is an obvious solution to power such systems. However, renewable energy is an intermittent power supply and with regards to the performance of intermittently operated desalination systems, only very limited experience exists, both with regards to efficiency as well as water quality. In this paper, this lack of knowledge is addressed by evaluating a system operated with varying parameters (pressure and flow) with constant power as a step toward defining a safe operating window, and they provide a basis for interpreting future data obtained with a renewable energy source. Field trials were performed on a brackish (5300 mg/L TDS; 8290 microS/cm) bore in Central Australia with a photovoltaic-powered membrane filtration (PV-membrane) system. Four nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes (BW30, ESPA4, NF90, TFC-S) and a number of operation parameter combinations (transmembrane pressure, feed flow, TFC-S) and operating parameters transmembrane pressure and feed flow were investigated to find the best operating conditions for maximum drinking water production and minimum specific energy consumption (SEC). The ESPA4 membrane performed best for this brackish source, producing 250 L/h of excellent drinking water (257 mg/L TDS; 400 microS/ cm) at an SEC of 1.2 kWh/m3. The issue of brine disposal or reuse is also discussed and the article compares the salinity of the produced brine with livestock water. Since the feedwater is disinfected physically using ultrafiltration (UF), the brine is free from bacteria and most viruses and hence can be seen more as a reusable product stream than a waste stream with a disposal problem. PMID:17328215

  11. Design of a hybrid battery charger system fed by a wind-turbine and photovoltaic power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Tseng, Kuo-Ching; Yan, Bo-Yi

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to develop a digital signal processor (DSP) for controlling a solar cell and wind-turbine hybrid charging system. The DSP consists of solar cells, a wind turbine, a lead acid battery, and a buck-boost converter. The solar cells and wind turbine serve as the system's main power sources and the battery as an energy storage element. The output powers of solar cells and wind turbine have large fluctuations with the weather and climate conditions. These unstable powers can be adjusted by a buck-boost converter and thus the most suitable output powers can be obtained. This study designs a booster by using a dsPIC30F4011 digital signal controller as a core processor. The DSP is controlled by the perturbation and observation methods to obtain an effective energy circuit with a full 100 W charging system. Also, this DSP can, day and night, be easily controlled and charged by a simple program, which can change the state of the system to reach a flexible application based on the reading weather conditions.

  12. Design of a hybrid battery charger system fed by a wind-turbine and photovoltaic power generators.

    PubMed

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Tseng, Kuo-Ching; Yan, Bo-Yi

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to develop a digital signal processor (DSP) for controlling a solar cell and wind-turbine hybrid charging system. The DSP consists of solar cells, a wind turbine, a lead acid battery, and a buck-boost converter. The solar cells and wind turbine serve as the system's main power sources and the battery as an energy storage element. The output powers of solar cells and wind turbine have large fluctuations with the weather and climate conditions. These unstable powers can be adjusted by a buck-boost converter and thus the most suitable output powers can be obtained. This study designs a booster by using a dsPIC30F4011 digital signal controller as a core processor. The DSP is controlled by the perturbation and observation methods to obtain an effective energy circuit with a full 100 W charging system. Also, this DSP can, day and night, be easily controlled and charged by a simple program, which can change the state of the system to reach a flexible application based on the reading weather conditions. PMID:21456789

  13. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, W. R.; Johnson, B. L., III

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study.

  14. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.R.; Johnson, B.L. III )

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries'' (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study. 86 refs.

  15. A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hybrid Cooling Systems for Coal- and Natural-Gas-Fired Power Plants with and without Carbon Capture and Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S

    2016-04-01

    Advanced cooling systems can be deployed to enhance the resilience of thermoelectric power generation systems. This study developed and applied a new power plant modeling option for a hybrid cooling system at coal- or natural-gas-fired power plants with and without amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. The results of the plant-level analyses show that the performance and cost of hybrid cooling systems are affected by a range of environmental, technical, and economic parameters. In general, when hot periods last the entire summer, the wet unit of a hybrid cooling system needs to share about 30% of the total plant cooling load in order to minimize the overall system cost. CCS deployment can lead to a significant increase in the water use of hybrid cooling systems, depending on the level of CO2 capture. Compared to wet cooling systems, widespread applications of hybrid cooling systems can substantially reduce water use in the electric power sector with only a moderate increase in the plant-level cost of electricity generation. PMID:26967583

  16. Overall intelligent hybrid control system for a fossil-fuel power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garduno-Ramirez, Raul

    2000-10-01

    In response to the multiple and tighter operation requirements already placed on power plants, and anticipating everyday variations on their quantity and relevance due to competition on deregulated energy markets, this dissertation contributes the Intelligent Coordinated Control System (ICCS) paradigm that establishes a reference framework for the design of overall control systems for fossil-fuel power units, and develops a minimum prototype (ICCS-MP) to show its feasibility. The ICCS consists of a multiagent system organization structured as an open set of functionally grouped agent clusters in a two-level hierarchy. The upper level performs the supervisory functions needed to produce self-governing system behavior, while the lower level performs the fast reactive functions necessary for real-time control and protection. The ICCS-MP greatly extends the concept of current coordinated control schemes and embraces a minimum set of ICCS functions for the power unit to participate in load-frequency control in deregulated power systems; provides the means to achieve optimal wide-range load-tracking in multiobjective operating scenarios. The ICCS-MP preserves the ICCS structure. Supervisory functions include optimization and command generation, learning and control tuning, and performance and state monitoring. Direct level control functions realize a nonlinear multivariable feedforward-feedback scheme. These functions are implemented in three modules: reference governor, feedforward control processor (FFCP), and feedback control processor (FBCP). The reference governor provides set-point trajectories for the control loops by solving a multiobjective optimization problem that accommodates the operating scenario at hand. The FFCP facilitates achievement of wide-range operation; it is implemented as a fuzzy system that emulates the inverse static behavior of the power unit, and it is designed using neural networks. The FBCP provides disturbance and uncertainty compensation

  17. Control design for robust tracking and smooth transition in power systems with battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hoeguk; Wang, Haifeng; Hu, Tingshu

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers some control design problems in a power system driven by battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices. The currents in the battery and the supercapacitor are actively controlled by two bidirectional buck-boost converters. Two control objectives are addressed in this paper: one is to achieve robust tracking of two reference variables, the battery current and the load voltage, the other is to achieve smooth transition of these variables during load switch. Based on the state-space averaged model we newly developed, the control design problems are converted into numerically efficient optimization problems with linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints. An experimental system is constructed to validate the control design methods.

  18. Mathematical model of an off-grid hybrid solar and wind power generating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Luca, R.; Torre, G.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of an off-grid power generating system, coupled to a storage unit and to household appliances, is described by means of an analytic hydrodynamic analog. Following this analogy, by noticing that the effux rate from a leaking bucket is described, in terms of the liquid content, by Torricelli's formula, we denote as "Torricelli's smart consumer" a user being able to calibrate its energy consumption rate with respect to the energy level in the storage unit as if the hydrodynamic model would strictly apply. Simple solutions to the nonlinear dynamic problem associated to this type of smart consumer are found and generalization to other types of smart consumers are sought.

  19. Hybrid Power Management-Based Vehicle Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications (s ee figure). The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, that provides all power to a common energy storage system that is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems. This architecture also provides power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. The key element of HPM is the energy storage system. All generated power is sent to the energy storage system, and all loads derive their power from that system. This can significantly reduce the power requirement of the primary power source, while increasing the vehicle reliability. Ultracapacitors are ideal for an HPM-based energy storage system due to their exceptionally long cycle life, high reliability, high efficiency, high power density, and excellent low-temperature performance. Multiple power sources and multiple loads are easily incorporated into an HPM-based vehicle. A gas turbine is a good primary power source because of its high efficiency, high power density, long life, high reliability, and ability to operate on a wide range of fuels. An HPM controller maintains optimal control over each vehicle component. This flexible operating system can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve vehicle efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. The HPM-based vehicle architecture has many advantages over conventional vehicle architectures. Ultracapacitors have a much longer cycle life than batteries, which greatly improves system reliability, reduces life-of-system costs, and reduces environmental impact as ultracapacitors will probably never need to be

  20. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 2. Conceptual design, Sections 5 and 6

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains the detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system. (WHK)

  1. Modeling, Control, and Simulation of Battery Storage Photovoltaic-Wave Energy Hybrid Renewable Power Generation Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan Bin; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari Bin

    2014-01-01

    Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions. PMID:24892049

  2. Modeling, control, and simulation of battery storage photovoltaic-wave energy hybrid renewable power generation systems for island electrification in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Bin Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Bin Taha, Zahari

    2014-01-01

    Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions. PMID:24892049

  3. Hybrid power technology for remote military facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.N.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) operates hundreds of test, evaluation, and training facilities across the US and abroad. Due to the nature of their missions, these facilities are often remote and isolated from the utility grid. The preferred choice for power at these facilities has historically been manned diesel generators. The DoD Photovoltaic Review Committee, estimates that on the order of 350 million gallons of diesel fuel is burned each year to generate the 2000 GWh of electricity required to operate these remote military facilities. Other federal agencies, including the National Park Service and the USDA Forest Service use diesel generators for remote power needs as well. The generation of power diesel generators is both expensive and detrimental to the environment. The augmentation of power from diesel generators with power processing and battery energy storage enhances the efficiency and utilization of the generator resulting in lower fuel consumption and lower generator run- time in proportion to the amount of renewables added. The hybrid technology can both reduce the cost of power and reduce environmental degradation at remote DoD facilities. This paper describes the expected performance and economics of photovoltaic/diesel hybrid systems. Capabilities and status of systems now being installed at DoD facilities are presented along with financing mechanisms available within DoD.

  4. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.

