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Sample records for hybrid transposition module

  1. Optical transposition transform interconnects using a free-space and fiber hybrid module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popelek, Jan; Li, Yao

    1999-04-01

    Cross-connect switch is a popular switching architecture for telecom and datacom applications. Using various switching components and a k-shuffle interconnect, a cross-connect switch can be configured for general-purpose, blocking as well as non-blocking networking applications. We show that a 1D k-shuffle interconnect pattern is topologically equivalent to a 2D transposition transform pattern. Based on this observation and using space-invariant optical components, the transposition transform interconnect is experimentally implemented. To achieve a sensible packing, we propose to incorporate fiber arrays into the implementation so that the interconnect offers connectorized plug-and-play capability with its switching arrays. Experimental results of implementing a 256 X 256 connectorized free-space and fiber hybrid transposition transform interconnect for cross-connect switching are presented. Key parameters, such as insertion loss, cross- talk, and bit-error-rate of the hybrid interconnect module are measured. Video data are used to demonstrate interconnect quality of various link channels. Scalability to larger interconnects are speculated.

  2. A Genome-Wide Survey of Genetic Instability by Transposition in Drosophila Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Doris; Fontdevila, Antonio; Vieira, Cristina; García Guerreiro, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization between species is a genomic instability factor involved in increasing mutation rate and new chromosomal rearrangements. Evidence of a relationship between interspecific hybridization and transposable element mobilization has been reported in different organisms, but most studies are usually performed with particular TEs and do not discuss the real effect of hybridization on the whole genome. We have therefore studied whole genome instability of Drosophila interspecific hybrids, looking for the presence of new AFLP markers in hybrids. A high percentage (27–90%) of the instability markers detected corresponds to TEs belonging to classes I and II. Moreover, three transposable elements (Osvaldo, Helena and Galileo) representative of different families, showed an overall increase of transposition rate in hybrids compared to parental species. This research confirms the hypothesis that hybridization induces genomic instability by transposition bursts and suggests that genomic stress by transposition could contribute to a relaxation of mechanisms controlling TEs in the Drosophila genome. PMID:24586475

  3. Transposition of the Endogenous Insertion Sequence Element IS1126 Modulates Gingipain Expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Waltena; Wang, Chin-Yen; Mikolajczyk-Pawlinska, Jowita; Potempa, Jan; Travis, James; Bond, Vincent C.; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    1999-01-01

    We have previously reported on a Tn4351-generated mutant of Porphyromonas gingivalis (MSM-3) which expresses enhanced arginine-specific proteinase activity and does not utilize hemin or hemoglobin for growth (C. A. Genco et al., Infect. Immun. 63:2459–2466, 1995). In the process of characterizing the genetic lesion in P. gingivalis MSM-3, we have determined that the endogenous P. gingivalis insertion sequence element IS1126 is capable of transposition within P. gingivalis. We have also determined that IS1126 transposition modulates the transcription of the genes encoding the lysine-specific proteinase, gingipain K (kgp) and the arginine-specific proteinase, gingipain R2 (rgpB). Sequence analysis of P. gingivalis MSM-3 revealed that Tn4351 had inserted 60 bp upstream of the P. gingivalis endogenous IS element IS1126. Furthermore, P. gingivalis MSM-3 exhibited two additional copies of IS1126 compared to the parental strain A7436. Examination of the first additional IS1126 element, IS11261, indicated that it has inserted into the putative promoter region of the P. gingivalis kgp gene. Analysis of total RNA extracted from P. gingivalis MSM-3 demonstrated no detectable kgp transcript; likewise, P. gingivalis MSM-3 was devoid of lysine-specific proteinase activity. The increased arginine-specific proteinase activity exhibited by P. gingivalis MSM-3 was demonstrated to correlate with an increase in the rgpA and rgpB transcripts. The second additional IS1126 element, IS11262, was found to have inserted upstream of a newly identified gene, hmuR, which exhibits homology to a number of TonB-dependent genes involved in hemin and iron acquisition. Analysis of total RNA from P. gingivalis MSM-3 demonstrated that hmuR is transcribed, indicating that the insertion of IS1126 had not produced a polar effect on hmuR transcription. The hemin-hemoglobin defect in P. gingivalis MSM-3 is proposed to result from the inactivation of Kgp, which has recently been demonstrated to function

  4. Transpositional activation of mPing in an asymmetric nuclear somatic cell hybrid of rice and Zizania latifolia was accompanied by massive element loss.

    PubMed

    Shan, X H; Ou, X F; Liu, Z L; Dong, Y Z; Lin, X Y; Li, X W; Liu, B

    2009-11-01

    We have reported previously that the most active miniature inverted terminal repeat transposable element (MITE) of rice, mPing, was transpositionally mobilized in several rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an introgressive hybridization between rice and wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.). To further study the phenomenon of hybridization-induced mPing activity, we undertook the present study to investigate the element's behavior in a highly asymmetric somatic nuclear hybrid (SH6) of rice and Z. latifolia, which is similar in genomic composition to that of the RILs, though probably contains more introgressed alien chromatins from the donor species than the RILs. We found that mPing, together with its transposase-donor, Pong, underwent rampant transpositional activation in the somatic hybrid (SH6). Because possible effects of protoplast isolation and cell culture can be ruled out, we attribute the transpositional activation of mPing and Pong in SH6 to the process of asymmetric somatic hybridization, namely, one-step introgression of multiple chromatin segments of the donor species Z. latifolia into the recipient rice genome. A salient feature of mPing transposition in the somatic hybrid is that the element's activation was accompanied by massive loss of its original copies, i.e., abortive transpositions, which was not observed in previously reported cases of mPing activity. These data not only corroborated our earlier finding that wide hybridization and introgression may trigger transpositional activation of otherwise quiescent transposable elements, but also suggest that transpositional mobilization of a MITE like mPing can be accompanied by dramatic reduction of its original copy numbers under certain conditions, thus provide novel insights into the dynamics of MITEs in the course of genome evolution. PMID:19711051

  5. Transpositional reactivation of the Dart transposon family in rice lines derived from introgressive hybridization with Zizania latifolia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that interspecific hybridization may induce "genome shock", and lead to genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the resultant hybrids and/or backcrossed introgressants. A prominent component involved in the genome shock is reactivation of cryptic transposable elements (TEs) in the hybrid genome, which is often associated with alteration in the elements' epigenetic modifications like cytosine DNA methylation. We have previously reported that introgressants derived from hybridization between Oryza sativa (rice) and Zizania latifolia manifested substantial methylation re-patterning and rampant mobilization of two TEs, a copia retrotransposon Tos17 and a MITE mPing. It was not known however whether other types of TEs had also been transpositionally reactivated in these introgressants, their relevance to alteration in cytosine methylation, and their impact on expression of adjacent cellular genes. Results We document in this study that the Dart TE family was transpositionally reactivated followed by stabilization in all three studied introgressants (RZ1, RZ2 and RZ35) derived from introgressive hybridization between rice (cv. Matsumae) and Z. latifolia, while the TEs remained quiescent in the recipient rice genome. Transposon-display (TD) and sequencing verified the element's mobility and mapped the excisions and re-insertions to the rice chromosomes. Methylation-sensitive Southern blotting showed that the Dart TEs were heavily methylated along their entire length, and moderate alteration in cytosine methylation patterns occurred in the introgressants relative to their rice parental line. Real-time qRT-PCR quantification on the relative transcript abundance of six single-copy genes flanking the newly excised or inserted Dart-related TE copies indicated that whereas marked difference in the expression of all four genes in both tissues (leaf and root) were detected between the introgressants and their rice parental line under both normal

  6. Hybrid grapheme plasmonic waveguide modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansell, D.; Thackray, B. D.; Aznakayeva, D. E.; Thomas, P.; Auton, G. H.; Marshall, O. P.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Radko, I. P.; Han, Z.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    The unique optical and electronic properties of graphene allow one to realize active optical devices. While several types of graphene-based photonic modulators have already been demonstrated, the potential of combining the versatility of graphene with sub-wavelength field confinement of plasmonic/metallic structures is not fully realized. Here we report fabrication and study of hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulators. We consider several types of modulators and identify the most promising one for light modulation at telecom and near-infrared. Our proof-of-concept results pave the way towards on-chip realization of efficient graphene-based active plasmonic waveguide devices for optical communications.

  7. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading. PMID:27379003

  8. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading. PMID:27379003

  9. Hybrid graphene plasmonic waveguide modulators.

    PubMed

    Ansell, D; Radko, I P; Han, Z; Rodriguez, F J; Bozhevolnyi, S I; Grigorenko, A N

    2015-01-01

    The unique optical and electronic properties of graphene make possible the fabrication of novel optoelectronic devices. One of the most exciting graphene characteristics is the tunability by gating which allows one to realize active optical devices. While several types of graphene-based photonic modulators have already been demonstrated, the potential of combining the versatility of graphene with subwavelength field confinement of plasmonic waveguides remains largely unexplored. Here we report fabrication and study of hybrid graphene-plasmonic waveguide modulators. We consider several types of modulators and identify the most promising one for telecom applications. The modulator working at the telecom range is demonstrated, showing a modulation depth of >0.03 dB μm(-1) at low gating voltages for an active device area of just 10 μm(2), characteristics which are already comparable to those of silicon-based waveguide modulators while retaining the benefit of further device miniaturization. Our proof-of-concept results pave the way towards on-chip realization of efficient graphene-based active plasmonic waveguide devices for optical communications. PMID:26554944

  10. Hybrid graphene plasmonic waveguide modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansell, D.; Radko, I. P.; Han, Z.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    The unique optical and electronic properties of graphene make possible the fabrication of novel optoelectronic devices. One of the most exciting graphene characteristics is the tunability by gating which allows one to realize active optical devices. While several types of graphene-based photonic modulators have already been demonstrated, the potential of combining the versatility of graphene with subwavelength field confinement of plasmonic waveguides remains largely unexplored. Here we report fabrication and study of hybrid graphene-plasmonic waveguide modulators. We consider several types of modulators and identify the most promising one for telecom applications. The modulator working at the telecom range is demonstrated, showing a modulation depth of >0.03 dB μm-1 at low gating voltages for an active device area of just 10 μm2, characteristics which are already comparable to those of silicon-based waveguide modulators while retaining the benefit of further device miniaturization. Our proof-of-concept results pave the way towards on-chip realization of efficient graphene-based active plasmonic waveguide devices for optical communications.

  11. Solar powered hybrid sensor module program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. M.; Holmes, H. K.

    1985-01-01

    Geo-orbital systems of the near future will require more sophisticated electronic and electromechanical monitoring and control systems than current satellite systems with an emphasis in the design on the electronic density and autonomy of the subsystem components. Results of a project to develop, design, and implement a proof-of-concept sensor system for space applications, with hybrids forming the active subsystem components are described. The design of the solar power hybrid sensor modules is discussed. Module construction and function are described. These modules combined low power CMOS electronics, GaAs solar cells, a crystal oscillatory standard UART data formatting, and a bidirectional optical data link into a single 1.25 x 1.25 x 0.25 inch hybrid package which has no need for electrical input or output. Several modules were built and tested. Applications of such a system for future space missions are also discussed.

  12. Regulation of DNA transposition by CpG methylation and chromatin structure in human cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The activity of transposable elements can be regulated by different means. DNA CpG methylation is known to decrease or inhibit transpositional activity of diverse transposons. However, very surprisingly, it was previously shown that CpG methylation of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon significantly enhanced transposition in mouse embryonic stem cells. Results In order to investigate the unexpected response of SB transposition to CpG methylation, related transposons from the Tc1/mariner superfamily, that is, Tc1, Himar1, Hsmar1, Frog Prince (FP) and Minos were tested to see how transposition was affected by CpG methylation. A significant increase of >20-fold in transposition of SB, FP and Minos was seen, whereas Tc1, Himar1 and Hsmar1 showed no difference in transposition upon CpG-methylation. The terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of the SB, FP and Minos elements share a common structure, in which each TIR contains two functionally important binding sites for the transposase (termed the IR/DR structure). The group of IR/DR elements showed increased excision after CpG methylation compared to untreated transposon donor plasmids. We found that de novo CpG methylation is not required for transposition. A mutated FP donor plasmid with depleted CpG sites in both TIRs was as efficient in transposition as the wild-type transposon, indicating that CpG sites inside the TIRs are not responsible for altered binding of factors potentially modulating transposition. By using an in vivo one-hybrid DNA-binding assay in cultured human cells we found that CpG methylation had no appreciable effect on the affinity of SB transposase to its binding sites. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated that CpG-methylated transposon donor plasmids are associated with a condensed chromatin structure characterized by trimethylated histone H3K9. Finally, DNA compaction by protamine was found to enhance SB transposition. Conclusions We have shown that DNA CpG methylation

  13. Transposition of the great vessels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Congenital heart defect - transposition; Cyanotic heart disease - transposition; Birth defect - transposition ... up oxygen in the lungs. Symptoms appear at birth or very soon ... (such as atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, ...

  14. Waveguide-coupled hybrid plasmonic modulator based on graphene.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bao-Hu; Lu, Wei-Bing; Li, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Jian; Liu, Zhen-Guo

    2016-07-20

    In this paper, we propose a low-transmission-loss, high-speed, graphene-based electro-absorption modulator with a hybrid plasmonic waveguide at 1.55 μm. In the proposed device, double-layer graphene is placed on top of the horizontal hybrid plasmonic waveguide to enhance the light-graphene interaction. The adjustment of the in-plane permittivity of the anisotropy graphene causes a significant modulation of the absorption at the operating bandwidth of 0.4 THz, with modulation length of 8.5 μm and modulator footprint of 1.6  μm2. A taper silicon coupler is used for waveguide coupling, and 80% coupling efficiency is achieved. In addition, the modulation potential on a smaller footprint is further shown. PMID:27463912

  15. Sleeping Beauty Transposition.

    PubMed

    Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2015-04-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) is a synthetic transposon that was constructed based on sequences of transpositionally inactive elements isolated from fish genomes. SB is a Tc1/mariner superfamily transposon following a cut-and-paste transpositional reaction, during which the element-encoded transposase interacts with its binding sites in the terminal inverted repeats of the transposon, promotes the assembly of a synaptic complex, catalyzes excision of the element out of its donor site, and integrates the excised transposon into a new location in target DNA. SB transposition is dependent on cellular host factors. Transcriptional control of transposase expression is regulated by the HMG2L1 transcription factor. Synaptic complex assembly is promoted by the HMGB1 protein and regulated by chromatin structure. SB transposition is highly dependent on the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway of double-strand DNA break repair that generates a transposon footprint at the excision site. Through its association with the Miz-1 transcription factor, the SB transposase downregulates cyclin D1 expression that results in a slowdown of the cell-cycle in the G1 phase, where NHEJ is preferentially active. Transposon integration occurs at TA dinucleotides in the target DNA, which are duplicated at the flanks of the integrated transposon. SB shows a random genome-wide insertion profile in mammalian cells when launched from episomal vectors and "local hopping" when launched from chromosomal donor sites. Some of the excised transposons undergo a self-destructive autointegration reaction, which can partially explain why longer elements transpose less efficiently. SB became an important molecular tool for transgenesis, insertional mutagenesis, and gene therapy. PMID:26104705

  16. Magnetically modulated critical current densities of Co/Nb hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhigang; Wang, Weike; Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhaorong; Tian, Mingliang; Zhang, Yuheng

    2015-01-01

    By tuning morphology and size of magnetic subsystem, ferromagnet-superconductor (F/S) hybrid system provides an effective way to modulate superconductivity due to the interaction between superconducting and magnetic-order parameters at the mesoscopic length scale. In this work, we report on investigations of critical current density in a large-area Co/Nb hybrid via facile colloidal lithography. Here, Co hexagon shell array as a magnetic template build on Nb film to modulate the critical current density. A novel superconducting transition has been observed in I-V curve with two metastable transition states: double-transition and binary-oscillation-transition states. Importantly, such unusual behavior can be adjusted by temperature, magnetic field and contact area of F/S. Such hybrid film has important implications for understanding the role of magnetic subsystem modulating superconductivity, as well as applied to low-energy electronic devices such as superconducting current fault limiters. PMID:26678595

  17. Magnetically modulated critical current densities of Co/Nb hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhigang; Wang, Weike; Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhaorong; Tian, Mingliang; Zhang, Yuheng

    2015-12-01

    By tuning morphology and size of magnetic subsystem, ferromagnet-superconductor (F/S) hybrid system provides an effective way to modulate superconductivity due to the interaction between superconducting and magnetic-order parameters at the mesoscopic length scale. In this work, we report on investigations of critical current density in a large-area Co/Nb hybrid via facile colloidal lithography. Here, Co hexagon shell array as a magnetic template build on Nb film to modulate the critical current density. A novel superconducting transition has been observed in I-V curve with two metastable transition states: double-transition and binary-oscillation-transition states. Importantly, such unusual behavior can be adjusted by temperature, magnetic field and contact area of F/S. Such hybrid film has important implications for understanding the role of magnetic subsystem modulating superconductivity, as well as applied to low-energy electronic devices such as superconducting current fault limiters.

  18. Hybrid ARQ schemes employing coded modulation and sequence combining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Robert H.

    1994-06-01

    We propose and analyze two hybrid automatic-repeat-request (ARQ) schemes employing bandwidth efficient coded modulation and coded sequence combining. In the first scheme, a trellis-coded modulation (TCM) is used to control channel noise; while in the second scheme a concatenated coded modulation is employed. The concatenated coded modulation is formed by cascading a Reed-Solomon (RS) outer code and a coded modulation (BCM) inner code. In both schemes, the coded modulation decoder, by performing sequence combining and soft-decision maximum likelihood decoding, makes full use of the information available in all received sequences corresponding to a given information message. It is shown, by means of analysis as well as computer simulations, that both schemes are capable of providing high throughput efficiencies over a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios. The schemes are suitable for large file transfers over satellite communication links where high throughput and high reliability are required.

  19. Advanced Structural and Inflatable Hybrid Spacecraft Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Inventor); delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Edeen, Gregg A. (Inventor); Kennedy, Kriss J. (Inventor); Lester, James D. (Inventor); Gupta, Shalini (Inventor); Hess, Linda F. (Inventor); Lin, Chin H. (Inventor); Malecki, Richard H. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An inflatable module comprising a structural core and an inflatable shell, wherein the inflatable shell is sealingly attached to the structural core. In its launch configuration, the wall thickness of the inflatable shell is collapsed by vacuum. Also in this configuration, the inflatable shell is collapsed and efficiently folded around the structural core. Upon deployment, the wall thickness of the inflatable shell is inflated; whereby the inflatable shell itself, is thereby inflated around the structural core, defining therein a large enclosed volume. A plurality of removable shelves are arranged interior to the structural core in the launch configuration. The structural core also includes at least one longeron that, in conjunction with the shelves, primarily constitute the rigid, strong, and lightweight load-bearing structure of the module during launch. The removable shelves are detachable from their arrangement in the launch configuration so that, when the module is in its deployed configuration and launch loads no longer exist, the shelves can be rearranged to provide a module interior arrangement suitable for human habitation and work. In the preferred embodiment, to provide efficiency in structural load paths and attachments, the shape of the inflatable shell is a cylinder with semi-toroidal ends.

  20. [Operative technique: The clitoral transposition].

    PubMed

    Chevrot, A; Lousquy, R; Arfi, A; Haddad, B; Paniel, B J; Touboul, C

    2015-10-01

    Female sexual mutilations result in an important physical and mental suffering. A large number of women have been affected and require a global management, including surgical clitoral transposition. This surgical technique is allowing a rapid improvement of clinical symptoms. In this article, we will describe the indications and operative technique of the clitoral transposition. PMID:25818112

  1. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    Thin and thick film test specimens were utilized to study the effects of silicone and epoxy hybrid microcircuit coatings on 0.025 mm diameter aluminum and gold ultrasonic bonds, and 0.051 diameter gold pulsed-thermocompression bonds. Chip-to-substrate and substrate-to-substrate geometries were included. Because sealed packages were utilized, a test pattern design was incorporated that allowed the determination of bond failures by making resistance measurements external to the package after the various environmental tests. All wire bonds were non-destructively pull tested prior to sealing. Tests included the PIN test, temperature cycling, and high temperature storage.

  2. Robotically Assisted Endoscopic Ovarian Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Wedergren, June S.; Carlson, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Ovarian transposition is the anatomical relocation of the ovaries from the pelvis to the abdomen. Transposition is beneficial in women who are to undergo pelvic radiation, because it allows maintenance of ovarian function and preservation of assisted reproductive capacity. Methods: The da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical™, Mountainview, CA, USA) was used to perform an endoscopic ovarian transposition. The ovaries were mobilized on their respective infundibulopelvic ligaments and sutured to the ipsilateral pericolic gutters. Results: A series of laboratory sessions using the da Vinci system was completed at our institution's training facility. Surgical experience included cadaveric pelvic dissection and abdominopelvic procedures on anesthetized porcine models. Additional didactic and laboratory training, including a certification examination, was obtained from Intuitive Surgical, Inc. The first clinical case of robotically assisted endoscopic ovarian transposition was performed. Conclusions: Robotically assisted endoscopy was successfully used for ovarian transposition. PMID:12723000

  3. COSMIC RAY MODULATION BEYOND THE HELIOPAUSE: A HYBRID MODELING APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, R. D.; Potgieter, M. S.; Ferreira, S. E. S.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.

    2013-03-01

    Results from a newly developed hybrid cosmic ray (CR) modulation model are presented. In this approach, the transport of CRs is computed by incorporating the plasma flow from a magnetohydrodynamic model for the heliospheric environment, resulting in representative CR transport. The model is applied to the modulation of CRs beyond the heliopause (HP) and we show that (1) CR modulation persists beyond the HP, so it is unlikely that the Voyager spacecraft will measure the pristine local interstellar spectra of galactic CRs when crossing the HP. (2) CR modulation in the outer heliosheath could maintain solar-cycle-related changes. (3) The modulation of CRs in the outer heliosheath is primarily determined by the ratio of perpendicular to parallel diffusion, so that the value of the individual diffusion coefficients cannot be determined uniquely using this approach. (4) CRs can efficiently diffuse between the nose and tail regions of the heliosphere.

  4. Hybrid integrated optic modules for real-time signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. S.

    1984-01-01

    The most recent progress on four relatively new hybrid integrated optic device modules in LiNbO3 waveguides and one in YIG/GGG waveguide that are currently being studied are discussed. The five hybrid modules include a time-integrating acoustooptic correlator, a channel waveguide acoustooptic frequency shifter/modulator, an electrooptic channel waveguide total internal reflection moculator/switch, an electrooptic analog-to-digital converter using a Fabry-Perot modulator array, and a noncollinear magnetooptic modulator using magnetostatic surface waves. All of these devices possess the desirable characteristics of very large bandwidth (GHz or higher), very small substrate size along the optical path (typically 1.5 cm or less), single-mode optical propagation, and low drive power requirement. The devices utilize either acoustooptic, electrooptic or magnetooptic effects in planar or channel waveguides and, therefore, act as efficient interface devices between a light wave and temporal signals. Major areas of application lie in wideband multichannel optical real-time signal processing and communications. Some of the specific applications include spectral analysis and correlation of radio frequency (RF) signals, fiber-optic sensing, optical computing and multiport switching/routing, and analog-to-digital conversion of wide RF signals.

  5. Optimizing broadband terahertz modulation with hybrid graphene/metasurface structures.

    PubMed

    Shi, S-F; Zeng, B; Han, H-L; Hong, X; Tsai, H-Z; Jung, H S; Zettl, A; Crommie, M F; Wang, F

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate efficient terahertz (THz) modulation by coupling graphene strongly with a broadband THz metasurface device. This THz metasurface, made of periodic gold slit arrays, shows near unity broadband transmission, which arises from coherent radiation of the enhanced local-field in the slits. Utilizing graphene as an active load with tunable conductivity, we can significantly modify the local-field enhancement and strongly modulate the THz wave transmission. This hybrid device also provides a new platform for future nonlinear THz spectroscopy study of graphene. PMID:25483819

  6. Modulational instability of lower hybrid waves at the magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, V. D.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Cargill, P. J.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1994-01-01

    The role of lower bybrid waesat the magnetopause is reexamined. It is found that for the maximum observed wave power, the lower hybrid waves are unstable to a modulational instability on the magnetosheath side of the magnetopause. The modulational instabitlity leads to localized field structures oriented predominantly along the magnetic field. Such patchy lower hybrid turbulence has been observed by some spacecraft. As a result of the large T(sub i)/T(sub e) ratio, the waves saturate by ion heating; as a result, unlike other settings (e.g. comets, critical ionization phenomena) energetic electrons are not expected. The stochasitc electron transport in the presence of such turbulence is analyzed and results in strongly anistropic electron diffusion, with the dominant direction across the magnetic field. The diffusion rate exceeds significantly that expected from quasi-linear considerations and, for magnetospause parameters, also exceeds the rate discussed by Sonnerup (1980).

  7. Energy-efficient hybrid coded modulations enabling terabit optical ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B.

    2012-01-01

    Future Internet technologies will be affected not only by limited bandwidth of information infrastructure, but also by its energy consumption. In order to solve both problems simultaneously, in this invited paper, we describe several energy-efficient (EE) hybrid coded-modulation (CM) schemes enabling Terabit optical Ethernet: EE 4D CM, EE generalized- OFDM, and EE spatial-domain-based CM. A common property of these is employment of EE modulations, various degrees of freedom and rate-adaptive coding. These EE schemes are called hybrid as all available degrees of freedom are used for transmission over optical fibers including amplitude, phase, polarization and OAM. Since the channel capacity is a linear function in number of dimensions, by increasing the number of basis functions, we can dramatically improve overall capacity. The EE problem is solved by properly designing multi-dimensional signal constellations such that transinformation is maximized, while taking the energy constraint into account.

  8. Transposition of the great vessels

    MedlinePlus

    Transposition of the great vessels is a heart defect that occurs from birth (congenital). The two major vessels that carry blood ... nutrition) Rubella or other viral illness during pregnancy ... the great vessels is a cyanotic heart defect. This means there ...

  9. Hybrid graphene/dielectric metasurfaces for enhanced transmission modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyropoulos, Christos

    All-dielectric silicon based metasurfaces are powerful platforms to enhance light-matter interactions at nanoscale regions. Their low-loss nature, CMOS processing compatibility and increased damage threshold promise to outperform the functionalities of the recently established plasmonic metallic metasurfaces. In our talk, we will demonstrate ways to hybridize all-dielectric metasurfaces with graphene in order to obtain new electro-optical devices. In particular, a hybrid graphene/dielectric metasurface design will be presented to achieve tunable and modulated transmission at near-infrared (near-IR) frequencies (C. Argyropoulos, Optics Express, vol. 23, No. 18, pp. 23787-23797, 2015). The proposed all-dielectric metasurface is composed of periodically arranged pairs of asymmetric silicon nanobars, which can sustain trapped magnetic resonances with a sharp Fano-type transmission signature. One-atom-thick graphene is placed over this dielectric metasurface and strong transmission modulation is obtained at near-IR telecom wavelengths as the doping level of graphene is increased. The enhanced in-plane fields along the all-dielectric metasurface strongly interact with the tunable properties of graphene. This leads to strong coupling between the incoming radiation and graphene. Several new integrated nanophotonic components are envisioned based on the proposed device, such as efficient electro-optical transmission modulators.

  10. High-speed and low-power silicon-organic hybrid modulators for advanced modulation formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauermann, M.; Wolf, S.; Palmer, R.; Koeber, S.; Schindler, P. C.; Wahlbrink, T.; Bolten, J.; Giesecke, A. L.; Koenigsmann, M.; Kohler, M.; Malsam, D.; Elder, D. L.; Dalton, L. R.; Leuthold, J.; Freude, W.; Koos, C.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for generating advanced modulation formats at high data rates and with low energy consumption. SOH integration combines slot waveguides on conventional silicon-on-insulator substrates with highly efficient electro-optic materials. With this approach we generate 16QAM signals at symbol rates of 28 GBd and 40 GBd leading to gross data rates (net data rates) of up to 160 Gbit/s (133 Gbit/s) for a single polarization. This is the highest value achieved by a silicon-based modulator up to now. With a maximum symbol rate of 28 GBd, low drive voltages of only 0.6 Vpp are sufficient and result in a record-low energy consumption of only 19 fJ/bit. This is the lowest energy consumption that has so far been reported for a 16QAM modulator at 28 GBd.

  11. Mini acceleration and deceleration driving strategy to increase the operational time of flywheel hybrid module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaf, Muhammad Zaidan Abdul; Fakeruddin, Shafarul Hafidi; Zakaria, Mohamad Shukri; Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Hanafi, Mohd Hafidzal Mohd

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new driving strategy to increase the operational time of flywheel hybrid module. The flywheel hybrid module contains low cost mechanical parts which installed on the small motorcycle. Based on normal driving cycles characteristics, the Mini-AD driving strategy is develop. It is involved a series of short or mini acceleration cycle and short deceleration cycle on top of the normal driving cycles. The new strategy is simulated for flywheel hybrid module, aimed for acceleration phase only. Simulations show that the new driving strategy can increase the operational time of flywheel hybrid module up to 62.5%.

  12. Full automatic packaging of a hybrid transceiver module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischkorn, Felix; Miesner, Joern; Glass, Sebastian

    2008-02-01

    System integrators are driven by the demands of hybrid module manufacturers to provide machines with a higher degree of system integration while maintaining full process automation at max. throughput and yield. The full automated packaging process involves Pick&Place of several components like photo diode, laser sub-mount, integrated optical chip and PCB. Whereby some components are placed passively supported by vision inspection and some are aligned actively by closing a control loop on nano-scale precision. The system applies adhesive bonding for fixation of the components. The presentation shows how various assembly steps are combined in one machine concept for assembling and qualifying complex hybrid modules. Therefore modern assembly machines relay to special hardware designs i.e. for trays, chucks, motion concepts and calibration systems as well as for software features as data base interfaces, recipe controlled processes and flexible process editor. However beside hardware and software feasibility also necessary device characterisation is an important feature in assembly machines.

  13. Intrahepatic Transposition of Bile Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Delić, Jasmin; Savković, Admedina; Isaković, Eldar; Marković, Sergije; Bajtarevic, Alma; Denjalić, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe the intrahepatic bile duct transposition (anatomical variation occurring in intrahepatic ducts) and to determine the frequency of this variation. Material and Methods. The researches were performed randomly on 100 livers of adults, both sexes. Main research methods were anatomical macrodissection. As a criterion for determination of variations in some parts of bile tree, we used the classification of Segmentatio hepatis according to Couinaud (1957) according to Terminologia Anatomica, Thieme Stuugart: Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology, 1988. Results. Intrahepatic transposition of bile ducts was found in two cases (2%), out of total examined cases (100): right-left transposition (right segmental bile duct, originating from the segment VIII, joins the left liver duct-ductus hepaticus sinister) and left-right intrahepatic transposition (left segmental bile duct originating from the segment IV ends in right liver duct-ductus hepaticus dexter). Conclusion. Safety and success in liver transplantation to great extent depends on knowledge of anatomy and some common embryological anomalies in bile tree. Variations in bile tree were found in 24–43% of cases, out of which 1–22% are the variations of intrahepatic bile ducts. Therefore, good knowledge on ductal anatomy enables good planning, safe performance of therapeutic and operative procedures, and decreases the risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications. PMID:22550601

  14. A hybrid anode reactor for the SLAC modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.R.

    1994-06-01

    The SLAC modulators operate at 150 MW ak outputs at 120 pps with an average power of 87 kW. In an effect to improve modulator performance and reliability, we describe the design of a hybrid anode reactor using ferrite to decrease the ringing of the output pulse, and incidentally reduce thyratron commutation loss. The design uses MnZn ferrite as a saturable lossy element to decrease the ringing in combination with NiZn ferrite as a saturable reactor for reducing the switching loss. The output ringing is product of the PFN stray capacitance and the leakage inductance of the pulse transformer, and if not suppressed causes premature failures of the output cable. The saturable switch aspect then offers the necessary rise time and pulse width recovery. While these two goals seem contrary, our initial performance objectives were met Ringing on the output pulse is decreased by 50%. Switching loss reduction is measured by a thyratron temperature decrease of 15% as measured on the anode with a cathode reference temperature. The reactor packaging is very simple, and it is separated from the thyratron space so not to complicate thyratron replacement or modulator repairs and maintenance.

  15. Active space debris removal by a hybrid propulsion module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, L. T.; Bernelli, F.; Maggi, F.; Tadini, P.; Pardini, C.; Anselmo, L.; Grassi, M.; Pavarin, D.; Francesconi, A.; Branz, F.; Chiesa, S.; Viola, N.; Bonnal, C.; Trushlyakov, V.; Belokonov, I.

    2013-10-01

    During the last 40 years, the mass of the artificial objects in orbit increased quite steadily at the rate of about 145 metric tons annually, leading to a total tally of approximately 7000 metric tons. Now, most of the cross-sectional area and mass (97% in LEO) is concentrated in about 4600 intact objects, i.e. abandoned spacecraft and rocket bodies, plus a further 1000 operational spacecraft. Simulations and parametric analyses have shown that the most efficient and effective way to prevent the outbreak of a long-term exponential growth of the catalogued debris population would be to remove enough cross-sectional area and mass from densely populated orbits. In practice, according to the most recent NASA results, the active yearly removal of approximately 0.1% of the abandoned intact objects would be sufficient to stabilize the catalogued debris in low Earth orbit, together with the worldwide adoption of mitigation measures. The candidate targets for removal would have typical masses between 500 and 1000 kg, in the case of spacecraft, and of more than 1000 kg, in the case of rocket upper stages. Current data suggest that optimal active debris removal missions should be carried out in a few critical altitude-inclination bands. This paper deals with the feasibility study of a mission in which the debris is removed by using a hybrid propulsion module as propulsion unit. Specifically, the engine is transferred from a servicing platform to the debris target by a robotic arm so to perform a controlled disposal. Hybrid rocket technology for de-orbiting applications is considered a valuable option due to high specific impulse, intrinsic safety, thrust throttle ability, low environmental impact and reduced operating costs. Typically, in hybrid rockets a gaseous or liquid oxidizer is injected into the combustion chamber along the axial direction to burn a solid fuel. However, the use of tangential injection on a solid grain Pancake Geometry allows for more compact design of

  16. Hybrid Metameterials Enable Fast Electrical Modulation Of Freely Propagating Terahertz Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong; O' Hara, John F; Taylor, Antoinette J

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate fast electrical modulation of freely propagating THz waves at room temperature using hybrid metamaterial devices. the devices are planar metamaterials fabricated on doped semiconducor epitaxial layers, which form hybrid metamaterial - Schottky diode structures. With an applied ac voltage bias, we show modulation of THz radiation at inferred frequencies over 2 MHz. The modulation speed is limited by the device depletion capacitance which may be reduced for even faster operation.

  17. Hybrid Silicon Nanophotonic Devices: Enhancing Light Emission, Modulation, and Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Ryan Morrow

    Silicon has become an increasingly important photonic material for communications, information processing, and sensing applications. Silicon is inexpensive compared to compound semiconductors, and it is well suited for confining and guiding light at standard telecommunication wavelengths due to its large refractive index and minimal intrinsic absorption. Furthermore, silicon-based optical devices can be fabricated alongside microelectronics while taking advantage of advanced silicon processing technologies. In order to realize complete chip-based photonic systems, certain critical components must continue to be developed and refined on the silicon platform, including compact light sources, modulators, routers, and sensing elements. However, bulk silicon is not necessarily an ideal material for many active devices because of its meager light emission characteristics, limited refractive index tunability, and fundamental limitations in confining light beyond the diffraction limit. In this thesis, we present three examples of hybrid devices that use different materials to bring additional optical functionality to silicon photonics. First, we analyze high-index-contrast silicon slot waveguides and their integration with light-emitting erbium-doped glass materials. Theoretical and experimental results show significant enhancement of spontaneous emission rates in slot structures. We then demonstrate the integration of vanadium dioxide, a thermochromic phase-change material, with silicon waveguides to form micron-scale absorption modulators. It is shown experimentally that a 2-mum long waveguide-integrated device exhibits broadband modulation of more than 6.5 dB at wavelengths near 1550 nm. Finally, we demonstrate polymer-on-gold dielectric-loaded surface-plasmon waveguides and ring resonators coupled to silicon waveguides with 1.0+/-0.1 dB insertion loss. The plasmonic waveguides are shown to support a single surface mode at telecommunication wavelengths, with strong

  18. Methods of Transposition of Nurses between Wards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Shigeji; Masuda, Masakazu

    In this paper, a computer-implemented method for automating the transposition of a hospital’s nursing staff is proposed. The model is applied to the real case example ‘O’ hospital, which performs a transposition of its nursing staff once a year. Results are compared with real data obtained from this hospital’s current manual transposition system. The proposed method not only significantly reduces the time taken to construct the transposition, thereby significantly reducing management labor costs, but also is demonstrated to increase nurses’ levels of satisfaction with the process.

  19. A hybrid modulation for the dissemination of weather data to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akos, Dennis M.

    1991-01-01

    Ohio University is continuing to conduct research to improve its system for weather data dissemination to aircraft. The current experimental system transmit compressed weather radar reflectivity patterns from a ground based station to aircraft. Although an effective system, the limited frequency spectrum does not provide a channel for transmission. This introduces the idea of a hybrid modulation. The hybrid technique encodes weather data using phase modulation (PM) onto an existing aeronautical channel which employs amplitude modulation (AM) for voice signal transmission. Ideally, the two modulations are independent of one another. The planned implementation and basis of the system are the reviewed.

  20. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  1. Tunable Fabry-Perot filter and grating hybrid modulator to improve dispersive spectrometer resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Liang; Li, Guojun; Yang, Huan; Zhou, Chongxi

    2016-05-01

    We describe a tunable Fabry-Perot filter and grating hybrid modulator to achieve a higher spectral resolution compared with that produced by a single grating with the same period. In the hybrid modulator, a tunable Fabry-Perot filter is designed with a long cavity to accommodate a multi-order narrowband pre-filter. A grating is then utilized to separate these multi-orders spatially. Scanning the air gap of the tunable Fabry-Perot filter within 1/2 wavelength, the entire spectrogram can be achieved by compositing each group of transmitted multi-orders. Light passes first through the Fabry-Perot cavity and then into the grating. Thus, all of the light is incident on the Fabry-Perot cavity at a given angle, which can reduce the requirement for incident beam alignment and simplify the operation of the hybrid modulator. The structural matching conditions of the tunable Fabry-Perot filter and grating were presented based on the operating law of the hybrid modulator. In terms of the Rayleigh criterion, the practical spectral resolution of the hybrid modulator can be increased by at least twice that of the single grating. Experiments with a neon lamp revealed that the spectral resolution of the hybrid modulator was nearly double that of a single grating.

  2. Reusable Hybrid Propellant Modules for Outer-Space Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Mankins, John C.

    2005-01-01

    A report summarizes the concept of reusable hybrid propellant modules (HPMs), which would be used in outer space for long-term cryogenic storage of liquefied spacecraft-propellant gases, including for example, oxygen and hydrogen for combustion-based chemical rocket engines and xenon for electric thrusters. The HPM concept would provide the fundamental building block for an efficient, reusable in-space transportation system for both crewed and uncrewed missions. Each HPM would be equipped to implement an advanced zero-boil-off method of managing cryogenic fluids, and would include a fluid-transfer interface comprising standardized fittings that would be compatible with fittings on all supply facilities and on spacecraft to be supplied. The HPM, combined with a chemical or electric orbital transfer spacecraft, would provide an integrated propulsion system. HPMs would supply chemical propellant for time-critical transfers such as crewed missions, and utilize the more efficient electric-propulsion transfer vehicles to transport filled HPMs to the destinations and to return empty HPMs back to near-Earth orbits or other intermediate locations for replenishment and reuse. The HPM prepositioned using electric propulsion would provide the chemical propellant for the crew s return trip in a much more efficient manner than a chemical-only approach. The propellants to fill the HPMs would be delivered from the Earth or other initial supply locations to the intermediate locations by use of automated, compatible spacecraft designed specifically for that purpose. Additionally, multiple HPMs could be aggregated and positioned in orbits and on planets, moons, and asteroids to supply fluids to orbiting and interplanetary spacecraft.

  3. Expression of Drosophila virilis retroelements and role of small RNAs in their intrastrain transposition.

    PubMed

    Rozhkov, Nikolay V; Zelentsova, Elena S; Shostak, Natalia G; Evgen'ev, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    Transposition of two retroelements (Ulysses and Penelope) mobilized in the course of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila virilis has been investigated by in situ hybridization on polytene chromosomes in two D. virilis strains of different cytotypes routinely used to get dysgenic progeny. The analysis has been repeatedly performed over the last two decades, and has revealed transpositions of Penelope in one of the strains, while, in the other strain, the LTR-containing element Ulysses was found to be transpositionally active. The gypsy retroelement, which has been previously shown to be transpositionally inactive in D. virilis strains, was also included in the analysis. Whole mount is situ hybridization with the ovaries revealed different subcellular distribution of the transposable elements transcripts in the strains studied. Ulysses transpositions occur only in the strain where antisense piRNAs homologous to this TE are virtually absent and the ping-pong amplification loop apparently does not take place. On the other hand small RNAs homologous to Penelope found in the other strain, belong predominantly to the siRNA category (21nt), and consist of sense and antisense species observed in approximately equal proportion. The number of Penelope copies in the latter strain has significantly increased during the last decades, probably because Penelope-derived siRNAs are not maternally inherited, while the low level of Penelope-piRNAs, which are faithfully transmitted from mother to the embryo, is not sufficient to silence this element completely. Therefore, we speculate that intrastrain transposition of the three retroelements studied is controlled predominantly at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:21779346

  4. Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Septal Defect Atrioventricular Septal Defect Coarctation of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left ... of the heart—the pulmonary artery and the aorta —are switched in position, or “transposed”. Normally, blood ...

  5. Transposition of the Greater Arteries (TGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Disease Diseases of the arteries, valves, and aorta, as well as cardiac rhythm disturbances Aortic Valve ... Transposition of the Great Arteries Coarctation of the Aorta Truncus Arteriosus Single Ventricle Defects Lung, Esophageal, and ...

  6. [Study of the transcriptional and transpositional activities of the Tirant retrotransposon in Drosophila melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco locus].

    PubMed

    Nefedova, L N; Urusov, F A; Romanova, N I; Shmel'kova, A O; Kim, A I

    2012-11-01

    Transpositions of the gypsy retrotransposon in the Drosophila melanogaster genome are controlled by the flamenco locus, which is represented as an accumulation of defective copies of transposable elements. In the present work, genetic control by the flamenco locus of the transcriptional and transpositional activities of the Tirant retrotransposon from the gypsy group was studied. Tissue-specific expression of Tirant was detected in the tissues of ovaries in a strain mutant for the flamenco locus. Tirant was found to be transpositionally active in isogenic D. melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco locus. The sites of two new insertions have been localized by the method of subtractive hybridization. It has been concluded from the results obtained that the flamenco locus is involved in the genetic control of Tirant transpositions. PMID:23297482

  7. Performance of closed-loop resonant micro-optic gyro with hybrid digital phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianjie; Wang, Linglan; Ma, Huilian; Jin, Zhonghe

    2015-07-01

    A double closed-loop resonant micro optic gyro (RMOG) employing a hybrid digital phase modulation technique is demonstrated, showing encouraging progress. In this hybrid modulation scheme, the width of one stair of the stair-like digital serrodyne wave is optimized according to the rise time of the digital-to-analogue converter to obtain the maximum sideband suppression. Based on the optimum parameters of the hybrid modulation scheme, a typical bias stability of 0.05/s in 1 hr is demonstrated in an RMOG with a silica waveguide ring resonator having a ring length of 7.9 cm. This is the best long-term performance which has ever been reported in an RMOG to our knowledge.

  8. Hybrid coexpression link similarity graph clustering for mining biological modules from multiple gene expression datasets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in genomic technologies have enabled the accumulation of vast amount of genomic data, including gene expression data for multiple species under various biological and environmental conditions. Integration of these gene expression datasets is a promising strategy to alleviate the challenges of protein functional annotation and biological module discovery based on a single gene expression data, which suffers from spurious coexpression. Results We propose a joint mining algorithm that constructs a weighted hybrid similarity graph whose nodes are the coexpression links. The weight of an edge between two coexpression links in this hybrid graph is a linear combination of the topological similarities and co-appearance similarities of the corresponding two coexpression links. Clustering the weighted hybrid similarity graph yields recurrent coexpression link clusters (modules). Experimental results on Human gene expression datasets show that the reported modules are functionally homogeneous as evident by their enrichment with biological process GO terms and KEGG pathways. PMID:25221624

  9. Electro-optic modulation in hybrid solgel doped with Disperse Red chromophore.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dong; Zhang, Hongxi; Fallahi, Mahmoud

    2005-02-01

    An electro-optically active hybrid solgel doped with Disperse Red 13 has been developed by use of a simple solvent-assisted method. It permits a high loading concentration and has low optical loss at 1550 nm. A channel waveguide amplitude modulator has been fabricated by use of active and passive hybrid solgel materials. The device shows an electro-optic coefficient of 14 pm/V at 1550 nm and stable operation. PMID:15751884

  10. Electro-optic modulation in hybrid solgel doped with Disperse Red chromophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dong; Zhang, Hongxi; Fallahi, Mahmoud

    2005-02-01

    An electro-optically active hybrid solgel doped with Disperse Red 13 has been developed by use of a simple solvent-assisted method. It permits a high loading concentration and has low optical loss at 1550 nm. A channel waveguide amplitude modulator has been fabricated by use of active and passive hybrid solgel materials. The device shows an electro-optic coefficient of 14 pm/V at 1550 nm and stable operation.

  11. Transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Martins, Paula; Castela, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Transposition of the great arteries (TGA), also referred to as complete transposition, is a congenital cardiac malformation characterised by atrioventricular concordance and ventriculoarterial (VA) discordance. The incidence is estimated at 1 in 3,500-5,000 live births, with a male-to-female ratio 1.5 to 3.2:1. In 50% of cases, the VA discordance is an isolated finding. In 10% of cases, TGA is associated with noncardiac malformations. The association with other cardiac malformations such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is frequent and dictates timing and clinical presentation, which consists of cyanosis with or without congestive heart failure. The onset and severity depend on anatomical and functional variants that influence the degree of mixing between the two circulations. If no obstructive lesions are present and there is a large VSD, cyanosis may go undetected and only be perceived during episodes of crying or agitation. In these cases, signs of congestive heart failure prevail. The exact aetiology remains unknown. Some associated risk factors (gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal exposure to rodenticides and herbicides, maternal use of antiepileptic drugs) have been postulated. Mutations in growth differentiation factor-1 gene, the thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein-2 gene and the gene encoding the cryptic protein have been shown implicated in discordant VA connections, but they explain only a small minority of TGA cases.The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography, which also provides the morphological details required for future surgical management. Prenatal diagnosis by foetal echocardiography is possible and desirable, as it may improve the early neonatal management and reduce morbidity and mortality. Differential diagnosis includes other causes of central neonatal cyanosis. Palliative treatment with prostaglandin E1 and balloon atrial septostomy are usually required soon after birth

  12. A hybrid life-cycle inventory for multi-crystalline silicon PV module manufacturing in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan; Chang, Yuan; Masanet, Eric

    2014-11-01

    China is the world’s largest manufacturer of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic (mc-Si PV) modules, which is a key enabling technology in the global transition to renewable electric power systems. This study presents a hybrid life-cycle inventory (LCI) of Chinese mc-Si PV modules, which fills a critical knowledge gap on the environmental implications of mc-Si PV module manufacturing in China. The hybrid LCI approach combines process-based LCI data for module and poly-silicon manufacturing plants with a 2007 China IO-LCI model for production of raw material and fuel inputs to estimate ‘cradle to gate’ primary energy use, water consumption, and major air pollutant emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen oxides). Results suggest that mc-Si PV modules from China may come with higher environmental burdens that one might estimate if one were using LCI results for mc-Si PV modules manufactured elsewhere. These higher burdens can be reasonably explained by the efficiency differences in China’s poly-silicon manufacturing processes, the country’s dependence on highly polluting coal-fired electricity, and the expanded system boundaries associated with the hybrid LCI modeling framework. The results should be useful for establishing more conservative ranges on the potential ‘cradle to gate’ impacts of mc-Si PV module manufacturing for more robust LCAs of PV deployment scenarios.

  13. Hybrid metasurface for ultra-broadband terahertz modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyes, Jane E.; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Grady, Nathaniel K.; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy; Azad, Abul K.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate an ultra-broadband free-space terahertz modulator based on a semiconductor-integrated metasurface. The modulator is made of a planar array of metal cut-wires on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate, where the silicon layer functions as photoconductive switches. Without external excitation, the cut-wire array exhibits a Lorentzian resonant response with a transmission passband spanning dc up to the fundamental dipole resonance above 2 THz. Under photoexcitation with 1.55 eV near-infrared light, the silicon regions in the cut-wire gaps become highly conductive, causing a transition of the resonant metasurface to a wire grating with a Drude response. In effect, the low-frequency passband below 2 THz evolves into a stopband for the incident terahertz waves. Experimental validations confirm a bandwidth of at least 100%, spanning 0.5-1.5 THz with -10 dB modulation depth. This modulation depth is far superior to -5 dB achievable from a plain silicon-on-sapphire substrate with effectively 25 times higher pumping energy. The proposed concept of ultra-broadband metasurface modulator can be readily extended to electrically controlled terahertz wave modulation.

  14. A Linear hybrid kicker modulator for ETA-II

    SciTech Connect

    Buckles, R.; Davis, B.; Yen, B.

    1997-06-29

    A new type of pulse modulator is being developed at Livermore that will rapidly split a high current electron beam into two halves, enabling each half to proceed along separate pathways. Each modulator will be capable of applying a {+-}10kV, 200A pulse onto a transmission line electrode structure with a rise time less than 10 ns, a pulse repetition frequency greater than 1 MHz, and a maximum pulse duration of 400 ns. The electrode structure, located inside the beam-transport pipe, generates an electromagnetic field that acts on part of the original beam to ``kick`` it in another direction. The true merit of this high-speed modulator will be its flexibility in pulse duration and shape. The electrodynamics involved in altering the beam`s trajectory require the modulator to generate a time-varying pulse that is precisely tailored in amplitude. Consequently, the modulator is driven by an arbitrary waveform generator and must act more as a linear amplifier than as a simple switch. The requirements of high peak power and wide analog bandwidth (about 50 MHz) will be addressed by merging a solid-state driver with an output stage of high-power vacuum tubes. Modulator development and performance data will be presented as will the issues of beam-induced voltage and transit-time isolation that are considered when driving a beam load.

  15. Hybrid metasurface for ultra-broadband terahertz modulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Heyes, Jane E.; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Grady, Nathaniel K.; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy; Azad, Abul K.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2014-11-05

    We demonstrate an ultra-broadband free-space terahertz modulator based on a semiconductor-integrated metasurface. The modulator is made of a planar array of metal cut-wires on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate, where the silicon layer functions as photoconductive switches. Without external excitation, the cut-wire array exhibits a Lorentzian resonant response with a transmission passband spanning dc up to the fundamental dipole resonance above 2 THz. Under photoexcitation with 1.55 eV near-infrared light, the silicon regions in the cut-wire gaps become highly conductive, causing a transition of the resonant metasurface to a wire grating with a Drude response. In effect, the low-frequency passband below 2more » THz evolves into a stopband for the incident terahertz waves. Experimental validations confirm a bandwidth of at least 100%, spanning 0.5 to 1.5 THz with -10 dB modulation depth. This modulation depth is far superior to -5 dB achievable from a plain silicon-on-sapphire substrate with effectively 25 times higher pumping energy. The proposed concept of ultra-broadband metasurface modulator can be readily extended to electrically controlled terahertz wave modulation.« less

  16. Hybrid metasurface for ultra-broadband terahertz modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Heyes, Jane E.; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Grady, Nathaniel K.; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy; Azad, Abul K.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2014-11-05

    We demonstrate an ultra-broadband free-space terahertz modulator based on a semiconductor-integrated metasurface. The modulator is made of a planar array of metal cut-wires on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate, where the silicon layer functions as photoconductive switches. Without external excitation, the cut-wire array exhibits a Lorentzian resonant response with a transmission passband spanning dc up to the fundamental dipole resonance above 2 THz. Under photoexcitation with 1.55 eV near-infrared light, the silicon regions in the cut-wire gaps become highly conductive, causing a transition of the resonant metasurface to a wire grating with a Drude response. In effect, the low-frequency passband below 2 THz evolves into a stopband for the incident terahertz waves. Experimental validations confirm a bandwidth of at least 100%, spanning 0.5 to 1.5 THz with -10 dB modulation depth. This modulation depth is far superior to -5 dB achievable from a plain silicon-on-sapphire substrate with effectively 25 times higher pumping energy. The proposed concept of ultra-broadband metasurface modulator can be readily extended to electrically controlled terahertz wave modulation.

  17. A hybrid electronically scanned pressure module for cryogenic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, J. J.; Hopson, P., Jr.; Kruse, N.

    1995-01-01

    Pressure is one of the most important parameters measured when testing models in wind tunnels. For models tested in the cryogenic environment of the National Transonic Facility at NASA Langley Research Center, the technique of utilizing commercially available multichannel pressure modules inside the models is difficult due to the small internal volume of the models and the requirement of keeping the pressure transducer modules within an acceptable temperature range well above the -173 degrees C tunnel temperature. A prototype multichannel pressure transducer module has been designed and fabricated with stable, repeatable sensors and materials optimized for reliable performance in the cryogenic environment. The module has 16 single crystal silicon piezoresistive pressure sensors electrostatically bonded to a metalized Pyrex substrate for sensing the wind tunnel model pressures. An integral temperature sensor mounted on each silicon micromachined pressure sensor senses real-time temperature fluctuations to within 0.1 degrees C to correct for thermally induced non-random sensor drift. The data presented here are from a prototype sensor module tested in the 0.3 M cryogenic tunnel and thermal equilibrium conditions in an environmental chamber which approximates the thermal environment (-173 degrees C to +60 degrees C) of the National Transonic Facility.

  18. Dynamically reconfigurable nanoscale modulators utilizing coupled hybrid plasmonics

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Charles; Helmy, Amr S.

    2015-01-01

    The balance between extinction ratio (ER) and insertion loss (IL) dictates strict trade-off when designing travelling-wave electro-optic modulators. This in turn entails significant compromise in device footprint (L3dB) or energy consumption (E). In this work, we report a nanoscale modulator architecture that alleviates this trade-off while providing dynamic reconfigurability that was previously unattainable. This is achieved with the aide of three mechanisms: (1) Utilization of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) effect, which maximizes the attainable attenuation that an ultra-thin active material can inflict on an optical mode. (2) Non-resonant coupled-plasmonic structure which supports modes with athermal long-range propagation. (3) Triode-like biasing scheme for flexible manipulation of field symmetry and subsequently waveguide attributes. By electrically inducing indium tin oxide (ITO) to be in a local ENZ state, we show that a Si/ITO/HfO2/Al/HfO2/ITO/Si coupled-plasmonic waveguide can provide amplitude modulation with ER = 4.83 dB/μm, IL = 0.03 dB/μm, L3dB = 622 nm, and E = 14.8 fJ, showing at least an order of magnitude improvement in modulator figure-of-merit and power efficiency compared to other waveguide platforms. Employing different biasing permutations, the same waveguide can then be reconfigured for phase and 4-quadrature-amplitude modulation, with actively device length of only 5.53 μm and 17.78  μm respectively. PMID:26189813

  19. Dynamically reconfigurable nanoscale modulators utilizing coupled hybrid plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Charles; Helmy, Amr S.

    2015-07-01

    The balance between extinction ratio (ER) and insertion loss (IL) dictates strict trade-off when designing travelling-wave electro-optic modulators. This in turn entails significant compromise in device footprint (L3dB) or energy consumption (E). In this work, we report a nanoscale modulator architecture that alleviates this trade-off while providing dynamic reconfigurability that was previously unattainable. This is achieved with the aide of three mechanisms: (1) Utilization of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) effect, which maximizes the attainable attenuation that an ultra-thin active material can inflict on an optical mode. (2) Non-resonant coupled-plasmonic structure which supports modes with athermal long-range propagation. (3) Triode-like biasing scheme for flexible manipulation of field symmetry and subsequently waveguide attributes. By electrically inducing indium tin oxide (ITO) to be in a local ENZ state, we show that a Si/ITO/HfO2/Al/HfO2/ITO/Si coupled-plasmonic waveguide can provide amplitude modulation with ER = 4.83 dB/μm, IL = 0.03 dB/μm, L3dB = 622 nm, and E = 14.8 fJ, showing at least an order of magnitude improvement in modulator figure-of-merit and power efficiency compared to other waveguide platforms. Employing different biasing permutations, the same waveguide can then be reconfigured for phase and 4-quadrature-amplitude modulation, with actively device length of only 5.53 μm and 17.78  μm respectively.

  20. Dynamically reconfigurable nanoscale modulators utilizing coupled hybrid plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Charles; Helmy, Amr S

    2015-01-01

    The balance between extinction ratio (ER) and insertion loss (IL) dictates strict trade-off when designing travelling-wave electro-optic modulators. This in turn entails significant compromise in device footprint (L3dB) or energy consumption (E). In this work, we report a nanoscale modulator architecture that alleviates this trade-off while providing dynamic reconfigurability that was previously unattainable. This is achieved with the aide of three mechanisms: (1) Utilization of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) effect, which maximizes the attainable attenuation that an ultra-thin active material can inflict on an optical mode. (2) Non-resonant coupled-plasmonic structure which supports modes with athermal long-range propagation. (3) Triode-like biasing scheme for flexible manipulation of field symmetry and subsequently waveguide attributes. By electrically inducing indium tin oxide (ITO) to be in a local ENZ state, we show that a Si/ITO/HfO2/Al/HfO2/ITO/Si coupled-plasmonic waveguide can provide amplitude modulation with ER = 4.83 dB/μm, IL = 0.03 dB/μm, L3dB = 622 nm, and E = 14.8 fJ, showing at least an order of magnitude improvement in modulator figure-of-merit and power efficiency compared to other waveguide platforms. Employing different biasing permutations, the same waveguide can then be reconfigured for phase and 4-quadrature-amplitude modulation, with actively device length of only 5.53 μm and 17.78  μm respectively. PMID:26189813

  1. Hybrid electro-optic plasmonic modulators based on directional coupler switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zografopoulos, Dimitrios C.; Swillam, Mohamed A.; Shahada, Lamees A.; Beccherelli, Romeo

    2016-04-01

    By breaking the diffraction limit, plasmonics enable the miniaturization of integrated optical signal processing units in a platform compatible with traditional CMOS technology. In such architectures, modulators and switches are essential elements for fast and low-power optical signal processing. This work presents the design of a CMOS-compatible hybrid plasmonic modulator based on directional couplers enhanced with a layer of electro-optic polymer. The modulator shows very broad operating window with low crosstalk values and very small footprint with respect to similar couplers and switches of the silicon photonics platform.

  2. Intermolecular Transposition of Is10 Causes Coupled Homologous Recombination at the Transposition Site

    PubMed Central

    Eichenbaum, Z.; Livneh, Z.

    1995-01-01

    Interplasmid and chromosome to plasmid transposition of IS10 were studied by assaying inactivation of the phage 434 cI gene, carried on a low copy number plasmid. This was detected by the activity of the tet gene expressed from the phage 434 P(R) promoter. Each interplasmid transposition resulted in the fusion of the donor and acceptor plasmids into cointegrate structure, with a 9-bp duplication of the target DNA at the insertion site. Cointegrate formation was abolished in δrecA strains, although simple insertions of IS10 were observed. This suggests a two-stage mechanism involving IS10 conservative transposition, followed by homologous recombination between the donor and the acceptor. Two plasmids carrying inactive IS10 sequences were fused to cointegrates at a 100-fold lower frequency, suggesting that homologous recombination is coupled to and stimulated by the transposition event. Each IS10 transposition from the chromosome to the acceptor plasmid involved replicon fusion, providing a mechanism for IS10-mediated integration of extrachromosomal elements into the chromosome. This was accompanied by the formation of an additional copy of IS10 in the chromosome. Thus, like replicative transposition, conservative transposition of IS10 is accompanied by cointegrate formation and results in duplication of the IS10. PMID:7672587

  3. FusionArc optimization: A hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Matuszak, Martha M.; McShan, Daniel L.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Steers, Jennifer M.; Long, Troy; Edwin Romeijn, H.; Fraass, Benedick A.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To introduce a hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy/intensity modulated radiation therapy (VMAT/IMRT) optimization strategy called FusionArc that combines the delivery efficiency of single-arc VMAT with the potentially desirable intensity modulation possible with IMRT.Methods: A beamlet-based inverse planning system was enhanced to combine the advantages of VMAT and IMRT into one comprehensive technique. In the hybrid strategy, baseline single-arc VMAT plans are optimized and then the current cost function gradients with respect to the beamlets are used to define a metric for predicting which beam angles would benefit from further intensity modulation. Beams with the highest metric values (called the gradient factor) are converted from VMAT apertures to IMRT fluence, and the optimization proceeds with the mixed variable set until convergence or until additional beams are selected for conversion. One phantom and two clinical cases were used to validate the gradient factor and characterize the FusionArc strategy. Comparisons were made between standard IMRT, single-arc VMAT, and FusionArc plans with one to five IMRT/hybrid beams.Results: The gradient factor was found to be highly predictive of the VMAT angles that would benefit plan quality the most from beam modulation. Over the three cases studied, a FusionArc plan with three converted beams achieved superior dosimetric quality with reductions in final cost ranging from 26.4% to 48.1% compared to single-arc VMAT. Additionally, the three beam FusionArc plans required 22.4%-43.7% fewer MU/Gy than a seven beam IMRT plan. While the FusionArc plans with five converted beams offer larger reductions in final cost-32.9%-55.2% compared to single-arc VMAT-the decrease in MU/Gy compared to IMRT was noticeably smaller at 12.2%-18.5%, when compared to IMRT.Conclusions: A hybrid VMAT/IMRT strategy was implemented to find a high quality compromise between gantry-angle and intensity-based degrees of freedom. This

  4. FusionArc optimization: A hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning strategy

    PubMed Central

    Matuszak, Martha M.; Steers, Jennifer M.; Long, Troy; McShan, Daniel L.; Fraass, Benedick A.; Edwin Romeijn, H.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy/intensity modulated radiation therapy (VMAT/IMRT) optimization strategy called FusionArc that combines the delivery efficiency of single-arc VMAT with the potentially desirable intensity modulation possible with IMRT. Methods: A beamlet-based inverse planning system was enhanced to combine the advantages of VMAT and IMRT into one comprehensive technique. In the hybrid strategy, baseline single-arc VMAT plans are optimized and then the current cost function gradients with respect to the beamlets are used to define a metric for predicting which beam angles would benefit from further intensity modulation. Beams with the highest metric values (called the gradient factor) are converted from VMAT apertures to IMRT fluence, and the optimization proceeds with the mixed variable set until convergence or until additional beams are selected for conversion. One phantom and two clinical cases were used to validate the gradient factor and characterize the FusionArc strategy. Comparisons were made between standard IMRT, single-arc VMAT, and FusionArc plans with one to five IMRT/hybrid beams. Results: The gradient factor was found to be highly predictive of the VMAT angles that would benefit plan quality the most from beam modulation. Over the three cases studied, a FusionArc plan with three converted beams achieved superior dosimetric quality with reductions in final cost ranging from 26.4% to 48.1% compared to single-arc VMAT. Additionally, the three beam FusionArc plans required 22.4%–43.7% fewer MU/Gy than a seven beam IMRT plan. While the FusionArc plans with five converted beams offer larger reductions in final cost—32.9%–55.2% compared to single-arc VMAT—the decrease in MU/Gy compared to IMRT was noticeably smaller at 12.2%–18.5%, when compared to IMRT. Conclusions: A hybrid VMAT/IMRT strategy was implemented to find a high quality compromise between gantry-angle and intensity-based degrees of freedom

  5. Permanent magnet machine with windings having strand transposition

    DOEpatents

    Qu, Ronghai; Jansen, Patrick Lee

    2009-04-21

    This document discusses, among other things, a stator with transposition between the windings or coils. The coils are free from transposition to increase the fill factor of the stator slots. The transposition at the end connections between an inner coil and an outer coil provide transposition to reduce circulating current loss. The increased fill factor reduces further current losses. Such a stator is used in a dual rotor, permanent magnet machine, for example, in a compressor pump, wind turbine gearbox, wind turbine rotor.

  6. FPGA Techniques Based New Hybrid Modulation Strategies for Voltage Source Inverters

    PubMed Central

    Sudha, L. U.; Baskaran, J.; Elankurisil, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper corroborates three different hybrid modulation strategies suitable for single-phase voltage source inverter. The proposed method is formulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. The main tale of this proposed method is to optimize a specific performance criterion, such as minimization of the total harmonic distortion (THD), lower order harmonics, switching losses, and heat losses. The proposed method is articulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. Thus, the harmonic pollution in the power system will be reduced and the power quality will be augmented with better harmonic profile for a target fundamental output voltage. The proposed modulation strategies are simulated in MATLAB r2010a and implemented in a Xilinx spartan 3E-500 FG 320 FPGA processor. The feasibility of these modulation strategies is authenticated through simulation and experimental results. PMID:25821852

  7. FPGA techniques based new hybrid modulation strategies for voltage source inverters.

    PubMed

    Sudha, L U; Baskaran, J; Elankurisil, S A

    2015-01-01

    This paper corroborates three different hybrid modulation strategies suitable for single-phase voltage source inverter. The proposed method is formulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. The main tale of this proposed method is to optimize a specific performance criterion, such as minimization of the total harmonic distortion (THD), lower order harmonics, switching losses, and heat losses. The proposed method is articulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. Thus, the harmonic pollution in the power system will be reduced and the power quality will be augmented with better harmonic profile for a target fundamental output voltage. The proposed modulation strategies are simulated in MATLAB r2010a and implemented in a Xilinx spartan 3E-500 FG 320 FPGA processor. The feasibility of these modulation strategies is authenticated through simulation and experimental results. PMID:25821852

  8. Chemically Stable Covalent Organic Framework (COF)-Polybenzimidazole Hybrid Membranes: Enhanced Gas Separation through Pore Modulation.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Bishnu P; Chaudhari, Harshal D; Banerjee, Rahul; Kharul, Ulhas K

    2016-03-24

    Highly flexible, TpPa-1@PBI-BuI and TpBD@PBI-BuI hybrid membranes based on chemically stable covalent organic frameworks (COFs) could be obtained with the polymer. The loading obtained was substantially higher (50 %) than generally observed with MOFs. These hybrid membranes show an exciting enhancement in permeability (about sevenfold) with appreciable separation factors for CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4. Further, we found that with COF pore modulation, the gas permeability can be systematically enhanced. PMID:26865381

  9. A new technique for ovarian transposition

    SciTech Connect

    Belinson, J.L.; Doherty, M.; McDay, J.B.

    1984-08-01

    A technique of ovarian transposition is presented. The major modification of other techniques is the retention of the ovarian vascular pedicle in the retroperitoneum while placing the ovary intraperitoneally. The primary purpose of this technique is avoidance of castration due to radiation in women being treated for carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

  10. Dosimetric comparison of hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jia-Fu; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Yeh, Hui-Ling; Chang, Chen-Fa; Lin, Jin-Ching

    2015-10-01

    To compare the dosimetric performance of 3 different treatment techniques: hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy (hybrid-VMAT), pure-VMAT, and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (F-IMRT) for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. The hybrid-VMAT treatment technique and 2 other treatment techniques—pure-VMAT and F-IMRT—were compared retrospectively in 10 patients with left-sided early breast cancer. The treatment plans of these patients were replanned using the same contours based on the original computed tomography (CT) data sets. Dosimetric parameters were calculated to evaluate plan quality. Total monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were also recorded and evaluated. The hybrid-VMAT plan generated the best results in dose coverage of the target and the dose uniformity inside the target (p < 0.0001 for conformal index [CI]; p = 0.0002 for homogeneity index [HI] of planning target volume [PTV]{sub 50.4} {sub Gy} and p < 0.0001 for HI of PTV{sub 62} {sub Gy}). Volumes of ipsilateral lung irradiated to doses of 20 Gy (V{sub 20} {sub Gy}) and 5 Gy (V{sub 5} {sub Gy}) by the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those of the F-IMRT and the pure-VMAT plans. The volume of ipsilateral lung irradiated to a dose of 5 Gy was significantly less using the hybrid-VMAT plan than that using the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The total mean MUs for the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those for the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The mean machine delivery time was 3.23 ± 0.29 minutes for the hybrid-VMAT plans, which is longer than that for the pure-VMAT plans but shorter than that for the F-IMRT plans. The hybrid-VMAT plan is feasible for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer.

  11. Dosimetric comparison of hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Fu; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Yeh, Hui-Ling; Chang, Chen-Fa; Lin, Jin-Ching

    2015-01-01

    To compare the dosimetric performance of 3 different treatment techniques: hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy (hybrid-VMAT), pure-VMAT, and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (F-IMRT) for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. The hybrid-VMAT treatment technique and 2 other treatment techniques—pure-VMAT and F-IMRT—were compared retrospectively in 10 patients with left-sided early breast cancer. The treatment plans of these patients were replanned using the same contours based on the original computed tomography (CT) data sets. Dosimetric parameters were calculated to evaluate plan quality. Total monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were also recorded and evaluated. The hybrid-VMAT plan generated the best results in dose coverage of the target and the dose uniformity inside the target (p < 0.0001 for conformal index [CI]; p = 0.0002 for homogeneity index [HI] of planning target volume [PTV](50.4 Gy) and p < 0.0001 for HI of PTV(62 Gy)). Volumes of ipsilateral lung irradiated to doses of 20 Gy (V(20 Gy)) and 5 Gy (V(5 Gy)) by the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those of the F-IMRT and the pure-VMAT plans. The volume of ipsilateral lung irradiated to a dose of 5 Gy was significantly less using the hybrid-VMAT plan than that using the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The total mean MUs for the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those for the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The mean machine delivery time was 3.23 ± 0.29 minutes for the hybrid-VMAT plans, which is longer than that for the pure-VMAT plans but shorter than that for the F-IMRT plans. The hybrid-VMAT plan is feasible for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. PMID:26116150

  12. Hybrid multinary modulation using a phase modulating spatial light modulator and a low-pass spatial filter.

    PubMed

    Göröcs, Zoltán; Erdei, Gábor; Sarkadi, Tamás; Ujhelyi, Ferenc; Reményi, Judit; Koppa, Pál; Lorincz, Emoke

    2007-08-15

    We propose a method for performing binary intensity and continuous phase modulation of beams with a spatial light modulator (SLM) and a low-pass spatial filtering 4-f system. With our method it is possible to avoid the use of phase masks in holographic data storage systems or to enhance the phase encoding of the SLM by making it capable of binary amplitude modulation. The data storage capabilities and the limitations of the method are studied. PMID:17700777

  13. Development of a Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    McTaggart, Paul

    2004-12-31

    In this program TIAX LLC conducted the development of an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The overall objective of this program was to develop a hybrid compressor/expander module, based on both scroll and high-speed turbomachinery technologies, which will combine the strengths of each technology to create a concept with superior performance at minimal size and cost. The resulting system was expected to have efficiency and pressure delivery capability comparable to that of a scroll-only machine, at significantly reduced system size and weight when compared to scroll-only designs. Based on the results of detailed designs and analyses of the critical system elements, the Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module concept was projected to deliver significant improvements in weight, volume and manufacturing cost relative to previous generation systems.

  14. Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M.; Sato, Hiromu; Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-aki; Odoi, Keisuke; Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2015-09-21

    Ultra-thin silicon and electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulators have been designed and fabricated. The waveguide consists of a silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm. The cladding is an EO polymer. Optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field around the silicon extends into the EO polymer in the TE mode. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator was prepared using common coplanar electrodes. The measured half-wave voltage of the MZI with 7 μm spacing and 1.3 cm long electrodes is 4.6 V at 1550 nm. The evaluated EO coefficient is 70 pm/V, which is comparable to that of the bulk EO polymer film. Using ultra-thin silicon is beneficial in order to reduce the side-wall scattering loss, yielding a propagation loss of 4.0 dB/cm. We also investigated a mode converter which couples light from the hybrid EO waveguide into a strip silicon waveguide. The calculation indicates that the coupling loss between these two devices is small enough to exploit the potential fusion of a hybrid EO polymer modulator together with a silicon micro-photonics device.

  15. IS10/Tn10 transposition efficiently accommodates diverse transposon end configurations.

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, R M; Kleckner, N

    1996-01-01

    Transposon Tn10 and its component insertion sequence IS10 move by non-replicative transposition. We have studied the array of reaction intermediates and products in a high efficiency in vitro IS10/Tn10 transposition reaction. Synapsis of two transposon ends, followed by cleavage and strand transfer, can occur very efficiently irrespective of the relative locations and orientations of the two ends. The two participating ends can occur in inverted or direct orientation on the same molecule or, most importantly, on two different molecules. This behavior contrasts sharply with that of Mu, in which transposition is strongly biased in favor of inverted repeat synapsis. Mechanistically, the absence of discrimination amongst various end configurations implies that the architecture within the IS10/Tn10 synaptic complex is relatively simple, i.e. lacking any significant intertwining of component DNA strands. Biologically these observations are important because they suggest that the IS10 insertion sequence module has considerable flexibility in the types of DNA rearrangements that it can promote. Most importantly, it now seems highly probable that a single non-replicative IS10 element can promote DNA rearrangements usually attributed to replicative transposition, i.e. adjacent deletions and cointegrates, by utilizing transposon ends on two sister chromosomes. Other events which probably also contribute to the diversity of IS10/Tn10-promoted rearrangements are discussed. Images PMID:8890185

  16. Transpositional reactivation of two LTR retrotransposons in rice-Zizania recombinant inbred lines (RILs).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Tian, Qin; Ma, Yi-Qiao; Wu, Ying; Miao, Gao-Jian; Ma, Yan; Cao, Dong-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Li; Lin, Chunjing; Pang, Jingsong; Liu, Bao

    2010-12-01

    Hybridization is prevalent in plants, which plays important roles in genome evolution. Apart from direct transfer and recombinatory generation of genetic variations by hybridization, de novo genetic instabilities can be induced by the process per se. One mechanism by which such de novo genetic variability can be generated by interspecific hybridization is transpositional reactivation of quiescent parental transposable elements (TEs) in the nascent hybrids. We have reported previously that introgressive hybridization between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Zizania latifolia Griseb had induced rampant mobilization of three TEs, a copia-like LTR retrotransposon Tos17, a MITE mPing and a class II TE belonging to the hAT superfamily, Dart/nDart. In this study, we further found that two additional LTR retrotransposons, a gypsy-like (named RIRE2) and a copia-like (named Copia076), were also transpositionally reactivated in three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from introgressive hybridization between rice and Z. latifolia. Novel bands of these two retroelements appeared in the RILs relative to their rice parental line (cv. Matsumae) in Southern blot, suggestive of retrotransposition, which was substantiated by transposon display (TD) and locus-specific PCR amplification for insertion sites. Both elements were found to be transcribed but at variable levels in the leaf tissue of the parental line and the RILs, suggesting that transcriptional control was probably not a mechanism for their transpositional activity in the RILs. Expression analysis of four genes adjacent to de novo insertions by Copia076 revealed marked difference in the transcript abundance for each of the genes between the RILs and their rice parental line, but the alterations in expression appeared unrelated with the retroelement insertions. PMID:21166796

  17. Linker Flexibility Facilitates Module Exchange in Fungal Hybrid PKS-NRPS Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Maria Lund; Isbrandt, Thomas; Petersen, Lene Maj; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2016-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) each give rise to a vast array of complex bioactive molecules with further complexity added by the existence of natural PKS-NRPS fusions. Rational genetic engineering for the production of natural product derivatives is desirable for the purpose of incorporating new functionalities into pre-existing molecules, or for optimization of known bioactivities. We sought to expand the range of natural product diversity by combining modules of PKS-NRPS hybrids from different hosts, hereby producing novel synthetic natural products. We succeeded in the construction of a functional cross-species chimeric PKS-NRPS expressed in Aspergillus nidulans. Module swapping of the two PKS-NRPS natural hybrids CcsA from Aspergillus clavatus involved in the biosynthesis of cytochalasin E and related Syn2 from rice plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae lead to production of novel hybrid products, demonstrating that the rational re-design of these fungal natural product enzymes is feasible. We also report the structure of four novel pseudo pre-cytochalasin intermediates, niduclavin and niduporthin along with the chimeric compounds niduchimaeralin A and B, all indicating that PKS-NRPS activity alone is insufficient for proper assembly of the cytochalasin core structure. Future success in the field of biocombinatorial synthesis of hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptides relies on the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of inter-modular polyketide chain transfer. Therefore, we expressed several PKS-NRPS linker-modified variants. Intriguingly, the linker anatomy is less complex than expected, as these variants displayed great tolerance with regards to content and length, showing a hitherto unreported flexibility in PKS-NRPS hybrids, with great potential for synthetic biology-driven biocombinatorial chemistry. PMID:27551732

  18. Linker Flexibility Facilitates Module Exchange in Fungal Hybrid PKS-NRPS Engineering.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Maria Lund; Isbrandt, Thomas; Petersen, Lene Maj; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2016-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) each give rise to a vast array of complex bioactive molecules with further complexity added by the existence of natural PKS-NRPS fusions. Rational genetic engineering for the production of natural product derivatives is desirable for the purpose of incorporating new functionalities into pre-existing molecules, or for optimization of known bioactivities. We sought to expand the range of natural product diversity by combining modules of PKS-NRPS hybrids from different hosts, hereby producing novel synthetic natural products. We succeeded in the construction of a functional cross-species chimeric PKS-NRPS expressed in Aspergillus nidulans. Module swapping of the two PKS-NRPS natural hybrids CcsA from Aspergillus clavatus involved in the biosynthesis of cytochalasin E and related Syn2 from rice plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae lead to production of novel hybrid products, demonstrating that the rational re-design of these fungal natural product enzymes is feasible. We also report the structure of four novel pseudo pre-cytochalasin intermediates, niduclavin and niduporthin along with the chimeric compounds niduchimaeralin A and B, all indicating that PKS-NRPS activity alone is insufficient for proper assembly of the cytochalasin core structure. Future success in the field of biocombinatorial synthesis of hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptides relies on the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of inter-modular polyketide chain transfer. Therefore, we expressed several PKS-NRPS linker-modified variants. Intriguingly, the linker anatomy is less complex than expected, as these variants displayed great tolerance with regards to content and length, showing a hitherto unreported flexibility in PKS-NRPS hybrids, with great potential for synthetic biology-driven biocombinatorial chemistry. PMID:27551732

  19. New hybrid reverse differential pulse position width modulation scheme for wireless optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Renbo; Liu, Hongzhan; Qiao, Yaojun

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the power efficiency and reduce the packet error rate of reverse differential pulse position modulation (RDPPM) for wireless optical communication (WOC), a hybrid reverse differential pulse position width modulation (RDPPWM) scheme is proposed, based on RDPPM and reverse pulse width modulation. Subsequently, the symbol structure of RDPPWM is briefly analyzed, and its performance is compared with that of other modulation schemes in terms of average transmitted power, bandwidth requirement, and packet error rate over ideal additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. Based on the given model, the simulation results show that the proposed modulation scheme has the advantages of improving the power efficiency and reducing the bandwidth requirement. Moreover, in terms of error probability performance, RDPPWM can achieve a much lower packet error rate than that of RDPPM. For example, at the same received signal power of -28 dBm, the packet error rate of RDPPWM can decrease to 2.6×10-12, while that of RDPPM is 2.2×10. Furthermore, RDPPWM does not need symbol synchronization at the receiving end. These considerations make RDPPWM a favorable candidate to select as the modulation scheme in the WOC systems.

  20. Class of positive partial transposition states

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2006-08-15

    We construct a class of quantum bipartite d(multiply-in-circle sign)d states which are positive under partial transposition (PPT states). This class is invariant under the maximal commutative subgroup of U(d) and contains as special cases many well-known examples of PPT states. States from our class provide criteria for testing the indecomposability of positive maps. Such maps are crucial for constructing entanglement witnesses.

  1. Effects of Modulation Techniques (Manchester Code, NRZ or RZ) on the Operation of Hybrid WDM/TDM Passive Optical Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nyachionjeka, Kumbirayi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the performance and feasibility of a hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM/TDM PON) system with 128 optical network units (ONUs) is analysed. In this system, triple play services (video, voice and data) are successfully communicated through a distance of up to 28 km. Moreover, we analysed and compared the performance of various modulation formats for different distances in the proposed hybrid WDM/TDM PON. NRZ rectangular emerged as the most appropriate modulation format for triple play transmission in the proposed hybrid PON. PMID:27382633

  2. Target Capture during Mos1 Transposition*

    PubMed Central

    Pflieger, Aude; Jaillet, Jerôme; Petit, Agnès; Augé-Gouillou, Corinne; Renault, Sylvaine

    2014-01-01

    DNA transposition contributes to genomic plasticity. Target capture is a key step in the transposition process, because it contributes to the selection of new insertion sites. Nothing or little is known about how eukaryotic mariner DNA transposons trigger this step. In the case of Mos1, biochemistry and crystallography have deciphered several inverted terminal repeat-transposase complexes that are intermediates during transposition. However, the target capture complex is still unknown. Here, we show that the preintegration complex (i.e., the excised transposon) is the only complex able to capture a target DNA. Mos1 transposase does not support target commitment, which has been proposed to explain Mos1 random genomic integrations within host genomes. We demonstrate that the TA dinucleotide used as the target is crucial both to target recognition and in the chemistry of the strand transfer reaction. Bent DNA molecules are better targets for the capture when the target DNA is nicked two nucleotides apart from the TA. They improve strand transfer when the target DNA contains a mismatch near the TA dinucleotide. PMID:24269942

  3. Retroviral DNA Transposition: Themes and Variations

    PubMed Central

    Skalka, Anna Marie

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Retroviruses and LTR retrotransposons are transposable elements that encapsidate the RNAs that are intermediates in the transposition of DNA copies of their genomes (proviruses), from one cell (or one locus) to another. Mechanistic similarities in DNA transposase enzymes and retroviral/retrotransposon integrases underscore the close evolutionary relationship among these elements. The retroviruses are very ancient infectious agents, presumed to have evolved from Ty3/Gypsy LTR retrotransposons (1), and DNA copies of their sequences can be found embedded in the genomes of most, if not all, members of the tree of life. All retroviruses share a specific gene arrangement and similar replication strategies. However, given their ancestries and occupation of diverse evolutionary niches, it should not be surprising that unique sequences have been acquired in some retroviral genomes and that the details of the mechanism by which their transposition is accomplished can vary. While every step in the retrovirus lifecycle is, in some sense, relevant to transposition, this Chapter focuses mainly on the early phase of retroviral replication, during which viral DNA is synthesized and integrated into its host genome. Some of the initial studies that set the stage for current understanding are highlighted, as well as more recent findings obtained through use of an ever-expanding technological toolbox including genomics, proteomics, and siRNA screening. Persistence in the area of structural biology has provided new insight into conserved mechanisms as well as variations in detail among retroviruses, which can also be instructive. PMID:25844274

  4. Broadband silicon optical modulator using a graphene-integrated hybrid plasmonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jin Tae

    2015-09-11

    Graphene is an excellent electronic and photonic material for developing electronic-photonic integrated circuits in Si-based semiconductor devices with ultra wide operational bandwidth. As an extended application, here we propose a broadband silicon optical modulator using a graphene-integrated hybrid plasmonic waveguide, and investigate the optical characteristics numerically at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The optical device is based on the surface plasmon polariton absorption of graphene. By electrically tuning the graphene's refractive index as low as that of a noble metal, the hybrid plasmonic waveguide supports a strongly confined highly lossy hybrid long-range surface plasmon polariton strip mode, and hence light coupled from an input waveguide experiences significant power attenuation as it propagates along the waveguide. Over the entire C-band from 1.530 to 1.565 μm wavelengths, the on/off extinction ratio is larger than 13.7 dB. This modulator has the potential to play a key role in realizing graphene-Si waveguide-based integrated photonic devices. PMID:26293975

  5. Design of Hybrid Electrochromic Materials with Large Electrical Modulation of Plasmonic Resonances.

    PubMed

    Ledin, Petr A; Jeon, Ju-Won; Geldmeier, Jeffrey A; Ponder, James F; Mahmoud, Mahmoud A; El-Sayed, Mostafa; Reynolds, John R; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2016-05-25

    We present a rational approach to fabricating plasmonically active hybrid polymer-metal nanomaterials with electrochemical tunability of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of noble metal nanostructures embedded in an electroactive polymer matrix. The key requirement for being able to significantly modulate the LSPR band position is a close overlap between the refractive index change [Δn(λ)] of a stimuli-responsive polymeric matrix and the intrinsic LSPR bands. For this purpose, gold nanorods with a controlled aspect ratio, synthesized to provide high refractive index sensitivity while maintaining good oxidative stability, were combined with a solution-processable electroactive and electrochromic polymer (ECP): alkoxy-substituted poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene) [PProDOT(CH2OEtHx)2]. Spectral characteristics of the ECP, in particular the Δn(λ) variation, were evaluated as the material was switched between oxidized and reduced states. We fabricated ultrathin plasmonic electrochromic hybrid films consisting of gold nanorods and ECP that exhibited a large, stable, and reversible LSPR modulation of up to 25-30 nm with an applied electrical potential. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations confirm a good match between the experimentally measured refractive index change in the ECP and the plasmonic response during electrochemical modulations. PMID:27145297

  6. Low-cost coherent UDWDM-PON by hybrid DBPSK/ASK-2 modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Deng, Zhuanhua; Hu, Rong; li, Cai; Li, Wei; Yuan, Zhilin; Yu, Shaohua

    2016-07-01

    The coherent ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (UDWDM-PON) has been widely studied recently, in which the envelop detection based coherent reception of on-off keying (OOK) signal has been shown to possess both high receiver sensitivity and tolerance against laser linewidth/chirp. In order to increase the spectral efficiency (SE) to 2 bit/s/Hz, researchers formulated a hybrid DBPSK/ASK-2 modulation using the silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM), where both amplitude and phase modulation are employed. The experimental result shows that the proposed DBPSK/ASK-2 modulation is of better performance than PAM-4 at the same SE of 2 bit/s/Hz. When the low-cost silicon MZM and DFB laser of 4-MHz linewidth are employed, the receiver sensitivity of DBPSK/ASK-2 exceeds that of the PAM-4 by about 5.7 dB. This work can achieve about -46 dBm receiver sensitivity at 2.5 GBaud after transmission over 80-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF). The proposed DBPSK/ASK-2 modulation using low-cost silicon MZM and DFB laser is considered as a practical and reliable method for the future UDWDM-PON at the SE of 2 bit/s/Hz.

  7. Hybrid Simulation of Duty Cycle Influences on Pulse Modulated RF SiH4/Ar Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xifeng; Song, Yuanhong; Zhao, Shuxia; Dai, Zhongling; Wang, Younian

    2016-04-01

    A one-dimensional fluid/Monte-Carlo (MC) hybrid model is developed to describe capacitively coupled SiH4/Ar discharge, in which the lower electrode is applied by a RF source and pulse modulated by a square-wave, to investigate the modulation effects of the pulse duty cycle on the discharge mechanism. An electron Monte Carlo simulation is used to calculate the electron energy distribution as a function of position and time phase. Rate coefficients in chemical reactions can then be obtained and transferred to the fluid model for the calculation of electron temperature and densities of different species, such as electrons, ions, and radicals. The simulation results show that, the electron energy distribution f(ɛ) is modulated evidently within a pulse cycle, with its tail extending to higher energies during the power-on period, while shrinking back promptly in the afterglow period. Thus, the rate coefficients could be controlled during the discharge, resulting in modulation of the species composition on the substrate compared with continuous excitation. Meanwhile, more negative ions, like SiH‑3 and SiH‑2, may escape to the electrodes owing to the collapse of ambipolar electric fields, which is beneficial to films deposition. Pulse modulation is thus expected to provide additional methods to customize the plasma densities and components. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11275038)

  8. Hybrid intensity-modulation-to-phase-remodulation optical wavelength reuse transport system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching-Hung; Tseng, Meng-Chun; Tseng, Cheng-Han

    2015-12-01

    A hybrid intensity-modulation (IM)-to-phase-remodulation optical wavelength reuse transport system is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. Based on the transport system, an optical carrier can be intensity-modulated with an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal and then phase-remodulated with a radio frequency (RF) signal prior to communicating its destination through a span of single mode fiber. The OFDM signal at the receiver end can be directly detected using a photodetector (PD), and the phase-modulated RF signal can be detected by another PD after being converted back to intensity-modulation format by a semiconductor laser. In this study, the working window of the semiconductor laser-composed phase-modulation-format-to-IM-format converter is not fixed. The converter can be flexibly adjusted to align with the wavelength of the employed optical carrier. Experimental results prove that both OFDM and RF signals can be clearly detected with an error-free transmission. Evident interference is not found between both signals at the receiver end.

  9. Towards a direction-sensitive optical module for neutrino telescopes based on a hybrid photon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rügheimer, Tilman K.; Gebert, Ulrike; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela; Séguinot, Jacques; Joram, Christian

    2009-12-01

    The optical modules of all currently operating neutrino telescopes contain one standard PMT with a large hemispherical photo-cathode. The maximum spatial resolution of this detection principle is thus limited to the photo-cathode area and no information is obtained on the direction of the incoming photons. We propose a new direction-sensitive design featuring a fisheye lens and a hybrid photon detector. The lens system maps incoming photons from one direction on a well-defined point on the photo-cathode of the hybrid photon detector. The photo-electrons are accelerated in a cross-focussed optics and detected using a pixelated anode, which allows for very high spatial resolution. As a candidate chip for the photo-electron detection we propose the Timepix detector of the Medipix family. We have successfully shown its capability to detect photo-electrons in the experiment and evaluated the time resolution by simulation and measurement.

  10. Testing and evaluation of EV-1300 lead-acid modules for the hybrid vehicle application

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, E.C.; Webster, C.E.; Hornstra, F.; Yao, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of testing and evaluation of GE/Globe EV-1300 lead-acid modules developed by Globe Battery Division of Johnson Controls, Inc. for the hybrid vehicle, HTV-I, developed by General Electric (GE) for the Department of Energy. The design of this battery was derived from that of the Globe Improved State of the Art (ISOA) battery under development for the ETV-1 all-electric vehicle. Key differences in the battery performance requirements for the HTV-1 hybrid vehicle, as opposed to the ETV-1, are higher specific power (137 W/kg versus 104 W/kg sustained for 15 seconds at 50% depth of discharge (DOD)) and less specific energy (36.1 Wh/kg versus 37.5 Wh/kg at a 3h discharge rate).

  11. Modulation Extension Control of Hybrid Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Converters with 7-Level Fundamental Frequency Switching Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Zhong; Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a modulation extension control algorithm for hybrid cascaded H-bridge multilevel converters. The hybrid cascaded H-bridge multilevel motor drive using only a single DC source for each phase is promising for high power motor drive applications since it can greatly decrease the number of required DC power supplies, has high quality output power due to its high number of output levels, and has high conversion efficiency and low thermal stress by using fundamental frequency switching scheme. But one disadvantage of the 7-level fundamental frequency switching scheme is that its modulation index range is too narrow when capacitor's voltage balance is maintained. The proposed modulation extension control algorithm can greatly increase capacitors' charging time and decrease the capacitors' discharging time by injecting triplen harmonics to extend the modulation index range of the hybrid cascaded H-bridge multilevel converters.

  12. Magneto-optic transmittance modulation observed in a hybrid graphene-split ring resonator terahertz metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotto, Simone; Lange, Christoph; Maag, Thomas; Pitanti, Alessandro; Miseikis, Vaidotas; Coletti, Camilla; Degl'Innocenti, Riccardo; Baldacci, Lorenzo; Huber, Rupert; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    By placing a material in close vicinity of a resonant optical element, its intrinsic optical response can be tuned, possibly to a wide extent. Here, we show that a graphene monolayer, spaced a few tenths of nanometers from a split ring resonator metasurface, exhibits a magneto-optical response which is strongly influenced by the presence of the metasurface itself. This hybrid system holds promises in view of thin optical modulators, polarization rotators, and nonreciprocal devices, in the technologically relevant terahertz spectral range. Moreover, it could be chosen as the playground for investigating the cavity electrodynamics of Dirac fermions in the quantum regime.

  13. Directly modulated and fully tunable hybrid silicon lasers for future generation of coherent colorless ONU.

    PubMed

    de Valicourt, G; Le Liepvre, A; Vacondio, F; Simonneau, C; Lamponi, M; Jany, C; Accard, A; Lelarge, F; Make, D; Poingt, F; Duan, G H; Fedeli, J-M; Messaoudene, S; Bordel, D; Lorcy, L; Antona, J-C; Bigo, S

    2012-12-10

    We propose and demonstrate asymmetric 10 Gbit/s upstream--100 Gbit/s downstream per wavelength colorless WDM/TDM PON using a novel hybrid-silicon chip integrating two tunable lasers. The first laser is directly modulated in burst mode for upstream transmission over up to 25 km of standard single mode fiber and error free transmission over 4 channels across the C-band is demonstrated. The second tunable laser is successfully used as local oscillator in a coherent receiver across the C-band simultaneously operating with the presence of 80 downstream co-channels. PMID:23262901

  14. Magneto-optic transmittance modulation observed in a hybrid graphene–split ring resonator terahertz metasurface

    SciTech Connect

    Zanotto, Simone; Pitanti, Alessandro; Lange, Christoph; Maag, Thomas; Huber, Rupert; Miseikis, Vaidotas; Coletti, Camilla; Degl'Innocenti, Riccardo; Baldacci, Lorenzo; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2015-09-21

    By placing a material in close vicinity of a resonant optical element, its intrinsic optical response can be tuned, possibly to a wide extent. Here, we show that a graphene monolayer, spaced a few tenths of nanometers from a split ring resonator metasurface, exhibits a magneto-optical response which is strongly influenced by the presence of the metasurface itself. This hybrid system holds promises in view of thin optical modulators, polarization rotators, and nonreciprocal devices, in the technologically relevant terahertz spectral range. Moreover, it could be chosen as the playground for investigating the cavity electrodynamics of Dirac fermions in the quantum regime.

  15. Regulation of responsiveness of phosphorescence toward dissolved oxygen concentration by modulating polymer contents in organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuo; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2014-06-15

    Platinum(II) octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP)-loaded organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained via the microwave-assisted sol-gel condensation with methyltrimethoxysilane and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). From transparent and homogeneous hybrid films, the strong phosphorescence from PtOEP was observed. Next, the resulting hybrids were immersed in the aqueous buffer, and the emission intensity was monitored by changing the dissolved oxygen level in the buffer. When the hybrid with relatively-higher amount of the silica element, the strong phosphorescence was observed even under the aerobic conditions. In contrast, the emission from the hybrids with lower amounts of the silica element was quenched under the hypoxic conditions. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first example to demonstrate that the responsiveness of the phosphorescence intensity of PtOEP in hybrid films to the dissolved oxygen concentration in water can be modulated by changing the percentage of the contents in the material. PMID:24794749

  16. Using multimedia learning modules in a hybrid-online course in electricity and magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.

    2011-06-01

    We have been piloting web-based multimedia learning modules (MLMs), developed by the Physics Education Research Group at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (UIUC), as a “prelecture assignment” in several introductory physics courses at California State Polytechnic University at Pomona. In this study, we report the results from a controlled study utilizing modules on electricity and magnetism as a part of a blended hybrid-online course. We asked students in the experimental section to view the MLMs prior to attending the face-to-face class, and to make sure this would not result in additional instructional time, we reduced the weekly class time by one-third. We found that despite reduced class time, student-learning outcomes were not hindered; in fact, the implementation of the UIUC MLMs resulted in a positive effect on student performance on conceptual tests and classroom discussion questions.

  17. Design of Hybrid Lens for Compact Camera Module Considering Diffraction Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyun; Yoon, Yong-Joong; Kim, Byungwook; Lee, Sang-Hyuck; Kim, Wan-Chin; Park, No-Cheol; Park, Young-Pil; Kang, Shinill

    2008-08-01

    We introduce the design method of a hybrid lens composed a refractive lens and a diffractive optical element (DOE) considering the diffraction effect for a compact camera module. When imaging optical system is designed using the DOE, diffraction efficiency of the DOE and stray light due to the unintended diffraction light should be considered. Therefore, to analyze the effect of diffraction efficiency of the DOE on image characteristics, we evaluate the performances of two designed compact camera lenses, which have different construction wavelengths, using the modulation transfer function (MTF) considering diffraction efficiency. The stray light that is induced by the diffraction effect of the DOE is analyzed by calculating the focal position according to each diffraction order, and a method for the reduction of the stray light is proposed.

  18. [Transposition of great vessels in Cantrell syndrome].

    PubMed

    Czarnecki, L; Mikołajczak-Mejer, U; Zinka, E

    1993-04-01

    A case is presented of complete transposition of great vessels with atrial and ventricular septum defect and coarctation of the pulmonary artery in Cantrell syndrome. The Cantrell syndrome consists of: congenital heart disease, defect of pericardium, diaphragm, sternum, and anterior abdomen wall. In all cases of Cantrell syndrome described as yet ventricular septum defect was present alone or in combination with other intracardiac defects. The presented case is the first report of congenital abnormality in the from of d-TGA in Cantrell syndrome. PMID:8249420

  19. Resonance energy transfer in nano-bio hybrid structures can be modulated by UV laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivenkov, V. A.; Solovyeva, D. O.; Samokhvalov, P. S.; Grinevich, R. S.; Brazhnik, K. I.; Kotkovskii, G. E.; Lukashev, E. P.; Chistyakov, A. A.

    2014-11-01

    A method for targeted variation of the radiation properties of quantum dots (QDs) to control the efficiency of resonance energy transfer in nanocrystal assemblies and nano-bio hybrid materials has been developed. The method is based on strong ultraviolet (UV) laser irradiation of QDs and allows the extinction and luminescence spectra to be controlled and the luminescence quantum yield and decay kinetics to be varied. Water-soluble QDs have been synthesized and used for analyzing the effect of energy transfer from semiconductor nanocrystals on the photocycle of the photosensitive protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) in bR-QD complexes. The UV irradiation mode has been selected in a way permitting the modulation of QD optical parameters without modification of their structure or physico-chemical properties. It is concluded that the QD interaction with bR accelerates its photocycle, but this acceleration is determined by electrostatic interactions, rather than Förster resonance energy transfer from QDs to bR. The method of UV laser irradiation of fluorescent semiconductor QDs has proven to be an efficient technique for variation of nanocrystal optical properties without affecting their structure, as well as for fine modulation of the energy transfer processes in the nanocrystal assemblies and nano-bio hybrid materials.

  20. Antenna-coupled silicon-organic hybrid integrated photonic crystal modulator for broadband electromagnetic wave detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Hosseini, Amir; Subbaraman, Harish; Wang, Shiyi; Zhan, Qiwen; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K.; Chung, Chi-jui; Yan, Hai; Pan, Zeyu; Nelson, Robert L.; Lee, Charles Y.; Chen, Ray T.

    2015-03-01

    The detection and measurement of electromagnetic fields have attracted significant amounts of attention in recent years. Traditional electronic electromagnetic field sensors use large active conductive probes which perturb the field to be measured and also make the devices bulky. In order to address these problems, integrated photonic electromagnetic field sensors have been developed, in which an optical signal is modulated by an RF signal collected by a miniaturized antenna. In this work, we design, fabricate and characterize a compact, broadband and highly sensitive integrated photonic electromagnetic field sensor based on a silicon-organic hybrid modulator driven by a bowtie antenna. The large electro-optic (EO) coefficient of organic polymer, the slow-light effects in the silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide (PCW), and the broadband field enhancement provided by the bowtie antenna, are all combined to enhance the interaction of microwaves and optical waves, enabling a high EO modulation efficiency and thus a high sensitivity. The modulator is experimentally demonstrated with a record-high effective in-device EO modulation efficiency of r33=1230pm/V. Modulation response up to 40GHz is measured, with a 3-dB bandwidth of 11GHz. The slot PCW has an interaction length of 300μm, and the bowtie antenna has an area smaller than 1cm2. The bowtie antenna in the device is experimentally demonstrated to have a broadband characteristics with a central resonance frequency of 10GHz, as well as a large beam width which enables the detection of electromagnetic waves from a large range of incident angles. The sensor is experimentally demonstrated with a minimum detectable electromagnetic power density of 8.4mW/m2 at 8.4GHz, corresponding to a minimum detectable electric field of 2.5V/m and an ultra-high sensitivity of 0.000027V/m Hz-1/2 ever demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first silicon-organic hybrid device and also the first PCW device used for the

  1. Patterns of Hermes transposition in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Guimond, N; Bideshi, D K; Pinkerton, A C; Atkinson, P W; O'Brochta, D A

    2003-03-01

    Transposable elements are being developed as tools for genomics and for the manipulation of insect genotypes for the purposes of biological control. An understanding of their transposition behavior will facilitate the use of these elements. The behavior of an autonomous Hermes transposable element from Musca domestica in the soma and germ-line of Drosophila melanogaster was investigated using the method of transposon display. In the germ-line, Hermes transposed at a rate of approximately 0.03 jumps per element per generation. Within the soma Hermes exhibited markedly non-random patterns of integration. Certain regions of the genome were distinctly preferred over others as integration targets, while other regions were underrepresented among the integration sites used. One particular site accounted for 4.4% of the transpositions recovered in this experiment, all of which were located within a 2.5-kb region of the actin5C promoter. This region was also present within the Hermes element itself, suggesting that this clustering is an example of transposable element "homing". Clusters of integration sites were also observed near the original donor sites; these represent examples of local hopping. The information content (sequence specificity) of the 8-bp target site was low, and the consensus target site resembles that determined from plasmid-based integration assays. PMID:12655404

  2. Design and construction of a VHGT-attached WDM-type triplex transceiver module using polymer PLC hybrid integration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerábek, Vitezslav; Hüttel, Ivan; Prajzler, Václav; Busek, K.; Seliger, P.

    2008-11-01

    We report about design and construction of the bidirectional transceiver TRx module for subscriber part of the passive optical network PON for a fiber to the home FTTH topology. The TRx module consists of a epoxy novolak resin polymer planar lightwave circuit (PLC) hybrid integration technology with volume holographic grating triplex filter VHGT, surface-illuminated photodetectors and spot-size converted Fabry-Pérot laser diode in SMD package. The hybrid PLC has composed from a two parts-polymer optical waveguide including VHGT filter section and a optoelectronic microwave section. The both parts are placed on the composite substrate.

  3. Content-addressable Holographic Digital Data Storage Based on Hybrid Ternary Modulation with a Twisted-Nematic Liquid-Crystal Spatial Light Modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Renu; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    We propose and demonstrate the use of hybrid ternary modulated digital pages for content-addressable holographic data storage. Display of binary data pages with equal number of ZEROs and ONEs by modulating both amplitude and phase of beams using twisted-nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator, reduces strong de component and produces a more homogeneous spectral distribution at the recording plane. This technique facilitates better recording of all spatial frequencies, thus improving the discrimination capability of a content-addressable memory. Hence we get better results in associative recall in a holographic memory system, with very low number of false hits. An important advantage of the hybrid ternary modulation over pure phase data pages is that it offers a dark state for coding the undesired portion of the SLM while the search argument is small. The unique orientation of quarter wave plate and the analyzer blocks the light transmitted from OFF pixels leading to near total removal of dark signals. This in turn improves the system performance and reduces the number of false hits when the size of the search argument is small. Our experimental results show good discrimination capability and signal-to-noise ratio for a hybrid ternary modulation based content addressable memory.

  4. Modeling the anisotropic electro-optic interaction in hybrid silicon-ferroelectric optical modulator.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xuan; Cueff, Sébastien; Romeo, Pedro Rojo; Orobtchouk, Régis

    2015-01-26

    We present a numerical method to accurately model the electro-optic interaction in anisotropic materials. Specifically, we combine a full-vectorial finite-difference optical mode solver with a radio-frequency solver to analyze the overlap between optical modes and applied electric field. This technique enables a comprehensive understanding on how electro-optic effects modify individual elements in the permittivity tensor of a material. We demonstrate the interest of this approach by designing a modulator that leverages the Pockels effect in a hybrid silicon-BaTiO3 slot waveguide. Optimized optical confinement in the active BaTiO3 layer as well as design of travelling-wave index-matched electrodes is presented. Most importantly, we show that the overall electro-optic modulation is largely governed by off-diagonal elements in the permittivity tensor. As most of active electro-optic materials are anisotropic, this method paves the way to better understand the physics of electro-optic effects and to improve optical modulators. PMID:25835926

  5. Study of the intensity noise and intensity modulation in a of hybrid soliton pulsed source

    SciTech Connect

    Dogru, Nuran; Oziazisi, M Sadetin

    2005-10-31

    The relative intensity noise (RIN) and small-signal intensity modulation (IM) of a hybrid soliton pulsed source (HSPS) with a linearly chirped Gaussian apodised fibre Bragg grating (FBG) are considered in the electric-field approximation. The HSPS is described by solving the dynamic coupled-mode equations. It is shown that consideration of the carrier density noise in the HSPS in addition to the spontaneous noise is necessary to analyse accurately noise in the mode-locked HSPS. It is also shown that the resonance peak spectral splitting (RPSS) of the IM near the frequency inverse to the round-trip time of light in the external cavity can be eliminated by selecting an appropriate linear chirp rate in the Gaussian apodised FBG. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  6. Keggin-lysine hybrid nanostructures in the shape modulation of gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhasis; Ghosh, Tanmay; Satpati, Biswarup; Sanyal, Ambarish; Bala, Tanushree

    2014-03-01

    We show here that L-lysine effectively complexes with phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) and the solution mixture when added to a 10-3 M aqueous solution of HAuCl4 after UV-irradiation for 3 h leads to the slow reduction and consequent formation of gold nanotriangles with a high degree of anisotropy. The same reaction carried out in a 12.5 kDa cutoff dialysis bag where the irradiated PMA-lysine solution was kept inside and stirred in a beaker containing aqueous HAuCl4, did not lead to the formation of gold nanotriangles. This implies that L-lysine plays the role of a shape-modulating agent and hence this study proves an improvement in the understanding of the role of such organic-inorganic hybrid structures in the synthesis and growth of anisotropic nanoparticles.

  7. Investigation of lower hybrid physics through power modulation experiments on Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Meneghini, O.; Parker, R. R.; Porkolab, M.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G.; Wright, J. C.; Harvey, R. W.; Wilson, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is an attractive tool for off-axis current profile control in magnetically confined tokamak plasmas and burning plasmas (ITER), because of its high current drive efficiency. The LHCD system on Alcator C-Mod operates at 4.6 GHz, with ~ 1 MW of coupled power, and can produce a wide range of launched parallel refractive index (n||) spectra. A 32 chord, perpendicularly viewing hard x-ray camera has been used to measure the spatial and energy distribution of fast electrons generated by lower hybrid (LH) waves. Square-wave modulation of LH power on a time scale much faster than the current relaxation time does not significantly alter the poloidal magnetic field inside the plasma and thus allows for realistic modeling and consistent plasma conditions for different n|| spectra. Inverted hard x-ray profiles show clear changes in LH-driven fast electron location with differing n||. Boxcar binning of hard x-rays during LH power modulation allows for ~ 1 ms time resolution which is sufficient to resolve the build-up, steady-state, and slowing-down phases of fast electrons. Ray-tracing/Fokker-Planck modeling in combination with a synthetic hard x-ray diagnostic shows quantitative agreement with the x-ray data for high n|| cases. The time histories of hollow x-ray profiles have been used to measure off-axis fast electron transport in the outer half of the plasma, which is found to be small on a slowing down time scale.

  8. Film Delivery Module For Fiber Placement Fabrication of Hybridized Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulcher, Anthony Bruce; Young, Greg

    2005-01-01

    A new fabrication technology has been developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center that will allow for the fabrication of hybridized composite structures using fiber placement processing. This technology was originally developed in response to a need to address the issue of hydrogen permeation and microcracking in cryogenic propellant tanks. Numerous thin polymeric and metallized films were investigated under low temperatures conditions for use as barrier films in a composite tank. Manufacturing studies conducted at that time did not address the processing issues related to fabrication of a hybridized tank wall. A film processing head was developed that will allow for the processing of thin polymeric and metallized films, metallic foils, and adhesives using fiber placement processing machinery. The film head is designed to enable the simultaneous processing of film materials and composite tape/tow during the composite part layup process and is also capable of processing the film during an independent operation. Several initial demonstrations were conducted to assess the performance of the film module device. Such assessments included film strip lay-up accuracy, capability to fabricate panels having internal film liners, and fabrication of laminates with embedded film layers.

  9. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Marco Antonio; Ramalho, Gabriel Cardoso; Manzi, Marcello Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics. PMID:27433360

  10. Comparison of saltation, amplitude modulation, and a hybrid method of vibrotactile stimulation.

    PubMed

    Raisamo, Jukka; Raisamo, Roope; Surakka, Veikko

    2013-01-01

    Illusory vibrotactile movement can be used to provide directional tactile information on the skin. Our research question was how the presentation method affects the perception of vibrotactile movement. Illusion of vibrotactile mediolateral movement was elicited to a left dorsal forearm to investigate cognitive and emotional experiences to vibrotactile stimulation. Eighteen participants were presented with stimuli delivered to a linearly aligned row of three vibrotactile actuators. Three presentation methods were used--saltation, amplitude modulation, and a hybrid method--to form 12 distinct patterns of movement. First, the stimuli were compared pairwise using a two-alternative forced-choice procedure (same-different judgments). Second, the stimuli were rated using three nine-point bipolar scales measuring the continuity, pleasantness, and arousal of each stimulus. The stimuli presented with the amplitude modulation method were rated significantly more continuous and pleasant, and less arousing. Strong correlations between the cognition-related scale of continuity and the emotion-related scales of pleasantness and arousal were found: More continuous stimuli were rated more pleasant and less arousing. PMID:24808403

  11. Double closed-loop resonant micro optic gyro using hybrid digital phase modulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huilian; Zhang, Jianjie; Wang, Linglan; Jin, Zhonghe

    2015-06-15

    It is well-known that the closed-loop operation in optical gyros offers wider dynamic range and better linearity. By adding a stair-like digital serrodyne wave to a phase modulator can be used as a frequency shifter. The width of one stair in this stair-like digital serrodyne wave should be set equal to the optical transmission time in the resonator, which is relaxed in the hybrid digital phase modulation (HDPM) scheme. The physical mechanism for this relaxation is firstly indicated in this paper. Detailed theoretical and experimental investigations are presented for the HDPM. Simulation and experimental results show that the width of one stair is not restricted by the optical transmission time, however, it should be optimized according to the rise time of the output of the digital-to-analogue converter. Based on the optimum parameters of the HDPM, a bias stability of 0.05°/s for the integration time of 400 seconds in 1 h has been carried out in an RMOG with a waveguide ring resonator with a length of 7.9 cm and a diameter of 2.5 cm. PMID:26193493

  12. Transposition-mediated DNA re-replication in maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianbo; Zuo, Tao; Wang, Dafang; Peterson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Every DNA segment in a eukaryotic genome normally replicates once and only once per cell cycle to maintain genome stability. We show here that this restriction can be bypassed through alternative transposition, a transposition reaction that utilizes the termini of two separate, nearby transposable elements (TEs). Our results suggest that alternative transposition during S phase can induce re-replication of the TEs and their flanking sequences. The DNA re-replication can spontaneously abort to generate double-strand breaks, which can be repaired to generate Composite Insertions composed of transposon termini flanking segmental duplications of various lengths. These results show how alternative transposition coupled with DNA replication and repair can significantly alter genome structure and may have contributed to rapid genome evolution in maize and possibly other eukaryotes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03724.001 PMID:25406063

  13. Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries (CCTGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understanding Your Adult Congenital Heart Disease Quality of Life Birth Control Pregnancy and ... Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries (CCTGA)* *Please note: This article is directed to those who have not undergone ...

  14. Congenitally corrected transposition and degenerative severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Faganello, Giorgio; Nelson, Martin; Stuart, Graham

    2008-10-01

    Congenitally corrected transposition is a rare cardiac anomaly characterized by the combination of discordant atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial connections. Young patients with this lesion can present with congestive cardiac failure, usually secondary to a large ventricular septal defect or pulmonary stenosis. We report here our experience with a lady aged 79, admitted to our unit because of deterioration of her congestive cardiac failure as a consequence of uncorrected congenitally corrected transposition associated with degenerative severe aortic stenosis. PMID:18752714

  15. Comparison of hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique and double arc VMAT technique in the treatment of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Amaloo, Christopher; Nazareth, Daryl P.; Kumaraswamy, Lalith K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has quickly become accepted as standard of care for the treatment of prostate cancer based on studies showing it is able to provide faster delivery with adequate target coverage and reduced monitor units while maintaining organ at risk (OAR) sparing. This study aims to demonstrate the potential to increase dose conformality with increased planner control and OAR sparing using a hybrid treatment technique compared to VMAT. Methods Eleven patients having been previously treated for prostate cancer with VMAT techniques were replanned with a hybrid technique on Varian Treatment Planning System. Multiple static IMRT fields (2 to 3) were planned initially based on critical OAR to reduce dose but provide some planning treatment volume (PTV) coverage. This was used as a base dose plan to provide 30–35% coverage for a single arc VMAT plan. Results The clinical VMAT plan was used as a control for the purposes of comparison. Average of all OAR sparing between the hybrid technique and VMAT showed the hybrid plan delivering less dose in almost all cases except for V80 of the bladder and maximum dose to right femoral head. PTV coverage was superior with the VMAT technique. Monitor unit differences varied, with the hybrid plan able to deliver fewer units 37% of the time, similar results 18% of the time, and higher units 45% of the time. On average, the hybrid plan delivered 10% more monitor units. Conclusions The hybrid plan can be delivered in a single gantry rotation combining aspects of VMAT with regions of dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) within the treatment arc. PMID:26401136

  16. Heterogeneous integration technology for hybrid optoelectronic and electronic device and module fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Michael Sungchun

    Various forms of optical computing architectures have promised enhanced processing capabilities well beyond the limits of traditional VLSI technology during the past decade. However, the progress toward realizing this vision has been severely limited by the lack of mature technology to fabricate heterogeneously integrated optoelectronic transceiver arrays (consisting of VLSI electronics with optoelectronic devices) that are necessary to link the functionality of photonic input/output devices with electronic processors. This dissertation describes a research effort that addressed this need by exploring innovative, yet highly manufacturable integration approaches that can be utilized to fabricate hybrid optoelectronic transceivers by integrating thin silicon device layers on bulk electro-optic (e.g. lead lanthanum zirconate titanate- PLZT) and other host substrates. The two integration techniques developed are: (1) B& P (Bond and Processing) technology involving bonding of bulk-quality thin silicon layer to PLZT followed by low temperature NMOS processing and (2) DDB (Direct-Device Bonding) technology, where circuit layer fabricated in SOI-silicon is thinned and bonded directly to a PLZT substrate. Characteristics of electronic circuits and modulators in integrated Si/PLZT SLMs are measured to be comparable to that of reference devices fabricated in bulk silicon and PLZT substrates. The application of the developed integration technology specifically toward fabricating Si/PLZT spatial light modulator is examined in detail. The developed device layer grafting technology based on chemo-mechanical lapping and reactive ion etching processes can be applied to assemble miniature ``mixed technology'' systems consisting of devices fabricated by different manufacturing processes (e.g. CMOS, MEMS, VCSEL and GaAs processes) in a monolithic fashion. The latter half of the thesis details experimental

  17. IS50-mediated inverse transposition: specificity and precision.

    PubMed

    Nag, D K; DasGupta, U; Adelt, G; Berg, D E

    1985-01-01

    The IS50 elements, which are present as inverted repeats in the kanamycin-resistance transposon, Tn5, can move in unison carrying with them any interstitial DNA segment. In consequence, DNA molecules such as a lambda::Tn5 phage genome are composed of two overlapping transposons - the kan segment bracketed by IS50 elements (Tn5), and lambda bracketed by IS50 elements. During direct transposition, mediated by IS50 "O" (outside) ends, the kan gene is moved and the lambda vector is left behind. During inverse transposition, mediated by the "I" (inside) ends of the IS50 elements, the lambda vector segment is moved and the kan gene is left behind. Direct transposition is several orders of magnitude more frequent than inverse transposition (Isberg and Syvanen, 1981; Sasakawa and Berg, 1982). We assessed the specificity and precision of the rare events mediated by pairs of I ends by mapping and sequencing independent inverse transpositions from a lambda::Tn5 phage into the amp and tet genes of plasmid pBR322. Using restriction analyses, 32 and 40 distinct sites of insertion were found among 46 and 72 independent inverse transpositions into the amp and tet genes, respectively. Eleven sites were used in two or more insertion events, and the two sites in tet used most frequently corresponded to major hotspots for the insertion of the Tn5 (by direct transposition). The sequences of 22 sites of inverse transposition (including each of the sites used more than once) were determined, in eleven cases by analyzing both pBR322-IS50 junctions, and in eleven others by sequencing one junction. The sequence of the "I" end of IS50 was preserved and 9-bp target sequence duplications were present in every case analyzed. GC pairs were found at each end of the target sequence duplication in ten of the eleven sites used more than once, and also in seven of the other eleven sites. Our data indicate that transposition mediated by pairs of "I" ends is similar in its specificity and precision to

  18. Power optimized OSSB modulation to support multi-band OFDM services along hybrid long-reach WDM-PONs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Paulo; Silva, Henrique

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, optical single sideband (OSSB) transmission of multi-services based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with different signal constellations is investigated through numerical simulation, when the modulation efficiency obtained with a dual-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator (DE-MZM) is optimized by biasing it below its quadrature point. Furthermore, in order to overcome the intermodulation distortion resulting from modulation efficiency optimization, it is demonstrated that driving each electrical signal with a different electrical power is an effective solution for the signals considered. As result of the optimization, successful delivery after 130 km of a hybrid OSSB signal composed by a custom 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) OFDM gigabit Ethernet (GbE) signal, a 20 MHz 64-QAM LTE signal and three independent OFDM-UWB channels of the first group of ECMA-386 is demonstrated, with negligible power penalty.

  19. [Corrected transposition of the great arteries].

    PubMed

    Alva-Espinosa, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Corrected transposition of the great arteries is one of the most fascinating entities in congenital heart disease. The apparent corrected condition is only temporal. Over time, most patients develop systemic heart failure, even in the absence of associated lesions. With current imaging studies, precise visualization is achieved in each case though the treatment strategy remains unresolved. In asymptomatic patients or cases without associated lesions, focalized follow-up to assess systemic ventricular function and the degree of tricuspid valve regurgitation is important. In cases with normal ventricular function and mild tricuspid failure, it seems unreasonable to intervene surgically. In patients with significant associated lesions, surgery is indicated. In the long term, the traditional approach may not help tricuspid regurgitation and systemic ventricular failure. Anatomical correction is the proposed alternative to ease the right ventricle overload and to restore the systemic left ventricular function. However, this is a prolonged operation and not without risks and long-term complications. In this review the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects are overviewed in the light of the most significant and recent literature. PMID:27335197

  20. Testing and evaluation of EV-1300 lead-acid modules for the hybrid vehicle application

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, E.C.; Corp, D.O.; Hayes, E.R.; Webster, C.E.; Hornstra, F.; Yao, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Tests of two 6-cell, EV-1300 modules with a capacity of 105 Ah (1235 Wh) were conducted at the computer-automated National Battery Test Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory to verify the above design requirements. In addition, the following tests were completed to more fully characterize the performance of the battery: (1) capacity measurements over a range of constant-current discharges of 35 to 400 A (Peukert Plot); (2) energy measurements over a range of constant-power discharges of 10 to 100 W/kg (Ragone Plot); (3) open-circuit stand testing (self-discharge); (4) partial DOD testing (memory effect); (5) projected range based on simulated driving profile discharges representing the EPA urban driving schedule negotiated by the HTV-1 hybrid vehicle with minimum ICE operation; (6) projected range based on simulated driving profile discharges representing the SAE J227aD urban driving schedule negotiated by an improved ETV-1 (an all-electric vehicle); and (7) peak power measurements at various depths of discharge.

  1. Morphing hybrid honeycomb (MOHYCOMB) with in situ Poisson’s ratio modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Callum J. C.; Neville, Robin M.; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Bond, Ian P.; Potter, Kevin D.

    2016-08-01

    Electrostatic adhesion can be used as a means of reversible attachment. Through application of high voltage (~2 kV) across closely spaced parallel plate electrodes, significant shear stresses (11 kPa) can be generated. The highest levels of electrostatic holding force can be achieved through close contact of connection surfaces; this is facilitated by flexible electrodes which can conform to reduce air gaps. Cellular structures are comprised of thin walled elements, making them ideal host structures for electrostatic adhesive elements. The reversible adhesion provides control of the internal connectivity of the cellular structure, and determines the effective cell geometry. This would offer variable stiffness and control of the effective Poisson’s ratio of the global cellular array. Using copper-polyimide thin film laminates and PVDF thin film dielectrics, double lap shear electrostatic adhesive elements have been introduced to a cellular geometry. By activating different groups of reversible adhesive interfaces, the cellular array can assume four different cell configurations. A maximum stiffness modulation of 450% between the ‘All off’ and ‘All on’ cell morphologies has been demonstrated. This structure is also capable of in situ effective Poisson’s ratio variations, with the ability to switch between values of ‑0.45 and 0.54. Such a structure offers the potential for tuneable vibration absorption (due to its variable stiffness properties), or as a smart honeycomb with controllable curvature and is termed morphing hybrid honeycomb.

  2. Design of low-power hybrid digital pulse width modulator with piecewise calibration scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Shaowei; Hou, Sijian; Gan, Wubing; Chen, Jingbo; Luo, Ping; Zhang, Bo

    2015-12-01

    A low-power hybrid digital pulse width modulator (DPWM) is proposed in the paper. Owing to the piecewise calibration scheme, the delay time of delay line is locked to target frequency. The delay line consists of two piecewise lines with different control codes. The delay time of each cell in one sub-delay-line is longer than the last significant bit (LSB) of DPWM, while the delay time of each cell in the other sub-delay-line is shorter than LSB. Optimum linearity is realised with minimum standard cells. Simulation results show that the differential nonlinearity and integral nonlinearity are improved from 5.1 to 0.4 and from 5 to 1.3, respectively. The DPWM is fully synthesised and fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS process. The proposed DPWM occupies a silicon area of 0.01 mm2, with 31.5 μw core power consumption. Experimental results are shown to demonstrate the 2-MHz, 10-bit resolution implementation. Pulse width histogram is firstly introduced to characterise the linearity of the DPWM.

  3. XPM reduction in hybrid 10G/40G transmission using 10-Gb/s narrow-filtered DPSK modulation.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Marco; Serena, Paolo; Rossi, Nicola; Bononi, Alberto

    2009-04-13

    We propose a possible improvement for optical hybrid transmission systems, based on 40G differential quadrature shift Keying (DQPSK) and 10G differential phase shift keying (DPSK) received by means of a Gaussian narrow filter. We report a reduced cross phase modulation (XPM), at the cost of a slightly more complex setup. This technique is especially effective for systems with low inline dispersion and offers similar performances on different types of fiber. PMID:19365410

  4. Hybrid direct-detection differential phase shift keying-multipulse pulse position modulation techniques for optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morra, Ahmed E.; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.; Hegazy, Salem F.; Obayya, Salah S. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a hybrid differential phase shift keying-multipulse pulse position modulation (DPSK-MPPM) technique is proposed in order to enhance the receiver sensitivity of optical communication systems. Both binary and quadrature formats are adopted in the proposed systems. Direct-detection DPSK schemes that are based on an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a novel ultrafast discrete delay unit are presented to simplify the receiver implementation. Expressions for the bit-error rate (BER) of the proposed hybrid modulation techniques are derived taking into account the effect of the optical amplifier noise. Under the constraints of the same transmitted data rate, bandwidth, and average received optical signal-to-noise ratio, the BER performances of the proposed schemes are then evaluated numerically and compared with that of traditional differential binary phase shift keying (DBPSK), differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK), and MPPM schemes and with that of recent hybrid schemes. Furthermore, a comparison between the proposed systems and the traditional ones is held in terms of the bandwidth-utilization efficiency. Our results reveal that the proposed hybrid schemes are more energy-efficient and have higher receiver sensitivity compared with the traditional ones while improving the bandwidth-utilization efficiency. The proposed DPSK-MPPM system is ready to accommodate adjustable (or variable) bit rates, by virtue of the programmable delay integrated to the receiver system.

  5. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Part 3: Specifications for coating material and process controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Resin systems for coating hybrids prior to hermetic sealing are described. The resin systems are a flexible silicone junction resin system and a flexible cycloaliphatic epoxy resin system. The coatings are intended for application to the hybrid after all the chips have been assembled and wire bonded, but prior to hermetic sealing of the package. The purpose of the coating is to control particulate contamination by immobilizing particles and by passivating the hybrid. Recommended process controls for the purpose of minimizing contamination in hybrid microcircuit packages are given. Emphasis is placed on those critical hybrid processing steps in which contamination is most likely to occur.

  6. An assay to monitor the activity of DNA transposition complexes yields a general quality control measure for transpositional recombination reactions

    PubMed Central

    Pulkkinen, Elsi; Haapa-Paananen, Saija; Savilahti, Harri

    2014-01-01

    Transposon-based technologies have many applications in molecular biology and can be used for gene delivery into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Common transpositional activity measurement assays suitable for many types of transposons would be beneficial, as diverse transposon systems could be compared for their performance attributes. Therefore, we developed a general-purpose assay to enable and standardize the activity measurement for DNA transposition complexes (transpososomes), using phage Mu transposition as a test platform. This assay quantifies transpositional recombination efficiency and is based on an in vitro transposition reaction with a target plasmid carrying a lethal ccdB gene. If transposition targets ccdB, this gene becomes inactivated, enabling plasmid-receiving Escherichia coli cells to survive and to be scored as colonies on selection plates. The assay was validated with 3 mini-Mu transposons varying in size and differing in their marker gene constitution. Tests with different amounts of transposon DNA provided a linear response and yielded a 10-fold operational range for the assay. The colony formation capacity was linearly correlated with the competence status of the E.coli cells, enabling normalization of experimental data obtained with different batches of recipient cells. The developed assay can now be used to directly compare transpososome activities with all types of mini-Mu transposons, regardless of their aimed use. Furthermore, the assay should be directly applicable to other transposition-based systems with a functional in vitro reaction, and it provides a dependable quality control measure that previously has been lacking but is highly important for the evaluation of current and emerging transposon-based applications. PMID:26442171

  7. Functional Characterization of the Bari1 Transposition System

    PubMed Central

    Palazzo, Antonio; Marconi, Simona; Specchia, Valeria; Bozzetti, Maria Pia; Ivics, Zoltán; Caizzi, Ruggiero; Marsano, René Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    The transposons of the Bari family are mobile genetic elements widespread in the Drosophila genus. However, despite a broad diffusion, virtually no information is available on the mechanisms underlying their mobility. In this paper we report the functional characterization of the Bari elements transposition system. Using the Bari1 element as a model, we investigated the subcellular localization of the transposase, its physical interaction with the transposon, and its catalytic activity. The Bari1 transposase localized in the nucleus and interacted with the terminal sequences of the transposon both in vitro and in vivo, however, no transposition activity was detected in transposition assays. Profiling of mRNAs expressed by the transposase gene revealed the expression of abnormal, internally processed transposase transcripts encoding truncated, catalytically inactive transposase polypeptides. We hypothesize that a post-transcriptional control mechanism produces transposase-derived polypeptides that effectively repress transposition. Our findings suggest further clues towards understanding the mechanisms that control transposition of an important class of mobile elements, which are both an endogenous source of genomic variability and widely used as transformation vectors/biotechnological tools. PMID:24244492

  8. Trigger of autoimmune diseases (SLE): identification of LINE transposition based novel therapeutic molecular targets.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Anupama; Soni, Upendra Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Autoimmune diseases are the highly heterogeneous at cellular and molecular level. The causes and consequences of most of the autoimmune diseases are not well explored. However the researches focusing on the development of biomarkers for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases are seems to be inadequate and given treatment are insufficient to control or cure the disease properly. It is a big obstacle to develop any therapy without knowing the actual cause and molecular event playing role in disease onset. In this article we are raising the involvement of LINE or other transposition as a first trigger and cause for autoimmune disease. Further we are proposing a novel hybrid aptamers based biocapturing model which would help in the investigation of genome-wide LINE transposition in pristane induced SLE mice model. Importantly the effect of new LINE movements at the expression pattern of neighboring genes would be used as novel molecular prognostic biomarkers for onset of SLE and related autoimmune diseases. We are also proposing that the differential expression either inductive or suppressive pattern of expected several candidate genes would be implicated in the defective biochemical or cellular defects, and targeted therapy would be employed to such life threatening disease. PMID:25468787

  9. On the Interaction of Letter Transpositions and Morphemic Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Rueckl, Jay G.; Rimzhim, Anurag

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of the impact of morphemic boundaries on transposed-letter priming effects have yielded conflicting results. Five masked priming lexical decision experiments were conducted to examine the interaction of letter transpositions and morphemic boundaries with English suffixed derivations. Experiments 1-3 found that responses to monomorphemic target words (e.g., SPEAK) were facilitated to the same extent by morphologically related primes containing letter transpositions that did (SPEAEKR) or did not (SPEKAER) cross a morphemic boundary. This pattern was also observed in Experiments 4 and 5, in which the targets (e.g. SPEAKER) were the base forms of the transposed-letter primes. Thus, in these experiments the influence of the morphological structure of a transposed-letter prime did not depend on whether the letter transposition crossed a morphological boundary. PMID:22933829

  10. Genomic DNA transposition induced by human PGBD5

    PubMed Central

    Henssen, Anton G; Henaff, Elizabeth; Jiang, Eileen; Eisenberg, Amy R; Carson, Julianne R; Villasante, Camila M; Ray, Mondira; Still, Eric; Burns, Melissa; Gandara, Jorge; Feschotte, Cedric; Mason, Christopher E; Kentsis, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Transposons are mobile genetic elements that are found in nearly all organisms, including humans. Mobilization of DNA transposons by transposase enzymes can cause genomic rearrangements, but our knowledge of human genes derived from transposases is limited. In this study, we find that the protein encoded by human PGBD5, the most evolutionarily conserved transposable element-derived gene in vertebrates, can induce stereotypical cut-and-paste DNA transposition in human cells. Genomic integration activity of PGBD5 requires distinct aspartic acid residues in its transposase domain, and specific DNA sequences containing inverted terminal repeats with similarity to piggyBac transposons. DNA transposition catalyzed by PGBD5 in human cells occurs genome-wide, with precise transposon excision and preference for insertion at TTAA sites. The apparent conservation of DNA transposition activity by PGBD5 suggests that genomic remodeling contributes to its biological function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10565.001 PMID:26406119

  11. Barbara McClintock and the transposition concept.

    PubMed

    Barahona, A

    1997-12-01

    Barbara McClintock was awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1983 for the discovery and characterization of jumping genes or transposons. In 1948 she described for the first time maize controlling elements. She proposed 'transposition' as a mechanism that relates phenotypic characteristics with the presence of unstable genes. This discovery was 'ignored' even though she was recognized as a brilliant cytogeneticist. In this paper I approach the matter of the maize research groups within which McClintock developed all of her work, and the problem of variegation in relation to unstable genes and transposition. PMID:11619571

  12. Surgery for transposition of great arteries: A historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, Supreet P; Talwar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    The history of surgery for transposition of great arteries (TGA) has paralleled the history of cardiac surgery. In fact, it began before the birth of open heart surgery when the palliative Blalock–Hanlon septectomy was first performed in 1948. The atrial switch, which was an attempt to correct the physiology of transposition, had significant shortcomings. The arterial switch sought to address them. This has emerged as an anatomically as well as physiologically appropriate solution. Today we continue to pursue technical refinements as well as try to expand the indications of the arterial switch. This review traces the various milestones in this perpetual journey. PMID:26085763

  13. Adynamic and dynamic muscle transposition techniques for anal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Barišić, Goran; Krivokapić, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Gracilis muscle transposition is well established in general surgery and has been the main muscle transposition technique for anal incontinence. Dynamization, through a schedule of continuous electrical stimulation, converts the fatigue-prone muscle fibres to a tonic fatigue-resistant morphology with acceptable results in those cases where there is limited sphincter muscle mass. The differences between gluteoplasty and graciloplasty, as well as the techniques and complications of both procedures, are outlined in this review. Overall, these techniques are rarely carried out in specialized units with experience, as there is a high revision and explantation rate. PMID:24759348

  14. Facts about dextro-Transposition of the Great Arteries (d-TGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts about dextro-Transposition of the Great Arteries (d-TGA) Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... What is dextro-Transposition of the Great Arteries (d-TGA)? Dextro-Transposition (pronounced DECKS-tro trans-poh- ...