    PubMed

    Richards, B S; Capão, D P S; Schäfer, A I

    2008-06-15

    This paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration--nanofiltration/reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating brackish groundwater in outback Australia. The renewable energy powered membrane (RE-membrane) system is designed to supply clean drinking water to a remote community of about 50 inhabitants. The performance of the RE-membrane system over four different solar days is summarized using four different NF membranes (BW30, NF90, ESPA4, TFC-S), and examined in more detail for the BW30 membrane. On an Australian spring day, the system produced 1.1 m3 of permeate with an average conductivity of 0.28 mS x cm(-1), recovering 28% of the brackish (8.29 mS x cm(-1) conductivity) feedwater with an average specific energy consumption of 2.3 kWh x m(-3). The RE-membrane system tolerated large fluctuations in solar irradiance (500--1200 W x m(-2)), resulting in only small increases in the permeate conductivity. When equipped with the NF90 (cloudy day) and ESPA4 (rainy day) membranes, the system was still able to produce 1.36 m(-3) and 0.85 m(-3) of good quality permeate, respectively. The TFC-S membrane was not able to produce adequate water quality from the bore water tested. It is concluded that batteryless operation is a simple and robust way to operate such systems under conditions ranging from clear skies to medium cloud cover. PMID:18605587

  5. Observation of a power-law energy distribution in atom-ion hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, Ziv; Akerman, Nitzan; Sikorsky, Tomas; Ben-Shlomi, Ruti; Dallal, Yehonatan; Ozeri, Roee

    2016-05-01

    Understanding atom-ion collision dynamics is at the heart of the growing field of ultra-cold atom-ion physics. The naive picture of a hot ion sympathetically-cooled by a cold atomic bath doesn't hold due to the time dependent potentials generated by the ion Paul trap. The energy scale of the atom-ion system is determined by a combination of the atomic bath temperature, the ion's excess micromotion (EMM) and the back action of the atom-ion attraction on the ion's position in the trap. However, it is the position dependent ion's inherent micromotion which acts as an amplifier for the ion's energy during random consecutive collisions. Due to this reason, the ion's energy distribution deviates from Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) characterized by an exponential tail to one with power-law tail described by Tsallis q-exponential function. Here we report on the observation of a strong deviation from MB to Tsallis energy distribution of a trapped ion. In our experiment, a ground-state cooled 88 Sr+ ion is immersed in an ultra-cold cloud of 87 Rb atoms. The energy scale is determined by either EMM or solely due to the back action on the ion position during a collision with an atom in the trap. Energy distributions are obtained using narrow optical clock spectroscopy.

  6. Amp-hour counting charge control for photovoltaic hybrid power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; Thompson, B.

    1997-10-01

    An amp-hour counting battery charge control algorithm has been defined and tested using the Digital Solar Technologies MPR-9400 microprocessor based photovoltaic hybrid charge controller. This work included extensive laboratory and field testing of the charge algorithm on vented lead-antimony and valve regulated lead-acid batteries. The test results have shown that with proper setup amp-hour counting charge control is more effective than conventional voltage regulated sub-array shedding in returning the lead-acid battery to a high state of charge.

  7. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, L. A.; Mortensen, Paw V.; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

    2011-05-01

    One of the most obvious early market applications for thermoelectric generators (TEG) is decentralized micro combined heat and power (CHP) installations of 0.5 kWe to 5 kWe based on fuel cell technology. Through the use of TEG technology for waste heat recovery it is possible to increase the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business and market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating purposes.

  8. Agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenhua

    The active hybridization technique provides an effective approach to combining the best properties of a heterogeneous set of power sources to achieve higher energy density, power density and fuel efficiency. Active hybrid power sources can be used to power hybrid electric vehicles with selected combinations of internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, and/or supercapacitors. They can be deployed in all-electric ships to build a distributed electric power system. They can also be used in a bulk power system to construct an autonomous distributed energy system. An important aspect in designing an active hybrid power source is to find a suitable control strategy that can manage the active power sharing and take advantage of the inherent scalability and robustness benefits of the hybrid system. This paper presents an agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent-based power sharing scheme, simulation studies are performed for a hybrid power source that can be used in a solar car as the main propulsion power module. Simulation results clearly indicate that the agent-based control framework is effective to coordinate the various energy sources and manage the power/voltage profiles.

  9. Calculating the Energy Cost of CO2 Removal in a Coal Based Gas Turbine Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Generation System with an Isolated Anode Stream

    SciTech Connect

    Vanosdol, J G; Gemmen, R S; Liese, E A

    2007-10-01

    In recent years there has been significant interest in identifying carbon capturing technologies that can be applied to fossil fuel power generation plants.CO2 capture technologies seek to reduce the amount of CO2 that would normally be emitted into the atmosphere from the daily operation of these plants. In terms of system efficiency and operating costs, this carbon capture is expensive. Further, the additional equipment that would be used to capture CO2 emissions greatly adds to the complexity of the system. There has also been significant interest in coal based gas turbine fuel cell hybrid power plants. A hybrid power plant can have much greater system efficiency than a normal gas turbine power plant because the heat that is normally unused in a standalone solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is recovered and used to drive a power producing turbine. It is thought that the increased system efficiency of the hybrid system might compensate for the increased expense of performing carbon capture. In order to provide some analytical insight on this tradeoff we present a 100 MW class coal fired gas turbine SOFC hybrid power generation system. The hybrid system operates at a pressure ratio of 6, and uses heat recuperation and cathode air recirculation to control the SOFC inlet temperature and the temperature change across the SOFC. A carbon capture scheme is added to this system in order to calculate the relative energy cost in terms of system efficiency due to CO2 compression. The carbon capture is performed by burning the unused fuel from the SOFC in an isolated anode stream using pure O2 injection. The resulting heat that is generated from this process is then used to drive a secondary turbine that is placed in the anode exhaust stream where more work is extracted. With an isolated anode stream, the products of combustion from this secondary combustion process are mostly water and carbon dioxide. The water by-product is

  10. Hybrid knowledge systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanian, V. S.

    1994-01-01

    An architecture called hybrid knowledge system (HKS) is described that can be used to interoperate between a specification of the control laws describing a physical system, a collection of databases, knowledge bases and/or other data structures reflecting information about the world in which the physical system controlled resides, observations (e.g. sensor information) from the external world, and actions that must be taken in response to external observations.

  11. Self-powered sensory nerve system for civil structures using hybrid forisome actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoureshi, Rahmat A.; Shen, Amy

    2006-03-01

    In order to provide a true distributed sensor and control system for civil structures, we have developed a Structural Nervous System that mimics key attributes of a human nervous system. This nervous system is made up of building blocks that are designed based on mechanoreceptors as a fundamentally new approach for the development of a structural health monitoring and diagnostic system that utilizes the recently discovered plant-protein forisomes, a novel non-living biological material capable of sensing and actuation. In particular, our research has been focused on producing a sensory nervous system for civil structures by using forisomes as the mechanoreceptors, nerve fibers, neuronal pools, and spinocervical tract to the nodal and central processing units. This paper will present up to date results of our research, including the design and analysis of the structural nervous system.

  12. Performance Analysis and Optimum Operation Planning of Distributed Energy System Based on Micro Gas Turbine-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Aina; Kimijima, Shinji

    In this paper, the economical and energy saving advantages of the distributed energy system, which consists of a micro gas turbine-solid oxide fuel cell hybrid power generation system, waste heat recovery devices and air-conditioning equipments, are investigated. Firstly, the thermodynamical performance evaluation of the hybrid system with the heat recovery devices is discussed to estimate the energy conversion efficiency of the whole system. Secondly, by using 1inear programming technique, the optimum operation planning of the cogeneration plant based on the hybrid system is discussed to predict the reduction of the primary fuel consumption and utility cost. Throughout detailed investigation, it is found that the energy conversion efficiency, which includes the waste heat utilization, reaches over 80% (LHV). In addition, the optimum operation of the hybrid system, of which power generation capacity is appropriate for the energy demand, achieve the highly effective energy saving against the traditional energy supply scheme, that is, the fuel reduction reaches around 40% to the conventional value.

  13. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 1. Conceptual design, Sections 1 through 4

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume presents in detail the market analysis, parametric analysis, and the selection process for the preferred system. (WHK)

  14. Space Station power system selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station power system selection process is described with attention given to management organization and technical considerations. A hybrid power system was chosen because of the large life cycle cost savings. The power management and distribution system that was chosen was the 400 Hz system.

  15. 4E analysis and multi objective optimization of a micro gas turbine and solid oxide fuel cell hybrid combined heat and power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanaye, Sepehr; Katebi, Arash

    2014-02-01

    Energy, exergy, economic and environmental (4E) analysis and optimization of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine (SOFC-MGT) system for use as combined generation of heat and power (CHP) is investigated in this paper. The hybrid system is modeled and performance related results are validated using available data in literature. Then a multi-objective optimization approach based on genetic algorithm is incorporated. Eight system design parameters are selected for the optimization procedure. System exergy efficiency and total cost rate (including capital or investment cost, operational cost and penalty cost of environmental emissions) are the two objectives. The effects of fuel unit cost, capital investment and system power output on optimum design parameters are also investigated. It is observed that the most sensitive and important design parameter in the hybrid system is fuel cell current density which has a significant effect on the balance between system cost and efficiency. The selected design point from the Pareto distribution of optimization results indicates a total system exergy efficiency of 60.7%, with estimated electrical energy cost 0.057 kW-1 h-1, and payback period of about 6.3 years for the investment.

  16. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  17. Hybrid solar powered desalination plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hamester, H.L.; Husseiny, A.; Lumdstrom, J.; La Porta, C.; McLagan, G.

    1981-01-01

    A solar powered sea water desalination system design is described. The commercial size plant is specified to provide at least 1.8*10/sup 6/m/sup 3//year of product water (<500 kg/m/sup 3/ total dissolved solids) from sea water containing 44,000 kg/m/sup 3/ total dissolved solids. The basis of the design is a two-stage desalination system employing membrane technologies. Membrane technologies were selected since they require about a factor of five less energy than desalination technologies which use distillation.

  18. Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program Resulted in Several New Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors, fuel cells, and photovoltaics. HPM has extremely wide potential with applications from nanowatts to megawatts. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy.

  19. Hybrid systems for distributed power generation based on pressurisation and heat recovering of an existing 100 kW molten carbonate fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillo, Olivia; Magistri, Loredana; Massardo, Aristide F.

    In this paper, different pressurisation and heat recovering techniques for an existing 100 kW molten carbonate fuel cell developed by Ansaldo fuel cells (formerly Ansaldo Ricerche) such as electrically driven compressors for anode (fuel) and cathode side (air), turbocharger, simple cycle gas turbine and regenerated gas turbine are analysed and discussed. The analysis has been carried out using for the FCS-MCFC stack simulation a model developed by the Thermochemical Power Group of the University of Genoa carefully tested with available experimental design point data. The design point hybrid system configurations have been analysed in detail using the code HS-MCFC based on the cited MCFC stack model and developed using Simulink language [Master Thesis, University of Genoa, 2001]. The different hybrid systems design point performance are presented and discussed in great detail, taking into account efficiency, specific power, costs, feasibility, and the need of modification of the existing FC-MCFC systems. Due to the size of the hybrid systems investigated (100-150 kW) they are very interesting for distributed power generation applications.