  15. Hybridization, assembling, and testing of miniaturized optoelectronic modules for sensors and microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopola, Harri K.; Karioja, Pentti; Rusanen, Outi; Lehto, Heikki; Lammasniemi, Jorma

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the research and development work on packaging and manufacturing different optoelectronic modules and microsystems for spectroscopic applications at VTT Electronics. Four different spectrometer concepts are analyzed: a multiwavelength detector module, an LED array spectrometer module, a PGP-spectrograph and an IR- spectrometer on silicon. The construction, main features, packaging concepts and performance are reviewed.

  16. Photocatalytic Reactive Oxygen Species Formation by Semiconductor-Metal Hybrid Nanoparticles. Toward Light-Induced Modulation of Biological Processes.

    PubMed

    Waiskopf, Nir; Ben-Shahar, Yuval; Galchenko, Michael; Carmel, Inbal; Moshitzky, Gilli; Soreq, Hermona; Banin, Uri

    2016-07-13

    Semiconductor-metal hybrid nanoparticles manifest efficient light-induced spatial charge separation at the semiconductor-metal interface, as demonstrated by their use for hydrogen generation via water splitting. Here, we pioneer a study of their functionality as efficient photocatalysts for the formation of reactive oxygen species. We observed enhanced photocatalytic activity forming hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals upon light excitation, which was significantly larger than that of the semiconductor nanocrystals, attributed to the charge separation and the catalytic function of the metal tip. We used this photocatalytic functionality for modulating the enzymatic activity of horseradish peroxidase as a model system, demonstrating the potential use of hybrid nanoparticles as active agents for controlling biological processes through illumination. The capability to produce reactive oxygen species by illumination on-demand enhances the available peroxidase-based tools for research and opens the path for studying biological processes at high spatiotemporal resolution, laying the foundation for developing novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:27224678

  17. Host DNA replication forks are not preferred targets for bacteriophage Mu transposition.

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, H; Taylor, A L

    1985-01-01

    Bacteriophage Mu DNA integration in Escherichia coli strains infected after alignment of chromosomal replication was analyzed by a sandwich hybridization assay. The results indicated that Mu integrated into chromosomal segments at various distances from oriC with similar kinetics. In an extension of these studies, various Hfr strains were infected after alignment of chromosomal replication, and Mu transposition was shut down early after infection. The positions of integrated Mu copies were inferred from the transfer kinetics of Mu to an F- strain. Our analysis indicated that the location of Mu DNA in the host chromosome was not dependent on the positions of host replication forks at the time of infection. However, the procedure for aligning chromosomal replication affected DNA transfer by various Hfr strains differently, and this effect could account for prior results suggesting preferential integration of Mu at host replication forks. Images PMID:3159718

  18. Relational Learning in a Context of Transposition: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazareva, Olga F.

    2012-01-01

    In a typical transposition task, an animal is presented with a single pair of stimuli (for example, S3+S4-, where plus and minus denote reward and nonreward and digits denote stimulus location on a sensory dimension such as size). Subsequently, an animal is presented with a testing pair that contains a previously reinforced or nonreinforced…

  19. Method and structure for cache aware transposition via rectangular subsections

    DOEpatents

    Gustavson, Fred Gehrung; Gunnels, John A

    2014-02-04

    A method and structure for transposing a rectangular matrix A in a computer includes subdividing the rectangular matrix A into one or more square submatrices and executing an in-place transposition for each of the square submatrices A.sub.ij.

  20. Efficient Sleeping Beauty DNA Transposition From DNA Minicircles

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nynne; Cai, Yujia; Bak, Rasmus O; Jakobsen, Martin R; Schrøder, Lisbeth Dahl; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2013-01-01

    DNA transposon-based vectors have emerged as new potential delivery tools in therapeutic gene transfer. Such vectors are now showing promise in hematopoietic stem cells and primary human T cells, and clinical trials with transposon-engineered cells are on the way. However, the use of plasmid DNA as a carrier of the vector raises safety concerns due to the undesirable administration of bacterial sequences. To optimize vectors based on the Sleeping Beauty (SB) DNA transposon for clinical use, we examine here SB transposition from DNA minicircles (MCs) devoid of the bacterial plasmid backbone. Potent DNA transposition, directed by the hyperactive SB100X transposase, is demonstrated from MC donors, and the stable transfection rate is significantly enhanced by expressing the SB100X transposase from MCs. The stable transfection rate is inversely related to the size of circular donor, suggesting that a MC-based SB transposition system benefits primarily from an increased cellular uptake and/or enhanced expression which can be observed with DNA MCs. DNA transposon and transposase MCs are easily produced, are favorable in size, do not carry irrelevant DNA, and are robust substrates for DNA transposition. In accordance, DNA MCs should become a standard source of DNA transposons not only in therapeutic settings but also in the daily use of the SB system. PMID:23443502

  1. Slow-light enhanced electro-optic modulation with an on-chip silicon-hybrid Fano system.

    PubMed

    Bera, Arijit; Roussey, Matthieu; Kuittinen, Markku; Honkanen, Seppo

    2016-05-15

    We present the theoretical study of a coupled cavity system yielding a Fano response on a fully on-chip silicon platform hybridized with an electro-optic polymer. This novel Fano system is based on a slot waveguide Bragg grating geometry, enabling a huge enhancement of the electro-optic properties due to slow light effects at the resonance. The modulator shows a high resonance tunability of 1.75 nm/V and a low switching power of 0.63 V. Such a versatile system shows the promise for various nonlinear and active devices only by using suitable cover material. PMID:27176970

  2. Fabrication of a TFF-Attached WDM-Type Triplex Transceiver Module Using Silica PLC Hybrid Integration Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Tak; Park, Yoon-Jung; Park, Sang-Ho; Shin, Jang-Uk; Lee, Chul-Wook; Ko, Hyunsung; Baek, Yongsoon; Park, Chul-Hee; Kwon, Yoon-Koo; Hwang, Wol-Yon; Oh, Kwang-Ryong; Sung, Heekyung

    2006-12-01

    An optical triplex transceiver (TRx) module, which consists of thin-film filter (TFF)-attached wavelength-division multiplexer (WDM) and photodiode (PD) carriers, has been fabricated using a silica planar lightwave circuit (PLC) hybrid integration technology. Two types of TFFs were attached to a diced sidewall of a silica-terraced PLC platform to realize the TFF-attached WDM. The PD carriers with a 45° mirror, on which receiving surface-illuminated PDs were bonded, were assembled with the PLC platform to form receiver (Rx) parts. As the main performances of the packaged TRx module, a very clear transmitter (Tx) eye pattern and minimum Rx sensitivity of -25.7 dBm were obtained under a 1.25-Gb/s Tx Rx operation for digital applications. For an analog Rx application, a module responsivity of about 0.8 A/W was achieved, and a second-order intermodulation distortion value of less than -70 dBc at an optical modulation index of 40% was obtained under a two-tone test of 400 and 450 MHz.

  3. Half-metallicity modulation of hybrid BN-C nanotubes by external electric fields: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yunye; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-21

    On the basis of density functional theory, we systematically investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of hybrid BN-C nanotubes, Cx(BN)y where x + y = 12, with and without an external electric field. The BN-C nanotubes are totally distinct from pristine boron-nitride and carbon nanotubes. The electronic properties of Cx(BN)y change significantly with composition: from the nonmagnetic semiconductors to the half-metals. The half-metallicity is attributed to the competition among the band gap, which is related to the width of C domain, the width of BN domain, and the intrinsic polarization field. Application of the external fields can enhance or counterbalance the polarization fields and change the band gaps. The half-metallicity can be modulated. In BN-rich tubes, such as C2(BN)10, the energy gap can be engineered from 0.50 eV to 0.95 eV and in C3(BN)9, the ground state is converted from the nonmagnetic state into the anti-ferro-magnetic one. In other tubes, the half-metallicity can be enhanced or destroyed by different external fields. The modulation indicates that hybrid BN-C nanotubes can work as the components of the spin-filter devices. PMID:24952555

  4. Resonation-based hybrid continuous-time/discrete-time cascade ΣΔ modulators: application to 4G wireless telecom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Rosa, José M.; Morgado, Alonso; del Río, Rocío

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents innovative architectures of hybrid Continuous-Time/Discrete-Time (CT/DT) cascade ΣΔ Modulators (ΣΔMs) made up of a front-end CT stage and a back-end DT stage. In addition to increasing the digitized signal bandwidth as compared to conventional ΣΔMs, the proposed topologies take advantage of the CT nature of the front-end ΣΔM stage, by embedding anti-aliasing filtering as well as their suitability to operate up to the GHz range. Moreover, the presented modulators include multi-bit quantization and Unity Signal Transfer Function (USTF) in both stages to reduce the integrator output swings, and programmable resonation to optimally distribute the zeroes of the overall Noise Transfer Function (NTF), such that the in-band quantization noise is minimized for each operation mode. Both local and inter-stage (global) based resonation architectures are synthesized and compared in terms of their circuit complexity, resolution-bandwidth programmability and robustness with respect to circuit non-ideal effects. The combination of all mentioned characteristics results in novel hybrid ΣΔMs, very suited for the implementation of adaptive/reconfigurable Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) intended for the 4th Generation (4G) of wireless telecom systems.

  5. PCR-based detection of the CYP21 deletion and TNXA/TNXB hybrid in the RCCX module.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsien-Hsiung; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Lin, Ching-Yu

    2004-05-01

    Detection of the CYP21 deletion in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in the RCCX module has been previously done by Southern blot analysis with multiple probes and separate digestions with the restriction endonucleases TaqI and BglII, which is laborious and indirect. Here, we describe an established PCR-based amplification method to analyze directly a CAH patient with a single CYP21 deletion, followed by RFLP analysis to characterize the interconversion region between tenascin A (TNXA) and tenascin B (TNXB). Data indicate that TaqI digestion of the defective CYP21 gene in the CAH patient produced 3.2-kb fragments. The CYP21 allele carried mutations in the CYP21P gene as determined by analysis with the amplification-created restriction site method. In addition, RFLP analysis indicated that the TNXB gene in the defective allele was replaced by TNXA to produce a TNXA/TNXB hybrid. We conclude that deletion of the RCCX module in this CAH patient included the RP2, C4B, and CYP21 genes and part of the TNXB gene. The junction of the recombination of the TNXA/TNXB hybrid may be located between IVS44 and exon 44 of the TNXB gene. This rapid, nonradioactive detection method will be beneficial for diagnostic purposes that are limited to the population originally studied. PMID:15081125

  6. Half-metallicity modulation of hybrid BN-C nanotubes by external electric fields: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yunye; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    On the basis of density functional theory, we systematically investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of hybrid BN-C nanotubes, Cx(BN)y where x + y = 12, with and without an external electric field. The BN-C nanotubes are totally distinct from pristine boron-nitride and carbon nanotubes. The electronic properties of Cx(BN)y change significantly with composition: from the nonmagnetic semiconductors to the half-metals. The half-metallicity is attributed to the competition among the band gap, which is related to the width of C domain, the width of BN domain, and the intrinsic polarization field. Application of the external fields can enhance or counterbalance the polarization fields and change the band gaps. The half-metallicity can be modulated. In BN-rich tubes, such as C2(BN)10, the energy gap can be engineered from 0.50 eV to 0.95 eV and in C3(BN)9, the ground state is converted from the nonmagnetic state into the anti-ferro-magnetic one. In other tubes, the half-metallicity can be enhanced or destroyed by different external fields. The modulation indicates that hybrid BN-C nanotubes can work as the components of the spin-filter devices.

  7. Half-metallicity modulation of hybrid BN-C nanotubes by external electric fields: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Yunye; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-21

    On the basis of density functional theory, we systematically investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of hybrid BN-C nanotubes, C{sub x}(BN){sub y} where x + y = 12, with and without an external electric field. The BN-C nanotubes are totally distinct from pristine boron-nitride and carbon nanotubes. The electronic properties of C{sub x}(BN){sub y} change significantly with composition: from the nonmagnetic semiconductors to the half-metals. The half-metallicity is attributed to the competition among the band gap, which is related to the width of C domain, the width of BN domain, and the intrinsic polarization field. Application of the external fields can enhance or counterbalance the polarization fields and change the band gaps. The half-metallicity can be modulated. In BN-rich tubes, such as C{sub 2}(BN){sub 10}, the energy gap can be engineered from 0.50 eV to 0.95 eV and in C{sub 3}(BN){sub 9}, the ground state is converted from the nonmagnetic state into the anti-ferro-magnetic one. In other tubes, the half-metallicity can be enhanced or destroyed by different external fields. The modulation indicates that hybrid BN-C nanotubes can work as the components of the spin-filter devices.

  8. Design of hybrid structure for fast and deep surface plasmon polariton modulation.

    PubMed

    Pang, Chenlei; Lu, Hangwen; Xu, Pengfei; Qian, Haoliang; Liu, Xiaowei; Liu, Xu; Li, Haifeng; Yang, Qing

    2016-07-25

    The electric and optical performance of different surface plasmon polariton (SPP) electric modulation structures have been investigated by comparing the response speed and modulation figures of merit (FoM). To overcome the capacitance limitation and improve the response speed, we proposed a novel silver-graphene-dielectric-graphene-semiconductor vertical structure. Semiconductor nano-waveguide is introduced to help reduce ohmic loss in silver waveguide and reflect the leaked optical field back, enhancing the modulation depth. Through optimization, a device with estimated modulation FoM of more than 70% and hundreds of GHz response speed and 3 dB bandwidth is designed, which may bring great improvement to previous optical modulators. PMID:27464158

  9. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Part 2: Selection and evaluation of coating materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The selection, test, and evaluation of organic coating materials for contamination control in hybrid circuits is reported. The coatings were evaluated to determine their suitability for use as a conformal coating over the hybrid microcircuit (including chips and wire bonds) inside a hermetically sealed package. Evaluations included ease of coating application and repair and effect on thin film and thick film resistors, beam leads, wire bonds, transistor chips, and capacitor chips. The coatings were also tested for such properties as insulation resistance, voltage breakdown strength, and capability of immobilizing loose particles inside the packages. The selected coatings were found to be electrically, mechanically, and chemically compatible with all components and materials normally used in hybrid microcircuits.

  10. Proton switch for modulating oxygen reduction by a copper electrocatalyst embedded in a hybrid bilayer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barile, Christopher J.; Tse, Edmund C. M.; Li, Ying; Sobyra, Thomas B.; Zimmerman, Steven C.; Hosseini, Ali; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2014-06-01

    Molecular switches gate many fundamental processes in natural and artificial systems. Here, we report the development of an electrochemical platform in which a proton carrier switches the activity of a catalyst. By incorporating an alkyl phosphate in the lipid layer of a hybrid bilayer membrane, we regulate proton transport to a Cu-based molecular oxygen reduction reaction catalyst. To construct this hybrid bilayer membrane system, we prepare an example of a synthetic Cu oxygen reduction reaction catalyst that forms a self-assembled monolayer on Au surfaces. We then embed this Cu catalyst inside a hybrid bilayer membrane by depositing a monolayer of lipid on the self-assembled monolayer. We envisage that this electrochemical system can give a unique mechanistic insight not only into the oxygen reduction reaction, but into proton-coupled electron transfer in general.

  11. Investigation of the effects of laser non-linearity and RIN in direct modulation hybrid wired/wireless PON systems employing an integrated two section laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saljoghei, Arsalan; Browning, Colm; Smyth, Frank; Barry, Liam P.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper the transmission of OFDM based wired/wireless services for hybrid PONs using direct laser modulation is studied. To overcome the limitations imposed by direct modulation of cost effective low bandwidth laser transmitters, we make use of novel monolithically integrated Discrete Mode lasers and optical injection. The system includes a wired OFDM signal, operating at 12.5 Gb/s and three wireless signals delivering Long Term Evolution (LTE) services encoded with 16 QAM. The system's performance is evaluated for various relative power ratios of the wired/wireless signals. Additionally, the impact of Relative Intensity Noise (RIN) on such a hybrid system is studied through computer simulations.

  12. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Identification of critical process and contaminants, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Hybrid processes, handling procedures, and materials were examined to identify the critical process steps in which contamination is most likely to occur, to identify the particular contaminants associated with these critical steps, and to propose method for the control of these contaminants.

  13. Incomplete transposition of the common femoral artery and vein.

    PubMed

    Leite, J O; Carvalho Ventura, I; Botelho, F E; Costa Galvao, W

    2010-02-01

    Anatomical variations of the great saphenous vein, femoral artery and femoral vein at the inguinal level are rare. Modifications in the anatomical relationships among theses vessel can cause technical difficulties. There are two reports in the literature of the complete transposition of the femoral artery and vein. Both patients had large varicose veins only in the limb that presented the variation, which suggested an extrinsic compression. In the present paper, we report a case study of a patient with an incomplete transposition of the femoral artery and vein. Specifically, the common femoral vein and the saphenofemoral junction were completely overlapped by the common femoral artery. Although this anatomical variation did not present any clinical signs, it required a more complex surgical procedure. PMID:20224538

  14. Transcriptional control of IS1 transposition in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Biel, S W; Adelt, G; Berg, D E

    1984-04-01

    The movement of the bacterial insertion sequence IS1 often generates cointegrate structures in which donor and target replicons are connected by direct repeats of IS1. The experiments reported here were designed to understand how IS1 transposition is controlled. Our physical characterization of the structures of cointegrates between an F factor ( pOX38 ) and a set of pBR322::Tn9-related plasmids indicate that the relative mobilities of the two IS1 elements of Tn9 are inversely correlated with the strength of promoters upstream in the vector DNA. This implies that transcription across the ends of an IS1 element inhibits its transposition. Transcriptional inhibition may be due to interference with either the synthesis or the action of transposase. PMID:6325710

  15. Modified Shumacker repair of transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Waldhausen, J A; Pierce, W S; Berman, W; Whitman, V

    1979-08-01

    Seven infants weighing from 6.4 to 10.3 kg underwent correction of transposition of the great arteries by the venous transposition operation as described by Shumacker. In this operation, a new atrial septum is constructed using a bipedicled right atrial flap, and the lateral atrial wall is constructed using a viable pericardial flap. Three of the patients had an associated ventricular septal defect. Six of the seven patients survived and have had an excellent clinical result. Although atrial arrhythmias were common in the early postoperative period, all patients are now in sinus rhythm. Two patients have had postoperative cardiac catheterization and cineangiography, which showed excellent hemodynamic results. The modified Shumacker operation preserves two of the three internodal pathways, provides a compliant, viable atrial septum, and permits fabrication of a generous-size physiological left atrium. This appears to offer advantages not present in the Mustard procedure. PMID:445766

  16. Transposition Pattern of the Maize Element Ds in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bancroft, I.; Dean, C.

    1993-01-01

    As part of establishing an efficient transposon tagging system in Arabidopsis using the maize elements Ac and Ds, we have analyzed the inheritance and pattern of Ds transposition in four independent Arabidopsis transformants. A low proportion (33%) of plants inheriting the marker used to monitor excision contained a transposed Ds. Selection for the transposed Ds increased this to at least 49%. Overall, 68% of Ds transpositions inherited with the excision marker were to genetically linked sites; however, the distribution of transposed elements varied around the different donor sites. Mapping of transposed Ds elements that were genetically unlinked to the donor site showed that a proportion (3 of 11 tested) integrated into sites which were still physically linked. PMID:8397137

  17. Module-based Hybrid Uncertainty Quantification for Multi-physics Applications: Theory and Software

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Charles; Chen, Xiao; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Mittal, Akshay

    2013-10-08

    In this project we proposed to develop an innovative uncertainty quantification methodology that captures the best of the two competing approaches in UQ, namely, intrusive and non-intrusive approaches. The idea is to develop the mathematics and the associated computational framework and algorithms to facilitate the use of intrusive or non-intrusive UQ methods in different modules of a multi-physics multi-module simulation model in a way that physics code developers for different modules are shielded (as much as possible) from the chores of accounting for the uncertain ties introduced by the other modules. As the result of our research and development, we have produced a number of publications, conference presentations, and a software product.

  18. A hybrid voice/data modulation for the VHF aeronautical channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akos, Dennis M.

    1993-01-01

    A method of improving the spectral efficiency of the existing Very High Frequency (VHF) Amplitude Modulation (AM) voice communication channels is proposed. The technique is to phase modulate the existing voice amplitude modulated carrier with digital data. This allows the transmission of digital information over an existing AM voice channel with no change to the existing AM signal format. There is no modification to the existing AM receiver to demodulate the voice signal and an additional receiver module can be added for processing of the digital data. The existing VHF AM transmitter requires only a slight modification for the addition of the digital data signal. The past work in the area is summarized and presented together with an improved system design and the proposed implementation.

  19. Modulation of repetitive genes in the parent forms of heterozygous corn hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Gilyazetdinov, S.Ya.; Zimnitskii, A.N.; Yakhin, I.A.; Bikbaeva, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    The number of copies of the genes of high-molecular-weight rRNA, 5 S r RNA, and certain other families of repetitive sequences of DNA in the genome of different forms of corn is not coordinated but is stably inherited in the same strains. The authors present the results of their investigations into the repetition of the genes of tRNA, 5 S rRNA, histones, and the controlling element Ds of corn for the highly heterozygous hybrid Slava (VIR 44 x VIR 38), the medium-heterozygous hybrid Svetoch (VIR 40 x VIR 43), the low heterozygous hybrid Iskra (VIR 26 x VIR 27), and their parent strains. The relative content of these sequences was studied by the molecular hybridization of DNA immobilized on nitrocellulose filters with (/sup 125/I)tRNA labeled in vitro, 5 S rRNA, histone DNA of Drosophila, and the Ds-element of corn. The DNA preparations were isolated from the zones of the meristem (1.5-2mm), elongation (4-5mm), differentiation of the roots (3 cm), of 3-4 day seedlings, and from isolated embryos of 4 h and 24 h seedlings. The DNA of the embryos immobilized on the filters was preliminarily incubated with unlabeled high-molecular-weight rRNA in the experiments with tRNA and 5 S rRNA, while when histone DNA and the Ds element of corn were used in the hybridization reaction, it was preliminary incubated with plasmid DNA.

  20. A hybrid silicon membrane spatial light modulator for optical information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pape, D. R.; Hornbeck, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    A new two dimensional, fast, analog, electrically addressable, silicon based membrane spatial light modulator (SLM) was developed for optical information processing applications. Coherent light reflected from the mirror elements is phase modulated producing an optical Fourier transform of an analog signal input to the device. The DMD architecture and operating parameters related to this application are presented. A model is developed that describes the optical Fourier transform properties of the DMD.

  1. Complete penoscrotal transposition: A three-stage procedure

    PubMed Central

    Somoza, Ivan; Palacios, Maria G.; Mendez, Roberto; Vela, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Complete penoscrotal transposition (CPST) with an intact scrotum is a rare anomaly in which the scrotum is located cephalic to the penis. It is the most severe degree of malformation of a spectrum of abnormalities in scrotal development. There are few cases reported in the literature, and there are few descriptions of the technique for correction and results. We describe a new case of CPST and its sequential correction. PMID:23450271

  2. Electronic Structure Modulation of Metal–Organic Frameworks for Hybrid Devices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The study of metal–organic frameworks has largely been motivated by their structural and chemical diversity; however, these materials also possess rich physics, including optical, electronic, and magnetic activity. If these materials are to be employed in devices, it is necessary to develop an understanding of their solid-state behavior. We report an approach to calculate the effect of strain on the band structure of porous frameworks. The origin of the bidirectional absolute deformation potentials can be described from perturbations of the organic and inorganic building blocks. The unified approach allows us to propose several uses for hybrid materials, beyond their traditionally posited applications, including gas sensing, photoelectrochemistry, and as hybrid transistors. PMID:25436990

  3. Contamination Control in Hybrid Microelectronic Modules. Part 1: Identification of Critical Process and Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Various hybrid processing steps, handling procedures, and materials are examined in an attempt to identify sources of contamination and to propose methods for the control of these contaminants. It is found that package sealing, assembly, and rework are especially susceptible to contamination. Moisture and loose particles are identified as the worst contaminants. The points at which contaminants are most likely to enter the hybrid package are also identified, and both general and specific methods for their detection and control are developed. In general, the most effective controls for contaminants are: clean working areas, visual inspection at each step of the process, and effective cleaning at critical process steps. Specific methods suggested include the detection of loose particles by a precap visual inspection, by preseal and post-seal electrical testing, and by a particle impact noise test. Moisture is best controlled by sealing all packages in a clean, dry, inert atmosphere after a thorough bake-out of all parts.

  4. Maxillary canine-first premolar bilateral transposition in a Class III patient: A case report.

    PubMed

    Potrubacz, Maciej Iancu; Tepedino, Michele; Chimenti, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    Tooth transposition is a rare dental anomaly that often represents a challenge for the clinician. The case of a girl with skeletal Class III malocclusion and concomitant maxillary canine-first premolar bilateral transposition, followed from 7 to 17 years of age, is presented. After a first phase of treatment aimed at resolving the Class III malocclusion, the transposition was maintained and the case finalized with a multibracket appliance. PMID:26280661

  5. Generation of 64 GBd 4ASK signals using a silicon-organic hybrid modulator at 80°C.

    PubMed

    Lauermann, M; Wolf, S; Hartmann, W; Palmer, R; Kutuvantavida, Y; Zwickel, H; Bielik, A; Altenhain, L; Lutz, J; Schmid, R; Wahlbrink, T; Bolten, J; Giesecke, A L; Freude, W; Koos, C

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) generating four-level amplitude shift keying (4ASK) signals at symbol rates of up to 64 GBd both at room temperature and at an elevated temperature of 80°C. The measured line rate of 128 Gbit/s corresponds to the highest value demonstrated for silicon-based MZM so far. We report bit error ratios of 10-10 (64 GBd BPSK), 10-5 (36 GBd 4ASK), and 4 × 10-3 (64 GBd 4ASK) at room temperature. At 80 °C, the respective bit error ratios are 10-10, 10-4, and 1.3 × 10-2. The high-temperature experiments were performed in regular oxygen-rich ambient atmosphere. PMID:27137555

  6. Energy-efficient spatial-domain-based hybrid multidimensional coded-modulations enabling multi-Tb/s optical transport.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2011-08-15

    In addition to capacity, the future high-speed optical transport networks will also be constrained by energy consumption. In order to solve the capacity and energy constraints simultaneously, in this paper we propose the use of energy-efficient hybrid D-dimensional signaling (D>4) by employing all available degrees of freedom for conveyance of the information over a single carrier including amplitude, phase, polarization and orbital angular momentum (OAM). Given the fact that the OAM eigenstates, associated with the azimuthal phase dependence of the complex electric field, are orthogonal, they can be used as basis functions for multidimensional signaling. Since the information capacity is a linear function of number of dimensions, through D-dimensional signal constellations we can significantly improve the overall optical channel capacity. The energy-efficiency problem is solved, in this paper, by properly designing the D-dimensional signal constellation such that the mutual information is maximized, while taking the energy constraint into account. We demonstrate high-potential of proposed energy-efficient hybrid D-dimensional coded-modulation scheme by Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:21935032

  7. Energy-efficient spatial-domain-based hybrid multidimensional coded-modulations enabling multi-Tb/s optical transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B.

    2011-08-01

    In addition to capacity, the future high-speed optical transport networks will also be constrained by energy consumption. In order to solve the capacity and energy constraints simultaneously, in this paper we propose the use of energy-efficient hybrid D-dimensional signaling (D>4) by employing all available degrees of freedom for conveyance of the information over a single carrier including amplitude, phase, polarization and orbital angular momentum (OAM). Given the fact that the OAM eigenstates, associated with the azimuthal phase dependence of the complex electric field, are orthogonal, they can be used as basis functions for multidimensional signaling. Since the information capacity is a linear function of number of dimensions, through D-dimensional signal constellations we can significantly improve the overall optical channel capacity. The energy-efficiency problem is solved, in this paper, by properly designing the D-dimensional signal constellation such that the mutual information is maximized, while taking the energy constraint into account. We demonstrate high-potential of proposed energy-efficient hybrid D-dimensional coded-modulation scheme by Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. High-power flip-chip-bonded silicon hybrid laser for temperature-control-free operation with micro-ring resonator-based modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, S.; Jeong, S.-H.; Akiyama, T.; Sekiguchi, S.; Kurahashi, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Morito, K.

    2013-02-01

    A silicon (Si)-based, large-scale optical I/O chip will be a key device for a large-bandwidth, low-cost optical interconnection employed in future high-performance computing systems. For these Si optical I/O chips, a significant improvement in energy cost is strongly expected, hence, the use of micro ring-resonator (RR) based modulator is assumed to be a promising approach. In order to handle a narrow and temperature-dependent operation bandwidth of the RR-based modulator, we have proposed a novel Si transmitter that uses a cascaded RR MZ modulator and RR-based Si hybrid laser. The RR-based Si hybrid laser is an external cavity laser integrating an InP SOA and a Si mirror chip comprising a RR and DBR mirror. The SOA is flip-chip bonded to the Si mirror chip utilizing a precise flip-chip bonding technology. The fabricated Si hybrid laser exhibited a low threshold current of 9.4mA, a high output power of <15 mW, and a large wall-plug efficiency of 7.6% at 20°C. In addition, the device maintained a stable single longitudinal mode lasing and a low RIN level of <-130 dB/Hz for 20-60°C. We also fabricated an integrated Si transmitter combining a cascaded RR MZ modulator and RR-based Si hybrid laser. The 20-RR cascaded MZ modulator exhibited a 1-nm operation bandwidth using multiple low-Q RRs. The modulator was driven with 10Gbps PRBS signal. For a temperature range between 25 and 60°C, the lasing wavelength exhibited a red-shift of 2.5 nm, nevertheless, we confirmed clear eye openings without adjusting the operating wavelength of the modulator.

  9. Using Multimedia Learning Modules in a Hybrid-Online Course in Electricity and Magnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.

    2011-01-01

    We have been piloting web-based multimedia learning modules (MLMs), developed by the Physics Education Research Group at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (UIUC), as a "prelecture assignment" in several introductory physics courses at California State Polytechnic University at Pomona. In this study, we report the results from a…

  10. Hybrid integration of an eight-channel WDM transmitter and receiver module at 980 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berolo, Ezio; Coyne, W.; Hua, Heng; James, R.; Kuley, R. M.; Lisicka-Skrzek, Ewa; Millar, G.; Vineberg, Karen A.; Fallahi, Mahmoud; Barber, Richard A.; Chatenoud, F.; Wang, Weijian; Koteles, Emil S.

    1995-03-01

    The inherent information bandwidth of optical fibers between the wavelengths 1.3 and 1.6 micrometers is in the terahertz range. One obvious way to exploit this bandwidth is to use wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM). The Canadian Solid State Optoelectronics Consortium (SSOC), an association of industry, university, and federal government research laboratories, has been developing the component technologies required to demonstrate the operation of an eight channel WDM system. This paper discusses the integration of the transmitter (Tx) and the receiver (Rx) modules using a thin film process on alumina substrates. The Tx module contains a fully integrated eight channel DBR laser array with two quad-laser driver circuits. The signal from the lasers is combined into a single waveguide and is then carried off-chip via a polarization maintaining optical fiber. The Rx module is made up of an integrated receiver circuit, and a series of amplifiers providing the gain required for signal and clock recovery. The receiver circuit consists of an echelle grating which disperses the eight distinct wavelengths into a bank of InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) detectors. Some of the performance parameters of the Tx and Rx modules are presented.

  11. Demonstration of the feasibility of large-port-count optical switching using a hybrid Mach-Zehnder interferometer-semiconductor optical amplifier switch module in a recirculating loop.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Q; Wonfor, A; Wei, J L; Penty, R V; White, I H

    2014-09-15

    For what we believe is the first time, the feasibility of large-port-count nanosecond-reconfiguration-time optical switches is demonstrated using a hybrid approach, where Mach-Zehnder interferometric (MZI) switches provide low-loss, high-speed routing with short semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) being integrated to enhance extinction. By repeatedly passing signals through a monolithic hybrid dilated 2×2 switch module in a recirculating loop, the potential performance of high-port-count switches using the hybrid approach is demonstrated. Experimentally, a single pass switch penalty of only 0.1 dB is demonstrated for the 2×2 module, while even after seven passes through the switch, equivalent to a 128×128 router, a penalty of only 2.4 dB is recorded at a data rate of 10 Gb/s. PMID:26466241

  12. Quantitative security evaluation of optical encryption using hybrid phase- and amplitude-modulated keys.

    PubMed

    Sarkadi, Tamás; Koppa, Pál

    2012-02-20

    In the increasing number of system approaches published in the field of optical encryption, the security level of the system is evaluated by qualitative and empirical methods. To quantify the security of the optical system, we propose to use the equivalent of the key length routinely used in algorithmic encryption. We provide a calculation method of the number of independent keys and deduce the binary key length for optical data encryption. We then investigate and optimize the key length of the combined phase- and amplitude-modulated key encryption in the holographic storage environment, which is one of the promising solutions for the security enhancement of single- and double-random phase-encoding encryption and storage systems. We show that a substantial growth of the key length can be achieved by optimized phase and amplitude modulation compared to phase-only encryption. We also provide experimental confirmation of the model results. PMID:22358164

  13. Phthalocyanine-Gold Nanoparticle Hybrids: Modulating Quenching with a Silica Matrix Shell.

    PubMed

    Baldovi, Herme G; Blas-Ferrando, Vicente M; Ortiz, Javier; Garcia, Hermenegildo; Fernández-Lázaro, Fernando; Sastre-Santos, Ángela

    2016-06-01

    An asymmetrically substituted zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) with a terminal dithiolane group is anchored to Au nanoparticles (NPs) directly or through an interposed silica matrix. Transient absorption spectroscopy shows that the quenching of the ZnPc excited state by AuNPs occurs through a photoinduced electron transfer, the efficiency of which is modulated by the presence of the insulating silica matrix. PMID:26956128

  14. Ag nanocluster/DNA hybrids: functional modules for the detection of nitroaromatic and RDX explosives.

    PubMed

    Enkin, Natalie; Sharon, Etery; Golub, Eyal; Willner, Itamar

    2014-08-13

    Luminescent Ag nanoclusters (NCs) stabilized by nucleic acids are implemented as optical labels for the detection of the explosives picric acid, trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The sensing modules consist of two parts, a nucleic acid with the nucleic acid-stabilized Ag NCs and a nucleic acid functionalized with electron-donating units, including L-DOPA, L-tyrosine and 6-hydroxy-L-DOPA, self-assembled on a nucleic acid scaffold. The formation of donor-acceptor complexes between the nitro-substituted explosives, exhibiting electron-acceptor properties, and the electron-donating sites, associated with the sensing modules, concentrates the explosives in close proximity to the Ag NCs. This leads to the electron-transfer quenching of the luminescence of the Ag NCs by the explosive molecule. The quenching of the luminescence of the Ag NCs provides a readout signal for the sensing process. The sensitivities of the analytical platforms are controlled by the electron-donating properties of the donor substituents, and 6-hydroxy-L-DOPA was found to be the most sensitive donor. Picric acid, TNT, and RDX are analyzed with detection limits corresponding to 5.2 × 10(-12) M, 1.0 × 10(-12) M, and 3.0 × 10(-12) M, respectively, using the 6-hydroxy-L-DOPA-modified Ag NCs sensing module. PMID:25072885

  15. 80-Channel Multiplexer-Demultiplexer Module for DWDM Communications using Hybrid AWG -- Interleaver Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rablau, Corneliu; Bredthauer, Lance

    2007-10-01

    Aside from the more traditional data, voice and e-mail communications, new bandwidth intensive applications in the larger consumer markets, such as music, digital pictures and movies, have led to an explosive increase in the demand for transmission capacity for optical communications networks. This has resulted in a widespread deployment of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) as a means of increasing the communications capacity by multiplexing and transmitting signals of different wavelengths (establishing multiple communication channels) through a single strand of fiber. We report on the design, assembly and characterization of a 50-GHz, 80-channel Mux-Demux module for DWDM systems. The module has been assembled from two commercially available 100 GHz, 40-channel Array Waveguide Grating (AWG) modules and a 50-GHz to 100-GHz interleaver. Relevant performance parameters such as insertion loss, channel uniformity, next-channel isolation (crosstalk) and integrated cross-talk are presented and discussed in contrast with the performance of other competing technologies such as Thin-Film-Filter-based Mux-Demux devices.

  16. Mediastinal transposition of the omentum reduces infection severity and pharmacy cost for patients undergoing esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Peng; Cao, Jin-Lin; Li, Qiu-Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Tian; Yang, Yun-Hai; Lv, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background The greater omentum has been found to be immunologically competent in protecting abdominal organs from inflammation. Anastomotic omentoplasty has been used and proven effective in preventing anastomotic leaks after an esophagectomy. However, pulmonary complications are still a substantial problem after an esophagectomy. This study investigated the benefits of mediastinal transposition of the omentum, a modification of the conventional omental wrapping technique, in controlling overall postoperative intrathoracic complications. Methods From January 2010 to March 2015, 208 consecutive patients receiving an open Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. One hundred twenty-one patients with omentum mediastinal transposition were assigned to the transposition group and 87 patients without omental transposition were placed in the non-transposition group. The patients’ demographics, postoperative short-term outcomes, and in-hospital cost were documented and analyzed. Results Mediastinal transposition of the omentum led to a shorter postoperative hospital stay (14 vs. 16 d, P=0.038) and a lower intrathoracic infection rate (30.6% vs. 48.3%, P=0.009). Intrathoracic infection was milder in the transposition group (P=0.005), though a non-significant was found in overall complications (P=0.071). The multivariate logistic regression analyses identified omentum mediastinal transposition (P=0.007, OR=0.415) as an independent protective factor for postoperative intrathoracic infection. The total in-hospital cost was comparable in both groups (P>0.05), whereas the pharmacy cost was lower in the transposition group than in the non-transposition group (¥21,668 vs. ¥27,012, P=0.010). Conclusions Mediastinal transposition of the omentum decreases the rate and severity of postoperative intrathoracic infection following an open Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. This result in decreased pharmacy costs, rather than resulting in an increased economic

  17. Identification of Genetic Loci in Lactobacillus plantarum That Modulate the Immune Response of Dendritic Cells Using Comparative Genome Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Meijerink, Marjolein; van Hemert, Saskia; Taverne, Nico; Wels, Michiel; de Vos, Paul; Bron, Peter A.; Savelkoul, Huub F.; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Wells, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Probiotics can be used to stimulate or regulate epithelial and immune cells of the intestinal mucosa and generate beneficial mucosal immunomodulatory effects. Beneficial effects of specific strains of probiotics have been established in the treatment and prevention of various intestinal disorders, including allergic diseases and diarrhea. However, the precise molecular mechanisms and the strain-dependent factors involved are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we aimed to identify gene loci in the model probiotic organism Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 that modulate the immune response of host dendritic cells. The amounts of IL-10 and IL-12 secreted by dendritic cells (DCs) after stimulation with 42 individual L. plantarum strains were measured and correlated with the strain-specific genomic composition using comparative genome hybridisation and the Random Forest algorithm. This in silico “gene-trait matching” approach led to the identification of eight candidate genes in the L. plantarum genome that might modulate the DC cytokine response to L. plantarum. Six of these genes were involved in bacteriocin production or secretion, one encoded a bile salt hydrolase and one encoded a transcription regulator of which the exact function is unknown. Subsequently, gene deletions mutants were constructed in L. plantarum WCFS1 and compared to the wild-type strain in DC stimulation assays. All three bacteriocin mutants as well as the transcription regulator (lp_2991) had the predicted effect on cytokine production confirming their immunomodulatory effect on the DC response to L. plantarum. Transcriptome analysis and qPCR data showed that transcript level of gtcA3, which is predicted to be involved in glycosylation of cell wall teichoic acids, was substantially increased in the lp_2991 deletion mutant (44 and 29 fold respectively). Conclusion Comparative genome hybridization led to the identification of gene loci in L. plantarum WCFS1

  18. Designing artificial photosynthetic devices using hybrid organic-inorganic modules based on polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Symes, Mark D; Cogdell, Richard J; Cronin, Leroy

    2013-08-13

    Artificial photosynthesis aims at capturing solar energy and using it to produce storable fuels. However, while there is reason to be optimistic that such approaches can deliver higher energy conversion efficiencies than natural photosynthetic systems, many serious challenges remain to be addressed. Perhaps chief among these is the issue of device stability. Almost all approaches to artificial photosynthesis employ easily oxidized organic molecules as light harvesters or in catalytic centres, frequently in solution with highly oxidizing species. The 'elephant in the room' in this regard is that oxidation of these organic moieties is likely to occur at least as rapidly as oxidation of water, meaning that current device performance is severely curtailed. Herein, we discuss one possible solution to this problem: using self-assembling organic-polyoxometalate hybrid structures to produce compartments inside which the individual component reactions of photosynthesis can occur without such a high incidence of deleterious side reactions. PMID:23816903

  19. M-Plasty for Correction of Incomplete Penoscrotal Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Manjunath, KN; Venkatesh, MS

    2014-01-01

    Penoscrotal transposition (PST) is a rare anomaly of the external genitalia that can be complete or incomplete while incomplete type is more common. Various surgical methods are described for correction of incomplete PST. Modified Glenn Anderson’s method is commonly used. This method is known to cause major penile lymphoedema following surgery. Various modifications have been described to preserve the dorsal penile skin to reduce this lymphoedema. We present here our experience with M-Plasty, where the dorsal penile skin is cut in the form of V so that it breaks the constricting effect of circumferential incision and prevents lymphoedema. PMID:25489538

  20. Mapping of Streptococcus faecalis plasmids pAD1 and pAD2 and studies relating to transposition of Tn917.

    PubMed Central

    Clewell, D B; Tomich, P K; Gawron-Burke, M C; Franke, A E; Yagi, Y; An, F Y

    1982-01-01

    Plasmids pAD1 (37.8 megadaltons) and pAD2 (17.1 megadaltons) of Streptococcus faecalis strain DS16 have been mapped with restriction enzymes. The location of a hemolysin-bacteriocin determinant on the conjugative pAD1 plasmid was derived from analyses of transposon insertions. Electron microscope and hybridization analyses located Tn917(Em) and the streptomycin (Sm) and kanamycin (Km) resistance determinants on the nonconjugative pAD2 plasmid. It was shown previously that the erythromycin (Em) resistance associated with Tn917 is inducible and that transposition from pAD2 to pAD1 is also stimulated by exposure of cells to low concentrations of Em. Here we show that inducing concentrations of Em also increase the conjugative transfer potential of pAD1; this is possibly related to a mild and short-lived inhibitory stress placed on the cells before full induction of resistance. Selection of Em-resistant transconjugants arising from matings between DS16 and a plasmid-free recipient gave rise to transconjugants which primarily harbor stable pAD1::pAD2 cointegrates. A 30-min exposure of donors to Em (0.5 microgram/ml) before mating resulted in a severalfold increase in the number of such transconjugants. However, a small fraction (e.g., 3 of 40) of these Emr Smr Kmr transconjugants harbored pAD1::Tn917 and pAD2 molecules. Since we believe pAD2 is incapable of being mobilized by pAD1 without being covalently linked, it is likely that transfer in these cases involved cointegrates representing structural intermediates in the transposition of Tn917 from pAD2 to pAD1. It follows that such intermediates probably had two copies of Tn917 and readily resolved after transfer. (These cointegrates are different from the stable cointegrates which were shown to have only a single copy of Tn917; the latter are assumed not to be related to transposition.) Two variants with altered Tn917 transposition properties were derived. One of them transposed at an elevated frequency, whereas the

  1. Development of high data readout rate pixel module and detector hybridization at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Sergio Zimmermann et al.

    2001-03-20

    This paper describes the baseline design and a variation of the pixel module to handle the data rate required for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. The present prototype has shown good electrical performance characteristics. Indium bump bonding is proven to be capable of successful fabrication at 50 micron pitch on real detectors. For solder bumps at 50 micron pitch, much better results have been obtained with the fluxless PADS processed detectors. The results are adequate for our needs and our tests have validated it as a viable technology.

  2. Artist concept of deployment of the Lunar Module Adapter panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Artist concept illustrating the deployment of the Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter panels as the Command/Service Module separates from the Lunar Module Saturn S-IVB stage. The Command/Service Module makes a turnaround, and the Command Module docks nose-to-nose with the Lunar Module. This phase of the mission occurs following translunar injection. After the transposition and docking, the S-IVB stage is jettisoned and the spacecraft continues in a coasting maneuver toward the moon.

  3. Transposition of reversed Ac element ends generates chromosome rearrangements in maize.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianbo; Peterson, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In classical "cut-and-paste" transposition, transposons are excised from donor sites and inserted at new locations. We have identified an alternative pathway in which transposition involves the 5' end of an intact Ac element and the 3' end of a nearby terminally deleted fAc (fractured Ac). The Ac and fAc elements are inserted at the maize p1 locus on chromosome 1s in the same orientation; the adjacent ends of the separate elements are thus in reversed orientation with respect to each other and are separated by a distance of approximately 13 kb. Transposition involving the two ends in reversed orientation generates inversions, deletions, and a novel type of local rearrangement. The rearrangement breakpoints are bounded by the characteristic footprint or target site duplications typical of Ac transposition reactions. These results demonstrate a new intramolecular transposition mechanism by which transposons can greatly impact genome evolution. PMID:15342530

  4. Transposition of the Hermes element in embryos of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, A; Yardley, K; Atkinson, P W; James, A A; O'Brochta, D A

    1997-05-01

    Using a plasmid-based transpositional recombination assay in vivo, we have demonstrated that Hermes, a short inverted repeat type transposable element from Musca domestica, can transpose in Aedes aegypti embryos. Hermes transpositions in Ae. aegypti have all the characteristics observed during Hermes transposition in its host M. domestica and in related species. These characteristics include an absolute dependence on the expression of the Hermes transposase and a preference for the integration site GTNCAGAC (P < 0.05). In addition, the rate of Hermes transposition in Ae. aegypti (0.286 transpositions per 10,000 donor plasmids screened) was comparable to that observed in Drosophila melanogaster under similar conditions. These results suggest that Hermes can be developed into a gene vector and genetic engineering tool for Ae. aegypti and related mosquitoes. PMID:9219363

  5. Modulating the Electron-Hole Interaction in a Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskite with an Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Leijtens, Tomas; Srimath Kandada, Ajay Ram; Eperon, Giles E; Grancini, Giulia; D'Innocenzo, Valerio; Ball, James M; Stranks, Samuel D; Snaith, Henry J; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2015-12-16

    Despite rapid developments in both photovoltaic and light-emitting device performance, the understanding of the optoelectronic properties of hybrid lead halide perovskites is still incomplete. In particular, the polarizability of the material, the presence of molecular dipoles, and their influence on the dynamics of the photoexcitations remain an open issue to be clarified. Here, we investigate the effect of an applied external electric field on the photoexcited species of CH3NH3PbI3 thin films, both at room temperature and at low temperature, by monitoring the photoluminescence (PL) yield and PL decays. At room temperature we find evidence for electric-field-induced reduction of radiative bimolecular carrier recombination together with motion of charged defects that affects the nonradiative decay rate of the photoexcited species. At low temperature (190 K), we observe a field-induced enhancement of radiative free carrier recombination rates that lasts even after the removal of the field. We assign this to field-induced alignment of the molecular dipoles, which reduces the vibrational freedom of the lattice and the associated local screening and hence results in a stronger electron-hole interaction. PMID:26579724

  6. Foldback intercoil DNA and the mechanism of DNA transposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Dong

    2014-09-01

    Foldback intercoil (FBI) DNA is formed by the folding back at one point of a non-helical parallel track of double-stranded DNA at as sharp as 180° and the intertwining of two double helixes within each other's major groove to form an intercoil with a diameter of 2.2 nm. FBI DNA has been suggested to mediate intra-molecular homologous recombination of a deletion and inversion. Inter-molecular homologous recombination, known as site-specific insertion, on the other hand, is mediated by the direct perpendicular approach of the FBI DNA tip, as the attP site, onto the target DNA, as the attB site. Transposition of DNA transposons involves the pairing of terminal inverted repeats and 5-7-bp tandem target duplication. FBI DNA configuration effectively explains simple as well as replicative transposition, along with the involvement of an enhancer element. The majority of diverse retrotransposable elements that employ a target site duplication mechanism is also suggested to follow the FBI DNA-mediated perpendicular insertion of the paired intercoil ends by non-homologous end-joining, together with gap filling. A genome-wide perspective of transposable elements in light of FBI DNA is discussed. PMID:25317106

  7. Tracheoesophageal puncture site closure with sternocleidomastoid musculocutaneous transposition flap

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Dushyant; Yadav, Prabha; Shankhdhar, Vinay Kant; Gujjalanavar, Rajendra Suresh; Puranik, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis is highly effective in providing speech after total laryngectomy. Although it is a safe method, in certain cases dilatation or leakage occurs around the prosthesis that needs closure of tracheoesophageal fistula. Both non-surgical and surgical methods for closure have been described. Surgical methods are used when non-surgical methods fail. We present the use of the sternocleidomastoid musculocutaneous (SCMMC) transposition flap for the closure of tracheoesophageal fistula. Materials and Methods: An incision is made at the mucocutaneous junction circumferentially around the tracheostoma. Tracheoesophageal space is dissected down to and beyond the fistula. The tracheoesophageal tract is divided. The oesophageal mucosa is closed with simple sutures. Then SCMMC transposition flap is raised and transposed to cover sutured oesophagus and the defect between the oesophagus and the trachea. Results: This study was done prospectively over a period of 1 year from June 2012 to May 2013. This technique was used in patients with pliable neck skin. In nine patients, this procedure was done (inferior based flap in nine cases) and it was successful in eight patients. In one case, there was dehiscence at the leading edge of flap with oesophageal dehiscence, which required a second procedure. In two cases, there was marginal necrosis of flap, which healed without any intervention. Nine patients in this series were post-radiation. Conclusion: This method of closure is simple and effective for patients with pliable neck skin, who require permanent closure of the tracheoesophageal fistula. PMID:26933281

  8. Magnetically modulated electroluminescence from hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diodes based on electron donor-acceptor exciplex blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhiyong; Baniya, Sangita; Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2016-03-01

    We report room temperature magnetically modulated electroluminescence from a hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diode (h-OLED), in which an inorganic magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with large room temperature magnetoresistance is coupled to an N,N,N ',N '-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)benzidine (MeO-TPD): tris-[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB) [D-A] based OLED that shows thermally activated delayed luminescence. The exciplex-based OLED provides two spin-mixing channels: upper energy channel of polaron pairs and lower energy channel of exciplexes. In operation, the large resistance mismatch between the MTJ and OLED components is suppressed due to the non-linear I-V characteristic of the OLED. This leads to enhanced giant magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) at room temperature. We measured MEL of ~ 75% at ambient conditions. Supported by SAMSUNG Global Research Outreach (GRO) program, and also by the NSF-Material Science & Engineering Center (MRSEC) program at the University of Utah (DMR-1121252).

  9. Field-effect-based multifunctional hybrid sensor module for the determination of both (bio-)chemical and physical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoening, Michael J.; Poghossian, Arshak; Schultze, J. Walter; Lueth, Hans

    2002-02-01

    Sensor systems for multi-parameter detection in fluidics usually combine different sensors, which are designed to detect either a physical or (bio-)chemical parameter. Therefore, such systems include a more complicated fabrication technology and measuring set-up. In this work, an ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effect transistor), which is well known as a (bio-)chemical sensor, is utilized as transducer for the detection of both (bio-)chemical and physical parameters. A multifunctional hybrid module for the determination of two (bio-)chemical parameters (pH, penicillin concentration) and three physical parameters (temperature, flow velocity and flow direction) using only two sensor structures, an ion generator and a reference electrode, is realized and its performance has been investigated. Here, a multifunctionality of the sensor system is achieved by means of different sensor arrangements and/or different operation modes. A Ta2O5-gate ISFET was used as transducer for all sensors. A novel time-of-flight type ISFET-based flow-velocity (flow rate) and flow-direction sensor using in-situ electrochemical generation of chemical tracers is presented. Due to the fast response of the ISFET (usually in the millisecond range), an ISFET-based flow sensor is suitable for the measurement of the flow velocity in a wide range. With regard to practical applications, pH measurements with this ISFET were performed in rain droplets.

  10. Control of a small robot using a hybrid optical modulating retro-reflector/RF link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, James L.; Ferraro, Mike S.; Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Suite, Michele R.; Uecke, Stanley H.

    2014-06-01

    Tele-operated robots used for Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) are ordinarily controlled using a radio frequency (RF) link. Use of RF links on the battlefield presents several challenges including spectrum allocation and jamming effects (both by the enemy and friendly forces). Several solutions have been attempted including electrical or fiber optic umbilicals and spread spectrum radios with varying degrees of success. Modulating Retro-reflector Free Space Optical (MRR-FSO) communications links avoid these effects entirely but are limited to line of sight operation. We have developed a system consisting of an MRR-FSO link with a tracking optical terminal, a conventional RF link and a deployable pod to provide a relay node bridging the FSO link to the operator and the RF link to the robot. The MRRFSO link provides the capability to operate the robot in the presence of jamming while the RF link allows short range non line of sight operation. The operator uses the MRR-FSO link to drive the robot to a position downrange outside the influence of the jammer or other interference. Once the robot is positioned downrange near the area of operation the pod is deployed. This allows the robot to maneuver freely including venturing beyond line of sight using the short range RF link to maintain communications between the vehicle and pod while the FSO link maintains connectivity between the pod and the operator.

  11. Electric field-induced transport modulation in VO2 FETs with high-k oxide/organic parylene-C hybrid gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tingting; Kanki, Teruo; Fujiwara, Kohei; Chikanari, Masashi; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2016-02-01

    We report on the observation of reversible and immediate resistance switching by high-k oxide Ta2O5/organic parylene-C hybrid dielectric-gated VO2 thin films. Resistance change ratios at various temperatures in the insulating regime were demonstrated to occur in the vicinity of phase transition temperature. We also found an asymmetric hole-electron carrier modulation related to the suppression of phase transition temperature. The results in this research provide a possibility for clarifying the origin of metal-insulator transition in VO2 through the electrostatic field-induced transport modulation.

  12. Transposition of the retrotransposon MAGGY in heterologous species of filamentous fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Nakayashiki, H; Kiyotomi, K; Tosa, Y; Mayama, S

    1999-01-01

    MAGGY is a gypsy-like LTR retrotransposon isolated from the blast fungus Pyricularia grisea (teleomorph, Magnaporthe grisea). We examined transposition of MAGGY in three P. grisea isolates (wheat, finger millet, and crabgrass pathogen), which did not originally possess a MAGGY element, and in two heterologous species of filamentous fungi, Colletotrichum lagenarium and P. zingiberi. Genomic Southern analysis of MAGGY transformants suggested that transposition of MAGGY occurred in all filamentous fungi tested. In contrast, no transposition was observed in any transformants with a modified MAGGY containing a 513-bp deletion in the reverse transcriptase domain. When a MAGGY derivative carrying an artificial intron was introduced into the wheat isolate of P. grisea and C. lagenarium, loss of the intron was observed. These results showed that MAGGY can undergo autonomous RNA-mediated transposition in heterologous filamentous fungi. The frequency of transposition differed among fungal species. MAGGY transposed actively in the wheat isolate of P. grisea and P. zingiberi, but transposition in C. lagenarium appeared to be rare. This is the first report that demonstrates active transposition of a fungal transposable element in heterologous hosts. Possible usage of MAGGY as a genetic tagging tool in filamentous fungi is discussed. PMID:10511549

  13. Left renal vein transposition is effective for posterior nutcracker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuedong; Xing, Jinchun; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl was enrolled in hospital with intermittent gross hematuria in a period of 3 years. Bloody efflux from the left ureteral orifice was diagnosed in this patient with urethrocystoscopy. A retroaortic left renal vein appeared to be compressed by the aorta as detected by computerized tomography. The left renal vein was compressed between the aorta and the spine. A groove in the anterior surface of the left renal vein was detected. A transposition surgery of the left renal vein to a site in front of the aorta was performed for the patient. The patient was discharged after recovery and the hematuria symptom was not found during the 15-month follow-up investigation. PMID:25664135

  14. Bilateral superior rectus transposition for congenital exotropia associated with anomalous medial rectus muscles.

    PubMed

    Kodsi, Sylvia R

    2015-10-01

    Superior rectus transposition to the lateral rectus insertion without inferior rectus transposition has been used to correct esotropic deviations secondary to Duane syndrome and abducens nerve palsy. This is usually combined with an augmented posterior fixation suture of the superior rectus muscle to the lateral rectus muscle and ipsilateral medial rectus recession. We report a child with a large-angle congenital exotropia who was found to have anomalous medial rectus muscles bilaterally. Bilateral superior rectus transposition to the medial rectus insertion with bilateral lateral rectus recessions achieved good ocular alignment in primary position. PMID:26486030

  15. Ensemble predictions of runoff using hydrograph transpositions to ungauged basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lavenne, Alban; Cudennec, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Regionalisation is one common approach for modelling streamflow in ungauged basins. It is sometimes performed on the basis of ensemble modelling and model averaging through the play of parameters of rainfall-runoff models. We propose an original approach for ensemble modelling by transposing physically based time series rather than model's parameters. We applied the approach on 6 sub-basins of the Blavet river in Brittany (France) with area varying from 5 km² to 316 km². Inside this sample of gauged basins, the water provided by hillslopes to the network at a basin scale, called the net rainfall, is assessed by inverting their simple geomorphology based network transfer function. Those net rainfall time series, estimated at an hourly time step on each gauged basin separately, summarise the hydrological behaviour of their hillslopes without the need of any complex modelling. Moreover, it has the advantage of being relatively scale independent which enables its transposition among basins. Once this net rainfall is transposed to an ungauged basin, it is reconvoluted using its own transfer function in order to estimate the hydrograph therein. We propose to combine several gauged basins to perform ensemble modelling prediction. This ensemble modelling provides an indication of uncertainty. Although it is not a robust estimate of the possible flow range, it informs about the variability of basins behaviour inside the studied region and, as a consequence, the relative confidence in those transpositions of hydrograph. By selecting donor basins according to their similarity to the ungauged one, we aim to improve prediction accuracy, reduce uncertainty and check the best way to define hydrological similarity for the choice of the donor basin. It is demonstrated that spatial proximity provides a relatively robust estimate of the best donor basin, and giving more importance to similar basins does not necessarily lead to higher accuracy in simulations compared to a simple net

  16. Transposition of Great Arteries: New Insights into the Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Unolt, Marta; Putotto, Carolina; Silvestri, Lucia M.; Marino, Dario; Scarabotti, Alessia; Valerio Massaccesi; Caiaro, Angela; Versacci, Paolo; Marino, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Transposition of great arteries (TGA) is one of the most common and severe congenital heart diseases (CHD). It is also one of the most mysterious CHD because it has no precedent in phylogenetic and ontogenetic development, it does not represent an alternative physiological model of blood circulation and its etiology and morphogenesis are still largely unknown. However, recent epidemiologic, experimental, and genetic data suggest new insights into the pathogenesis. TGA is very rarely associated with the most frequent genetic syndromes, such as Turner, Noonan, Williams or Marfan syndromes, and in Down syndrome, it is virtually absent. The only genetic syndrome with a strong relation with TGA is Heterotaxy. In lateralization defects TGA is frequently associated with asplenia syndrome. Moreover, TGA is rather frequent in cases of isolated dextrocardia with situs solitus, showing link with defect of visceral situs. Nowadays, the most reliable method to induce TGA consists in treating pregnant mice with retinoic acid or with retinoic acid inhibitors. Following such treatment not only cases of TGA with d-ventricular loop have been registered, but also some cases of congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries (CCTGA). In another experiment, the embryos of mice treated with retinoic acid in day 6.5 presented Heterotaxy, suggesting a relationship among these morphologically different CHD. In humans, some families, beside TGA cases, present first-degree relatives with CCTGA. This data suggest that monogenic inheritance with a variable phenotypic expression could explain the familial aggregation of TGA and CCTGA. In some of these families we previously found multiple mutations in laterality genes including Nodal and ZIC3, confirming a pathogenetic relation between TGA and Heterotaxy. These overall data suggest to include TGA in the pathogenetic group of laterality defects instead of conotruncal abnormalities due to ectomesenchymal tissue migration. PMID:24400257

  17. The Hybrid Propellant Module (HPM): A New Concept for Space Transfer in the Earth's Neighborhood and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankins, John C.; Mazanek, Daniel D.

    2001-01-01

    The safe, affordable and effective transfer of ever-larger payloads and eventually personnel beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is a major challenge facing future commercial development and human exploration of space. Without reusable systems, sustained exploration or large scale development beyond LEO appears to be economically non-viable. However, reusable systems must be capable of both good fuel efficiency and "high utilization of capacity", or else economic costs will remain unacceptably high. Various options exist that can provide high fuel efficiency - for example, Solar Electric Propulsion Systems (SEPS) - but only at the cost of low thrust and concomitant long transit times. Chemical propulsion systems offer the potential for high thrust and short transit times - including both cryogenic and non-cryogenic options - but only at the cost of relatively low specific impulse (Isp). Nuclear thermal propulsion systems offer relatively good thrust-to-weight and Isp - but involve public concerns that may be insurmountable for all except the most-critical of public purposes. Fixed infrastructures have been suggested as one approach to solving this challenge; for example, rotating tether approaches. However, these systems tend to suffer from high initial costs or unacceptable operational constraints. A new concept has been identified - the Hybrid Propellant Module (HPM) - that integrates the best features of both chemical and solar electric transportation architectures. The HPM approach appears to hold promise of solving the issues associated with other approaches, opening a new family of capabilities for future space exploration and development of near-Earth space and beyond. This paper provides a summary overview of the challenge of Earth neighborhood transportation and discusses how various systems concepts might be applied to meet the needs of these architectures. The paper describes a new approach, the HPM, and illustrates the application of the concept for a typical

  18. Anatomically corrected malposed great arteries misdiagnosed as transposition of great arteries: Diagnosis on fetal echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vivek; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    We present a diagnosis of isolated anatomically corrected malposed great arteries on fetal echocardiography at 31 weeks of gestation period. The patient was referred to our institute with a diagnosis of suspected transposition of great arteries.

  19. Anatomically corrected malposed great arteries misdiagnosed as transposition of great arteries: Diagnosis on fetal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    We present a diagnosis of isolated anatomically corrected malposed great arteries on fetal echocardiography at 31 weeks of gestation period. The patient was referred to our institute with a diagnosis of suspected transposition of great arteries. PMID:27625528

  20. IS231A from Bacillus thuringiensis is functional in Escherichia coli: transposition and insertion specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Hallet, B; Rezsöhazy, R; Delcour, J

    1991-01-01

    A kanamycin resistance gene was introduced within the insertion sequence IS231A from Bacillus thuringiensis, and transposition of the element was demonstrated in Escherichia coli. DNA sequencing at the target sites showed that IS231A transposition results in direct repeats of variable lengths (10, 11, and 12 bp). These target sequences resemble the terminal inverted repeats of the transposon Tn4430, which are the preferred natural insertion sites of IS231 in B. thuringiensis. Images PMID:1648561

  1. A NEW APPROACH TO CORRECTION OF D-LOOP TRANSPOSITION OF THE GREAT ARTERIES

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, V. A.; Herman, S. A.; Gay, William A.