  20. Printed hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  1. A multi-port power electronics interface for battery powered electric vehicles: Application of inductively coupled wireless power transfer and hybrid energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, Matthew Kelly

    Climate change, pollution, and geopolitical conflicts arising from the extreme wealth concentrations caused by fossil fuel deposits are just a few of the side-effects of the way that we fuel our society. A new method to power our civilization is becoming more and more necessary. Research for new, more sustainable fuel sources is already underway due to research in wind, solar, geothermal, and hydro power. However this focus is mainly on stationary applications. A large portion of fossil fuel usage comes from transportation. Unfortunately, the transition to cleaner transportation fuels is being stunted by the inability to store adequate amounts of energy in electro-chemical batteries. The idea of charging while driving has been proposed by many researchers, however several challenges still exist. In this work some of these challenges are addressed. Specifically, the ability to route power from multiple sources/loads is investigated. Special attention is paid to adjusting the time constant of particular converters, namely the battery and ultra-capacitor converters to reduce the high frequency and high magnitude current components applied to the battery terminals. This is done by developing a closed loop model of the entire multi-port converter, including the state of charge of the ultra-capacitors. The development of closed loop models and two experimental testbeds for use as stationary vehicle charging platforms with their unique set of sources/loads are presented along-side an on-board charger to demonstrate the similarities and differences between stationary charging and mobile charging. Experimental results from each are given showing that it is not only possible, but feasible to utilize Inductively Coupled Wireless Power Transfer (ICWPT) to charge a battery powered electric vehicle while driving and still protect the life-span of the batteries under the new, harsher conditions generated by the ICWPT system.

  2. Geoproducts hybrid geothermal/wood fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, T.

    1983-12-01

    This presentation describes the 15 MW(e) hybrid combined cycle power plant being constructed at Honey Lake, near Susanville, California. The power plant will use a wood fired system topping cycle, an organic Ranking (binary) bottoming cycle, and geothermal heating of combustion air and organic working fluid. In addition to a technical description, project economics, project merits, and project status are presented.

  3. Session 7: Geoproducts Hybrid Geothermal / Wood Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, Tom

    1983-12-01

    This presentation describes the 15 MW(e) hybrid combined cycle power plant being constructed at Honey Lake, near Susanville, California. The power plant will use a wood fired system topping cycle, an organic Ranking (binary) bottoming cycle, and geothermal heating of combustion air and organic working fluid. In addition to a technical description, project economics, project merits, and project status are presented.

  4. Hybrid multitarget tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Aswinikumar; Hassebrook, Laurence G.; Ghosal, Sugata; Kim, Michael

    1992-11-01

    A common function for human being is to detect the movement of an object against a stationary background and then to lock on to and trace its motion. This natural process becomes very tedious in industrial or military environments where the database of images to be searched is huge or where the function is to be repeated continuously. Thus automation can assist people carrying out such tasks. This is the case in security systems, military reconnaissance, military targeting, aircraft tracking, assembly line manufacturing systems, and quality control. We present a hybrid system to do such tasks. The technique is simulated on computer using numerical algorithms and is successful under many situations. For implementation an ideal system using optical components is presented. This hybrid system employs three main subsystems which are combined in such a way as to compensate for each other's drawbacks yet enhance each other's virtues. The first system is a velocity correlation system which correlates two adjacent frames in a sequence of image frames. The resultant velocity correlations are searched to find the potential velocity profiles at which an object may be moving. These velocity profiles are then processed by the multi-frame mean subsystem which performs a geometric (or arithmetic mean) operation on the image frames. These frames are displaced by the selected velocity profiles and thereby aligning the object in the given frames for detection. Algorithms have been developed and tested to perform this technique on selected databases. Also algorithms to synthesize test images have been developed and the results are presented.

  5. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  6. Hybrid Systems Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIlraith, Sheila; Biswas, Gautam; Clancy, Dan; Gupta, Vineet

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on an on-going Project to investigate techniques to diagnose complex dynamical systems that are modeled as hybrid systems. In particular, we examine continuous systems with embedded supervisory controllers that experience abrupt, partial or full failure of component devices. We cast the diagnosis problem as a model selection problem. To reduce the space of potential models under consideration, we exploit techniques from qualitative reasoning to conjecture an initial set of qualitative candidate diagnoses, which induce a smaller set of models. We refine these diagnoses using parameter estimation and model fitting techniques. As a motivating case study, we have examined the problem of diagnosing NASA's Sprint AERCam, a small spherical robotic camera unit with 12 thrusters that enable both linear and rotational motion.

  7. A natural driven membrane process for brackish and wastewater treatment: photovoltaic powered ED and FO hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Pinoy, Luc; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-09-17

    In isolated locations, remote areas, or islands, potable water is precious because of the lack of drinking water treatment facilities and energy supply. Thus, a robust and reliable water treatment system based on natural energy is needed to reuse wastewater or to desalinate groundwater/seawater for provision of drinking water. In this work, a hybrid membrane system combining electrodialysis (ED) and forward osmosis (FO), driven by renewable energy (solar energy), denoted as EDFORD (ED-FO Renewable energy Desalination), is proposed to produce high-quality water (potable) from secondary wastewater effluent or brackish water. In this hybrid membrane system, feedwater (secondary wastewater effluent or synthetic brackish water) was drawn to the FO draw solution while the organic and inorganic substances (ions, compounds, colloids and particles) were rejected. The diluted draw solution was then pumped to the solar energy driven ED. In the ED unit, the diluted draw solution was desalted and high-quality water was produced; the concentrate was recycled to the FO unit and reused as the draw solution. Results show that the water produced from this system contains a low concentration of total organic carbon (TOC), carbonate, and cations derived from the feedwater; had a low conductivity; and meets potable water standards. The water production cost considering the investment for membranes and solar panel is 3.32 to 4.92 EUR m(-3) (for 300 days of production per year) for a small size potable water production system. PMID:23957893

  8. Thermoelectric power generation for hybrid-electric vehicle auxiliary power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headings, Leon M.; Washington, Gregory N.; Midlam-Mohler, Shawn; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2009-03-01

    The plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) concept allows for a moderate driving range in electric mode but uses an onboard range extender to capitalize on the high energy density of fuels using a combustion-based generator, typically using an internal combustion engine. An alternative being developed here is a combustion-based thermoelectric generator in order to develop systems technologies which capitalize on the high power density and inherent benefits of solid-state thermoelectric power generation. This thermoelectric power unit may find application in many military, industrial, and consumer applications including range extension for PHEVs. In this research, a baseline prototype was constructed using a novel multi-fuel atomizer with diesel fuel, a conventional thermoelectric heat exchange configuration, and a commercially available bismuth telluride module (maximum 225°C). This prototype successfully demonstrated the viability of diesel fuel for thermoelectric power generation, provided a baseline performance for evaluating future improvements, provided the mechanism to develop simulation and analysis tools and methods, and highlighted areas requiring development. The improvements in heat transfer efficiency using catalytic combustion were evaluated, the system was redesigned to operate at temperatures around 500 °C, and the performance of advanced high temperature thermoelectric modules was examined.

  9. Hybrid systems for transuranic waste transmutation in nuclear power reactors: state of the art and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurov, D. V.; Prikhod'ko, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    The features of subcritical hybrid systems (HSs) are discussed in the context of burning up transuranic wastes from the U-Pu nuclear fuel cycle. The advantages of HSs over conventional atomic reactors are considered, and fuel cycle closure alternatives using HSs and fast neutron reactors are comparatively evaluated. The advantages and disadvantages of two HS types with neutron sources (NSs) of widely different natures -- nuclear spallation in a heavy target by protons and nuclear fusion in magnetically confined plasma -- are discussed in detail. The strengths and weaknesses of HSs are examined, and demand for them for closing the U-Pu nuclear fuel cycle is assessed.

  10. Fuel Reduction Effect of the Solar Cell and Diesel Engine Hybrid System with a Prediction Algorithm of Solar Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shin'ya; Tanno, Itaru

    Green energy utilization technology is an effective means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, the production-of-electricity prediction algorithm (PAS) of the solar cell was developed. In PAS, a layered neural network is made to learn based on past weather data and the operation plan of the hybrid system (proposed system) of a solar cell and a diesel engine generator was examined using this prediction algorithm. In addition, system operation without a electricity-storage facility, and the system with the engine generator operating at 25% or less of battery residual quantity was investigated, and the fuel consumption of each system was measured. Numerical simulation showed that the fuel consumption of the proposed system was modest compared with other operating methods. However, there was a significant difference in the prediction error of the electricity production of the solar cell and the actual value, and the proposed system was shown to be not always superior to others. Moreover, although there are errors in the predicted and actual values using PAS, there is no significant influence in the operation plan of the proposed system in almost all cases. In the operation plan of the system with PAS, there was a case where the fuel consumption decreased by 15% compared with other systems.

  11. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

    2007-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

  12. Hybrid powertrain system

    DOEpatents

    Grillo, Ricardo C.; O'Neil, Walter K.; Preston, David M.

    2005-09-20

    A hybrid powertrain system is provided that includes a first prime mover having a rotational output, a second prime mover having a rotational output, and a transmission having a main shaft supporting at least two main shaft gears thereon. The transmission includes a first independent countershaft drivingly connected to the first prime mover and including at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. A second independent countershaft is drivingly connected to the second prime mover and includes at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. The ratio gears on the first and second countershafts cooperate with the main shaft gears to provide at least one gear ratio between the first and second countershafts and the main shaft. A shift control mechanism selectively engages and disengages the first and second countershafts for rotation with the main shaft.

  13. Simulation and Performance Analysis of Lithium Battery Bank Mounted on the Hybrid Power System for Mobile Public Health Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busono, Pratondo; Kartini, Evvy

    2013-07-01

    Mobile medical clinic has been proposed to serve homeless people, people in the disaster area or in the remote area where no health service exist. At that site, a number of essential services such as primary health care, general health screening, medical treatment and emergency/rescue operations are required. Such services usually requires on board electrical equipments such as refrigerators, komputer, power tools and medical equipments. To supply such electrical equipments, it needs extra auxiliary power sources, in addition of standard automotive power supply. The auxiliary power source specifically design to supply non automotive load which may have similar configuration, but usually uses high power alternator rated and larger deep cycle on board battery bank. This study covers the modeling and dynamic simulation of auxiliary power source/battery to supply the medical equipment and other electrical equipments on board. It consists a variable speed diesel generator set, photovoltaic (PV) generator mounted on the roof of the car, a rechargable battery bank. As an initial step in the system design, a simulation study was performed. The simulation is conducted in the system level. Simulation results shows that dynamical behaviour by means of current density, voltage and power plot over a chosen time range, and functional behaviour such as charging and discharging characteristic of the battery bank can be obtained.

  14. High-power batteries for use in hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellner, Christian; Newman, John

    The idea of hybrid vehicles is not a recent development; as early as the 1960s, several have companies attempted to develop bipolar lead/acid batteries for hybrid-electric vehicles [J.L. Arias, J.J. Rowlett, E.D. Drake, Journal of Power Sources, 40 (1993) 63-73.]. Hybrid vehicles have the potential to increase fuel economy by using a primary engine operating at a constant power to supply average power requirements and a surge power unit for peak power demands and to recover braking energy. To date, no detailed system optimization analysis has been performed for hybrid vehicles. This study combines a simplified version of the lithium-ion battery model developed by Doyle [C.M. Doyle, Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries, Dissertation, Fall, 1995.] with a vehicle model that determines battery-power requirements for a given driving cycle. Batteries are designed for either the highest vehicle mileage or minimal acceptable battery dimensions. Hybrid vehicles have the potential to more than double mileage as compared to conventional vehicles, and have a limited electric vehicle range. The battery goals of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) are investigated and often found to be differing with actual requirements. Specifically, PNGV overstates power and especially energy requirements for load-leveling devices and calls for unnecessary demands on the development of alternate technologies. The role of the driving cycle was investigated and found to be relatively unimportant as long as it contains several essential features. The important parameters in the driving cycle are the time of discharge and the maximum current (or power) level. This study suggests that a combination of both a vehicle model and a battery model is required to determine the complex interaction between hybrid-vehicle weight and battery power.

  15. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    DOEpatents

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  16. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  17. Technical Challenges of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Impacts to the US Power System: Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; DeSteese, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) to address three basic questions concerning how typical existing electrical distribution systems would be impacted by the addition of PHEVs to residential loads.

  18. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  19. Plastic-Sealed Hybrid Power Circuit Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed design for hybrid high-voltage power-circuit package uses molded plastic for hermetic sealing instead of glass-to-metal seal. New package used to house high-voltage regulators and solid-state switches for applications in aircraft, electric automobiles, industrial equipment, satellites, solarcell arrays, and other equipment in extreme environments.

  20. The space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The requirements for electrical power by the proposed Space Station Freedom are discussed. The options currently under consideration are examined. The three power options are photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and a hybrid system. Advantages and disadvantages of each system are tabulated. Drawings and artist concepts of the Space Station configuration are provided.

  1. Advanced configuration of hybrid passive filter for reactive power and harmonic compensation.

    PubMed

    Kececioglu, O Fatih; Acikgoz, Hakan; Sekkeli, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Harmonics is one of the major power quality problems for power systems. The harmonics can be eliminated by power filters such as passive, active, and hybrid. In this study, a new passive filter configuration has been improved in addition to the existing passive filter configurations. Conventional hybrid passive filters are not successful to compensate rapidly changing reactive power demand. The proposed configure are capable of compensating both harmonics and reactive power at the same time. Simulation results show that performance of reactive power and harmonic compensation with advanced hybrid passive filter is better than conventional hybrid passive filters. PMID:27536512

  2. Forced Oscillations for Hybrid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheshankov, B.

    2009-11-01

    The hybrid system in the paper means a mechanical system which consists from two parts with different structure—a part with distributed parameters and a part with discrete parameters. More concrete the forced longitudinal oscillations of a rod connected with a simple oscillator are considered. The oscillations of the separate parts of the system are very well known. It turned out that the oscillations of this hybrid system propose some difficulties when investigating. The paper proposes an approach to overcome these difficulties.

  3. Design and simulation of a fuel cell hybrid emergency power system for a more electric aircraft: Evaluation of energy management schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoya Motapon, Souleman

    As the aircraft industries are moving toward more electric aircraft (MEA), the electrical peak load seen by the main and emergency generators becomes higher than in conventional aircraft. Consequently, there is a major concern regarding the aircraft emergency system, which consists of a ram air turbine (RAT) or air driven generator (ADG), to fulfill the load demand during critical situations; particularly at low aircraft speed where the output power is very low. A potential solution under study by most aircraft manufacturers is to replace the air turbine by a fuel cell hybrid system, consisting of fuel cell combined with other high power density sources such as supercapacitors or lithium-ion batteries. To ensure the fuel cell hybrid system will be able to meet the load demand, it must be properly designed and an effective energy management strategy must be tested with real situations load profile. This work aims at designing a fuel cell emergency power system of a more electric aircraft and comparing different energy management schemes (EMS); with the goal to ensure the load demand is fully satisfied within the constraints of each energy source. The fuel cell hybrid system considered in this study consists of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, along with associated DC-DC and DC-AC converters. The energy management schemes addressed are state-of-the-art, most commonly used energy management techniques in fuel cell vehicle applications and include: the state machine control strategy, the rule based fuzzy logic strategy, the classical PI control strategy, the frequency decoupling/fuzzy logic control strategy and the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). Moreover, a new optimal scheme based on maximizing the instantaneous energy of batteries/supercapacitors, to improve the fuel economy is proposed. An off-line optimization based scheme is also developed to ascertain the validity of the proposed strategy in terms of fuel consumption

  4. San Juanico Hybrid System Technical and Institutional Assessment: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Newcomb, C.; Yewdall, Z.

    2004-07-01

    San Juanico is a fishing village of approximately 120 homes in the Municipality of Comondu, Baja California. In April, 1999, a hybrid power system was installed in San Juanico to provide 24-hour power, which was not previously available. Before the installation of the hybrid power system, a field study was conducted to characterize the electrical usage and institutional and social framework of San Juanico. One year after the installation of the hybrid power system a''post-electrification'' study was performed to document the changes that had occurred after the installation. In December of 2003, NREL visited the site to conduct a technical assessment of the system.

  5. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  6. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  7. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  8. High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C.; Sanderson, R.A.

    1996-07-01

    The hybrid power cycle studies were conducted to identify a high efficiency, economically competitive system. A hybrid power cycle which generates power at an LHV efficiency > 70% was identified that includes an atmospheric pressure direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle. In this cycle, natural gas fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming fuel. The mixed gas then flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell which generates about 70% of the power. The portion of the anode exhaust which is not recycled is burned and heat transferred through a heat exchanger (HX) to the compressed air from a gas turbine. The heated compressed air is then heated further in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 15% of the power. Half the exhaust from the turbine provides air for the anode exhaust burner. All of the turbine exhaust eventually flows through the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the cathodes flows to a steam system (heat recovery steam generator, staged steam turbine generating 15% of the cycle power). Simulation of a 200 MW plant with a hybrid power cycle had an LHV efficiency of 72.6%. Power output and efficiency are insensitive to ambient temperature, compared to a gas turbine combined cycle; NOx emissions are 75% lower. Estimated cost of electricity for 200 MW is 46 mills/kWh, which is competitive with combined cycle where fuel cost is > $5.8/MMBTU. Key requirement is HX; in the 200 MW plant studies, a HX operating at 1094 C using high temperature HX technology currently under development by METC for coal gassifiers was assumed. A study of a near term (20 MW) high efficiency direct carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle has also been completed.

  9. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  10. Hybrid Laser Would Combine Power With Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Donald L., Jr

    1986-01-01

    Efficient laser system constructed by using two semiconductor lasers to pump neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) device. Hybrid concept allows digital transmission at data rates of several megabits per second with reasonably sized optical aperture of 20 cm. Beams from two GaAs lasers efficiently coupled for pumping Nd:YAG crystal. Combination of lasers exploits best features of each.

  11. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis-Membrane Distillation System for Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat: Thermodynamic Analysis and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, SH; Yip, NY; Cath, TY; Osuji, CO; Elimelech, M

    2014-05-06

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 degrees C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 degrees C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for

  12. A hybrid base isolation system

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, G.C.; Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M.; Asher, J.W.

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  13. Hybrid Aerocapacitor{trademark}-battery power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacson, M.J.; Kraemer, B.J.; Laramore, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    PolyStor, Power-One, LLNL and Aerojet are participants in a Technology Reinvestment Program contract supported by the Advanced Research Project Agency for developing carbon aerogel-based Electrolytic Double Layer Capacitors (Aerocapacitors). This paper reports some recent results for organic-electrolyte Aerocapacitors developed under this contract and initial results on their use in electrolytic double layer capacitor (EDLC)-battery power sources. EDLC-battery hybrid power sources offer the potential for increased discharge time, improved low temperature performance and longer cycle life vis-a-vis batteries in pulse discharge applications. The authors previously presented performance results for AA Aerocapacitors but this is the first report of their work on hybrid power sources. Prototype organic-electrolyte Aerocapacitors exhibit low equivalent series resistance (ESR), high capacitance, excellent rate capability at room temperature and low temperatures, and long life. The AA-size devices assembled for testing have ESRs of 20-30 m{Omega} at 1000 Hz and capacitances of about 6 Farads. They are capable of being discharged at very high rates. The capacity at 15 Amps is about 71% of the capacity at 1 Amp. The capacity at 1 Amp and {minus}40{degrees}C is 57% of the room-temperature 1 Amp capacity. AA Aerocapacitors have demonstrated 32,000 cycles in cycle life testing. After an initial capacity decrease of about 17% the capacity remained almost constant between cycle 10,000 and cycle 32,000.

  14. A hybrid interval-parameter fuzzy robust programming method and its application to filter management strategy in fluid power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, S. L.; Ji, H.; Huang, Y. Q.; Li, Y. P.; Huang, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    An interval-parameter fuzzy robust programming (IFRP) method is developed for the assessment of filter allocation and replacement strategies in a fluid power system (FPS) under uncertainty. The developed IFRP can effectively handle the uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets, interval values, and their combinations, which exist in contaminant ingression/generation of the system and contaminant-holding capacity of filter without making assumptions on their probabilistic distributions. The fuzzy decision space can be delimited into a more robust one with the uncertainties being specified through dimensional enlargement of the original fuzzy constraints, leading to enhanced robustness for the optimization process. Results indicate that the developed IFRP can not only help decision-maker to identify optimal filter allocation and replacement strategies to control the contamination level of FPS with a minimized system-cost and system-failure risk under multiple uncertainties, but also mitigate uncertainties through abating interval widths of the replacement periods and service life under different contamination ingression/generation rates.

  15. Compact Hybrid Automotive Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.

    1986-01-01

    Power train proposed for experimental vehicle powered by internal combustion engine and electric motor. Intended for front-wheel drive automobile, power train mass produced using existing technology. System includes internal-combustion engine, electric motor, continuously variable transmission, torque converter, differential, and control and adjustment systems for electric motor and transmission. Continuously variable transmission integrated into hydraulic system that also handles power steering and power brakes. Batteries for electric motor mounted elsewhere in vehicle.

  16. The power of hybrid / fusion imaging metrics in future PACS systems: a case study into the white matter hyperintensity prenumbra using FLAIR and diffusion MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Ma, Samantha J.; Michels, Peter A.; Gajawelli, Niharika; Law, Meng; Chui, Helena; Lepore, Natasha

    2014-04-01

    Most white matter related neurological disease exhibit a large number of White Matter Hyperintensities (WMHs) on FLAIR MRI images. However, these lesions are not well understood. At the same time, Diffusion MRI has been gaining popularity as a powerful method of characterizing White Matter (WM) integrity. This work aims to study the behavior of the diffusion signal within the WMH voxels. The goal is to develop hybrid MR metrics that leverage information from multiple MR acquisitions to solve clinical problems. In our case, we are trying to address the WMH penumbra (as defined by Maillard et al 20112) where WMH delineates a foci that is more widespread than the actual damage area presumably due to acute inflammation. Our results show that diffusion MR metrics may be able to better delineate tissue that is inflamed versus scar tissue but may be less specific to lesions than FLAIR. Therefore, a hybrid metric that encodes information from both FLAIR and Diffusion MR may yield new and novel imaging information about the progression of white matter disease progression. We hope that this work also demonstrates how future PACS systems could have image fusion capabilities that would be able to leverage information from multiple imaging series to yield new and novel imaging contrast.