    1977-01-01

    An operative procedure is described for repair of transposition of the great arteries in which the left ventricle is the “aortic” ventricle and the right ventricle is the “pulmonic” ventricle. The technical feasibility of this procedure is supported by its successful application in experimental animals. A modified procedure, which may be applicable in certain complex forms of transposition of the great arteries and other perplexing anomalies for which there are no known repairs, is discussed. Images PMID:15216116

  2. Modified Shumacker operation for correction of transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, A

    1977-10-01

    Correction of the transposition of the great arteries can be accomplished with a modified Shumacker operation. This procedure has been demonstrated in cadavers to have many advantages over the techniques used by Mustard and by Angelini and Sandiford. At present these two operations provide the best clinical results in correction of transposition of the great arteries. The details of the modified Shumacker technique are described and the different advantages of this technique are discussed. PMID:904361

  3. Preservation of ovarian function by ovarian transposition performed before pelvic irradiation during childhood.

    PubMed

    Thibaud, E; Ramirez, M; Brauner, R; Flamant, F; Zucker, J M; Fékété, C; Rappaport, R

    1992-12-01

    Ovarian transposition in adults has been shown to protect ovarian function in about 60% of cases by reducing ovarian exposure to less than 4 to 7 Gy. We therefore evaluated the effect of ovarian transposition during childhood or adolescence. Eighteen girls had ovarian transposition performed at a mean (+/- SEM) age of 9.4 +/- 1.2 years (range, 1.2 to 16 years). Twelve were prepubertal and six had menstruated at the time of ovarian transposition. The initial abnormalities were Hodgkin disease (5 cases), iliac Ewing sarcoma (3), medulloblastoma (2), ovarian seminoma (1), and vaginal or uterine tumor (7). The irradiation was external in 11 cases and local by vaginal curietherapy in 7 cases. Fifteen girls received chemotherapy. The ovarian transposition was bilateral in 15 patients and unilateral in 3 cases; in the latter the other ovary had been destroyed by the tumor or by abdominal irradiation. Ovaries were placed just below the iliac crest (15 cases) or posterolateral to the uterus (3); thus, the calculated ovarian radiation dose was up to 9.5 Gy. At the time of evaluation (8.6 +/- 0.9 years after ovarian transposition), 16 girls had menstruated and 2 remained amenorrheic because of major lesions of the vagina and uterus caused by the vaginal curietherapy. Basal plasma gonadotropin values were normal. Ovulation was documented in seven cases. Two pregnancies occurred. Complications of ovarian transposition were present in four patients: intestinal occlusion, dyspareunia, functional ovarian cysts, and pelvic adhesions with tubal obstruction. We conclude that ovarian transposition, performed before abdominopelvic irradiation during childhood, can preserve ovarian function. Longer follow-up is required to assess the risk of ovarian dystrophy because of vascular lesions or chemotherapy. PMID:1447649

  4. Alternative Transposition Generates New Chimeric Genes and Segmental Duplications at the Maize p1 Locus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dafang; Yu, Chuanhe; Zuo, Tao; Zhang, Jianbo; Weber, David F; Peterson, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The maize Ac/Ds transposon family was the first transposable element system identified and characterized by Barbara McClintock. Ac/Ds transposons belong to the hAT family of class II DNA transposons. We and others have shown that Ac/Ds elements can undergo a process of alternative transposition in which the Ac/Ds transposase acts on the termini of two separate, nearby transposons. Because these termini are present in different elements, alternative transposition can generate a variety of genome alterations such as inversions, duplications, deletions, and translocations. Moreover, Ac/Ds elements transpose preferentially into genic regions, suggesting that structural changes arising from alternative transposition may potentially generate chimeric genes at the rearrangement breakpoints. Here we identified and characterized 11 independent cases of gene fusion induced by Ac alternative transposition. In each case, a functional chimeric gene was created by fusion of two linked, paralogous genes; moreover, each event was associated with duplication of the ∼70-kb segment located between the two paralogs. An extant gene in the maize B73 genome that contains an internal duplication apparently generated by an alternative transposition event was also identified. Our study demonstrates that alternative transposition-induced duplications may be a source for spontaneous creation of diverse genome structures and novel genes in maize. PMID:26434719

  5. Canine transposition in prehistoric Pakistan: Bronze Age and Iron Age case reports.

    PubMed

    Lukacs, J R

    1998-10-01

    This report documents two prehistoric cases of canine-first premolar transposition (Mx.C.P1) from the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. Recent discussion of the etiology of canine transposition and reports of high prevalence for the condition in modern India accentuate the significance of the ancient cases reported there. Case 1 is from the Iron Age site of Sarai Khola in northern Pakistan (1000 BC). The specimen, an adult female, 25 to 30 years of age at death, exhibits unilateral Mx.C.P1 transposition on the left side. The condition is associated with a barrel-shaped maxillary left third molar in an otherwise normal and healthy maxillary dental arch. Case 2 is from the Bronze Age urban site of Harappa (2500 BC), an important center of the Indus Valley Civilization. In this specimen, an adult female, transposition is bilateral, resulting in displacement of premolars and large diastemata between the maxillary lateral incisors and first premolars. Bilateral agenesis of maxillary third molars and rotation of maxillary and mandibular teeth occur with transposition in this specimen. In neither case are the lateral incisors reduced in size, peg-shaped, or congenitally absent. This report of Mx.C.P1 transposition in prehistoric times is significant because it provides historical documentation for the female predilection of the trait and establishes its co-occurrence with specific dental variants, such as agenesis, reduction, and rotation of teeth. PMID:9770107

  6. Transposition of a Rice Mutator-Like Element in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Mutator-like transposable elements (MULEs) are widespread in plants and are well known for their high transposition activity as well as their ability to duplicate and amplify host gene fragments. Despite their abundance and importance, few active MULEs have been identified. In this study, we demonstrated that a rice (Oryza sativa) MULE, Os3378, is capable of excising and reinserting in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), suggesting that yeast harbors all the host factors for the transposition of MULEs. The transposition activity induced by the wild-type transposase is low but can be altered by modification of the transposase sequence, including deletion, fusion, and substitution. Particularly, fusion of a fluorescent protein to the transposase enhanced the transposition activity, representing another approach to manipulate transposases. Moreover, we identified a critical region in the transposase where the net charge of the amino acids seems to be important for activity. Finally, transposition efficiency is also influenced by the element and its flanking sequences (i.e., small elements are more competent than their large counterparts). Perfect target site duplication is favorable, but not required, for precise excision. In addition to the potential application in functional genomics, this study provides the foundation for further studies of the transposition mechanism of MULEs. PMID:25587002

  7. Subcutaneous vs Submuscular Ulnar Nerve Transposition in Moderate Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jaddue, Dhia A.K; Saloo, Salwan A; Sayed-Noor, Arkan S

    2009-01-01

    Background: The surgical treatment of Cubital tunnel syndrome (CubTS) is still a matter of debate. No consensus exists about the necessity of anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve after decompression. However, this technique is fairly common in clinical practice. Material and Methodology: In the present study we compared the operative technique (incision length, operative time), postoperative care (postoperative pain and complications) and the outcome between subcutaneous transposition and submuscular transposition of the ulnar nerve as two surgical modalities in treating moderate CubTS. Between March 2004 and March 2007, twenty six patients with moderate CubTS (according to Dellon’s grading system) were stratified according to age and gender into these two surgical techniques. The two groups were prospectively followed up 2 weeks, 6 months and 12 months postoperatively by the same observer and the operation outcome was assessed using the Bishop rating system. Results: We found that the subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve was associated with shorter incision, shorter operative time, less postoperative pain, less postoperative complication and better outcome compared with the submuscular transposition. Conclusion: The authors recommend the subcutaneous technique when considering anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve in treating moderate CubTS. PMID:19746170

  8. [Open window thoracostomy and muscle flap transposition for thoracic empyema].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Y

    2010-07-01

    Open window thoracostomy for thoracic empyema: Open window thoracostomy is a simple, certain and final drainage procedure for thoracic empyema. It is most useful to drain purulent effusion from empyema space, especially for cases with broncho-pleural fistulas, and to clean up purulent necrotic debris on surface of empyema sac. For changing of packing gauzes in empyema space through a window once or twice every day after this procedure, thoracostomy will have to be made on the suitable position to empyema space. Usually skin incision will be layed along the costal bone just at the most expanded position of empyema. Following muscle splitting to thoracic wall, a costal bone just under the incision will be removed as 8-10 cm as long, and opened the empyema space through a costal bed. After the extension of empyema space will be preliminarily examined through a primary window by a finger or a long forceps, it will be decided costal bones must be removed how many (usually 2 or 3 totally) and how long (6-8 cm) to make a window up to 5 cm in diameter. Thickened empyema wall will be cut out just according to a window size, and finally skin edge and empyema wall will be sutured roughly along circular edge. Muscle flap transposition for empyema space: Pediclued muscle flap transposition is one of space-reducing operations for (chronic) empyema Usually this will be co-performed with other several procedures as curettages on empyema surface, closure of bronchopleural fistula and thoracoplasty. This is radically curable for primarily non fistulous empyema or secondarily empyema after open window thoracostomy done for fistula. Furthermore this is less invasive than other radical operations as like pleuro-pneumonectomy, decortication or air-plombage for empyema. There are 2 important points to do this technique. One is a volume of muscle flap and another is good blood flow in flap. The former suitable muscle volume is need to impact empyema space or to close fistula, and the

  9. Fabrication and characterization of a hybrid SOI 1×4 silicon-slot optical modulator array incorporating EO polymers for optical phased-array antenna applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Richard S.; Szep, Attila; Usechak, Nicholas G.; Chen, Antao; Sun, Haishan; Shi, Shouyuan; Abeysinghe, Don; You, Young-Hwan; Dalton, Larry R.

    2012-03-01

    Optical phased arrays are promising candidates for both RF signal processing and optical beam forming and steering. These platforms not only enable accurate electrically controlled beam steering at high frequencies but also have the potential to significantly improve the performance of future free-space optical communications systems. In this work we exploit recent advancements in both nano-scale hybrid silicon-slot waveguides and electro-optic (EO) polymers to demonstrate an integrated optical phased-array antenna. Specifically, we create a hybrid integrated "photonic circuit" that connects an array of optical phase modulators, fed by a common optical signal and a 1x4 splitter, to a compact optical waveguide diffraction array for optical beam steering applications. The fundamental characteristics of the resulting integrated optical beam former, including the optical insertion loss, driving voltage, and phase control from the waveguide aperture are summarized in this letter.

  10. Perventricular closure of a large ventricular septal defect in congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Aboulhosn, Jamil; Levi, Dan; Sopher, Michael; Johnson, Allen; Child, John S; Laks, Hillel

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 30 year-old male with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, atrial, and ventricular septal defects (VSD), and pulmonary stenosis. He previously underwent three palliative surgical procedures before undergoing intracardiac repair at age 20 with a left ventricular to pulmonary artery (LV-PA) conduit, VSD closure, and replacement of the systemic atrioventricular valve. A residual VSD was noted postoperatively. He did well for approximately 10 years when he started becoming more breathless with daily activities and was noted to have a resting room air oxygen saturation of 85%. Despite increased diuretic therapy he continued to deteriorate and was ultimately admitted to the hospital in florid right and left heart failure with recurrent atrial fibrillation. Catheterization revealed pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery pressure = 80/17 mm Hg), moderate conduit stenosis, severe pulmonic regurgitation, and oxygen saturation of 75%. Calculated shunt fraction (Qp : Qs) was 1.3:1. He was referred for surgical intervention, specifically, LV-PA conduit replacement, oversewing of the pulmonic valve, VSD closure, and pacemaker placement. Intraoperatively, the VSD could not be closed despite multiple attempts through various approaches. Therefore, perventricular VSD closure using two Amplatzer septal occluders (AGA Medical, Golden Valley, MN) was performed in the operating room with the chest open off cardiopulmonary bypass. Following deployment, the residual shunt was small and the inferior vena cava-to-pulmonary artery saturation step-up was only 4%. The left ventricular systolic pressure decreased to one half systemic. This case highlights the utility and efficacy of a hybrid approach in the treatment of complex congenital heart disease. PMID:20136860

  11. Flood Frequency Analyses Using a Modified Stochastic Storm Transposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, N. Z.; Kiani, M.

    2015-12-01

    Research shows that areas with similar topography and climatic environment have comparable precipitation occurrences. Reproduction and realization of historical rainfall events provide foundations for frequency analysis and the advancement of meteorological studies. Stochastic Storm Transposition (SST) is a method for such a purpose and enables us to perform hydrologic frequency analyses by transposing observed historical storm events to the sites of interest. However, many previous studies in SST reveal drawbacks from simplified Probability Density Functions (PDFs) without considering restrictions for transposing rainfalls. The goal of this study is to stochastically examine the impacts of extreme events on all locations in a homogeneity zone. Since storms with the same probability of occurrence on homogenous areas do not have the identical hydrologic impacts, the authors utilize detailed precipitation parameters including the probability of occurrence of certain depth and the number of occurrence of extreme events, which are both incorporated into a joint probability function. The new approach can reduce the bias from uniformly transposing storms which erroneously increases the probability of occurrence of storms in areas with higher rainfall depths. This procedure is iterated to simulate storm events for one thousand years as the basis for updating frequency analysis curves such as IDF and FFA. The study area is the Upper Trinity River watershed including the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex with a total area of 6,500 mi2. It is the first time that SST method is examined in such a wide scale with 20 years of radar rainfall data.

  12. Surgical transposition of the ovaries: Imaging findings in 14 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kier, R.; Chambers, S.K. )

    1989-11-01

    Pelvic radiation therapy for cervical or vaginal cancer often leads to ovarian failure. To remove the ovaries from the radiation portal and preserve their function, they can be transposed to the lateral abdomen. Serial imaging studies in 14 patients who had undergone ovarian transposition (five bilateral, nine unilateral) were reviewed. Images obtained included 32 CT scans, 20 sonograms, and one MR image. Most transposed ovaries were located along the paracolic gutters near the iliac crests, creating an extrinsic mass effect on adjacent bowel. Detection of surgical clips on the ovary on CT scans allowed confident recognition of all 19 transposed ovaries. Cysts in the transposed ovaries, noted on most imaging studies, did not correlate with complications of pain or hormonal dysfunction. In one case, a large physiologic cyst in a transposed ovary distorted the cecum and was mistaken for a mucocele of the appendix. In another case, a large ovarian cyst was thought to be tumor recurrence or a lymphocele. These findings indicate that although the transposed ovaries can be recognized on CT scans by the surgical clips attached to the ovaries, the appearance of the ovary does not predict reliably the development of complications.

  13. Analysis of a digital technique for frequency transposition of speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digirolamo, V.

    1985-09-01

    Frequency transposition is the process of raising or lowering the frequency content (pitch) of an audio signal. The hearing impaired community has the greatest interest in the applications of frequency transposing. Though several analog and digital frequency transposing hearing aid systems have been built and tested, this thesis investigates a possible digital processing alternative. Pole shifting, in the z-domain, of an autoregressive (all pole) model of speech was proven to be a viable theory for changing frequency content. Since linear predictive coding (LPC) techniques are used to code, analyze and synthesize speech, with the resulting LPC coefficients related to the coefficients of an equivalent autoregressive model, a linear relationship between LPC coefficients and frequency tranposition is explored. This theoretical relationship is first established using a pure sine wave and then is extended into processing speech. The resulting speech synthesis experiments failed to substantiate the conjectures of this thesis. However, future research avenues are suggested that may lead toward a viable approach to transpose speech.

  14. Tissue culture-induced transpositional activity of mPing is correlated with cytosine methylation in rice

    PubMed Central

    Ngezahayo, Frédéric; Xu, Chunming; Wang, Hongyan; Jiang, Lily; Pang, Jinsong; Liu, Bao

    2009-01-01

    Background mPing is an endogenous MITE in the rice genome, which is quiescent under normal conditions but can be induced towards mobilization under various stresses. The cellular mechanism responsible for modulating the activity of mPing remains unknown. Cytosine methylation is a major epigenetic modification in most eukaryotes, and the primary function of which is to serve as a genome defense system including taming activity of transposable elements (TEs). Given that tissue-culture is capable of inducing both methylation alteration and mPing transposition in certain rice genotypes, it provides a tractable system to investigate the possible relationship between the two phenomena. Results mPing transposition and cytosine methylation alteration were measured in callus and regenerated plants in three rice (ssp. indica) genotypes, V14, V27 and R09. All three genotypes showed transposition of mPing, though at various frequencies. Cytosine methylation alteration occurred both at the mPing-flanks and at random loci sampled globally in callus and regenerated plants of all three genotypes. However, a sharp difference in the changing patterns was noted between the mPing-flanks and random genomic loci, with a particular type of methylation modification, i.e., CNG hypermethylation, occurred predominantly at the mPing-flanks. Pearson's test on pairwise correlations indicated that mPing activity is positively correlated with specific patterns of methylation alteration at random genomic loci, while the element's immobility is positively correlated with methylation levels of the mPing's 5'-flanks. Bisulfite sequencing of two mPing-containing loci showed that whereas for the immobile locus loss of CG methylation in the 5'-flank was accompanied by an increase in CHG methylation, together with an overall increase in methylation of all three types (CG, CHG and CHH) in the mPing-body region, for the active locus erasure of CG methylation in the 5'-flank was not followed by such a

  15. Involvement of H-NS in Transpositional Recombination Mediated by IS1

    PubMed Central

    Shiga, Yasuyuki; Sekine, Yasuhiko; Kano, Yasunobu; Ohtsubo, Eiichi

    2001-01-01

    IS1, the smallest active transposable element in bacteria, encodes a transposase that promotes inter- and intramolecular transposition. Host-encoded factors, e.g., histone-like proteins HU and integration host factor (IHF), are involved in the transposition reactions of some bacterial transposable elements. Host factors involved in the IS1 transposition reaction, however, are not known. We show that a plasmid with an IS1 derivative that efficiently produces transposase did not generate miniplasmids, the products of intramolecular transposition, in mutants deficient in a nucleoid-associated DNA-binding protein, H-NS, but did generate them in mutants deficient in histone-like proteins HU, IHF, Fis, and StpA. Nor did IS1 transpose intermolecularly to the target plasmid in the H-NS-deficient mutant. The hns mutation did not affect transcription from the indigenous promoter of IS1 for the expression of the transposase gene. These findings show that transpositional recombination mediated by IS1 requires H-NS but does not require the HU, IHF, Fis, or StpA protein in vivo. Gel retardation assays of restriction fragments of IS1-carrying plasmid DNA showed that no sites were bound preferentially by H-NS within the IS1 sequence. The central domain of H-NS, which is involved in dimerization and/or oligomerization of the H-NS protein, was important for the intramolecular transposition of IS1, but the N- and C-terminal domains, which are involved in the repression of certain genes and DNA binding, respectively, were not. The SOS response induced by the IS1 transposase was absent in the H-NS-deficient mutant strain but was present in the wild-type strain. We discuss the possibility that H-NS promotes the formation of an active IS1 DNA-transposase complex in which the IS1 ends are cleaved to initiate transpositional recombination through interaction with IS1 transposase. PMID:11274106

  16. Voltage balancing: Long-term experience with the 250 V supercapacitor module of the hybrid fuel cell vehicle HY-LIGHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kötz, R.; Sauter, J.-C.; Ruch, P.; Dietrich, P.; Büchi, F. N.; Magne, P. A.; Varenne, P.

    On the occasion of the "Challenge Bibendum" 2004 in Shanghai, the hybrid fuel cell-supercapacitor vehicle HY-LIGHT, a joint project of Conception et Développement Michelin and the Paul Scherrer Institut, was presented to the public. The drive train of this vehicle comprises a 30 kW polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) and a 250 V supercapacitor (SC) module for energy recuperation and boost power during short acceleration and start-up processes. The supercapacitor module was deliberately constructed without continuous voltage balancing units. The performance of the supercapacitor module was monitored over the 2 years of operation particularly with respect to voltage balancing of the large number of SC cells connected in series. During the investigated period of 19 months and about 7000 km driving, the voltage imbalance within the supercapacitor module proved negligible. The maximum deviation between best and worst SC was always below 120 mV and the capacitor with the highest voltage never exceeded the nominal voltage by more than 40 mV.

  17. An experimental distribution of analog and digital information in a hybrid wireless visible light communication system based on acousto-optic modulation and sinusoidal gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Colín, R.; García Juárez, A.; Zaldívar Huerta, I. E.; Marquina, A. Vera; García Delgado, L. A.; Leal Cruz, A. L.; Gómez Fuentes, R.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we propose a photonic architecture as an alternative tool to distribute point to multipoint analog and digital information over a hybrid wireless visible optical communication system. The experimental set-up is composed of a red laser pointer, an acousto-optic modulator, a sinusoidal grating and a photo-detector array. By using a simple and variable interferometric system, diffraction gratings with different spatial frequencies are generated and recorded on a photoemulsion which is composed of vanilla with dichromate gelatin. Analog video and digital information are first transmitted and recovered over a wireless communication system using a microwave carrier at 4.52 GHz which is generated by distributed feedback lasers operating in the low laser threshold current region. Separately, the recovered video information and digital data are combined with a radio frequency signal of 80 MHz, obtaining a subcarrier of information that is imposed on the optical carrier of the pointer laser using an acousto-optic modulator which is operated with an angle of incident light that satisfies the Bragg condition. The modulated optical carrier is sent to a sinusoidal grating, the diffraction pattern is photo-detected using an array of PIN photo-detectors. The use of sinusoidal gratings with acousto-optic modulators allows that number of channels to be increased when both components are placed in cascade.

  18. Characterization of Sleeping Beauty Transposition and Its Application to Genetic Screening in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Kyoji; Yusa, Kosuke; Yae, Kojiro; Odajima, Junko; Fischer, Sylvia E. J.; Keng, Vincent W.; Hayakawa, Tomoko; Mizuno, Sumi; Kondoh, Gen; Ijiri, Takashi; Matsuda, Yoichi; Plasterk, Ronald H. A.; Takeda, Junji

    2003-01-01

    The use of mutant mice plays a pivotal role in determining the function of genes, and the recently reported germ line transposition of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon would provide a novel system to facilitate this approach. In this study, we characterized SB transposition in the mouse germ line and assessed its potential for generating mutant mice. Transposition sites not only were clustered within 3 Mb near the donor site but also were widely distributed outside this cluster, indicating that the SB transposon can be utilized for both region-specific and genome-wide mutagenesis. The complexity of transposition sites in the germ line was high enough for large-scale generation of mutant mice. Based on these initial results, we conducted germ line mutagenesis by using a gene trap scheme, and the use of a green fluorescent protein reporter made it possible to select for mutant mice rapidly and noninvasively. Interestingly, mice with mutations in the same gene, each with a different insertion site, were obtained by local transposition events, demonstrating the feasibility of the SB transposon system for region-specific mutagenesis. Our results indicate that the SB transposon system has unique features that complement other mutagenesis approaches. PMID:14645530

  19. DNA sequences at the ends of the genome of bacteriophage Mu essential for transposition.

    PubMed Central

    Groenen, M A; Timmers, E; van de Putte, P

    1985-01-01

    We have determined the minimal DNA sequences at the ends of the genome of bacteriophage Mu that are required for its transposition. A mini-Mu was constructed on a multicopy plasmid that enabled the manipulation of the DNA sequences at its ends without affecting the genes essential for transposition. The genes A and B, which were cloned outside the ends of the mini-Mu on the same plasmid, were both needed for optimal transposition. In our experimental system the predominant end products of the transposition are cointegrates both in the presence and in the absence of B. Two regions ending approximately 25 and 160 bp from the left end and one ending approximately 50 bp from the right end appear to be essential for optimal transposition. Overlapping with these regions, a 22-base-pair sequence was recognized with the consensus Y-G-T-T-C-A-Y-T-N-N-A-A-R-Y-R-C-G-A-A-A-A, where Y and R represent any pyrimidine and purine, respectively. At the left end these sequences occur as direct repeats; at the right end this sequence is inverted with respect to those at the left end. PMID:2984681

  20. Simple and efficient generation in vitro of nested deletions and inversions: Tn5 intramolecular transposition.

    PubMed Central

    York, D; Welch, K; Goryshin, I Y; Reznikoff, W S

    1998-01-01

    We have exploited the intramolecular transposition preference of the Tn 5 in vitro transposition system to test its effectiveness as a tool for generation of nested families of deletions and inversions. A synthetic transposon was constructed containing an ori, an ampicillin resistance (Ampr) gene, a multi-cloning site (MCS) and two hyperactive end sequences. The donor DNA that adjoins the transposon contains a kanamycin resistance (Kanr) gene. Any Amprreplicating plasmid that has undergone a transposition event (Kans) will be targeted primarily to any insert in the MCS. Two different size targets were tested in the in vitro system. Synthetic transposon plasmids containing either target were incubated in the presence of purified transposase (Tnp) protein and transformed. Transposition frequencies (Ampr/Kans) for both targets were found to be 30-50%, of which >95% occur within the target sequence, in an apparently random manner. By a conservative estimate 10(5) or more deletions/inversions within a given segment of DNA can be expected from a single one-step 20 microl transposition reaction. These nested deletions can be used for structure-function analysis of proteins and for sequence analysis. The inversions provide nested sequencing templates of the opposite strand from the deletions. PMID:9518484

  1. Electrocardiogram in corrected transposition of the great vessels of the bulbo-ventricular inversion type

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, F.; Laurichesse, J.; Scebat, L.; Lenègre, J.

    1970-01-01

    Twenty cases of corrected transposition of the great vessels of the bulbo-ventricular inversion type, either lone or combined with other intracardiac anomalies, were analysed. Rhythm and/or atrio-ventricular conduction disturbances were common to all groups of cases. QRS pattern changes were found to be related both to ventricular inversion and to ventricular hypertrophy. Isolated corrected transposition and corrected transposition with systemic ventriculo-atrial regurgitation give rise to tracings suggestive of systemic ventricular hypertrophy. Corrected transposition of the great vessels with pulmonary stenosis or pulmonary artery hypertension is usually accompanied by the electrocardiographic signs of a venous-ventricular hypertrophy, with a characteristic inversion of the normal praecordial pattern. The conventional criteria of ventricular hypertrophy may be applied in corrected transposition of the great vessels but are less reliable than in cases without ventricular inversion. The so-called electrocardiographic pattern of `ventricular inversion' in this anomaly is related not only to the inverted position of the ventricles but to a greater extent to the predominant, anatomically left, venous-ventricular hypertrophy which re-establishes the normal weight ratio between the anatomically right and anatomically left ventricles. Images PMID:5440512

  2. [Mobile genetic element MDG4 (gypsy) in Drosophila melanogaster. Features of structure and regulation of transposition].

    PubMed

    Kusulidu, L K; Karpova, N N; Razorenova, O V; Glukhov, I A; Kim, A I; Liubomirskaia, N V; Il'in, Iu V

    2001-12-01

    Distribution of two structural functional variants of the MDG4 (gypsy) mobile genetic element was examined in 44 strains of Drosophila melanogaster. The results obtained suggest that less transpositionally active MDG4 variant is more ancient component of the Drosophila genome. Using Southern blotting, five strains characterized by increased copy number of MDG4 with significant prevalence of the active variant over the less active one were selected for further analysis. Genetic analysis of these strains led to the suggestion that some of them carry factors that mobilize MDG4 independently from the cellular flamenco gene known to be responsible for transposition of this element. Other strains probably contained a suppressor of the flam- mutant allele causing active transpositions of the MDG4. Thus, the material for studying poorly examined relationships between the retrovirus and the host cell genome was obtained. PMID:11785284

  3. Primary brachial vein transposition for hemodialysis access: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lambidis, Constantinos; Galanopoulos, Georgios

    2013-07-01

    The superiority of autogenous fistulae in patients with end-stage renal disease, performing hemodialysis, is well established and largely accepted. However, in case that superficial veins in the upper arm are not available for fistula construction, brachial vein transposition may be a viable alternative prior to graft placement. This transposition could be done as a primary or staged procedure, depending on the vein size. We present the case of a 63-year-old male patient with a thrombosed arteriovenous graft in the forearm and a large brachial vein in the ipsilateral upper arm. A one-stage (primary) brachial vein transposition was performed. The fistula, 10 months after its construction, is still patent. No complications have occurred. PMID:23134151

  4. Dental transposition of canine and lateral incisor and impacted central incisor treatment: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gebert, Tarcisio Jacinto; Palma, Vinícius Canavarros; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dental transposition and impaction are disorders related to ectopic eruption or failure in tooth eruption, which can affect child physical, mental and social development and may be difficult to be clinically solved. Methods We describe a case of transposition between the upper left canine and lateral incisor associated with impaction of the central incisor on the same side, in a 12-year-old patient. Conservative treatment involving surgical-orthodontic correction of transposed teeth and traction of the central incisor was conducted. Conclusion The option of correcting transposition and orthodontic traction by means of the segmented arch technique with devices such as cantilever and TMA rectangular wire loops, although a complex alternative, was proved to be esthetically and functionally effective. PMID:24713567

  5. Percutaneous valvulotomy as an alternative to transposition of a brachiocephalic fistula.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jeffrey E; Makhoul, Raymond G; Snyder, James F

    2014-01-01

    Transposition of a deep (9-12 mm) autogenous brachiocephalic vein fistula was required for adequate hemodialysis access in a morbidly obese patient. The patient was a poor candidate for surgical transposition of the upper-arm cephalic vein. As an alternative, retrograde fistula flow was established percutaneously through a 6-F sheath in the forearm cephalic vein with the over-the-wire LeMaitre valvulotome. The retrograde flow in the forearm added 7 cm of superficial vein 6.2-9 mm in diameter with a flow rate of 940-2,868 mL/min, eliminating the need for surgical transposition. The percutaneous technique and required anatomy are described. PMID:24365509

  6. A hybrid graph-theoretic method for mining overlapping functional modules in large sparse protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihua; Liu, Hong-Wei; Ning, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2009-01-01

    Modular architecture, which encompasses groups of genes/proteins involved in elementary biological functional units, is a basic form of the organisation of interacting proteins. Here, we propose a method that combines the Line Graph Transformation (LGT) and clique percolation-clustering algorithm to detect network modules, which may overlap each other in large sparse PPI networks. The resulting modules by the present method show a high coverage among yeast, fly, and worm PPI networks, respectively. Our analysis of the yeast PPI network suggests that most of these modules have well-biological significance in context of protein localisation, function annotation, and protein complexes. PMID:19432377

  7. cis and trans factors affecting Mos1 mariner evolution and transposition in vitro, and its potential for functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Tosi, L R; Beverley, S M

    2000-02-01

    Mos1 and other mariner / Tc1 transposons move horizon-tally during evolution, and when transplanted into heterologous species can transpose in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to protozoans and vertebrates. To further develop the Drosophila Mos1 mariner system as a genetic tool and to probe mechanisms affecting the regulation of transposition activity, we developed an in vitro system for Mos1 transposition using purified transposase and selectable Mos1 derivatives. Transposition frequencies of nearly 10(-3)/target DNA molecule were obtained, and insertions occurred at TA dinucleotides with little other sequence specificity. Mos1 elements containing only the 28 bp terminal inverted repeats were inactive in vitro, while elements containing a few additional internal bases were fully active, establishing the minimal cis -acting requirements for transposition. With increasing transposase the transposition frequency increased to a plateau value, in contrast to the predictions of the protein over-expression inhibition model and to that found recently with a reconstructed Himar1 transposase. This difference between the 'natural' Mos1 and 'reconstructed' Himar1 transposases suggests an evolutionary path for down-regulation of mariner transposition following its introduction into a naïve population. The establishment of the cis and trans requirements for optimal mariner transposition in vitro provides key data for the creation of vectors for in vitro mutagenesis, and will facilitate the development of in vivo systems for mariner transposition. PMID:10637331

  8. Clinical application of sartorius tendon transposition during radical vulvectomy: a case control study of 58 cases at a single institution

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Xinxin; Feng, Xiaojie; Liu, Fenghua; Chao, Hongtu; Wang, Liying

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effects of sartorius tendon transposition versus sartorius transposition during bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy of radical vulvectomy. Methods A total of 58 vulvar cancer patients who had surgery from May 2007 to October 2013, in which 30 patients received sartorius transposition and 28 patients received sartorius tendon transposition. All patients were matched by age, body mass index, stage, histology, and grade. Intraoperative variables and postoperative complications, recurrence, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) and postoperative life quality were compared and analyzed. Results No significant differences were found at median surgical times and amounts of bleeding (p=0.316 and p=0.249, respectively), neither at the incidences of groin cellulitis and lymphocele (p=0.673 and p=0.473, respectively), but the recovery times of the inguinal wounds were shorter (p=0.026) and the incidences of wound break and chronic lymphedema were significantly decreased in the tendon transposition group (p=0.012 and p=0.022, respectively). Postoperative quality of life in tendon transposition group was significantly improved as indicated by the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Recurrences were similar (p=0.346) and no significant differences were found at PFS and OS (p=0.990 and p=0.683, respectively). Conclusion Compared to sartorius transposition, sartorius tendon transposition during inguinal lymphadenectomy led to improved patient recovery, reduced postoperative complications, and improved life quality without compromising the outcomes. PMID:26404124

  9. Laparoscopic transposition of the left renal vein into the inferior vena cava for nutcracker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Olivier; Azghari, Amine; Barthelemy, Pierre; Boufi, Mourad; Alimi, Yves S

    2010-09-01

    Reimplantation of the left renal vein into the infrarenal inferior vena cava is the standard surgical procedure for nutcracker syndrome. A 40-year-old woman with a solitary left kidney suffered from left lumbar pain and hematuria. Imaging techniques found a large kidney with nutcracker syndrome. A totally laparoscopic transposition of the left renal vein was performed. Twelve months later, the patient is improved and has no more hematuria. Duplex scan showed no residual stenosis. Laparoscopic transposition of the left renal vein into the inferior vena cava is feasible with short length of stay and good short-term result. PMID:20576393

  10. High rates of Ac/Ds germinal transposition in Arabidopsis suitable for gene isolation by insertional mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Grevelding, C; Becker, D; Kunze, R; von Menges, A; Fantes, V; Schell, J; Masterson, R

    1992-01-01

    Overexpression of the Activator (Ac) transposase gene in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in a minimal germinal transposition frequency of 27% in which independent Dissociation (Ds) transposition events were observed. Molecular analysis of 45 F1 generation Ac/Ds plants indicated that high rates of somatic excision had occurred, and independent germinal insertions were identified in F2 generation progeny plants. A tandem cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter fused to two different Ac coding sequences significantly increased the rate of Ds transposition. The CaMV-Ac fusions activated single and multiple copies of two different Ds elements, DsDHFR and Ds35S-1, and reciprocal crosses resulted in similar transposition frequencies. The improved rate of independent germinal transposition observed makes Arabidopsis an ideal system for insertional mutagenesis. Images PMID:1321434

  11. Modulation of molecular hybridization and charge screening in a carbon nanotube network channel using the electrical pulse method.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jun-Myung; Kim, Seok Hyang; Chun, Honnggu; Kim, Sung Jae; Ahn, Jinhong; Park, Young June

    2013-09-21

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of electrical pulse bias on DNA hybridization events in a biosensor platform, using a Carbon Nanotube Network (CNN) and Gold Nano Particles (GNP) as an electrical channel. The scheme provides both hybridization rate enhancement of bio molecules, and electrical measurement in a transient state to avoid the charge screening effect, thereby significantly improving the sensitivity. As an example, the probe DNA molecules oscillate with pulse trains, resulting in the enhancement of DNA hybridization efficiency, and accordingly of the sensor performances in Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer solution, by as much as over three times, compared to the non-biasing conditions. More importantly, a wide dynamic range of 10(6) (target-DNA concentration from 5 pM to 5 μM) is achieved in human serum. In addition, the pulse biasing method enables one to obtain the conductance change, before the ions within the Electrical Double Layer (EDL) are redistributed, to avoid the charge screening effect, leading to an additional sensitivity enhancement. PMID:23900200

  12. Hybrid wide-band, low-phase-noise scheme for Raman lasers in atom interferometry by integrating an acousto-optic modulator and a feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Yao, Zhanwei; Li, Runbing; Lu, Sibin; Chen, Xi; Wang, Jin; Zhan, Mingsheng

    2016-02-10

    We report a hybrid scheme for phase-coherent Raman lasers with low phase noise in a wide frequency range. In this scheme, a pair of Raman lasers with a frequency difference of 3.04 GHz is generated by the ±1-order diffracted lights of an acousto-optic modulator (1.52 GHz), where a feedback loop is simultaneously applied for suppressing the phase noise. The beat width of the Raman lasers is narrower than 3 Hz. In the low-frequency range, the phase noise of the Raman lasers is suppressed by 35 dB with the feedback. The phase noise is less than -109  dBc/Hz in the high-frequency range. The sensitivity of an atom gyroscope employing the hybrid Raman lasers can be implicitly improved 10 times. Due to the better high-frequency response, the sensitivity is not limited by the durations of Raman pulses. This work is important for improving the performance of atom-interferometer-based measurements. PMID:26906364

  13. An Evaluation of Frequency Transposition for Hearing-Impaired School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jenny; Dann, Marilyn; Brown, P. Margaret

    2009-01-01

    A key objective when fitting hearing aids to children is to maximize the audibility of high frequency speech cues which are critical in the understanding of spoken English. Recent advances in digital signal processing have enabled the development of hearing aids which offer linear frequency transposition as a new way of accessing these important…

  14. Nasal-skin-fold transposition flap for upper lip reconstruction in a French bulldog

    PubMed Central

    Benlloch-Gonzalez, Manuel; Lafarge, Stéphanie; Bouvy, Bernard; Poncet, Cyrill

    2013-01-01

    Upper-lip reconstruction after mast-cell tumor-resection in a French bulldog was achieved by using a transposition flap from the nasal-skin-fold and an oral mucosal flap. The new technique is an alternative for reconstruction of extensive upper-lip defects in brachycephalic dogs and achieves satisfactory functional and cosmetic results. PMID:24155421

  15. Transposition of brachiobasilic arteriovenous fistulae: improving the cosmetic effect without compromising patency.

    PubMed

    van Dellen, David; Junejo, Muneer; Khambalia, Hussein; Campbell, Babatunde

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Subjects who undergo haemodialysis are living longer, which necessitates increasingly complex procedures for formation of arteriovenous fistulas. Basilic veins provide valuable additional venous 'real estate' but surgical transposition of vessels is required, which required a cosmetically disfiguring incision. A minimally invasive transposition method provides an excellent aesthetic alternative without compromised outcomes. Methods A retrospective review was made of minimally invasive brachiobasilic fistula transpositions (using two short incisions of <4 cm) between February 2005 and July 2011. Primary endpoints were one-year patency as well as the perioperative and late complications of the procedure. Results Thirty-one patients underwent 32 transposition procedures (eight pre-dialysis cases; 24 haemodialysis patients). All patients were treated with a minimally invasive method. Thirty-one procedures resulted in primary patency, with the single failure refashioned successfully. The only indication for a more invasive approach was intraoperative complications (two haematomas). All other complications presented late and were amenable to intervention (one aneurysm, one peri-anastomotic stricture). Conclusion Formation of arteriovenous fistulae using minimally invasive methods is a novel approach that ensures fistula patency with improved aesthetic outcomes and without significant morbidity. PMID:26688395

  16. Anesthetic management of a child with corrected transposition of great vessels undergoing non-cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Shaji; Umesh, Goneppanavar; Arun Kumar, Handigodu Duggappa; Srinivasan, Nataraj Madagondapalli

    2013-01-01

    We describe the successful anesthetic management of a 14-year-old child, a corrected case of transposition of great vessels in childhood and presently with residual atrial septal defect, peripheral cyanosis, and neurological deficit of lower limb presented for tendoachillis lengthening. PMID:23956725

  17. Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries: surgical repair in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Mitropoulos, Fotios A; Kanakis, Meletios; Vlachos, Antonios P; Lathridou, Paraskevi; Tsaoussis, George; Georgiou, George; Goudevenos, John A

    2007-02-01

    We report a patient with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, dextrocardia in congestive heart failure, with severe tricuspid regurgitation; a large ventricular septal defect, and giant left atrium. The patient underwent a two-ventricle repair with physiologic correction and had an excellent postoperative outcome. PMID:17258011

  18. Chemo- and regioselective reductive transposition of allylic alcohol derivatives via iridium or rhodium catalysis.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Rylan J; Thomas, Bryce N

    2016-01-18

    We report highly chemo- and regioselective reductive transpositions of methyl carbonates to furnish olefin products with complementary regioselectivity to that of established Pd-catalysis. These Rh- and Ir-catalysed transformations proceed under mild conditions and enable selective deoxygenation in the presence of functional groups that are susceptible to reduction by metal hydrides. PMID:26587569

  19. Generation of Tandem Direct Duplications by Reversed-Ends Transposition of Maize Ac Elements

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Tandem direct duplications are a common feature of the genomes of eukaryotes ranging from yeast to human, where they comprise a significant fraction of copy number variations. The prevailing model for the formation of tandem direct duplications is non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Here we report the isolation of a series of duplications and reciprocal deletions isolated de novo from a maize allele containing two Class II Ac/Ds transposons. The duplication/deletion structures suggest that they were generated by alternative transposition reactions involving the termini of two nearby transposable elements. The deletion/duplication breakpoint junctions contain 8 bp target site duplications characteristic of Ac/Ds transposition events, confirming their formation directly by an alternative transposition mechanism. Tandem direct duplications and reciprocal deletions were generated at a relatively high frequency (∼0.5 to 1%) in the materials examined here in which transposons are positioned nearby each other in appropriate orientation; frequencies would likely be much lower in other genotypes. To test whether this mechanism may have contributed to maize genome evolution, we analyzed sequences flanking Ac/Ds and other hAT family transposons and identified three small tandem direct duplications with the structural features predicted by the alternative transposition mechanism. Together these results show that some class II transposons are capable of directly inducing tandem sequence duplications, and that this activity has contributed to the evolution of the maize genome. PMID:23966872

  20. Nasal-skin-fold transposition flap for upper lip reconstruction in a French bulldog.

    PubMed

    Benlloch-Gonzalez, Manuel; Lafarge, Stéphanie; Bouvy, Bernard; Poncet, Cyrill

    2013-10-01

    Upper-lip reconstruction after mast-cell tumor-resection in a French bulldog was achieved by using a transposition flap from the nasal-skin-fold and an oral mucosal flap. The new technique is an alternative for reconstruction of extensive upper-lip defects in brachycephalic dogs and achieves satisfactory functional and cosmetic results. PMID:24155421

  1. Letter-Transposition Effects Are Not Universal: The Impact of Transposing Letters in Hebrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of letter-transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that…

  2. Induction of transpositions of MGE Dm412 by {gamma}-radiation in an isogenic line of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Zabanov, S.A.; Vasil`eva, L.A.; Ratner, V.A. |

    1995-06-01

    In an isogenic line of Drosophila, transpositions of mobile genetic elements (MGE) Dm412 were induced by {gamma}-radiation at doses of 300, 800, and 1300 R. The rates of induced transpositions were (for each dose, respectively) 3.9 x 10{sup {minus}3}, 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}2}, and 1.87 x 10{sup {minus}2} events per occupied site per haploid genome of the isogenic line per generation. Thus, the transposition rate increased linearly with the radiation dose. The specific rate of {gamma}-radiation-induced transpositions was (1.3 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup {minus}5} per occupied site per haploid genome of the isogenic line per Roentgen per generation. {gamma}-Radiation-induced hot transposition sites and haplotypes, very similar to those induced by heat shock, were found. It was suggested that the mechanism of induction by {gamma}-radiation involves the heat shock system. Thus, it is more similar to the mechanism of temperature induction than to the direct mutational effect of {gamma}-radiation. Estimates of induced transposition rates per genome for each dose were calculated as 1.1, 3.0, and 5.6 events, respectively, per genome per generation. This level probably corresponds to the subthreshold level of genomes near the {open_quotes}catastrophic border of transpositional losses.{close_quotes} 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Architecture of the Tn7 Post-Transposition Complex: an Elaborate Nucleoprotein Structure

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Jason W.; Craig, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Four transposition proteins encoded by the bacterial transposon Tn7, TnsA, TnsB, TnsC, and TnsD, mediate its site- and orientation-specific insertion into the chromosomal site attTn7. To establish which Tns proteins are actually present in the transpososome that executes DNA breakage and joining, we have determined the proteins present in the nucleoprotein product of transposition, the Post-Transposition Complex (PTC) using fluorescently labeled Tns proteins. All four required Tns proteins are present in the PTC in which we also find that the Tn7 ends are paired by protein-protein contacts between Tns proteins bound to the ends. Quantification of the relative amounts of the fluorescent Tns proteins in the PTC indicates that oligomers of TnsA, TnsB, and TnsC mediate Tn7 transposition. High-resolution DNA footprinting of the DNA product of transposition attTn7∷Tn7 revealed that about 350 bp of DNA on the transposon ends and on attTn7 contact the Tns proteins. All seven binding sites for TnsB, the component of the transposase that specifically binds the ends and mediates 3’ end breakage and joining, are occupied in the PTC. However, the protection pattern of the sites closest to the Tn7 ends in the PTC are different from that observed with TnsB alone, likely reflecting the pairing of the ends and their interaction with the target nucleoprotein complex necessary for activation of the breakage and joining steps. We also observe extensive protection of the attTn7 sequences in the PTC and that alternative DNA structures in substrate attTn7 that are imposed by TnsD are maintained in the PTC. PMID:20538004

  4. Development of the coronary arteries in a murine model of transposition of great arteries.

    PubMed

    González-Iriarte, M; Carmona, R; Pérez-Pomares, J M; Macías, D; Costell, M; Muñoz-Chápuli, R

    2003-07-01

    Transposition of great arteries in humans is associated with a wide spectrum of coronary artery patterns. However, no information is available about how this pattern diversity develops. We have studied the development of the coronary arteries in mouse embryos with a targeted mutation of perlecan, a mutation that leads to ventriculo-arterial discordance and complete transposition in about 70% of the embryos. The perlecan-deficient embryos bearing complete transposition showed a coronary artery pattern consisting of right and left coronary arteries arising from the morphologically dorsal and ventral sinuses of Valsalva, respectively. The left coronary artery gives rise to a large septal artery and runs along the ventral margin of the pulmonary root. In the earliest embryos where transposition could be confirmed (12.5 d post coitum), a dense subepicardial vascular plexus is located in this ventral margin. In wild-type mice, however, capillaries are very scarce on the ventral surface of the pulmonary root and the left coronary artery runs dorsally to this root. We suggest that the establishment of the diverse coronary artery patterns is determined by the anatomical arrangement and the capillary density of the peritruncal vascular plexus, a plexus that spreads from the atrio-ventricular groove and grows around the aortic or pulmonary roots depending on the degree of the short-axis aortopulmonary rotation. This simple model, based on very few assumptions, might explain all the observed variation of the coronary artery patterns in humans with transposition, as well as our observations on the perlecan-deficient and the normal mice. PMID:12818570

  5. Clinical and electrophysiological assessment of inferior alveolar nerve function after lateral nerve transposition.

    PubMed

    Nocini, P F; De Santis, D; Fracasso, E; Zanette, G

    1999-04-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) transposition surgery may cause some degree of sensory impairment. Accurate and reproducible tests are mandatory to assess IAN conduction capacity following nerve transposition. In this study subjective (heat, pain and tactile-discriminative tests) and objective (electrophysiological) assessments were performed in 10 patients receiving IAN transposition (bilaterally in 8 cases) in order to evaluate any impairment of the involved nerves one year post-operatively. All patients reported a tingling, well-tolerated sensation in the areas supplied by the mental nerve with no anaesthesia or burning paresthesia. Tactile discrimination was affected the most (all but 1 patient). No action potential was recorded in 4 patients' sides (23.5%); 12 sides showed a decreased nerve conduction velocity (NCV) (70.5%) and 1 side normal NCV values (6%). There was no significant difference in NCV decrease between partial and total transposition sides, if examined separately. Nerve conduction findings were related 2-point discrimination scores, but not to changes in pain and heat sensitivity. These findings show that lateral nerve transposition, though resulting in a high percentage of minor IAN injuries, as determined by electrophysiological testing, provides a viable surgical procedure to allow implant placement in the posterior mandible without causing severe sensory complaints. Considering ethical and forensic implications, patients should be fully informed that a certain degree of nerve injury might be expected to occur from the procedure. Electrophysiological evaluation is a reliable way to assess the degree of IAN dysfunction, especially if combined with a clinical examination. Intraoperative monitoring of IAN conduction might help identify the pathogenetic mechanisms of nerve injury and the surgical steps that are most likely to harm nerve integrity. PMID:10219131

  6. Drosophila Females Undergo Genome Expansion after Interspecific Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Romero-Soriano, Valèria; Burlet, Nelly; Vela, Doris; Fontdevila, Antonio; Vieira, Cristina; García Guerreiro, María Pilar

    2016-03-01

    Genome size (or C-value) can present a wide range of values among eukaryotes. This variation has been attributed to differences in the amplification and deletion of different noncoding repetitive sequences, particularly transposable elements (TEs). TEs can be activated under different stress conditions such as interspecific hybridization events, as described for several species of animals and plants. These massive transposition episodes can lead to considerable genome expansions that could ultimately be involved in hybrid speciation processes. Here, we describe the effects of hybridization and introgression on genome size of Drosophila hybrids. We measured the genome size of two close Drosophila species, Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae, their F1 offspring and the offspring from three generations of backcrossed hybrids; where mobilization of up to 28 different TEs was previously detected. We show that hybrid females indeed present a genome expansion, especially in the first backcross, which could likely be explained by transposition events. Hybrid males, which exhibit more variable C-values among individuals of the same generation, do not present an increased genome size. Thus, we demonstrate that the impact of hybridization on genome size can be detected through flow cytometry and is sex-dependent. PMID:26872773

  7. Drosophila Females Undergo Genome Expansion after Interspecific Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Soriano, Valèria; Burlet, Nelly; Vela, Doris; Fontdevila, Antonio; Vieira, Cristina; García Guerreiro, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Genome size (or C-value) can present a wide range of values among eukaryotes. This variation has been attributed to differences in the amplification and deletion of different noncoding repetitive sequences, particularly transposable elements (TEs). TEs can be activated under different stress conditions such as interspecific hybridization events, as described for several species of animals and plants. These massive transposition episodes can lead to considerable genome expansions that could ultimately be involved in hybrid speciation processes. Here, we describe the effects of hybridization and introgression on genome size of Drosophila hybrids. We measured the genome size of two close Drosophila species, Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae, their F1 offspring and the offspring from three generations of backcrossed hybrids; where mobilization of up to 28 different TEs was previously detected. We show that hybrid females indeed present a genome expansion, especially in the first backcross, which could likely be explained by transposition events. Hybrid males, which exhibit more variable C-values among individuals of the same generation, do not present an increased genome size. Thus, we demonstrate that the impact of hybridization on genome size can be detected through flow cytometry and is sex-dependent. PMID:26872773

  8. Towards a gaze-independent hybrid-BCI based on SSVEPs, alpha-band modulations and the P300.

    PubMed

    Loughnane, Gerard M; Meade, Emma; Reilly, Richard B; Lalor, Edmund C

    2014-01-01

    In recent years it has been shown to be possible to create a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) using non-invasive electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements of covert visual spatial attention. For example, that both Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP) and parieto-occipital alpha band activity have been shown to be sensitive to covert attention and this has been exploited to provide simple communication control without the need for any physical movement. In this study, potential improvements in the speed and accuracy of such a BCI are investigated by exploring the possibility of incorporating a P300 task into an SSVEP covert attention paradigm. Should this be possible it would pave the way for a gaze-independent hybrid BCI based on three somewhat independent EEG signals. Within a well-established SSVEP-based attention paradigm we show that it is possible to make a binary classification of covert attention using just the P300 with an average accuracy of 71% across three subjects. We also validate previously published research by showing robust attention effects on the SSVEP and alpha band activity within this paradigm. In future work, it is hoped that by integrating the three signals into a hybrid BCI a significant improvement in performance will be forthcoming leading to an easily usable real time communication device for patients with severe disabilities such as Locked-In Syndrome (LIS). PMID:25570211

  9. High-efficiency W-band hybrid integrated photoreceiver module using UTC-PD and pHEMT amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, T.; Katshima, K.; Kanno, A.; Akahane, K.; Matsumoto, A.; Yamamoto, N.; Kawanishi, T.

    2016-02-01

    A 100-GHz narrowband photoreceiver module integrated with a zero-bias operational uni-traveling-carrier photodiode (UTC-PD) and a GaAs-based pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (pHEMT) amplifier was fabricated and characterized. Both devices exhibited flat frequency response and outstanding overall performance. The UTC-PD showed a 3-dB bandwidth beyond 110 GHz while the pHEMT amplifier featured low power consumption and a gain of 24 dB over the 85-100 GHz range. A butterfly metal package equipped with a 1.0 mm (W) coaxial connector and a microstrip-coplanar waveguide conversion substrate was designed for low insertion loss and low return loss. The fabricated photoreceiver module demonstrated high conversion gain, a maximum output power of +9.5 dBm at 96 GHz, and DC-power consumption of 0.21 W.

  10. The Hybrid Sensor Kinase RscS Integrates Positive and Negative Signals To Modulate Biofilm Formation in Vibrio fischeri▿

    PubMed Central

    Geszvain, Kati; Visick, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    Overexpression of the Vibrio fischeri sensor kinase RscS induces expression of the syp (symbiosis polysaccharide) gene cluster and promotes biofilm phenotypes such as wrinkled colony morphology, pellicle formation, and surface adherence. RscS is predicted to be a hybrid sensor kinase with a histidine kinase/ATPase (HATPase) domain, a receiver (Rec) domain, and a histidine phosphotransferase (Hpt) domain. Bioinformatic analysis also revealed the following three potential signal detection domains within RscS: two transmembrane helices forming a transmembrane region (TMR), a large periplasmic (PP) domain, and a cytoplasmic PAS domain. In this work, we genetically dissected the contributions of these domains to RscS function. Substitutions within the carboxy-terminal domain supported identification of RscS as a hybrid sensor kinase; disruption of both the HATPase and Rec domains eliminated induction of syp transcription, wrinkled colony morphology, pellicle formation, and surface adherence, while disruption of Hpt resulted in decreased activity. The PAS domain was also critical for RscS activity; substitutions in PAS resulted in a loss of activity. Generation of a cytoplasmic, N-terminal deletion derivative of RscS resulted in a partial loss of activity, suggesting a role for localization to the membrane and/or sequences within the TMR and PP domain. Finally, substitutions within the first transmembrane helix of the TMR and deletions within the PP domain both resulted in increased activity. Thus, RscS integrates both inhibitory and stimulatory signals from the environment to regulate biofilm formation by V. fischeri. PMID:18441062

  11. Mandibular fracture as a complication of inferior alveolar nerve transposition and placement of endosseous implants: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karlis, Vasiliki; Bae, Richard D; Glickman, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    Placement of endosseous implants and inferior alveolar nerve transposition is a treatment option for patients with an edentulous posterior mandible with inadequate bone height superior to the inferior alveolar canal. Complications associated with these procedures include infection, prolonged neurosensory disturbances, and/or pathologic fracture. This report presents the surgical management of a patient with a mandible fracture after inferior alveolar nerve transposition with concurrent placement of two endosseous implants. PMID:14560480

  12. Endosseous implant placement in conjunction with inferior alveolar nerve transposition: a report of an unusual complication and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Luna, Anibal H B; Passeri, Luis A; de Moraes, Márcio; Moreira, Roger W F

    2008-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve transposition and placement of endosseous implants is one of the treatment options for patients with an edentulous posterior mandible with inadequate bone height superior to the inferior alveolar canal. The possible complications associated with this technique include prolonged neurosensory disturbances, infection, and pathologic fracture. This report presents the surgical management of a patient who sustained a mandibular fracture after inferior alveolar nerve transposition for the placement of 3 endosseous implants. PMID:18416424

  13. Novel sigmaB regulation modules of Gram-positive bacteria involve the use of complex hybrid histidine kinases.

    PubMed

    de Been, Mark; Francke, Christof; Siezen, Roland J; Abee, Tjakko

    2011-01-01

    A common bacterial strategy to cope with stressful conditions is the activation of alternative sigma factors that control specific regulons enabling targeted responses. In the human pathogen Bacillus cereus, activation of the major stress-responsive sigma factor σ(B) is controlled by a signalling route that involves the multi-sensor hybrid histidine kinase RsbK. RsbK-type kinases are not restricted to the B. cereus group, but occur in a wide variety of other bacterial species, including members of the the low-GC Gram-positive genera Geobacillus and Paenibacillus as well as the high-GC actinobacteria. Genome context and protein sequence analyses of 118 RsbK homologues revealed extreme variability in N-terminal sensory as well as C-terminal regulatory domains and suggested that RsbK-type kinases are subject to complex fine-tuning systems, including sensitization and desensitization via methylation and demethylation within the helical domain preceding the H-box. The RsbK-mediated stress-responsive sigma factor activation mechanism that has evolved in B. cereus and the other species differs markedly from the extensively studied and highly conserved RsbRST-mediated σ(B) activation route found in Bacillus subtilis and other low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. Implications for future research on sigma factor control mechanisms are presented and current knowledge gaps are briefly discussed. PMID:21051490

  14. Purification and characterization of TnsC, a Tn7 transposition protein that binds ATP and DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Gamas, P; Craig, N L

    1992-01-01

    The bacterial transposon Tn7 encodes five transposition genes tnsABCDE. We report a simple and rapid procedure for the purification of TnsC protein. We show that purified TnsC is active in and required for Tn7 transposition in a cell-free recombination system. This finding demonstrates that TnsC participates directly in Tn7 transposition and explains the requirement for tnsC function in Tn7 transposition. We have found that TnsC binds adenine nucleotides and is thus a likely site of action of the essential ATP cofactor in Tn7 transposition. We also report that TnsC binds non-specifically to DNA in the presence of ATP or the generally non-hydrolyzable analogues AMP-PNP and ATP-gamma-S, and that TnsC displays little affinity for DNA in the presence of ADP. We speculate that TnsC plays a central role in the selection of target DNA during Tn7 transposition. Images PMID:1317955

  15. TAL effectors mediate high-efficiency transposition of the piggyBac transposon in silkworm Bombyx mori L

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lupeng; You, Zhengying; Qian, Qiujie; Zhang, Yuyu; Che, Jiaqian; Song, Jia; Zhong, Boxiong

    2015-01-01

    The piggyBac (PB) transposon is one of the most useful transposable elements, and has been successfully used for genetic manipulation in more than a dozen species. However, the efficiency of PB-mediated transposition is still insufficient for many purposes. Here, we present a strategy to enhance transposition efficiency using a fusion of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) and the PB transposase (PBase). The results demonstrate that the TALE-PBase fusion protein which is engineered in this study can produce a significantly improved stable transposition efficiency of up to 63.9%, which is at least 7 times higher than the current transposition efficiency in silkworm. Moreover, the average number of transgene-positive individuals increased up to 5.7-fold, with each positive brood containing an average of 18.1 transgenic silkworms. Finally, we demonstrate that TALE-PBase fusion-mediated PB transposition presents a new insertional preference compared with original insertional preference. This method shows a great potential and value for insertional therapy of many genetic diseases. In conclusion, this new and powerful transposition technology will efficiently promote genetic manipulation studies in both invertebrates and vertebrates. PMID:26608076

  16. Alternative Ac/Ds transposition induces major chromosomal rearrangements in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbo; Yu, Chuanhe; Pulletikurti, Vinay; Lamb, Jonathan; Danilova, Tatiana; Weber, David F; Birchler, James; Peterson, Thomas

    2009-03-15

    Barbara McClintock reported that the Ac/Ds transposable element system can generate major chromosomal rearrangements (MCRs), but the underlying mechanism has not been determined. Here, we identified a series of chromosome rearrangements derived from maize lines containing pairs of closely linked Ac transposable element termini. Molecular and cytogenetic analyses showed that the MCRs in these lines comprised 17 reciprocal translocations and two large inversions. The breakpoints of all 19 MCRs are delineated by Ac termini and characteristic 8-base-pair target site duplications, indicating that the MCRs were generated by precise transposition reactions involving the Ac termini of two closely linked elements. This alternative transposition mechanism may have contributed to chromosome evolution and may also occur during V(D)J recombination resulting in oncogenic translocations. PMID:19299561

  17. Analysis of the Superconducting Cable Transposition in Low Resistance CICC Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, You-hua

    2000-08-01

    In an integrated structure low resistance CICC joint, current is conducted by outer cable strands coming into touch with the conductive Cu sole. So it is an important condition for satisfying joint performance that each strand of the cable inside the joint is able to come to the outermost by transposition. This paper presents analysis, calculation and figures for the strand transposition. According to the twist procedures of the superconducting cable, the author computed the actual pitch of each stage cable, consecutively computed the projection of each stage cable on the axis of the cable (z axis) and the corresponding twist angle as the z coordinate changes, which is then drawn by AutoCAD. From the results shown in the figures, the minimal cable length, which enables each strand to transpose almost equally to the outermost of the cable in such a length, can be determined as the optimal joint length.

  18. RAG1 and RAG2 in V(D)J recombination and transposition.

    PubMed

    Fugmann, S D

    2001-01-01

    RAG1 and RAG2 are the key components of the V(D)J recombinase machinery that catalyses the somatic gene rearrangements of antigen receptor genes during lymphocyte development. In the first step of V(D)J recombination--DNA cleavage--the RAG proteins act together as an endonuclease to excise the DNA between two individual gene segments. They are also thought to be involved in the subsequent DNA joining step. In vitro, the RAG proteins catalyze the integration of the excised DNA element into target DNA completing a process similar to bacterial transposition. In vivo, this reaction is suppressed by an unknown mechanism. The individual roles of RAG1 and RAG2 in V(D)J recombination and transposition reactions are discussed based on mutation analyses and structure predictions. PMID:11417858

  19. The Need for Laparoscopic Ovarian Transposition in Young Patients with Cervical Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Purwoto, Gatot; Nuranna, Laila

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining the quality of life by preserving ovarian function in premenopausal patients with cervical cancer undergoing radiation is crucial. This can be accomplished with a simple and safe laparoscopic ovarian transposition procedure. This procedure aims to move the ovary out of the irradiation field, protecting it from direct radiation and irreversible damage and preserving its function. However, this procedure is often forgotten and seldom offered to patients. This review aims to lay stress on and reconsider the importance of laparoscopic ovarian transposition as a simple, safe, and extremely useful procedure. The biological effects of radiation are described briefly and several studies are evaluated, which reveal that this procedure has more benefits than risks. PMID:25763385

  20. The IS200/IS605 Family and "Peel and Paste" Single-strand Transposition Mechanism.

    PubMed

    He, S; Corneloup, A; Guynet, C; Lavatine, L; Caumont-Sarcos, A; Siguier, P; Marty, B; Dyda, F; Chandler, M; Ton Hoang, B

    2015-08-01

    This chapter presents an analysis of the organization and distribution of the IS200/IS605 family of insertion sequences (IS). Members of this family are widespread in both bacteria and archaea. They are unusual because they use obligatory single-strand DNA intermediates, which distinguishes them from classical IS. We summarize studies of the experimental model systems IS608 (from Helicobacter pylori) and ISDra2 (from Deinococcus radiodurans) and present biochemical, genetic, and structural data that describe their transposition pathway and the way in which their transposase (an HuH rather than a DDE enzyme) catalyzes this process. The transposition of IS200/IS605 family members can be described as a "Peel-and-Paste" mechanism. We also address the probable domestication of IS200/IS605 family transposases as enzymes involved in multiplication of repeated extragenic palindromes and as potential homing endonucleases in intron-IS chimeras. PMID:26350330

  1. Intra-atrial Reentrant Tachycardia in Complete Transposition of the Great Arteries Without Femoral Venous Access.

    PubMed

    Borne, Ryan T; Kay, Joseph; Fagan, Thomas; Nguyen, Duy Thai

    2016-03-01

    Catheter ablation for patients with transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) requires multiple considerations and careful preprocedural planning. Knowledge of the patient's anatomy and surgical correction, in addition to electroanatomic mapping and entrainment maneuvers, are important to identify and successfully treat arrhythmias. This case was unique in that the lack of femoral venous access required transhepatic venous access and bidirectional block was attained with ablation lesions along the cavotricuspid isthmus on both sides of the baffle. PMID:26920194

  2. Transposition/Fusion: A Clinician’s Dilemma and Challenge - 12 Months Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dhaded, Sunil; Hegde, Prashant; Patil, Roopa; Dhaded, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Fusion or syndontia is a sequele of the union of two normal and separated tooth buds. Transposition refers to the interchange in the position of two permanent teeth within the same quadrant in the oral cavity. The simultaneous incidence of both these entities is a rare concurrence and warrants endodontic and surgical soft tissue correction. The following manuscript describes a case report of this rare combination and its multidisciplinary management for functional and esthetic correction PMID:26668493

  3. Intraoperative monitoring of torsion to prevent vertical deviations during augmented vertical rectus transposition surgery

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Jonathan M.; Hatt, Sarah R.; Leske, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Total transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscle laterally, with augmentation sutures, may be complicated by induction of an undesirable vertical deviation. Induced vertical misalignment may be associated with changes in torsion. We have developed a simple method to monitor intraoperative torsion that may reduce the incidence of vertical deviations. Methods We reviewed consecutive cases of total abducens palsy or esotropic Duane syndrome treated with augmented lateral transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscles, where the 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock intraoperative positions were initially marked with a dot at the limbus using a surgical pen. The location of the marks was monitored during tying of the augmentation sutures; changes in torsion were monitored intraoperatively. Results Records of 9 cases of augmented vertical rectus transposition were reviewed. Based on intraoperative assessment of torsion by observing the position of the preplaced limbal dots, the inferior rectus augmentation suture was tied less tightly than the superior rectus suture, leaving a gap of 1–3 mm between the inferior and lateral rectus muscles in 8 of 9 cases. The augmentation suture was totally removed in 1 case. Following these intraoperative adjustments, there was no induced intraoperative torsion, whereas further tightening of the inferior suture induced extorsion. Six weeks postoperatively, 8 of 9 patients did not experience a symptomatic vertical deviation. Conclusions When performing augmented transposition procedures, intraoperative monitoring of torsion may reduce the incidence of inadvertent vertical deviations and torsion. This technique may also be useful in other cases where correction or avoidance of torsion is needed. PMID:22525168

  4. Improving the accuracy of flood forecasting with transpositions of ensemble NWP rainfall fields considering orographic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wansik; Nakakita, Eiichi; Kim, Sunmin; Yamaguchi, Kosei

    2016-08-01

    The use of meteorological ensembles to produce sets of hydrological predictions increased the capability to issue flood warnings. However, space scale of the hydrological domain is still much finer than meteorological model, and NWP models have challenges with displacement. The main objective of this study to enhance the transposition method proposed in Yu et al. (2014) and to suggest the post-processing ensemble flood forecasting method for the real-time updating and the accuracy improvement of flood forecasts that considers the separation of the orographic rainfall and the correction of misplaced rain distributions using additional ensemble information through the transposition of rain distributions. In the first step of the proposed method, ensemble forecast rainfalls from a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model are separated into orographic and non-orographic rainfall fields using atmospheric variables and the extraction of topographic effect. Then the non-orographic rainfall fields are examined by the transposition scheme to produce additional ensemble information and new ensemble NWP rainfall fields are calculated by recombining the transposition results of non-orographic rain fields with separated orographic rainfall fields for a generation of place-corrected ensemble information. Then, the additional ensemble information is applied into a hydrologic model for post-flood forecasting with a 6-h interval. The newly proposed method has a clear advantage to improve the accuracy of mean value of ensemble flood forecasting. Our study is carried out and verified using the largest flood event by typhoon 'Talas' of 2011 over the two catchments, which are Futatsuno (356.1 km2) and Nanairo (182.1 km2) dam catchments of Shingu river basin (2360 km2), which is located in the Kii peninsula, Japan.

  5. Transposition/Fusion: A Clinician's Dilemma and Challenge - 12 Months Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dhaded, Sunil; Hegde, Prashant; Patil, Roopa; Dhaded, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Fusion or syndontia is a sequele of the union of two normal and separated tooth buds. Transposition refers to the interchange in the position of two permanent teeth within the same quadrant in the oral cavity. The simultaneous incidence of both these entities is a rare concurrence and warrants endodontic and surgical soft tissue correction. The following manuscript describes a case report of this rare combination and its multidisciplinary management for functional and esthetic correction. PMID:26668493

  6. The generalized partial transposition criterion for separability of multipartite quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Wu, Ling-An

    2002-12-01

    We present a generalized partial transposition separability criterion for the density matrix of a multipartite quantum system. This criterion comprises as special cases the famous Peres-Horodecki criterion and the recent realignment criterion in [O. Rudolph, quant-ph/0202121] and [K. Chen, L.A. Wu, quant-ph/0205017]. It involves only straightforward matrix manipulations and is easy to apply. A quantitative measure of entanglement based on this criterion is also obtained.

  7. How is the serial order of a spatial sequence represented? Insights from transposition latencies.

    PubMed

    Hurlstone, Mark J; Hitch, Graham J

    2015-03-01

    How is the serial order of a spatial sequence represented in short-term memory (STM)? Previous research by Farrell and Lewandowsky (Farrell & Lewandowsky, 2004; Lewandowsky & Farrell, 2008) has shown that 5 alternative mechanisms for the representation of serial order can be distinguished on the basis of their predictions concerning the response times accompanying transposition errors. We report 3 experiments involving the output-timed serial recall of sequences of seen spatial locations that tested these predictions. The results of all 3 experiments revealed that transposition latencies are a negative function of transposition displacement, but with a reduction in the slope of the function for postponement, compared with anticipation errors. This empirical pattern is consistent with that observed in serial recall of verbal sequences reported by Farrell and Lewandowsky (2004), and with the predictions of a competitive queuing mechanism, within which serial order is represented via a primacy gradient of activations over items combined with associations between items and positional markers, and with suppression of items following recall. The results provide the first clear evidence that spatial and verbal STM rely on some common mechanisms and principles for the representation of serial order. PMID:25436478

  8. Insertion Sequence IS26 Reorganizes Plasmids in Clinically Isolated Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria by Replicative Transposition

    PubMed Central

    He, Susu; Hickman, Alison Burgess; Varani, Alessandro M.; Siguier, Patricia; Chandler, Michael; Dekker, John P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), which are resistant to most or all known antibiotics, constitute a global threat to public health. Transposable elements are often associated with antibiotic resistance determinants, suggesting a role in the emergence of resistance. One insertion sequence, IS26, is frequently associated with resistance determinants, but its role remains unclear. We have analyzed the genomic contexts of 70 IS26 copies in several clinical and surveillance CPE isolates from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. We used target site duplications and their patterns as guides and found that a large fraction of plasmid reorganizations result from IS26 replicative transpositions, including replicon fusions, DNA inversions, and deletions. Replicative transposition could also be inferred for transposon Tn4401, which harbors the carbapenemase blaKPC gene. Thus, replicative transposition is important in the ongoing reorganization of plasmids carrying multidrug-resistant determinants, an observation that carries substantial clinical and epidemiological implications for understanding how such extreme drug resistance phenotypes evolve. PMID:26060276

  9. Haplotype-resolved whole-genome sequencing by contiguity-preserving transposition and combinatorial indexing.

    PubMed

    Amini, Sasan; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Christiansen, Lena; Kostem, Emrah; Royce, Tom; Turk, Casey; Pignatelli, Natasha; Adey, Andrew; Kitzman, Jacob O; Vijayan, Kandaswamy; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Shendure, Jay; Gunderson, Kevin L; Steemers, Frank J

    2014-12-01

    Haplotype-resolved genome sequencing enables the accurate interpretation of medically relevant genetic variation, deep inferences regarding population history and non-invasive prediction of fetal genomes. We describe an approach for genome-wide haplotyping based on contiguity-preserving transposition (CPT-seq) and combinatorial indexing. Tn5 transposition is used to modify DNA with adaptor and index sequences while preserving contiguity. After DNA dilution and compartmentalization, the transposase is removed, resolving the DNA into individually indexed libraries. The libraries in each compartment, enriched for neighboring genomic elements, are further indexed via PCR. Combinatorial 96-plex indexing at both the transposition and PCR stage enables the construction of phased synthetic reads from each of the nearly 10,000 'virtual compartments'. We demonstrate the feasibility of this method by assembling >95% of the heterozygous variants in a human genome into long, accurate haplotype blocks (N50 = 1.4-2.3 Mb). The rapid, scalable and cost-effective workflow could enable haplotype resolution to become routine in human genome sequencing. PMID:25326703

  10. Haplotype-resolved whole genome sequencing by contiguity preserving transposition and combinatorial indexing

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Sasan; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Christiansen, Lena; Kostem, Emrah; Royce, Tom; Turk, Casey; Pignatelli, Natasha; Adey, Andrew; Kitzman, Jacob O.; Vijayan, Kandaswamy; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Shendure, Jay; Gunderson, Kevin L.; Steemers, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Haplotype-resolved genomes equencing enables accurate interpretation of medically relevant genetic variation, deep inferences regarding population history, and the non-invasive prediction of fetal genomes. We describe an approach for genome-wide haplotyping based on contiguity preserving transposition (CPT-Seq) and combinatorial indexing. Tn5 transposition is used to modify DNA with adapter and index sequences while preserving contiguity. After dilution and compartmentalization, the transposase is removed, resolving the DNA into individually indexed libraries. The libraries in each compartment, enriched for neighboring genomic elements, are further indexed via PCR. Combinatorial 96-plex indexing at both the transposition and PCR stage enables the construction of phased synthetic reads from each of the nearly 10,000 “virtual compartments”. We demonstrate feasibility of this method by assembling >95% of heterozygous variants in a human genome into long, accurate haplotype blocks (N50 = 1.4–2.3 Mb). The rapid, scalable, and cost-effective workflow could enable haplotype resolution to become routine in human genome sequencing. PMID:25326703

  11. [Anatomic repair of transposition of the great arteries or arterial switch operation. Report of 62 cases].

    PubMed

    Abid, Fekria; Chaker, Lilia; Hakim, Khaouther; Larbi, Chiheb; Ouarda, Fatma; Msaad, Hela; Mechmeche, Rachid

    2004-01-01

    Between January 1990 and September 2003, 62 patients underwent anatomic repair of a transposition of the great arteries. Mean operative age is 40 days. Transposition of the great arteries was simple in 38 cases and associated to a large ventricular septal defect in 24 cases. 44 patients have had an atrial septostomy of Rashkind and 45 an infusion of prostaglandin E 1.5 patients with simple transposition of the great arteries have had left ventricular retraining before arteriel switch. In association to arterial switch, were performed closure of ventricular septal defect in 24 cases, cure of coarctation of the aorta in 4 cases and cure of an abnormal partial pulmonary venous return in 1 case. Early mortality was 6,45%. After a mean follow up of 3 years, one patient died suddenly (late mortality is 1.72%) and one patient had to have 2 reoperations. Results of anatomic repair are now excellent. Late mortality is essentially related to coronary complications so that a careful follow-up is mandatory. PMID:15127697

  12. Transposase interaction with the β sliding clamp: effects on insertion sequence proliferation and transposition rate

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Maldonado, Héctor; Gómez, Manuel J.; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; San Martín-Úriz, Patxi; Amils, Ricardo; Parro, Víctor; López de Saro, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Insertion sequences (ISs) are ubiquitous and abundant mobile genetic elements in prokaryotic genomes. ISs often encode only one protein, the transposase, which catalyzes their transposition. Recent studies have shown that transposases of many different IS families interact with the β sliding clamp, a DNA replication factor of the host. However, it was unclear to what extent this interaction limits or favors the ability of ISs to colonize a chromosome from a phylogenetically-distant organism, or if the strength of this interaction affects the transposition rate. Here we describe the proliferation of a member of the IS1634 family in Acidiphilium over ~600 generations of cultured growth. We demonstrate that the purified transposase binds to the β sliding clamp of Acidiphilium, Leptospirillum and E. coli. Further, we also demonstrate that the Acidiphilium IS1634 transposase binds to the archaeal sliding clamp (PCNA) from Methanosarcina, and that the transposase encoded by Methanosarcina IS1634 binds to Acidiphilium β. Finally, we demonstrate that increasing the strength of the interaction between β and transposase results in a higher transposition rate in vivo. Our results suggest that the interaction could determine the potential of ISs to be mobilized in bacterial populations and also their ability to proliferate within chromosomes. PMID:26306550

  13. Genome Rearrangements in Maize Induced by Alternative Transposition of Reversed Ac/Ds Termini

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chuanhe; Zhang, Jianbo; Peterson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Alternative transposition can induce genome rearrangements, including deletions, inverted duplications, inversions, and translocations. To investigate the types and frequency of the rearrangements elicited by a pair of reversed Ac/Ds termini, we isolated and analyzed 100 new mutant alleles derived from two parental alleles that both contain an intact Ac and a fractured Ac (fAc) structure at the maize p1 locus. Mutants were characterized by PCR and sequencing; the results show that nearly 90% (89/100) of the mutant alleles represent structural rearrangements including deletions, inversions, translocations, or rearrangement of the intertransposon sequence (ITS). Among 37 deletions obtained, 20 extend into the external flanking sequences, while 17 delete portions of the intertransposon sequence. Interestingly, one deletion allele that contains only a single nucleotide between the retained Ac and fAc termini is not competent for further alternative transposition events. We propose a new model for the formation of intertransposon deletions through insertion of reversed transposon termini into sister-chromatid sequences. These results document the types and frequencies of genome rearrangements induced by alternative transposition of reversed Ac/Ds termini in maize. PMID:21339479

  14. The Retrograde Transposition of the Remnant Earlobe in Patients With Low-Set Microtia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Hu, Jin-Tian; Zhou, Xu; Li, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Yong-Biao; Cao, Yi-Lin; Zhang, Qing-Guo; Liu, Tun

    2015-10-01

    During auricle reconstruction, lobular transposition has become a routine technique applied by most of surgeons. But to some low-set remnant ears, it is difficult to manipulate the conventional lobule transposition method in clinical application. In this article, the authors introduce a method to retrogradely transpose the remnant ear with the the ratio of length:width of the lobular flap being 4-5:1. The lobule transposition could be applied during the first stage of Nagata method or the third stage using expansion method. The authors take the superior part of the remnant ear as the pedicle and make the incision at the middle and inferior parts of the remnant ear to form the lobular flap. Then the inferior lobule is rotated posteriorly and superiorly to cover the rear end of the framework and to form the inferior part of helical rim. The results of the reconstructed auricles are satisfactory with aesthetic natural earlobes and the location of the reconstructed ear is symmetric to the contralateral ear. The authors believe that to the 2% to 5% patients with low-set microtia, this is a good way to make use of remnant ear for the purpose of a real earlobe. PMID:26468806

  15. Treatment of peroneal paralysis with transposition of vastus lateralis muscle in calves.

    PubMed

    Kilic, E; Yayla, S; Aksoy, O; Ozaydin, I; Ermutlu, C Ş

    2014-07-19

    This study aimed to clinically evaluate the results achieved by using tendon transposition to treat postinjection peroneal paralysis in calves. The study material consisted of 23 calves in all of which the clinical history indicated the problem had occurred within 1-3 days of intramuscular injection. Each patient was administered medical treatment for three weeks. After that, a decision was made to perform tendon transposition in all the subjects because their prognosis was estimated to be poor. The owners of five of the calves did not agree to the operation, and so, medical treatment was continued. Following intrathecal anaesthesia, the vastus lateralis muscle was dissected at the insertion, and the musculus (m) extensor (ext) digitalis (dig) longus and m fibularis tertius were dissected at the origin in 18 calves. The tendon ends were joined by using the locking loop suture technique in the 18 calves. Follow-up after two to three months revealed hind limb use in all surgically treated calves, while the medically treated calves had to be slaughtered because of lameness and decubitus. The results of the present study suggest that the peroneal paralysis of calves can be successfully treated by a tendon transposition technique. PMID:24902779

  16. Nonsurgical endodontic retreatment of fused teeth with transposition: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Noites, Rita Brandão; Martins, Miguel André Duarte; Paulo, Manuel Pedro da Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Tooth transposition is a disorder in which a permanent tooth develops and erupts in the normal position of another permanent tooth. Fusion and gemination are developmental disturbances presenting as the union of teeth. This article reports the nonsurgical retreatment of a very rare case of fused teeth with transposition. A patient was referred for endodontic treatment of her maxillary left first molar in the position of the first premolar, which was adjacent to it on the distobuccal side. Orthopantomography and periapical radiography showed two crowns sharing the same root, with a root canal treatment and an associated periapical lesion. Tooth fusion with transposition of a maxillary molar and a premolar was diagnosed. Nonsurgical endodontic retreatment was performed. At four yr follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic and the radiolucency around the apical region had decreased, showing the success of our intervention. The diagnosis and treatment of fused teeth require special attention. The canal system should be carefully explored to obtain a full understanding of the anatomy, allowing it to be fully cleaned and obturated. Thermoplastic techniques were useful in obtaining hermetic obturation. A correct anatomical evaluation improves the set of treatment options under consideration, leading to a higher likelihood of esthetically and functionally successful treatment. PMID:27200284

  17. Nonsurgical endodontic retreatment of fused teeth with transposition: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Miguel Agostinho Beco Pinto; Noites, Rita Brandão; Martins, Miguel André Duarte; Paulo, Manuel Pedro da Fonseca

    2016-05-01

    Tooth transposition is a disorder in which a permanent tooth develops and erupts in the normal position of another permanent tooth. Fusion and gemination are developmental disturbances presenting as the union of teeth. This article reports the nonsurgical retreatment of a very rare case of fused teeth with transposition. A patient was referred for endodontic treatment of her maxillary left first molar in the position of the first premolar, which was adjacent to it on the distobuccal side. Orthopantomography and periapical radiography showed two crowns sharing the same root, with a root canal treatment and an associated periapical lesion. Tooth fusion with transposition of a maxillary molar and a premolar was diagnosed. Nonsurgical endodontic retreatment was performed. At four yr follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic and the radiolucency around the apical region had decreased, showing the success of our intervention. The diagnosis and treatment of fused teeth require special attention. The canal system should be carefully explored to obtain a full understanding of the anatomy, allowing it to be fully cleaned and obturated. Thermoplastic techniques were useful in obtaining hermetic obturation. A correct anatomical evaluation improves the set of treatment options under consideration, leading to a higher likelihood of esthetically and functionally successful treatment. PMID:27200284

  18. Anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve improves neurological function in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Pei-xun; Peng, Zhang; Xue, Feng; Wang, Tian-bing; Jiang, Bao-guo

    2015-01-01

    Although several surgical procedures exist for treating cubital tunnel syndrome, the best surgical option remains controversial. To evaluate the efficacy of anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve in patients with moderate to severe cubital tunnel syndrome and to analyze prognostic factors, we retrospectively reviewed 62 patients (65 elbows) diagnosed with cubital tunnel syndrome who underwent anterior subcutaneous transposition. Preoperatively, the initial severity of the disease was evaluated using the McGowan scale as modified by Goldberg: 18 patients (28%) had grade IIA neuropathy, 20 (31%) had grade IIB, and 27 (42%) had grade III. Postoperatively, according to the Wilson & Krout criteria, treatment outcomes were excellent in 38 patients (58%), good in 16 (25%), fair in 7 (11%), and poor in 4 (6%), with an excellent and good rate of 83%. A negative correlation was found between the preoperative McGowan grade and the postoperative Wilson & Krout score. The patients having fair and poor treatment outcomes had more advanced age, lower nerve conduction velocity, and lower action potential amplitude compared with those having excellent and good treatment outcomes. These results suggest that anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve is effective and safe for the treatment of moderate to severe cubital tunnel syndrome, and initial severity, advancing age, and electrophysiological parameters can affect treatment outcome. PMID:26692871

  19. Laparoscopic ovarian transposition prior to pelvic irradiation in a young female patient with advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ohshiro, Taihei; Fujita, Shin

    2015-12-01

    In the report, we describe the first case of laparoscopic ovarian transposition prior to pelvic radio-chemo therapy in a young female patient with advanced rectal cancer in Japan. A 14-year-old female visited a hospital because of consistent diarrhea and melena. Colonoscopy examination showed a bulky tumor of the rectum, which was diagnosed as moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis was cT3N2aM1a (due to lymph node in pelvic side wall), cStage IVA. In an attempt to improve local control and sphincter preservation, neoadjuvant concurrent radio-chemo therapy was planned. Considering that pelvic irradiation particularly in young female might cause ovarian failure, laparoscopic ovarian transposition was carried out prior to pelvic irradiation. Sequentially the patient underwent low anterior resection of the rectum and lymphadenectomy including pelvic side wall. The menstruation was maintained with delay for 6 months after adjuvant chemotherapy. There is no evidence of cancer recurrence at 3 years after the surgery.In premenopausal patients with rectal cancer undergoing pelvic irradiation, laparoscopic ovarian transposition is one of the choices to prevent ovarian failure. PMID:26943437

  20. On-chip integratable all-optical quantizer using strong cross-phase modulation in a silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Zhe; Yuan, Jinhui; Zhang, Xianting; Sang, Xinzhu; Wang, Kuiru; Wu, Qiang; Yan, Binbin; Li, Feng; Zhou, Xian; Zhong, Kangping; Zhou, Guiyao; Yu, Chongxiu; Farrell, Gerald; Lu, Chao; Yaw Tam, Hwa; Wai, P. K. A.

    2016-01-01

    High performance all-optical quantizer based on silicon waveguide is believed to have significant applications in photonic integratable optical communication links, optical interconnection networks, and real-time signal processing systems. In this paper, we propose an integratable all-optical quantizer for on-chip and low power consumption all-optical analog-to-digital converters. The quantization is realized by the strong cross-phase modulation and interference in a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) slot waveguide based Mach-Zehnder interferometer. By carefully designing the dimension of the SOH waveguide, large nonlinear coefficients up to 16,000 and 18,069 W−1/m for the pump and probe signals can be obtained respectively, along with a low pulse walk-off parameter of 66.7 fs/mm, and all-normal dispersion in the wavelength regime considered. Simulation results show that the phase shift of the probe signal can reach 8π at a low pump pulse peak power of 206 mW and propagation length of 5 mm such that a 4-bit all-optical quantizer can be realized. The corresponding signal-to-noise ratio is 23.42 dB and effective number of bit is 3.89-bit. PMID:26777054

  1. On-chip integratable all-optical quantizer using strong cross-phase modulation in a silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhe; Yuan, Jinhui; Zhang, Xianting; Sang, Xinzhu; Wang, Kuiru; Wu, Qiang; Yan, Binbin; Li, Feng; Zhou, Xian; Zhong, Kangping; Zhou, Guiyao; Yu, Chongxiu; Farrell, Gerald; Lu, Chao; Yaw Tam, Hwa; Wai, P K A

    2016-01-01

    High performance all-optical quantizer based on silicon waveguide is believed to have significant applications in photonic integratable optical communication links, optical interconnection networks, and real-time signal processing systems. In this paper, we propose an integratable all-optical quantizer for on-chip and low power consumption all-optical analog-to-digital converters. The quantization is realized by the strong cross-phase modulation and interference in a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) slot waveguide based Mach-Zehnder interferometer. By carefully designing the dimension of the SOH waveguide, large nonlinear coefficients up to 16,000 and 18,069 W(-1)/m for the pump and probe signals can be obtained respectively, along with a low pulse walk-off parameter of 66.7 fs/mm, and all-normal dispersion in the wavelength regime considered. Simulation results show that the phase shift of the probe signal can reach 8π at a low pump pulse peak power of 206 mW and propagation length of 5 mm such that a 4-bit all-optical quantizer can be realized. The corresponding signal-to-noise ratio is 23.42 dB and effective number of bit is 3.89-bit. PMID:26777054

  2. On-chip integratable all-optical quantizer using strong cross-phase modulation in a silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhe; Yuan, Jinhui; Zhang, Xianting; Sang, Xinzhu; Wang, Kuiru; Wu, Qiang; Yan, Binbin; Li, Feng; Zhou, Xian; Zhong, Kangping; Zhou, Guiyao; Yu, Chongxiu; Farrell, Gerald; Lu, Chao; Yaw Tam, Hwa; Wai, P. K. A.

    2016-01-01

    High performance all-optical quantizer based on silicon waveguide is believed to have significant applications in photonic integratable optical communication links, optical interconnection networks, and real-time signal processing systems. In this paper, we propose an integratable all-optical quantizer for on-chip and low power consumption all-optical analog-to-digital converters. The quantization is realized by the strong cross-phase modulation and interference in a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) slot waveguide based Mach-Zehnder interferometer. By carefully designing the dimension of the SOH waveguide, large nonlinear coefficients up to 16,000 and 18,069 W-1/m for the pump and probe signals can be obtained respectively, along with a low pulse walk-off parameter of 66.7 fs/mm, and all-normal dispersion in the wavelength regime considered. Simulation results show that the phase shift of the probe signal can reach 8π at a low pump pulse peak power of 206 mW and propagation length of 5 mm such that a 4-bit all-optical quantizer can be realized. The corresponding signal-to-noise ratio is 23.42 dB and effective number of bit is 3.89-bit.

  3. 2.3-MW Medium-Voltage, Three-Level Wind Energy Inverter Applying a Unique Bus Structure and 4.5-kV Si/SiC Hybrid Isolated Power Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, W.; Keller, J.; Grider, D.; VanBrunt, E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-efficiency, 2.3-MW, medium-voltage, three-level inverter utilizing 4.5-kV Si/SiC (silicon carbide) hybrid modules for wind energy applications is discussed. The inverter addresses recent trends in siting the inverter within the base of multimegawatt turbine towers. A simplified split, three-layer laminated bus structure that maintains low parasitic inductances is introduced along with a low-voltage, high-current test method for determining these inductances. Feed-thru bushings, edge fill methods, and other design features of the laminated bus structure provide voltage isolation that is consistent with the 10.4-kV module isolation levels. Inverter efficiency improvement is a result of the (essential) elimination of the reverse recovery charge present in 4.5-kV Si PIN diodes, which can produce a significant reduction in diode turn-off losses as well as insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses. The hybrid modules are supplied in industry-standard 140 mm x 130 mm and 190 mm x 130 mm packages to demonstrate direct module substitution into existing inverter designs. A focus on laminated bus/capacitor-bank/module subassembly level switching performance is presented.

  4. Systematic Identification of Balanced Transposition Polymorphisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Faddah, Dina A.; Ganko, Eric W.; McCoach, Caroline; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Hanlon, Sean E.; Mann, Frederick G.; Mieczkowska, Joanna O.; Jones, Corbin D.; Lieb, Jason D.; Vision, Todd J.

    2009-01-01

    High-throughput techniques for detecting DNA polymorphisms generally do not identify changes in which the genomic position of a sequence, but not its copy number, varies among individuals. To explore such balanced structural polymorphisms, we used array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) to conduct a genome-wide screen for single-copy genomic segments that occupy different genomic positions in the standard laboratory strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S90) and a polymorphic wild isolate (Y101) through analysis of six tetrads from a cross of these two strains. Paired-end high-throughput sequencing of Y101 validated four of the predicted rearrangements. The transposed segments contained one to four annotated genes each, yet crosses between S90 and Y101 yielded mostly viable tetrads. The longest segment comprised 13.5 kb near the telomere of chromosome XV in the S288C reference strain and Southern blotting confirmed its predicted location on chromosome IX in Y101. Interestingly, inter-locus crossover events between copies of this segment occurred at a detectable rate. The presence of low-copy repetitive sequences at the junctions of this segment suggests that it may have arisen through ectopic recombination. Our methodology and findings provide a starting point for exploring the origins, phenotypic consequences, and evolutionary fate of this largely unexplored form of genomic polymorphism. PMID:19503594

  5. Reprogramming of the human intestinal epigenome by surgical tissue transposition

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Fides D.; Triche, Timothy J.; Tsai, Yvonne C.; Su, Sheng-Fang; Martin, Sue Ellen; Daneshmand, Siamak; Skinner, Eila C.; Liang, Gangning; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Jones, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular cues play critical roles in the establishment of the epigenome during development and may also contribute to epigenetic perturbations found in disease states. The direct role of the local tissue environment on the post-development human epigenome, however, remains unclear due to limitations in studies of human subjects. Here, we use an isogenic human ileal neobladder surgical model and compare global DNA methylation levels of intestinal epithelial cells pre- and post-neobladder construction using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Our study is the first to quantify the effect of environmental cues on the human epigenome and show that the local tissue environment directly modulates DNA methylation patterns in normal differentiated cells in vivo. In the neobladder, the intestinal epithelial cells lose their tissue-specific epigenetic landscape in a time-dependent manner following the tissue’s exposure to a bladder environment. We find that de novo methylation of many intestine-specific enhancers occurs at the rate of 0.41% per month (P < 0.01, Pearson = 0.71), while demethylation of primarily non-intestine-specific transcribed regions occurs at the rate of −0.37% per month (P < 0.01, Pearson = −0.57). The dynamic resetting of the DNA methylome in the neobladder not only implicates local environmental cues in the shaping and maintenance of the epigenome but also illustrates an unexpected cross-talk between the epigenome and the cellular environment. PMID:24515120

  6. Radionuclide angiographic evaluation of right and left ventricular function during exercise after repair of transposition of the great arteries. Comparison with normal subjects and patients with congenitally corrected transposition

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, M.D.; Graham, T.P. Jr.; Bender, H.W.; Jones, J.P.; Patton, J.; Partain, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    We assessed the incidence, clinical significance and etiology of ventricular dysfunction after intraatrial repair of d-transposition of the great arteries in 11 patients, mean age 9 +/- 3 years, who had had Mustard operations. We compared the results to 15 patients who were considered to have normal ventricular function, two patients who had Rastelli operations and five patients with congenitally corrected transposition. Gated equilibrium radionuclide angiography with supine exercise stress testing was used to assess these children. We found no significant difference between our patient groups in exercise capacity, heart rate, or blood pressure response to exercise. However, we found a high incidence of right ventricular dysfunction in the patient groups, manifested by an abnormal right ventricular ejection fraction response to dysfunction in the patient groups, manifested by an abnormal right ventricular ejection fraction response to exercise in six of 11 patients with a Mustard repair, both patients with a Rastelli repair and all five with congenitally corrected transposition. In addition, the left ventricular response to exercise was abnormal in 10 of 11 patients who had undergone a Mustard repair, both patients with a Rastelli repair, and two of five patients with congenitally corrected transposition. We conclude that biventricular dysfunction is frequently present after intraatrial repair of d-transposition of the great arteries. Despite this dysfunction, no significant decrease in exercise tolerance is found in childhood.

  7. Hybrid-integrated polarization mode converters and low-voltage electro-optic modulators using crystal-ion-sliced LiNbO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radojevic, Antonije M.; Fujita, Junichiro; Eldada, Louay A.

    2002-06-01

    Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) films produced by the crystal ion slicing (CIS) method are introduced in various components in use in the optical telecommunications market. The CIS technique employs high-energy ion implantation to create a narrow (~0.2 micrometers ) planar layer of localized damage, buried ~10 micrometers beneath the surface of the implanted LiNbO3 wafers. This sacrificial layer allows for slicing of microns-thick LiNbO3 films, either by selective wet chemical etching or by thermal shock. The obtained films have bulk material properties and morphology suitable for integrated optics applications. Slices of X-cut LiNbO3 were used to produce zero-order wave retarders that can be inserted in slots cut into planar lightwave circuits, resulting in TE-TM polarization mode conversion with high extinction ratio (30 dB) and low excess loss (<0.1 dB). Conventional LiNbO3 waveguide fabrication techniques were combined with the CIS process to produce CIS films of Z-cut LiNbO3 with optical circuits patterned prior to lift-off, having propagation losses typical of bulk LiNbO3 waveguides. Using thin sheets of LiNbO3, velocity- and impedance-matched modulators can be fabricated with low V(pi )L(~7.6 V.cm) and low microwave losses (0.3 db/cm.GHz1/2). The CIS film optical circuits can be integrated into hybrid systems with otherwise incompatible, yet technologically important materials platforms.

  8. Amplification and modulation of fluorescent signals by using hybridization chain reactions for multiplexed sensing of biomolecules in a one-pot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Ogura, Yusuke; Yamada, Kenji; Ohno, Yuko; Tanida, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Fluorescence readout of molecular information is a promising approach for biomolecular sensing. For detection of enormous biomolecules via uorescence, biomolecular information should be converted to codes that can be readout easily and simultaneously. For the purpose, we study a biomolecule uorescence color (B/F) encoders that modulate uorescence signals by control of uorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The B/F encoder converts biomolecular signals into uorescent color codes represented with uorescent wavelengths and intensity levels. The combination offers a great number of codes for representing the biomolecular information. In this study, we discuss multiplexed detection of target biomolecules using B/F encoders. Use of the B/F encoders would offer a multiplexed biomolecular sensing in a one-pot without micro-fabrication like DNA microarray. In the experiments, we prepared B/F encoders based on two kinds of hybridization chain reactions (HCR) that make long double-stranded DNA polymers to control positions of uorescence and quencher molecules. In the B/F encoders, target molecules trigger to start assembling the polymer structures. The uorescent molecules in the absence of the targets are near the quenchers and the output uorescence is suppressed by FRET. The polymerization process separates the uorescent and quencher dyes and the uorescent signal increase. The experimental results show that the B/F encoders based on HCRs have linear and independent response to each target, and temporal signals during the encoding reactions are usable for multiplexed readout. This result leads to the multiplexed sensing in a one-pot by uorescent ampli cation and multiple uorescent color-coding.

  9. Hybrid organic/inorganic band-edge modulation of p-Si(111) photoelectrodes: effects of R, metal oxide, and Pt on H2 generation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Junhyeok; Kim, Hark Jin; Pekarek, Ryan T; Rose, Michael J

    2015-03-11

    The efficient generation of dihydrogen on molecularly modified p-Si(111) has remained a challenge due to the low barrier heights observed on such surfaces. The band-edge and barrier height challenge is a primary obstruction to progress in the area of integration of molecular H2 electrocatalysts with silicon photoelectrodes. In this work, we demonstrate that an optimal combination of organic passivating agent and inorganic metal oxide leads to H2 evolution at photovoltages positive of RHE. Modulation of the passivating R group [CH3 → Ph → Naph → Anth → Ph(OMe)2] improves both the band-edge position and ΔV (Vonset - VJmax). Subsequent atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 or TiO2 along with ALD-Pt deposition results in to our knowledge the first example of a positive H2 operating potential on molecularly modified Si(111). Mott-Schottky analyses reveal that the flat-band potential of the stable Ph(OMe)2 surface approaches that of the native (but unstable) hydride-terminated surface. The series resistance is diminished by the methoxy functional groups on the phenyl unit, due to its chemical and electronic connectivity with the TiO2 layer. Overall, judicious choice of the R group in conjunction with TiO2|Pt effects H2 generation on p-Si(111) photoelectrodes (Voc = 207 ± 5.2 mV; Jsc = -21.7 mA/cm(2); ff = 0.22; ηH2 = 0.99%). These results provide a viable hybrid strategy toward the operation of catalysts on molecularly modified p-Si(111). PMID:25716423

  10. OPTESIM, a Versatile Toolbox for Numerical Simulation of Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) that Features Hybrid Optimization and Statistical Assessment of Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Hernandez-Guzman, Jessica; Warncke, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) is a technique of pulsed-electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The analyis of ESEEM data to extract information about the nuclear and electronic structure of a disordered (powder) paramagnetic system requires accurate and efficient numerical simulations. A single coupled nucleus of known nuclear g value (gN) and spin I=1 can have up to eight adjustable parameters in the nuclear part of the spin Hamiltonian. We have developed OPTESIM, an ESEEM simulation toolbox, for automated numerical simulation of powder two- and three-pulse one-dimensional ESEEM for arbitrary number (N) and type (I, gN) of coupled nuclei, and arbitrary mutual orientations of the hyperfine tensor principal axis systems for N>1. OPTESIM is based in the Matlab environment, and includes the following features: (1) a fast algorithm for translation of the spin Hamiltonian into simulated ESEEM, (2) different optimization methods that can be hybridized to achieve an efficient coarse-to-fine grained search of the parameter space and convergence to a global minimum, (3) statistical analysis of the simulation parameters, which allows the identification of simultaneous confidence regions at specific confidence levels. OPTESIM also includes a geometry-preserving spherical averaging algorithm as default for N>1, and global optimization over multiple experimental conditions, such as the dephasing time ( ) for three-pulse ESEEM, and external magnetic field values. Application examples for simulation of 14N coupling (N=1, N=2) in biological and chemical model paramagnets are included. Automated, optimized simulations by using OPTESIM lead to a convergence on dramatically shorter time scales, relative to manual simulations. PMID:19553148

  11. Role of Ovarian Transposition Based on the Dosimetric Effects of Craniospinal Irradiation on the Ovaries: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, James D.; Hitchen, Christine; Vlachaki, Maria T.

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we present a case of laparoscopic ovarian transposition to preserve ovarian function in an adult female patient treated with craniospinal irradiation for standard risk medulloblastoma. The prescribed dose to the craniospinal axis was 2340 cGy at 180 cGy per fraction and was delivered with 6-MV photons. Before ovarian transposition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis was obtained for localization of the ovaries and was registered with the planning computed tomography (CT) scan. Surgical clips allowed for CT localization of the ovaries after transposition. As a result of ovarian transposition, mean and maximum radiation doses decreased from 983 to 68 cGy and 1624 to 84 cGy for the left ovary and from 166 to 87 cGy and 723 to 103 cGy for the right ovary, respectively. Review of the literature indicates that such radiation doses are below the threshold that causes ovarian dysfunction and infertility. We conclude that ovarian localization with an MRI of the pelvis can be offered to females undergoing craniospinal irradiation. Transposition of the ovaries provides an option to preserve ovarian function in cases where the ovaries would otherwise be included within the radiation field.

  12. Superior rectus transposition combined with medial rectus recession for Duane syndrome and sixth nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Mehendale, Reshma A.; Dagi, Linda R.; Wu, Carolyn; Ledoux, Danielle; Johnston, Suzanne; Hunter, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Vertical rectus transposition (VRT) is used to treat abduction limitation, but new vertical deviations and anterior segment ischemia are concerns. Johnston and Crouch described superior rectus transposition (SRT), a procedure in which only the superior rectus muscle is transposed temporally. We describe our results using augmented temporal SRT with adjustable medial rectus muscle recession (MRc) for treatment of Duane syndrome I (DS) and sixth nerve palsy. Methods Retrospective surgical case review of patients undergoing the SRT procedure. Pre- and post-operative orthoptic measurements were recorded. Minimum follow-up was 6 weeks. Main outcome measures included angle of esotropia in primary position and the angle of head turn. Secondary outcomes included duction limitation, stereopsis, and new vertical deviations. Results The review identified seventeen patients (10 with DS and 7 with sixth nerve palsy). SRT+MRc improved esotropia [from 44 PD to 10.1 PD (p< 0.0001)], reduced abduction limitation [from −4.3 to −2.7 (p<0.0001)] and improved compensatory head posture [from 28°to 4° (p<0.0001)]. Stereopsis was recovered in eight patients (p=0.03). Three patients required a reoperation; one for overcorrection and 2 for undercorrection. A new primary position vertical deviation was observed in 2/7 patients with complex sixth nerve palsy and 0/10 DS patients. No patient described torsional diplopia. Conclusions SRT allows for the option of simultaneous medial rectus recession in patients with severe abduction imitation who require transposition surgery. SRT+MRc improved esotropia, head position, abduction limitation, and stereopsis without inducing torsional diplopia. PMID:22332212

  13. Vertical Rectus Muscles Transposition in Large Exotropia with Medial Rectus Muscle Transection Following Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoonae A.; Rah, Sang Hoon; Kim, Myung Mi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of transposition procedures on the vertical rectus muscle (VRM) in the patients who underwent a medial rectus muscle (MR) transection after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Methods In 4 patients with exotropia (XT) and a lack of adduction after ESS, orbital CT or MRI revealed a complete transection of the midportion of the MR. Full-tendon VRM transposition was performed within 3 months after injury (early surgery) in 2 patients with 40Δ XT. Two patients with 70Δ and 85Δ XT underwent an X-type augmented Hümmelsheim procedure, which involved pulling each half-tendon and crossing it through the undersurface of the severed MR to the other end of the MR insertion, concurrently with an ipsilateral lateral rectus (LR) recession 11 months and 36 months after ESS, respectively. The adduction deficits were divided into -1 through to -8. The patients were followed up for more than than 1.5 years. Results Postoperatively, 3 patients showed orthophoria and no diplopia in the primary position. The adduction deficits improved to -3.5 or -4. One patient who underwent an X-type augmented Hümmelsheim procedure showed a residual XT of 25Δ. Conclusions VRM transposition is effective in correcting a large XT secondary to a MR transection after ESS. When a longstanding large-angle XT with severe contracture of the ipsilateral LR and massive scarring of the adjacent tissues is present, the X-type augmented Hümmelsheim procedure coupled with an ipsilateral LR recession had an augmenting effect. PMID:18612228

  14. Mechanism of Is1 Transposition in E. COLI: Choice between Simple Insertion and Cointegration

    PubMed Central

    Biel, Susan W.; Berg, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    Insertion element IS1 and IS1-based transposon Tn9 generate cointegrates (containing vector and target DNAs joined by duplicate copies of IS1 or Tn9) and simple insertions (containing IS1 or Tn9 detached from vector sequences). Based on studies of transposon Tn5 we had proposed a conservative (non-replicative) model for simple insertion. Others had proposed that all transposition is replicative, occurring in a rolling circle structure, and that the way DNA strands are joined when replication terminates determines whether a simple insertion or a cointegrate is formed.—We selected for the transposition of amp and cam resistance markers from pBR322::Tn9 plasmids to an F factor in recA- E. coli and identified products containing three and four copies of IS1, corresponding to true cointegrates (from monomeric plasmids), and simple insertions (from dimeric plasmids). The simple insertions with four copies of IS1 outnumbered those with three by a ratio of about 3:1, whereas true cointegrates containing three copies of IS1 were more numerous than those with four.—A straightforward rolling circle model had predicted that the simple insertions containing three copies of IS1 should be more frequent than those with four. Because we obtained the opposite result we propose that simple insertions only arise when the element fails to replicate or if replication starts but then terminates prematurely. The two classes of products, simple insertions and cointegrates, reflect alternative conservative and replicative fates, respectively, of an early intermediate in transposition. PMID:6094304

  15. Expression of the Retrotransposon Helena Reveals a Complex Pattern of TE Deregulation in Drosophila Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Romero-Soriano, Valèria; Garcia Guerreiro, Maria Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs), repeated mobile sequences, are ubiquitous in the eukaryotic kingdom. Their mobilizing capacity confers on them a high mutagenic potential, which must be strongly regulated to guarantee genome stability. In the Drosophila germline, a small RNA-mediated silencing system, the piRNA (Piwi-interacting RNA) pathway, is the main responsible TE regulating mechanism, but some stressful conditions can destabilize it. For instance, during interspecific hybridization, genomic stress caused by the shock of two different genomes can lead, in both animals and plants, to higher transposition rates. A recent study in D. buzatii-D. koepferae hybrids detected mobilization of 28 TEs, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms explaining this transposition release. We have characterized one of the mobilized TEs, the retrotransposon Helena, and used quantitative expression to assess whether its high transposition rates in hybrids are preceded by increased expression. We have also localized Helena expression in the gonads to see if cellular expression patterns have changed in the hybrids. To give more insight into changes in TE regulation in hybrids, we analysed Helena-specific piRNA populations of hybrids and parental species. Helena expression is not globally altered in somatic tissues, but male and female gonads have different patterns of deregulation. In testes, Helena is repressed in F1, increasing then its expression up to parental values. This is linked with a mislocation of Helena transcripts along with an increase of their specific piRNA levels. Ovaries have additive levels of Helena expression, but the ping-pong cycle efficiency seems to be reduced in F1 hybrids. This could be at the origin of new Helena insertions in hybrids, which would be transmitted to F1 hybrid female progeny. PMID:26812285

  16. Expression of the Retrotransposon Helena Reveals a Complex Pattern of TE Deregulation in Drosophila Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Soriano, Valèria; Garcia Guerreiro, Maria Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs), repeated mobile sequences, are ubiquitous in the eukaryotic kingdom. Their mobilizing capacity confers on them a high mutagenic potential, which must be strongly regulated to guarantee genome stability. In the Drosophila germline, a small RNA-mediated silencing system, the piRNA (Piwi-interacting RNA) pathway, is the main responsible TE regulating mechanism, but some stressful conditions can destabilize it. For instance, during interspecific hybridization, genomic stress caused by the shock of two different genomes can lead, in both animals and plants, to higher transposition rates. A recent study in D. buzatii—D. koepferae hybrids detected mobilization of 28 TEs, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms explaining this transposition release. We have characterized one of the mobilized TEs, the retrotransposon Helena, and used quantitative expression to assess whether its high transposition rates in hybrids are preceded by increased expression. We have also localized Helena expression in the gonads to see if cellular expression patterns have changed in the hybrids. To give more insight into changes in TE regulation in hybrids, we analysed Helena-specific piRNA populations of hybrids and parental species. Helena expression is not globally altered in somatic tissues, but male and female gonads have different patterns of deregulation. In testes, Helena is repressed in F1, increasing then its expression up to parental values. This is linked with a mislocation of Helena transcripts along with an increase of their specific piRNA levels. Ovaries have additive levels of Helena expression, but the ping-pong cycle efficiency seems to be reduced in F1 hybrids. This could be at the origin of new Helena insertions in hybrids, which would be transmitted to F1 hybrid female progeny. PMID:26812285

  17. Aortopulmonary window: a rare mechanism of inter-circulatory mixing and prepared left ventricle in transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum.

    PubMed

    Gopalan Nair, Rajesh; Kalathingathodika, Sajeer; Bastian, Cicy

    2014-08-01

    Transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum and aortopulmonary window is an extremely rare anatomic combination associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report a case of a 3-month-old baby with d-transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum and a large aortopulmonary window as a mechanism of inter-circulatory mixing. PMID:24020981

  18. Virion-associated cofactor high-mobility group DNA-binding protein-1 facilitates transposition from the herpes simplex virus/Sleeping Beauty amplicon vector platform.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Suresh; Lotta, Louis T; Burris, Clark A; Bowers, William J

    2010-11-01

    The development of the integration-competent, herpes simplex virus/Sleeping Beauty (HSV/SB) amplicon vector platform has created a means to efficiently and stably deliver therapeutic transcription units (termed "transgenons") to neurons within the mammalian brain. Furthermore, an investigation into the transposition capacity of the HSV/SB vector system revealed that the amplicon genome provides an optimal substrate for the transposition of transgenons at least 12 kb in length [de Silva, S., Mastrangelo, M.A., Lotta, L.T., Jr., Burris, C.A., Federoff, H.J., and Bowers, W.J. ( 2010 ). Gene Ther. 17, 424-431]. These results prompted an investigation into the factors that may contribute toward efficient transposition from the HSV/SB amplicon. One of the cellular cofactors known to play a key role during SB-mediated transposition is the high-mobility group DNA-binding protein-1 (HMGB1). Our present investigation into the role of HMGB1 during amplicon-based transposition revealed that transposition is not strictly dependent on the presence of cellular HMGB1, contrary to what had been previously demonstrated with plasmid-based SB transposition. We have shown for the first time that during amplicon preparation, biologically active HMGB1 derived from the packaging cell line is copackaged into amplicon vector particles. As a result, HSV/SB amplicon virions arrive prearmed with HMGB1 protein at levels sufficient for facilitating SB-mediated transposition in the transduced mammalian cell. PMID:20568967

  19. Repetitive transpositions of mitochondrial DNA sequences to the nucleus during the radiation of horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus, Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Shi, Huizhen; Dong, Ji; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Mao, Xiuguang

    2016-05-01

    Transposition of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus, which gives rise to nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs), has been well documented in eukaryotes. However, very few studies have assessed the frequency of these transpositions during the evolutionary history of a specific taxonomic group. Here we used the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as a case study to determine the frequency and relative timing of nuclear transfers of mitochondrial control region sequences. For this, phylogenetic and coalescent analyzes were performed on NUMTs and authentic mtDNA sequences generated from eight horseshoe bat species. Our results suggest at least three independent transpositions, including two ancient and one more recent, during the evolutionary history of Rhinolophus. The two ancient transpositions are represented by the NUMT-1 and -2 clades, with each clade consisting of NUMTs from almost all studied species but originating from different portions of the mtDNA genome. Furthermore, estimates of the most recent common ancestor for each clade corresponded to the time of the initial diversification of this genus. The recent transposition is represented by NUMT-3, which was discovered only in a specific subgroup of Rhinolophus and exhibited a close relationship to its mitochondrial counterpart. Our similarity searches of mtDNA in the R. ferrumequinum genome confirmed the presence of NUMT-1 and NUMT-2 clade sequences and, for the first time, assessed the extent of NUMTs in a bat genome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the frequency of transpositions of mtDNA occurring before the common ancestry of a genus. PMID:26809101

  20. Sleeping Beauty transposase modulates cell-cycle progression through interaction with Miz-1

    PubMed Central

    Walisko, Oliver; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Szabó, Kornélia; Kaufman, Christopher D.; Herold, Steffi; Ivics, Zoltán

    2006-01-01

    We used the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposable element as a tool to probe transposon–host cell interactions in vertebrates. The Miz-1 transcription factor was identified as an interactor of the SB transposase in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Through its association with Miz-1, the SB transposase down-regulates cyclin D1 expression in human cells, as evidenced by differential gene expression analysis using microarray hybridization. Down-regulation of cyclin D1 results in a prolonged G1 phase of the cell cycle and retarded growth of transposase-expressing cells. G1 slowdown is associated with a decrease of cyclin D1/cdk4-specific phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. Both cyclin D1 down-regulation and the G1 slowdown induced by the transposase require Miz-1. A temporary G1 arrest enhances transposition, suggesting that SB transposition is favored in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, where the nonhomologous end-joining pathway of DNA repair is preferentially active. Because nonhomologous end-joining is required for efficient SB transposition, the transposase-induced G1 slowdown is probably a selfish act on the transposon’s part to maximize the chance for a successful transposition event. PMID:16537485

  1. Development of advanced pulmonary vascular disease in D-transposition of the great arteries after the neonatal arterial switch operation.

    PubMed Central

    Rivenes, S M; Grifka, R G; Feltes, T F

    1998-01-01

    We report the case of a neonate with D-transposition of the great arteries who, after undergoing an uneventful arterial switch operation at the age of 4 days, was found at the age of 42 months to have developed advanced pulmonary vascular disease. Because the arterial switch operation was performed when our patient was only 4 days old, this case challenges the hypothesis that postnatal hemodynamics alone dictate the development of advanced pulmonary vascular disease in infants and children with transposition of the great arteries. Images PMID:9782561

  2. From 1D chain to 3D network: a new family of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors MO3(L)(x) (M = Mo, W; L = organic linker) built on perovskite-like structure modules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Hejazi, Mehdi; Thiagarajan, Suraj J; Woerner, William R; Banerjee, Debasis; Emge, Thomas J; Xu, Wenqian; Teat, Simon J; Gong, Qihan; Safari, Ahmad; Yang, Ronggui; Parise, John B; Li, Jing

    2013-11-20

    MO3 (M = Mo, W) or VI-VI binary compounds are important semiconducting oxides that show great promise for a variety of applications. In an effort to tune and enhance their properties in a systematic manner we have applied a designing strategy to deliberately introduce organic linker molecules in these perovskite-like crystal lattices. This approach has led to a wealth of new hybrid structures built on one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) VI-VI modules. The hybrid semiconductors exhibit a number of greatly improved properties and new functionality, including broad band gap tunability, negative thermal expansion, largely reduced thermal conductivity, and significantly enhanced dielectric constant compared to their MO3 parent phases. PMID:24152119

  3. Are all Semitic languages immune to letter transpositions? The case of Maltese.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Gatt, Albert; Moret-Tatay, Carmen; Fabri, Ray

    2012-10-01

    Recent research using the rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm with English sentences that included words with letter transpositions (e.g., jugde) has shown that participants can readily reproduce the correctly spelled sentences with little cost; in contrast, there is a dramatic reading cost with root-derived Hebrew words (Velan & Frost, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 14:913-918, 2007, Cognition 118:141-156, 2011). This divergence could be due to (1) the processing of root-derived words in Semitic languages or (2) the peculiarities of the transitional probabilities in root-derived Hebrew words. Unlike Hebrew, Maltese is a Semitic language that does not omit vowel information in print and whose morphology also has a significant non-Semitic (mostly Romance) morphology. Here, we employed the same RSVP technique used by Velan and Frost (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 14:913-918, 2007, Cognition 118:141-156, 2011), this time with Maltese (and English) sentences. The results showed that Maltese-English bilinguals were able to reproduce the Maltese words-regardless of whether they were misspelled (involving the transposition of two letters from the consonantal root) or not, with no reading cost-just as in English. The apparent divergences between the RSVP data with Hebrew versus Maltese sentences are likely due to the combination of the characteristics of the Hebrew orthographic system with the Semitic morphology. PMID:22669840

  4. Multiple independent transpositions of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, M D; Fleischer, R C

    1996-12-24

    Transpositions of mtDNA sequences to the nuclear genome have been documented in a wide variety of individual taxa, but little is known about their taxonomic frequency or patterns of variation. We provide evidence of nuclear sequences homologous to the mtDNA control region in seven species of diving ducks (tribe Aythyini). Phylogenetic analysis places each nuclear sequence as a close relative of the mtDNA haplotypes of the specie(s) in which it occurs, indicating that they derive from six independent transposition events, all occurring within the last approximately 1.5 million years. Relative-rate tests and comparison of intraspecific variation in nuclear and mtDNA sequences confirm the expectation of a greatly reduced rate of evolution in the nuclear copies. By representing mtDNA haplotypes from ancestral populations, nuclear insertions may be valuable in some phylogenetic analyses, but they also confound the accurate determination of mtDNA sequences. In particular, our data suggest that the presumably nonfunctional but more slowly evolving nuclear sequences often will not be identifiable by changes incompatible with function and may be preferentially amplified by PCR primers based on mtDNA sequences from related taxa. PMID:8986794

  5. Zinc-Induced Transposition of Insertion Sequence Elements Contributes to Increased Adaptability of Cupriavidus metallidurans.

    PubMed

    Vandecraen, Joachim; Monsieurs, Pieter; Mergeay, Max; Leys, Natalie; Aertsen, Abram; Van Houdt, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria can respond to adverse environments by increasing their genomic variability and subsequently facilitating adaptive evolution. To demonstrate this, the contribution of Insertion Sequence (IS) elements to the genetic adaptation of Cupriavidus metallidurans AE126 to toxic zinc concentrations was determined. This derivative of type strain CH34, devoid of its main zinc resistance determinant, is still able to increase its zinc resistance level. Specifically, upon plating on medium supplemented with a toxic zinc concentration, resistant variants arose in which a compromised cnrYX regulatory locus caused derepression of CnrH sigma factor activity and concomitant induction of the corresponding RND-driven cnrCBA efflux system. Late-occurring zinc resistant variants likely arose in response to the selective conditions, as they were enriched in cnrYX disruptions caused by specific IS elements whose transposase expression was found to be zinc-responsive. Interestingly, deletion of cnrH, and consequently the CnrH-dependent adaptation potential, still enabled adaptation by transposition of IS elements (ISRme5 and IS1086) that provided outward-directed promoters driving cnrCBAT transcription. Finally, adaptation to zinc by IS reshuffling can also enhance the adaptation to subsequent environmental challenges. Thus, transposition of IS elements can be induced by stress conditions and play a multifaceted, pivotal role in the adaptation to these and subsequent stress conditions. PMID:27047473

  6. Zinc-Induced Transposition of Insertion Sequence Elements Contributes to Increased Adaptability of Cupriavidus metallidurans

    PubMed Central

    Vandecraen, Joachim; Monsieurs, Pieter; Mergeay, Max; Leys, Natalie; Aertsen, Abram; Van Houdt, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria can respond to adverse environments by increasing their genomic variability and subsequently facilitating adaptive evolution. To demonstrate this, the contribution of Insertion Sequence (IS) elements to the genetic adaptation of Cupriavidus metallidurans AE126 to toxic zinc concentrations was determined. This derivative of type strain CH34, devoid of its main zinc resistance determinant, is still able to increase its zinc resistance level. Specifically, upon plating on medium supplemented with a toxic zinc concentration, resistant variants arose in which a compromised cnrYX regulatory locus caused derepression of CnrH sigma factor activity and concomitant induction of the corresponding RND-driven cnrCBA efflux system. Late-occurring zinc resistant variants likely arose in response to the selective conditions, as they were enriched in cnrYX disruptions caused by specific IS elements whose transposase expression was found to be zinc-responsive. Interestingly, deletion of cnrH, and consequently the CnrH-dependent adaptation potential, still enabled adaptation by transposition of IS elements (ISRme5 and IS1086) that provided outward-directed promoters driving cnrCBAT transcription. Finally, adaptation to zinc by IS reshuffling can also enhance the adaptation to subsequent environmental challenges. Thus, transposition of IS elements can be induced by stress conditions and play a multifaceted, pivotal role in the adaptation to these and subsequent stress conditions. PMID:27047473

  7. Horizontal muscle transposition or oblique muscle weakening for the correction of V pattern?

    PubMed Central

    Sekeroglu, H T; Turan, K E; Uzun, S; Sener, E C; Sanac, A S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report and to analyze the efficacy of horizontal rectus muscle transposition and inferior oblique muscle weakening in terms of pattern correction for patients with V pattern. Methods The review of the medical files identified 55 patients who had esotropia (ET) or exotropia (XT) with V pattern. The primary outcome measure was the amount of V pattern collapse (Δ). Results Of the 55 patients (mean age 22.1±9.5 years), 27 (49.1%) were males and 28 (50.9%) were females. The type of deviations was XT in 30 patients (54.5%) and ET in 25 patients (45.5%). Inferior oblique muscle weakening was performed in 43 (78.2%) patients, whereas horizontal muscle transposition was carried out in 12 (21.8%) patients in addition to recession-resection procedures. The amount of pattern was significantly reduced in both groups (P=0.01 for the horizontal offset group and P<0.01 for the oblique muscle weakening group). Conclusion Oblique muscle weakening surgery and horizontal muscle offset are effective in the correction of V pattern when the amount of pattern is under 30Δ. PMID:24525866

  8. Insertional Mutagenesis of the Maize P Gene by Intragenic Transposition of Ac

    PubMed Central

    Athma, P.; Grotewold, E.; Peterson, T.

    1992-01-01

    The P-rr allele of the maize P gene regulates the synthesis of pigments derived from flavan-4-ol in the pericarp, cob glumes and other floral organs. We characterized 21 P alleles derived by intragenic transposition of Ac from three known positions. Ac transpositions can occur in either direction in the P gene, and with no apparent minimum distance: in one case Ac transposed just 6 bp from its original insertion site. However, the distribution of transposed Ac elements was markedly nonrandom: of 19 transposed Ac elements derived from a single Ac donor, 15 were inserted in a 1.1-kb region at the 5' end of P, while none had inserted in an adjacent 3.2-kb intronic region. All of the Ac insertions affect both pericarp and cob glume pigmentation, providing further evidence that the P-rr allele contains a single gene required for both pericarp and cob glume pigmentation. The distribution of the inserted Ac elements and the phenotype conditioned by each allele suggests a structure of P-rr which is similar to that previously determined molecularly. Possible explanations for the nonrandom distribution of transposed Ac elements are discussed. PMID:1317315

  9. Anesthetic considerations in a child with unrepaired D-transposition of great arteries undergoing noncardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Pooja; Khare, Arvind; Jain, Neena; Verma, Priya; Mathur, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    D-transposition of great arteries (D-TGA) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease diagnosed at birth. There is ventriculoarterial discordance leading to parallel circulation. The postnatal survival depends on intercirculatory mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood at various levels through atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect or patent ductus arteriosus. The anesthesiologist must have an understanding of concepts of shunting and other long-term consequences of transposition of great arteries (TGA) in order to tailor the anesthetic technique to optimize the hemodynamic variables and oxygenation in the perioperative period. The preoperative evaluation includes echocardiography to delineate the type of TGA, associated lesions and extent and direction of shunts. Oxygen saturation is influenced by the ratio of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to systemic vascular resistance. Thus, care should be taken to avoid an increase in PVR which can lead to decreased pulmonary blood flow leading to hypoxia. We report a case of an 8-year-old child with unrepaired D-TGA, who presented to us for craniotomy for drainage of brain abscess. PMID:26712994

  10. Mechanical circulatory support in patients with heart failure secondary to transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Joyce, David L; Crow, Sheri S; John, Ranjit; St Louis, James D; Braunlin, Elizabeth A; Pyles, Lee A; Kofflin, Paula; Joyce, Lyle D

    2010-11-01

    Advances in palliation of congenital heart disease have resulted in improved survival to adulthood. Many of these patients ultimately develop end-stage heart failure requiring left ventricular assist device implantation (LVAD). However, morphologic differences in the systemic ventricle of these patients require careful attention to cannula placement. We report on the evolution of our surgical technique for implanting LVADs in 3 patients with transposition of the great arteries and congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries. Applying standard LV cannulation techniques to the systemic ventricle led us too anteriorly in our first patient, creating obstruction by the moderator band. Subsequent use of epicardial and transesophageal echocardiography allowed for intraoperative localization of the intracardiac muscular structures to identify the optimal cannulation site. The acute angle of the inflow cannula on the DeBakey LVAD (MicroMed Technology, Houston, TX) required flipping the device 180°. The HeartMate II device (Thoratec, Pleasanton, CA) could be shifted towards the midline. One patient underwent successful transplant and 2 are home waiting for a donor organ. We conclude from our experience that LVAD surgery can be safely performed in patients with congenital heart disease when implanted under echocardiographic guidance. PMID:20620085

  11. A Ty1 Reverse Transcriptase Active-Site Aspartate Mutation Blocks Transposition but Not Polymerization†

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Ozcan; Gabriel, Abram

    2001-01-01

    Reverse transcriptases (RTs) are found in a wide variety of mobile genetic elements including viruses, retrotransposons, and infectious organellar introns. An invariant triad of aspartates is thought to be required for the catalytic function of RTs. We generated RT mutants in the yeast retrotransposon Ty1, changing each of these active-site aspartates to asparagine or glutamate. All but one of the mutants lacked detectable polymerase activity. The novel exception, D211N, retained near wild-type in vitro polymerase activity within virus-like particles but failed to carry out in vivo transposition. For this mutant, minus-strand synthesis is impaired and formation of the plus-strand strong-stop intermediate is eliminated. Intragenic second-site suppressor mutations of the transposition defect map to the RNase H domain of the enzyme. Our results demonstrate that one of the three active-site aspartates in a retrotransposon RT is not catalytically critical. This implies a basic difference in the polymerase active-site geometry of Ty1 and human immunodeficiency virus RT and shows that subtle mutations in one domain can cause dramatic functional effects on a distant domain of the same enzyme. PMID:11413300

  12. The transposition frequency of Tag1 elements is increased in transgenic Arabidopsis lines.

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, A M; Lister, C; Crawford, N; Dean, C

    1998-01-01

    Tag1 was identified as a highly active endogenous transposable element in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana Landsberg erecta plants carrying the maize transposable element Activator (Ac). Here, we describe experiments designed to determine the basis for the high activity of Tag1. The frequency of transposition of Tag1 elements was compared in lines containing or lacking Ac transposase to assess the effect of Ac transposase on Tag1 activity. Three populations of nontransgenic plants, including nontransformed regenerants, were also analyzed. The high level of activity of Tag1 did not correlate with the presence or absence of Ac transposase but was significantly higher in transgenic lines. This result was maintained through at least six generations after transformation. These data suggest that Tag1 transposition is stimulated by processes that occur during the Agrobacterium transformation and that thereafter remain active. Two Tag1 elements are tightly linked in the Landsberg erecta genome and map to the lower arm of chromosome 1. Tag1 elements were found in only a few A. thaliana ecotypes but were present in four other Arabidopsis species. PMID:9501115

  13. Long-term results of pectoralis major muscle transposition for infected sternotomy wounds.

    PubMed Central

    Pairolero, P C; Arnold, P G; Harris, J B

    1991-01-01

    During an 11.5-year period, 100 consecutive patients (79 male, 21 female) underwent repair of an infected sternotomy wound. Sixty-five patients had failed attempts at wound closure by other physicians. Median age was 61.5 years (range, 5 to 85 years). Reconstruction included muscle in 79 patients, omentum in 4, and both in 15. A total of 175 muscles were transposed, including 169 pectoralis major, 3 rectus abdominis, 2 external oblique, and 1 latissimus dorsi. Median number of operations was four (range, 1 to 11). Mechanical ventilation was required in 30 patients. Two perioperative deaths occurred, one related to sepsis. Median follow-up was 4.2 years (range, 1.3 to 13.5 years). Twenty-six patients had recurrent infection. Median time from our closure to recurrence was 5.5 months (range, 0.3 to 27.6 months). Cause of recurrence was inadequate removal of cartilage in 16 patients, bone in 6, and retained foreign body in 4. Eighteen patients had the wound reopened with further resection; 10 had another muscle or omentum transposition. There were 30 late deaths, only one related to recurrent infection. At the time of death or last follow-up, 92 patients had a healed chest wall. Transposition of the pectoralis major muscle remains an excellent method of management for infected sternotomy wounds. Failure is directly related to persistent infection of cartilage, bone, or retained foreign bodies. PMID:2039289

  14. Modified Shumacker repair of transposition of the great arteries. Surgical and angiocardiographic considerations.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, I L; Allen, R G; Casini, M; Marin-Garcia, J; Anthony, C L; Bell, E D; Paul, R N; Chase, N A

    1983-02-01

    Sixteen patients with transposition of the great arteries, 8 days to 2 1/2 years of age, underwent intra-atrial transposition of venous return by the modified Shumacker technique. A bipedicle flap of right atrial wall was used to direct vena caval return to the mitral valve, and a hinged viable flap of pericardium was used to form the lateral wall of the pulmonary venous pathway. Thirteen patients survived operation and are well to date. Two of the three nonsurvivors were less than 1 month of age at operation, and the third had an associated inlet ventricular septal defect and a straddling tricuspid valve. Early postoperative chest radiographs were compared with preoperative films in each patient. Postoperative findings included minor right pleural effusion in four, minor pneumothorax in two, and paralyzed right hemidiaphragm in one. Two patients required a permanent pacemaker because of the development of sick sinus syndrome 2 and 4 years postoperatively. Each preoperative angiocardiogram was reviewed and compared with postoperative studies in nine patients. The latter demonstrated absence of caval gradients in each, trivial baffle leaks in four, a moderate baffle leak in one, small residual ventricular septal defects in two, and mild tricuspid regurgitation in two patients. PMID:6823149

  15. Complete transposition of the aorta and pulmonary artery in a Belgian Blue crossbreed calf: A case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Complete transposition of the great arteries is a congenital cardiac malformation occasionally encountered in cattle and other species. The objective of the present report was to provide a detailed clinical, echocardiographic and post mortem description of a calf presenting with this condition. Case presentation A 6-week old male Belgian Blue cross-breed calf was examined for respiratory distress and exercise intolerance. The patient was bright, alert and responsive without any neurologic abnormalities but was exercise intolerant, had marked cyanosis, tachycardia, tachypnea, a pansystolic heart murmur as well as a bilaterally palpable thrill over the heart. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed marked hypoxemia (PaO2 = 23 mmHg, O2sat = 41.1%), mild hypercapnia and compensated respiratory acidosis. Echocardiographic examination revealed a complete transposition of the great arteries in combination with a ventricular septal defect through which blood shunted bidirectionally. Cardiac catheterization confirmed that arterialization of blood of the systemic circulation solely occurred in the right ventricle through blood shunting from the left into the right ventricle. Results of post mortem examination are presented. Conclusion Complete transposition of the great arteries is a cyanotic congenital anomaly repeatedly reported in calves that should be considered as differential diagnosis in patients presenting with hypoxemia more severe than commonly encountered with other congenital cyanotic heart conditions. We give a comprehensive summary of the clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up and post mortem examination of a Belgian Blue cross-breed calf with complete transposition of the great arteries PMID:21619631

  16. Efficient transposition of the youngest miniature inverted repeat transposable element family of yellow fever mosquito in yeast.