  17. A Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Based Vehicle Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Society desires vehicles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced emissions. This presents a challenge and an opportunity for industry and the government. The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a Hybrid Power Management (HPM) based vehicle architecture for space and terrestrial vehicles. GRC's Electrical and Electromagnetics Branch of the Avionics and Electrical Systems Division initiated the HPM Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, providing all power to a common energy storage system, which is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems, as well as provide power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. This flexible vehicle architecture can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve system efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. This unique vehicle architecture has the potential to alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, stimulate the economy, and enable new missions.

  18. Predicts the Long Term Performance and Economic Feasibility of Hybrid Power Sys

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-12-01

    HYBRID2 is a combined probalistic/time series model designed to study a wide variety of hybrid power systems. Hybrid power systems combine a number of sources of power generation and, usually, a form of energy storage to supply an electrical load. Hybrid power systems are mainly used in areas such as islands or remote communities that are removed from a power distribution network. These power systems can range from large, multi-megawatt systems to those supplying singlemore » family dwellings. HYBRID2 simulates systems that include diesel generators, wind turbines, battery storage, different power conversion devices and a photovoltaic array. Systems can be modeled with components on the AC, DC or multiple buses. A variety of different operating strategies have been allowed as well as an economic analysis tool. The HYBRID2 code has a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) as well as a glossary of terms commonly associated with hybrid power systems. HYBRID2 is also packaged with an extensive library of equipment to assist the user in designing hybrid power systems. Each piece of equipment is commercially available and uses manufacturer''s specifications. In addition the library includes resource data and some sample power systems and projects that can be used as templates. Two levels of output are provided, a summary as well as a detailed time step by time step description of power flows. A Graphical Results Interface (GRI) allows for easy and in-depth review of the detailed simulation results.« less

  19. A PWM Buck Converter With Load-Adaptive Power Transistor Scaling Scheme Using Analog-Digital Hybrid Control for High Energy Efficiency in Implantable Biomedical Systems.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Yun; Cho, Jihyun; Lee, Kyuseok; Yoon, Euisik

    2015-12-01

    We report a pulse width modulation (PWM) buck converter that is able to achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of > 80% in light loads 100 μA) for implantable biomedical systems. In order to achieve a high PCE for the given light loads, the buck converter adaptively reconfigures the size of power PMOS and NMOS transistors and their gate drivers in accordance with load currents, while operating at a fixed frequency of 1 MHz. The buck converter employs the analog-digital hybrid control scheme for coarse/fine adjustment of power transistors. The coarse digital control generates an approximate duty cycle necessary for driving a given load and selects an appropriate width of power transistors to minimize redundant power dissipation. The fine analog control provides the final tuning of the duty cycle to compensate for the error from the coarse digital control. The mode switching between the analog and digital controls is accomplished by a mode arbiter which estimates the average of duty cycles for the given load condition from limit cycle oscillations (LCO) induced by coarse adjustment. The fabricated buck converter achieved a peak efficiency of 86.3% at 1.4 mA and > 80% efficiency for a wide range of load conditions from 45 μA to 4.1 mA, while generating 1 V output from 2.5-3.3 V supply. The converter occupies 0.375 mm(2) in 0.18 μm CMOS processes and requires two external components: 1.2 μF capacitor and 6.8 μH inductor. PMID:26742139

  20. Renewable Electricity Generation via Solar-Powered Methanol Reforming: Hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems Based on Novel Non-Concentrating, Intermediate-Temperature Solar Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, Daniel J.

    Tremendous research efforts have been conducted studying the capturing and conversion of solar energy. Solar thermal power systems offer a compelling opportunity for renewable energy utilization with high efficiencies and excellent cost-effectiveness. The goal of this work was to design a non-concentrating collector capable of reaching temperatures above 250 °C, use this collector to power methanol steam reforming, and operate a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell using the generated hydrogen. The study presents the construction and characterization of a non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature, fin-in-tube evacuated solar collector, made of copper and capable of reaching stagnation temperatures of 268.5 °C at 1000 W/m2 irradiance. The collector was used to power methanol steam reforming, including the initial heating and vaporization of liquid reactants and the final heating of the gaseous reactants. A preferential oxidation (PROX) catalyst was used to remove CO from simulated reformate gas, and this product gas was used to operate a PEM fuel cell. The results show 1) that the outlet temperature is not limited by heat transfer from the absorber coating to the heat transfer fluid, but by the amount of solar energy absorbed. This implicates a constant heat flux description of the heat transfer process and allows for the usage of materials with lower thermal conductivity than copper. 2) It is possible to operate a PEM fuel cell from reformate gas if a PROX catalyst is used to remove CO from the gas. 3) The performance of the fuel cell is only slightly decreased (~4%) by CO2 dilution present in the reformate and PROX gas. These results provide a foundation for the first renewable electricity generation via solar-powered methanol reforming through a hybrid PEM fuel cell system based on novel non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature solar collectors.

  1. Improving long-term operation of power sources in off-grid hybrid systems based on renewable energy, hydrogen and battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Pablo; Torreglosa, Juan P.; Fernández, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents two novel hourly energy supervisory controls (ESC) for improving long-term operation of off-grid hybrid systems (HS) integrating renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic solar panels), hydrogen system (fuel cell, hydrogen tank and electrolyzer) and battery. The first ESC tries to improve the power supplied by the HS and the power stored in the battery and/or in the hydrogen tank, whereas the second one tries to minimize the number of needed elements (batteries, fuel cells and electrolyzers) throughout the expected life of the HS (25 years). Moreover, in both ESC, the battery state-of-charge (SOC) and the hydrogen tank level are controlled and maintained between optimum operating margins. Finally, a comparative study between the controls is carried out by models of the commercially available components used in the HS under study in this work. These ESC are also compared with a third ESC, already published by the authors, and based on reducing the utilization costs of the energy storage devices. The comparative study proves the right performance of the ESC and their differences.

  2. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  3. Aluminum corrosion mitigation in alkaline electrolytes containing hybrid inorganic/organic inhibitor system for power sources applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Danny; Lasman, Itay; Elfimchev, Sergey; Starosvetsky, David; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2015-07-01

    The severe corrosion accompanied with hydrogen evolution process is the main obstacle preventing the implementation of Al as an anode in alkaline batteries. It impairs the functionality of alkaline battery, due to a drastic capacity loss and a short shelf life. The possibility to reduce Al corrosion rate in alkaline solution with the use of hybrid organic∖inorganic inhibitor based on poly (ethylene glycol) di-acid (PEG di-acid) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was examined in this work. A correlation between an Al corrosion rates and the concentrations of both PEG di-acid and ZnO in alkaline is shown. Selecting 5000 ppm PEG di-acid and 16 gr/l ZnO provides substantial corrosion protection of Al, reducing the corrosion rate in a strong alkaline solution by more than one order of magnitude. Moreover, utilizing the same formulation results in increase in Al-air battery discharge capacity, from 44.5 (for a battery utilizing only KOH in the electrolyte) to 70 mhA/cm2 (for a battery utilizing ZnO/PEG di-acid hybrid inhibitor in the electrolyte). The morphology and composition of the Al electrode surface (studied by SEM, EDS, and XRD) depend on PEG di-acid and ZnO concentrations.

  4. Enhanced Electric Power Transmission by Hybrid Compensation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanichamy, C.; Kiu, G. Q.

    2015-04-01

    In today's competitive environment, new power system engineers are likely to contribute immediately to the task, without years of seasoning via on-the-job training, mentoring, and rotation assignments. At the same time it is becoming obligatory to train power system engineering graduates for an increasingly quality-minded corporate environment. In order to achieve this, there is a need to make available better-quality tools for educating and training power system engineering students and in-service system engineers too. As a result of the swift advances in computer hardware and software, many windows-based computer software packages were developed for the purpose of educating and training. In line with those packages, a simulation package called Hybrid Series-Shunt Compensators (HSSC) has been developed and presented in this paper for educational purposes.

  5. Analysis of GaAs and Si solar energy hybrid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Various silicon hybrid systems are modeled and compared with a gallium arsenide hybrid system. The hybrid systems modeled produce electric power and also thermal power which can be used for heating or air conditioning. Various performance indices are defined and used to compare the system performance: capital cost per electric power out; capital cost per total power out; capital cost per electric power plus mechanical power; annual cost per annual electric energy; and annual cost per annual electric energy plus annual mechanical work. These performance indices indicate that concentrator hybrid systems can be cost effective when compared with present day energy costs.

  6. Hybrid pressure retarded osmosis-membrane distillation system for power generation from low-grade heat: thermodynamic analysis and energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shihong; Yip, Ngai Yin; Cath, Tzahi Y; Osuji, Chinedum O; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 °C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 °C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for performance

  7. Control system for a 373 kW, intercooled, two-spool gas turbine engine powering a hybrid electric world sports car class vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Shortlidge, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    SatCon technology Corporation has completed design, fabrication, and the first round of test of a 373 kW (500 hp), two-spool, intercooled gas turbine engine with integral induction type alternators. This turbine alternator is the prime mover for a World Sports Car class hybrid electric vehicle under development by Chrysler Corporation. The complete hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system features the 373 kW (500 hp) turbine alternator unit, a 373 kW (500 hp) 3.25 kW-h (4.36 hp-h) flywheel, a 559 kW (750 hp) traction motor, and the propulsion system control system. This paper presents and discusses the major attributes of the control system associated with the turbine alternator unit. Also discussed is the role and operational requirements of the turbine unit as part of the complete hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system.

  8. Hybrid System Reduction Method using Reduced System Regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Eisuke; Tsuji, Takao; Oyama, Tsutomu

    In order to analyze transient stability of large-scale power systems, it is advantageous to apply system reduction method to external systems. Short-circuit current method is one of the typical engineering reduction techniques. However, the dominant eigenvalues are not necessarily conserved in the reduced system. Therefore, the hybrid reduction method in which controller parameters are adjusted to conserve the dominant eigenvalues was proposed. Automatic voltage regulator (AVR) and power system stabilizer (PSS) have been used for parameters adjustment so far. However, since there are many parameters in AVR and PSS, complicated procedures are required to adjust them. Therefore, in this paper, the reduced system regulator (RSR) is proposed for hybrid system reduction method. The RSR has only two parameters for adjustment. It is easier to adjust the RSR than AVR/PSS. In addition, the initial gains of the RSR are set zero so that dynamic behavior of the system is not influenced before the adjustment. The effect and the accuracy of the hybrid system reduction method with RSR are examined using a typical longitudinal power system, IEEJ WEST 10-machine system model.