    PubMed

    Fattash, Isam; Lee, Chia-Ni; Mo, Kaiguo; Yang, Guojun

    2015-05-01

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are often the most numerous DNA transposons in plant and animal genomes. The dramatic amplification of MITE families during evolution is puzzling, because the transposase sources for the vast majority of MITE families are unknown. The yellow fever mosquito genome contains > 220-Mb MITE sequences; however, transposition activity has not been demonstrated for any of the MITE families. The Gnome elements are the youngest MITE family in this genome, with at least 116 identical copies. To test whether the putative autonomous element Ozma is capable of mobilizing Gnome and its two sibling MITEs, analyses were performed in a yeast transposition assay system. Whereas the wild-type transposase resulted in very low transposition activity, mutations in the region containing a putative nuclear export signal motif resulted in a dramatic (at least 4160-fold) increase in transposition frequency. We have also demonstrated that each residue of the novel DD37E motif is required for the activity of the Ozma transposase. Footprint sequences left at the donor sites suggest that the transposase may cleave between the second and the third nucleotides from the 5' ends of the elements. The excised elements reinsert specifically at dinucleotide 'TA', ~ 55% of them in yeast genes. The elements described in this article could potentially be useful as genetic tools for genetic manipulation of mosquitoes. PMID:25754725

  17. An O([Formula: see text]) algorithm for sorting signed genomes by reversals, transpositions, transreversals and block-interchanges.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuzhi; Hao, Fanchang; Leong, Hon Wai

    2016-02-01

    We consider the problem of sorting signed permutations by reversals, transpositions, transreversals, and block-interchanges. The problem arises in the study of species evolution via large-scale genome rearrangement operations. Recently, Hao et al. gave a 2-approximation scheme called genome sorting by bridges (GSB) for solving this problem. Their result extended and unified the results of (i) He and Chen - a 2-approximation algorithm allowing reversals, transpositions, and block-interchanges (by also allowing transversals) and (ii) Hartman and Sharan - a 1.5-approximation algorithm allowing reversals, transpositions, and transversals (by also allowing block-interchanges). The GSB result is based on introduction of three bridge structures in the breakpoint graph, the L-bridge, T-bridge, and X-bridge that models goodreversal, transposition/transreversal, and block-interchange, respectively. However, the paper by Hao et al. focused on proving the 2-approximation GSB scheme and only mention a straightforward [Formula: see text] algorithm. In this paper, we give an [Formula: see text] algorithm for implementing the GSB scheme. The key idea behind our faster GSB algorithm is to represent cycles in the breakpoint graph by their canonical sequences, which greatly simplifies the search for these bridge structures. We also give some comparison results (running time and computed distances) against the original GSB implementation. PMID:26707923

  18. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Lateralization and Transposition for Dental Implant Placement. Part I: a Systematic Review of Surgical Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Juodzbalys, Gintaras

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this first part of a two-part series was to review the literature concerning the indications, contraindications, advantages, disadvantages and surgical techniques of the lateralization and transposition of the inferior alveolar nerve, followed by the placement of an implant in an edentulous atrophic posterior mandible. Material and Methods A comprehensive review of the current literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines by accessing the NCBI PubMed and PMC database, academic sites and books. The articles were searched from January 1997 to July 2014 and comprised English-language articles that included adult patients between 18 and 80 years old with minimal residual bone above the mandibular canal who had undergone inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) repositioning with a minimum 6 months of follow-up. Results A total of 16 studies were included in this review. Nine were related to IAN transposition, 4 to IAN lateralization and 3 to both transposition and lateralization. Implant treatment results and complications were presented. Conclusions Inferior alveolar nerve lateralization and transposition in combination with the installation of dental implants is sometimes the only possible procedure to help patients to obtain a fixed prosthesis, in edentulous atrophic posterior mandibles. With careful pre-operative surgical and prosthetic planning, imaging, and extremely precise surgical technique, this procedure can be successfully used for implant placement in edentulous posterior mandibular segments. PMID:25937873

  19. A 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase/lyase demethylates the retrotransposon Tos17 and promotes its transposition in rice

    PubMed Central

    La, Honggui; Ding, Bo; Mishra, Gyan P.; Zhou, Bo; Yang, Hongmei; Bellizzi, Maria del Rosario; Chen, Songbiao; Meyers, Blake C.; Peng, Zhaohua; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2011-01-01

    DNA 5-methylcytosine (5-meC) is an important epigenetic mark for transcriptional gene silencing in many eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyases actively remove 5-meC to counteract transcriptional gene silencing in a locus-specific manner, and have been suggested to maintain the expression of transposons. However, it is unclear whether plant DNA demethylases can promote the transposition of transposons. Here we report the functional characterization of the DNA glycosylase/lyase DNG701 in rice. DNG701 encodes a large (1,812 amino acid residues) DNA glycosylase domain protein. Recombinant DNG701 protein showed 5-meC DNA glycosylase and lyase activities in vitro. Knockout or knockdown of DNG701 in rice plants led to DNA hypermethylation and reduced expression of the retrotransposon Tos17. Tos17 showed less transposition in calli derived from dng701 knockout mutant seeds compared with that in wild-type calli. Overexpression of DNG701 in both rice calli and transgenic plants substantially reduced DNA methylation levels of Tos17 and enhanced its expression. The overexpression also led to more frequent transposition of Tos17 in calli. Our results demonstrate that rice DNG701 is a 5-meC DNA glycosylase/lyase responsible for the demethylation of Tos17 and this DNA demethylase plays a critical role in promoting Tos17 transposition in rice calli. PMID:21896764

  20. Switch operation for transposition of the great arteries in neonates. A study of 120 patients.

    PubMed

    Planché, C; Bruniaux, J; Lacour-Gayet, F; Kachaner, J; Binet, J P; Sidi, D; Villain, E

    1988-09-01

    From March 1984 to January 1987, anatomic surgical correction was performed on 110 newborn infants (2 to 23 days old, mean 7.8 +/- 3.5, standard deviation) with simple transposition of the great arteries and 10 additional neonates (7 to 30 days old, mean 17.9 +/- 8.3, standard deviation) with transposition and a large ventricular septal defect. All had preoperative catheterization. Ninety-six percent of the patients underwent balloon atrial septostomy and 90% received prostaglandin E1 infusion until the time of the operation. The anatomy of the coronary arteries according to the Yacoub classification was as follows: type A, 82 patients; type B, 5 patients; type C, 4 patients; type D, 23 patients; and type E, 6 patients. Continuous hypothermic bypass with no circulatory arrest was used for all patients except two. Myocardial protection was ensured by crystalloid cardioplegia. Coronary artery relocation was performed according to the Yacoub technique with some modifications, and pulmonary artery reconstruction was done according to the Lecompte maneuver in all patients, even when the great vessels had a side-by-side relationship. The proximal pulmonary artery was reconstructed with two circular patches for the first 10 patients and with a single large posterior patch for the last 110 patients. Tanned heterologous pericardium was used for the first 25 patients and autologous native pericardium for the last 95 patients. The perioperative mortality rates were 8.3% for the entire series and 5.4% for the last 110 patients, with no deaths in the group having transposition plus ventricular septal defect. Late death from acute myocardial infarction occurred in two patients in the second month after operation. No patient was lost to follow-up, which ranged from 2 to 46 months (mean 16 +/- 11.2, standard deviation). The follow-up included sequential noninvasive evaluations and 32 catheterizations performed 10 to 18 months postoperatively. Two patients were reoperated on for

  1. Optical signal processing: Hybrid success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Despite two decades of work geared towards improving the nonlinear optical properties of organic molecules, practical organic light modulators have not yet reached the market in large numbers. New organic-inorganic hybrid approaches may revolutionize the field.

  2. Transposition Complex with Aortic Arch Obstruction: Outcomes of One-Stage Repair Over 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kwang Ho; Sung, Si Chan; Kim, Hyungtae; Lee, Hyung Doo; Ban, Gil Ho; Kim, Geena; Kim, Hee Young

    2016-01-01

    The surgical management of transposition complex with aortic arch obstruction remains technically demanding due to anatomic complexity. Even in the recent surgical era, there are centers that address this anomaly with a staged strategy. This report presents our experiences with a one-stage repair of transposition complexes with aortic arch obstructions more than the last 10 years. Since 2003, 19 patients with a transposition of the great arteries (TGA, 2 patients) or a double outlet of the right ventricle (DORV, 17 patients) and aortic arch obstruction have undergone one-stage repair of their anomalies. The mean age was 6.7 ± 2.3 days, and the mean body weight was 3.4 ± 0.3 kg. The 2 patients with TGA exhibited coarctation of the aorta. The 17 patients with DORV all exhibited the Taussig-Bing type. The great artery relationships were anteroposterior in 4 patients (21.1 %). The coronary artery anatomies were usual (1LCx; 2R) in 8 patients (42.1 %). There were 2 early deaths (10.5 %). Seven patients (36.8 %) required percutaneous interventions. One patient required re-operation for pulmonary valvar stenosis and left pulmonary artery patch angioplasty. The overall survival was 84.2 %. The freedom from mortality was 83.5 % at 5 years, and the freedom from intervention was 54.4 % at 5 years. The one-stage repair of transposition complexes with aortic arch obstructions resulted in an acceptable survival rate and a relatively high incidence of postoperative catheter interventions. Postoperative catheter interventions are highly effective. Transposition complexes combined with aortic arch obstructions can be managed by one-stage repair with good early and midterm results. PMID:26358472

  3. Maxi-circles, glycosomes, gene transposition, expression sites, transsplicing, transferrin receptors and base J.

    PubMed

    Borst, Piet

    2016-01-01

    This is a personal story of the author of his research on trypanosomatids, covering a period of 1970-2015. Some of the highlights include the discovery of new aspects of kDNA, the mini-circle heterogeneity and the maxi-circle; the glycosome; the discovery of gene transposition as a major mechanism for antigenic variation; trans-splicing as an essential step in the synthesis of all trypanosome mRNAs; Pulsed Field Gradient gels to size-fractionate chromosome-sized DNA molecules of protozoa; the sequence of trypanosome telomeres and their growth and contraction; the first ABC-transporter of trypanosomatids, LtpgpA; the variable transferrin receptor of T. brucei and its role in Fe uptake; and base J, its structure, biosynthesis and function. PMID:27021571

  4. [Arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries with situs inversus and mirror image dextrocardia].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Hiroaki; Nemoto, Shintaro; Ozawa, Hideki; Sasaki, Tomoyasu; Motohashi, Yoshikazu; Katsumata, Takahiro; Inoue, Nao; Kishi, Kanta; Okumura, Kenichi; Mori, Yasuhiko

    2012-09-01

    We report a successful arterial switch operation for complete transposition of great arteries with atrial and visceral situs inversus totalis and mirror image dextrocardia in a 12-day-old infant girl. The aorta was located left side-by-side to the pulmonary trunk with a single coronary artery (mirror image of 1RLCx). After French maneuver, the posterior circumference of the neo-aorta was reconstructed. Then the coronary button was transplanted into the neo-aorta with a trap door technique carefully avoiding any twist and over-stretch. The neo-pulmonary trunk was reconstructed with an autologous pericardial patch and sutured to the longitudinal incision made into the left central pulmonary artery. The baby was discharged from hospital and has been doing well without any morbidity relating myocardial ischemia. PMID:22940657

  5. Palindromic unit-independent transposition of IS1397 in Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Caroline; Bachellier, Sophie; Hofnung, Maurice; Carniel, Elisabeth; Clément, Jean-Marie

    2002-09-01

    Palindromic units (PUs) are intergenic repeated sequences scattered over the chromosomes of Escherichia coli and several other enterobacteria. In the latter, IS1397, an E. coli insertion sequence specific to PUs, transposes into PUs with sequences close to the E. coli consensus. Reasons for this insertion specificity can relate to either a direct recognition of the target (by its sequence or its structure) by the transposase or an interaction between a specific host protein and the PU target DNA sequence. In this study, we show that for Yersinia pestis, a species deprived of PUs, IS1397 can transpose onto its chromosome, with transpositional hot spots. Our results are in favor of a direct recognition of target DNA by IS1397 transposase. PMID:12169598

  6. Transposition of the great arteries: long-term outcome and current management.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Daniel J

    2005-07-01

    There is a large group of young adults who survived atrial baffle repair of transposition of the great arteries. Most survivors are asymptomatic, although nearly all have decreased exercise capacity. Loss of sinus rhythm and atrial arrhythmias are common and increase with age. There is concern about the ability of the right ventricle to function long term as a systemic pump, and recent publications have highlighted right ventricular dysfunction in this patient population. Sudden death and congestive heart failure are the main causes of death, and outcomes beyond 30 years are unknown. Pulmonary artery banding, late arterial switch, and cardiac transplantation are employed when intractable arrhythmias or right ventricular failure threaten survival or quality of life. PMID:15987628

  7. Grasping the experience of the other from an interview: Self-transposition in use

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a part of the interview process that is never usually reported. Listening to what people say is the key to increasing our knowledge of human existences. Procuring knowledge about human experience is much more challenging. Although good sources on how to prepare and conduct an interview exist, the process of the interviewer's perception of the interviewee's message and meaning is less examined. Beyond the role of eliciting the data, the researcher endeavours to reproduce the interviewee's narration and not the voice of the researcher. By illustrating the process during the interview, further transparency and thereby validity may be achieved. To exemplify this, the perception of the interviewer is explored, and here Heidegger's work on self-transposition has proved to be helpful. PMID:23972102

  8. Review: surgery for transposition of the great arteries in the first year of life.

    PubMed Central

    Zavanella, C; Subramanian, S

    1978-01-01

    Elective intracardiac repair by the Mustard operation is recommented in patients with transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum in the first year of life (Fig. 1). In patients with associated ventricular septal defect in the first three months of life, early banding followed by early debanding before the first year of life is recommended. When the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is discrete at valvular or subvalvular level, Mustard operation, closure of the ventricular septal defect and direct relief of out-flow obstruction is acceptable, but in patients with an unfavorable left ventricular outflow tract anatomy, a preliminary shunt followed by a Rastelli operation after the age of four years will probably result in a greater salvage. The utilization of surface induced profound hypothermia and circulatory arrest allows for more precise and rapid surgery and is shown to be a definite advantage in the very young infant. PMID:75716

  9. Complete transposition of the great arteries with double outlet right ventricle in a dog.

    PubMed

    Koo, S T; LeBlanc, N L; Scollan, K F; Sisson, D D

    2016-06-01

    A 2-year old intact male Collie dog presented to the cardiology service at Oregon State University for evaluation of cyanosis and suspected congenital cardiac disease. Echocardiography revealed a constellation of cardiac abnormalities including a single large vessel exiting the right ventricle with a diminutive left ventricular outflow tract, a ventricular septal defect, and marked concentric right ventricular hypertrophy with moderate right atrial dilation. Cardiac-gated computed tomography confirmed the previous anomalies in addition to supporting a diagnosis of complete transposition of the great arteries, double outlet right ventricle, and pulmonic hypoplasia with a single coronary ostium. Prominent bronchoesophageal collateral vessels were concurrently identified. Clinically, the dog was stable despite mild cyanosis that worsened with exercise; no intervention was elected at the time. This case report describes a rare combination of congenital cardiac defects and the usefulness of cardiac-gated cross-sectional imaging in the anatomic diagnosis. PMID:26936424

  10. Tn4563 transposition in Streptomyces coelicolor and its application to isolation of new morphological mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, A T; Nelson, A D; Daniel, J B

    1991-01-01

    The Tn3-like transposon Tn4556 (and its derivatives Tn4560 and Tn4563) has been used for insertion mapping of genetic loci cloned on plasmids, but it has been difficult to obtain chromosomal insertions, largely because of the lack of a strong selection against transposon donor molecules. In this communication, we report two efficient selection techniques for transposition and their use in the isolation of chromosomal insertion mutations. A number of independent Streptomyces coelicolor morphological mutants (bld and whi) were obtained. Two of the bld mutations were mapped to locations on the chromosome by SCP1-mediated conjugation; at least one mutation, bld-5m1, appears to define a novel locus involved in control of S. coelicolor morphogenesis and antibiotic production. Images PMID:1650343

  11. Anconeus muscle transposition for failed surgical treatment of tennis elbow: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Degreef, Ilse; Van Raebroeckx, Antoon; De Smet, Luc

    2005-04-01

    The authors conducted a retrospective study on their first 10 patients treated with an anconeus muscle transposition after failed surgery for chronic lateral epicondylitis. All patients had initially been treated conservatively, and subsequently with a classical or percutaneous release of the common extensor origin. The secundary procedure involved wide excision of the common extensor origin, débridement of the lateral epicondyle and rotation of the anconeus muscle into the defect. At follow-up the results were excellent in 3 patients, good in 4 and poor in 3. This appears as a valid salvage procedure for lateral epicondylitis, since the operation was performed as a second or even a third approach. PMID:16152847

  12. Familial recurrence of heart defects in subjects with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, Gerardo; Digilio, M Cristina; Capolino, Rossella; Zorzi, Andrea De; Toscano, Alessandra; Sarkozy, Anna; D'Agostino, Rita; Marasini, Maurizio; Russo, M Giovanna; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Marino, Bruno

    2005-08-30

    Familial recurrence of congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA) is considered uncommon. Most of the previous familial studies involved a small number of patients and referred to all situs and looping anomalies including single ventricle, heterotaxia, and other cardiac defects different from CCTGA. We performed a large, consecutive clinical case series study in order to detect the recurrence of congenital heart defects in families of children with the classic form of CCTGA. From January 1997 through December 2004, 102 consecutive patients with CCTGA were evaluated in four institutions. There were 59 male (57.8%) and 43 female (42.2%). Mean age was 8.6 +/- 7.8 years. Eighty-eight patients (86.3%) had situs solitus of the atria, 14 (13.7%) situs inversus. The cardiac and extracardiac anomalies among relatives and the patterns of familial recurrence were investigated. Relatives with congenital heart defects were found in 16/102 families (15.7%). Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) was the most common recurrent defect (6/102 families). Consanguinity was identified in the parents of three probands. Six probands had an unaffected twin-sib. Recurrence risks for congenital heart defects were calculated at 5.2% (6/116) for siblings. In conclusion, CCTGA is not always sporadic in families. The pattern of inheritance, the presence of consanguinity among parents and the recurrence of situs inversus could suggest, in some families, an autosomal recessive mechanism with similarities with that occurring in some pedigrees with heterotaxia. The recurrence of TGA and CCTGA in the same family suggests a pathogenetic link between these two anatomically different malformations. PMID:16059940

  13. Transposition of great arteries is associated with increased carotid artery stiffness.

    PubMed

    Mersich, Beatrix; Studinger, Peter; Lenard, Zsuzsanna; Kadar, Krisztina; Kollai, Mark

    2006-06-01

    Transposition of great arteries is the consequence of abnormal aorticopulmonary septation. Animal embryonic data indicate that septation and elastogenesis are related events, but human and clinical data are not available. We tested the hypothesis that large artery elastic function was impaired in patients with transposition of great arteries. We studied 34 patients aged 9 to 19 years, 12+/-3 years after atrial switch operation; 14 patients aged 7 to 9 years, 8+/-1 years after arterial switch operation; and 108 healthy control subjects matched for age. Carotid artery diastolic diameter and pulsatile distension were determined by echo wall-tracking; carotid blood pressure was measured by tonometry. Systolic pressure was higher and diastolic pressure was lower in patients than in controls. Patients with atrial and arterial switch repair were compared with their respective controls by 2-factor ANOVA. For patients with atrial switch repair versus control, stiffness index beta was 4.9+/-1.5 versus 3.1+/-1.0 (P<0.001); for patients witch arterial switch versus control, stiffness index beta was 3.8+/-1.1 versus 2.1+/-0.6 (P<0.001). Similar differences were observed for carotid compliance, distensibility, and incremental elastic modulus as well. The interaction term was not significant for any of the elastic variables, indicating that carotid stiffening was a characteristic of the condition and not the consequence of different hemodynamics. Carotid artery is markedly stiffer in patients, suggesting that impaired elastogenesis may constitute part of the congenital abnormality. Since carotid artery stiffness has been established as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, this condition may have consequences in the clinical management of these patients. PMID:16618837

  14. [Development of a technique for the complete correction of transposition of great vessels].

    PubMed

    Binet, J P; Planche, C

    1992-01-01

    Complete transposition of the great arteries is one of the most common cardiovascular anomalies. Several surgical methods of treatment have been proposed. Arterial repair theoretically seems a better option since it does not introduce any additional intra cardiac anomaly and it restores the left ventricle to its natival systemic function. The rationale for neonatal arterial repair lies on fetal and neonatal cardiopulmonary physiology. The left ventricle has to eject immediately after surgery a normal cardiac output at systemic pressure in the aorta. This is the case in the neonatal period, because during fetal life pulmonary artery and aortic pressure are equal. For simple TGA, after birth, with the fall in pulmonary vascular resistances and constriction of the ductus arteriosus, pulmonary artery and left ventricular pressures drop dramatically to less than one third (1/3) of systemic pressure. As a result, the left ventricle is not stimulated for growth adaptation and becomes a thin ventricle less contractile and more compliant. However, there is little doubt that during the first 2 to 4 post-natal weeks, the left ventricle is still suitable to sustain a systemic workload. Between april 1984 and april 1992, four hundred and twenty six (426) consecutive neonates underwent an arterial switch operation for various forms of transposition: with 34 hospital deaths. The mean age at operation was 13 days and the mean weight was 3.2 kg. Among patients with TGA-VSD and coarctation, 14 underwent a single stage repair through mid sternotomy. Actuarial survival rates were: 89% for TGA-IVS at 5 years, 90% for TGA-VSD, 85.3% for TGA-VSD and coarctation at 3 years.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1301228

  15. A 6-year follow-up study of adult patients with congenitally corrected transposition.

    PubMed

    Koželj, Mirta; Cvijić, Marta; Berden, Pavel; Podnar, Tomaž

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the development of heart failure in patients with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries in a medium-term follow-up, to identify the impact of tricuspid regurgitation on the development of heart failure, and to determine the most reliable marker for its identification. The prospective 6-year follow-up study included 19 adult patients. All patients were evaluated clinically by the determination of N-terminal pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide levels, exercise stress testing, echocardiography magnetic resonance, or CT. Among them, two patients died of heart failure. There was a decline in exercise capacity and systolic systemic ventricular function (p=0.011). Systemic ventricular ejection fraction decreased (48.3±13.7 versus 42.7±12.7%, p=0.001). Tissue Doppler imaging showed a decline in peak tricuspid systolic annular velocity (10.3±2.0 versus 8.3±2.5 cm/second, p=0.032) and peak tricuspid early diastolic annular velocity (14.6±4.3 versus 12.0±4.5 cm/second, p=0.048). The tricuspid regurgitation did not increase significantly. N-terminal pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide levels increased (127.0 ng/L(82.3-305.8) versus 226.0 ng/L(112.5-753.0), p=0.022). Progressive exercise intolerance in congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries appears to be driven mainly by a progression in systemic right ventricular dysfunction. Tricuspid regurgitation is likely to play a role, especially in patients with structural abnormalities of the tricuspid valve - Ebstein anomaly. The N-terminal pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide levels and tissue Doppler parameters appear sensitive in detecting changes over time and may guide management. PMID:25522750

  16. Is the "I-Sign" in the 3-Vessel and Trachea View a Valid Tool for Prenatal Diagnosis of D-Transposition of the Great Arteries?

    PubMed

    Palatnik, Anna; Gotteiner, Nina L; Grobman, William A; Cohen, Leeber S

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of D-transposition of the great arteries remains less frequent compared to other major congenital heart defects. In this study, we examined how often the 3-vessel and trachea view was abnormal in a large series of prenatally diagnosed cases of D-transposition of the great arteries. We found that an abnormal 3-vessel and trachea view in the shape of an "I" ("I-sign"), which represents an anteriorly displaced aorta, was present in all fetuses with D-transposition of the great arteries when a 3-vessel and trachea view was successfully obtained. Therefore we believe that the 3-vessel and trachea view can be used to reliably detect D-transposition of the great arteries during prenatal sonography. PMID:26112638

  17. Hybrid procedure for a traumatic aortic rupture consisting of endovascular repair and minimally invasive arch vessel transposition without sternotomy.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yang Gi; Choo, Suk Jung; Lim, Ju Yong; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Chung, Cheol Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Emergency surgical repair for acute traumatic aortic ruptures has been associated with a high peri-procedural mortality rate. Endovascular stent-grafting, as a less invasive procedure, has shown encouraging results. This report describes a patient with a short landing zone, who was treated by transposing the supra-aortic branch without sternotomy, followed by covered stent-grafting with an extended proximal bare portion to enhance fixation. PMID:20052360

  18. Maintenance of ovarian function in end-of-life cervical cancer patient following primary surgico-radiotherapy and ovarian transposition.

    PubMed

    Sicam, Renee Vina G; Huang, Kuan-Gen; Chang, Yung-Chia; Lee, Chyi-Long

    2013-04-01

    A 35-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic radical hysterectomy, pelvic lymphadenectomy and ovarian transposition for stage IB2 cervical adenocarcinoma. She received adjuvant concurrent chemoradiation for poor pathologic risk factors but had tumor recurrence 20 months after the surgery. Transposed ovaries were uninvolved in the recurrence and progression. Salvage chemotherapy and radiotherapy were given. Despite systemic chemotherapy and repeat pelvic radiotherapy, the patient was able to maintain ovarian function. Ovarian transposition in cervical cancer is an easily performed procedure that does not alter the prognosis of the disease in some cases. Present recommendations for its use should be reevaluated so that more premenopausal cancer patients may benefit from this underutilized procedure. PMID:23653838

  19. Power Budget Analysis of Colorless Hybrid WDM/TDM-PON Scheme Using Downstream DPSK and Re-modulated Upstream OOK Data Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Yousaf; Afridi, Muhammad Idrees; Khan, Ahmed Mudassir; Rehman, Waheed Ur; Khan, Jahanzeb

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid wavelength-division multiplexed/time-division multiplexed passive optical access networks (WDM/TDM-PONs) combine the advance features of both WDM and TDM PONs to provide a cost-effective access network solution. We demonstrate and analyze the transmission performances and power budget issues of a colorless hybrid WDM/TDM-PON scheme. A 10-Gb/s downstream differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and remodulated upstream on/off keying (OOK) data signals are transmitted over 25 km standard single mode fiber. Simulation results show error free transmission having adequate power margins in both downstream and upstream transmission, which prove the applicability of the proposed scheme to future passive optical access networks. The power budget confines both the PON splitting ratio and the distance between the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Unit (ONU).

  20. Anterior transposition vs anterior and nasal transposition of inferior oblique muscle in treatment of dissociated vertical deviation associated with inferior oblique overaction.

    PubMed

    Farid, M F

    2016-04-01

    PurposeTo compare results of two surgical techniques; anteriorization (ATIO) vs anterior nasalization (ANT) of IO muscle in management of DVD associated with IOOA.MethodsTwenty-one patients with DVD associated with IOOA were included in this study. Group A consists of 11 patients who underwent ATIO and group B with 10 patients who underwent anterior transposition of IO to the nasal border of inferior rectus ANT. All patients were followed for at least 6 months postoperatively. The primary outcome variables were changes in DVD in primary position and side gazes, IO action and V pattern.ResultsThe average of correction of DVD in primary position, in adduction and in abduction was 10.63 PD, 24.6 PD (P<0.001) and 0.45 PD5 (P>0.05) in ATIO group and 14.6 PD, 25.2 PD and 1.7 PD (P<0.001) in ANT group respectively. Mean IOOA decreased from +2.0±0.7 to +0.18±0.4 in group A (P<0.001) and from +2.5±0.7 to +0.1±0.5 (P<0.001) in group B. Mean V pattern was corrected from 19.18±7.1 PD to 11.18±4.9 PD (P<0.01) in group A and from 17.8±7.9 PD to 6.0±2.49 PD (P<0.001) in group B. In group B, two patients developed hypotropia of 2 and 4 PD and one patient developed consecutive exotropia.ConclusionsIn DVD associated with IOOA, both surgical techniques are almost similar in alleviating true hypertropia in side gaze, IOOA, and V pattern. ANT gives more statistically significant DVD correction in primary position and in abduction while in adduction; there is no significant difference between both groups. However, ANT may induce hypotropia and consecutive horizontal strabismus. PMID:26742868

  1. Autogenous side-to-side brachial-basilic fistulas without vein transposition: a valuable option?

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Carlo; Casucci, Francesco; Antonelli, Maurizio; Losurdo, Nicola; Marchio, Giovanni; Teutonico, Annalisa; Libutti, Pasquale; Basile, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    An autogenous brachial-basilic arteriovenous fistula (BBAVF) in the upper arm must be considered before placing prosthetic grafts in hemodialysis patients with multiple failures of forearm AVFs. The aim of this observational study was to compare technical and clinical outcomes of a new construction technique for BBAVF (n-BBAVF) with that of the standard one-stage side-artery to end-vein transposed BBAVF (t-BBAVF). A n-BBAVF is constructed in the following way: basilic vein and brachial artery are isolated. Patency of the proximal and distal vein is verified by injecting warmed (37 degrees C) saline solution. A venotomy and an arterotomy of 4-5 mm are performed. The two vessels are prepared for a side-to-side anastomosis without transposition of the vein. The latter allows both an antegrade and retrograde flow along the basilic vein, both proximally and distally to the anastomosis with more sites available for the venipunctures of the dialysis. Thirty BBAVFs were constructed as the secondary or tertiary vascular access in 30 patients over a 4-year period: 17 patients with adequate forearm basilic vein underwent the construction of a n-BBAVF; 13 underwent the construction of a t-BBAVF. The construction of a n-BBAVF requires a significantly lesser surgical time (55.0 +/- 9.0 minutes vs. 115.0 +/- 18.0, p < 0.0001), has fewer surgical complications (5.9% vs. 46.2%, p < 0.0001), and a reduced time to first use (24.5 +/- 6.3 vs. 37.7 +/- 9.1 days, p < 0.0001) than that of a t-BBAVF. n-BBAVFs showed a relatively low rate of thrombosis per patient-year at risk (0.067 at 1 year and 0.099 at 2 years). The latter was significantly lower at 1 year when compared with t-BBAVFs (0.067 vs. 0.285; p < 0.004). Our policy of "all AVFs should be autogenous" led us to the construction of a vascular access which is based on a side-to-side anastomosis between the brachial artery and the basilic vein without transposition of the vein allowing both antegrade and retrograde flow into the

  2. Structural controls on the formation and transposition of the Malmberget apatite iron ore deposit, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Tobias; Sarlus, Zimer; Andersson, Joel; Kearney, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The Malmberget mine is the World's second largest underground iron ore operation. It is composed of approximately 20 apatite iron ore bodies, whereas 13 ore bodies with 5-245 Mt each are presently mined. The massive magnetite ore is hosted within volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. Host rocks within the entire area were subject to intense hydrothermal alteration. The ore reserves at beginning of 2012 totalled 290 Mt at 44 percent iron. Together with Kiruna and Svappavaara these three deposits stands for more than 90 percent of the iron ore production in Europe. An on-going collaborative research project aims at unravelling the structural geometries, relationships and control on ore formation and ore body transposition at different scales in the Gällivare district in general and in the Malmberget mine in particular. Recent results show the three-dimensional crustal architecture of the Malmberget deposit which has undergone at least two separate deformation events. The first deformation event (D1) resulted in the formation of a strong and penetrative cleavage (S1) forming a varyingly intense banding within the volcanic rocks. The D1-event coincides with the amphibolite facies peak metamorphism in the area. Distinct, biotite-rich D1 shear zones are spatially related to the majority of the S1-parallel massive magnetite bodies. These D1 shear zones seem to be responsible for a strong strain partitioning during D1. A second compressional event (D2) resulted in open to close folding of the S1 fabric, the D1 shear zones and the related ore bodies. The result is an asymmetric F2-synform with moderately south-west-plunging fold axis. Furthermore, distinct D2 high strain zones are responsible for local transposition of S1 fabrics, tight to isoclinal folding and channeling or re-mobilization of hydrothermal alteration minerals. Both deformation events are accompanied by syn- and late-tectonic granitic intrusions forming both foliated and unfoliated and commonly boudinaged

  3. A nucleolus-predominant piggyBac transposase, NP-mPB, mediates elevated transposition efficiency in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin-Bon; Chou, Fu-Ju; Ku, Amy T; Fan, Hsiang-Hsuan; Lee, Tung-Lung; Huang, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Su, I-Chang; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chien, Chung-Liang; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Chen, You-Tzung

    2014-01-01

    PiggyBac is a prevalent transposon system used to deliver transgenes and functionally explore the mammalian untouched genomic territory. The important features of piggyBac transposon are the relatively low insertion site preference and the ability of seamless removal from genome, which allow its potential uses in functional genomics and regenerative medicine. Efforts to increase its transposition efficiency in mammals were made through engineering the corresponding transposase (PBase) codon usage to enhance its expression level and through screening for mutant PBase variants with increased enzyme activity. To improve the safety for its potential use in regenerative medicine applications, site-specific transposition was achieved by using engineered zinc finger- and Gal4-fused PBases. An excision-prone PBase variant has also been successfully developed. Here we describe the construction of a nucleolus-predominant PBase, NP-mPB, by adding a nucleolus-predominant (NP) signal peptide from HIV-1 TAT protein to a mammalian codon-optimized PBase (mPB). Although there is a predominant fraction of the NP-mPB-tGFP fusion proteins concentrated in the nucleoli, an insertion site preference toward nucleolar organizer regions is not detected. Instead a 3-4 fold increase in piggyBac transposition efficiency is reproducibly observed in mouse and human cells. PMID:24586748

  4. A Nucleolus-Predominant piggyBac Transposase, NP-mPB, Mediates Elevated Transposition Efficiency in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Amy T.; Fan, Hsiang-Hsuan; Lee, Tung-Lung; Huang, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Su, I-Chang; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chien, Chung-Liang; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Chen, You-Tzung

    2014-01-01

    PiggyBac is a prevalent transposon system used to deliver transgenes and functionally explore the mammalian untouched genomic territory. The important features of piggyBac transposon are the relatively low insertion site preference and the ability of seamless removal from genome, which allow its potential uses in functional genomics and regenerative medicine. Efforts to increase its transposition efficiency in mammals were made through engineering the corresponding transposase (PBase) codon usage to enhance its expression level and through screening for mutant PBase variants with increased enzyme activity. To improve the safety for its potential use in regenerative medicine applications, site-specific transposition was achieved by using engineered zinc finger- and Gal4-fused PBases. An excision-prone PBase variant has also been successfully developed. Here we describe the construction of a nucleolus-predominant PBase, NP-mPB, by adding a nucleolus-predominant (NP) signal peptide from HIV-1 TAT protein to a mammalian codon-optimized PBase (mPB). Although there is a predominant fraction of the NP-mPB-tGFP fusion proteins concentrated in the nucleoli, an insertion site preference toward nucleolar organizer regions is not detected. Instead a 3–4 fold increase in piggyBac transposition efficiency is reproducibly observed in mouse and human cells. PMID:24586748

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of new Drosophila cell lines established from a strain permissive for gypsy transposition.

    PubMed

    Chalvet, F; Debec, A; Marcaillou, C; Rougeau, C; Bucheton, A

    1998-01-01

    The gypsy element of Drosophila melanogaster is the first retrovirus identified in invertebrates. Its transposition is controlled by a host gene called flamenco (flam): restrictive alleles of this gene maintain the retrovirus in a repressed state while permissive alleles allow high levels of transposition. To develop a cell system to study the gypsy element, we established four independent cell lines derived from the Drosophila strain SS, which contains a permissive allele of flamenco, and which is devoid of transposing copies of gypsy. The ultrastructural analysis of three SS cell lines revealed some remarkable characteristics, such as many nuclear virus-like particles, cytoplasmic dense particles, and massive cisternae filled with a fibrous material of unknown origin. Gypsy intragenomic distribution has been compared between the three cell lines and the original SS fly strain, and revealed in two of the cell lines an increase in copy number of a restriction fragment usually present in active gypsy elements. This multiplication seems to have occurred during the passage to the cell culture. Availability of SS cell lines should assist studies of gypsy transposition and infectivity and might be useful to produce high amounts of gypsy viral particles. These new lines already allowed us to show that the Envelope-like products of gypsy can be expressed as membrane proteins. PMID:9870529

  6. Ultrasound-modulated bioluminescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Guillaume; Schotland, John C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the density of a luminescent source in a highly scattering medium from ultrasound-modulated optical measurements. Our approach is based on the solution to a hybrid inverse source problem for the diffusion equation.

  7. Changes of Osvaldo expression patterns in germline of male hybrids between the species Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae.

    PubMed

    García Guerreiro, Maria Pilar

    2015-08-01

    Hybridization between different genomes is a source of genomic instability, sometimes associated with transposable element (TE) mobilization. Previous work showed that hybridization between the species Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae induced mobilization of different (TEs), the Osvaldo retrotransposon being the most unstable. However, we ignore the mechanisms involved in this transposition release in interspecific hybrids. In order to disentangle the mechanisms involved in this process, we performed Osvaldo expression studies in somatic and germinal tissues from hybrids and parental species. There was a trend towards increased Osvaldo expression in the somatic tissues of hybrid females and males, which was always significant in males compared to the parental species D. buzzatii but, not in females compared to maternal species D. koepferae. There were massive changes of Osvaldo expression in the testes, which varied depending on the hybrid generation and family. Moreover, Osvaldo hybridization signals, restricted to the apical and primary spermatocyte regions in parents, occupied broader region in the hybrids. In ovaries, there were no significant differences in Osvaldo expression rates between hybrids and the maternal species D. koepferae. The transcript location was restricted to ovarian nurse cells in both parents and hybrids, undetectable in some hybrids. This research highlights first, the existence of putative complex deregulation mechanisms different between sexes and cell types and second, disruption of Osvaldo activity particularly evident in testes from sterile hybrid males. Deeper studies of the total transcriptome in hybrids and parental species are necessary to gain a better knowledge of the TE deregulation pathways in hybrids. PMID:25711309

  8. Flood frequency analysis using radar rainfall fields and stochastic storm transposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Daniel B.; Smith, James A.; Baeck, Mary Lynn

    2014-02-01

    Flooding is the product of complex interactions among spatially and temporally varying rainfall, heterogeneous land surface properties, and drainage network structure. Conventional approaches to flood frequency analysis rely on assumptions regarding these interactions across a range of scales. The impacts of these assumptions on flood risk estimates are poorly understood. In this study, we present an alternative flood frequency analysis framework based on stochastic storm transposition (SST). We use SST to synthesize long records of rainfall over the Charlotte, North Carolina, USA metropolitan area by "reshuffling" radar rainfall fields, within a probabilistic framework, from a 10 year (2001-2010) high-resolution (15 min, 1 km2) radar data set. We use these resampled fields to drive a physics-based distributed hydrologic model for a heavily urbanized watershed in Charlotte. The approach makes it possible to estimate discharge return periods for all points along the drainage network without the assumptions regarding rainfall structure and its interactions with watershed features that are required using conventional methods. We develop discharge estimates for return periods from 10 to 1000 years for a range of watershed scales up to 110 km2. SST reveals that flood risk in the larger subwatersheds is dominated by tropical storms, while organized thunderstorm systems dominate flood risk in the smaller subwatersheds. We contrast these analyses with examples of potential problems that can arise from conventional frequency analysis approaches. SST provides an approach for examining the spatial extent of flooding and for incorporating nonstationarities in rainfall or land use into flood risk estimates.

  9. The RAG proteins and V(D)J recombination: complexes, ends, and transposition.

    PubMed

    Fugmann, S D; Lee, A I; Shockett, P E; Villey, I J; Schatz, D G

    2000-01-01

    V(D)J recombination proceeds through a series of protein:DNA complexes mediated in part by the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins. These proteins are responsible for sequence-specific DNA recognition and DNA cleavage, and they appear to perform multiple postcleavage roles in the reaction as well. Here we review the interaction of the RAG proteins with DNA, the chemistry of the cleavage reaction, and the higher order complexes in which these events take place. We also discuss postcleavage functions of the RAG proteins, including recent evidence indicating that they initiate the process of coding end processing by nicking hairpin DNA termini. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary and functional implications of the finding that RAG1 and RAG2 constitute a transposase, and we consider RAG protein biochemistry in the context of several bacterial transposition systems. This suggests a model of the RAG protein active site in which two divalent metal ions serve alternating and opposite roles as activators of attacking hydroxyl groups and stabilizers of oxyanion leaving groups. PMID:10837067

  10. Mariner transposition and transformation of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Coates, C J; Jasinskiene, N; Miyashiro, L; James, A A

    1998-03-31

    The mariner transposable element is capable of interplasmid transposition in the embryonic soma of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. To determine if this demonstrated mobility could be utilized to genetically transform the mosquito, a modified mariner element marked with a wild-type allele of the Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar gene was microinjected into embryos of a kynurenine hydroxylase-deficient, white-eyed recipient strain. Three of 69 fertile male founders resulting from the microinjected embryos produced families with colored-eyed progeny individuals, a transformation rate of 4%. The transgene-mediated complementation of eye color was observed to segregate in a Mendelian manner, although one insertion segregates with the recessive allele (female-determining) of the sex-determining locus, and a separate insertion is homozygous lethal. Molecular analysis of selected transformed families demonstrated that a single complete copy of the construct had integrated independently in each case and that it had done so in a transposase-mediated manner. The availability of a mariner transformation system greatly enhances our ability to study and manipulate this important vector species. PMID:9520438

  11. Genetic instability in Drosophila melanogaster: evidence for regulation, excision and transposition at the white locus.

    PubMed

    Rasmuson, B; Montell, I; Rasmuson, A; Svahlin, H; Westerberg, B M

    1980-01-01

    An unstable long tandem duplication which includes the white locus twice, marked with wsp in the left and w17g in the right locus, when kept in males has been found to produce red-eyed sons which have lost the long duplication and with it the wsp and w17g mutants. Such exceptions were produced also when w17g had been exchanged for wa. Stocks originating from these exceptions are unstable, producing: 1) zeste males, also unstable, 2) w- deletions, stable, 3) transpositions of the white locus to sites in other chromosomes. The instability is interpreted as the effect of an IS element, within or adjacent to the white locus, which is supposed to retain a duplication of the proximal zeste interacting part of this locus. According to the orientation of the IS element the duplicated part can be active or inactive, giving a zeste or red eye phenotype. The frequency of exceptional offspring after X-ray treatment of the red and zeste unstable stocks have been compared to stable stocks with corresponding genotypes. PMID:6247608

  12. Metabolic alterations and neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Park, I Sook; Yoon, S Young; Min, J Yeon; Kim, Y Hwue; Ko, J Kok; Kim, K Soo; Seo, D Man; Lee, J Hee

    2006-01-01

    Abnormal neurodevelopment has been reported for infants who were born with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and underwent arterial switch operation (ASO). This study evaluates the cerebral metabolism of TGA infants at birth and before ASO and neurodevelopment 1 year after ASO. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was performed on 16 full-term TGA brains before ASO within 3-6 days after birth. The brain metabolite ratios of [NAA/Cr], [Cho/Cr], and [mI/Cr] evaluated measured. Ten infants were evaluated at 1 year using the Bayley Scales of Infants Development II (BSED II). Cerebral metabolism of infants with TGA was altered in parietal white matter (PWM) and occipital gray matter (OGM) at birth before ASO. One year after ASO, [Cho/Cr] in PWM remained altered, but all metabolic ratios in OGM were normal. The results of BSID II at 1 year showed delayed mental and psychomotor development. This delayed neurodevelopmental outcome may reflect consequences of the altered cerebral metabolism in PWM measured by 1H-MRS. It is speculated that the abnormal hemodynamics due to TGA in utero may be responsible for the impaired cerebral metabolism and the subsequent neurodevelopmental deficit. PMID:16897317

  13. Studies on the Rate and Site-Specificity of P Element Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Berg, C. A.; Spradling, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    A single genetically marked P element can be efficiently mobilized to insertionally mutagenize the Drosophila genome. We have investigated how the structure of the starting element and its location along the X chromosome influenced the rate and location of mutations recovered. The structure of two P[rosy(+)] elements strongly affected mobilization by the autonomous ``Jumpstarter-1'' element. Their average transposition rates differed more than 12-fold, while their initial chromosomal location had a smaller effect. The lethal and sterile mutations induced by mobilizing a P[rosy(+)] element from position 1F were compared with those identified previously using a P[neo(R)] element at position 9C. With one possible exception, insertion hotspots for one element were frequently also targets of the other transposon. These experiments suggested that the genomic location of a P element does not usually influence its target sites on nonhomologous chromosomes. During the course of these experiments, Y-linked insertions expressing rosy(+) were recovered, suggesting that marked P elements can sometimes insert and function at heterochromatic sites. PMID:1849859

  14. Head and neck reconstruction using cephalic vein transposition in the vessel-depleted neck.

    PubMed

    Vasilakis, Vasileios; Patel, Hasu D L; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2009-01-01

    In microvascular reconstructive surgery the patency of the recipient vessels is the key to successful outcome. In head and neck surgery there is often a lack of adequate recipient vessels as a result of chemoradiation therapy and ablative surgery. To overcome this it is crucial to identify vessels of adequate length and diameter outside the field of injury. We report our experience with cephalic vein transposition for drainage of seven free flaps--six intestinal and one osteocutaneous--for head and neck reconstruction. In five cases the cephalic vein was used during the free flap transfer and in two cases in salvage re-exploration surgery. All flaps survived completely. The anatomical course and location of the cephalic vein allow good patency and straightforward harvesting. Its vascular properties are predictive of reduced incidence of complications such as flap congestion and failure. We suggest that the cephalic vein offers a high venous flow drainage system for large free flaps and advocate its use in free intestinal transfer in the vessel-depleted neck as well as in re-exploration surgery. PMID:19530090

  15. Pregnancy outcomes in women with transposition of the great arteries and arterial switch operation.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Daniel; Fernandes, Susan M; Wald, Rachel M; Landzberg, Michael; Salehian, Omid; Siu, Samuel C; Colman, Jack M; Sermer, Matthew; Silversides, Candice K

    2010-08-01

    There is a growing population of young women of child-bearing age with complete transposition of the great arteries (TGA) who have had an arterial switch operation (ASO). Pregnancy imposes a hemodynamic stress on the heart and, therefore, adverse cardiac events can occur during this period; however, pregnancy outcomes in this population have not been well studied. We sought to describe cardiac outcomes during pregnancy in women with TGA who had undergone an ASO in childhood. Women were identified from 2 large tertiary care hospitals. A retrospective chart review was performed to determine the prevalence of adverse maternal cardiac events during pregnancy. Overall, 74 women of child-bearing age were identified, 9 of whom had 17 pregnancies. There were 4 miscarriages. Six women (67%) had clinically important valve (n = 5) and ventricular (n = 1) lesions before the index pregnancy. Two women developed cardiac complications during pregnancy; 1 woman with impaired left ventricular systolic function had nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and 1 woman with a mechanical systemic atrioventricular valve developed postpartum valve thrombosis. There were no maternal deaths. In conclusion, young women with TGA from this early cohort repaired with ASO are reaching child-bearing age. A significant proportion have residua and/or sequelae that can confer risk for adverse cardiac events in pregnancy. Co-ordinated care between a congenital heart disease specialist and a high-risk obstetrician should be implemented. PMID:20643256

  16. Dynamic outflow tract obstruction in congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Zurick, Andrew O; Menon, Venu

    2010-08-01

    Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA) is a rare form of congenital heart disease, constituting 0.5% of all congenital heart defects. The incidence of left ventricle (non-systemic ventricle) outflow tract obstruction ranges between 44 and 57%. Herein, we present the case of a 45 year old woman with CCTGA with progressively worsening dyspnea who had been referred for surgical correction of severe systemic ventricle (morphologic right ventricle) atrio-ventricular valve (tricuspid valve) regurgitation. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and transesophageal imaging (TEE) demonstrated severe systemic ventricle (morphologic right ventricle) contractile dysfunction, as well as dynamic non-systemic ventricle (morphologic left ventricle) outflow tract obstruction due to systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the non-systemic ventricle (morphologic left ventricle) atrio-ventricular valve (mitral valve) with a large membranous ventricular septal aneurysm that protrudes into the outflow tract of the non-systemic ventricle (morphologic left ventricle). Ultimately, our patient was felt to be too high-risk for surgical correction and a course of medical therapy has been pursued. PMID:20191324

  17. Acute myocardial infarction with isolated congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries

    PubMed Central

    Altman, J. Ryan; Gantt, D. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cardiac abnormalities diagnosed at the time of acute coronary syndrome are rare. A 43-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of recurring, severe chest pain. Subsequent emergent coronary angiography demonstrated unusual coronary anatomy: 1) one small caliber bifurcating vessel originating from the right sinus of Valsalva; 2) one very large vessel arising from the posterior sinus; and 3) no coronary artery from the normal left sinus of Valsalva. The large vessel from the posterior sinus was totally occluded in its midportion and was treated with intravascular ultrasound-guided percutaneous coronary intervention. Further diagnostic workup, including two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiogram and computed tomographic coronary angiography, demonstrated isolated corrected transposition of the great arteries with a dilated systemic ventricle and systolic dysfunction with an ejection fraction of 30%. The patient's clinical course was complicated by recurrent nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, treated with medical therapy and a dual-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator. This case is an example of a common clinical presentation with a very uncommon congenital heart disorder. Similar cases may become more frequent as the number of adult congenital heart patients increases in the population. PMID:27034557

  18. Efficient mammalian germline transgenesis by cis-enhanced Sleeping Beauty transposition.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Daniel F; Geurts, Aron M; Garbe, John R; Park, Chang-Won; Rangel-Filho, Artur; O'Grady, Scott M; Jacob, Howard J; Steer, Clifford J; Largaespada, David A; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2011-02-01

    Heightened interest in relevant models for human disease increases the need for improved methods for germline transgenesis. We describe a significant improvement in the creation of transgenic laboratory mice and rats by chemical modification of Sleeping Beauty transposons. Germline transgenesis in mice and rats was significantly enhanced by in vitro cytosine-phosphodiester-guanine methylation of transposons prior to injection. Heritability of transgene alleles was also greater from founder mice generated with methylated versus non-methylated transposon. The artificial methylation was reprogrammed in the early embryo, leading to founders that express the transgenes. We also noted differences in transgene insertion number and structure (single-insert versus concatemer) based on the influence of methylation and plasmid conformation (linear versus supercoiled), with supercoiled substrate resulting in efficient transpositional transgenesis (TnT) with near elimination of concatemer insertion. Combined, these substrate modifications resulted in increases in both the frequency of transgenic founders and the number of transgenes per founder, significantly elevating the number of potential transgenic lines. Given its simplicity, versatility and high efficiency, TnT with enhanced Sleeping Beauty components represents a compelling non-viral approach to modifying the mammalian germline. PMID:20352328

  19. Controlling DNA degradation from a distance: a new role for the Mu transposition enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wonyoung; Saha, Rudra P.; Jang, Sooin; Harshey, Rasika M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Phage Mu is unique among transposable elements in employing a transposition enhancer. The enhancer DNA segment is the site where the transposase MuA binds and makes bridging interactions with the two Mu ends, interwrapping the ends with the enhancer in a complex topology essential for assembling a catalytically active transpososome. The enhancer is also the site at which regulatory proteins control divergent transcription of genes that determine the phage lysis-lysogeny decision. Here we report a third function for the enhancer - that of regulating degradation of extraneous DNA attached to both ends of infecting Mu. This DNA is protected from nucleases by a phage protein until Mu integrates into the host chromosome, after which it is rapidly degraded. We find that leftward transcription at the enhancer, expected to disrupt its topology within the transpososome, blocks degradation of this DNA. Disruption of the enhancer would lead to the loss or dislocation of two non-catalytic MuA subunits positioned in the transpososome by the enhancer. We provide several lines of support for this inference, and conclude that these subunits are important for activating degradation of the flanking DNA. This work also reveals a role for enhancer topology in phage development. PMID:25256747

  20. Frequent transpositions of Drosophila melanogaster HeT-A transposable elements to receding chromosome ends.

    PubMed Central

    Biessmann, H; Champion, L E; O'Hair, M; Ikenaga, K; Kasravi, B; Mason, J M

    1992-01-01

    HeT-A elements are a new family of transposable elements in Drosophila that are found exclusively in telomeric regions and in the pericentric heterochromatin. Transposition of these elements onto broken chromosome ends has been implicated in chromosome healing. To monitor the fate of HeT-A elements that had attached to broken ends of the X chromosome, we examined individual X chromosomes from a defined population over a period of 17 generations. The ends of the X chromosomes with new HeT-A additions receded at the same rate as the broken ends before the HeT-A elements attached. In addition, some chromosomes, approximately 1% per generation, had acquired new HeT-A sequences of an average of 6 kb at their ends with oligo(A) tails at the junctions. Thus, the rate of addition of new material per generation matches the observed rate of terminal loss (70-75 bp) caused by incomplete replication at the end of the DNA molecule. One such recently transposed HeT-A element which is at least 12 kb in length has been examined in detail. It contains a single open reading frame of 2.8 kb which codes for a gag-like protein. Images PMID:1330538

  1. An atypical AAA+ ATPase assembly controls efficient transposition through DNA remodeling and transposase recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Berger, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Transposons are ubiquitous genetic elements that drive genome rearrangements, evolution, and the spread of infectious disease and drug-resistance. Many transposons, such as Mu, Tn7 and IS21, require regulatory AAA+ ATPases for function. We use x-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy to show that the ATPase subunit of IS21, IstB, assembles into a clamshell-shaped decamer that sandwiches DNA between two helical pentamers of ATP-associated AAA+ domains, sharply bending the duplex into a 180° U-turn. Biochemical studies corroborate key features of the structure, and further show that the IS21 transposase, IstA, recognizes the IstB•DNA complex and promotes its disassembly by stimulating ATP hydrolysis. Collectively, these studies reveal a distinct manner of higher-order assembly and client engagement by a AAA+ ATPase and suggest a mechanistic model where IstB binding and subsequent DNA bending primes a selected insertion site for efficient transposition. PMID:26276634

  2. Complete mouth rehabilitation after transposition osteotomy based on intraoral scanning: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Edelhoff, Daniel; Ihloff, Hela; Mast, Gerson

    2014-08-01

    This article describes the surgical and prosthodontic treatment of a patient with severe dysgnathia combined with amelogenesis imperfecta. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first treatment report to describe the application of intraoral scanning for a complete mouth reconstruction. After transposition osteotomy, the treatment included the simultaneous fabrication of antagonistic computer-aided design/computer-aided manufactured (CAD/CAM) long-term interim restorations for the maxilla and mandible and the establishment of a new centric relation position and adequate vertical dimension of occlusion. Particularly in complex situations, the major advantages of intraoral scanning can be identified as an extended magnification of the 3-dimensional digital data to control the preparation and impression at the dental office. However, the presented treatment revealed some deficiencies in the digital work flow that must be rectified. In combination with high-performance polymers, the CAD/CAM technology offers a wide range of new treatment options and simplifies the fabrication of long-term interim restorations. Although in the present treatment the esthetic and functional requirements of the patient were met, no published studies of this procedure have been based on intraoral scanning, and the approach has to be considered experimental. PMID:24529842

  3. Immediate Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in F1 Hybrids Parented by Species with Divergent Genomes in the Rice Genus (Oryza)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shuai; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Tingting; Cao, Shuai; Josiah, Samuel Manthi; Pang, Jinsong; Lin, Xiuyun; Liu, Bao

    2015-01-01

    Background Inter-specific hybridization occurs frequently in higher plants, and represents a driving force of evolution and speciation. Inter-specific hybridization often induces genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the resultant homoploid hybrids or allopolyploids, a phenomenon known as genome shock. Although genetic and epigenetic consequences of hybridizations between rice subspecies (e.g., japonica and indica) and closely related species sharing the same AA genome have been extensively investigated, those of inter-specific hybridizations between more remote species with different genomes in the rice genus, Oryza, remain largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the immediate chromosomal and molecular genetic/epigenetic instability of three triploid F1 hybrids produced by inter-specific crossing between species with divergent genomes of Oryza by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and molecular marker analysis. Transcriptional and transpositional activity of several transposable elements (TEs) and methylation stability of their flanking regions were also assessed. We made the following principle findings: (i) all three triploid hybrids are stable in both chromosome number and gross structure; (ii) stochastic changes in both DNA sequence and methylation occurred in individual plants of all three triploid hybrids, but in general methylation changes occurred at lower frequencies than genetic changes; (iii) alteration in DNA methylation occurred to a greater extent in genomic loci flanking potentially active TEs than in randomly sampled loci; (iv) transcriptional activation of several TEs commonly occurred in all three hybrids but transpositional events were detected in a genetic context-dependent manner. Conclusions/Significance Artificially constructed inter-specific hybrids of remotely related species with divergent genomes in genus Oryza are chromosomally stable but show immediate and highly stochastic genetic and epigenetic

  4. Hybridization chain reaction modulated DNA-hosted silver nanoclusters for fluorescent identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the let-7 miRNA family.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xue; Wang, Pei; Cao, Zhijuan

    2014-10-15

    A simple microRNA (miRNA) detection system based on hybridization chain reaction (HCR) has been developed using highly fluorescent DNA-hosted silver (Ag) nanoclusters. In this assay, a new type of hairpin DNA probe (MB1) containing a poly-cytosine nucleotide loop is designed and used as one of the HCR monomers, which is also demonstrated to be an ideal template for in situ synthesis of highly fluorescent Ag nanoclusters. Correspondingly, another HCR monomer (MB2) contains a poly-guanine nucleotide sticky end. Two monomers are stable to coexist in solution until the introduction of the initiator strand (let-7a) triggers a cascade of hybridization events that yields nicked double helices analogous. By taking advantage of HCR, a small amount of let-7a leads to the conformational change of a large amount of MB1, which results in the decrease of fluorescent signal greatly. Overall, this label-free, enzyme-free method allows the sensitive detection of let-7a with high specificity towards single nucleotide polymorphisms in the let-7 miRNA family. In addition, the simple "mix and measure" assay can be extended to detect other types of targets upon slight modification, and thus provides a tool for the early diagnosis and risk assessment of malignancy. PMID:24836018

  5. A matter of emphasis: Linguistic stress habits modulate serial recall.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John C; Macken, Bill; Jones, Dylan M

    2015-04-01

    Models of short-term memory for sequential information rely on item-level, feature-based descriptions to account for errors in serial recall. Transposition errors within alternating similar/dissimilar letter sequences derive from interactions between overlapping features. However, in two experiments, we demonstrated that the characteristics of the sequence are what determine the fates of items, rather than the properties ascribed to the items themselves. Performance in alternating sequences is determined by the way that the sequences themselves induce particular prosodic rehearsal patterns, and not by the nature of the items per se. In a serial recall task, the shapes of the canonical "saw-tooth" serial position curves and transposition error probabilities at successive input-output distances were modulated by subvocal rehearsal strategies, despite all item-based parameters being held constant. We replicated this finding using nonalternating lists, thus demonstrating that transpositions are substantially influenced by prosodic features-such as stress-that emerge during subvocal rehearsal. PMID:25280733

  6. SU-E-P-06: A Novel Hybrid Planning Approach to Allow More Patients Benefited by the Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, S; Liao, L; Li, Y; Wang, X; Sahoo, N; Liao, Z; Grosshans, D; Frank, S; Li, H; Zhu, X; Chang, J; Zhang, X; Gillin, M; Hojo, Y; Sun, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We report a hybrid scattering and scanning beam delivery approach, termed as (HimpsPT), which demonstrated that majority IMPT delivery can be potentially replaced with hybrid IMPT and PSPT delivery with similar or better plan quality. Methods: Three representative clinical cases, including head and neck (HN), skull base chordoma (CNS) and lung cancer, treated in MDACC Proton Therapy Center with IMPT were retrospectively redesigned using HimpsPT. The PSPT plans are designed with the same prescriptions as those of IMPT plans. The whole treatment can be delivered by either alternating or sequential PSPT and IMPT delivery. The dosimetric data and dose distributions of HimpsPT plans are compared with those of IMPT plans. We also performed a worst-case robust analysis for all plans. Results: The target coverages for all cases are comparable. For the HN case, the mean dose of esophagus larynx, left parotid and right submandibular, oral cavity V20, the max dose of cord is 18.0, 36.1, 23.6, 47.2, 0.1, 31.7 Gy in HimpsPT plan, and 25.5, 33.8, 24.9, 49.1, 0.2, 33.8 Gy in IMPT plan. For the lung case, the lung V5, V20, V30, mean lung dose, heart V40, esophagus V70, cord maximum dose are 50.5%, 37.0%, 31.7%, 21.3 Gy, 7.2%, 4.9%, 35.5 Gy in HimpsPT plan, and 55.4%, 36.7%, 30.1%, 21.3 Gy, 7.7%, 8.4%, 36.8Gy in IMPT plans. For the CNS case, brainstem maximum dose is 50.5 Gy in HimpsPT plan and 55.4 Gy in IMPT plan due to sharp penumbra offered by the aperture of the PSPT plan in HimpsPT technique. Conclusion: For majority disease sites, the dosimetric advantage of IMPT technique can be achieved by the hybrid PSPT and IMPT technique, which enables the centers equipped with both scattering and scanning beam facilities to treat more patients which can be benefited by the scanning beam.

  7. An unequal crossover event in RCCX modules of the human MHC resulting in the formation of a TNXB/TNXA hybrid and deletion of the CYP21A.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Taina; Chung, Erwin K; Ruuskanen, Olli; Lokki, Marja Liisa

    2002-08-01

    The central region of the human major histocompatibility complex contains tandemly arranged genes of RP, C4, CYP21, and TNX. The C4 gene region is prone to rearrangements that generates duplications, conversions, and deletions. Diversity in gene number and size causes reorganization and may lead to genetic disorders. The RP, C4, CYP21, and TNX genes form a genetic unit called RCCX. We describe molecular studies on RCCX haplotypes revealing a unique recombination giving rise to a TNXB/TNXA hybrid gene, CYP21A deletion and CYP21B duplication on one chromosome of the propositus. His other chromosome carries a deletion of CYP21A-TNXA-RP2-C4B genes, resulting in the total absence of CYP21A genes and the presence of three CYP21B genes in the genome. PMID:12121677

  8. Rainfall and Flood Frequency Analysis Using High-Resolution Radar Rainfall Fields and Stochastic Storm Transposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Daniel; Smith, James; Baeck, Mary Lynn

    2013-04-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall fields, and their interactions with surface, subsurface, and drainage network properties, are important drivers of flood response. 'Design storms,' which are commonly used for flood risk assessment, however, are assumed to be uniform in space and either uniform or highly idealized in time. The impacts of these and other common assumptions on estimates of flood risk are poorly understood. We present an alternative framework for flood risk assessment based on stochastic storm transposition (SST). In this framework, "storm catalogs" are derived from a ten-year high-resolution (15-minute, 1 km2) bias-corrected radar rainfall dataset for the region surrounding Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. SST-based rainfall frequency analyses are developed by resampling from these storm catalogs to synthesize the regional climatology of extreme rainfall. SST-based intensity-frequency-duration (IFD) estimates are driven by the spatial and temporal rainfall variability from weather radar observations, are specifically tailored to the chosen catchment, and do not require simplifying assumptions of storm structure. We are able to use the SST procedure to reproduce IFD estimates from conventional methods for small urban catchments in Charlotte. We further demonstrate that extreme rainfall can vary substantially in time and in space, with important flood risk implications that cannot be assessed using conventional techniques. When coupled with a physics-based distributed hydrologic model, the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model, SST enables us to examine the full impact of spatial and temporal rainfall variability on flood response and flood frequency. The interactions of extreme rainfall with spatially distributed land use, soil properties, and stormwater management infrastructure are assessed for several nested urban catchments in Charlotte. Results suggest that these interactions, which cannot be fully accounted for

  9. Sudden cardiac death in adults with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries

    PubMed Central

    McCombe, A; Touma, F; Jackson, D; Canniffe, C; Choudhary, P; Pressley, L; Tanous, D; Robinson, Peter J; Celermajer, D

    2016-01-01

    Background Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) is a rare congenital heart disease. There have been only few reports of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with ccTGA and reasonable ventricular function. Methods A retrospective review of the medical records of all patients attending our adult congenital heart centre, with known ccTGA. Results From a database of over 3500 adult patients with congenital heart disease, we identified 39 (∼1%) with ccTGA and ‘two-ventricle’ circulations. 65% were male. The mean age at diagnosis was 12.4±11.4 years and the mean age at last time of review was 34.3±11.3 years. 24 patients (56%) had a history of surgical intervention. 8 (19%) had had pacemaker implantation and 2 had had a defibrillator implanted for non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT). In 544 years of patient follow-up, there had been five cases of SCD in our population; 1 death per 109 patient-years. Two of these patients had had previously documented supraventricular or NSVT. However, they were all classified as New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I or II, and systemic (right) ventricular function had been recorded as normal, mildly or mildly–moderately impaired, at most recent follow-up. Conclusions Our experience suggests the need for improved risk stratification and/or surveillance for malignant arrhythmia in adults with ccTGA, even in those with reasonable functional class on ventricular function. PMID:27493760

  10. Diminished Utilization of In Vitro Fertilization Following Ovarian Transposition in Cervical Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Sana. M.; Albayrak, Samet; Seo, Songwon; Stewart, Sarah L.; Bradley, Kristen; Kushner, David. M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Ovarian transposition (OT) is offered to reproductive age women with cervical cancer (CC) to preserve fertility prior to pelvic radiation. The aim of this study was to assess subsequent utilization of fertility treatment in these patients. STUDY DESIGN This is a case series of 216 cervical cancer patients seen in a comprehensive cancer center. 16 patients underwent OT for fertility preservation prior to pelvic radiation. Patients were assessed for utilization of fertility treatment, FSH levels as a measure of ovarian reserve, and functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-cervix cancer (FACT-CX) to assess quality of life after OT. RESULTS 94% of patients maintained regular menstrual cycles three years after OT surgery (15/16). When measured (n=5) serum FSH was normal at baseline, and showed a transient elevation at three months following chemoradiation, with a return to normal levels at six months (Means 6.33±2.94, 48.44±18.63, 12.52±8.25, mIU/ML respectively). Only one patient in this series attempted fertility treatment (in vitro fertilization) following OT, and did not become pregnant. FACT-CX indicated that quality of life did not change significantly over the six months’ duration following OT and chemoradiation therapy. CONCLUSIONS OT preserves menstrual cycle regularity without negatively impacting patients’ quality of life. The utility of OT as an effective fertility preservation option is hampered by the low utilization rate of in vitro fertilization and lack of ovarian reserve assessment following OT. PMID:26380495

  11. Functional microRNAs and target sites are created by lineage-specific transposition

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Ryan M.; Oakley, Clayton K.; Davidson, Beverly L.

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) account for nearly one-half of the sequence content in the human genome, and de novo germline transposition into regulatory or coding sequences of protein-coding genes can cause heritable disorders. TEs are prevalent in and around protein-coding genes, providing an opportunity to impart regulation. Computational studies reveal that microRNA (miRNA) genes and miRNA target sites reside within TE sequences, but there is little experimental evidence supporting a role for TEs in the birth of miRNAs, or as platform for gene regulation by miRNAs. In this work, we validate miRNAs and target sites derived from TE families prevalent in the human genome, including the ancient long interspersed nuclear element 2 (LINE2/L2), mammalian-wide interspersed repeat (MIR) retrotransposons and the primate-specific Alu family. We show that genes with 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) MIR elements are enriched for let-7 targets and that these sites are conserved and responsive to let-7 expression. We also demonstrate that 3′ UTR-embedded Alus are a source of miR-24 and miR-122 target sites and that a subset of active genomic Alus provide for de novo target site creation. Finally, we report that although the creation of miRNA genes by Alu elements is relatively uncommon relative to their overall genomic abundance, Alu-derived miR-1285-1 is efficiently processed from its genomic locus and regulates genes with target sites contained within homologous elements. Taken together, our data provide additional evidence for TEs as a source for miRNAs and miRNA target sites, with instances of conservation through the course of mammalian evolution. PMID:24234653

  12. Behaviour at eight years in children with surgically corrected transposition: The Boston Circulatory Arrest Trial.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, David C; Newburger, Jane W; Wypij, David; Kuban, Karl C K; duPlesssis, Adre J; Rappaport, Leonard A

    2009-02-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the degree to which infants with congenitally malformed hearts are at risk of behavioural disorders in childhood. Data was collected as part of a randomized clinical trial involving 155 children with surgically corrected transposition (concordant atrioventricular and ventriculo-arterial connections or alignments). As infants, they underwent the arterial switch operation, involving deep hypothermia with predominantly total circulatory arrest or predominantly low-flow continuous cardiopulmonary bypass as the method of providing support to the vital organs. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist when the patients were aged 4 and 8 years, and the Connors' Parent Rating Scale at the age of 8 years. When the children were aged 8, teachers completed the Teacher's Report Form and the Connors' Teacher Rating Scale. In the cohort as a whole, the frequencies of behavioural problems identified by both parents and teachers were elevated, particularly on the scales for competence of the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Adaptive scales of the Teacher's Report Form. Approximately 1 in 5 patients had scores for Total Problem Behavior in the range of clinical concern on both the Child Behavior Checklist and the Teacher's Report Form. Few differences were found, however, according to the method of operative treatment. Postoperative seizures were associated with social and attention problems. Children experiencing academic problems at the age of 8 showed a larger increase in behavioural problems between the ages of 4 and 8 than did children making adequate academic progress. Children with congenitally malformed hearts who underwent reparative surgery in infancy using a strategy of severe haemodilution and alpha stat are at increased risk of behavioural problems in middle childhood. PMID:19079812

  13. [Intensive care for newborns and infants after anatomic correction of transposition of great vessels].

    PubMed

    Manerova, A F; Lobacheva, G V; Khar'kin, A V; Bokeriia, L A

    2006-01-01

    A retrospective study was made in 48 babies undergone an arterial switching operation at the Bakulev Research Center of Cardiovascular Surgery in January 2004 to September 2005. Their age at surgery was 5 days to 11 months; body weight, 3.9 +/- 1.1 kg (2.4-8.7 kg). According to the course of a postoperative period, the patients were divided into 2 groups: 1) 28 (58.3%) neonates with simple transposition of great vessels (TGV) and older babies (above 3 weeks of life) with simple TGV; 2) 20 (41.6%) patients with TGV + ventricular septal defect. The postoperative management of all the patients was based on the delayed bringing the sternum together in babies at risk for close mediastinum syndrome, on the reduction in left and right ventricular afterload with the mean blood pressure (BPmean) minimally sufficient to maintain adequate coronary blood flow and diuresis, by using inodilatators and nitric oxide (II) and by limiting the volume of administered fluid. The sternum was primarily brought together in 20 (41.6%) patients, in 13 (27.1%) on day 2. Sternal separation was required in 1 patient from Group 1 on postoperative day 2. The duration of artificial ventilation was 3.3 +/- 5.2 days (0.7-15 days); the length of stay in an intensive care unit was 4.8 +/- 8.2 days (1-20 days). There were 9 (18.7%) deaths. Left ventricular failure, high pulmonary hypertension, and coronary insufficiency were causes of death in 2 (4.8%), 1 (2.4%), and 2 (4.8%) patients, respectively. After arterial switching, the optimum management of patients with low cardiac output is to maintain low peripheral resistance and to restrict preload and to use FDE III inhibitors as the drugs of choice. PMID:16889214

  14. Behaviour at eight years in children with surgically corrected transposition: The Boston Circulatory Arrest Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Bellinger, David C.; Newburger, Jane W.; Wypij, David; Kuban, Karl C. K.; duPlesssis, Adre J.; Rappaport, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the degree to which infants with congenitally malformed hearts are at risk of behavioural disorders in childhood. Data was collected as part of a randomized clinical trial involving 155 children with surgically corrected transposition (concordant atrioventricular and ventriculo-arterial connections or alignments). As infants, they underwent the arterial switch operation, involving deep hypothermia with predominantly total circulatory arrest or predominantly low-flow continuous cardiopulmonary bypass as the method of providing support to the vital organs. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist when the patients were aged 4 and 8 years, and the Connors’ Parent Rating Scale at the age of 8 years. When the children were aged 8, teachers completed the Teacher’s Report Form and the Connors’ Teacher Rating Scale. In the cohort as a whole, the frequencies of behavioural problems identified by both parents and teachers were elevated, particularly on the scales for competence of the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Adaptive scales of the Teacher’s Report Form. Approximately 1 in 5 patients had scores for Total Problem Behavior in the range of clinical concern on both the Child Behavior Checklist and the Teacher’s Report Form. Few differences were found, however, according to the method of operative treatment. Postoperative seizures were associated with social and attention problems. Children experiencing academic problems at the age of 8 showed a larger increase in behavioural problems between the ages of 4 and 8 than did children making adequate academic progress. Children with congenitally malformed hearts who underwent reparative surgery in infancy using a strategy of severe haemodilution and alpha stat are at increased risk of behavioural problems in middle childhood. PMID:19079812

  15. Long-Term Tinnitus Suppression with Linear Octave Frequency Transposition Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Peltier, Elisabeth; Peltier, Cedric; Tahar, Stephanie; Alliot-Lugaz, Evelyne; Cazals, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three years of hearing aid dispensing, it was observed that among 74 subjects fitted with a linear octave frequency transposition (LOFT) hearing aid, 60 reported partial or complete tinnitus suppression during day and night, an effect still lasting after several months or years of daily use. We report in more details on 38 subjects from whom we obtained quantified measures of tinnitus suppression through visual analog scaling and several additional psychoacoustic and audiometric measures. The long-term suppression seems independent of subject age, and of duration and subjective localization of tinnitus. A small but significant correlation was found with audiogram losses but not with high frequency loss slope. Long-term tinnitus suppression was observed for different etiologies, but with a low success rate for sudden deafness. It should be noted that a majority of subjects (23) had a history of noise exposure. Tinnitus suppression started after a few days of LOFT hearing aid use and reached a maximum after a few weeks of daily use. For nine subjects different amounts of frequency shifting were tried and found more or less successful for long-term tinnitus suppression, no correlation was found with tinnitus pitch. When the use of the LOFT hearing aid was stopped tinnitus reappeared within a day, and after re-using the LOFT aid it disappeared again within a day. For about one third of the 38 subjects a classical amplification or a non linear frequency compression aid was also tried, and no such tinnitus suppression was observed. Besides improvements in audiometric sensitivity to high frequencies and in speech discrimination scores, LOFT can be considered as a remarkable opportunity to suppress tinnitus over a long time scale. From a pathophysiological viewpoint these observations seem to fit with a possible re-attribution of activity to previously deprived cerebral areas corresponding to high frequency coding. PMID:23284815

  16. Long-term tinnitus suppression with linear octave frequency transposition hearing AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Elisabeth; Peltier, Cedric; Tahar, Stephanie; Alliot-Lugaz, Evelyne; Cazals, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three years of hearing aid dispensing, it was observed that among 74 subjects fitted with a linear octave frequency transposition (LOFT) hearing aid, 60 reported partial or complete tinnitus suppression during day and night, an effect still lasting after several months or years of daily use. We report in more details on 38 subjects from whom we obtained quantified measures of tinnitus suppression through visual analog scaling and several additional psychoacoustic and audiometric measures. The long-term suppression seems independent of subject age, and of duration and subjective localization of tinnitus. A small but significant correlation was found with audiogram losses but not with high frequency loss slope. Long-term tinnitus suppression was observed for different etiologies, but with a low success rate for sudden deafness. It should be noted that a majority of subjects (23) had a history of noise exposure. Tinnitus suppression started after a few days of LOFT hearing aid use and reached a maximum after a few weeks of daily use. For nine subjects different amounts of frequency shifting were tried and found more or less successful for long-term tinnitus suppression, no correlation was found with tinnitus pitch. When the use of the LOFT hearing aid was stopped tinnitus reappeared within a day, and after re-using the LOFT aid it disappeared again within a day. For about one third of the 38 subjects a classical amplification or a non linear frequency compression aid was also tried, and no such tinnitus suppression was observed. Besides improvements in audiometric sensitivity to high frequencies and in speech discrimination scores, LOFT can be considered as a remarkable opportunity to suppress tinnitus over a long time scale. From a pathophysiological viewpoint these observations seem to fit with a possible re-attribution of activity to previously deprived cerebral areas corresponding to high frequency coding. PMID:23284815

  17. Upper Arm Basilic Vein Transposition for Hemodialysis: A Single Center Study for 300 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yunhee; Song, Dan; Kim, Myung Jin; Yun, Sang Chul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The population of end-stage renal failure patients dependent on hemodialysis continues to expand with an increasing number of patients having an unsuitable cephalic vein or failed radio- and brachio-cephalic fistula. In these patients, the transposed basilic vein to brachial artery arteriovenous fistula (BaVT) provides autologous choice for hemodialysis. The results of basilic vein transposition arteriovenous fistula were assessed. Materials and Methods: Three hundred cases of BaVT performed at a single center during the period of January 2005 to December 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Data including demographics and postoperative complications were collected. Primary and secondary patency rates were determined by using Kaplan-Meier methods. Results: The median age of patients was 57.4±13.1 years, and 154 patients were male. Renal failure was associated with hypertension in 88.7%, and with diabetes in 34.0%. The mean follow-up was 27.4±20.0 (12 to 72) months. There was no operation-related death. Eighteen patients required prosthetic graft interposition because of short vein. Thirty-five postoperative complications developed in 41 patients (148 cases), including thrombosis, stenosis, hematoma, seroma, arm swelling, steal syndrome, infection and aneurysm formation. Primary patency of BaVT was 69%, 60%, 53%, 52%, 44%, and 22% at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years, respectively. Secondary patency was 99%, 97%, 97%, 97%, 95%, and 95%, respectively. Conclusion: Chronic renal failure patients with hemodialysis may benefit from BaVT, because of high patency, less radiologic procedure, and less infection rate. The BaVT fistula should be used in preference to polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for secondary access. PMID:27386452

  18. [Balloon (Rashkind) atrio-septostomy in transposition of great vessels in the neonatal period].

    PubMed

    González de Dios, J; Blanco Bravo, D; Burgueros Valero, M; Fernández Ruiz, A; Moreno Granado, F; Pérez Rodríguez, J; Quero Jiménez, J

    1993-08-01

    Analysis of the balloon atrial septostomy (BA) for treatment of the transposition of the great arteries (TVG) during the neonatal period will allow the evaluation of some of the changes that have occurred in the diagnosis and therapy of this congenital cardiopathy. We performed a retrospective survey of the management, evolution complications of 24 BA as a palliative technique in TGV cases, admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit during a 5 1/2 year period. The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors that indicated a bad prognosis by comparing patients that are still alive (21) with those that are dead (3). The mean age at BA performance was 4.5 +/- 5.5 days. The biological constants prior to catheterization were normal, maintaining good oxygenation, administering prostaglandins in 80% of the patients and mechanical ventilation in 25% of the patients. BA outcome was considered as good in 68%, moderate in 12% and bad in 20% of the cases. Intra-catheterization complications, mainly hemorrhages and bradycardia, were suffered by 40% of the patients and one patient died during catheterization. We could see a progressive arterial desaturation due to the lack of efficacy of the BA. As bad post-catheterization outcome factors were found: hypotension, arrhythmia, hemorrhage, greater need of dobutamine, volume expansion and mechanical ventilation. Our principal conclusion is that, although BA has improved the prognosis of newborns with TGV, because of the progressive worsening of the patients during the months following the BA, it is necessary to perform early corrective surgery. PMID:8239208

  19. Midterm results after arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries: a single centre experience

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The arterial switch operation (ASO) has become the surgical approach of choice for d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA). There is, however an increased incidence of midterm and longterm adverse sequelae in some survivors. In order to evaluate operative risk and midterm outcome in this population, we reviewed patients who underwent ASO for TGA at our centre. Methods In this retrospective study 52 consecutive patients with TGA who underwent ASO between 04/1991 and 12/1999 were included. To analyze the predictors for mortality and adverse events (coronary stenoses, distortion of the pulmonary arteries, dilatation of the neoaortic root, and aortic regurgitation), a multivariate analysis was performed. The follow-up time was ranged from 1–10 years (mean 5 years, cumulative 260 patient-years). Results All over mortality rate was 15.4% and was only observed in the early postoperative period till 1994. The predictors for poor operative survival were low APGAR-score, older age at surgery, and necessity of associated surgical procedures. Late re-operations were necessary in 6 patients (13.6%) and included a pulmonary artery patch enlargement due to supravalvular stenosis (n = 3), coronary revascularisation due to coronary stenosis in a coronary anatomy type E, aortic valve replacement due to neoaortic valve regurgitation (n = 2), and patch-plasty of a pulmonary vein due to obstruction (n = 1). The dilatation of neoaortic root was not observed in the follow up. Conclusions ASO remains the procedure of choice for TGA with acceptable early and late outcome in terms of overall survival and freedom of reoperation. Although ASO is often complex and may be associated with morbidity, most patients survived without major complications even in a small centre. PMID:22958234

  20. Transposition burst of mariner-like elements in the sequenced genome of Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Medina, R D; Granzotto, A; Ribeiro, J M; Carareto, C M A

    2016-02-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are widespread in insect's genomes. However, there are wide differences in the proportion of the total DNA content occupied by these repetitive sequences in different species. We have analyzed the TEs present in R. prolixus (vector of the Chagas disease) and showed that 3.0% of this genome is occupied by Class II TEs, belonging mainly to the Tc1-mariner superfamily (1.65%) and MITEs (1.84%). Interestingly, most of this genomic content is due to the expansion of two subfamilies belonging to: irritans himar, a well characterized subfamily of mariners, and prolixus1, one of the two novel subfamilies here described. The high amount of sequences in these subfamilies suggests that bursts of transposition occurred during the life cycle of this family. In an attempt to characterize these elements, we performed an in silico analysis of the sequences corresponding to the DDD/E domain of the transposase gene. We performed an evolutionary analysis including network and Bayesian coalescent-based methods in order to infer the dynamics of the amplification, as well as to estimate the time of the bursts identified in these subfamilies. Given our data, we hypothesized that the TE expansions occurred around the time of speciation of R. prolixus around 1.4 mya. This suggestion lays on the "Transposon Model" of TE evolution, in which the members of a TE population that are replicative active are present at multiple loci in the genome, but their replicative potential varies, and of the "Life Cycle Model" that states that when present-day TEs have been involved in amplification bursts, they share an ancestral copy that dates back to this initial amplification. PMID:26363296

  1. Acupuncture Points of the Horse’s Distal Thoracic Limb: A Neuroanatomic Approach to the Transposition of Traditional Points

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Lisa S.; Bowker, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary: Anatomy of the equine foot is not precisely analogous to anatomy of the human hand and foot. Thus acupuncture points transposed from human acupuncture maps may not be functionally similar in the equine digit. Veterinarians strive to select points based on what is currently known about the anatomy and physiology of the equine foot, despite the lack of research evidence to use as guidance. This paper discusses the anatomy and physiology of the horse’s foot and presents a neuroanatomically based modification of some traditional point locations including several newly proposed points. The paper also presents neuroanatomically based clinical suggestions for laminitis treatment. Abstract: Veterinary acupuncture charts were developed based on the concept of transpositional points whereby human acupuncture maps were adapted to animal anatomy. Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse’s coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest approximation to the human distal limb points. Because the horse has a single digit and lacks several structures analogous to the human hand and foot, precisely transposing all of the human digital points is not anatomically possible. To date there is no published research on the effect of acupuncture treatment of the equine distal limb points. This paper presents a modified approach to equine distal limb point selection based on what is known from research on other species about the neuroanatomic method of acupuncture. A rationale is presented for modification of traditional equine ting points as well as additional points around the hoof and distal limb that do not appear in the standard textbooks of equine acupuncture. The anatomy and physiology of the equine foot likely to be affected by acupuncture are briefly reviewed. Modified neuroanatomic points are proposed that may be more accurate as transpositional points. As an example of clinical application, a

  2. The wing of the enhancer-binding domain of Mu phage transposase is flexible and is essential for efficient transposition.

    PubMed

    Clubb, R T; Mizuuchi, M; Huth, J R; Omichinski, J G; Savilahti, H; Mizuuchi, K; Clore, G M; Gronenborn, A M

    1996-02-01

    A tetramer of the Mu transposase (MuA) pairs the recombination sites, cleaves the donor DNA, and joins these ends to a target DNA by strand transfer. Juxtaposition of the recombination sites is accomplished by the assembly of a stable synaptic complex of MuA protein and Mu DNA. This initial critical step is facilitated by the transient binding of the N-terminal domain of MuA to an enhancer DNA element within the Mu genome (called the internal activation sequence, IAS). Recently we solved the three-dimensional solution structure of the enhancer-binding domain of Mu phage transposase (residues 1-76, MuA76) and proposed a model for its interaction with the IAS element. Site-directed mutagenesis coupled with an in vitro transposition assay has been used to assess the validity of the model. We have identified five residues on the surface of MuA that are crucial for stable synaptic complex formation but dispensable for subsequent events in transposition. These mutations are located in the loop (wing) structure and recognition helix of the MuA76 domain of the transposase and do not seriously perturb the structure of the domain. Furthermore, in order to understand the dynamic behavior of the MuA76 domain prior to stable synaptic complex formation, we have measured heteronuclear 15N relaxation rates for the unbound MuA76 domain. In the DNA free state the backbone atoms of the helix-turn-helix motif are generally immobilized whereas the residues in the wing are highly flexible on the pico- to nanosecond time scale. Together these studies define the surface of MuA required for enhancement of transposition in vitro and suggest that a flexible loop in the MuA protein required for DNA recognition may become structurally ordered only upon DNA binding. PMID:8577730

  3. A simple in vitro Tn7-based transposition system with low target site selectivity for genome and gene analysis

    PubMed Central

    Biery, Matthew C.; Stewart, Fiona J.; Stellwagen, Anne E.; Raleigh, Elisabeth A.; Craig, Nancy L.

    2000-01-01

    A robust Tn7-based in vitro transposition system is described that displays little target site selectivity, allowing the efficient recovery of many different transposon insertions in target DNAs ranging from small plasmids to cosmids to whole genomes. Two miniTn7 derivatives are described that are useful for the analysis of genes: one a derivative for making translational and transcriptional target gene fusions and the other a derivative that can generate 15 bp (5 amino acid) insertions in target DNAs (proteins). PMID:10666445

  4. Continuous inhaled iloprost in a neonate with d-transposition of the great arteries and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dykes, John C; Torres, Marilyn; Alexander, Plato J

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the case of a neonate with d-transposition of the great arteries and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension stabilised in the post-operative period with continuous iloprost nebulisation. To our knowledge, this is the first documented method of treating post-operative severe pulmonary arterial hypertension with continuous inhaled iloprost in a patient with complex CHD. We found this method of delivering the drug very effective in stabilising haemodynamic swings in the setting of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:26220108

  5. Transcatheter occlusion of baffle leaks following atrial switch procedures for transposition of the great vessels (d-TGV).

    PubMed

    Balzer, David T; Johnson, Mark; Sharkey, Angela M; Kort, Henry

    2004-02-01

    Baffle-related complications following atrial switch procedures for transposition are relatively common. Transcatheter treatment of baffle stenosis has an established role as a therapeutic modality. However, transcatheter device closure of atrial baffles leaks has rarely been reported. We report four patients who underwent device closure of baffle leaks using the Amplatzer septal occluder following atrial switch procedures in order to demonstrate the safety and utility of this method of treatment and to establish its role as a suitable alternative to surgical closure. PMID:14755824

  6. Mandibular fracture after endosseous implant placement in conjunction with inferior alveolar nerve transposition: a patient treatment report.

    PubMed

    Kan, J Y; Lozada, J L; Boyne, P J; Goodacre, C J; Rungcharassaeng, K

    1997-01-01

    A patient with a severely atrophic right posterior mandible had three endosseous implants placed in conjunction with transposition of the inferior alveolar nerve. Three weeks following implant placement surgery, the patient experienced a spontaneous fracture of the mandible involving the two anterior implants. The two implants were removed, and the fracture was treated with open reduction and fixation with titanium mesh. The fracture healed, and the posterior implant integrated. This report suggests that the buccolingual and superior-inferior position of the mandibular canal can increase the possibility of mandibular fracture by increasing the size of the buccal cortical plate that is removed to expose the nerve during surgery. PMID:9337027

  7. Anterior Subcutaneous versus Submuscular Transposition of the Ulnar Nerve for Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-Hua; Chen, Chang-Xian; Xu, Jie; Wang, Han-Long; Ke, Xiao-Bin; Zhuang, Zhi-Yong; Lai, Zhan-Long; Wu, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To pool reliable evidences for the optimum anterior transposition technique in the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome by comparing the clinical efficacy of subcutaneous and submuscular anterior ulnar nerve transposition. Methods A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, OVID AMED, EBSCO and potentially relevant surgical archives. Risk of bias of each included studies was evaluated according to Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the clinical improvement in function compared to baseline. Heterogeneity was assessed across studies, and subgroup analysis was also performed based on the study type and follow-up duration. Results Three studies with a total of 352 participants were identified, and the clinically relevant improvement was used as the primary outcomes. Our meta-analysis revealed that no significant difference was observed between two comparison groups in terms of postoperative clinical improvement in those studies (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.25, P = 0.72). Meanwhile, subgroup analyses by study type and follow-up duration revealed the consistent results with the overall estimate. Additionally, the pre- and postoperative motor nerve conduction velocities were reported in two studies with a total of 326 patients, but we could not perform a meta-analysis because of the lack of concrete numerical value in one study. The quality of evidence for clinical improvement was ‘low’ or ‘moderate’ on the basis of GRADE approach. Conclusions Based on small numbers of studies with relatively poor methodological quality, the limited evidence is insufficient to identify the optimum anterior transposition technique in the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome. The results of the present study suggest that anterior subcutaneous and submuscular transposition might be equally effective in patients with ulnar

  8. Phentolamine as a treatment for poor mixing in transposition of the great arteries with adequate intraatrial communication.

    PubMed

    Galal, M O; El-Naggar, W I; Sharfi, M H

    2005-01-01

    Patients with transposition of the great arteries often show poor mixing for different reasons, even after adequate balloon atrial septostomy. We present a patient with such a lesion whose clinical status improved dramatically after phentolamine was applied. We believe this improvement is due to reduction in afterload caused by the alpha(2) blocker and also possibly as a response to a presumptive effect of the drug on the diastolic function of the right ventricle, allowing more left-to-right shunt across the atrial septal defect. Both phenomena can improve cardiac output in such a situation. PMID:16374695

  9. Diagnostic dilemma with a narrow QRS regular rhythm at normal rates in a patient with corrected transposition of great arteries.

    PubMed

    Shenthar, Jayaprakash; Rai, Maneesh K

    2015-01-01

    A 35 year old male, known case of corrected transposition of great arteries presented with exertional dyspnea and recurrent pre-syncope. 12 lead electrocardiogram revealed a regular rhythm at 75 beats per minute, P waves occurring on the upstroke of T waves and apparent 1:1 P-QRS relationship. The possibilities to be considered - complete AV block with junctional escape, junctional rhythm with 1:1 retrograde conduction, junctional rhythm with isorhythmic AV dissociation and prolonged PR interval have been discussed. PMID:26937115

  10. Diagnostic dilemma with a narrow QRS regular rhythm at normal rates in a patient with corrected transposition of great arteries

    PubMed Central

    Shenthar, Jayaprakash; Rai, Maneesh K.

    2015-01-01

    A 35 year old male, known case of corrected transposition of great arteries presented with exertional dyspnea and recurrent pre-syncope. 12 lead electrocardiogram revealed a regular rhythm at 75 beats per minute, P waves occurring on the upstroke of T waves and apparent 1:1 P-QRS relationship. The possibilities to be considered – complete AV block with junctional escape, junctional rhythm with 1:1 retrograde conduction, junctional rhythm with isorhythmic AV dissociation and prolonged PR interval have been discussed. PMID:26937115

  11. Increased Length of Long Terminal Repeats Inhibits Ty1 Transposition and Leads to the Formation of Tandem Multimers

    PubMed Central

    Lauermann, V.; Hermankova, M.; Boeke, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Ty1 retrotransposon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is bounded by long-terminal repeats (LTRs). We have constructed a variety of Ty1 elements in which the LTR length has been increased from the normal length of 334 bp to >2 kb. Although small insertions in the LTR have minimal effects on transposition frequency, larger insertions dramatically reduce it. Nevertheless, elements with long LTRs are incorporated into the genome at a low frequency. Most of these rare insertion events represent Ty1 tandem (head to tail) multimers. PMID:9093846

  12. Aneurysm of the Membranous Septum Causing Outflow Obstruction of the Venous Ventricle in Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Gunawan, Antonius; Krajcer, Zvonimir; Leachman, Robert D.

    1982-01-01

    A 58 year-old man with clinical and hemodynamic evidence of subpulmonic stenosis was admitted to our hospital. Angiography revealed corrected transposition of the great arteries and an aneurysm of membranous ventricular septum (AVS) that protruded into the venous outflow tract, causing severe subpulmonic obstruction during systole. The diagnosis was confirmed at surgery, and successful repair of the aneurysm was performed. This was an unusual case because the AVS caused such severe obstruction that the venous ventricular pressure was elevated to a value equal to the systemic level. Images PMID:15226819

  13. Orthodontic management of bilateral maxillary canine-first premolar transposition and bilateral agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Elena Di; Giuseppe, Biagio Di; Tepedino, Michele; Chimenti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Maxillary canine-first premolar transposition (Mx.C.P1) is an uncommon dental positional anomaly that may create many orthodontic problems from both esthetic and functional points of view. OBJECTIVE: In this report we show the orthodontic management of a case of Mx.C.P1 associated with bilateral maxillary lateral incisor agenesis and unilateral mandibular second premolar agenesis METHODS: The patient was treated with a multibracket appliance and the extraction of the lower premolar. RESULTS: treatment was completed without the need for any prosthetic replacement. PMID:25992994

  14. Electronic properties of highly-active Ag3AsO4 photocatalyst and its band gap modulation: an insight from hybrid-density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Reunchan, Pakpoom; Boonchun, Adisak; Umezawa, Naoto

    2016-08-17

    The electronic structures of highly active Ag-based oxide photocatalysts Ag3AsO4 and Ag3PO4 are studied by hybrid-density functional calculations. It is revealed that Ag3AsO4 and Ag3PO4 are indirect band gap semiconductors. The Hartree-Fock mixing parameters are fitted for experimental band gaps of Ag3AsO4 (1.88 eV) and Ag3PO4 (2.43 eV). The smaller electron effective mass and the lower valence band edge of Ag3AsO4 are likely to be responsible for the superior photocatalytic oxidation reaction to Ag3PO4. The comparable lattice constant and analogous crystal structure between the two materials allow the opportunities of fine-tuning the band gap of Ag3AsxP1-xO4 using a solid-solution approach. The development of Ag3AsxP1-xO4 should be promising for the discovery of novel visible-light sensitized photocatalysts. PMID:27502998

  15. Modulation of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity by hydrofiber-foam hybrid dressing – relevant support in the treatment of chronic wounds

    PubMed Central

    Krejner, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Success in chronic wound therapy requires careful selection of appropriate dressing, which enables effective management of wound exudate. According to current knowledge, exudate may contain large quantities of proteases, including matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are responsible for delay in wound healing. Therefore, neutralization of MMPs may be beneficial for treatment efficacy. The aim of the study was to test whether AQUACEL Foam, a novel, technologically advanced hydrofiber-foam hybrid dressing (HFHD), may interfere with proteolytic activity of MMPs in vitro. The assessment included in vitro tests of liquid retention and measurement of human recombinant MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity. The MMPs activity was measured before and after their interaction with HFHD, using a fluorescent gelatinase assay kit and Real-Time PCR device. The in vitro tests have shown that the hydrofiber layer of HFHD revealed significant potential to decrease the activity of MMPs in the experimental system. The mentioned modulatory properties of AQUACEL Foam may contribute to a composed mechanism of its beneficial action. Furthermore, our finding may explain clinical effectiveness of HFHD observed in clinical settings. PMID:26648787

  16. Increase in IS256 transposition in invasive vancomycin heteroresistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate belonging to ST100 and its derived VISA mutants.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Sabrina; Fernandez, Silvina; Perazzi, Beatriz; Bello, Natalia; Famiglietti, Angela; Mollerach, Marta

    2016-09-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus, transposition of IS256 has been described to play an important role in biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. This study describes the molecular characterization of two clinical heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) isolates recovered from the same patient (before and after antibiotic treatment) and two VISA derivatives obtained by serial passages in the presence of vancomycin. Our results showed that antibiotic treatment (in vivo and in vitro) could enhance IS256 transposition, being responsible for the eventual loss of agr function. As far as we know this is the first study that reports the increase of IS256 transposition in isogenic strains after antibiotic treatment in a clinical setting. PMID:27154328

  17. Insertional Mutagenesis by a Hybrid PiggyBac and Sleeping Beauty Transposon in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Furushima, Kenryo; Jang, Chuan-Wei; Chen, Diane W.; Xiao, Ningna; Overbeek, Paul A.; Behringer, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid piggyBac/Sleeping Beauty transposon-based insertional mutagenesis system that can be mobilized by simple breeding was established in the rat. These transposons were engineered to include gene trap sequences and a tyrosinase (Tyr) pigmentation reporter to rescue the albinism of the genetic background used in the mutagenesis strategy. Single-copy transposon insertions were transposed into the rat genome by co-injection of plasmids carrying the transposon and RNA encoding piggyBac transposase into zygotes. The levels of transgenic Tyr expression were influenced by chromosomal context, leading to transgenic rats with different pigmentation that enabled visual genotyping. Transgenic rats designed to ubiquitously express either piggyBac or Sleeping Beauty transposase were generated by standard zygote injection also on an albino background. Bigenic rats carrying single-copy transposons at known loci and transposase transgenes exhibited coat color mosaicism, indicating somatic transposition. PiggyBac or Sleeping Beauty transposase bigenic rats bred with wild-type albino rats yielded offspring with pigmentation distinct from the initial transposon insertions as a consequence of germline transposition to new loci. The germline transposition frequency for Sleeping Beauty and piggyBac was ∼10% or about one new insertion per litter. Approximately 50% of the insertions occurred in introns. Chimeric transcripts containing endogenous and gene trap sequences were identified in Gabrb1 mutant rats. This mutagenesis system based on simple crosses and visual genotyping can be used to generate a collection of single-gene mutations in the rat. PMID:23023007

  18. Aortic Root Translocation with Arterial Switch for Transposition of the Great Arteries or Double Outlet Right Ventricle with Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han Pil; Bang, Ji Hyun; Baek, Jae-Suk; Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Jeong-Jun; Kim, Young Hwee

    2016-01-01

    Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) and transposition of the great arteries (TGA) with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and pulmonary stenosis (PS) are complex heart diseases, the treatment of which remains a surgical challenge. The Rastelli procedure is still the most commonly performed treatment. Aortic root translocation including an arterial switch operation is advantageous anatomically since it has a lower possibility of conduit blockage and the left ventricle outflow tract remains straight. This study reports successful aortic root transpositions in two patients, one with DORV with VSD and PS and one with TGA with VSD and PS. Both patients were discharged without postoperative complications. PMID:27298797

  19. IS1397 is active for transposition into the chromosome of Escherichia coli K-12 and inserts specifically into palindromic units of bacterial interspersed mosaic elements.

    PubMed

    Clément, J M; Wilde, C; Bachellier, S; Lambert, P; Hofnung, M

    1999-11-01

    We demonstrate that IS1397, a putative mobile genetic element discovered in natural isolates of Escherichia coli, is active for transposition into the chromosome of E. coli K-12 and inserts specifically into palindromic units, also called repetitive extragenic palindromes, the basic element of bacterial interspersed mosaic elements (BIMEs), which are found in intergenic regions of enterobacteria closely related to E. coli and Salmonella. We could not detect transposition onto a plasmid carrying BIMEs. This unprecedented specificity of insertion into a well-characterized chromosomal intergenic repeated element and its evolutionary implications are discussed. PMID:10559158

  20. Flare Hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, M.; Dubieniecki, P.

    2015-12-01

    On the basis of the Solar Maximum Mission observations, Švestka ( Solar Phys. 121, 399, 1989) introduced a new class of flares, the so-called flare hybrids. When they start, they look like typical compact flares (phase 1), but later on, they look like flares with arcades of magnetic loops (phase 2). We summarize the characteristic features of flare hybrids in soft and hard X-rays as well as in the extreme ultraviolet; these features allow us to distinguish flare hybrids from other flares. In this article, additional energy release or long plasma cooling timescales are suggested as possible causes of phase 2. We estimate the frequency of flare hybrids, and study the magnetic configurations favorable for flare hybrid occurrence. Flare hybrids appear to be quite frequent, and the difference between the lengths of magnetic loops in the two interacting loop systems seem to be a crucial parameter for determining their characteristics.

  1. Hydrograph transposition to ungauged basin accounting for spatio-temporal rainfall variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lavenne, Alban; Cudennec, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    the exercise, within each pair of basins, one is considered as "gauged" and the other one as "ungauged". Different spatial configurations of pairs of basins are compared. Results demonstrates the benefit of a well defined transfer function, as well as the importance of considering rainfall variability. Finally, through the assessment of transposition efficiency, this framework is presented as an original way to describe and understand hydrological similarities in catchment behavior.

  2. ModuleOrganizer: detecting modules in families of transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Most known eukaryotic genomes contain mobile copied elements called transposable elements. In some species, these elements account for the majority of the genome sequence. They have been subject to many mutations and other genomic events (copies, deletions, captures) during transposition. The identification of these transformations remains a difficult issue. The study of families of transposable elements is generally founded on a multiple alignment of their sequences, a critical step that is adapted to transposons containing mostly localized nucleotide mutations. Many transposons that have lost their protein-coding capacity have undergone more complex rearrangements, needing the development of more complex methods in order to characterize the architecture of sequence variations. Results In this study, we introduce the concept of a transposable element module, a flexible motif present in at least two sequences of a family of transposable elements and built on a succession of maximal repeats. The paper proposes an assembly method working on a set of exact maximal repeats of a set of sequences to create such modules. It results in a graphical view of sequences segmented into modules, a representation that allows a flexible analysis of the transformations that have occurred between them. We have chosen as a demonstration data set in depth analysis of the transposable element Foldback in Drosophila melanogaster. Comparison with multiple alignment methods shows that our method is more sensitive for highly variable sequences. The study of this family and the two other families AtREP21 and SIDER2 reveals new copies of very different sizes and various combinations of modules which show the potential of our method. Conclusions ModuleOrganizer is available on the Genouest bioinformatics center at http://moduleorganizer.genouest.org PMID:20860790

  3. MuA-mediated in vitro cloning of circular DNA: transpositional autointegration and the effect of MuB.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, Elsi; Haapa-Paananen, Saija; Savilahti, Harri

    2016-06-01

    Transposons provide useful tools for genetics and genomics studies, as they can be modified easily for a variety of purposes. In this study, a strategy to clone circular DNA was developed on the basis of an efficient Mu in vitro transposition reaction catalyzed by MuA transposase. The transposon used contains a selectable marker as well as an origin of replication, and in vitro integration of the transposon into circular DNA generates a plasmid that can replicate in E. coli. We show that the substrate stoichiometry plays an important role in the profile of intermolecular versus intramolecular transposition reaction products. Increasing the relative amount of target DNA reduced the frequency of intramolecular products that are non-productive with regard to the developed cloning application. Such autointegration was also reduced in the reactions containing phage Mu-encoded MuB, indicating that this protein can be used for cloning in combination with MuA, and it is particularly useful with a limited amount of target DNA. The developed strategy can now be utilized to clone DNA circles regardless of their origin as long as their size is not prohibitive for transformation. PMID:26847688

  4. Cubital compressive neuropathy in the elbow: in situ neurolysis versus anterior transposition – comparative study☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Marco; Aido, Ricardo; Trigueiros, Miguel; Lemos, Rui; Silva, César

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the results from two of the most commonly used surgical techniques: in situ decompression and subcutaneous transposition. The processes of patients treated surgically in a public university hospital between January 2004 and December 2011 were reviewed. Cases of proximal compression of the nerve, angular deformity of the elbow and systemic diseases associated with non-compressive neuropathy were excluded. Methods Ninety-seven cases were included (96 patients). According to the modified McGowan score, 14.4% of the patients presented grade Ia, 27.8% grade II, 26.8% grade IIb and 30.9% grade III. In situ neurolysis of the cubital was performed in 64 cases and subcutaneous anterior transposition in 33. Results According to the modified Wilson and Knout score, the results were excellent in 49.5%, good in 18.6%, only satisfactory in 17.5% and poor in 14.4%. In comparing the two techniques, we observed similar numbers of excellent and good results. Grades IIb and III were associated with more results that were less satisfactory or poor, independent of the surgical technique. Conclusion Both techniques were shown to be efficient and safe for treating cubital tunnel syndrome. PMID:26229876

  5. Infraorbital nerve transpositioning into orbital floor: a modified technique to minimize nerve injury following zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures

    PubMed Central

    Kotrashetti, Sharadindu Mahadevappa; Kale, Tejraj Pundalik; Bhandage, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Transpositioning of the inferior alveolar nerve to prevent injury in lower jaw has been advocated for orthognathic, pre-prosthetic and for implant placement procedures. However, the concept of infra-orbital nerve repositioning in cases of mid-face fractures remains unexplored. The infraorbital nerve may be involved in trauma to the zygomatic complex which often results in sensory disturbance of the area innervated by it. Ten patients with infraorbital nerve entrapment were treated in similar way at our maxillofacial surgery centre. Materials and Methods In this article we are reporting three cases of zygomatico-maxillary complex fracture in which intra-operative repositioning of infra-orbital nerve into the orbital floor was done. This was done to release the nerve from fractured segments and to reduce the postoperative neural complications, to gain better access to fracture site and ease in plate fixation. This procedure also decompresses the nerve which releases it off the soft tissue entrapment caused due to trauma and the organized clot at the fractured site. Results There was no evidence of sensory disturbance during their three month follow-up in any of the patient. Conclusion Infraorbital nerve transposition is very effective in preventing paresthesia in patients which fracture line involving the infraorbital nerve. PMID:25922818

  6. Interaction of the Tn7-encoded transposition protein TnsB with the ends of the transposon.

    PubMed Central

    Arciszewska, L K; Craig, N L

    1991-01-01

    We have used several high resolution methods to examine the interaction of TnsB, a transposition protein encoded by the bacterial transposon Tn7, with its binding sites at the ends of the transposon. These binding sites lie within the DNA segments that are directly involved in transposition. We show that the binding of TnsB to DNA can promote DNA bending, suggesting that the interaction of TnsB with the ends may result in formation of a highly organized protein-DNA complex. We also identify likely positions of close contact between of TnsB and its binding sites. Analysis of the interaction of TnsB with intact Tn7 ends reveals TnsB occupies its binding sites in a particular order, the sites immediately adjacent to the transposon termini being occupied only after other inner sites are bound. Such ordered occupancy suggests that the various binding sites have differing apparent affinities for TnsB. Images PMID:1656385

  7. Radionuclide measurement of right ventricular function in atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect and complete transposition of the great arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.J.; Shubao, C.; Clarke, S.E.; Fogelman, I.; Maisey, M.N.; Tynan, M.

    1986-05-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function was assessed in 80 patients with congenital heart disease by first-pass and gated equilibrium radionuclide angiography. In 30 patients with a ventricular septal defect (VSD) the mean RV ejection fraction (+/- standard deviation) was 64 +/- 7%. In 30 patients with a secundum atrial septal defect it was 61 +/- 9% and in 20 patients with surgically corrected complete transposition of the great arteries it was 49 +/- 13%. These values are in close agreement with values established with cineangiography for similar groups of patients. The mean ejection fraction in the group with transposition of the great arteries was significantly less than in the group with VSD (p less than 0.001). Phase analysis of the equilibrium studies showed that there was delayed RV contraction in many patients in the absence of conduction abnormalities. This delay was significantly greater in patients with atrial septal defect than in those with VSD (p less than 0.05). There was a strong correlation between size of left-to-right shunt and phase delay in patients with VSD (r = -0.72). Thus, first-pass gated radionuclide angiography provides a valid measurement of RV ejection fraction, and delayed RV contraction on phase analysis may be a sensitive index of early RV dysfunction.

  8. Medial transposition of split lateral rectus augmented with fixation sutures in cases of complete third nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Rohit; Sharma, Medha; Singh, Digvijay; Dhiman, Rebika; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-05-01

    Surgical management of complete third nerve paralysis is a challenge. While several techniques have been described over the years, they result in less than satisfactory outcomes with residual deviations in primary gaze or postoperative drifts. One of the described techniques for management of oculomotor palsy has been medial transposition of the lateral rectus muscle which provides a good surgical alternative but often can result in undercorrection. We describe a modification of the existing technique of medial transposition of the split lateral rectus by force augmentation through the use of equatorial fixation sutures resulting in an improved outcome in primary gaze alignment. The modified technique involves splitting of the lateral rectus into two halves followed by transposing the superior half from below the superior oblique and superior rectus and inferior half from below the inferior oblique and inferior rectus to attach them at the superior and inferior edge of the medial rectus insertion, respectively. This is followed by placing non-absorbable sutures to fix each split belly of the transposed muscles to the sclera at the equator adjacent to the medial rectus such that the split muscles lie nearly parallel to the medial rectus till the equator before reflecting away. These sutures augment the force of the transposed muscles by redirecting the force vectors in the direction of action of the medial rectus. Satisfactory postoperative primary gaze alignment was achieved in three cases of complete third nerve paralysis. PMID:26758537

  9. Combination Nasolabial Transposition Flap and Island Pedicle Flap Following Mohs Surgery of Simultaneous Basal Cell Carcinomas Involving Both Nasal Alae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chae Young; Lee, Yeong Kyu; Choi, Kyu Won; Lee, Chae Wook; Kim, Ki Ho

    2008-01-01

    The nasal ala is a challenging area for surgical reconstruction, with thick sebaceous skin, the lack of an ample tissue reservoir, and an adjacent free margin. Numerous flaps have been reported for the repair of alae defects. A 71-year-old woman with simultaneous basal cell carcinomas involving both nasal alae was treated by Mohs micrographic surgery. The surgical defects measured 1.5×1.5 cm on the center of the right nasal ala and 1.0×1.0 cm on the left nasal ala, including the alar crease and rim. The right nasal ala was used as a nasolabial transposition flap and the left nasal ala was reconstructed by an island pedicle flap. The final shape and texture were satisfactory. The flaps survived and nasal symmetry was preserved. Combined nasolabial transposition and island pedicle flaps thus offer a superior esthetic and functional result owing to minimized tension. This may be a valuable reconstructive option in the repair of bilateral nasal alae defects.

  10. Differential modulation of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function by cytisine, varenicline, and two novel bispidine compounds: emergent properties of a hybrid molecule.

    PubMed

    Peng, Can; Stokes, Clare; Mineur, Yann S; Picciotto, Marina R; Tian, Chengju; Eibl, Christoph; Tomassoli, Isabelle; Guendisch, Daniela; Papke, Roger L

    2013-11-01

    Partial agonist therapies for the treatment of nicotine addiction and dependence depend on both agonistic and antagonistic effects of the ligands, and side effects associated with other nAChRs greatly limit the efficacy of nicotinic partial agonists. We evaluated the in vitro pharmacological properties of four partial agonists, two current smoking cessation drugs, varenicline and cytisine, and two novel bispidine compounds, BPC and BMSP, by using defined nAChR subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Similar to varenicline and cytisine, BPC and BMSP are partial agonists of α4β2 nAChRs, although BMSP produced very little activation of these receptors. Unlike varenicline and cytisine, BPC and BMSP showed desired low activity. BPC produced mecamylamine-sensitive steady-state activation of α4* receptors that was not evident with BMSP. We evaluated the modulation of α4*- and α7-mediated responses in rat lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons and hippocampal stratum radiatum (SR) interneurons, respectively. The LGN neurons were sensitive to a very low concentration of varenicline, and the SR interneuron responses were also sensitive to varenicline at a submicromolar concentration. Although 300 nM BPC strongly inhibited the ACh-evoked responses of LGN neurons, it did not inhibit the α7 currents of SR interneurons. Similar results were observed with 300 nM BMSP. Additionally, the bispidine compounds were efficacious in the mouse tail suspension test, demonstrating that they affect receptors in the brain when delivered systemically. Our data indicate that BPC and BMSP are promising α4β2* partial agonists for pharmacotherapeutics. PMID:23959137

  11. Differential Modulation of Brain Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Function by Cytisine, Varenicline, and Two Novel Bispidine Compounds: Emergent Properties of a Hybrid Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Can; Stokes, Clare; Mineur, Yann S.; Picciotto, Marina R.; Tian, Chengju; Eibl, Christoph; Tomassoli, Isabelle; Guendisch, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Partial agonist therapies for the treatment of nicotine addiction and dependence depend on both agonistic and antagonistic effects of the ligands, and side effects associated with other nAChRs greatly limit the efficacy of nicotinic partial agonists. We evaluated the in vitro pharmacological properties of four partial agonists, two current smoking cessation drugs, varenicline and cytisine, and two novel bispidine compounds, BPC and BMSP, by using defined nAChR subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Similar to varenicline and cytisine, BPC and BMSP are partial agonists of α4β2 nAChRs, although BMSP produced very little activation of these receptors. Unlike varenicline and cytisine, BPC and BMSP showed desired low activity. BPC produced mecamylamine-sensitive steady-state activation of α4* receptors that was not evident with BMSP. We evaluated the modulation of α4*- and α7-mediated responses in rat lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons and hippocampal stratum radiatum (SR) interneurons, respectively. The LGN neurons were sensitive to a very low concentration of varenicline, and the SR interneuron responses were also sensitive to varenicline at a submicromolar concentration. Although 300 nM BPC strongly inhibited the ACh-evoked responses of LGN neurons, it did not inhibit the α7 currents of SR interneurons. Similar results were observed with 300 nM BMSP. Additionally, the bispidine compounds were efficacious in the mouse tail suspension test, demonstrating that they affect receptors in the brain when delivered systemically. Our data indicate that BPC and BMSP are promising α4β2* partial agonists for pharmacotherapeutics. PMID:23959137

  12. Printed hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  13. Executive Function and Theory of Mind in School-Aged Children after Neonatal Corrective Cardiac Surgery for Transposition of the Great Arteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Johanna; Bonnet, Damien; Courtin, Cyril; Concordet, Susan; Plumet, Marie-Helene; Angeard, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Cardiac malformations resulting in cyanosis, such as transposition of the great arteries (TGA), have been associated with neurodevelopmental dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess, for the first time, theory of mind (ToM), which is a key component of social cognition and executive functions in school-aged children with TGA.…

  14. Investigation of the transposition of mitochondrial DNA and its relationship to fertility in zea mays. Progress report, May 15, 1981-May 14, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Mans, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Progress is reported in achieving the following objectives: (1) to molecularly define the transposition event in maize mtDNA that is concomitant with the cytoplasmic reversion of S-type cytoplasmically male sterile to fertile plants, and (2) to seek altered expression of mtDNA measured as altered transcription of RNA from transposed mtDNA sequences in maize. (ACR)

  15. Dextrocardia and corrected transposition of the great arteries (I,D,D) in a case of Kartagener's syndrome: a unique association.

    PubMed

    Bitar, F F; Shbaro, R; Mroueh, S; Yunis, K; Obeid, M

    1998-04-01

    Kartagener's syndrome (KS) usually includes mirror-image dextrocardia. The incidence of congenital heart disease in KS is comparable with that in the general population. This paper reports on a case of Kartagener's syndrome associated with dextrocardia, corrected transposition of the great arteries (I,D,D), ventricular septal defect, and valvar pulmonary stenosis in an 8-year-old girl. PMID:9562943

  16. [Use of non-fluoroscopic mapping in recurrent atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia in a patient with corrected transposition of the great arteries].

    PubMed

    Aristizábal, Julián; Uribe, William; Duque, Mauricio; Marín, Jorge; Medina, Eduardo; Velásquez, Jorge; Femenía, Francisco; Baranchuk, Adrían

    2013-01-01

    The anatomy in congenital corrected transposition of the great arteries is complex and the conduction system may experience large degrees of variation. Invasive procedures should be done with the use of the highest possible technological sources to warrant success. We describe here, a patient with recurrent atrioventricular node reentry tachycardia where non-fluoroscopic navigation system helped in a complex ablation. PMID:23906743

  17. Isolated congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries with dextroversion discovered incidentally in a patient with cocaine-induced acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Anumeha; Bose, Rahul; Yoon, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    Complex cardiac congenital anomalies can occasionally be found in adult patients who have no knowledge of their condition. Here we present the case of a 27-year-old man with cocaine-induced acute myocardial infarction in whom an isolated congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries with dextroversion was discovered incidentally. PMID:27034558

  18. A critical evaluation of secondary cancer risk models applied to Monte Carlo dose distributions of 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional conformal and hybrid intensity-modulated radiation therapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Joosten, A; Bochud, F; Moeckli, R

    2014-08-21

    The comparison of radiotherapy techniques regarding secondary cancer risk has yielded contradictory results possibly stemming from the many different approaches used to estimate risk. The purpose of this study was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different available risk models applied to detailed whole-body dose distributions computed by Monte Carlo for various breast radiotherapy techniques including conventional open tangents, 3D conformal wedged tangents and hybrid intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). First, organ-specific linear risk models developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII committee were applied to mean doses for remote organs only and all solid organs. Then, different general non-linear risk models were applied to the whole body dose distribution. Finally, organ-specific non-linear risk models for the lung and breast were used to assess the secondary cancer risk for these two specific organs. A total of 32 different calculated absolute risks resulted in a broad range of values (between 0.1% and 48.5%) underlying the large uncertainties in absolute risk calculation. The ratio of risk between two techniques has often been proposed as a more robust assessment of risk than the absolute risk. We found that the ratio of risk between two techniques could also vary substantially considering the different approaches to risk estimation. Sometimes the ratio of risk between two techniques would range between values smaller and larger than one, which then translates into inconsistent results on the potential higher risk of one technique compared to another. We found however that the hybrid IMRT technique resulted in a systematic reduction of risk compared to the other techniques investigated even though the magnitude of this reduction varied substantially with the different approaches investigated. Based on the epidemiological data available, a reasonable

  19. A critical evaluation of secondary cancer risk models applied to Monte Carlo dose distributions of 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional conformal and hybrid intensity-modulated radiation therapy for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosten, A.; Bochud, F.; Moeckli, R.

    2014-08-01

    The comparison of radiotherapy techniques regarding secondary cancer risk has yielded contradictory results possibly stemming from the many different approaches used to estimate risk. The purpose of this study was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different available risk models applied to detailed whole-body dose distributions computed by Monte Carlo for various breast radiotherapy techniques including conventional open tangents, 3D conformal wedged tangents and hybrid intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). First, organ-specific linear risk models developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII committee were applied to mean doses for remote organs only and all solid organs. Then, different general non-linear risk models were applied to the whole body dose distribution. Finally, organ-specific non-linear risk models for the lung and breast were used to assess the secondary cancer risk for these two specific organs. A total of 32 different calculated absolute risks resulted in a broad range of values (between 0.1% and 48.5%) underlying the large uncertainties in absolute risk calculation. The ratio of risk between two techniques has often been proposed as a more robust assessment of risk than the absolute risk. We found that the ratio of risk between two techniques could also vary substantially considering the different approaches to risk estimation. Sometimes the ratio of risk between two techniques would range between values smaller and larger than one, which then translates into inconsistent results on the potential higher risk of one technique compared to another. We found however that the hybrid IMRT technique resulted in a systematic reduction of risk compared to the other techniques investigated even though the magnitude of this reduction varied substantially with the different approaches investigated. Based on the epidemiological data available, a reasonable

  20. Transposition of structures in the Neoproterozoic Kaoko Belt (NW Namibia) and their absolute timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Stanislav; Konopásek, Jiří; Jeřábek, Petr; Tajčmanová, Lucie

    2010-05-01

    2 structures suggest sinistral shearing. The maximum age of D2 deformation phase is dated at 550 Ma, which is the age of partial melt extracted from S1 fabric into S2 cleavage in the Orogen Core. Common orientation of stretching lineation and solid-state reworking of both S1 and S2 planes suggest single event of sinistral transpression with strain partitioning into very oblique thrusting (S1) and sinistral wrench-style dominated domains (S2). The transpression started at 550 Ma and described strain partitioning and fabric transposition during transpression reflects shape of underthrusted Congo Craton. This research was financially supported by GAČR Project 205/07/1409. Goscombe, B., Hand, M. and Gray, D., 2003. Structure of the Kaoko Belt, Namibia: progressive evolution of a classic transpressional orogen. Journal of Structural Geology, 25(7): 1049-1081. Konopásek, J., Kröner, S., Kitt, S.L., Passchier, C.W. and Kröner, A., 2005. Oblique collision and evolution of large-scale transcurrent shear zones in the Kaoko belt, NW Namibia. Precambrian Research, 136(2): 139-157.

  1. E mu/S mu transposition into Myc is sometimes a precursor for T(12;15) translocation in mouse B cells.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Alexander L; Kim, Joong Su; Janz, Siegfried

    2003-05-01

    Misguided immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR) has been implicated in the origin of Myc-activating chromosomal translocations, T(12;15), in BALB/c mouse plasmacytomas (PCTs). CSR has also been involved in the progression of T(12;15); for example, the approximation of Myc to the 3'-C alpha enhancer. This study provides evidence for an additional mechanism by which aberrant CSR may facilitate T(12;15): transposition of Ig heavy-chain (IgH) sequences to Myc. Five IgH transposons containing the intronic heavy-chain enhancer, E mu, and a truncated switch mu region, S mu, were found in the first intron of Myc in lymph node cells of IL-6 transgenic BALB/c mice. In two cases E mu/S mu transposition primed Myc to get involved in apparent trans-chromosomal CSR to C gamma 1, presumably leading to T(12;15). Translocations preceded by E mu/S mu transposition can sometimes be distinguished from de novo translocations by molecular fingerprints in translocation breakpoint regions (Ig switch region [S] inversions and unusual gene orders in composite S regions). The presence of such fingerprints in some PCTs suggests that the tumors sometimes evolve from transposition-bearing precursors. We propose that E mu/S mu transposition to Myc may facilitate plasmacytomagenesis by sensitizing Myc to undergo T(12;15) translocation. T(12;15), in turn, juxtaposes Myc to the 3'-C alpha enhancer, which appears to be required for deregulating Myc in a manner that is conducive to PCT development. PMID:12743607

  2. The morphology of the coronary sinus in patients with congenitally corrected transposition: implications for cardiac catheterisation and re-synchronisation therapy.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Vera D; Ferreira, Flávia C N; Scanavacca, Mauricio I; Anderson, Robert H; D'Avila, André

    2016-02-01

    Patients with congenitally corrected transposition frequently benefit from re-synchronisation therapy or ablation procedures. This is likely to require catheterisation of the coronary sinus. Its anatomy, however, is not always appreciated, despite being well-described. With this caveat in mind, we have evaluated its location and structure in hearts with congenitally corrected transposition in order to reinforce the guidance needed by the cardiac interventionist. We dissected and inspected the coronary sinus, the oblique vein of the left atrium, and the left-sided-circumflex venous channel in eight heart specimens with corrected transposition and eight controls, measuring the orifice and length of the sinus and the atrioventricular valves. In two-thirds of the malformed hearts, the sinus deviated from its anticipated course in the atrioventricular groove, ascending obliquely on the left atrial inferior wall to meet the left oblique vein. The maximal deviation coincided in all hearts with the point where the left oblique vein joined the left-sided-circumflex vein to form the coronary sinus. We describe a circumflex vein, rather than the great cardiac vein, as the latter venous channel is right-sided in the setting of corrected transposition. The length of the sinus correlated positively with the diameter of the tricuspid valve (p=0.02). Compared with controls, the left oblique vein in the malformed hearts joined the circumflex venous channel significantly closer to the mouth of the sinus. The unexpected course of the coronary sinus in corrected transposition and the naming of the cardiac veins have important implications for venous cannulation and interpretation of images. PMID:25732933

  3. A hybrid Brayton engine concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Six, L. D.; Elkins, R.

    1980-01-01

    A first generation open cycle Brayton engine concept for use in full scale solar module testing was defined. The concept extended to include solar/fossil hybrid capability. The combustion system defined for hybrid operation consists of a wide range combustor liner, a single airblast atomizer, an ignitor and a high-voltage ignition unit. Wide range combustor operation would be achieved through combining pilot and primary zones. The hybrid control mode and the solar only control mode are both based on the concept of maintaining constant turbine inlet temperature and varying the engine speed for part-power operation. In addition, the hybrid control concept will allow the operator to set a minimum thermal power input to the engine by setting a corresponding minimum engine speed. When the solar thermal power input falls below this minimum, fossil fuel would be utilized to augment the solar thermal power input.

  4. The challenge of staphylococcal pacemaker endocarditis in a patient with transposition of the great arteries endocarditis in congenital heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ch'ng, Julie; Chan, William; Lee, Paul; Joshi, Subodh; Grigg, Leanne E.; Ajani, Andrew E

    2003-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of septicaemia and infective endocarditis. The overall incidence of staphylococcal bacteraemia is increasing, contributing to 16% of all hospital-acquired bacteraemias. The use of cardiac pacemakers has revolutionized the management of rhythm disturbances, yet this has also resulted in a group of patients at risk of pacemaker lead endocarditis and seeding in the range of 1% to 7%. We describe a 26-year-old man with transposition of the great arteries who had a pacemaker implanted and presented with S. aureus septicaemia 2 years postpacemaker implantation and went on to develop pacemaker lead endocarditis. This report illustrates the risk of endocarditis in the population with congenital heart disease and an intracardiac device.

  5. [Uncorrected transposition of the great arteries and large ventricular septum defect perioperative management of a caesarean section].

    PubMed

    Schummer, W; Schummer, C; Schleussner, E; Fröber, R; Ferrari, M; Fuchs, J

    2005-04-01

    Patients with congenital cyanotic heart disease are a challenge to the anaesthetist due to the individual haemodynamic characteristics. Maintaining a balance between systemic and pulmonary-vascular resistance is crucial. Here we outline the successful perioperative management of a 24-year-old female with uncorrected transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) and large septal defect of the ventricle (functionally single ventricle). She was transferred to our perinatologic centre in the 32nd week of pregnancy with symptoms of increasing cardial insufficiency. The peripartum management was agreed upon at an interdisciplinary conference and caesarean section was performed in the 35th week of pregnancy with epidural anaesthesia and no significant problems. Due to hypercoagulability and the risk of "paradoxical" embolism, low molecular weight heparin was given for 6 weeks post partum. The infant was underweight and was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, where she made a satisfactory progress. PMID:15614542

  6. [Paradigm shift in the therapy of Wilkie's syndrome. From bowel reconstruction to transposition of the superior mesenteric artery].

    PubMed

    Grotemeyer, D; Pourhassan, S; Sandmann, W

    2009-04-01

    The superior mesenteric artery syndrome--also known as Wilkie's syndrome or as arteriomesenteric obstruction of the duodenum--is a rare condition of upper intestinal obstruction in which the third part of the duodenum is compressed by the overlying, narrow-angled superior mesenteric artery against the posterior structures. It is characterized by early satiety, recurrent vomiting, abdominal distention, weight loss and postprandial distress. When nonsurgical management is not possible or the problem is refractory, surgical intervention is necessary. Usually a reconstruction of the intestinal passage is performed. We report the first case of successful transposition of the superior mesenteric artery into the infrarenal aorta in the therapy of Wilkie's syndrome. PMID:19066831

  7. Generation of Single-Copy Transposon Insertions in Clostridium perfringens by Electroporation of Phage Mu DNA Transposition Complexes▿

    PubMed Central

    Lanckriet, A.; Timbermont, L.; Happonen, L. J.; Pajunen, M. I.; Pasmans, F.; Haesebrouck, F.; Ducatelle, R.; Savilahti, H.; Van Immerseel, F.

    2009-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis is a tool that is widely used for the identification of genes involved in the virulence of bacteria. Until now, transposon mutagenesis in Clostridium perfringens has been restricted to the use of Tn916-based methods with laboratory reference strains. This system yields primarily multiple transposon insertions in a single genome, thus compromising its use for the identification of virulence genes. The current study describes a new protocol for transposon mutagenesis in C. perfringens, which is based on the bacteriophage Mu transposition system. The protocol was successfully used to generate a single-insertion mutant library both for a laboratory strain and for a field isolate. Thus, it can be used as a tool in large-scale screening to identify virulence genes of C. perfringens. PMID:19270116

  8. Atrial tachyarrhythmias after atrial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries: Treating old surgery with new catheters.

    PubMed

    Houck, Charlotte A; Teuwen, Christophe P; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2016-08-01

    The arterial switch operation has been the procedure of first choice for correction of transposition of the great arteries (TGA) for several decades now. However, a large number of adult patients with TGA nowadays were palliated previously by either a Mustard or a Senning procedure. Atrial tachyarrhythmias (ATs) are frequently observed during long-term follow-up of patients with TGA after these atrial switch corrections and are associated with both morbidity and mortality. Because of the complex postoperative anatomy in these patients, ablative therapy for these tachyarrhythmias can be challenging. The goals of this review are to discuss the most prevalent ATs in patients after the Mustard or Senning procedure and to summarize (long-term) outcomes of ablative therapy. In addition, recent developments in ablative therapy for ATs in this patient population are outlined. PMID:27018378

  9. A P Element Chimera Containing Captured Genomic Sequences Was Recovered at the Vestigial Locus in Drosophila following Targeted Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Heslip, T. R.; Williams, J. A.; Bell, J. B.; Hodgetts, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    A P element carrying the Dopa decarboxylase gene, P[Ddc], was targeted into vg(21), a cryptic P element induced mutant allele of the vestigial (vg) locus. The resulting allele, vg(28w), contained the expected P[Ddc] plus an additional 9.5 kb of DNA, captured from elsewhere on chromosome II. Reversion of the vg(28w) mutant allele demonstrated that the entire insert can excise but cannot reinsert at an appreciable frequency. We explain the targeted transposition as the repair of a double stranded gap, created by the excision of the P element at vg(21), and suggest that the formation of chimeric elements may be an important component of P element dependent genomic instability. PMID:1325388

  10. Deletions, duplications and transpositions of the COR segment that encompasses the structural gene of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, J.I.; Friedman, L.R.; Sherman, F.

    1980-01-01

    It has been recently found that a specific chromosomal segment, in certain but not all laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is deleted and transposed at high frequencies. This segment, denoted COR, encompasses the three closely linked loci CYC1, OSM1 and RAD7 which control iso-1-cytochrome c, osmotic sensitivity and UV-sensitivity, respectively. Two types of apparently normal laboratory strains of yeast designated COR1 and COR2, were uncovered after the examination of the frequencies and types of mutations causing either deficiencies or overproduction of iso-1-cytochrome c; in contrast to COR1 strains which give predominantly point mutations causing deficiencies of iso-1-cytochrome c, COR2 strains give rise to deletions and transpositions of the COR segment. We have undertaken a systematic investigation of the physical structure and genetic properties of the COR region and of the aberrations arising in COR2 strains.

  11. Red-Mediated Transposition and Final Release of the Mini-F Vector of a Cloned Infectious Herpesvirus Genome

    PubMed Central

    Wussow, Felix; Fickenscher, Helmut; Tischer, B. Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are well-established cloning vehicles for functional genomics and for constructing targeting vectors and infectious viral DNA clones. Red-recombination-based mutagenesis techniques have enabled the manipulation of BACs in Escherichia coli without any remaining operational sequences. Here, we describe that the F-factor-derived vector sequences can be inserted into a novel position and seamlessly removed from the present location of the BAC-cloned DNA via synchronous Red-recombination in E. coli in an en passant mutagenesis-based procedure. Using this technique, the mini-F elements of a cloned infectious varicella zoster virus (VZV) genome were specifically transposed into novel positions distributed over the viral DNA to generate six different BAC variants. In comparison to the other constructs, a BAC variant with mini-F sequences directly inserted into the junction of the genomic termini resulted in highly efficient viral DNA replication-mediated spontaneous vector excision upon virus reconstitution in transfected VZV-permissive eukaryotic cells. Moreover, the derived vector-free recombinant progeny exhibited virtually indistinguishable genome properties and replication kinetics to the wild-type virus. Thus, a sequence-independent, efficient, and easy-to-apply mini-F vector transposition procedure eliminates the last hurdle to perform virtually any kind of imaginable targeted BAC modifications in E. coli. The herpesviral terminal genomic junction was identified as an optimal mini-F vector integration site for the construction of an infectious BAC, which allows the rapid generation of mutant virus without any unwanted secondary genome alterations. The novel mini-F transposition technique can be a valuable tool to optimize, repair or restructure other established BACs as well and may facilitate the development of gene therapy or vaccine vectors. PMID:19997639

  12. In Vitro Synthesis, Delivery, and Bioavailability of Exogenous mRNA in Gene Transfer Mediated by PiggyBac Transposition.