  9. Hybrid powertrain system

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Douglas A.

    2007-09-25

    A powertrain system is provided that includes a first prime mover and change-gear transmission having a first input shaft and a second input shaft. A twin clutch is disposed between the first prime mover and the transmission. The twin clutch includes a first main clutch positioned between the first prime mover and the first input shaft and a second main clutch positioned between the first prime mover and the second input shaft. The powertrain system also includes a second prime mover operably connected to one of the first and second input shafts.

  10. Hybrid powertrain system

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Douglas A.

    2006-08-01

    A powertrain system is provided that includes a first prime mover and change-gear transmission having a first input shaft and a second input shaft. A twin clutch is disposed between the first prime mover and the transmission. The twin clutch includes a first main clutch positioned between the first prime mover and the first input shaft and a second main clutch positioned between the first prime mover and the second input shaft. The powertrain system also includes a second prime mover operably connected to one of the first and second input shafts.

  11. Conversion of Solar Two to a Kokhala hybrid power tower

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.W.

    1997-06-01

    The continued drop in energy prices and restructuring of the utility industry have reduced the likelihood that a follow-on commercial 100-MW, power tower project will be built immediately following the Solar Two demonstration project. Given this, it would be desirable to find a way to extend the life of the Solar Two project to allow the plant to operate as a showcase for future power tower projects. This paper looks at the possibility of converting Solar Two into a commercial Kokhala hybrid power tower plant at the end of its demonstration period in 1998. The study identifies two gas turbines that could be integrated into a Kokhala cycle at Solar Two and evaluates the design, expected performance, and economics of each of the systems. The study shows that a commercial Kokhala project at Solar Two could produce power at a cost of less than 7 e/kWhr.

  12. Analysis of village hybrid systems in Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D J; Corbus, D; Holz, R

    1996-06-01

    Chile recently began a major rural electrification program to electrify those 240,000 families (about half of the rural people) who lack electricity access. In this paper, we discuss a pilot project to electrify three remote villages in Chile`s Region IX using wind/genset/battery hybrids. The intent of this project is to demonstrate the reliability and cost-effectiveness of wind/genset/battery hybrids and to encourage replication of these types of systems in Chile`s electrification program. For each village, electricity connections are planned for several residences, and also schools, health posts, community centers, or chapels. Projected average daily loads are small, ranging from 4 to 10 kWh. Using the optimization program HOMER and the simulation program Hybrid2, we evaluated options to maximize technical performance, minimize costs, and gain experience with a variety of systems and components. We find that wind/genset/battery hybrids will be able to provide cost-effective, reliable power for these sites. More importantly, their inherent flexibility allows for variations in load and resource without greatly affecting the cost of energy.

  13. Conducting hybrid polymeric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aldissi, M.; White, J.W.; Agnew, S.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-09-01

    The studies took advantage of the opportunities offered by copolymerization for gaining insight into electrical conduction, morphology, phase separation, polymer-polymer interfaces, and solubility. Copolymerization is technologically important for it allows one to tailor-make products with specifically desired properties. However, the utility of copolymerization involving conjugated, rigid components could be different from that of conventional polymers. This paper is focused on the synthesis and properties of various materials: Rod-coil systems such as polyisoprene/polyacetylene diblock copolymers (resonance raman and small angle neutron scattering studies correlated to conductivity); and alternating copolymers such as poly (arylpyrroles) (electrochemical synthesis and characterization). 8 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant Project. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    A technical and economic feasibility study of the engineering aspects of a hybrid wood-fired geothermal electrical generating plant is presented. The proposed plant location is in Lassen County, California, near the Wendel Amedee Known Geothermal Resource Area. This power plant uses moderate temperature geothermal fluid to augment the heat supplied from a wood waste fired boiler. This report defines major plant systems for implementation into the plant conceptual design and provides sufficient design information for development of budgetary cost estimates. Emphasis is placed on incorporation of geothermal heat into the power generation process. Plant systems are designed and selected based on economic justification and on proven performance. The culminating economic analysis provides the financial information to establish the incentives for construction of the plant. The study concludes that geothermal energy and energy from wood can be combined in a power generating plant to yield attractive project economics.

  15. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  16. Power management system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2007-10-02

    A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

  17. Investigation of the photovoltaic cell/ thermoelectric element hybrid system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotfas, D. T.; Cotfas, P. A.; Machidon, O. M.; Ciobanu, D.

    2016-06-01

    The PV/TEG hybrid system, consisting of the photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric element, is presented in the paper. The dependence of the PV/TEG hybrid system parameters on the illumination levels and the temperature is analysed. The maxim power values of the photovoltaic cell, of the thermoelectric element and of the PV/TEG system are calculated and a comparison between them is presented and analysed. An economic analysis is also presented.

  18. Hybrid chirped pulse amplification system

    DOEpatents

    Barty, Christopher P.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2005-03-29

    A hybrid chirped pulse amplification system wherein a short-pulse oscillator generates an oscillator pulse. The oscillator pulse is stretched to produce a stretched oscillator seed pulse. A pump laser generates a pump laser pulse. The stretched oscillator seed pulse and the pump laser pulse are directed into an optical parametric amplifier producing an optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and an optical parametric amplifier output unconverted pump pulse. The optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and the optical parametric amplifier output laser pulse are directed into a laser amplifier producing a laser amplifier output pulse. The laser amplifier output pulse is compressed to produce a recompressed hybrid chirped pulse amplification pulse.

  19. Secondary power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    In aeronautical engineering secondary power systems have long played second fiddle to the airframe, the engine, and indeed, the avionics. This collection of papers is thus timely, and its publication by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers appropriate, as secondary power systems in modern aircraft present challenging mechanical engineering problems. In military aircraft demands for electrical and hydraulic power and high pressure air have grown over the past two decades. To these basic needs are added requirements for emergency power, ground power, and independent engine starting. Additionally increased reliability and maintainability is demanded from all secondary power systems. Complete contents: What is a secondary power system. Modern technology secondary power systems for next generation military aircraft; Integrated power units; Secondary power system gearbox; Starting the system - air turbine starters; Auxiliary and emergency power system; Secondary hydraulic power generation; Advanced technology electrical power generation equipment.

  20. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Dress, William B.

    2010-02-02

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method includes modulating a signal by utilizing a subset of bits from a pseudo-random code generator to control an amplification circuit that provides a gain to the signal. Another method includes: modulating a signal by utilizing a subset of bits from a pseudo-random code generator to control a fast hopping frequency synthesizer; and fast frequency hopping the signal with the fast hopping frequency synthesizer, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time.

  1. Parametric systems analysis for tandem mirror hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.; Chapin, D.L.; Chi, J.W.H.

    1980-09-01

    Fusion fission systems, consisting of fissile producing fusion hybrids combining a tandem mirror fusion driver with various blanket types and net fissile consuming LWR's, have been modeled and analyzed parametrically. Analysis to date indicates that hybrids can be competitive with mined uranium when U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ cost is about 100 $/lb., adding less than 25% to present day cost of power from LWR's. Of the three blanket types considered, uranium fast fission (UFF), thorium fast fission (ThFF), and thorium fission supressed (ThFS), the ThFS blanket has a modest economic advantage under most conditions but has higher support ratios and potential safety advantages under all conditions.

  2. Trimode optimizes hybrid power plants. Final report: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    O`Sullivan, G.A.; O`Sullivan, J.A.

    1998-07-01

    In the Phase 2 project, Abacus Controls Inc. did research and development of hybrid systems that combine the energy sources from photovoltaics, batteries, and diesel-generators and demonstrated that they are economically feasible for small power plants in many parts of the world. The Trimode Power Processor reduces the fuel consumption of the diesel-generator to its minimum by presenting itself as the perfect electrical load to the generator. A 30-kW three-phase unit was tested at Sandia National Laboratories to prove its worthiness in actual field conditions. The use of photovoltaics at remote locations where reliability of supply requires a diesel-generator will lower costs to operate by reducing the run time of the diesel generator. The numerous benefits include longer times between maintenance for the diesel engine and better power quality from the generator. 32 figs.

  3. Conceptual Design and Optimal Power Control Strategy for AN Eco-Friendly Hybrid Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiri, N. Mir; Chieng, Frederick T. A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a new concept for a hybrid vehicle using a torque and speed splitting technique. It is implemented by the newly developed controller in combination with a two degree of freedom epicyclic gear transmission. This approach enables optimization of the power split between the less powerful electrical motor and more powerful engine while driving a car load. The power split is fundamentally a dual-energy integration mechanism as it is implemented by using the epicyclic gear transmission that has two inputs and one output for a proper power distribution. The developed power split control system manages the operation of both the inputs to have a known output with the condition of maintaining optimum operating efficiency of the internal combustion engine and electrical motor. This system has a huge potential as it is possible to integrate all the features of hybrid vehicle known to-date such as the regenerative braking system, series hybrid, parallel hybrid, series/parallel hybrid, and even complex hybrid (bidirectional). By using the new power split system it is possible to further reduce fuel consumption and increase overall efficiency.

  4. Hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Balch, Joseph W.; Carrano, Anthony V.; Davidson, James C.; Koo, Jackson C.

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system. The hybrid system permits the fabrication of isolated microchannels for biomolecule separations without imposing the constraint of a totally sealed system. The hybrid system is reusable and ultimately much simpler and less costly to manufacture than a closed channel plate system. The hybrid system incorporates a microslab portion of the separation medium above the microchannels, thus at least substantially reducing the possibility of non-uniform field distribution and breakdown due to uncontrollable leakage. A microslab of the sieving matrix is built into the system by using plastic spacer materials and is used to uniformly couple the top plate with the bottom microchannel plate.

  5. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    PubMed Central

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558

  6. Model-Based Prognostics of Hybrid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Bregon, Anibal

    2015-01-01

    Model-based prognostics has become a popular approach to solving the prognostics problem. However, almost all work has focused on prognostics of systems with continuous dynamics. In this paper, we extend the model-based prognostics framework to hybrid systems models that combine both continuous and discrete dynamics. In general, most systems are hybrid in nature, including those that combine physical processes with software. We generalize the model-based prognostics formulation to hybrid systems, and describe the challenges involved. We present a general approach for modeling hybrid systems, and overview methods for solving estimation and prediction in hybrid systems. As a case study, we consider the problem of conflict (i.e., loss of separation) prediction in the National Airspace System, in which the aircraft models are hybrid dynamical systems.

  7. Hybrid system modeling, simulation, and visualization: a crane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiniduma Udugama Gamage, Sahan S.; Palmer, Patrick R.