    PubMed

    Bire, Solenne; Ishac, Nicole; Rouleux-Bonnin, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, nonviral gene transfer is currently of great importance for introducing exogenous genes into genomes and for ensuring that transgene expression is suitable for therapeutic and bioproduction purposes. The piggyBac transposon-based system is particularly interesting since it is easy to engineer and has a large cargo capacity, up to 100 kb. In its setup, the system requires only the piggyBac transposase protein and the transgene delineated by the two piggyBac-specific inverted terminal repeats. Usually the source of transposase is carried by a DNA plasmid. However, the principal drawback of this method is the lasting presence of the transposase, due to episomal persistence or possible integration of the transposase gene vector into the cell's genome. This can lead to genotoxic effects such as multiple genomic integration events and remobilization of the transposon vector once it has been integrated. One alternative to improve the safety of the system is to deliver the transposase as in vitro-synthesized messenger RNA in order to define a very narrow expression window during which a one-shot transposition process would occur. Issues that can be encountered when working on mRNA cell transfer are related to the quality of the synthetic mRNA, the system used to introduce mRNA into the cells and the bioavailability of the mRNA molecules. Here we describe a method to produce mRNA, verify its quality, determine which transfecting reagents can be used and how this mRNA is available to promote the transposition process in HeLa cells. Additionally, we illustrate this method in stromal mesenchymal cell lines in order to support hematopoiesis. PMID:27236801

  13. The N-terminal zinc finger domain of Tgf2 transposase contributes to DNA binding and to transposition activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia-Yun; Hou, Fei; Shen, Xiao-Dan; Du, Xue-Di; Xu, Hai-Li; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Active Hobo/Activator/Tam3 (hAT) transposable elements are rarely found in vertebrates. Previously, goldfish Tgf2 was found to be an autonomously active vertebrate transposon that is efficient at gene-transfer in teleost fish. However, little is known about Tgf2 functional domains required for transposition. To explore this, we first predicted in silico a zinc finger domain in the N-terminus of full length Tgf2 transposase (L-Tgf2TPase). Two truncated recombinant Tgf2 transposases with deletions in the N-terminal zinc finger domain, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPase, were expressed in bacteria from goldfish cDNAs. Both truncated Tgf2TPases lost their DNA-binding ability in vitro, specifically at the ends of Tgf2 transposon than native L-Tgf2TPase. Consequently, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPases mediated gene transfer in the zebrafish genome in vivo at a significantly (p < 0.01) lower efficiency (21%-25%), in comparison with L-Tgf2TPase (56% efficiency). Compared to L-Tgf2TPase, truncated Tgf2TPases catalyzed imprecise excisions with partial deletion of TE ends and/or plasmid backbone insertion/deletion. The gene integration into the zebrafish genome mediated by truncated Tgf2TPases was imperfect, creating incomplete 8-bp target site duplications at the insertion sites. These results indicate that the zinc finger domain in Tgf2 transposase is involved in binding to Tgf2 terminal sequences, and loss of those domains has effects on TE transposition. PMID:27251101

  14. Radius neck-to-humerus trochlea transposition elbow reconstruction after proximal ulnar metastatic tumor resection: case and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Wide en bloc excision of proximal ulna sections is used to treat traumatic and pathological fractures of the ulna, though poor standardization of clinical treatment often results in long-term failure of such reconstructed biomechanical structures. In order to provide insight into effective ulnar reconstructive treatments, the case of an 80-year-old Chinese Han male presenting with pathological fracture caused by a proximal ulnar metastatic tumor concurrent with metastatic renal cancer complicated by occurrence in the brain and lungs is reported and contrasted with alternative treatment techniques. Wide resectioning of the proximal ulna and reconstruction with local radius neck-to-humerus trochlea transposition resulted in preservation of functionality, sensitivity, and biomechanical integrity after postsurgical immobilization, 6 weeks of passive- and active-assisted flexion, and extension with a hinged brace. The resultant Musculoskeletal Tumor Society rating score was 25 of 30 (83 %). Full sensitivity and mobility of the left hand and elbow (10° to 90° with minimally impaired supination and pronation) was restored with minimal discomfort. No evidence of local recurrence or other pathological complications were observed within a 1-year follow-up period. Efficient reconstruction of osseous and capsuloligamentous structures in the elbow is often accomplished by allografts, prosthesis, and soft tissue reconstruction, though wide variations in risk and prognosis associated with these techniques has resulted in disagreements regarding the most effective standards for clinical treatment. Current findings suggest that radius neck-to-humerus trochlea transposition offers a superior range of elbow movement and fewer complications than similar allograft and prosthetic techniques for patients with multiple metastatic cancers. PMID:22800611

  15. The N-terminal zinc finger domain of Tgf2 transposase contributes to DNA binding and to transposition activity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xia-Yun; Hou, Fei; Shen, Xiao-Dan; Du, Xue-Di; Xu, Hai-Li; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Active Hobo/Activator/Tam3 (hAT) transposable elements are rarely found in vertebrates. Previously, goldfish Tgf2 was found to be an autonomously active vertebrate transposon that is efficient at gene-transfer in teleost fish. However, little is known about Tgf2 functional domains required for transposition. To explore this, we first predicted in silico a zinc finger domain in the N-terminus of full length Tgf2 transposase (L-Tgf2TPase). Two truncated recombinant Tgf2 transposases with deletions in the N-terminal zinc finger domain, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPase, were expressed in bacteria from goldfish cDNAs. Both truncated Tgf2TPases lost their DNA-binding ability in vitro, specifically at the ends of Tgf2 transposon than native L-Tgf2TPase. Consequently, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPases mediated gene transfer in the zebrafish genome in vivo at a significantly (p < 0.01) lower efficiency (21%–25%), in comparison with L-Tgf2TPase (56% efficiency). Compared to L-Tgf2TPase, truncated Tgf2TPases catalyzed imprecise excisions with partial deletion of TE ends and/or plasmid backbone insertion/deletion. The gene integration into the zebrafish genome mediated by truncated Tgf2TPases was imperfect, creating incomplete 8-bp target site duplications at the insertion sites. These results indicate that the zinc finger domain in Tgf2 transposase is involved in binding to Tgf2 terminal sequences, and loss of those domains has effects on TE transposition. PMID:27251101

  16. Globin gene structure in a reptile supports the transpositional model for amniote α- and β-globin gene evolution.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vidushi S; Ezaz, Tariq; Deakin, Janine E; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2010-12-01

    The haemoglobin protein, required for oxygen transportation in the body, is encoded by α- and β-globin genes that are arranged in clusters. The transpositional model for the evolution of distinct α-globin and β-globin clusters in amniotes is much simpler than the previously proposed whole genome duplication model. According to this model, all jawed vertebrates share one ancient region containing α- and β-globin genes and several flanking genes in the order MPG-C16orf35-(α-β)-GBY-LUC7L that has been conserved for more than 410 million years, whereas amniotes evolved a distinct β-globin cluster by insertion of a transposed β-globin gene from this ancient region into a cluster of olfactory receptors flanked by CCKBR and RRM1. It could not be determined whether this organisation is conserved in all amniotes because of the paucity of information from non-avian reptiles. To fill in this gap, we examined globin gene organisation in a squamate reptile, the Australian bearded dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps (Agamidae). We report here that the α-globin cluster (HBK, HBA) is flanked by C16orf35 and GBY and is located on a pair of microchromosomes, whereas the β-globin cluster is flanked by RRM1 on the 3' end and is located on the long arm of chromosome 3. However, the CCKBR gene that flanks the β-globin cluster on the 5' end in other amniotes is located on the short arm of chromosome 5 in P. vitticeps, indicating that a chromosomal break between the β-globin cluster and CCKBR occurred at least in the agamid lineage. Our data from a reptile species provide further evidence to support the transpositional model for the evolution of β-globin gene cluster in amniotes. PMID:21116705

  17. Stellarator hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Ludescher, C.

    1984-08-01

    The present paper briefly reviews the subject of tokamak-stellarator and pinch-stellarator hybrids, and points to two interesting new possibilities: compact-torus-stellarators and mirror-stellarators.

  18. Hybrid Solar GHP Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-12-11

    This project provides an easy-to-use, menu-driven, software tool for designing hybrid solar-geothermal heat pump systems (GHP) for both heating- and cooling-dominated buildings. No such design tool currently exists. In heating-dominated buildings, the design approach takes advantage of glazed solar collectors to effectively balance the annual thermal loads on the ground with renewable solar energy. In cooling-dominated climates, the design approach takes advantage of relatively low-cost, unglazed solar collectors as the heat rejecting component. The primarymore » benefit of hybrid GHPs is the reduced initial cost of the ground heat exchanger (GHX). Furthermore, solar thermal collectors can be used to balance the ground loads over the annual cycle, thus making the GHX fully sustainable; in heating-dominated buildings, the hybrid energy source (i.e., solar) is renewable, in contrast to a typical fossil fuel boiler or electric resistance as the hybrid component; in cooling-dominated buildings, use of unglazed solar collectors as a heat rejecter allows for passive heat rejection, in contrast to a cooling tower that consumes a significant amount of energy to operate, and hybrid GHPs can expand the market by allowing reduced GHX footprint in both heating- and cooling-dominated climates. The design tool allows for the straight-forward design of innovative GHP systems that currently pose a significant design challenge. The project lays the foundations for proper and reliable design of hybrid GHP systems, overcoming a series of difficult and cumbersome steps without the use of a system simulation approach, and without an automated optimization scheme. As new technologies and design concepts emerge, sophisticated design tools and methodologies must accompany them and be made usable for practitioners. Lack of reliable design tools results in reluctance of practitioners to implement more complex systems. A menu-driven software tool for the design of hybrid solar GHP systems

  19. Electric hybrid module based specialty car design

    SciTech Connect

    Bohan, K.R.

    1995-12-31

    The vast majority of automobiles made in the United states today are manufactured by one of three major auto manufacturers. It is intrinsic in their nature to act conservatively. The big three`s large production runs represents a huge amount of capitalization. The amount of capital being invested is the real driving factor behind the conservative nature of these companies. In the computer industries we have seen a significant number of small start up companies as the driving force behind technological change. If a large company does not do it, a small venture capital company will certainly fill the vacuum. Unfortunately, the existing auto industry does not have a strong startup company presence. Even into the 1920`s, the specialty car or custom coach work manufactures represented a lively part of the auto economy. It was not until the coming of the great depression that the small specialty car manufacture was virtually eliminated. Today we see the beginnings of a comeback of the specialty car manufacturer in the kit car industry of today.

  20. Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs.

    PubMed

    Del'Haye, Pascal; Papp, Scott B; Diddams, Scott A

    2012-12-28

    Optical frequency combs based on mode-locked lasers have proven to be invaluable tools for a wide range of applications in precision spectroscopy and metrology. A novel principle of optical frequency comb generation in whispering-gallery mode microresonators ("microcombs") has been developed recently, which represents a promising route towards chip-level integration and out-of-the-lab use of these devices. Presently, two families of microcombs have been demonstrated: Combs with electronically detectable mode spacing that can be directly stabilized, and broadband combs with up to octave-spanning spectra but mode spacings beyond electronic detection limits. However, it has not yet been possible to achieve these two key requirements simultaneously, as will be critical for most microcomb applications. Here we present a route to overcome this problem by interleaving an electro-optic comb with the spectrum from a parametric microcomb. This allows, for the first time, direct control and stabilization of a microcomb spectrum with large mode spacing (>140 GHz) with no need for an additional mode-locked laser frequency comb. The attained residual 1-sec instability of the microcomb comb spacing is 10(-15), with a microwave reference limited absolute instability of 10(-12) at a 140 GHz mode spacing. PMID:23368562

  1. Waveform Sampler CAMAC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Freytag, D.R.; Haller, G.M.; Kang, H.; Wang, J.

    1985-09-01

    A Waveform Sampler Module (WSM) for the measurement of signal shapes coming from the multi-hit drift chambers of the SLAC SLC detector is described. The module uses a high speed, high resolution analog storage device (AMU) developed in collaboration between SLAC and Stanford University. The AMU devices together with high speed TTL clocking circuitry are packaged in a hybrid which is also suitable for mounting on the detector. The module is in CAMAC format and provides eight signal channels, each recording signal amplitude versus time in 512 cells at a sampling rate of up to 360 MHz. Data are digitized by a 12-bit ADC with a 1 ..mu..s conversion time and stored in an on-board memory accessible through CAMAC.

  2. A TALE of Transposition: Tn3-Like Transposons Play a Major Role in the Spread of Pathogenicity Determinants of Xanthomonas citri and Other Xanthomonads

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rafael Marini; de Oliveira, Amanda Carolina P.; Moreira, Leandro M.; Belasque, José; Gourbeyre, Edith; Siguier, Patricia; Ferro, Maria Inês T.; Ferro, Jesus A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the genus Xanthomonas are among the most important phytopathogens. A key feature of Xanthomonas pathogenesis is the translocation of type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins (T3SEs) into the plant target cells via a T3SS. Several T3SEs and a murein lytic transglycosylase gene (mlt, required for citrus canker symptoms) are found associated with three transposition-related genes in Xanthomonas citri plasmid pXAC64. These are flanked by short inverted repeats (IRs). The region was identified as a transposon, TnXax1, with typical Tn3 family features, including a transposase and two recombination genes. Two 14-bp palindromic sequences within a 193-bp potential resolution site occur between the recombination genes. Additional derivatives carrying different T3SEs and other passenger genes occur in different Xanthomonas species. The T3SEs include transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs). Certain TALEs are flanked by the same IRs as found in TnXax1 to form mobile insertion cassettes (MICs), suggesting that they may be transmitted horizontally. A significant number of MICs carrying other passenger genes (including a number of TALE genes) were also identified, flanked by the same TnXax1 IRs and delimited by 5-bp target site duplications. We conclude that a large fraction of T3SEs, including individual TALEs and potential pathogenicity determinants, have spread by transposition and that TnXax1, which exhibits all of the essential characteristics of a functional transposon, may be involved in driving MIC transposition. We also propose that TALE genes may diversify by fork slippage during the replicative Tn3 family transposition. These mechanisms may play a crucial role in the emergence of Xanthomonas pathogenicity. PMID:25691597

  3. Left main coronary artery stenting in a 3.6 kg infant after arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries

    PubMed Central

    El-Said, Howaida G; Ebrahim, Mohammad; Moore, John W

    2015-01-01

    The patient presented with flash pulmonary edema related to severe left ventricular diastolic dysfunction several weeks after arterial switch operation (ASO) for D-transposition of the great arteries. Long segment, critical left main coronary artery stenosis in this 3.6 kilogram infant was successfully stented and resulted in resolution of the clinical findings. At 15-month follow-up, the patient remains asymptomatic and thriving. PMID:26085768

  4. The effects of heat induction and the siRNA biogenesis pathway on the transgenerational transposition of ONSEN, a copia-like retrotransposon in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Wataru; Kobayashi, Akie; Kato, Atsushi; Ito, Hidetaka

    2012-05-01

    Environmental stress influences genetic and epigenetic regulation in plant genomes. We previously reported that heat stress activated a copia-like retrotransposon named ONSEN. To investigate the heat sensitivity and transgenerational activation of ONSEN, we analyzed the stress response by temperature shift and multiple heat stress treatments. ONSEN was activated at 37°C, and the newly inserted ONSEN was transcriptionally active and mobile to the next generation subjected to heat stress, indicating that the regulation of ONSEN is independent of positional effects on the chromosome. Reciprocal crosses with activated ONSEN revealed that the transgenerational transposition was inherited from both sexes, indicating that the transposition is suppressed independently of gametophytic regulation. We showed previously that ONSEN was transposed in mutants deficient in small interfering RNA (siRNA) biogenesis, including nrpd2 and rdr2, but not dcl3. To define the functional redundancy of Dicer-like (DCL) proteins in Arabidopsis, we analyzed ONSEN activation in mutants deficient in DCL proteins, including dcl2, dcl3 and dcl4. ONSEN was nearly immobile in a single Dicer mutant; however, some transgenerational transpositions were observed in dcl2/dcl3/dcl4 triple mutants subjected to heat stress. This indicated that the Dicer family is redundant for ONSEN transposition. To examine the activation of ONSEN in undifferentiated cells, ONSEN transcripts and synthesized DNA were analyzed in heat-stressed callus tissue. In contrast to vegetative tissue, high accumulation of the transcripts and amplified DNA copies of ONSEN were detected in callus. This result indicated that ONSEN activation is controlled by cell-specific regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22173101

  5. Circulating Annexin A5 Levels after Atrial Switch for Transposition of the Great Arteries: Relationship with Ventricular Deformation and Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Clare T. M.; Chow, Pak-cheong; Wong, Sophia J.; Chan, Koon-wing; Cheung, Yiu-fai

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammatory cytokines, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and altered collagen turnover may contribute to unfavourable ventricular remodeling. This unfavourable ventricular remodelling is well documented in patients after atrial switch operation for complete transposition of the great arteries. We therefore tested if levels of circulating markers of inflammation, apoptosis, collagen synthesis, and extracellular matrix degradation are altered in patients after atrial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries. Methods and Results Circulating tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, annexin A5 (AnxA5), carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) levels were determined in 27 patients aged 25.2±3.1 years and 20 controls. Ventricular myocardial deformation and left ventricular eccentricity index (EI) were determined by speckle tracking and two-dimensional echocardiography, respectively. Compared with controls, patients had significantly higher circulating AnxA5 (p<0.001) and TNF-α (p = 0.018) levels, but similar PICP, PIIINP, MMP-1 and TIMP-1 levels. For the whole cohort, plasma AnxA5 correlated with serum TNF-α (p = 0.002), systemic ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) and systolic and early diastolic strain rate (all p<0.001), and subpulmonary ventricular GLS and early diastolic strain rate (both p<0.001). In patients, plasma AnxA5 level correlated positively with subpulmonary ventricular EI (p = 0.027). Multiple linear regression analysis identified systemic ventricular GLS (β = −0.50, p<0.001) and serum TNF-α (β = 0.29, p = 0.022) as significant correlates of plasma AnxA5. Conclusions Elevated plasma AnxA5 level in patients after atrial switch operation is associated with impaired systemic myocardial deformation, increased subpulmonary ventricular

  6. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Dress, William B.

    2010-02-02

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method includes modulating a signal by utilizing a subset of bits from a pseudo-random code generator to control an amplification circuit that provides a gain to the signal. Another method includes: modulating a signal by utilizing a subset of bits from a pseudo-random code generator to control a fast hopping frequency synthesizer; and fast frequency hopping the signal with the fast hopping frequency synthesizer, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time.

  7. Isolation and transposition properties of ISBlo11, an active insertion sequence belonging to the IS3 family, from Bifidobacterium longum 105-A.

    PubMed

    Sakanaka, Mikiyasu; Fukiya, Satoru; Kobayashi, Ryoko; Abe, Arisa; Hirayama, Yosuke; Kano, Yasunobu; Yokota, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Transposon mutagenesis systems are still under development in bifidobacteria, partly because intrinsic active insertion sequences are not well characterized in bifidobacteria. Here, we isolated an active insertion sequence, ISBlo11, from Bifidobacterium longum 105-A using a sacB-based counterselection system, which is generally used to screen for active insertion sequences from bacterial genomes. ISBlo11 is 1432 bp long and belongs to the IS3 family. It has a single ORF encoding a transposase and 25-bp inverted repeats at its termini. Full-length copies of ISBlo11 are specifically conserved among certain B. longum genomes and exist in different sites. Transposition analysis of an artificial ISBlo11 transposon using an Escherichia coli conjugation system revealed that ISBlo11 has adequate transposition activity, comparable to the reported activity of IS629, another IS3 family element initially isolated from Shigella sonnei. ISBlo11 also showed low transposition selectivity for non-conserved 3- or 4-bp target sequences. These characteristics of ISBlo11 seem suitable for the development of a new transposon mutagenesis system in bifidobacteria. PMID:25724534

  8. Rapid and efficient introduction of a foreign gene into bacterial artificial chromosome-cloned varicella vaccine by Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition

    SciTech Connect

    Somboonthum, Pranee; Koshizuka, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Shigefumi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Michiaki; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2010-06-20

    Using a rapid and reliable system based on Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition, we have successfully constructed a recombinant Oka varicella vaccine (vOka) expressing the mumps virus (MuV) fusion protein (F). The backbone of the vector was our previously reported vOka-BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) genome. We inserted the transposon Tn7 attachment sequence, LacZ{alpha}-mini-attTn7, into the region between ORF12 and ORF13 to generate a vOka-BAC-Tn genome. The MuV-F expressing cassette was transposed into the vOka-BAC genome at the mini-attTn7 transposition site. MuV-F protein was expressed in recombinant virus, rvOka-F infected cells. In addition, the MuV-F protein was cleaved in the rvOka-F infected cells as in MuV-infected cells. The growth of rvOka-F was similar to that of the original recombinant vOka without the F gene. Thus, we show that Tn7-mediated transposition is an efficient method for introducing a foreign gene expression cassette into the vOka-BAC genome as a live virus vector.

  9. Characterization of Growth and Reproduction Performance, Transgene Integration, Expression, and Transmission Patterns in Transgenic Pigs Produced by piggyBac Transposition-Mediated Gene Transfer.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fang; Li, Zicong; Cai, Gengyuan; Gao, Wenchao; Jiang, Gelong; Liu, Dewu; Urschitz, Johann; Moisyadi, Stefan; Wu, Zhenfang

    2016-10-01

    Previously we successfully produced a group of EGFP-expressing founder transgenic pigs by a newly developed efficient and simple pig transgenesis method based on cytoplasmic injection of piggyBac plasmids. In this study, we investigated the growth and reproduction performance and characterized the transgene insertion, transmission, and expression patterns in transgenic pigs generated by piggyBac transposition. Results showed that transgene has no injurious effect on the growth and reproduction of transgenic pigs. Multiple copies of monogenic EGFP transgene were inserted at noncoding sequences of host genome, and passed from founder transgenic pigs to their transgenic offspring in segregation or linkage manner. The EGFP transgene was ubiquitously expressed in transgenic pigs, and its expression intensity was associated with transgene copy number but not related to its promoter DNA methylation level. To the best of our knowledge, this is first study that fully described the growth and reproduction performance, transgene insertion, expression, and transmission profiles in transgenic pigs produced by piggyBac system. It not only demonstrates that piggyBac transposition-mediated gene transfer is an effective and favorable approach for pig transgenesis, but also provides scientific information for understanding the transgene insertion, expression and transmission patterns in transgenic animals produced by piggyBac transposition. PMID:27565868

  10. Directed Synthesis of a Segmental Chromosomal Transposition: An Approach to the Study of Chromosomes Lethal to the Gametophyte Generation of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Birchler, J. A.; Levin, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the haploid nature of the gametophyte generation of plants, most mutations that are lethal or detrimental to the gametophytes cannot be recovered. Our laboratory is currently developing several techniques to overcome this situation. In this paper, a procedure is described to generate directed segmental chromosomal transpositions. The method involves recovery of recombinants between reciprocal translocation overlaps such that one region of the genome is inserted into a nonhomologous chromosome in a predetermined and directed manner. This duplicated segment then could serve to cover deficiencies or mutations, lethal to the gametophytes, in the region from whence it originated. The manipulation of segmental chromosomal transpositions for analyzing mutants lethal or detrimental to the gametophyte generation is discussed. The procedure to generate transpositions, the translocations between normal A and supernumerary B chromosomes that generate deficiencies in the male gametes, the r-X1 chromosome that generates deficiencies in the female gametes and other techniques available in maize form a system to analyze gametophyte lethal mutations. PMID:2016056

  11. Summary of Clinical Experience of Modified Double Root Translocation in the Management of Complete Transposition of Great Arteries With Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Xu, Jing; Zhou, Zhiming; Wang, Ke; Chen, Jianchao; Chen, Hongling; Wen, Meng; Liang, Qiaoru

    2016-07-27

    To summarize the therapeutic effects of modified double root translocation (MDRT) in the management of congenital heart disease-transposition of great arteries (TGA) with ventricular septum defect (VSD) and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO). From May 2013 to March 2015, we treated 6 patients (4 males, 2 females, aged from 1 year and 8 months old to 5 years old) with complete transposition of great arteries with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, SaO2 54 ± 7.3%; the outflow velocity of the left ventricular or pulmonary valve measured by Doppler was 4.46 ± 0.15 m/s, and the Nakata index was 217 ± 32 cm(2)/m(2). We carried out a double root translocation operation on these 6 patients.One patient developed low cardiac output syndrome 4 hours after the operation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was performed, but the patient died of multiple organ failure. The other 5 patients all recovered and were discharged from the hospital. During the 3-month to 2-year follow-up period, these 5 patients all demonstrated NYHA Class I or NYHA Class II LVEF (65 ± 2.7) %; 4 had mild pulmonary regurgitation, 1 moderate pulmonary regurgitation; 3 no aortic regurgitation, and 2 micro aortic regurgitation, SaO2 99 ± 0.4%.Modified double root translocation is an effective treatment method in the management of complete transposition of great arteries with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. PMID:27396558

  12. Transposition and Intermingling of Galphai2 and Galphao afferences into single vomeronasal glomeruli in the Madagascan lesser Tenrec Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Rodrigo; Villalón, Aldo; Künzle, Heinz; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The vomeronasal system (VNS) mediates pheromonal communication in mammals. From the vomeronasal organ, two populations of sensory neurons, expressing either Galphai2 or Galphao proteins, send projections that end in glomeruli distributed either at the rostral or caudal half of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively. Neurons at the AOB contact glomeruli of a single subpopulation. The dichotomic segregation of AOB glomeruli has been described in opossums, rodents and rabbits, while Primates and Laurasiatheres present the Galphai2-pathway only, or none at all (such as apes, some bats and aquatic species). We studied the AOB of the Madagascan lesser tenrec Echinops telfairi (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida) and found that Galphai2 and Galphao proteins are expressed in rostral and caudal glomeruli, respectively. However, the segregation of vomeronasal glomeruli at the AOB is not exclusive, as both pathways contained some glomeruli transposed into the adjoining subdomain. Moreover, some glomeruli seem to contain intermingled afferences from both pathways. Both the transposition and heterogeneity of vomeronasal afferences are features, to our knowledge, never reported before. The organization of AOB glomeruli suggests that synaptic integration might occur at the glomerular layer. Whether intrinsic AOB neurons may make synaptic contact with axon terminals of both subpopulations is an interesting possibility that would expand our understanding about the integration of vomeronasal pathways. PMID:19956694

  13. Excision and transposition of two Ds transposons from the bronze mutable 4 derivative 6856 allele of Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Dowe, M F; Roman, G W; Klein, A S

    1990-05-01

    The regulatory mutation bronze mutable 4 Derivative 6856 (bz-m4 D6856) contains a complex 6.7 kb Dissociation (Ds) element tagged with a duplication of low copy bz 3' flanking sequences (Klein et al. 1988). This creates a unique opportunity to study the transposition of a single member of the repetitive family of Ds elements. Eighteen full purple revertants (Bz' alleles) of bz-m4 were characterized enzymatically and by genomic mapping. For 17 of the Bz' alleles, reversion to a wild-type phenotype was caused by excision of the 6.7 kb Ds transposon. Nine of these Bz' alleles retained the transposon somewhere in their genome. In this study we show that like Ac (Schwartz 1989; Dooner and Belachew 1989), the 6.7 kb Ds element can transpose within a short physical distance, both proximal and distal to its original position. Additional bz sequences have been mapped immediately distal to the mutant locus in bz-m4 D6856; genetic evidence suggests these are flanked by two additional Ds elements. The remaining Bz' revertant, Bz':107, arose from excision of a more complex 13 kb Ds element. PMID:2166229

  14. Identification of a persistent primitive trigeminal artery following the transposition technique for trigeminal neuralgia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Naoki; Tanaka, Toshihide; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Arai, Takao; Hasegawa, Yuzuru; Abe, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    A patient who presented with trigeminal neuralgia associated with a persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) is presented. A 62-year-old woman suffering from right orbital pain was admitted to the hospital. Medical treatment for three months was ineffective, and her neuralgia had deteriorated and gradually spread in the maxillary division. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the flow void signal attached to the right trigeminal nerve. Thus, microvascular decompression was performed. The superior cerebellar artery was the responsible artery, and it was transposed to decompress the trigeminal nerve. After this manoeuvre, an artery was identified running parallel to the trigeminal nerve toward Meckel’s cave. The artery, which turned out to be a PPTA, communicated with the basilar artery. The PPTA was carefully observed, and it was found not to be the artery causing the neuralgia because it did not compress the nerve at surgical observation. No additional procedure between the PPTA and the trigeminal nerve was performed. The patient’s symptom improved dramatically following surgery, and her postoperative course was uneventful. Postoperative three-dimensional computed tomography showed the PPTA. The findings in the present case suggest that transposition of the responsible artery effectively decompresses the root entry zone and assists in determining whether the PPTA is affecting the trigeminal nerve. PMID:22059208

  15. Identification of a persistent primitive trigeminal artery following the transposition technique for trigeminal neuralgia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kato, Naoki; Tanaka, Toshihide; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Arai, Takao; Hasegawa, Yuzuru; Abe, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    A patient who presented with trigeminal neuralgia associated with a persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) is presented. A 62-year-old woman suffering from right orbital pain was admitted to the hospital. Medical treatment for three months was ineffective, and her neuralgia had deteriorated and gradually spread in the maxillary division. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the flow void signal attached to the right trigeminal nerve. Thus, microvascular decompression was performed. The superior cerebellar artery was the responsible artery, and it was transposed to decompress the trigeminal nerve. After this manoeuvre, an artery was identified running parallel to the trigeminal nerve toward Meckel's cave. The artery, which turned out to be a PPTA, communicated with the basilar artery. The PPTA was carefully observed, and it was found not to be the artery causing the neuralgia because it did not compress the nerve at surgical observation. No additional procedure between the PPTA and the trigeminal nerve was performed. The patient's symptom improved dramatically following surgery, and her postoperative course was uneventful. Postoperative three-dimensional computed tomography showed the PPTA. The findings in the present case suggest that transposition of the responsible artery effectively decompresses the root entry zone and assists in determining whether the PPTA is affecting the trigeminal nerve. PMID:22059208

  16. Activation of trypanosome surface glycoprotein genes involves a duplication-transposition leading to an altered 3' end.

    PubMed

    Bernards, A; Van der Ploeg, L H; Frasch, A C; Borst, P; Boothroyd, J C; Coleman, S; Cross, G A

    1981-12-01

    Expression of the genes for variant surface glycoproteins 117 and 118 in Trypanosoma brucei is accompanied by the appearance of an extra copy of these genes, the expression-linked copy, which differs in the surrounding restriction enzyme sites from the corresponding basic copy of the genes. We present direct evidence that the expression-linked copy is the one used for messenger RNA synthesis. By S1-nuclease-protection experiments we show that cloned basic-copy genes contain the nucleotide sequence of the corresponding messenger RNA except for the last 100 to 150 nucleotides before the poly(A) tail. Comparison of the 3'-terminal sequence of the 117 basic-copy gene and the 117 complementary DNA shows that this region differs by multiple point mutations, insertions and deletions, the differences starting within the coding sequence. Genomic blots demonstrate that a Bsp I site in the 3'-terminal part of the 118 complementary DNA is present in the expression-linked copy but not in the basic-copy gene. We conclude that expression-linked copies are the active genes, and that the generation of expression-linked copies involves a duplication--transposition in which the 3' end of the gene is replaced. PMID:6101223

  17. Trajectories of Parasympathetic Nervous System Function before, during, and after Feeding in Infants with Transposition of the Great Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tondi M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Compromised parasympathetic response to stressors may underlie feeding difficulties in infants with complex congenital heart defects, but little is known about the temporal pattern of parasympathetic response across phases of feeding. Objectives To describe initial data exploration of trajectories of parasympathetic response to feeding in 15 infants with surgically corrected transposition of the great arteries and to explore effects of feeding method, feeding skill, and maternal sensitivity on trajectories. Method In this descriptive, exploratory study, parasympathetic function was measured using high frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV), feeding skill was measured using the Early Feeding Skills assessment, and maternal sensitivity was measured using the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment. Data were collected before, during, and after feeding at 2 weeks and 2 months of age. Trajectories of parasympathetic function and relationships with possible contributing factors were examined graphically. Results Marked between-infant variability in HF HRV across phases of feeding was apparent at both ages, although attenuated at 2 months. Four patterns of HF HRV trajectories across phases of feeding were identified and associated with feeding method, feeding skill, and maternal sensitivity. Developmental increases in HF HRV were apparent in most breastfed, but not bottle-fed, infants. Discussion This exploratory data analysis provided critical information in preparation for a larger study in which varying trajectories and potential contributing factors can be modeled in relationship to infant outcomes. Findings support inclusion of feeding method, feeding skill, and maternal sensitivity in modeling parasympathetic function across feeding. PMID:21543958

  18. Intragenomic linear amplification of human herpesvirus 6B oriLyt suggests acquisition of oriLyt by transposition.

    PubMed Central

    Stamey, F R; Dominguez, G; Black, J B; Dambaugh, T R; Pellett, P E

    1995-01-01

    We identified some passage lineages of human herpesvirus 6 variant B (HHV-6B) strain Z29 that contain as many as 12 tandem copies of a genomic segment that corresponds almost precisely to a previously identified minimal efficient origin of lytic replication (oriLyt). Analysis of nucleotide sequences in the vicinity of the amplified segment suggests that the amplification occurred as a two-step process, with the first step being a rare sequence duplication mediated through directly repeated sequences located near the termini of the amplified segment and the second step occurring via homologous recombination through the duplicated sequence. These results demonstrate that oriLyt has been amplified in some virus stocks and indicate that (i) origin amplification confers a growth advantage on the virus in cell culture and (ii) laboratory-passaged HHV-6B genomes can accommodate additional nucleotide sequences and thus may be useful gene transfer vectors. The structures of the amplified segment and its adjacent sequences together suggest that HHV-6B or a progenitor virus acquired oriLyt by transposition from an unknown source. PMID:7983761

  19. Relationship of white matter network topology and cognitive outcome in adolescents with d-transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Schmithorst, Vincent J; Wisnowski, Jessica L; Watson, Christopher G; Bellinger, David C; Newburger, Jane W; Rivkin, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at risk for neurocognitive impairments. Little is known about the impact of CHD on the organization of large-scale brain networks. We applied graph analysis techniques to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data obtained from 49 adolescents with dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) repaired with the arterial switch operation in early infancy and 29 healthy referent adolescents. We examined whether differences in neurocognitive functioning were related to white matter network topology. We developed mediation models revealing the respective contributions of peri-operative variables and network topology on cognitive outcome. Adolescents with d-TGA had reduced global efficiency at a trend level (p = 0.061), increased modularity (p = 0.012), and increased small-worldness (p = 0.026) as compared to controls. Moreover, these network properties mediated neurocognitive differences between the d-TGA and referent adolescents across every domain assessed. Finally, structural network topology mediated the neuroprotective effect of longer duration of core cooling during reparative neonatal cardiac surgery, as well as the detrimental effects of prolonged hospitalization. Taken together, worse neurocognitive function in adolescents with d-TGA is mediated by global differences in white matter network topology, suggesting that disruption of this configuration of large-scale networks drives neurocognitive dysfunction. These data provide new insights into the interplay between perioperative factors, brain organization, and cognition in patients with complex CHD. PMID:25685710

  20. New Approaches to Rainfall and Flood Frequency Analysis Using High Resolution Radar Rainfall Fields and Stochastic Storm Transposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. B.; Smith, J. A.; Villarini, G.; Baeck, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Conventional techniques for rainfall and flood frequency analysis in small watersheds involve a variety of assumptions regarding the spatial and temporal structure of extreme rainfall systems as well as how resulting runoff moves through the drainage network. These techniques were developed at a time when observational and computational resources were limited. They continue to be used in practice though their validity has not been fully examined. New observational and computational resources such as high-resolution radar rainfall estimates and distributed hydrologic models allow us to examine these assumptions and to develop alternative methods for estimating flood risk. We have developed a high-resolution (1 square km, 15-minute resolution) radar rainfall dataset for the 2001-2010 period using the Hydro-NEXRAD processing system, which has been bias corrected using a dense network of 71 rain gages in the Charlotte metropolitan area. The accuracy of the bias-corrected radar rainfall estimates compare favorably with rain gage measurements. The radar rainfall dataset is used in a stochastic storm transposition framework to estimate the frequency of extreme rainfall for urban watersheds ranging the point/radar pixel scale up to 240 square km, and can be combined with the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model to estimate flood frequency analysis. The results of these frequency analyses can be compared against the results of conventional methods such as the NOAA Atlas 14 precipitation frequency estimates and peak discharge estimates prepared by FEMA and the North Carolina state government.

  1. Assessment of Fecundity and Germ Line Transmission in Two Transgenic Pig Lines Produced by Sleeping Beauty Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Cleve, Nicole; Niemann, Heiner; Ivics, Zoltan; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we described a simplified injection method for producing transgenic pigs using a non-autonomous Sleeping Beauty transposon system. The founder animals showed ubiquitous expression of the Venus fluorophore in almost all cell types. To assess, whether expression of the reporter fluorophore affects animal welfare or fecundity, we analyzed reproductive parameters of two founder boars, germ line transmission, and organ and cell specific transgene expression in animals of the F1 and F2 generation. Molecular analysis of ejaculated sperm cells suggested three monomeric integrations of the Venus transposon in both founders. To test germ line transmission of the three monomeric transposon integrations, wild-type sows were artificially inseminated. The offspring were nursed to sexual maturity and hemizygous lines were established. A clear segregation of the monomeric transposons following the Mendelian rules was observed in the F1 and F2 offspring. Apparently, almost all somatic cells, as well as oocytes and spermatozoa, expressed the Venus fluorophore at cell-type specific levels. No detrimental effects of Venus expression on animal health or fecundity were found. Importantly, all hemizygous lines expressed the fluorophore in comparable levels, and no case of transgene silencing or variegated expression was found after germ line transmission, suggesting that the insertions occurred at transcriptionally permissive loci. The results show that Sleeping Beauty transposase-catalyzed transposition is a promising approach for stable genetic modification of the pig genome. PMID:24705079

  2. Germline Transgenic Pigs by Sleeping Beauty Transposition in Porcine Zygotes and Targeted Integration in the Pig Genome

    PubMed Central

    Garrels, Wiebke; Mátés, Lajos; Holler, Stephanie; Dalda, Anna; Taylor, Ulrike; Petersen, Björn; Niemann, Heiner; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic engineering can expand the utility of pigs for modeling human diseases, and for developing advanced therapeutic approaches. However, the inefficient production of transgenic pigs represents a technological bottleneck. Here, we assessed the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB100X) transposon system for enzyme-catalyzed transgene integration into the embryonic porcine genome. The components of the transposon vector system were microinjected as circular plasmids into the cytoplasm of porcine zygotes, resulting in high frequencies of transgenic fetuses and piglets. The transgenic animals showed normal development and persistent reporter gene expression for >12 months. Molecular hallmarks of transposition were confirmed by analysis of 25 genomic insertion sites. We demonstrate germ-line transmission, segregation of individual transposons, and continued, copy number-dependent transgene expression in F1-offspring. In addition, we demonstrate target-selected gene insertion into transposon-tagged genomic loci by Cre-loxP-based cassette exchange in somatic cells followed by nuclear transfer. Transposase-catalyzed transgenesis in a large mammalian species expands the arsenal of transgenic technologies for use in domestic animals and will facilitate the development of large animal models for human diseases. PMID:21897845

  3. Transposition of a plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid sequence that mediates ampicillin resistance: independence from host rec functions and orientation of insertion.

    PubMed Central

    Rubens, C; Heffron, F; Falkow, S

    1976-01-01

    Insertion of the transposable deoxyribonucleic acid sequence that specifies the TEM beta-lactamase (TnA) occurred in at least 19 sites on the 5.5 x 10(6)-dalton plasmid RSF1010. There was no significant difference in the frequency of transposition or in the distribution of TnA insertion sites for recombinant plasmids isolated from recombination-proficient (rec+) or recombination-deficient (rec-) bacterial host cells. The site and orientation of TnA insertions were determined by both heteroduplex analysis and enzymatic digestion with restriction endonucleases. Insertion in the gene encoding for sulfonamide resistance occurred without circular permutation in one or the other of two distinct orientations. Insertions in orientation P were strongly polar on distal gene expression, whereas insertions in orientation M were mutagenic but not polar. In addition, we have observed that TnA elements from different R plasmids show fine structural heterogeneity, and that TnA insertion at a site adjacent to the origin of replication causes an increase in plasmid copy number. Images PMID:789346

  4. Wound Dehiscence after Wisdom Tooth Removal in Mandibular Mesioangular Class IB Impactions: Triangular Transposition Flap versus Envelope Flap

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh; Ilkhani, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Wound dehiscence after lower third molar surgery extends the postoperative treatment period and may cause long-standing pain. The aim of this study was to compare wound dehiscence after removal of wisdom teeth in the most prevalent mandibular impaction (mesioangular class IB) by two different soft tissue flap designs. Materials and methods. Partially-erupted mandibular third molars with mesioangular class IB impaction (Pell and Gregory classification) were selected. Split mouth technique was used to compare the two flap designs (envelope vs. triangular transposition flap—TTF). The patients were recalled one week and a month later and rechecked for dehiscence, infection, and dry socket formation. Results. There were no cases of infection in either group. However, three cases of dry socket in the envelope group and four in the TTF group were recorded. In the envelope group, dehiscence occurred in 43% of cases during the first week, with 67% of cases being a large dehiscence (diameters of more than 5 mm). Extra appointments (those requested by the patient exclusively related to the problem of the hole distal to the second molar) were scheduled in 10% of cases in the envelope group. In the TTF group, dehiscence occurred during the first week for the same impaction in 19% of cases with large dehiscence cases occurring in 65% of cases and extra appointment rate at 4.1%. Conclusion. According to theresults in the evaluated operation, TTF may prevent postoperative wound dehiscence more probably than the envelope flap. PMID:26697150

  5. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  6. NASF transposition network: A computing network for unscrambling p-ordered vectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    The viewpoints of design, programming, and application of the transportation network (TN) is presented. The TN is a programmable combinational logic network that connects 521 memory modules to 512 processors. The unscrambling of p-ordered vectors to 1-ordered vectors in one cycle is described. The TN design is based upon the concept of cyclic groups from abstract algebra and primitive roots and indices from number theory. The programming of the TN is very simple, requiring only 20 bits: 10 bits for offset control and 10 bits for barrel switch shift control. This simple control is executed by the control unit (CU), not the processors. Any memory access by a processor must be coordinated with the CU and wait for all other processors to come to a synchronization point. These wait and synchronization events can be a degradation in performance to a computation. The TN application is for multidimensional data manipulation, matrix processing, and data sorting, and can also perform a perfect shuffle. Unlike other more complicated and powerful permutation networks, the TN cannot, if possible at all, unscramble non-p-ordered vectors in one cycle.

  7. Hybrid E-Learning Acceptance Model: Learner Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Hassan M. Selim

    2010-01-01

    E-learning tools and technologies have been used to supplement conventional courses in higher education institutions creating a "hybrid" e-learning module that aims to enhance the learning experiences of students. Few studies have addressed the acceptance of hybrid e-learning by learners and the factors affecting the learners'…

  8. Integration Profile and Safety of an Adenovirus Hybrid-Vector Utilizing Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase for Somatic Integration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenli; Muck-Hausl, Martin; Wang, Jichang; Sun, Chuanbo; Gebbing, Maren; Miskey, Csaba; Ivics, Zoltan; Izsvak, Zsuzsanna; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We found that in all mice which received the hyperactive SB transposase, transgene expression levels were stabilized in a dose-dependent manner and that the highest vector dose was accompanied by fatalities in mice. To analyze potential genotoxic side-effects due to somatic integration into host chromosomes, we performed a genome-wide integration site analysis using linker-mediated PCR (LM-PCR) and linear amplification-mediated PCR (LAM-PCR). Analysis of genomic DNA samples obtained from HSB5 treated female and male mice revealed a total of 1327 unique transposition events. Overall the chromosomal distribution pattern was close-to-random and we observed a random integration profile with respect to integration into gene and non-gene areas. Notably, when using the LM-PCR protocol, 27 extra-chromosomal integration events were identified, most likely caused by transposon excision and subsequent transposition into the delivered adenoviral vector genome. In total, this study provides a careful evaluation of the safety profile of adenovirus/Sleeping Beauty transposase hybrid-vectors. The obtained information will be useful when designing future preclinical studies utilizing hybrid-vectors in small and large animal models. PMID:24124483

  9. Parabolic dish module experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-03-01

    A development test model of the 8-meter Solar Brayton Parabolic Dish Module has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The test model consists of five major subsystems: Sanders ceramic honeycomb solar receiver; LaJet LEC460 solar concentrator; AiRsearch SABC MKIIIA engine, Abacus 8 kW ac inverter; and a Sanders designed and built system controller. Goals of the tests were to integrate subsystem components into a working module, demonstrate the concept, and generate 5 kWe (hybrid) and 4.7 kWe (solar only) input. All subsystem integration goals were successfully achieved, but system performance efficiency was lower than expected. Contributing causes of the lower performance efficiencies have been identified. Modifications needed to restore performance to the required levels and improve the system life cycle cost have been addressed and are the subject of this final report.

  10. Stable local oscillator module.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-11-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) multi-chip module (MCM). It is a follow-on report to SAND2006-6414, Stable Local Oscillator Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. This report describes the development of an MCM-based version of the complete StaLO, fabricated on an alumina thick film hybrid substrate.

  11. Hybrid Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  12. Cardiovascular response to exercise training in the systemic right ventricle of adults with transposition of the great arteries

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, K M; Janssen, L; Carrick-Ranson, G; Rahmani, S; Palmer, D; Fujimoto, N; Livingston, S; Matulevicius, S A; Forbess, L W; Brickner, B; Levine, B D

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the haemodynamic effects of exercise training in transposition of the great arteries (TGA) patients with systemic right ventricles (SRVs). TGA patients have limited exercise tolerance and early mortality due to systemic (right) ventricular failure. Whether exercise training enhances or injures the SRV is unclear. Fourteen asymptomatic patients (34 ± 10 years) with TGA and SRV were enrolled in a 12 week exercise training programme (moderate and high-intensity workouts). Controls were matched on age, gender, BMI and physical activity. Exercise testing pre- and post- training included: (a) submaximal and peak; (b) prolonged (60 min) submaximal endurance and (c) high-intensity intervals. Oxygen uptake (; Douglas bag technique), cardiac output (, foreign-gas rebreathing), ventricular function (echocardiography and cardiac MRI) and serum biomarkers were assessed. TGA patients had lower peak , , and stroke volume (SV), a blunted / slope, and diminished SV response to exercise (SV increase from rest: TGA = 15.2%, controls = 68.9%, P < 0.001) compared with controls. After training, TGA patients increased peak by 6 ± 8.5%, similar to controls (interaction P = 0.24). The magnitude of SV reserve on initial testing correlated with training response (r = 0.58, P = 0.047), though overall, no change in peak was observed. High-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) and N-terminal prohormone of brain naturetic peptide (NT pro-BNP) were low and did not change with acute exercise or after training. Our data show that TGA patients with SRVs in this study safely participated in exercise training and improved peak . Neither prolonged submaximal exercise, nor high-intensity intervals, nor short-term exercise training seem to injure the systemic right ventricle. Key Points Patients with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and systemic right ventricles have premature congestive heart failure; there is also a growing concern that athletes who perform

  13. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  14. Differentiation of carbazole catabolic operons by replacement of the regulated promoter via transposition of an insertion sequence.

    PubMed

    Miyakoshi, Masatoshi; Urata, Masaaki; Habe, Hiroshi; Omori, Toshio; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2006-03-31

    The carbazole catabolic car operons from Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 and Janthinobacterium sp. J3 have nearly identical nucleotide sequences in their structural and intergenic regions but not in their flanking regions. Transposition of ISPre1 from the anthranilate catabolic ant operon located an inducible promoter Pant upstream of the carCA10 operon, which is regulated by the AraC/XylS family activator AntR in response to anthranilate. The transposed Pant drives transcription of the carCA10 operon, which is composed of the car-AaAaBaBbCAcAdDFECA10 structural genes. Transcriptional fusion truncating Pant upstream of carAaCA10 resulted in constitutive luciferase expression. Primer extension analysis identified a transcription start point of the constitutive mRNA of the carCA10 operon at 385 nucleotides upstream of the carAaCA10 translation start point, and the PcarAa promoter was found. On the other hand, a GntR family regulatory gene carRJ3 is divergently located upstream of the carJ3 operon. The Pu13 promoter, required for inducible transcription of the carJ3 operon in the presence of carbazole, was identified in the region upstream of carAaJ3, which had been replaced with the Pant promoter in the carCA10 operon. Deletion of carRJ3 from a transcriptional fusion resulted in high level constitutive expression from Pu13. Purified CarRJ3 protein bound at two operator sequences OI and OII, showing that CarRJ3 directly represses Pu13 in the absence of its inducer, which was identified as 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-(2'-aminophenyl)hexa-2,4-dienoate, an intermediate of the carbazole degradation pathway. PMID:16455652

  15. D-TRANSPOSITION OF THE GREAT ARTERIES: Hot Topics in the Current Era of the Arterial Switch Operation

    PubMed Central

    Villafañe, Juan; Lantin-Hermoso, M. Regina; Bhatt, Ami B.; Tweddell, James S.; Geva, Tal; Nathan, Meena; Elliott, Martin J.; Vetter, Victoria L.; Paridon, Stephen M.; Kochilas, Lazaros; Jenkins, Kathy J.; Beekman, Robert H.; Wernovsky, Gil; Towbin, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aims to update clinicians on “Hot Topics” in the management of patients with d-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) in the current surgical era. Background The arterial switch operation (ASO) has replaced atrial switch procedures for D-TGA and 90% of patients now reach adulthood. Methods The Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology Council (ACPC) of the American College of Cardiology assembled a team of experts to summarize current knowledge on genetics, prenatal diagnosis, surgical timing, balloon atrial septostomy (BAS), prostaglandin therapy (PGE), intraoperative techniques, imaging, coronary obstruction, arrhythmias, sudden death, aortic dilation and regurgitation (AR), neurodevelopmental (ND) issues and lifelong care of D-TGA patients. Results In simple D-TGA, 1) familial recurrence risk is low; 2) children diagnosed prenatally have improved cognitive skills compared with those diagnosed postnatally; 3) echocardiography helps to identify risk factors; 4) routine use of BAS and PGE may not be beneficial in some cases; 5) early ASO improves outcomes and reduces costs with a low mortality. Single or intramural coronary arteries remain risk factors; 6) post-ASO arrhythmias and cardiac dysfunction should raise suspicion of coronary insufficiency; 7) coronary insufficiency and arrhythmias are rare but associated with sudden death; 8) early and late-onset ND abnormalities are common; 9) AR and aortic root dilation are well tolerated; and 10) the aging ASO patient may benefit from “exercise-prescription” rather than restriction. Conclusions Significant strides have been made in understanding risk factors for cardiac, ND and other important clinical outcomes after ASO. PMID:25082585

  16. Medial gastrocnemius transposition flap for the treatment of disruption of the extensor mechanism after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jaureguito, J W; Dubois, C M; Smith, S R; Gottlieb, L J; Finn, H A

    1997-06-01

    We describe a modified technique for the salvage of a total knee arthroplasty after disruption of the extensor mechanism. Between January and December 1992, seven patients had reconstruction of the extensor mechanism with use of a medial or an extended medial gastrocnemius flap. Six of the seven patients were followed for a mean of thirty-three months (range, twenty-six to forty-one months) and were evaluated both preoperatively and postoperatively with regard to the knee and functional scores of The Knee Society as well as the range of motion, extensor lag, walking status, and patellar height. The seventh patient was lost to follow-up six months postoperatively and was excluded from the analysis of the results. Preoperatively, the knee and functional scores were 16 +/- 12.3 points and 12 +/- 12.1 points (mean and standard deviation), respectively; the mean range of motion was 70 +/- 44.0 degrees; and the mean extensor lag was 53 +/- 33.4 degrees. Postoperatively, the mean knee and functional scores improved to 82 +/- 12.4 points and 51 +/- 23.0 points, respectively; the mean range of motion improved to 100 +/- 21.8 degrees; and the mean extensor lag decreased to 24 +/- 18.8 degrees. After the procedure, all patients who previously had been dependent on a walker were able to walk about the community with or without a cane, and those who had been dependent on a wheelchair were able to walk with the assistance of a walker. Patellar height was measured according to the method of Insall and Salvati for the four patients who had a patella. Preoperatively, the patellar heights were grossly abnormal; postoperatively, they more closely approached accepted normal values for three of the four patients. Reconstruction of a complicated rupture of the extensor mechanism with use of a medial gastrocnemius transposition flap after total knee arthroplasty is a reliable option for treatment. PMID:9199384

  17. The Development of Instructional Module of Hybrid Approach Using Collaborative and Metacognitive (HybCoMet) Strategy as an Alternative Approach to Help Improving Generic Skills among Students in Malaysian Polytechnics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusof, Yusmarwati

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the development and design of a new alternative approach to teaching, which is referred to as a hybrid teaching approach. This teaching approach is developed to meet the challenges and academic needs of students learning technical subjects at polytechnic level in Malaysia. It is intended to help students improve their learning…

  18. Test stands for the Central Drift Chamber front end hybrid in the Stanford Linear Collider Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C.C.; Yim, A.K.

    1987-10-01

    The Central Drift Chamber (CDC) of the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD) uses 1280 front end electronic hybrid modules. Each of these modules contains over 450 components and performs numerous functions. This paper describes the four test stands for production and detailed circuit characterizations of these hybrids. Descriptions and performance of some of the important functions of the test systems will be presented here.

  19. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-10-12

    A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration. An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on the control of the current to the particulate filter.

  20. ) Hybrid Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Show, Bijay Kumar; Mondal, Dipak Kumar; Maity, Joydeep

    2014-12-01

    In this research work, the dry sliding wear behavior of 6351 Al-(4 vol.% SiC + 4 vol.% Al2O3) hybrid composite was investigated at low sliding speed (1 m/s) against a hardened EN 31 disk at different loads. In general, the wear mechanism involved adhesion (along with associated subsurface cracking and delamination) and microcutting abrasion at lower load. While at higher load, abrasive wear involving microcutting and microploughing along with adherent oxide formation was observed. The overall wear rate increased with increasing normal load. The massive particle clusters as well as individual reinforcement particles were found to stand tall to resist abrasive wear. Besides, at higher load, the generation of adherent nodular tribo-oxide through nucleation and epitaxial growth on existing Al2O3 particles lowered down the wear rate. Accordingly, at any normal load, 6351 Al-(4 vol.% SiC + 4 vol.% Al2O3) hybrid composite exhibited superior wear resistance (lower overall wear rate) than the reported wear resistance of monolithic 6351 Al alloy.

  1. Hybrid Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-10-15

    HybSim (short for Hybrid Simulator) is a flexible, easy to use screening tool that allows the user to quanti the technical and economic benefits of installing a village hybrid generating system and simulates systems with any combination of —Diesel generator sets —Photovoltaic arrays -Wind Turbines and -Battery energy storage systems Most village systems (or small population sites such as villages, remote military bases, small communities, independent or isolated buildings or centers) depend on diesel generationmore » systems for their source of energy. HybSim allows the user to determine other "sources" of energy that can greatly reduce the dollar to kilo-watt hour ratio. Supported by the DOE, Energy Storage Program, HybSim was initially developed to help analyze the benefits of energy storage systems in Alaskan villages. Soon after its development, other sources of energy were added providing the user with a greater range of analysis opportunities and providing the village with potentially added savings. In addition to village systems, HybSim has generated interest for use from military institutions in energy provisions and USAID for international village analysis.« less

  2. Excision Efficiency Is Not Strongly Coupled to Transgenic Rate: Cell Type-Dependent Transposition Efficiency of Sleeping Beauty and piggyBac DNA Transposons

    PubMed Central

    Kolacsek, Orsolya; Erdei, Zsuzsa; Apáti, Ágota; Sándor, Sára; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) DNA transposons represent an emerging new gene delivery technology, potentially suitable for human gene therapy applications. Previous studies pointed to important differences between these transposon systems, depending on the cell types examined and the methodologies applied. However, efficiencies cannot always be compared because of differences in applications. In addition, “overproduction inhibition,” a phenomenon believed to be a characteristic of DNA transposons, can remarkably reduce the overall transgenic rate, emphasizing the importance of transposase dose applied. Therefore, because of lack of comprehensive analysis, researchers are forced to optimize the technology for their own “in-house” platforms. In this study, we investigated the transposition of several SB (SB11, SB32, SB100X) and PB (mPB and hyPB) variants in various cell types at three levels: comparing the excision efficiency of the reaction by real-time PCR, testing the overall transgenic rate by detecting cells with stable integrations, and determining the average copy number when using different transposon systems and conditions. We concluded that high excision activity is not always followed by a higher transgenic rate, as exemplified by the hyperactive transposases, indicating that the excision and the integration steps of transposition are not strongly coupled as previously thought. In general, all levels of transposition show remarkable differences depending on the transposase used and cell lines examined, being the least efficient in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). In spite of the comparably low activity in those special cell types, the hyperactive SB100X and hyPB systems could be used in hESCs with similar transgenic efficiency and with reasonably low (2–3) transgene copy numbers, indicating their potential applicability for gene therapy purposes in the future. PMID:25045962

  3. Primary failure of eruption combined with bilateral transmigration of mandibular canines, transposition, torus palatinus, and class III incisor relationship: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Elhag, Salma Babiker Idris; Abdulghani, Ashraf Sidig Idris

    2015-01-01

    Eruption disorders are numerous varying from delayed to complete failure of eruption. Primary failure of eruption (PFE) is a rare condition that involves arrested eruption of teeth with the absence of local or general contributory factors. Another rare and clinically challenging phenomenon is canine transmigration which is the intra-osseous movement of impacted canines across the midline. This report presents the first case of combined failure of eruption of multiple teeth with bilateral mandibular canine transmigration, transposition of upper canine and the first premolar, torus palatinus, and class III incisor relationship in a 33-year-old asymptomatic and nonsyndromic female patient. PMID:26929701

  4. Primary failure of eruption combined with bilateral transmigration of mandibular canines, transposition, torus palatinus, and class III incisor relationship: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Elhag, Salma Babiker Idris; Abdulghani, Ashraf Sidig Idris

    2015-01-01

    Eruption disorders are numerous varying from delayed to complete failure of eruption. Primary failure of eruption (PFE) is a rare condition that involves arrested eruption of teeth with the absence of local or general contributory factors. Another rare and clinically challenging phenomenon is canine transmigration which is the intra-osseous movement of impacted canines across the midline. This report presents the first case of combined failure of eruption of multiple teeth with bilateral mandibular canine transmigration, transposition of upper canine and the first premolar, torus palatinus, and class III incisor relationship in a 33-year-old asymptomatic and nonsyndromic female patient. PMID:26929701

  5. Three-dimensional hybrid vortex solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driben, Rodislav; Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Malomed, Boris A.; Meier, Torsten; Torner, Lluis

    2014-06-01

    We show, by means of numerical and analytical methods, that media with a repulsive nonlinearity which grows from the center to the periphery support a remarkable variety of previously unknown complex stationary and dynamical three-dimensional (3D) solitary-wave states. Peanut-shaped modulation profiles give rise to vertically symmetric and antisymmetric vortex states, and novel stationary hybrid states, built of top and bottom vortices with opposite topological charges, as well as robust dynamical hybrids, which feature stable precession of a vortex on top of a zero-vorticity soliton. The analysis reveals stability regions for symmetric, antisymmetric, and hybrid states. In addition, bead-shaped modulation profiles give rise to the first example of exact analytical solutions for stable 3D vortex solitons. The predicted states may be realized in media with a controllable cubic nonlinearity, such as Bose-Einstein condensates.

  6. A recent transposition of river involving Paraná and São Francisco basins: effects on the genetic variability and structure of the neotropical fish Parauchenipterus galeatus (Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae).

    PubMed

    Lui, Roberto Laridondo; Blanco, Daniel Rodrigues; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan; Kuhn, Gustavo Campos E Silva; Gomes, Vivian Nunes; Prioli, Alberto José; Moreira-Filho, Orlando

    2012-10-01

    This study analyzed sequences of the control region of mitochondrial DNA (D-loop) in three populations of Parauchenipterus galeatus from the basins of the Paraná, São Francisco, and Piumhi rivers, of which the last river being a region that suffered transposition river. A fragment of 850 base pairs was obtained with a total of 65 polymorphic sites. The data discuss aspects related to the genetic distance between the populations through the phylogenetic reconstruction methods (neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood, and Bayesian analysis). Moreover, the data suggest that the Piumhi River population (transposition region) has recently gone through a significant bottleneck effect, which must be directly related to the anthropic action that occurred in this region, since the drainage the old existing swamp was necessary for the construction of the transposition channel potentially leading this population in to the current lack of genetic diversity. PMID:22803711

  7. Establishment of quality, reliability and design standards for low, medium, and high power microwave hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Quality, reliability, and design standards for microwave hybrid microcircuits were established. The MSFC Standard 85M03926 for hybrid microcircuits was reviewed and modifications were generated for use with microwave hybrid microcircuits. The results for reliability tests of microwave thin film capacitors, transistors, and microwave circuits are presented. Twenty-two microwave receivers were tested for 13,500 unit hours. The result of 111,121 module burn-in and operating hours for an integrated solid state transceiver module is reported.

  8. Hybridized tetraquarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, A.; Pilloni, A.; Polosa, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X , Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0 π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X , Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X (5568) are also made.

  9. Switches And Modulators For Coherent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ner, M. S.; McDonach, A.; Macfadyen, D. N.; Gibson, D. R.; Binnie, C.; Diemeer, M. B. J.

    1988-06-01

    The performance of switches and modulators for coherent systems is described. Emphasis is placed on enviromental stability and reliability of devices based on both Lithium Niobate and Electro-Optical Polymers. For hybrid opto-electronics Niobate devices offer the best performance and have proven reliability for applications in first generation systems. In the longer term hybrid systems using electro-optical polymer based active components are expected to outperform their monolithic semiconductor counterparts.

  10. Thermally Stabilized Transmit/Receive Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James; DelCastillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Birur, Gaj

    2011-01-01

    RF-hybrid technologies enable smaller packaging and mass reduction in radar instruments, especially for subsystems with dense electronics, such as electronically steered arrays. We are designing thermally stabilized RF-hybrid T/R modules using new materials for improved thermal performance of electronics. We are combining advanced substrate and housing materials with a thermal reservoir material, and develop new packaging techniques to significantly improve thermal-cycling reliability and performance stability over temperature.

  11. Asymmetric distribution of the pulmonary blood flow between the right and left lungs in d-transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Muster, A J; Paul, M H; Van Grondelle, A; Conway, J J

    1976-09-01

    Pulmonary angiograms, radionuclide lung images and chest roentgenograms were evaluated regarding the incidence, magnitude and natural evolution of maldistribution of the pulmonary blood flow between the lungs in 63 patients with dextrotransposition of the great arteries. Approximately half of these patients had some degree of greater perfusion of the right relative to the left lung. A significant correlation was demonstrated between the incidence of this maldistribution of blood flow and the angulation between the main and the right pulmonary arteries. For any given angulation between these vessels, additional pulmonary stenosis increased the incidence of disparity in perfusion. Our observations suggest the following developmental mechanisms: The maldistribution in flow results from the abnormal rightward inclination of the main pulmonary artery in the transposition malformation which straightens the flow axis from the main to the right pulmonary artery. Under these circumstances the momentum of the blood in the main pulmonary artery carries the blood preferentially into the right pulmonary artery. This momentum is increased when there is stenosis of the left ventricular outflow tract. Consequent differences in the mechanical properties of the two pulmonary vascular beds can increase this maldistribution. The disparity in perfusion between the lungs is not present in newborns with d-transposition, appears to be progressive in severity and in time may result in almost complete cessation of effective perfusion of the left lung. The effect of the Mustard operation on this abnormality of flow is discussed. PMID:961610

  12. Transposition des gros vaisseaux associée aux communications interventriculaire et interauriculaire: à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Mutombo, Augustin Mulangu; Mukuku, Olivier; Lubala, Toni Kasole; Kabuya, Maguy Sangaji; Ilunga, Paul Makinko; Bugeme, Marcellin; Luboya, Oscar Numbi

    2013-01-01

    Nous rapportons une observation d'un nourrisson de 5 mois présentant une transposition des gros vaisseaux associée aux communications interventriculaire et interauriculaire. Il est né à terme sans aucun facteur de risque retrouvé dans les antécédents maternels. Le diagnostic est posé, grâce à une échocardiographie, à 5 mois après sa naissance lors de la survenue d'une cyanose et d'un malaise anoxique. Une prise en charge symptomatique a permis de stabiliser l’état du patient mais suite à l'absence d'un traitement chirurgical, il est décédé à domicile 3 semaines après sa sortie de l'hôpital. Dans les pays en développement, le diagnostic de la transposition des gros vaisseaux est souvent fait en période postnatale et son pronostic reste fatal par manque des centres médico-chirurgicaux spécialisés. PMID:24009800

  13. Gypsy transposition correlates with the production of a retroviral envelope-like protein under the tissue-specific control of the Drosophila flamenco gene.

    PubMed

    Pélisson, A; Song, S U; Prud'homme, N; Smith, P A; Bucheton, A; Corces, V G

    1994-09-15

    Gypsy displays striking similarities to vertebrate retroviruses, including the presence of a yet uncharacterized additional open reading frame (ORF3) and the recent evidence for infectivity. It is mobilized with high frequency in the germline of the progeny of females homozygous for the flamenco permissive mutation. We report the characterization of a gypsy subgenomic ORF3 RNA encoding typical retroviral envelope proteins. In females, env expression is strongly repressed by one copy of the non-permissive allele of flamenco. A less dramatic reduction in the accumulation of other transcripts and retrotranscripts is also observed. These effects correlate well with the inhibition of gypsy transposition in the progeny of these females, and are therefore likely to be responsible for this phenomenon. The effects of flamenco on gypsy expression are apparently restricted to the somatic follicle cells that surround the maternal germline. Moreover, permissive follicle cells display a typically polarized distribution of gypsy RNAs and envelope proteins, both being mainly accumulated at the apical pole, close to the oocyte. We propose a model suggesting that gypsy germinal transposition might occur only in individuals that have maternally inherited enveloped gypsy particles due to infection of the maternal germline by the soma. PMID:7925283

  14. Arthroscopic reconstruction of chronic AC joint dislocations by transposition of the coracoacromial ligament augmented by the Tight Rope device: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Hamid; Friedmann, Svenja; Tröger, Markus; Lobenhoffer, Philipp; Agneskirchner, Jens D

    2009-01-01

    We present a new arthroscopic technique for chronic AC joint dislocations with coracoacromial ligament transposition and augmentation by the Tight Rope device (Arthrex, Naples, USA). First the glenohumeral joint is visualised to repair concomitant lesions, such as SLAP lesions, if needed. Once the rotator interval is opened and the coracoid is identified, the arthroscope is moved to an additional anterolateral portal. A 1.5 cm incision is made 2 cm medial to the AC joint. After drilling a 4 mm hole with a cannulated drill through the clavicle and coracoid a Tight Rope is inserted, the clavicule is reduced and stabilized with the implant. The arthroscope is moved to the subacromial space and a partial bursectomy is performed to visualise the CA ligament and lateral clavicle. The CA ligament is armed with a strong braided suture using a Lasso stitch and dissected from the undersurface of the acromion. It is then reattached to the distal part of the clavicle by transosseous suture fixation after abrasion of its undersurface. Although this combined arthroscopic procedure of AC joint augmentation with a Tight Rope combined with a ligament transposition is technically demanding, it is a safe method to reconstruct the coracoclavicular ligaments and achieve a sufficient reduction of the clavicle without the need of further implant removal or autologous tendon transplantation. PMID:18836701

  15. Hybrid current driver designed for a space-borne laser transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Robert K., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    NASA Goddard is developing a free-space laser communication transmitter. Each of the 10 GaAlAs diode lasers in the transmitter must be digitally modulated by individual current drivers from a common data source. In order to fit the miniature laser header modules, a hybrid integrated laser current driver was required. The hybrid, smaller than a postage stamp, can drive 100 mA modulation current at a data rate of 200 Mbit/s NRZ.

  16. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  17. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, E.; Floether, F. F.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Meany, T.; Bennett, A. J. Shields, A. J.; Lee, J. P.; Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2015-10-26

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single-photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to a SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO{sub 2} cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified using the on-chip MZI as a beamsplitter in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement.

  18. An IIR median hybrid filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Peter H.; Sartori, Michael A.; Bryden, Timothy M.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of nonlinear filters, the so-called class of multidirectional infinite impulse response median hybrid filters, is presented and analyzed. The input signal is processed twice using a linear shift-invariant infinite impulse response filtering module: once with normal causality and a second time with inverted causality. The final output of the MIMH filter is the median of the two-directional outputs and the original input signal. Thus, the MIMH filter is a concatenation of linear filtering and nonlinear filtering (a median filtering module). Because of this unique scheme, the MIMH filter possesses many desirable properties which are both proven and analyzed (including impulse removal, step preservation, and noise suppression). A comparison to other existing median type filters is also provided.

  19. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  20. Hybrid Extrinsic Silicon Focal Plane Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerrenig, D. H.; Meinhardt, T.; Lowe, J.

    1981-02-01

    Large-area focal planes require mechanical assembly techniques which must be compatible with optical alignment, minimum deadspace, and cryogenic requirements in order to achieve optimum performance. Hybrid extrinsic silicon has been found particularly suitable for such an application. It will be shown that by choosing a large-area extrinsic silicon detector array which is hybrid-mated to a multiplicity of multiplexers a very cost-effective and high-density focal plane module can be assembled. Other advantages of this approach are inherent optical alignment and excellent performance.