    2003-08-01

    Modeling and visualization of a complex hybrid system with different domains of energy flow and signal flow are described in this paper. It is a crane system situated in a barge complete with the load, electrical power, drive and control systems. A dynamically and functionally accurate model of the crane was developed. The implementation is in the freely available software suit of Virtual Test Bed (VTB) for simulation and Visual Extension Engine (VXE) for visualization. The bidirectional interaction of simulator and visualizer is fully utilized in this application. The further challenges confronted in implementing this particular system and any other complex system are discussed and possible solutions are suggested.

  8. Topology, Design, Analysis, and Thermal Management of Power Electronics for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, C.; Peng, F. Z.; Kelly, K. J.; O'Keefe, M.; Hassani, V.

    2008-01-01

    Power electronics circuits play an important role in the success of electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles. Typical power electronics circuits in hybrid vehicles include electric motor drive circuits and DC/DC converter circuits. Conventional circuit topologies, such as buck converters, voltage source inverters and bidirectional boost converters are challenged by system cost, efficiency, controllability, thermal management, voltage and current capability, and packaging issues. Novel topologies, such as isolated bidirectional DC/DC converters, multilevel converters, and Z-source inverters, offer potential improvement to hybrid vehicle system performance, extended controllability and power capabilities. This paper gives an overview of the topologies, design, and thermal management, and control of power electronics circuits in hybrid vehicle applications.

  9. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  10. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  11. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-03-30

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  12. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  13. Power system restoration issues

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Kafka, R.J. )

    1991-04-01

    This article describes some of the problems encountered in the three phases of power system restoration (PSR). The three phases of PSR are: Planning for restart and reintegration of the bulk power supply; Actions during system degradation for saving and retaining critical sources of power; Restoration when the power system has stabilized at some degraded level.

  14. Hybrid Reactor Simulation of Boiling Water Reactor Power Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Zhengyu; Edwards, Robert M.

    2003-08-15

    Hybrid reactor simulation (HRS) of boiling water reactor (BWR) instabilities, including in-phase and out-of-phase (OOP) oscillations, has been implemented on The Pennsylvania State University TRIGA reactor. The TRIGA reactor's power response is used to simulate reactor neutron dynamics for in-phase oscillation or the fundamental mode of the reactor modal kinetics for OOP oscillations. The reactor power signal drives a real-time boiling channel simulation, and the calculated reactivity feedback is in turn fed into the TRIGA reactor via an experimental changeable reactivity device. The thermal-hydraulic dynamics, together with first harmonic mode power dynamics, is digitally simulated in the real-time environment. The real-time digital simulation of boiling channel thermal hydraulics is performed by solving constitutive equations for different regions in the channel and is realized by a high-performance personal computer. The nonlinearity of the thermal-hydraulic model ensures the capability to simulate the oscillation phenomena, limit cycle and OOP oscillation, in BWR nuclear power plants. By adjusting reactivity feedback gains for both modes, various oscillation combinations can be realized in the experiment. The dynamics of axially lumped power distribution over the core is displayed in three-dimensional graphs. The HRS reactor power response mimics the BWR core-wide power stability phenomena. In the OOP oscillation HRS, the combination of reactor response and the simulated first harmonic power using shaping functions mimics BWR regional power oscillations. With this HRS testbed, a monitoring and/or control system designed for BWR power oscillations can be experimentally tested and verified.

  15. Power and energy computational models for the design and simulation of hybrid-electric combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Wilford; Nunez, Patrick

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the work being performed under the RDECOM Power and Energy (P&E) program (formerly the Combat Hybrid Power System (CHPS) program) developing hybrid power system models and integrating them into larger simulations, such as OneSAF, that can be used to find duty cycles to feed designers of hybrid power systems. This paper also describes efforts underway to link the TARDEC P&E System Integration Lab (SIL) in San Jose CA to the TARDEC Ground Vehicle Simulation Lab (GVSL) in Warren, MI. This linkage is being performed to provide a methodology for generating detailed driver profiles for use in the development of vignettes and mission profiles for system design excursions.

  16. Power Source Status Estimation and Drive Control Method for Autonomous Decentralized Hybrid Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Takemasa; Ogawa, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    A hybrid control system has two main functions: power sharing and equipment protection. In this paper, we discuss the design, construction and testing of a drive control method for an autonomous decentralized hybrid train with 100-kW-class fuel cells (FC) and 36-kWh lithium-ion batteries (Li-Batt). The main objectives of this study are to identify the operation status of the power sources on the basis of the input voltage of the traction inverter and to estimate the maximum traction power control basis of the power-source status. The proposed control method is useful in preventing overload operation of the onboard power sources in an autonomous decentralized hybrid system that has a flexible main circuit configuration and a few control signal lines. Further, with this method, the initial cost of a hybrid system can be reduced and the retrofit design of the hybrid system can be simplified. The effectiveness of the proposed method is experimentally confirmed by using a real-scale hybrid train system.

  17. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 2, book 1: Conceptual design, sections 1 through 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible are described. The market analysis, parametric analysis, and the selection process for the preferred system are given.

  18. System for controlling a hybrid energy system

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2013-01-29

    A method includes identifying a first operating sequence of a repeated operation of at least one non-traction load. The method also includes determining first and second parameters respectively indicative of a requested energy and output energy of the at least one non-traction load and comparing the determined first and second parameters at a plurality of time increments of the first operating sequence. The method also includes determining a third parameter of the hybrid energy system indicative of energy regenerated from the at least one non-traction load and monitoring the third parameter at the plurality of time increments of the first operating sequence. The method also includes determining at least one of an energy deficiency or an energy surplus associated with the non-traction load of the hybrid energy system and selectively adjusting energy stored within the storage device during at least a portion of a second operating sequence.

  19. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  20. High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.

    1995-10-19

    Carbonate fuel cells developed by Energy Research Corporation, in commercial 2.85 MW size, have an efficiency of 57.9 percent. Studies of higher efficiency hybrid power cycles were conducted in cooperation with METC to identify an economically competitive system with an efficiency in excess of 65 percent. A hybrid power cycle was identified that includes a direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine and a steam cycle, which generates power at a LHV efficiency in excess of 70 percent. This new system is called a Tandem Technology Cycle (TTC). In a TTC operating on natural gas fuel, 95 percent of the fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for the reforming of the fuel, and flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell system which generates 72 percent of the power. The portion of the fuel cell anode exhaust which is not recycled, is burned and heat is transferred to the compressed air from a gas turbine, raising its temperature to 1800{degrees}F. The stream is then heated to 2000{degrees}F in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 13 percent of the power. Half the exhaust from the gas turbine flows to the anode exhaust burner, and the remainder flows to the fuel cell cathodes providing the O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the fuel cells flows to a steam system which includes a heat recovery steam generator and stages steam turbine which generates 15 percent of the TTC system power. Studies of the TTC for 200-MW and 20-MW size plants quantified performance, emissions and cost-of-electricity, and compared the characteristics of the TTC to gas turbine combined cycles. A 200-MW TTC plant has an efficiency of 72.6 percent, and is relatively insensitive to ambient temperature, but requires a heat exchanger capable of 2000{degrees}F. The estimated cost of electricity is 45.8 mills/kWhr which is not competitive with a combined cycle in installations where fuel cost is under $5.8/MMBtu.

  1. High speed hybrid active system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Ignacio F.; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Qing, Peter X.; Kumar, Amrita; Zhang, David

    2005-05-01

    A novel piezoelectric/fiber-optic system is developed for long-term health monitoring of aerospace vehicles and structures. The hybrid diagnostic system uses the piezoelectric actuators to input a controlled excitation to the structure and the fiber optic sensors to capture the corresponding structural response. The aim of the system is to detect changes in structures such as those found in aerospace applications (damage, cracks, aging, etc.). This system involves the use of fiber Bragg gratings, which may be either bonded to the surface of the material or embedded within it in order to detect the linear strain component produced by the excitation waves generate by an arbitrary waveform generator. Interrogation of the Bragg gratings is carried out using a high speed fiber grating demodulation unit and a high speed data acquisition card to provide actuation input. With data collection and information processing; is able to determine the condition of the structure. The demands on a system suitable for detecting ultrasonic acoustic waves are different than for the more common strain and temperature systems. On the one hand, the frequency is much higher, with typical values for ultrasonic frequencies used in non-destructive testing ranging from 100 kHz up to several MHz. On the other hand, the related strain levels are much lower, normally in the μstrain range. Fiber-optic solutions for this problem do exist and are particularly attractive for ultrasonic sensing as the sensors offer broadband detection capability.

  2. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    DOEpatents

    Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Hope, Mark E.; Zou, Zhanjiang; Kang, Xiaosong

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  3. Space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Space nuclear power systems are considered for use in those particular spacecraft applications for which nuclear power systems offer unique advantages over solar and/or chemical space power systems. Both isotopic and reactor heated space electrical power units are described in an attempt to illustrate their operating characteristics, spacecraft integration aspects, and factory-to-end of mission operational considerations. The status of technology developments in nuclear power systems is presented. Some projections of those technologies are made to form a basis for the applications of space nuclear power systems to be expected over the next 10-15 years.

  4. Power Plant Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

  5. AN ASSESSMENT OF FLYWHEEL HIGH POWER ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR HYBRID VEHICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, James Gerald

    2012-02-01

    An assessment has been conducted for the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program to determine the state of the art of advanced flywheel high power energy storage systems to meet hybrid vehicle needs for high power energy storage and energy/power management. Flywheel systems can be implemented with either an electrical or a mechanical powertrain. The assessment elaborates upon flywheel rotor design issues of stress, materials and aspect ratio. Twelve organizations that produce flywheel systems submitted specifications for flywheel energy storage systems to meet minimum energy and power requirements for both light-duty and heavy-duty hybrid applications of interest to DOE. The most extensive experience operating flywheel high power energy storage systems in heavy-duty and light-duty hybrid vehicles is in Europe. Recent advances in Europe in a number of vehicle racing venues and also in road car advanced evaluations are discussed. As a frame of reference, nominal weight and specific power for non-energy storage components of Toyota hybrid electric vehicles are summarized. The most effective utilization of flywheels is in providing high power while providing just enough energy storage to accomplish the power assist mission effectively. Flywheels are shown to meet or exceed the USABC power related goals (discharge power, regenerative power, specific power, power density, weight and volume) for HEV and EV batteries and ultracapacitors. The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems remains the issue of safety and containment. Flywheel safety issues must be addressed during the design and testing phases to ensure that production flywheel systems can be operated with adequately low risk.

  6. Low Power Pulse Generator Design Using Hybrid Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jin-Fa; Hwang, Yin-Tsung; Sheu, Ming-Hwa

    A low power pulse generator design using hybrid logic realization of a 3-input NAND gate is presented. The hybrid logic approach successfully shortens the critical path along the discharging transistor stack and thus reduces the short circuit power consumption during the pulse generation. The combination of pass transistor and full CMOS logic styles in one NAND gate design also helps minimize the required transistor size, which alleviates the loading capacitance of clock tree as well. Simulation results reveal that, compared with prior work, our design can achieve 20.5% and 23% savings respectively in power and circuit area.

  7. Hybrid-powered wheelchair: a combination of arm force and electrical power for propelling a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Cremers, G B

    1989-01-01

    Many of the handicapped who could use a hand-driven wheelchair do not have sufficient arm force, arm movement and/or endurance for proper propulsion. Furthermore, there are users of electric wheelchairs who still have some arm functions and strength. In some cases a hand-driven chair, which can be propelled with reduced arm power, could be a better solution. By means of simulation, a study has been carried out to investigate the possibility of propelling a wheelchair by means of hybrid powering. Hybrid powering can be defined as a combination of arm force and electrical power. Using this hybrid principle, the necessary arm force can be decreased. PMID:2733008

  8. Hybrid systems process mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chertow, M.R.

    1989-10-01

    Some technologies, developed recently in Europe, combine several processes to separate and reuse materials from solid waste. These plants have in common, generally, that they are reasonably small, have a composting component for the organic portion, and often have a refuse-derived fuel component for combustible waste. Many European communities also have very effective drop-off center programs for recyclables such as bottles and cans. By maintaining the integrity of several different fractions of the waste, there is a less to landfill and less to burn. The importance of these hybrid systems is that they introduce in one plant an approach that encompasses the key concept of today's solid waste planning; recover as much as possible and landfill as little as possible. The plants also introduce various risks, particularly of finding secure markets. There are a number of companies offering various combinations of materials recovery, composting, and waste combustion. Four examples are included: multiple materials recovery and refuse-derived fuel production in Eden Prairie, Minnesota; multiple materials recovery, composting and refuse-derived fuel production in Perugia, Italy; composting, refuse-derived fuel, and gasification in Tolmezzo, Italy; and a front-end system on a mass burning waste-to-energy plant in Neuchatel, Switzerland.

  9. Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-04

    HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

  10. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  11. New hybrid active power filter for harmonic current suppression and reactive power compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biricik, Samet; Cemal Ozerdem, Ozgur; Redif, Soydan; Sezai Dincer, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    In the case of undistorted and balanced grid voltages, low ratio shunt active power filters (APFs) can give unity power factors and achieve current harmonic cancellation. However, this is not possible when source voltages are distorted and unbalanced. In this study, the cost-effective hybrid active power filter (HAPF) topology for satisfying the requirements of harmonic current suppression and non-active power compensation for industry is presented. An effective strategy is developed to observe the effect of the placement of power capacitors and LC filters with the shunt APF. A new method for alleviating the negative effects of a nonideal grid voltage is proposed that uses a self-tuning filter algorithm with instantaneous reactive power theory. The real-time control of the studied system was achieved with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture, which was developed using the OPAL-RT system. The performance result of the proposed HAPF system is tested and presented under nonideal supply voltage conditions.

  12. Hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Balch, J.W.; Carrano, A.V.; Davidson, J.C.; Koo, J.C.

    1998-05-05

    A hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system is described. The hybrid system permits the fabrication of isolated microchannels for biomolecule separations without imposing the constraint of a totally sealed system. The hybrid system is reusable and ultimately much simpler and less costly to manufacture than a closed channel plate system. The hybrid system incorporates a microslab portion of the separation medium above the microchannels, thus at least substantially reducing the possibility of non-uniform field distribution and breakdown due to uncontrollable leakage. A microslab of the sieving matrix is built into the system by using plastic spacer materials and is used to uniformly couple the top plate with the bottom microchannel plate. 4 figs.

  13. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

  14. White Paper for U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force: Waste Heat Recovery with Thermoelectric and Lithium-Ion Hybrid Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C

    2007-11-26

    By harvesting waste heat from engine exhaust and storing it in light-weight high-capacity modules, it is believed that the need for energy transport by convoys can be lowered significantly. By storing this power during operation, substantial electrical power can be provided during long periods of silent operation, while the engines are not operating. It is proposed to investigate the potential of installing efficient thermoelectric generators on the exhaust systems of trucks and other vehicles to generate electrical power from the waste heat contained in the exhaust and to store that power in advanced power packs comprised of polymer-gel lithium ion batteries. Efficient inexpensive methods for production of the thermoelectric generator are also proposed. The technology that exists at LLNL, as well as that which exists at industrial partners, all have high technology readiness level (TRL). Work is needed for integration and deployment.

  15. Hybrid nanomotor: a catalytically/magnetically powered adaptive nanowire swimmer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Manesh, Kalayil Manian; Hua, Joe; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Wang, Joseph

    2011-07-18

    A synthetic hybrid nanomotor, which combines chemically powered propulsion and magnetically driven locomotion, is described. The new catalytic-magnetic nanomotor consists of a flexible multisegment Pt-Au-Ag(flex)-Ni nanowire, with the Pt-Au and Au-Ag(flex)-Ni portions responsible for the catalytic and magnetic propulsion modes, respectively. The experimental data and theoretical considerations indicate that the hybrid design only minimally compromises the individual propulsion modes. Rapid and convenient switching from the catalytic to the magnetic mode is illustrated. The resulting catalytic-magnetic adaptive nanomotor can address the fuel depletion and salt limitation common to chemically powered motors by switching to magnetic propulsion. Reversal of the motion direction is also achieved upon applying the magnetic field. Such use of two sources to power a hybrid device offers a broader scope of operation and holds considerable promise for designing adaptive nanovehicles that reconfigure their operation in response to environmental changes or unexpected events. PMID:21626685

  16. Hybrid electromechanical actuator and actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji (Inventor); Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid electromechanical actuator has two different types of electromechanical elements, one that expands in a transverse direction when electric power is applied thereto and one that contracts in a transverse direction when electric power is applied thereto. The two electromechanical elements are (i) disposed in relation to one another such that the transverse directions thereof are parallel to one another, and (ii) mechanically coupled to one another at least at two opposing edges thereof. Electric power is applied simultaneously to the elements.

  17. An extended duration hybrid powered hexcopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winningham, Jason D.

    This work attempts to extend the flight time of a UAS to allow for longer ranges, extended time on station, and larger payloads by adding lift capacity for an auxiliary power unit that generates electrical power using an internal combustion engine. The UAS is instrumented to examine power consumption during flights with various payload masses. Safety aspects of the larger UAS are examined, including a safety analysis of the flight control software.

  18. Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of; cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

  19. Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.

    1979-01-01

    The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

  20. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  1. Economical space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A commercial approach to design and fabrication of an economical space power system is investigated. Cost projections are based on a 2 kW space power system conceptual design taking into consideration the capability for serviceability, constraints of operation in space, and commercial production engineering approaches. A breakdown of the system design, documentation, fabrication, and reliability and quality assurance estimated costs are detailed.

  2. 973 nm wavelength stabilized hybrid ns-MOPA diode laser system with 15.5 W peak power and a spectral line width below 10 pm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Thi N.; Klehr, Andreas; Sumpf, Bernd; Wenzel, Hans; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther

    2014-05-01

    A master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system for the generation of ns-pulses with high peak power, narrow spectral line width, and stabilized emission wavelength will be presented. The master oscillator is a distributed feedback (DFB) ridge waveguide (RW) laser. The tapered amplifier consists of one RW section and one flared gain-guided section. The DFB laser is operated in continuous wave mode and emits at 973.5 nm with a spectral line width below 10 pm. The RW section of the amplifier acts as an optical gate. The tapered section amplifies the generated optical pulse. An optical peak power of 15.5 W for a pulse width of 8 ns is obtained. The emission wavelength remains constant at all output power levels of the MOPA system for a fixed current into the DFB laser. The spectral power density of the ASE is 37 dB smaller than the lasing spectral power density. The spectral line width is smaller than 10 pm, limited by the resolution of the optical spectrum analyzer.

  3. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  4. Hybrid Er/Yb fibre laser system for generating few-cycle 1.6 to 2.0 {mu}m pulses optically synchronised with high-power pulses near 1 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, A V; Anashkina, E A; Murav'ev, S V; Kim, A V

    2013-03-31

    This paper presents the concept of fibre laser system design for generating optically synchronised femtosecond pulses at two, greatly differing wavelengths and reports experimental and numerical simulation studies of nonlinear conversion of femtosecond pulses at 1.5 {mu}m wavelength in a dispersion-shifted fibre, with the generation of synchronised pulses in the ranges 1.6 - 2 and 1 - 1.1 {mu}m. We describe a three-stage high-power fibre amplifier of femtosecond pulses at 1 {mu}m and a hybrid Er/Yb fibre laser system that has enabled the generation of 12 fs pulses with a centre wavelength of 1.7 {mu}m, synchronised with high-power (microjoule level) 250 fs pulses at 1.03 {mu}m. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  5. Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.

  6. Application of explicit model predictive control to a hybrid battery-ultracapacitor power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hredzak, Branislav; Agelidis, Vassilios G.; Demetriades, Georgios

    2015-03-01

    An explicit model predictive control (EMPC) system for a hybrid battery-ultracapacitor power source is proposed and experimentally verified in this paper. The main advantage of using the EMPC system is that the control law computation is reduced to evaluation of an explicitly defined piecewise linear function of the states. Separate EMPC systems for the total output current loop, the battery loop and the ultracapacitor loop are designed. This modular design approach allows evaluation of the performance of each individual EMPC system separately and also improves the convergence of the EMPC system design algorithm as the models used to design each loop are smaller. In order to protect the hybrid power source, the designed EMPC systems maintain operation of the hybrid power source within specified constraints, namely, battery and ultracapacitor current constraints, battery state of charge constraints and ultracapacitor voltage constraints. At the same time, the total output current EMPC system allocates high frequency current changes to the ultracapacitor and the low frequency current changes to the battery thus extending the battery lifetime. Presented experimental results verify that the hybrid power source operates within the specified constraints while allocating high and low frequency current changes to the ultracapacitor and battery respectively.

  7. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  8. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Reed, R.G. Jr.; Boberg, E.S.; Lawrie, R.E.; Castaing, F.J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration. 34 figs.

  9. Electrical power generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A power generating system for adjusting coupling an induction motor, as a generator, to an A.C. power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac is described. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced.

  10. Hybrid energy system cost analysis: San Nicolas Island, California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, T.L.; McKenna, E.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes the local wind resource and evaluates the costs and benefits of supplementing the current diesel-powered energy system on San Nicolas Island, California (SNI), with wind turbines. In Section 2.0 the SNI site, naval operations, and current energy system are described, as are the data collection and analysis procedures. Section 3.0 summarizes the wind resource data and analyses that were presented in NREL/TP 442-20231. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 present the conceptual design and cost analysis of a hybrid wind and diesel energy system on SNI, with conclusions following in Section 6. Appendix A presents summary pages of the hybrid system spreadsheet model, and Appendix B contains input and output files for the HYBRID2 program.